WorldWideScience

Sample records for fraan maetningar av

  1. 60 kvinnor per dag undersoeks nu med vaerldsunikt digitalt mammografisystem fraan Sectra

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "Helsingborgs kvinnor faar kraftigt saenkt straaldos fraan mammografi60 kvinnor per dag undersoeks nu med vaerldsunikt digitalt mammografisystem fraan SectraSectras digitala mammografisystem, Sectra MicroDose Mammography, har nu passerat 1.500 undersoekta kvinnor inom Helsingborgs Lasaretts screeningprogram foer mammografi" (1 page).

  2. Disposal of residue from sifting of combustible waste; Avsaettning av siktrest fraan foerbehandling av braennbart avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik

    2012-11-01

    In waste to energy plants, unwanted species in the fuel may cause corrosion, deposits, agglomeration in the fuel bed, and emissions of pollutants. Countermeasures to such problems are often costly. For at least some of the waste, the fuel properties can be improved by introducing a pretreatment system in which the fine fraction is separated from the waste by sifting. This method has been studied in an earlier Waste Refinery project, WR-06. That study pointed at advantages in performance of the boiler plant and a rough economical analysis indicated substantial benefits. The drawback of the pretreatment was that the residue (the fine fraction) showed as high content of total organic carbon (TOC) as 37 %, by weight. Such a waste fraction is not allowed to be landfilled in Sweden. High TOC content is also a limiting factor for usage as a secondary construction material. To become an applicable pretreatment method, it is necessary to find an appropriate disposal method for the residue material. Present work investigates different possibilities to handle the sifting residue, assuming it has the same properties as in previous study. The residue from sifting needs further treatment, preferably with energy recovery. There are some alternatives, such as combustion, gasification, anaerobic or aerobic digestion. To reduce problems associated by combustion, the waste may be burnt in another more suitable furnace. An alternative is gasification, but that treatment method is not yet an established process for waste fuels. Another option is treatment by anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The high concentrations of metals, however, limit the use of the biologically treated waste to landfilling sites, where it may be utilized as a construction material. The high metal concentrations in the sifting residue imply that it must be kept separate from other biodegradable wastes which are used to produce fertilizers. Thus, this treatment alternative will likely require substantial new investments. Instead of treating the fine residue thermally or biologically, an alternative is to extend the pretreatment system in order to separate a fraction containing less combustible material. This could be accomplished by, for example, passing the fine fraction through a density classifier, such as a wind sieve or a ballistic sieve. Hopefully, the light fine fraction will consist mainly of combustible material while the denser fine fraction will contain a sufficiently low amount of carbon to allow utilization as filling or construction material at landfill sites. Full-scale tests are required to determine if the proposed pretreatment method is applicable in practice.

  3. Dewatering of lignin residues from enzymatic production of ethanol; Avvattning av ligninrester fraan enzymatisk framstaellning av etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedin, Peter; Theliander, Hans [Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden); Gren, Urban [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this report is to gather knowledge of dewatering of lignin residues from ethanol production through enzymatic fermentation. A combined filtering and pressing apparatus is used for the dewatering. From the experimental data it is possible to get materials data of lignin. These data may lay the foundation for a rational choice of filtering equipment and appropriate pressing conditions.

  4. Development of methods for characterisation of landfill leachates - Final report; Utveckling av metoder foer karakterisering av lakvatten fraan avfallsupplag - Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeman, Cecilia; Malmberg, Marianne; Wolf-Watz, Camilla

    2000-04-01

    There are currently over 500 active landfills and approximately 6 000 former non-used waste sites in Sweden. For 1996, the active sites released a total of 7 million m{sup 3} of leach water. Although it is well established that leachwater from domestic and industrial waste tips contain environmental pollutants, knowledge is limited regarding the processes involving these species within the waste tip and the subsequent effects on the environment. Since a great number of different chemical compounds are present in leachwater, cost-effective analysis efforts can focus only on a fraction of the total. At present however, no general standard procedure is yet available for the determination of toxicity and characterisation of leachwater from waste tips. The aim of this project was thus to develop such methodology. At the start of the project, samples were collected from waste sites; eleven untreated and one treated leachwater together with five leach water sediments. A large number of general parameters were analysed and evaluated; metals and other fundamental elements, organometallic species, organic compounds, sum of various parameters and toxicity. The study included an assessment of the sample collecting and treatment procedures, the chemical analyses and biological tests used, and not least the parameters' environmental relevance and representativity. The present report thus describes the project's methodology, results and conclusions. In parallel with this work, a secondary report has outlined a recommended method procedure for characterisation of leachwater based on the conclusions and experiences presented here. The results from the study showed that pH and conductivity varied significantly. A correlation was observed between high conductivity values, high temperatures and large fractions of ash and slag in the waste. Leachwater temperature was often higher than the surrounding ambient air temperature. The quantities of suspended material and organic carbon in the leachwater was clearly higher than both the normally occurring background values and that released from waste treatment plants. It should be noted however, that the fraction of organic carbon in the suspended material and in the dry substance could vary greatly in the samples. Chloride concentrations in the leachwater were significantly higher than those levels classed as high in groundwater. Similarly, ammonium, several metals and EOX concentrations were also clearly above levels in waters released from water treatment plants and above those levels considered as toxic for aquatic organisms. Ammonium in leachwater leads to eutrophication effects. In addition, copper, nickel, zinc and possibly cadmium existed at levels where ecotoxic effects occur even when diluted further in the environment. The chemical form of the metals present is however important in determining the resulting toxicity and availability. Mono-aromatics, PAH, phthalates, chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols were measured in the leachwater at higher concentrations than in treated waters from water treatment plants. The leachwaters' high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen, salt and elemental sulphur can cause problems in biological toxicity tests since these species have severe effects on many organisms. The results showed that ammonium nitrogen is measurably toxic for red algae Ceramium, green algae Raphidocelis (Selenastrum), the crustaceans Ceriodaphnia and Nitocra, and also for zebra fish. Chloride was mildly toxic for all the tested organisms. Elemental cyclic sulphur (S{sub 8}) has been shown to interfere with the Microtox test even at very low concentrations. The indications are that sulphur is even toxic for other organisms. The results showed that the lipophilic properties of the leachwater were accountable for the toxicity measured in the Microtox test. One could conclude however that the toxicity was a complex issue, which could be caused by several types of chemical species. Trials in this study showed that it was not possible to remove ammonium from the leachwater without significantly changing other properties of the leachwater. The study has shown that especially sample handling is critical and that even with extra care there still remains a risk for interference occurring in the measurements. This is caused by contamination occurring during sampling, sample handling, sample conservation, chemical analyses and changes of the sample during filtration. In addition, errors can arise from unrepresentative sampling in terms of both time and space. The results indicate that treating the samples with sodium azide and cold storage was the best procedure for conserving organic compound samples. In general it can be assumed that filtration of the leachwater for metal analysis cannot be recommended since large error sources can be introduced. Measured organic species sampled at the same place could differ significantly at different points in time.(abstract truncated)

  5. Dry anaerobic digestion of rejects from pre-treated food waste; Torroetning av rejekt fraan foerbehandling av matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Irene [NSR, Helsingborg (Sweden); Murto, Marika; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Bioteknik, LTH, Lund (Sweden); Rosqvist, Haakan [Rosqvist Resurs, Klaagerup (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    When the organic fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is digested anaerobically in a continuously stirred tank reactor there is a need for a pretreatment to make the waste pumpable and remove contaminants. In one type of pretreatment the material passes through a screw press which separates waste in a liquid fraction and a dry fraction (the reject). At NSR this technique is used and at present the reject is incinerated. A previous study has shown that about 30 % of the methane potential of the incoming organic waste can be found in the reject. The aim of the present project was to investigate the possibilities of realizing the methane potential through batch wise dry anaerobic digestion followed by composting as an alternative to incineration. In the technique used in the present project the material was digested in an anaerobic leach-bed with recirculation of leachate over the bed. It is important that the material is sufficiently porous to let the leachate spread evenly through the leach-bed. Treatment of reject and a mixture of reject and structural material were tested to investigate if the addition of structural material had an effect on the porosity. The flow of liquid through a leach-bed of reject and one of reject mixed with structural material was studied using LiBr as tracer. The digestate from the dry digestion process was composted, and the resulting compost was evaluated. The odor from the digestate, the active compost and the compost product was measured by analyzing the odor in the air of the porous space in heaps of the different materials. This was used to evaluate the risk of odor problems. The dry digestion and the tracer experiment both showed that mixing the reject with structural material had a positive effect on the flow of liquid through the material and the digestion process. Addition of structural material to the reject was needed in order to achieve an efficient digestion process. Using tracers proved to be a useful way of indicating the homogeneity of the flow through the leach-bed. Dry anaerobic digestion of reject mixed with structural material gave a methane yield of 100 Nm{sup 3} methane per ton of mixture treated which was equal to the expected methane yield. When composting the material the requirements for hygienization was achieved and the concentrations of heavy metals in the resulting compost were below the guideline value. The content of visible contaminants larger than 2 mm in the screened compost were above the guideline value, which means that screening the compost on a 15 mm screen is not a sufficient post treatment. The odor potential of the screened compost was approximately 300 OU{sub E}/m{sup 3} and should not lead to any odor problems. However the odor potential of the digestate and the active compost material was higher.

  6. Foamed bitumen stabilization of MSWI bottom ash; Skumbitumenstabilisering av bottenaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Jacobsson, Torbjoern [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Svensson, Mikael; Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering

    2006-04-15

    Foamed bitumen is a mixture of bitumen, water and air. Bitumen that is heated to 175 deg C expands about 10-30 times compared to its original volume when injecting small amounts of water and air under high pressure. By exposing a granulate material to foamed bitumen the particles will be covered with a bitumen film. This will give the particles hydrophobic properties, as well as a smaller specific surface. At the same time the mechanical properties of the material are expected to improve due to the cohesive properties of the bitumen covered particles. The treatment can be made both offsite and in situ. The objective of this project was to investigate the possibility to treat municipal solid waste bottom ash with foamed bitumen to achieve improved leaching and mechanical properties. The following leaching tests have been performed on the original bottom ash and two foamed bitumen treated ashes with 2 and 4.5 % bitumen, respectively: one-stage batch test (EN 12457-4), pH-static test (prEN 14997), column test (prEN 14405) and monolithic leaching test (NEN 7345). In addition, the specific surface and intra-particle porosity were determined by BET N2 adsorption experiments on selected fractions of bottom ash. The results showed that the specific surface decreased with more than 50 % and manifested itself in a lower buffer capacity at both low and high pH. For most elements no significant difference in leaching behavior where found when comparing the results from the leaching tests for the three materials at their own pH. This is thought to be due to that sufficient specific area available for leaching exists to reach equilibrium despite the foam bitumen treatment. The results from the one-stage batch test show a minor reduction in leaching for Cl{sup -}, S, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Sb, and Ca for the foamed bitumen treated ashes. The results from the column test of the foamed bitumen stabilized ashes showed an increased leaching of some elements, especially Mn and Cu, but also Zn, Co, Cd and Hg. In contrary, the results from the monolithic leaching test show a lower leaching of Mn and Cu as the content of bitumen gets higher. The results from the monolithic leaching test are regarded to be more relevant for a field scenario. The pH-static test showed a lower buffering capacity and less leaching of most pH-dependent elements at extreme pH-values for bottom ash treated with foamed bitumen. The results show a positive effect for Sb and Se over the whole pH-interval, which indicate that the leaching is governed by the available surface. A geotechnical investigation was conducted on cylindrical samples of bottom ash stabilized with foamed bitumen, bitumen emulsion and cement (in total 6 mixtures). The bitumen-stabilized samples show a high porosity 26-30 vol%, and low bulk density. The mixture with 4.5% foamed bitumen show the highest stiffness module and the highest stability: 2800 Mpa and stability: 27 KN. Here, the mixture fulfills the requirements set by the Swedish road administration: >2000 MPa and >7kN, resp. The bulk density of cement stabilized bottom ash is 1,80-1,85 kg/dm{sup 3}. The cement stabilized bottom ash fulfills the requirement with respect to pressure strength. Since the smallest particles are covered preferentially with bitumen the treated bottom ash is probably less likely to form dust, which is favorable from health risk perspective.

  7. Life cycle analysis of biogas from residues; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael [Dep. for Miljoe- och Energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Hoegskola, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to carry out life cycle assessments for different biogas systems where biogas is produced from different residues. The investigated residues are distiller's waste, rapeseed cake, whey permeate, concentrated whey permeate, fodder milk, fish residues, bakery residues and glycerol. The environmental impact categories included are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical ozone creation potential, particles and energy balance. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, especially the energy input in various operations and processes. A general conclusion is that all studied residues are very well suited for production of biogas if there is no demand for them as animal feed today. All biogas systems also reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases compared to petrol and diesel and meet the requirements presented in the EU renewable energy directive (RED). The results of the study also show that the investigated biogas systems are complex and many different parameters affect the result. These parameters are both integrated in the life cycle assessment method, but also in the inventory data used.

  8. Climate impacts from import of waste fuels; Klimatpaaverkan fraan import av braennbart avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, Maarten; Sundberg, Johan (Profu, Moelndal (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    Imports of combustible waste has increased in recent years and imported waste has become an increasingly important fuel in the Swedish district heating systems. The projections for the next few years show that the imports can be much higher, partly due to reduced amounts of waste in the wake of economic downturn the world economy, partly because several new incinerators will be put into operation. In a environmental perspective, imports are controversial and it has been proposed that imports should be restricted. This report provides an assessment of the climate impact of importing waste for combustion. The report shows that greenhouse gas emissions due to imports of waste to the Swedish district heating plants in 2007 was reduced by 500 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide. This is equivalent to the emissions from 300 000 Swedes car journeys a year, or 2.5% of the total emission reduction target set by the Government for the non-trading sector until 2020. Imports of wood waste-chips accounts for the largest reduction, but the study shows that imports of other types of waste contribute to a reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases. The reasons for the reduction is that the use of imported waste fuel substitute for other heating and electricity generation, which gives the consequence that emissions are avoided. The largest emission reductions are obtained, however, by the importation of household waste by replacing the alternative waste treatment of the corresponding waste in the country of origin. In the countries from which imports of waste currently takes place there is a lack of treatment capacity for organic waste. The alternative treatment available is primarily deposition. This treatment causes significant emissions of methane, which is a very strong greenhouse gas. The shipment of waste that occur as a result of imports gives a marginal contribution of greenhouse gases, compared against the emission reductions outlined above

  9. Recycling of nutrients through struvite precipitation from digestions residues; Aatervinning av naering genom struvitfaellninggsaemnen fraan roetrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Liisa; Loewgren, Sofia; Thelin, Gunnar (Ekobalans Fenix AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    The aim of the project which is described in this report was to gather information about struvite precipitation and studies that have been performed within this area, and also to investigate struvite precipitation in four different digestates through laboratory experiments. Digestates from biogas plants with household waste, beet, manure and distillery residues as raw materials were used in this study. Struvite, MgNH{sub 4}PO{sub 4}-6H{sub 2}O, is a white crystal powder which is soluble at low pH and precipitates at pH 7-11. For struvite to precipitate the solution also has to be over saturated and the influence of other competitive ions has to be low. Many studies in struvite precipitation have been done as laboratory trials and in pilot plants. The experiments were performed on for example digestates from sewage treatment plants. The reactors were stirred or aerated and the solutions were either dewatered or non dewatered. The experiments were performed both with and without the addition of phosphate. A few full scale plants are also described in this report. Most of them consist of a fluidized bed and are connected to sewage treatment plants. Dewatered sewage sludge is most commonly used but there are also examples of non dewatered sludge. Some of the products from the full scale plants are sold as fertilizers. MgCl{sub 2}-6H{sub 2}O is the most common magnesium additive in the studies that have been summarized in this report, but for example Mg(OH){sub 2} has also been used in a few cases. The laboratory experiments in this report were performed on non dewatered and dewatered digestates. The dewatering was performed by filtration in three steps, except for the digestate from distillery residues which was centrifuged. The experiments were performed with and without phosphate addition. First, a few trials on synthetic solutions were performed to verify the chosen experimental conditions. All of the trials, with the synthetic and digestate solutions, were performed in magnetic stirred glass beakers. MgCl{sub 2}-6H{sub 2}O, NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-2H{sub 2}O and NaOH were used as chemical additives. The pH was increased to 8,5 for the dewatered digestates and 9 for the non dewatered digestates. Based on the experiments an estimation of the cost of the chemical additives was done for each digestate. The costs were based on the trials with the dewatered digestates with phosphate addition for all the digestates, and the dewatered digestate from distillery residues without the addition of phosphate. The cost per amount of produced struvite, with the addition of phosphate, was at about the same level for household waste, manure and distillery residues. For the digestate from beet it was a bit higher. The corresponding cost for digestate from distillery residues without phosphate addition was the least expensive. For all of the digestates the cost of MgCl{sub 2}-6H{sub 2}O and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (which would be more suitable than NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-2H{sub 2}O in large scale plants) per amount of produced struvite was at about the same level, but the cost of NaOH varied a lot between the different digestates. Since the costs in this comparison are based on merely a few trials in laboratory scale without optimizing the process for any digestate and prices from only one supplier, it is important to emphasize that this is a rough estimation. It is hard to estimate the value of precipitates from digestates as fertilizers since there is no clear correlation between the content of nutrients and the market price for fertilizers. However, the value of struvite fertilizers will most likely increase since phosphorus is an finite raw material and the production of nitrogen fertilizers needs a lot of energy which is connected to the price of oil. It is also possible that the environmental profile can contribute to a higher value

  10. Alternatives for handling of digestate from large biogas plants; Foeraedling av roetrest fraan storskaliga biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarsrud, Peter (Kretsloppskontoret Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bisaillon, Mattias (Profu (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Hanna; Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Jakobsson, Emma; Jarlsvik, Tisse; Martinsson, Ulf (Goeteborg Energi (Sweden)); Jensen, Carl (Renova (Sweden)); Johansson, Lars-Gunnar (Biogas Vaest/LRF (Sweden)); Kanerot, Mija (Boraas Energi och Miljoe (Sweden)); Ling, Daniel (Laeckeby Water (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Biogas plants located in city environments are becoming increasingly common in Sweden. More and more municipalities are electing to collect food waste for treatment in a biogas plant. The environment target of treating 35 % all organic waste biologically try to obtain from municipalities. Certain demands are placed on biogas plants and their system environments if they are to be able to treat food waste successfully. Firstly, there needs to be a use for the nutrient-rich biofertilizer product, and secondly it must be possible to clean the reject water before it is released to the recipient. The goal of the project is to conduct a system analysis from the economic and environmental perspectives to investigate what is the best alternative for dealing with the digestate and reject water for two biogas plants located in city environments. The plants used as the point of departure for the study are a planned biogas plant in Gothenburg and an existing biogas plant in Boraas. The plant in Boraas is planned to be included in an energy combine with ethanol production. The target group for the project comprises biogas plants built in city environments with the purpose of treating food waste, but also other plants that treat organic waste in a digester, e.g., sludge from sewage treatment works. Table 1 below shows the results for each technology studied. [Table 1 Results from system analysis.] The results of the system analysis show that the best alternative for Gothenburg, both from an economical point of view and when considering the climate impact, is to transport and spread the un-dewatered digestate directly onto arable land. On the basis of acidification and eutrophication potentials, the best alternative is to treat the reject water with the DeAmmon process. From the economic perspective, the best alternative for Boraas is to continue with the treatment method used today at the plant, that is, SBR. From the perspective of climate impact, the best alternative is to spread the un-dewatered digestate directly onto arable land. On the basis of acidification and eutrophication potentials, the best alternative is to treat the reject water with some form of stripping method, or SBR. The news value of the project is deemed to be high, since demands on the treatment of organic waste are growing strongly. The results of this project are free to use, however specific input data has been used in our system analysis, and a separate analysis should be conducted for each specific plant

  11. Survey on non-nuclear radioactive waste; Kartlaeggning av radioaktivt avfall fraan icke kaernteknisk verksamhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    On request from the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish government has in May 2002 set up a non-standing committee for non-nuclear radioactive waste. The objective was to elaborate proposals for a national system for the management of all types of non-nuclear radioactive wastes with special consideration of inter alia the polluter pays principle and the responsibility of the producers. The committee will deliver its proposals to the government 1 December 2003. SSI has assisted the committee to the necessary extent to fulfill the investigation. This report is a summery of SSI's background material concerning non-nuclear radioactive waste in Sweden.

  12. Leachates from wood ash - effects of storage on soil; Lakvatten fraan skogsbraensleaska - markpaaverkan av lagring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valeur, Inger; Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans FenixAB, Lund (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    In this study we monitored leachate from wood ash stored in a pile in an outdoor environment during six months. Our aim was to contribute with knowledge about leaching behavior and risks connected to storages of wood ash, and more generally leaching from piles affected by various weather conditions. Impacts on soil from storage of wood ash was also included in the study as well as different transport scenarios for recycling wood ash to the forest. Bioenergy output from Swedish forests has more than doubled the last 10 years and as nutrient rich parts as needles and branches (grot) is also taken out, the nutrient export from the forest site has increased by a factor of three to five. To counteract depletion of nutrients in forest soils, wood ash is returned to the forest. Apart from nitrogen, wood ash contains all the nutrients and trace elements that were in the wood before combustion. The wood ash must be hardened before spreading to make it less reactive. The ash self hardens when stored in an outdoor environment for 3 to 6 months and according to the waste act this should be done on a paved area. However, wood ash which is meant to be recycled to the forest has naturally very low amounts of polluting elements and shall also fulfill limit values, set up by the Swedish Forest Agency. As it is so that the storage is during a limited period of time and the ash shall be transported, not only to one place but too several smaller areas, this has given rise to the thought of storing the ash closer to the spreading area. However, the ash would then probably be stored in a non paved area, as the number of paved areas in forests is scarce. If storage close to the spreading area could be done, the distance for transports connected to recycling the ash would presumably be decrease by a factor of two or three. To get permission to store ash on a non paved area, there must be enough data available which can ensure that there are no environmental risks associated to the storage. Most risk assessments are done from standardized extractions methods, which are based upon addition of excess water to the ash. This process is fairly different from what happens when ash is stored in a pile and rained upon. Thus it is difficult, or not yet shown, how a figure given from an extraction with excess water should be translated to the total amount of leached elements from ash storages. Collecting leachates from landfills where ash is stored also has its problems, as it often is contaminated with elements from other wastes being stored at the landfill

  13. Sieving of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash; Siktning av askor fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, Jelena

    2010-07-01

    Waste-to-Energy is steadily increasing in Sweden and more than 46 % of municipal solid waste (MSW) is being incinerated. Solid residues from MSW incineration (MSWI) mainly constitute of bottom ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Bottom ashes from MSWI amounted to 0.7 millions of tons and APC residues to 0.2 millions of tons in 2008. Bottom ashes from MSWI contain pollutants like metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cu), metalloids (e.g. As, Se), elements forming oxyanions (e.g. Sb, Cr, Mo) and easily soluble salts like chlorides and sulphates. These constituents can leach out polluting the environment if ash comes in contact with water. Treatment methods for decreasing the amount of pollutants in ashes or their mobility are therefore needed. Sieving was investigated as a separate or a complementary treatment method for MSWI ashes. Hypothesis was that the large share of pollutant concentrations could be removed from the ashes through separation of the finest fractions. The rest is less harmful to the environment, more acceptable as secondary construction material or less costly to landfill. Investigation included three MSWI ashes, namely bottom ash from Boraas Energy och Miljoe's plant with fluid bad, boiler ash from the same plant and bottom ash from Renova's stocker grate type plant. Ashes were sieved in 2-4 size fractions. Total content of pollutants and their leachability (batch leaching test, L/S=10 l/kg) was assessed for each of the fractions. Leaching results were compared to limit values stipulated by Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for acceptance of waste at landfills as wells as to recommendations for reuse of waste as a construction material. Results from bottom ash from the stocker grate type incinerator and from the boiler ash confirm the hypothesis that pollutants leach out in higher concentrations from the finer fractions. A large amount of pollutant could be removed from the ashes through sieving, but the goal to produce a fraction that could be landfilled at the landfill of a lower class was not achieved. A much polluted fine fraction was produced through sieving of bottom ash from the stocker grate type incinerator, not fulfilling criteria for landfilling at landfills for non-hazardous waste. Bottom ash from the fluid bad plant could not be improved from the environmental point of view if some of the size fractions where removed. Leaching of sulphates increased while that of chlorides decreased with increased particle size, making coarser fractions reach in sulphates if the finer were removed. A more effective treatment method than sieving is needed if MSWI ashes are to fulfill criteria for landfilling at landfills for inert waste or recommendations for their reuse as secondary construction materials. Sieving is recommended as a complementary to another method e.g. treatment with cement. In order to optimize a sieve size, an analysis should be made on the amount of ashes to be removed by sieving, leaching properties of resulting fractions as well as costs for landfilling, transport, treatment etc

  14. Environmental impact by toxic compounds from waste treatment; Miljoepaaverkan fraan toxiska aemnen vid hantering av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefblad, Gun; Bisaillon, Mattias; Sundberg, Johan (Profu AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    The study deals with emissions of toxic compounds from waste treatment to the environment with the aim of improving the state of knowledge and to find a way of describing the environmental impact from these substances. Toxicity is one of a number of environmental aspects necessary to address in the planning of waste treatment and in the daily waste treatment routines in order to fulfill the environmental objective A Non-Toxic Environment and other environmental requirements. The study includes waste to incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion. A comparison between methods were made for biological household waste. According to our study, the compounds of importance for waste treatment are metals and persistent organic compounds. These tend to bioaccumulate and enrich in food chains. The substances are important for the environmental objective A Non-Toxic Environment. In a first step the compounds chosen in this study may be suggested for describing toxicity from waste treatment: As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, dioxin, PCB, the phthalate DEHP and the brominated flame retardant HBCDD. Other substances may be added to the list in a next step from up-dated and quality-assured characterisation factors or from other requirements or preferences. There is a limited knowledge on toxic compounds in waste flows and in different environmental compartments. More data are available for metals than for organic substances. There is also a limited knowledge on the fate of the compounds during the waste treatment processes. Most information is found for incineration. During composting and anaerobic digestion the metals will mainly be emitted to the environment by use of the compost and the anaerobic digestion residue. Organic substances will to some extent be degraded during the processes. However, there are gaps of knowledge to fill for the further work on estimating toxic emissions. There is mainly a need for more extensive data on toxic compounds in waste and their variations. A test was made to use a weighted index for toxicity - such as used for climate impact, acidification, etc. in system analyses for waste treatment. The result was not useful due to the limited availability of characterisation factors for the chosen substances. In stead, the toxic impact was assessed by other comparisons, from a local and a national perspective. No acute effects on human health and on the environment are expected to occur from waste processes or from the use of compost and anaerobic digestion residue. The conclusion is that emissions of toxic substances from waste treatment will contribute to the present fugitive levels of pollutants in the environment. The toxic impact is proposed to be quantified as the total emission of metals and persistent organic pollutants, without consideration to the way emissions are made; to air, water and soil. Emissions, even though they are small, contribute to present levels of pollution with the risk of further elevated concentrations and further dispersion in nutrient chains. In all environ metal work it is essential to reduce emissions of toxic persistent compounds. Many activities in society contribute to the total levels. Waste treatment is an unavoidable activity in the society. By massive actions to limit the use and to con tol the emissions of toxic compounds, a cleaner waste is expected to be the result. In addition, measures such as more effective source separation and separation of hazardous waste will make a more optimised treatment of different types of waste possible

  15. Temperature measurements according to directive given by EU regarding combustion of waste. Investigated measurements of temperature and simulations; Maetningar av temperaturer enligt EU:s direktiv om foerbranning av avfall. Undersoekande temperaturmaetningar och simuleringar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Energi och Miljoe, Stockholm (Sweden); Gaardhagen, Roland; Haegglund, Jonas; Lindqvist, Hans; Wahlstroem, Krister; Loyd, Dan [Linkoepings Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-05-01

    The directive regarding combustion of waste (directive 2000/76/EG 4 of December 2000 about combustion of waste) contains new conditions and enhanced demands on pollution to the air and water from the combustion. To be able to follow the directive, it is of most importance to show that the combustion gases stay at a temperature of 850 deg C during at least 2 seconds. The purpose of this project is to examine whether conventional measurement equipment like thermocouple and suction pyrometer are suitable to examine if the boiler fulfills the demands of the directive. Modeling and simulation of the thermocouple have been done with the program FemLab. An analytical model has been implemented in the program Matlab and the purpose of that is to be able to see if an improved version can be used in automatic control system. The models in their present state will show a certain measurement error at a certain gas temperature, which unfortunately is not the case in the real situation. This is due to circumstances in the boiler that varies with time and place. Measurement has been carried out in two kinds of boilers, fluidized bed and grate boiler. The reason for that is to be able to examine if the measurement error varies in different boilers and to find out if a general method can be used for the error calculations. The measurements indicate difficulties to reach the directive set by EU about combustion of waste; these are due to the nature of the measurement error that arises when measuring with thermocouple. It has been shown that the error varies despite constant gas temperature and that it can vary up to 80 deg C. This variation depends to some extent of the emissivity of the gas because the emissivity varies with the composition of gas and disturbances in the boiler. The conclusions are that the heat flow from the gas to the thermocouple is different even though the temperature in the boiler is constant. The measurements indicate that the error is lesser at lower temperature. To be able to establish how large the variations are and at which temperature, continuous measurements are required. The temperature also varies between different positions in the boiler. At one moment the mean temperature might be much higher at a point on one side, and at next moment the top at another side. The reason to why the maximum 'changes side' has not been made clear, but it is observed that the variations of the boundary-layer thickness have an influence on the temperature and might also have an influence on its variation. Disturbances in the fuel feeding may also affect the temperature variations. The measurements in this project should be completed to verify the conclusions. Recommendations to future work that can be given now are first that measurements should be carried out for longer periods to cover the variations that come up in the boiler due to changes in the load. These measurements can give more extensive information concerning the variations of the measurement error, than has been shown in this work. In addition comparing measurements with suction pyrometer in different parts of the boiler are needed to get better knowledge of the measurement error. An important conclusion is that thermocouple of type- N should be used instead of type-K for this type of measurement. The demands in the directive about the gas detaining in the boiler of a temperature at minimum 850 deg C for two seconds have not been fully evaluated. This is because measurement points only existed at one level in the boiler and at the roof (Motala). The knowledge about the flow and the speed of the gas is also something that has to be evaluated to get a complete image of the behavior of the temperature in the boiler.

  16. Katodisk beskyttelse av umbilicals

    OpenAIRE

    Mjølhus, Bjarte

    2008-01-01

    Ulike sider ved bruk av sinkbånd til korrosjonsbeskyttelse av karbonstål umbilical er evaluert. Det er utført litteraturstudie ved gjennomgang av tidligere rapporter, sammenligning av standarder og artikkelsøk. Langtidsforsøk med egne korrosjonsceller ble utført over 2 måneder for å undersøke korrosjonsbeskyttelse ved 4 ulike temperaturer. Det ble også gjort undersøkelser av korrosjonsbelegg i SEM for å undersøke og sammenligne med publiserte data. Åpen krets potensialet viste seg å ligge ...

  17. AVS on satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiwu; Wang, Guozhong; Hou, Gang

    2005-07-01

    AVS is a new digital audio-video coding standard established by China. AVS will be used in digital TV broadcasting and next general optical disk. AVS adopted many digital audio-video coding techniques developed by Chinese company and universities in recent years, it has very low complexity compared to H.264, and AVS will charge very low royalty fee through one-step license including all AVS tools. So AVS is a good and competitive candidate for Chinese DTV and next generation optical disk. In addition, Chinese government has published a plan for satellite TV signal directly to home(DTH) and a telecommunication satellite named as SINO 2 will be launched in 2006. AVS will be also one of the best hopeful candidates of audio-video coding standard on satellite signal transmission.

  18. Dewatering of ashes from mixed fuels. Experiences and results from Tekniska Verken in Linkoeping; Avvattning av aska fraan blandbraenslen. Erfarenheter och resultat fraan Tekniska Verken i Linkoeping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Ulf; Fredriksson, Anders; Lindahl, Inge [Tekniska Verken i Linkoeping AB (Sweden); Arevius, Anna; Sjoeblom, Rolf [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-12-01

    Unit 3 at Tekniska Verken i Linkoeping (TVL) has a grid type furnace. During the firing season 2000 - 2001, the fuel has been comprising 45 % recovered wood chip, 45 % bark and 10 % recovered plastic material. The outfeed has been wet, and flyash and bottom ash have been mixed in the process. During 1999, about 19,000 tonnes of ash with a water content of about 50 % have been generated. The procedure has implied drawbacks in the form of handling of sludge and disposal of material with a high water content. The purpose of the work carried out has been to provide a basis for design of a handling in which these drawbacks have been eliminated, and which supports other destinations for the bottom ash than disposal. The search for information showed that a number of reactions, in particular hydratisation and recrystallisation, take place when ash is in contact with water. The process is strongly dependent on the chemical composition of the ash. The result is influenced not only by the chemical reactions that occur but also by the order in which they take place. Fly ash is very reactive while bottom ash is relatively inert. The experiments in the laboratory scale showed that bottom ash drained well while fly ash as well as different mixtures of fly ash and bottom ash are relatively impermeable to water. The ageing experiments which were carried out did not indicate any particular alteration in the permeability. Tests on a reduced scale clearly showed that bottom ash drains rapidly without the aid of vacuum and that the field capacity (the relative amount of water which does not drain) is low. Mixtures of bottom ash and fly ash drained more when vacuum was applied. However, such mixtures cured within a few hours and this lead to a substantial decrease in permeability. Tests on a pilot scale were conducted using three different methods of dewatering. The tests on self-percolation showed that most of the drainage water appeared during the first few hours where after the dewatering decreased rapidly. Experiments with equipment of different types for forced dewatering gave on one hand solid residues with a significantly lower water contents, but on the other hand significant volumes of water containing fines. In the solid residue, the fraction of elements like arsenic, lead and zinc decreased with a factor of about five. Measurements of heavy metals in the different ash fractions showed that the contents of them in bottom ash is relatively low. The conclusions are as follows. For the firing season 2001 - 2002, TVL intends to use wet outfeeding only for the bottom ash which will then loose most of its water immediately on exiting. This implies the following: - Disposal of more material than necessary is avoided - Handling of sludge with a high water content is avoided - Risk of instability in deposited material is eliminated - The ash can be utilised as a friction material and/or for drainage purposes at the disposal site - The ash may be given other destinations than disposal, e.g. geotechnical applications. For the firing season 2001 - 2002, TVL intends to outfeed flyash in a dry state where after is is moisted to a low water content. This implies the following: - Disposal of more material than necessary is avoided - The ash can be handled without the risk of dust formation - Risk of instability in deposited material is eliminated or decreased significantly - It is conceivable that the ash might be used for water tightening purposes at a disposal site. It is assessed that the results can be applied in a similar manner to other grid furnaces even if differences in the composition of the fuel gives rise to differences in the properties of the ashes generated. Partially different ash fractions are generated in fluidised bed furnaces. Bottom ashes and cyclon ashes can, however, be assumed to be significantly more draining than ('pure') fly ashes or mixtures of fly ashes and other ashes. The methodology developed in the present study can be used for development of the basis needed for assessments and decisions on strategies for ash management.

  19. Effects of the sound from sea-based windmills on fish in the Gulf of Bothnia; Effekter av undervattensljud fraan havsbaserade vindkraftverk paa fisk fraan Bottniska viken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baamstedt, Ulf; Larsson, Stefan; Stenman, Aasa (Umeaa Marine Sciences Centre, Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden)); Magnhagen, Carin (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)); Sigray, Peter (Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory studies in large tanks with fish exposed to sound similar to that generated by sea-based windmills at a distance of 80 m, gave the following results: - European perch, brown trout and roach from the Gulf of Bothnia did not show any significant behavioral responses on the individual frequencies between 6 and 180 Hz that were tested. - Predation experiments with brown trout, where mysids were prey, showed large individual variability but no statistically significant effect of the generated sound. - Analysis of the stress hormone cortisol in brown trout and roach did not show any effects from sound treatment. - Analysis of cortisol in European perch showed a weak but statistically significant lower level from sound treated individuals compared to the control. - Analyses of cortisol showed both very large individual variability and differences between species, with the order: brown trout << European perch < roach. In summary, our results show that European perch, brown trout and roach from the Gulf of Bothnia are not affected by the sound corresponding to the frequency and effect found at 80 m distance from a wind mill in the sea. Such sound has therefore probably no effects on the species outside this area. We can not generalize to the area closer to a wind mill, neither to other species of fish. However, out choice of species was made in order to include representatives from three different hearing anatomies, and thereby different capabilities of sensing sound, which make our results more general than if just one species would have been used. Subsequent measurements of particle acceleration and background noise under the conditions used in the fish experiments showed that the design of the experiments was relevant for frequencies above 30 Hz. Experiments using 30 Hz or lower frequencies were disturbed by the background noise, and results from these experiments should therefore not be considered as an effect of sound generated by the hydrophone. In order to evaluate such frequencies, alternative technical equipment that can produce higher sound intensities at low frequencies are required

  20. DESIGN AV FREMTIDENS KUMLOKK

    OpenAIRE

    Breien, William Topper

    2014-01-01

    Denne oppgavens mål har vært å utvikle et nytt design for kumlokk. Det nye designet skal være lettere enn utgangspunktet. Dette har blitt gjort ved hjelp av en iterativ designprosess, styrkeberegninger i Siemens NX 8, simuleringer av støp i Magmasofts MAGMA5, prøvestøping og testing ved støperiet til Ulefos Jernværk i Ulefoss. Denne rapporten inneholder teoretisk bakgrunn og beskrivelse av metoder tatt i bruk ved utvikling av nytt design, simulerin...

  1. Verdsetting av brukermedvirkning ved utforming av skoleanlegg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Margrethe Lefdal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ved planlegging av offentlige bygninger i Norge forutsettes det at brukerne medvirker i prosessen. Dette er forankret i lov- og avtaleverk og motiveres ved at brukerne innehar en kompetanse som er av betydning for byggenes funksjonalitet. I denne artikkelen vil jeg belyse brukermedvirkningsproblematikk i planleggingen av et skoleanlegg for videregående opplæring. Tilgjengelige plan- og byggesaksdokumenter i den aktuelle fylkeskommunens digitale og fysiske arkiver er blitt analysert. I referater fra brukermøtene fremmes det for eksempel ønsker fra brukerne om begrenset bruk av glass. Det ferdige skole-anlegget har imidlertid utstrakt bruk av innvendige glassvegger, men det er ikke dokumentert diskusjoner knyttet til bestemmelsen av dette. Et profesjons- og maktperspektiv er relevant for å forstå hva som blir verdsatt, og hvilke strukt-urer og mekanismer som har påvirket planleggings­prosessen. De sentrale aktørgruppene er skoleeier og representantene for lærer- og arkitekt-profesjonen. Omfattende bruk av innvendig glass i skoleanlegget tolker jeg som et kompromiss mellom skoleeiers ønske om åpenhet og kontroll, lærernes ønske om mindre støy og arkitektens ønske om å skape romfølelse og visuelle siktlinjer.AbstractWhen planning public buildings in Norway, it is expected that users are involved in the process. This is grounded in legislation and agreements, and motivated by the idea that users have an expertise which is significant for the planning of the building’s functionality. The aim of this article is to investigate user participation in planning the school facilities for a secondary school. I have analyzed planning and building documents available in government records, digital and physical. In the reports from meetings with user groups, it is for example stated that users want to limit the use of glass. However, the completed school building has extensive use of glass dividing walls, but any discussions leading to this

  2. Measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in Swedish consumption milk between 1991 1996; Maetningar av {sup 137}Cs och {sup 90}Sr i konsumtionsmjoelk mellan 1991 och 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moere, H.

    1997-04-01

    The sources for the radioactivity are the nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Milk is sampled and measured as an important indicator of the Chernobyl load of radionuclides that cows can metabolize and that will ultimately give a dose to humans. Milk was responsible for 13-19% of the total intake of {sup 137}Cs from foodstuffs for the average person in 1994. Our milk measurement program covered 90% of all produced consumption milk in Sweden in 1995. Milk samples are taken every second month from the dairies. {sup 90}Sr is only measured on pooled yearly samples from some dairies; these dairies covered 50% of the total production of consumption milk in Sweden in 1995. The mean value per year of {sup 137}Cs for the whole country has decreased from 0.52 to 0.26 Bq/l between 1991 and 1996, which corresponds to a committed effective dose equivalent for humans of 1.1-0.50 microSv for {sup 137}Cs. For {sup 90}Sr during the 1991-1996 period the country-wide mean varied between 0.08 and 0.06 Bq/l, resulting in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.4-0.3 microSv. 7 refs.

  3. People's experiences of noise from wind power plants; Maenniskors upplevelser av ljud fraan vindkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Eja; Persson Waye, Kerstin (Goeteborg Univ., Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. of Medicine. Dept. of Public Health and Community Medicine); Forssen, Jens (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Applied Acoustics)

    2009-04-15

    The erection of wind turbines is preceded by an Environmental Impact Assessment which involves an estimation of the impact of wind turbines on people living nearby. One impact to be assessed is sound. It is important to generate scientifically based knowledge in order to describe how the sound will be perceived in order to ensure that the sound from wind turbines will not have an adverse health effect on the residents in the area. The objective of a joint analysis of the results from two field studies was to show the relationship between sound levels from wind turbines at the dwelling and the perception of the sound, as well as to describe factors influencing this relationship. The objective of a diary study, where the participants reported how often they were home and if so, if they were outdoors, was to describe how often the sound from wind turbines is heard and at which meteorological conditions. The results of long term sound measurements were compared with calculated values applying different models in order to study the accuracy of the sound propagation model used today. Another aim was to see if variations of meteorological factors influenced the sound propagation to such a degree that they should be included in the calculations of sound levels. The joint analyses of the two studies of annoyance confirm and strengthen previous reported data. The proportion that notices wind turbine sound as well as the proportion that were annoyed by the sound increased with increasing sound levels. The probability to be annoyed by the noise was larger if the turbines were visible from the dwelling and for people living in an agricultural landscape, whereas differences in terrain had no impact. The only association between sound level and health related variables other than annoyance was that of being disturbed in the sleep. Participants in the diary study more often reported that they could hear sound from the wind turbines when the electrical power increased, i.e. the electricity production increased. A statistically significant relationship between how often the sound was heard and the calculated sound level at the dwelling was found, even though the amount of time the participants spent outdoor varied substantially; the higher calculated sound level, the more often the sound was heard. The diary study also gave some insight in the relationship between hearing and wind speed. The results indicate that the wind turbine sound could be heard also at relatively high wind speeds when the sound is expected to be masked. Long term measurements of wind turbine sound at 550 meters from a modern turbine showed that the calculated levels agreed well with the measured. Sound levels calculated with a parabolic equation model, which takes into account the variation of meteorological factors, did not give a better prediction in comparison with the model commonly used at environmental permit proceedings. Meteorological variations are probably only of importance for sound propagation at longer distances. Meteorological circumstances could however be of importance for estimation of the source sound levels; the largest uncertainty in the calculations. The studies show that the sound levels vary also within the same wind speed, and indicate that the wind turbine sound could be heard also at wind speeds when it should be masked by other wind induced sounds. This implies that the description in the Environmental Impact Assessment of the sound that the neighbours possibly will hear should be extended, even though the sound propagation model used today is sufficient. Further studies regarding the possibility to hear the sound at high wind speed are needed as the number of participants in the diary study was small. Data also suggest that the risk for sleep disturbance should be further explored

  4. Washing of fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste using water as leachant; Vattentvaett av flygaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Zhao, Dongmei

    2010-03-15

    Ashes from combustion of municipal solid waste contain a large amount of minerals, salts and other metal compounds that are more or less soluble in water. The metal salts are often enriched in the fly ash which leads to a classification of the ash as hazardous waste. This makes ash management complicated and costly. Many stabilisation methods for Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been developed and most of them are based on a removal of chloride and sulfate in addition to a binding of metals in less soluble forms. The aim is to avoid the common situation that the ash does not comply to leaching limit values due to release of harmless salts. The aim of this project was to investigate if a simple washing with water can remove enough of the fly ash content of chloride and sulphate so that the ash can be landfilled in a simpler and less costly way than today. The project was focused on fly ashes from the MSWI units owned by Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB and Renova AB Goeteborg, i.e. a electro filter ash from grate fired boilers at Renova and a cyclone ash from a fluid bed boiler at Boraas. The results show that the main part of the chloride content of the ashes can be removed easily, but the washing with water is less effective in the removal of sulphate. A water-to-ash ratio of 1-2 l/kg removes about 100% of chloride but only 8-16% of the sulphate content. In many cases, the leachability of sulphate increases after the washing step. This is due to the rather complex sulphate chemistry with several possible reactions taking place in the ash-water system. For both the tested ashes the high level of chloride leaching is an important factor that prevents admittance on a landfill for hazardous waste without treatment.. The leaching of certain metals, such as Pb, is also high from both ashes but in the case of the Renova fly ash this is dealt with by treatment of the ash according to the Bamberg method. After a water washing with L/S 1-2 (L/kg dry ash) both ashes the washed ash complies with the landfill directive for hazardous waste that can be landfilled in Sweden. The content of dioxins and furans in the ashes were only marginally affected by the washing process as shown by a 13% increase. However, the results show that this type of washing does not remove dioxins from the solid phase which is an important piece of information.Only a few components were still too leachable for the ashes to comply with criteria for nonhazardous waste (for the Renova ash sulphate and Se and for the Boraas ash only Cr). The leaching of Cr from that ash could perhaps be decreased by chemical reduction to insoluble forms. However, this has not been tested in this project. Calculations of the investments that would be necessary in order to install water washing of fly ash at the two MSWI plants showed that the costs are too high to make it profitable today. The costs were compared to the usual management of these fly ashes which is export to Norway for landfilling (Boraas Energi och Miljoe) and stabilization using the Bamberg method followed by land filling on the company's landfill site in Goeteborg (Renova AB). The results obtained in this project can, however, become useful if the situation changes in a later stage and a washing of the ash becomes interesting again. In that case a more detailed process design must be carried out, especially concerning the filtration step since this was the most costly part of the system

  5. Treatment of biofuel ashes for forest recycling; Behandling av aska fraan biobraenslen foer spridning paa skogsmark - etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, H.; Sjoeblom, R. [AaF-Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    Logging residues are the easiest available fuel for an increased production of energy in Sweden from renewable sources. A consequence of their removal from the forest is that the cycle of mineral nutrients is broken. The purpose of recycling the ash after this fuel to forest land is to compensate for the removal and close again the nutrient cycle. Recycling nutrients and returning the inorganic components of the biomass removed from the forest should be performed in accordance with general principles of environmental protection, health considerations and the good house-keeping of natural resources. The activities should also be carried out in accordance with the needs of the forest and energy plant owners regarding good technology and economy. This implies that functional requirements originating from these principles and needs should be clearly structured and formulated and that such requirements should provide a basis for the continued development work as well as for the implementation of suitable, economical and efficient systems. Returning inorganic constituents implies that the principle of recirculation is followed as well as that nutrients are brought back which improves accretion in the forest. At the same time, the risk of damage to the forest can be assessed as insignificant. Furthermore the risks to human health are also assessed to be insignificant provided that pertinent precautions are taken to avoid dusting. In the present report, technical and economical aspects of importance for the selection of method as well as for the establishment of a system are described and discussed. The need for further development work is identified in the following areas: functional requirements - operational requirements, sampling, testing and quality assurance, granulation, curing processes and drying/sintering. 102 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  6. Final report of the drive of the TASS-tunnel; Slutrapport fraan drivningen av TASS-tunneln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlzen, Rickard; Johansson, Emmeli (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    When building the Final repository for spent Nuclear Fuel it is of importance for Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) to be able to show that long term safety can be obtained by the three barriers that are included in the KBS-3 final repository. The backfill refers to the material that will be installed in deposition tunnels in order to backfill them and its purpose is to maintain the multiple barrier function by keeping the buffer at place and minimize the water inflow to the tunnel. This means that it is of importance to achieve good contour with minimal dispersal of excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The hydrological properties of the backfill and the EDZ will affect the large scale hydrological conductivity of the deposition tunnels. From the end of 2007 to the end of 2008 SKB excavated an approximately 90 m long and 19 m2 cross cut tunnel named TASS at the Aespoe Hard rock laboratory. The excavation of the tunnel was made by the project 'Sealing of tunnel at great depth'. The ambition in the two subprojects that controlled the excavation of the tunnel was to excavate a tunnel in the best possible way. Earlier research and experiences in tunnel excavation has been used to place demands on performance and how it should be documented. By doing so it has been possible to ensure that the excavation of the tunnel was done in a controlled and traceable way so it can be repeatable and that it has been possible to estimate contour and minimize EDZ. The system that was developed during the excavation of the tunnel to maintain motivation, ensure traceability within the documentation and quality of performed work has worked well and are recommended to be used in future projects. The parameters that are important for the performance should be follow-up with short intervals and the feedback shall be fast and precise, which will increase the motivation at the same time as mistakes won't be systematic in the production. The administrative work with controlling documents has given continuous improvements. The knowledge of the aim for the project and the achievements of those involved have played an important role in detecting, documenting and handling of aberrations. In the purchasing of the contractor a strong emphasis were placed on the knowledge and skills of the management and workers together with the quality of equipment and machinery for tunnelling. This has given good dividends and improved the quality of work performed considerably. The contract in its entirety, including how its aim has been passed on into the practical work, gave the client the ability to control the execution and the contractor the opportunity to complete a quality-assured work without conflicts regarding compensation. This has been a major contributing factor to the good cooperation. When the client takes a more distinct performance responsibility, the role of the entire organization is changing. Among other things are the demands increasing on the availability in quickly maintaining the communication between the client and the contactor in the field and that all understand and accept the client's intentions in the instructions given. The work to achieve a good tunnel contour has been very successful and the contour encounters the controlling requirements of the production line of the backfilling method. The average over break in the tunnel was approximately 16% with small amounts of under break. The area variations of the tunnel shows that the tunnel area never reaches the theoretical area and the largest area is reached approximately 0,7 m before the border of the next round. The introduction of electronic detonators improved the tunnel contour and increased the proportion of visible drill holes. The average amount of visible drill holes identified in the tunnel contour was 78%. With the drilling pattern that were used and the introduction of electronic detonators it has been possible to use contour explosives in the tunnel floor, with good result of visible drill holes. The introduction of electronic detonators also took care of the problem of cut-off holes, which pretty much disappeared and re-blasting was minimized. The EDZ was evaluated in /Olsson et al. 2009/ and shows that no continuous EDZ was found. The performed drilling has been evaluated by looking at the drilling accuracy and precision. Geodetic surveying was performed of the collaring of 15-20 evenly distributed drill holes in the contour; all the drill holes in the floor and a varying amount of helpers and stope holes in each round. Afterwards the endpoints were calculated. The resulting data has then been evaluated and even compared with obtained data of the location of collaring and endpoints from the jumbo

  7. Analyses of copper from a prototype capsule 5 and 6; Analyser av koppar fraan prototypkapsel 5 och 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, Claes; Lundholm, Martin; Persson, Dan; Jakobsson, Dan; Sedlakova, Miroslava; Randelius, Mats; Karlsson, Oskar; Rydgren, Pontus; Kimab, Swerea

    2012-12-15

    'Prototype' is a series of experiments where SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, expose the full scale copper canisters under conditions intended to be representative of a repository for spent nuclear fuel, however, without radioactivity (SKB 2012) . Copper from one of these installations, deposition 5, has been studied for corrosion . Samples were also taken from the capsule that had been exposed in deposition 6. Drill cores across the capsule wall has been documented regarding microstructure. All samples have been exposed for about seven years in the prototype repository. Studies carried out leads to the following conclusions: Regarding the ring on top of the capsule from the deposition 5; There are local corrosion with a depth of 3-5 microns. The general or uniform corrosion that has occurred can not be quantified. The relatively sharp traces of processing of the material before exposure indicates that the general corrosion was minor. Small amounts of corrosion product has been detected in surface analysis. The surface profile on the copper surface, aside from the grooves after processing and areas of local corrosion, are relatively even. Metallographic examination of cross section shows no tendency to pitting or intergranular corrosion. Analysis for hydrogen by melting a quantity of metal does not show any increased hydrogen content. Regarding the material of the capsule from the deposition 6: The capsule has not been specifically tested for corrosion. Cross sections of drill cores through the copper canister has been documented and metallo graphically exhibits nothing remarkable.

  8. Hydrolysis of the fiber fraction from wheat based production of ethanol. Final report; Hydrolys av fiberfraktionen fraan vetebaserad etanolproduktion. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacchi, Guido [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    This was a preliminary study to investigate the potential of using a larger fraction of the raw material in the production of bio-ethanol from wheat. The study comprised both the fibre fraction in the wheat kernel, i. e. the hemi cellulose and cellulose fraction that remain after the starch hydrolysis, and wheat straw which could contribute to an increase of the ethanol yield per hectare raised wheat. The project has been performed in co-operation with Agroetanol AB that provided samples from their ethanol production plant. Samples were taken at various locations in the process, i. e. the raw material, after starch hydrolysis, before and after fermentation and from the stillage after distillation. The materials were analysed for starch, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in the liquid and solids fractions to investigate how the hemicellulose and cellulose were affected in the process. The materials were also subjected to heat treatmen, enzymatic hydrolysis and a combination of the two to investigate how much sugars that could be released from the hemicellulose and the cellulose. In the existing process more than 80 % of the cellulose (glucan) was in the solid residue after the distillation step. The corresponding figures for the hemicellulose sugars were 60% for xylan, 70 % for arabinan and 40 % for galactan. The conclusions from the study are that the sugars in the hemicellulose fraction could be released by enzymatic hydrolysis resulting in an increase of the total sugar yield with up to 14% of the present yield. However, to utilise these sugars for ethanol production a pentose fermenting micro organism is required. To release the cellulose sugar in the solid material requires a combination of heat treatment with addition of about 0. 1 % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. On the other side this would yield sugars that directly fermentable by the baker's yeast used in the process today. Steam treatment of wheat straw has been performed after impregnation with H2S04: The conditions investigated in the pretreatment were; temperature 190, 200 och 210 deg C and residence time 2, 5 and 10 min. The pretreatment was assayed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated material. The highest yield of glucose, slightly above 100% of the theoretical based on the glucan available in the raw material, was obtained for pretreatment at 190 deg C for 10 min. The hydrolysate obtained was fermented with the same ethanol yield as a reference sugar solution indicating that the level of inhibitors was low. Steam treatment of wheat straw impregnated with low concentrations of acid is consequently very promising.

  9. AV dissociation, an inevitable response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kyuhyun; Benditt, David G

    2011-07-01

    The independent activation of the atria and ventricles, AV dissociation, is a common phenomenon that occurs during a wide variety of electrophysiologic circumstances. The clinical significance of AV dissociation is often misunderstood. This article examines the basis and clinical implications of AV dissociation. AV dissociation is often an obligatory, secondary phenomenon, and should not be construed as the primary disorder; it may be due to either the AV conduction system being completely blocked (3° AV block) or the P wave and the QRS complex being generated from separate sources (usually, the AV junction or ventricle) but occurring close together during the physiologic refractory period of each other. The latter may happen in junctional or ventricular arrhythmias including escape or accelerated rhythm, tachycardia, or premature beats. The crucial clinical point is not the AV dissociation itself, but that an underlying triggering primary disorder is present and should be identified. ©2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Summer Student Report - AV Workflow

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    The AV Workflow is web application which allows cern users to publish, update and delete videos from cds. During my summer internship I implemented the backend of the new version of the AV Worklow in python using the django framework.

  11. Skyggedom av enkepensjonsdommen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rognlien, Ida Gundersby

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgaven undersøker om bortfall av ektefellepensjon ved lovendring med tilbakevirkende kraft er i strid med retten til eiendom etter EMK TP 1 art 1. Skyggedommetoden/ Feminist Judgments -metoden brukes for å gjenskrive enkepensjonsdommen Rt.2006.262 i et feministisk perspektiv. Da mannen døde.......1975.220. I spørsmålet om inngrepet er proporsjonalt ble vektlagt at det ikke foreligger en transparent avveining av de relevante interessene. Videre er hensynene bak og behovene for den opprinnelige ektefellepensjonen fortsatt tilstede, og de er ikke tilstrekkelig avveid mot formålene med inngrepet...

  12. Skyggedom av enkepensjonsdommen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rognlien, Ida Gundersby

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgaven undersøker om bortfall av ektefellepensjon ved lovendring med tilbakevirkende kraft er i strid med retten til eiendom etter EMK TP 1 art 1. Skyggedommetoden/ Feminist Judgments -metoden brukes for å gjenskrive enkepensjonsdommen Rt.2006.262 i et feministisk perspektiv. Da mannen døde.......1975.220. I spørsmålet om inngrepet er proporsjonalt ble vektlagt at det ikke foreligger en transparent avveining av de relevante interessene. Videre er hensynene bak og behovene for den opprinnelige ektefellepensjonen fortsatt tilstede, og de er ikke tilstrekkelig avveid mot formålene med inngrepet...

  13. En av gutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Cecilie Basberg; Rysst, Mari; Bjerck, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Hvilken betydning har kjønn og klær for kvinner som arbeider i mannsdominerte arbeiderklasseyrker? Forfatterne av denne artikkelen finner at kvinnene må nedtone sitt kjønn og sin seksualitet gjennom å dekke til kroppen, i klær laget for menn, for å signalisere at de er på jobb for å arbeide...

  14. En av gutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Cecilie Basberg; Rysst, Mari; Bjerck, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Hvilken betydning har kjønn og klær for kvinner som arbeider i mannsdominerte arbeiderklasseyrker? Forfatterne av denne artikkelen finner at kvinnene må nedtone sitt kjønn og sin seksualitet gjennom å dekke til kroppen, i klær laget for menn, for å signalisere at de er på jobb for å arbeide...

  15. Regional monitoring of deposition and effects of air pollution; Regional oevervakning av nedfall och effekter av luftfoeroreningar. Sammanfattande slutrapport fraan ett samarbetsprojekt mellan IVL, laenen och Naturvaardsverket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akselsson, Cecilia; Ferm, Martin; Hallgren Larsson, Eva; Knulst, Johan; Loevblad, Gun; Malm, Gunnar; Westling, Olle

    2000-05-01

    Regional programmes in Sweden focused on deposition and effects of air pollutants have been evaluated by IVL, Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Various air quality protection associations and regional environmental authorities initiated the monitoring programmes during the period 1985 to 1990. The result of the evaluation is a revised and coordinated programme with improved methods. The new regional programme combines collection of field data with national model calculations of deposition of air pollutants. The new programme involves collection of deposition on open field (bulk) and in forest stands (throughfall), and soil solution, according to national and international standards. Improved methods for monitoring of base cation and nitrogen deposition have been developed. Ambient air concentrations are measured at some locations. The purpose is to describe environmental conditions, regional differences, and temporal changes. Data on forest stands, such as needle loss, growth, and soil chemistry, are available since most locations are permanent forest plots, established for scientific forest observations. Regional dispersion and deposition of air pollutants will be calculated with a model (SMHI-MATCH), developed for simulating the dispersion and deposition of Swedish emissions in relation to the long-range transport on a relatively fine scale (grid square 11 km). The programme also includes developed methods for data handling, interpretation, evaluation, quality assurance and demonstration of results in written reports and via Internet.

  16. System analysis of energy utilization from waste - evaluation of energy, environment and economy. Summary report; Systemanalys av energiutnyttjande fraan avfall - utvaerdering av energi, miljoe och ekonomi. Oeversiktsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov; Granath, Jessica [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst. Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden); Frostell, Bjoern; Bjoerklund, Anna; Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology; Thyselius, Lennart; Baky, Andras [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Carlsson, Marcus [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Economics

    1999-12-01

    Energy, environmental, and economic consequences of different management systems for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. In the systems analysis, different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of easily degradable organic waste, were studied and also compared to landfilling. In the study a computer model (ORWARE) based on LCA methodology was used. Case studies were performed for three different municipalities: Uppsala, Stockholm, and Aelvdalen. The following parameters were used for evaluating the different waste management options: consumption of energy resources, global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photo oxidant formation, heavy metal flows, financial economy and welfare economy, where welfare economy is the sum of financial economy and environmental economy. The study shows that reduced landfilling to the benefit of an increased use of energy and material from waste is positive from an environmental and energy as well as economic aspect. This is mainly due to the fact that the choice of waste management method affects processes outside the waste management system, such as production of district heating, electricity, vehicle fuel, plastic, cardboard, and fertiliser. This means that landfilling of energy-rich waste should be avoided as far as possible, both because of the the environmental impact, and because of the low recovery of resources. Incineration should constitute a basis in the waste management systems of the three municipalities studied, even if the waste has to be transported to a regional facility. Once the waste is collected, longer regional transports are of little significance, as long as the transports are carried out in an efficient manner. Comparing materials recycling and incineration, and biological treatment and incineration, no unambiguous conclusions can be drawn. There are benefits and drawbacks associated with all these waste management options. Materials recycling of plastic containers is comparable to incineration from a welfare economic aspect, but gives less environmental impact and lower energy use - on condition that the recycled plastic replaces virgin plastic. Materials recycling of cardboard containers is comparable to incineration concerning welfare economy and energy, but has both environmental advantages and disadvantages. Anaerobic digestion of easily degradable waste gives a higher welfare economic cost than incineration, and has both environmental advantages and disadvantages. Conclusions regarding energy use depends upon how the biogas is used. Composting of easily degradable waste is comparable to anaerobic digestion from a welfare economic aspect, but gives higher energy use and environmental impact.

  17. Abatement of emissions of nitrogen compounds from biomass-based IGCC: Phase 5; Minskning av emissionen av kvaevefoereningar fraan biobraenslebaserade IGCC-processer: Etapp 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Espenaes, Bengt-Goeran [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    This report summarises the experimental results achieved within the fifth phase of a project with the aim to reduce the amount of nitrogen compounds produced in gasification of biomass. In the previous first phases of the project the work has focused on laboratory scale experiments with the aim to improve the understanding of the nitrogen chemistry that takes place in the pyrolysis and gasification steps in the gasifier. During the fourth phase the work was redirected towards measurements in a small biomass-fuelled fluidized bed gasifier, which provides conditions that resemble the conditions in a full-scale gasifier. The work was concerned with the effect on fuel nitrogen conversion by shifts of the primary-to-secondary air ratio in the gasifier, the influence of fuel nitrogen content and the effect of a new bed material. The fuel nitrogen content was varied using one single biomass fuel. This was achieved by using the fuel in the form of pellets, and by addition of two different carriers of nitrogen during the manufacturing process of the pelletised fuel. The new bed material used is based on iron, which previously have been shown to be active for conversion of NH{sub 3} in a synthetic fuel gas. A minor influence from the secondary-to-primary fuel ratio on the conversion of fuel nitrogen to ammonia was shown. The yield of bound nitrogen as ammonia was about 30% for fuel with low nitrogen content (0.13%), and about 60% for fuel with artificially increased nitrogen content (0.82%). Unfortunately no clear effect was obtained on the yield of bound nitrogen obtained using the new bed material, in spite of a clear effect that was obtained in previous laboratory tests. On the other hand, a quite positive effect was obtained for low yield of tars.

  18. Energy recovery of combustible fraction from fragmentation of metal scrap - Phase 2; Energiaatervinning av braennbar fraktion fraan fragmentering av metallhaltigt avfall - Steg 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne (Stena Metall AB (Sweden)); Davidsson, Kent (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Jonsson, Torbjoern; Pettersson, Jesper (HTC, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Victoren, Anders; Andersson, Hans (Metso Power AB (Sweden)); Widen, Christoffer (Lidkoepings Vaermeverk AB (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    More recovered fuels have been put on the fuel market since the landfill ban of organic wastes was implemented. SLF (shredder light fraction = fluff) which is a waste from recovery of metal scrap has mostly been put on landfill until now. Due to high chlorine and metal content in this fuel there is a risk of increased deposit and corrosion problems in incineration plants. This project investigated if co-combustion with sewage sludge could reduce these problems. The purpose of the project was also to document the influence of SLF when it comes to deposits and corrosion in an incineration plant. In this project SLF has been co-combusted with normal waste with and without sewage sludge in the 20 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler in Lidkoeping. Three combustion tests have been performed: - Ref - Reference test (normal fuel mix = 50% household waste/50% industrial waste). - F1 - Test 1 (75% normal fuel mix , 21% SLF and 4% sewage sludge) - F2 - Test 2 (77% normal fuel mix and 23% SLF) The fuel mix is specified as percentage of energy content. The tests lasted 3 days and during the last 24 hours corrosion and deposit probes were exposed inside the boiler. The surface temperatures of the corrosion probes were 280, 350 and 420 deg C in each test. At the same time as the probes were exposed the boiler operation was followed and samples of fuel, ash and flue gas were taken. The results clearly show that sewage sludge initially decreases the deposit and corrosion problems at SLF combustion. Lower amounts of deposits were measured and the deposits were less corrosive when 4% of sewage sludge was added to the fuel mix with normal waste and SLF (F1). Co-combustion of more than 20% SLF and wastes (F2) increase initially the amount of the deposits and the deposits were also initially more corrosive. Long-term consequences are not investigated in this project. The project has not shown a distinct explanation why sewage sludge gives these good effects. Several possible causes, as shown in earlier projects [2][3][4], could be the content of sulphur, aluminium silicates, the high ash content and also the content of phosphorous. The sulphur reacts with the alkaline to sulphates and will be deposited as non corrosive deposits on tubes or go out as fly ash. The aluminium silicates and alkaline can form compounds with high melting temperatures and will leave the boiler as bottom or fly ash. The higher amount of ash in sludge can result in that sticky particles stick to the ash particles and are transported out with the flue gas without being deposited on tubes in the boiler. Phosphorous was found in the ashes (not bottom ash) and in the deposits down stream the convection pass. Increased tube temperature (280 to 420 deg C) increased the initial corrosion. The results indicate chlorine induced corrosion in all tests at all temperatures on the low alloy steel 16Mo3. No or very low content of cupper, lead and zinc were detected close to the corrosion front on the tube metal surface on 16 Mo3. Due to this these elements will not be expected to affect the corrosion attacks. The deposits decrease and the chlorine content in the deposits increase downstream the convection pass in comparison to upstream the convection pass. The alkaline content in the deposits decreased despite of the increase of chlorine. These results were shown in all tests. The ash content in the fuel into the boiler increased by 38% when adding sludge and SLF. When SLF was co-combusted with normal fuel the ash content in the fuel mix increased 19%. This higher ash content in the fuel will increase the cost of ash handling of the bottom ash and the empty pass ash. The analyses made in this project do not show other than that the ashes can be sent to the same places as used for the normal fuel ashes. The dry flue gas cleaning device could successfully handle the variation of emissions as to fulfill the requirements of the permission

  19. Mercury emissions from crematories - distribution, environmental effects and effects of selenium addition; Emissioner av kvicksilver fraan krematorier - spridning, miljoeeffekter och effekter av selentillsats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, J.; Pleijel, K.; Schager, P.; Peterson, P.; Kindbom, K.

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of selenium additions on emissions of mercury from crematories and to assess the environmental impact of mercury emissions from crematories. Measurements were performed during 3 days under which time period 18 cremations were performed. Emissions of mercury were measured and compared to the input of mercury to each cremation to be able to calculate the method efficiency. At 10 of the cremations, selenium ampoules were added. The retention of mercury varied considerably between the individual cremations but no effects of the selenium additions could be found. The results show that out of the total emissions of mercury from crematories of 150-300 kg, 25-50 kg are deposited in Sweden and the remainder is transported out of the country. An estimate of the crematories contribution to the total deposition of mercury indicates that the crematories contribute 0,3-1 % of the total deposition of mercury in Sweden, of which a major part is attributable to emissions outside the Swedish borders. A calculation was also performed assuming that flue gas cleaning was installed on the 20 largest crematories in Sweden. The cleaning efficiency was set to 90 % of the in going mercury. For this scenario, the total atmospheric emissions will be 70-149 kg out of which 12-25 kg will be deposited in Sweden. This corresponds to 0,1-0,3 % of the total atmospheric load. Based on the results of the study presented above it is concluded that the contribution of the crematories to the total atmospheric deposition of mercury is small and that further measures to control emissions should be preceded by a discussion on priorities. 6 refs, 8 figs, 9 tabs

  20. Abatement of emissions of nitrogen compounds from biomass-based IGCC. Final report; Minskning av emissionen av kvaevefoereningar fraan biobraenslebaserade IGCC-processer. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    This report summarises the experimental results achieved within a project with the aim to reduce the amount of nitrogen compounds produced in gasification of biomass. The emphasis is on the results from the sixth phase of the project but with references to the work presented in previous stages of the project. In the first phases of the project the work has focused on laboratory scale experiments with the aim to improve the understanding of the nitrogen chemistry that takes place in the pyrolysis and gasification steps in the gasifier. During the fourth phase the work was redirected towards measurements in a small biomass-fuelled fluidised bed gasifier, which provides conditions that resemble the conditions in a full-scale gasifier. These experiments have continued during the last two phases of the project. The effect on fuel nitrogen conversion by changing the air to fuel ratio, the primary-to-secondary air ratio in the gasifier, the influence of fuel nitrogen content and the effect of a new bed material have been investigated. The fuel nitrogen content was varied using one single biomass fuel. This was achieved by using the fuel in the form of pellets, and by addition of two different carriers of nitrogen during the manufacturing process of the pelletized fuel. The new bed material used is based on iron, which previously have been shown to be active for conversion of NH{sub 3} in a synthetic fuel gas. In the last stage of the project the effect of varying the air to fuel ratio was evaluated. This was done both for the same saw dust pellets as used in previous stages of the project but also for Miscanthus originating from the same batch as used at KTH. The results from the latter evaluation were compared with experimental results from KTH and a good agreement between the experimental series was achieved. These experimental data resulted in a common paper, enclosed as appendix 1 in this report, which will be presented at the international conference 'Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion'.

  1. Evaluation and development of methods for determining methane emissions from biogas plants - Literature Study; Vaerdering och utveckling av maetmetoder foer bestaemning av metanemissioner fraan biogasanlaeggningar - Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Willen, Agnes; Rodhe, Lena (JTI, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Previous work in areas such as framework of voluntary commitment shows that there is a need for techniques for measurement of methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources in the handling of organic residuals. There are no established methods for determining for instance emissions of methane from open or partially open tanks and cisterns, typically residue storage and the like. This report gives results from Phase 1 of this project, in which literary studies, market research studies, interviews and site visits have been made to identify a number of methods applied for the determination of emissions from open areas, such as liquid surfaces, but also land. Focus is on methods that can be applied to plants for biological treatment, which also includes the water treatment process at the treatment plants, but also the procedures used in measurements on land, landfills and processing plants are studied. First, the report gives a brief overview of a large number of measurement methods, where more detailed descriptions of four methods are given. The four methods are considered to be the most promising to pursue in the following phases of the project: - chamber technology; - sampling hood; - plume measurement with DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar); - air input in a covered storage.

  2. Abatement of emissions of nitrogen compounds from biomass-based IGCC. Final report; Minskning av emissionen av kvaevefoereningar fraan biobraenslebaserade IGCC-processer. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    This report summarises the experimental results achieved within a project with the aim to reduce the amount of nitrogen compounds produced in gasification of biomass. The emphasis is on the results from the sixth phase of the project but with references to the work presented in previous stages of the project. In the first phases of the project the work has focused on laboratory scale experiments with the aim to improve the understanding of the nitrogen chemistry that takes place in the pyrolysis and gasification steps in the gasifier. During the fourth phase the work was redirected towards measurements in a small biomass-fuelled fluidised bed gasifier, which provides conditions that resemble the conditions in a full-scale gasifier. These experiments have continued during the last two phases of the project. The effect on fuel nitrogen conversion by changing the air to fuel ratio, the primary-to-secondary air ratio in the gasifier, the influence of fuel nitrogen content and the effect of a new bed material have been investigated. The fuel nitrogen content was varied using one single biomass fuel. This was achieved by using the fuel in the form of pellets, and by addition of two different carriers of nitrogen during the manufacturing process of the pelletized fuel. The new bed material used is based on iron, which previously have been shown to be active for conversion of NH{sub 3} in a synthetic fuel gas. In the last stage of the project the effect of varying the air to fuel ratio was evaluated. This was done both for the same saw dust pellets as used in previous stages of the project but also for Miscanthus originating from the same batch as used at KTH. The results from the latter evaluation were compared with experimental results from KTH and a good agreement between the experimental series was achieved. These experimental data resulted in a common paper, enclosed as appendix 1 in this report, which will be presented at the international conference 'Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion'.

  3. Introduction to AVS Audio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Jun Ai; Shui-Xian Chen; Rui-Min Hu

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a general audio coding algorithm which has been recently standardized by AVS, China.The algorithm is based on a perceptual coding technique. The codec delivers near CD-quality audio at 128kb/s. This paper describes the coder structure in detail and discusses the reasons for specific design methods. A summary of the subjective test results are presented for the prototype codec. Comparison Mean Opinion Score (CMOS) test indicates that the quality of the AVS audio coder is comparable with MPEG Layer-3 audio coder. A real-time decoder was used for the characterization test,which is based on a 16-bit fixed-point DSP. The performance of the DSP solution was demonstrated, including computational complexity and storage characteristics.

  4. Negotiation Mechanism of AVS Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Junbin

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction The mission of the Audio Video Coding Standard (AVS) Working Group of China is to develop AVS standards drafts and deliver them to the national standardization administration authorities. Since its establishment in 2002, the AVS Working Group has developed rapidly, growing from 33 members in 2003 to 153 in 2006. By the end of 2006, it had put forward for approval nine standards drafts (Table 1) with Part 2 of the AVS 1.0 draft approved as a national standard in February 2006.

  5. Læring av erfaring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramvi, Ellen

    Hva skal til for å lære av erfaring? Denne avhandlingen er en empirisk baseret undersøkelse av ungdosmskolelæreres muligheter og betingelser for å "lære av erfaring" i den særlige betydning av begrepet  W. Bion gir i sin psykoanalytiske teori. Undersøgelsen baserer seg på et feltarbeid som strekker...... seg over ett skoleår. Datamaterialet ble samlet inn via observerasjoner og mer eller mindre strukturerte samtaler med lærere ved to forskellige norske ungdsomsskoler. Analysen av materialet foregår i to trinn: først en fenomenologisk analyse, tett på lærernes egne beskrivelser og refleksjoner av...... lærerarbeidet, dets udfordringer og vanskeligheter, og deretter en psykoanalytisk perspektivering av de fenomenologiske analyseresultatene. Analysen viser en almindelig lærerhverdag og en skoleorganisation, hvor lærernes "læring av erfaring" i stor utstrekning blokkeres i et vekselspill mellem lærernes flukt...

  6. Ultralydfremstilling av fostervekst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synnøve Lian Johnsen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultralyd billeddanning er i dag den beste undersøkelsesmetoden vi har til å overvåke fosterets utvikling og vekst. Ultralydmåling av fosterets størrelse og biometriske referansetabeller for svangerskapet brukes til å fastsette svangerskapets alder, beregne termin og vurdere fosterets vekst. Optimal studiedesign er ulik for hvert av disse formålene. Det er stor variasjon i fysiologisk vekst og en utfordring å identifisere fostre som har dårlig tilvekst. En enkeltmåling av fosteret kan fortelle oss om det er lite eller stort i forhold til andre fostre, men ikke om størrelsen er passelig i forhold til forventet fysiologisk vekst for dette fosteret. Tilpassede referansemodeller ("customised" justerer forventet størrelse i relasjon til føtale og maternelle faktorer og har vist seg å bedre identifisere sanne veksthemmede fostre enn bare å klassifisere i henhold til 2,5, 5 eller 10 persentilen. Men et foster som i utgangspunktet er stort for alderen, men etter hvert vokser langsomt vil ikke nødvendigvis bli fanget opp ved en slik enkeltmåling. Serielle målinger vil hjelpe, men en slik longitudinell metode blir ikke fullt ut utnyttet før det appliseres betinget ("conditional" vekstberegning. Betingelsesleddene for variasjon i vekst og målemetode kalkuleres ut fra longitudinelle data og kan så anvendes for det enkelte foster. En første måling brukes til å beregne forventet vekst og variasjon for en neste måling. Denne metoden forventes å skjerpe diagnostikken for vekst-avvik i alle vektklasser og kan sammen med tilpasningen av andre faktorer bedre overvåkningen av risikosvangerskapUltrasonographic imaging is today the best method for assessing fetal size and monitoring fetal growth. Ultrasound measurements of fetal size are used for age, size and growth assessment, but the statistical design and analysis are different for each of these purposes. Physiological ranges for fetal growth are wide and the identification of fetal

  7. Teratogene effekter av antiepileptika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt A. Engelsen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGCa. 1 av 200 gravide har epilepsi. Gravide med epilepsi har økt risiko for visse obstetriske komplikasjonerog for å føde barn med medfødte misdannelser. Risikoen for misdannelser synes koblet til bruk avantiepileptika under svangerskapet, og ikke til selve epilepsien. Alle typer misdannelser er økt, men leppeganespalteog nevralrørsdefekter utgjør særlig viktige misdannelser. Årsakene til misdannelsene er multifaktorielle.Bruk av antiepileptika i monoterapi kan sies å gi en individuell risiko for større misdannelser påca. 4-6%. Karbamazepin og natriumvalproat gir hhv. 0,5-1% og 2-3% risiko for nevralrørsdefekt. Samletrisiko for større og mindre anomalier inkludert dysmorfe ansiktstrekk synes ikke å overstige 10%. ENGLISH SUMMARYEngelsen BA. Teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs. Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (1: 23-28.Approximately 1 in 200 pregnant women have epilepsy, and 1 in 250 births are to children of mothers whouse antiepleptic drugs (AED. Pregnant women with epilepsy have increased risk for certain obstetricalcomplications, and for giving birth to children with congenital malformations. The increased risk forcongenital malformations seems connected to the use of AED, not to the epileptic syndromes. The etiologyof congenital malformations are multifactorial. Use of AED in monotherapy is associated with anindividual risk of giving birth to a child with a major malformation of 4-6%. The specific risk of spinabifida is 0,5 to 1% for carbamazepine and 2-3% for sodium valproate.

  8. Helseeffekter av byluftpartikler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Refsnes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Svevestøv i byluft består av forbrenningspartikler og mineralpartikler med svært forskjellige størrelser og kjemiske egenskaper. Svevestøvet kan deles inn i størrelsesfraksjoner som PMAmbient particulate matter (PM comprises particles from different combustion processes and a variety of mineral particles. The particles vary widely in size distribution and chemical/physical characteristics. PM is often divided into size fractions with different aerodynamic diameters: PM10 (PM ! 10 mm, PM2.5 (PM ! 2.5 mm and PM0.1 (PM ! 0.1 mm. Recent population studies have found an association between an increase in mortality and morbidity due to lung and/or cardiovascular disease and short-term increases in PM. The relative risk (RR was approximately 1.005 for an increase in 10 mg/m3 PM10, without an observed threshold even at concentrations below 10 mg/m3. Chronic exposure has been investigated to a lesser extent, but longterm exposure to PM2.5 has been found to be associated with an approximately 10-fold greater increase in RR than short-term exposures. Experimental studies with volunteers in chamber and field studies show mild lung or cardiovascular responses at concentrations of ambient particles (PM2.5/PM10: 100-200 mg/m3 that may occur during episodes of air pollution. Animal studies at higher concentrations have shown stronger responses. The experimental studies support the epidemiological evidence for an adverse health effect of PM. Both population- and experimental studies indicate the existence of vulnerable individuals. At low to average ambient concentrations there seems to exist a discrepancy between the results of population- and experimental studies that might be due to the absence of the most vulnerable individuals in the experimental studies. Together with cell culture experiments, human and animal studies indicate the importance of physical and chemical properties of the particles (size, content of metals, organics, endotoxins, etc. for

  9. Lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    En miljømessig effektiv lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger sikter mot å begrense - og helst redusere - biltrafikk og miljøproblemer knyttet til bytransport, sammenliknet med alternative lokaliseringer. En effektiv transportmessig lokalisering kan også bidra til å redusere tap av verdifulle...... arealer (f eks jordbruksareal eller natur- og friluftsområder) utenfor dagens tettstedsgrense. Tiltaket må samtidig utformes slik at en kan bevare viktige bomiljøkvaliteter og så mye som mulig av de grønne arealene innenfor tettbebyggelsen....

  10. Lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    En miljømessig effektiv lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger sikter mot å begrense - og helst redusere - biltrafikk og miljøproblemer knyttet til bytransport, sammenliknet med alternative lokaliseringer. En effektiv transportmessig lokalisering kan også bidra til å redusere tap av verdifulle...... arealer (f eks jordbruksareal eller natur- og friluftsområder) utenfor dagens tettstedsgrense. Tiltaket må samtidig utformes slik at en kan bevare viktige bomiljøkvaliteter og så mye som mulig av de grønne arealene innenfor tettbebyggelsen....

  11. Store Stokkavatn. Beskrivelse av forurensningssituasjonen

    OpenAIRE

    Holtan, H.

    1985-01-01

    Rapporten, som er et ledd i arbeidet med en vannbruksplan for Store Stokkavatn ved Stavanger, sammenstiller og diskuterer data som er samlet inn fra innsjøen og dens tilløp av Byveterinæretaten i Stavanger. Store Stokkavatnet er reservevannkilde for Stavanger og dessuten er innsjøen sentral i rekreasjonsmessig sammenheng. På bakgrunn av de foreliggende data, er innsjøens forurensningstilstand på grensen av det akseptable hva algeproduksjon (eutrofiering) og bakteriologiske forhold angår. Fler...

  12. Cleaning of condensate from flue gas condensing plants at co-combustion of waste fuels. Follow-up of emissions; Rening av kondensat fraan roekgaskondenseringsanlaeggningar vid samfoerbraenning av avfallsbraenslen. Uppfoeljning av utslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, Lena; Dejfors, Charlotte; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    Limits of discharges in waste water at flue gas cleaning are one of the fields included in the EC-directive (2000/76/EG) regarding combustion of waste from December 28th, 2000. The pollutants included in the limits are suspended material, Hg, Cd, Tl, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn as well as dioxins and furans. The limits of the directive applies generally for plants with combustion of waste, regardless of type of waste fraction, the degree of admixture or if it is a so called co-combustion plant or not. For new plants, the limits shall be fulfilled within two years after the date of the directive whereas existing plants have another three years to meet the new demands. In this project, the condensate from the flue gas has been analysed at five different combustion plants. Samples of the fuel have also been analysed as a reference at the evaluation of the results. The results from the analysed condensate have then been compared and evaluated with regards to the limit values in the EC-directive. However, one exception is dioxins and furans that are not included in this study. The analysis of the pure condensate show that at most plants the content of pollutants is below, or in some cases well below, the limits of the EC-directive. At plants with co-combustion of recovered biofuels, even the contents of pollutants in the non-purified raw condensate are below the limits of the directive. This means that plants with co-combustion of recovered wood waste and biofuels most likely will meet the requirements for emissions to waste water in the EC-directive. The water treatment process in these plants normally consists of a pH-adjustment stage followed by adding of chemicals before the condensate enters into a sand filter. The cleaned condensate from the sand filter is normally released to a recipient whereas the dirty condensate goes through a lamell separator in order to separate rest sludge. The most polluted raw condensate was found at a plant with 100 % combustion of municipal solid waste. However, the cleaning process of the condensate at this plant makes sure that the emissions to water are well below the limits. Another plant with admixture of municipal solid waste in the furnace had relatively high content of pollutants in the purified condensate. The cleaning process of the condensate at this plant is equivalent to the plants designed for co-combustion of recovered wood fuel. Therefore, the water cleaning process might have to be extended or adjusted, which already has been done at the plant after the sampling of this project, in order to meet the demands of the EG directive. At several of the visited plants, there have been problems with corrosion in the cleaning process of the condensate. Some components and materials have had to be changed and today exclusively plastic materials are used. One exception is the heat exchanger where metal is predominantly used to achieve good heat transfer.

  13. Patient doses from x-ray examinations in Sweden - a compilation of the results from the reports from the Swedish health care 1999; Patientdoser fraan roentgenundersoekningar i Sverige - sammanstaellning av resultaten fraan sjukvaardens rapportering 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitz, W.; Joensson, Helene

    2001-01-01

    In early 1999 the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) requested data on patient doses and frequency of x-ray examinations from the 30 licensees with the largest activities. This was comprising five conventional x-ray examinations, mammography and six computed tomography examinations. Patient doses and other relevant data from roughly 400 x-ray stands with an average of 20 patients each were reported. The average of the patient doses was calculated for each x-ray stand and examination type. The average values for the twelve types of examinations varied with a factor up to 15. It must be emphasized that a judgement of x-ray examinations based on one single parameter, the patient dose, is not fair. Low doses may imply poor diagnostic accuracy, high doses may be justified when the patient sample is representing many unusual clinical problems which are leading to more excessive examinations, which might be the case in e. g. university hospitals. Another problem is that the various examination types are not defined unambiguously, meaning that the clinical problem to be solved and hence the extent of the examination may differ between various clinics. Some parameters that are directly influencing the spread in patient dose have been identified, e. g. different sensitivities of the image receptors, different numbers of projections, differences in patient anatomy and different fluoroscopy times. It became obvious that the large dose variations cannot be accounted for by merely medical reasons. This is supported by the response from clinics after being informed that their doses were high. Straight forward countermeasures for dose reduction could be taken as e. g. changing the (insensitive) image receptor, increasing the filtration or modifying the examination methodology. Based on these results SSI will continue with the work of introducing diagnostic reference levels. In addition to numerical values and instructions on how and how often assessments have to be performed examples on good medical practice will be given, a task that will involve also representatives from various medical professions.

  14. Optimization and Technical/Economical Evaluation of Biogas Production from Biosludge from Pulp and Paper Mills; Optimering och teknisk/ekonomisk utvaerdering av biogasproduktion fraan bioslam fraan massa-/pappersbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu-Bin Truong; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Joergen; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2010-04-15

    The biogas potentials from biosludges from six different pulp- and paper mills have been evaluated. It ranged from 100 - 200 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS (volatile solids) for all six mills where five of them gave results between 150 - 200 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS. Long-term semi-continuous trials with biosludges from two of the mills showed stable biogas production throughout the testing period. Pretreatments with enzymes and ultrasound were tested but showed no significant effect on the methane potential. The investment costs for two production plants were calculated. For a small plant using 7 ton biosludge TS/d (total solids per day), producing 305 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 30 MSEK and for a larger plant using 20 ton biosludge TS/d, producing 871 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 51 MSEK (1 USD approx 7 SEK)

  15. Optimering av bergtransporter i underjordsgruva

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Detta examensarbete utfördes på LKAB, en mineralkoncern som tillverkar och levererar järnmalmsprodukter. Arbetet utfördes för företagets underjordsgruva i Malmberget och behandlar tillredningens bergtransporter. Tillredningen är den process som förbereder nya delar av gruvan för järnmalmsbrytning. Målsättningen med arbetet har varit att kartlägga hur transporterna av tillredningsberg styrs samt att kvantifiera en besparingspotential för dessa transporter. Om möjligt skulle även förbättringsfö...

  16. Institusjonelle felt og forståelser av evaluering – en analyse av evalueringen av NAV-reformen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Anne; Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Hansen, Morten Balle

    2016-01-01

    I Norge ble det i årene 2006-2009 gjennomført en omfattende reform med etablering av en ny arbeids- og velferdstjenestene (NAV). Reformen ble gjort til gjenstand for en omfattende evaluering, EVANAV, over flere år. I evalueringens siste fase ble det iverksatt en evaluering av evalueringen av...... interessene som var involvert i evalueringen. I EVANAV ble dette blant annet ivaretatt i formuleringen av fire mål som tilgodeser ulike behov. Basert på evalueringsteori og teori om institusjonelle felt bidrar analysen til en bedre forståelse av hva evaluering er, og hvordan ulike utfordringer knyttet til...

  17. PAH i forurenset sediment: Utredning av egnethet av PAHkomponenter/ grupperinger for vurdering av tiltaksbehov

    OpenAIRE

    Ruus, Anders; Arp, Hans Petter Heinrich; Oen, Amy M.P.; Grung, Merete; Breedveld, Gijs D.

    2015-01-01

    I Norge er det utarbeidet klassegrenser for til sammen 16 PAH-forbindelser i sediment og vann. Grenseverdiene baserer seg på kunnskap om toksisitet av de ulike stoffene og hva som er akseptabel eksponering for miljøet. I tillegg til grenseverdiene for enkeltkomponentene av PAH opererer norske miljømyndigheter med klassegrenser for PAH-grupperingen SUM PAH-16 i sediment. Disse klassegrensene bygger på overkonsentrasjoner i forhold til bakgrunnsnivå, og ikke økotoksikologiske dat...

  18. Bruk av kartleggingsresultater i forbedringsarbeid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Thomas; Hansen, Line Skov

    . Barnehagen har gjerne tilgang på informasjon fra kartlegginger, men det er ikke alltid denne informasjonen blir systematisk analysert og aktivt brukt i forbedringsarbeid. Forfatterne viser hvordan slike analyser kan gjennomføres på forskjellige nivåer i den enkelte barnehage, og vektlegger viktigheten av...

  19. Analyse av klimatilpasningstiltak : en casestudie av overvannsnettet på Bogafjell i Sandnes kommune

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkum, Ina

    2012-01-01

    For å simulere klimaendringenes effekt på avløpssystemet og klimatilpasningstiltakenes avbøtende virkning kan man benyttes seg av urbanhydrologiske avløpsmodeller. I denne oppgaven er det gjennomført et casestudie av overvannsnettet på Bogafjell i Sandnes kommune. Det er gjort simuleringer av enkeltregn i form av symmetriske nedbørshyetogram, med og uten klimatillegg – i Rosie/ArcGIS med MOUSE beregningsmotor – for å teste tiltaksprinsipper som frakopling av overvann, fordrøyning av ...

  20. Transmembrane potentials of canine AV junctional tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, W W

    1986-06-01

    The atrioventricular (AV) junction comprises the AV node, His bundle (HB), and specialized tissues proximal to the node called paranodal fibers (PNF). In the present study, an in vitro, dissection-exposed canine right atrial (RA), transitional fiber (TF), AV junctional preparation was used. The TF and PNF formed a pathway running along the base of the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve (SCTV). In the first experiment, impulses elicited at the RA were monitored to propagate sequentially through the TF, PNF, AV node, and then the HB. This functional evidence supports the concept that a conduction pathway connecting the RA and the AV node exists along the base of the SCTV. This internodal pathway is referred to as the septal cusp pathway. In another experiment, transmembrane potentials and Vmax were determined on each of the AV junctional tissues. Results showed that PNF had the lowest Vmax (2.5 V/sec), followed by AV node (7.0 V/sec) and HB (33 V/sec). This finding showed that PNF, and not the AV node, has the lowest Vmax, suggesting that the PNF has the lowest conductivity among the AV junctional tissues, and this study advances our understanding on the mechanism of AV conduction delay in dog hearts.

  1. Evaluering av ABW-filter

    OpenAIRE

    Ohren, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Det er foretatt en evaluering av ABW-filteret basert på forskningsresultater og driftserfaringer fra USA. ABW-filteret er godt egnet med sand eller sand-antrasitt i konvensjonelle fullrenseanlegg med flokkulering, sedimentering og filtrering. Etter disse prosessene er filteret også egnet med aktivt kull. ABW-filteret er også interessant for etterbehandling i kommunale og industrielle avløpsrenseanlegg.

  2. Multimedia for læring av tallsystemer : utvikling av programvare for læring av og om tallsystemer

    OpenAIRE

    Idland, Terje

    2006-01-01

    Oppgaven har en teoretisk forankring innenfor Piagets konstruktivisme, Vygotskys sosialkonstruktivisme, Dienes teori for læring av posisjonssystemet og Mayer & Morenos teori for læring med multimedia. Primært har jeg brukt eksisterende teori som grunnlag for utvikling av pedagogisk programvare for læring av tallsystemer. Denne programvaren er todelt. En del er en interaktiv applett som er et utforskingsmiljø for posisjonssystemet. Den andre delen er en interaktiv multimediep...

  3. Ny versjon av standarden ISO 15489

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbjørn Andresen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Standarden NS-ISO 15489-1:2016 er gjeldende norsk standard fra 1. juli 2016. Dette er andre versjon av ISO 15489, den første versjonen fra 2001 er ikke lenger gyldig. 2001-utgaven av ISO 15489 besto av to deler. Del 2, SN-ISO/TR 15489-2:2001 er trukket, slik at den nye ISO 15489 kun består av del 1. ISO 15489 var den første internasjonale Records Management-standarden, og har en funksjon som overordnet referansestandard for en voksende portefølje av senere standarder på tilgrensende områder. Denne artikkelen gjennomgår endringene i hovedtrekk, både i standarden ISO 15489 som sådan og i noen av de standardene som bygger videre på den.

  4. Controlling the feedwater flow in a BWR. Examples from Forsmark 2; Regleringen av matarvattenfloedet i en BWR. Med exempel fraan Forsmark 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Bengt-Goeran; Oguma, Ritsuo (GSE Power Systems AB, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    An investigation of the feedwater controller at Forsmark 2 has been performed. The investigation is based on signal analysis of measurement signals recorded during operation of the plant during different tests. The feedwater controller consists of the water level controller, the flow controller and the condenser balance controller. The overall goal of the feedwater control is to maintain constant water level (level controller) in the reactor and at the same time balance the water levels in the two condensers (condenser balance controller) to avoid that one condenser is full of water while the other one is operated with too low level. There is also a feed forward of the difference between steam flow and feedwater flow (flow controller) for each turbine system with the aim to reduce the fluctuation in reactor water level. The relation in strength between the three controllers is such that the level controller is the strongest followed by the condenser balance controller and finally the flow controller. Tests with trip of the feedwater pump and automatic start of the spare pump in each turbine system indicates a fast reduction in reactor water level that is restored after the transient in the control system. The transient in water level is stable without oscillations. However, it takes about 100 s before the reactor water level is restored. The function of the flow controller has been questioned by the authors. It does not take the action that is expected when a disturbance takes place in the difference between steam and feedwater flow. In addition to this principal weakness there is an offset in the feedwater controller output for feedwater flow 22 that reduces the contribution in flow control that is expected during the introduction of a disturbance. This offset should be adjusted during instrument maintenance of the feedwater controller. The PIP parameters for the level controller are gain factors and time constants. These have been evaluated with the aid of process identification of recorded input and output signals to the controller. The calculated gain factor and time constants agree very well with expected values. Corresponding identifications have also been performed for the condenser balance controller parameters. The results indicate that it is only the short time constant that agree with the expected values for the PIP controller. The other parameters deviate from the expected values. The reason for the discrepancies is unclear. Process identification of the instrument component for the majority signal of the four reactor water signals has been performed. These calculations indicate realistic results for the response time and gain factor of the component

  5. Outlet of products of biological treatment- what will be the future problems and opportunities?; Avsaettning av energiprodukter fraan biologisk behandling - vilka fraagestaellningar kommer att bli aktuella?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, Hanna

    2010-01-15

    Biological treatment and related products is a topical subject, which increases year after year, not only in Sweden but all over the world. In this phase of expansion, it is interesting to find out what subjects could become relevant for products from this treatment method in the future. The following products are incorporated in the concept 'energy products' from biological treatment: sludge from sewage treatment plants, digestate from waste digestion plants, biogas, ethanol, and products from biorefinery. Questions regarding the process of these products are not included in this project. The purpose is to bring forward a catalogue of ideas of current and future topics in the field of biological treatment. The goal is to identify development projects which could be of interest for upcoming programs at Waste Refinery. Issues and project proposals for each product have been identified by the writer's network, and in discussions tabled at a workshop arranged by Waste Refinery in the autumn of 2009. At the present time, almost all digestate is sold, but there are problems. Though the plants have found an outlet for their products, they do not receive adequate return on them. Moreover, a lot of water is being transported. Many stakeholders within Waste Refinery, as well as external stakeholders, have requested a project on refining of digestate. Other topical issues regarding digestate are how new, non-food substrates and additives affect the quality of the digestate. Sewage treatment plants have to pay large amounts of money for the disposal of sludge. If Waste Refinery can include sewage sludge in their range of work, there will be several synergies between sludge and digestate. Matters, that need to be solved in the near future, are how to best achieve hygienisation of sewage sludge in order to guarantee salmonella-free sludge. As for biogas, the demand will be determined by factors such as the access of raw material, whether it becomes a vehicle fuel to count on in the future, taxes and means of control (i.e. environmental objectives). Concrete project proposals regarding the gas composition and measurement of raw gas, as well as the minimization of emissions have been received. There are also many questions regarding the distribution of biogas. As for ethanol, the questions primarily regard the process and new substrates identified in interesting fields. Such matters and project ideas have, however, not been considered, as this report is intended to identify questions about the products. Contact with various ethanol producers and researchers has shown that there is, as it seems, no need for further development of ethanol as a product. Waste Refinery has already touched the subject of biorefinery in the WR 20 project, refinement of digestion residue. No project proposals have been identified for products from biorefinery, either by the writer's network or during the workshop. One proposal is to do a more thorough study of biorefinery under the management of Waste Refinery

  6. Harvest and logistics for better profitability from small cultivations of Short Rotation Willow Coppice; Skoerdeteknik och logistik foer baettre loensamhet fraan smaa odlingar av Salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Forsberg, Maya; Rosenqvist, Haakan; Jonsson, Nils; Sundberg, Martin

    2010-06-15

    In Sweden, the political desire to increase the amount of short rotation willow coppice (Salix) plantations has been expressed. However, for various reasons interest from farmers has been low. The hypothesis of this study is that the total area of Salix cultivation can be increased by also cultivating fields smaller than those generally considered economic today. In order to lower production costs, machine systems adapted for harvest of smaller fields are required. The possibility of using farmers' existing tractors and more convenient machines, as well as achieving lower machine costs for smaller fields, may increase farmers' interest. The long-term objective is to achieve large-scale deliveries of willow with small-scale solutions at farm level, as an option and complement to today's more large-scale systems for harvesting willow. Costs, energy use and climatic impact (CO{sub 2} emissions) for two harvest and logistical chains suitable for small fields have been calculated from field to energy plant, and methods for minimizing these costs have been analyzed. Comparison is made with the direct chipping system, the most commonly used in Sweden today. The systems studied comprised: 1. Direct bundling harvest system with a tractor-towed harvester, collection of bundles in the field with a trailer-mounted crane, and storage in a pile before delivery. Chipping is performed at the energy plant. 2. Direct billeting with a tractor-towed harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and trailer for collection, and storage in a pile before delivery. 3. Direct chipping with a self-propelled modified forage harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and container for collection, and direct delivery to plant. Both the billet and bundle systems show higher costs than the direct chipping system, irrespective of field size. The analysis of different scenarios and conditions shows possibilities of lowering the costs through certain measures. Furthermore, the billets and bundles can be stored for longer periods at field's edge, unlike chips, which facilitates increased security of supply according to the needs of energy plants. This can motivate a higher payment from the plant. The drying process taking place during storage, delivers a dryer fuel, which may give added value for some customers. Hence, the choice of machine system seems to be more dependent on whether the product needs to be stored or not, rather than on field size. In addition, there are other possible advantages with the two systems that should be taken into account when comparing with the currently-used direct chipping system, such as the possibility of increased rural employment or characteristics that suit smaller fields better. An example of the latter is the fact that harvest and delivery does not need to take place at the same time, i.e. extra costs for disruptions in harvest or delivery are avoided. The most important measure for reducing total system costs for the studied billet system is to increase the harvesters' capacity. For the studied bundle system costs for field- and road transport need to be reduced. These costs can be reduced by using a more efficient system for collection of bundles in the field and by utilizing a lorry's load capacity better during transport to the plant. One way of increasing utilisation of the load capacity is to increase the density of the bundles. However this requires a new or modified construction of the harvesting machine and more knowledge of how the drying process of the bundles is affected by this

  7. Evaluation of Co-Digestion of Biosludge from Pulp and Paper Mills; Utvaerdering av samroetningspotential foer bioslam fraan massa-/pappersbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Andreas; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Joergen; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2011-02-15

    The biogas potentials from 2 biosludges from the pulp- and paper industry and 10 possible co-digestion substrates have been evaluated. 6 combinations, each including two co-digestion substrates and one biosludge, were evaluated in lab scale biogas reactors. Stable biogas processes were obtained with all combinations and the rawgas potential was higher in the co-digestion processes then for the biosludges alone (0.31- 0.43 compared to 0.21- 0.22 NL/g VS) The investment costs for two production plants were calculated. For a plant using 7 ton biosludge TS/d (total solids per day), co-digested with evaporation condensate (3 m3/d) and fibre sludge (3 ton/d) and thereby producing 850 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 43 MSEK excluding ground works. For a larger plant using 20 ton biosludge TS/d, co-digested with food waste (8 ton/d) and cereal residues (12 ton/d) and producing 2 500 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr, the investment cost was estimated to 51 MSEK excluding ground works

  8. Firing of dried sludge from the pulp and paper industry in a pellet burner; Foerbraenning av torkat slam fraan skogsindustrin i pelletbraennare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstad Svaerd, S. [SEP Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eskilsson, David [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    Different types of sludge containing organic material are produced within the pulp and paper industry (fibre sludge, sludge from production of recycled fibres, de-inking sludge, chemical sludge, bio sludge etc). The newly introduced tax on waste deposition, 250 SEK/tonne wet material, has together with the coming law against disposal of different organic material raised the interest for minimising the sludge deposition. The moisture content of the sludge depends on the type of sludge and type of dewatering equipment used. The moisture content is however normally so high that a main part of the theoretical energy content is used for evaporating the water in the sludge. The sludge is successfully destroyed and the amount of sludge being disposed is reduced but there is very little net energy contribution from the sludge firing. An increased dry substance content would considerable reduce handling problems and problems connected with combustion of wet sludge. The energy yield would also increase and instead of destroying a wet waste material useful energy would be generated. One alternative for reducing the problems with wet sludge would therefore be to dry it to a suitable moisture content and then fire the dried sludge in a grate boiler, a fluidized bed boiler, a pulverised fuel boiler or in a pellet burner. In this project the alternative to dry the sludge and produce pellets with a moisture content of about 10 % is covered. The costs for upgrading wet sludge to dry pellets have been estimated in the report. Laboratory studies have also been carried with two different sludge samples to have a first indication of the results from firing sludge pellets in a pellet burner. The results from the project together with experiences from an earlier Vaermeforsk project shows that every sludge in principal is unique meaning that the composition depends on the production situation at the different specific plants. The ash content as well as the ash composition and the moisture content going into the sludge dryer varies from case to case. If one however looks at sludge from a more general point of view one will find that the ash and moisture free substance has more or less the same elementary composition, and thereby also effective heat value, as wood pellets. The experiences from the two sludge samples tested in the project showed that there were difficulties when trying to fire only sludge in the pellet burner. The difficulties were connected to the high ash content and for one of the sludge samples also to the low sinter temperature. Good combustion conditions could however be maintained when firing 10-20 % sludge pellets together with wood pellets. Higher nitrogen and sulphur content compared to wood resulted in increased emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} for both of the sludge samples. A reasonable mixture between sludge and wood pellets based on these emission levels will be about 5 to 10 % if no flue gas cleaning is used. More sludge would mean that flue gas cleaning would be necessary both regarding to SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} . Dried sludge should regarded as a very good fuel but one has to be prepared to handle: More ash; Risk for sinter problems; Risk for increased emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} (and possibly HCl)

  9. Biofuels from the forest. A study of environmental impacts and economy of different uses; Biobraensle fraan skogen. En studie av miljoekonsekvenser och ekonomi foer olika anvaendningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Amnell, Goesta; Anheden, Marie; Eidensten, Lars; Kirkegaard, Gunilla [Vattenfall Utveckling AB (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The energy and environmental council of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences initiated this study of how an additional 30 TWh/year of forest biofuel could be used in the Swedish energy system within a 10-year period. The specifications include that the forest biofuel shall be used in such a manner that the greatest possible reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will be achieved at the lowest cost without risking other environmental goals, such as good quality of local air. The figure chosen as starting point for the study, 30 TWh/year, was selected as it is this amount that available data have suggested could be extracted without negatively affecting the long-term productive capacity of forest land. The long-term potential of biofuel will probably be much larger than the volume used today, together with the additional use of 30 TWh/yr. We therefore studied fields of use that, totally, will be considerably larger than 30 TWh/yr. The starting point for comparisons of different uses for forest biofuel was the available benefit/utility for industrial, transportation and service sectors, together with domestic uses. The reference alternative was the existing uses of fossil fuels. Comparisons of different alternatives were made including differences in fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} emissions, emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust, as well as costs without environmental and energy taxes or subsidies. Monetary estimations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust in accordance with the EU ExternE Project were included in the costs. In our study, we have used two scenarios as starting points in order to cover the range of results. Summary of results: The largest reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions (generally about 0.6-1 Mtonnes CO{sub 2} /TWh forest biofuel and for heat pumps slightly more than 2 Mtonnes CO{sub 2}/TWh forest fuel) at the lowest cost are obtained when bioenergy replaces electricity produced by coal fired condensing power stations in neighbouring countries. In some of these cases, bioenergy would not imply any additional cost in comparison with the use of electricity produced by coal condensing plants. In most other cases the estimated additional costs will not be higher than about 60 SEK/tonne reduced CO{sub 2} emissions (up to 90 SEK/MWh electricity). If bioenergy in cases with additional costs is to replace electricity from coal condensing plants it is necessary to place a price on the CO{sub 2} emissions by coal power stations and/or submit them to carbon dioxide taxation. This is not the case today. Pellet boilers in multi-family houses can utilise considerable amounts of forest biofuel and provide heating at lower costs than electric boilers. District heating and cogeneration of power and district heating can also utilise large volumes of forest biofuel (up to 20 TWh resulting in more than 12 Mtonnes/year reduced CO{sub 2} emissions) at low added costs (about 60 SEK/tonne reduced CO{sub 2} emissions corresponding to 20-40 SEK/MWh district heating) in comparison with fossil alternatives. Emissions of other air pollutants can then more easily be minimised and will occur further from built-up areas. The amount of electricity that can be produced from forest biofuel at these low added costs in comparison with fossil alternatives is restricted by the level of district-heating production. Today the power transmission systems permit only limited exports of electrical power, and consequently important reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at low cost if electricity from biofuel-fired cogeneration plants, that cannot be exported, is used by new heat pumps in villas. This would also give lower emissions of other air pollutants in urban areas than if pellets or oil were used to fire the villa boilers. Heat pumps and pellet boilers will be the most favourable forest biofuel based heating alternative for villas heated by water radiators. Heat pumps give greater reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions at lower cost provided they can be assumed to be powered by electricity obtained from a fo

  10. Reduction of NO{sub x} from a pellet burner - a parametric study; Reduktion av NOx fraan en pelletsbraennare - en parameterstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskilsson, David; Roennbaeck, Marie; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Leckner, Bo [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

    2000-05-01

    NO{sub x} emissions from small-scale combustion of pellets derive mainly from the fuel nitrogen. A conversion from combustion of oil to pellets will probably lead to increasing NO{sub x}-emissions. Today, pellets are produced mainly from sawdust and wood shavings which consist of pure wood with a low nitrogen content. The expected increase in pellet utilisation will probably lead to that other raw materials with higher nitrogen content will be used. This means that NOx-emissions from small-scale BAKE combustion of pellets can increase dramatically if not 'low-NO{sub x} burners' are developed. This report can be used as a support in the development of new design and automatic control strategies for pellet burners. NH{sub 3} and HCN dominate the nitrogen compounds in the volatiles leaving the pellet during the devolatilisation. The fuel properties, the residence time and the devolatilisation conditions affect the ratio between these two compounds. The transformation of NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} takes place through a short and relatively uncomplicated reaction path while the reduction of HCN has a much more complex reaction path with a slower chemical kinetics which leads to longer reaction times. The optimal stoichiometry depends on the residence time, mixing and the composition of the devolatilisation gas in the primary zone. The objective with this study has been to, with a modified pellet burner, minimise NOx in practical experiments with a small literature study as background. In the experiments reported in this project, the performance of a modified pellet burner and the emissions have been studied while the ratio between primary- and secondary air and the addition of primary air have been varied. During the experiments, the air flow, the different emissions, the boiler effect and the temperature in the burner have been measured continuously. A few parameters have been identified as crucial for the NO{sub x}-emissions: Addition of primary air: The primary air must be fed through the fuel bed in such a way that no oxygen rich zones will develop in the primary zone. In the experiments, the NO{sub x}-emissions have varied from 430 to 310 mg NO{sub 2}/n m3 (in 10% O{sub 2}) depending on if the primary air have been fed above or through the fuel bed. Stoichiometry in the primary zone: The combustion in the primary zone must be carried out under sub-stoichiometric conditions and {lambda} must be held between 0.4 and 0.8. In the experiments a difference of 100 mg NO{sub 2}/ nm{sup 3} (10% O{sub 2}) has been measured between sub- and over stoichiometric combustion conditions. Total stoichiometry: By maintaining the total stoichiometry at a certain value (O{sub 2} concentration), for instance with {lambda}-control, the NO{sub x} emissions could be minimised while the emissions of OGC can be controlled to acceptable levels. In the experiments, the effect on the combustion have been studied for certain X-values. Residence time: The chemical kinetics for NO{sub x} reduction can be a limiting parameter. As a consequence, the residence time must be sufficiently long to obtain a significant reduction. The load influences the residence time in such a way that a high load results in a shorter residence time and a higher NO{sub x} emission. In this study, the residence time has probably been the limiting parameter since the primary zone volume has been too small and sufficiently long residence times could not be accomplished. In experiments with flue gas recirculation, the importance of the residence time was further demonstrated since the flue gas recirculation led to increased NO{sub x} emissions. It should be noted that in the experiments with the modified pellet burner, the emissions of hydrocarbons have been very low. Generally in the literature, the NO{sub x} emissions are found to increase as the emissions of hydrocarbons and CO decrease. Therefore, the challenge is to minimise the NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining low emissions of unburnt.

  11. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass - A techno-economic study of pretreatment with NMMO; Biogas fraan lignocellulosa - Tekno-ekonomisk utvaerdering av foerbehandling med NMMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Berglund Odhner, Peter; Teghammar, Anna; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam, Olsson, Marcus; Ascue, Johnny

    2013-09-01

    Biogas has been identified as one of the most cost-effective renewable fuels. In order to increase biogas production, yields from traditionally substrates either need to be improved or other alternative substrates must be made available for anaerobic digestion. Cellulose and lignocellulose rich wastes are available in large amounts and have great potential to be utilized for biogas production. This project focused on the optimization of the pretreatment conditions when using the organic solvent N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) to enhance the methane yield from forest residues and straw. It also focused on a techno-economic evaluation of this pre-treatment technology. NMMO has previously been shown to be effective in dissolving cellulose and, as a consequence, in increasing the methane yield during the subsequent digestion. The goal of this project was to develop a technology that increases energy production from domestic substrates in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way. The treatment works well at lower temperatures (9 C), which means that water from the district heating system can advantageously be used in the treatment. The results showed that treatment with NMMO at 90 deg C doubles the methane yield from forest residues and increases the methane yield from straw by 50 %. For the techno-economic evaluation, the base case was assumed to be a facility with a capacity of 100 000 tones forest residues/year. After a washing and filtration step, the treated material will be utilized in a co-digestion process where 33 % of the incoming material consists of forest residues and the rest is source-sorted household waste. The scale-up, process design, simulation and calculations were made using the software tool Intelligent SuperPro Design. The total investment costs were calculated to be about 145 million, when forest residues or straw are to be used as raw material. Costs for operation (i.e. raw materials, energy, waste management, maintenance and personnel costs) were set against the incomes from the products (i.e. methane, carbon dioxide and the lignin-rich digested residue) to see if the process was profitable. The internal return rate (IRR), a parameter that indicates whether a process is profitable or not, indicated that evaluated processes with capacities over 50 000 tons forest residues/year are profitable. However, co-digestion of forest residues with sewage sludge instead of household waste was not profitable. Both the laboratory results and the energy and economic calculations showed that the washing and filtration step is critical for the proposed process. The energy balance calculation resulted in an EROI value of 0.5, which means that the produced methane from forest residues counted up only the half of the energy needed for the treatment as well as NMMO separation and recycling. It is important to separate the NMMO well after the treatment, since remaining NMMO at concentrations higher than 0.002 % were found to inhibit the subsequent digestion step. Also it was showed out to be important that the washing step operates with small amounts of water to save energy within the NMMO recovery. A rotary vacuum filtration is therefore recommended for the washing and filtration step, and a mechanical vapor design is recommended for the evaporation, saving up to 70 - 90 % energy compared to a conventional design. Treatment of straw with recycled instead of fresh NMMO has also been tested and equal amounts of methane were obtained. After a well-functioning washing and filtration step, NMMO could not be detected in the di gestate residue.

  12. Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content; Metodutveckling foer indirekt bestaemning av PAH-halt utgaaende fraan maett momentan CO-halt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingman, Rolf; Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult Stockholm AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the project 'Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content' is to investigate the possibility to develop a method for continuous optimisation of NO{sub x}-emissions by decreased air ratio, without significant increase of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as PAH. The general idea has been to find a indirect online method to predict the emissions of heavier hydrocarbons by: - creating a correlation between the content of CO and PAH, - controlling the air ratio by the CO-content, and - integrating the calculated PAH-content from CO-content. Today many boilers are operated with a low air ratio to minimise the NO{sub x} content and the NO{sub x}-fee. A low ratio increases the risk of high CO contents in the flue gas as well as increased contents of VOC and PAH. Other boilers are operated with high air ratios in order to minimise the CO content, which in some cases will result in unnecessary high NO{sub x} emissions. One of the main difficulties in optimising the air ratio to the most environmental friendly level is the lack of a suitable and well proven PAH instrument. There are today no available instruments for instantaneous and continuous measurement of PAH. PAH is normally measured as an average value during a period of at least one hour. It is not possible to detect short peaks. The development of the CO-method has been based on data from a CFB-boiler in Korsta in Sundsvall (Vaermeforskrapport 541). The data shows a clear correlation between THC and CO. The correlation seems to be mostly dependent of moisture content and load. The development presented in the report shows that it is possible to find a method to predict the PAH content from the CO-content in the flue gas. The next phase aims to improve and implement the method, by measurements and adaptation in a plant. The practical use of the method is as a tool to optimise the emission of CO, NO{sub x}, THC and PAH and/or to predict the PAH-emission during continuous operation.

  13. Weight reduction, energy loss and gaseous emissions for different collection systems for food waste from households; Viktreducering, energifoerlust och gasemissioner vid olika insamlingssystem av matavfall fraan hushaall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternald, Olle (and others)

    2010-09-15

    This project investigates the weight reduction of biodegradable household waste for different types of collections systems. The report is based on empirical experiments simulating the path taken by biodegradable waste through the different systems, from kitchen to final treatment. Data from the empirical experiments have been coordinated with existing data covering the quantities of bio waste collection received by final treatment facilities. This project has resulted in updated data, which reflects the quantities of the biodegradable waste generated at household level. Through this data, it has been possible to calculate the effectiveness of the different systems for collecting biodegradable waste, including their effectiveness as a source for biogas and soil conditioner. The results regarding waste weight reduction show that systems that use paper bags give a substantial weight reduction in both the kitchen (12%) as well as in the garbage disposal container, resulting in an average total weight reduction of 27%. For the bio-plastic bag, there is a small, measurable weight reduction of 7% in the kitchen. One-family household containers also show a reduction but for multiple households contains (typically used for apartment blocks) the reduction was much smaller. The average total weight reduction for bio-plastic systems was 10%. The corresponding value for total weight reduction for plastic bags in an optical system was 2%-4%, with an average of 2%. The largest share of the reduction consists of water, but some carbon is also emitted. Another conclusion of the report it that a larger share of the biodegradable waste generated by the Swedish households is collected than previously assumed. The data for generated (collected) biodegradable waste material shows higher levels and larger differences between the different collection systems than the data for the received (weighted) material at the treatment facilities. The data shows the effectiveness of each system and is significant for the biogas extraction levels and soil conditioner qualities. It is desirable that a large share of the biodegradable household waste is collected, both from an environmental perspective as well as in order to meet the Swedish national targets for biodegradable waste collection. Correlating existing data with data from the empirical experiments shows that 185 kg of biodegradable waste is collected from households using a paper bag-based system and 122 kg from household using a plastic bag-based system. This is equivalent to a 50% higher collection level for paper bag systems compared with plastic bag systems. The equivalent amount of bio waste is reduced in the combustible waste. Based on these numbers, the paper bag based systems offers 39% more methane per connected household than an optical plastic bag based system. Per kilogram incoming wet material, the there is a 23% methane advantage for the paper-based system. However, there is no significant difference in methane content per collected amount of bio waste between the methods. The data sample for bioplastic bags is too small in order to be included in the comparison. The carbon dioxide emissions show that a decomposition process of biodegradable waste is occurring in all types of collection systems. The nitrous oxide emissions are most likely negligible from an environmental perspective, although the results are not statistically verified. No measurable emission levels of methane can be detected, which is very encouraging from an environmental perspective

  14. System analyse cellulose ethanol in combines - Combustion characterisation of lignin from cellulose based ethanol production; Systemanalys foer cellulosabaserad etanol i kombinat - Foerbraenningskarakterisering av lignin fraan cellulosabaserad etanolproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstedt, Jan; Wingren, Anders; Magnusson, Staffan; Wiinikka, Henrik; Westbom, Urban; Lidman, Marcus; Groenberg, Carola

    2012-02-15

    In this work 3 different hydrolysed lignin fractions produced from Sugarcane Bagasse, Spruce and Wheat Straw were burned in a 150 kW horizontal furnace equipped with a powder burner to assess the combustion behaviour of hydrolysed lignin fuels. The combustion experiments showed that the feeding properties of all three lignin fractions were better compared to ordinary wood powder

  15. Sensors for control and minimization of emissions from small scale bio fuel combustion - preliminary study; Sensorer foer styrning och minimering av emissioner fraan smaaskalig biobraenslefoerbraenning - foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskilsson, David; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    The objectives with this study was to survey various types of sensors for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons that could be used for development of operation and control strategies in small-scale biomass combustion, and to identify and purchase a suitable sensor for testing of its performance in comparison with conventional gas analysers in tests with a small-scale biomass combustion device. In the initial phase of the project, a comprehensive literature study was carried out. In addition, contacts were taken with research groups, manufacturers, users and retailers of sensor equipment. The development of sensors for exhaust gas measurements is intensive, although it is often directed towards measurements and engine control in the enormous market of the automotive industry. However, sensors developed for engines can for instance also be used for flue gas measurements in small-scale biomass combustion. The large market will make sure that a commercial sensor will have a competitive price as it will be produced in large series. Many of the commercial sensors on the market is based on semi-conducting tin oxide (SnO{sub 2})- In recent years, new sensors based on other semi-conducting materials have been developed. One of these sensors is based on gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) which consequently can be used to monitor the concentration of unburnt (carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons) in the flue gas. This sensor fulfils many of the requirements on a sensor to be used in small-scale biomass combustion. These requirements include: The surface of the sensor can be heated to 900 deg C; The sensor signal is nonsensitive to variations in moisture content; A stable signal is obtained also in absence of oxygen; A relatively low price. In the trials at SP, the signal from a Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sensor and a oxygen sensor was measured as they were exposed to flue gases from a pellet burner. Simultaneously, the gas concentrations were monitored using conventional gas analysers. The air supply was varied to obtain different levels of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and oxygen. By decreasing the air supply to low enough values, the flue gases from low efficiency wood combustion could be simulated. The results show that the signal from the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sensor closely follows the concentration of unburnt (mainly carbon monoxide) in the flue gases. There is a linear correlation between the sensor signal and the measured CO concentration, although the sensor signal is slightly dependent on the oxygen concentration in the flue gases. The sensor gives a clear and fast response as the combustion conditions change from complete combustion with low CO emissions to incomplete combustion with high CO concentrations. Consequently, there are large possibilities to use the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} sensor in a control system together with an oxygen sensor in order to control the optimal excess air ratio in a small-scale combustion device. This control system will be able to compensate for changes in combustion conditions and fuel quality at the same time as the emissions are minimised at a still high combustion efficiency. However, further work are necessary to study the sensor response at different concentrations of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and oxygen. In addition, studies of the long term stability are required.

  16. Waste treatment in a systems perspective - Summary report -; Systemstudie Avfall - Sammanfattning - Sammanfattning av huvudresultat fraan projektet 'Termisk och biologisk avfallsbehandling i ett systemperspektiv'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Johan; Bisaillon, Mattias; Haraldsson, Maarten; Norrman Eriksson, Ola; Sahlin, Jenny; Nilsson, Karolina

    2010-07-01

    The report 'Waste treatment in a systems perspective - Summary report' summarizes the main results from the studies made within the research project 'Thermal and biological treatment in a systems perspective'. The aim of the project is to develop tools and methodologies for systems analysis of waste management. The tools are used to evaluate waste treatment technologies for both household waste and commercial waste in a systems perspective. The focus is set to the municipal/regional waste and district heating system. However, to generate a full system analysis it is also important to consider effects that occur in the systems environment, such as the transport sector, the electricity production system, the agricultural sector etc. The report describes the benefits of using systems models for waste management planning by illustrating interesting results from the case studies made within the framework of the project. The report also presents the outcome from the whole project on an aggregated level as well as how the results and models have been used in different spin off projects. More thorough descriptions of models, methodologies and results are given in the reports for the two case studies, mainly. These reports presents two different case studies for municipal/regional waste management systems and are published by Waste Refinery, 'A systems study of the waste management system in Gothenburg' and 'A systems study of the waste management system in Boraas'. The models and methodology developed in the research project has been used in several 'spin-off projects'. Some of the main results of these studies will be presented in this report, together with references to more extensive descriptions. We can conclude, after these three years of research, that the results from the system studies have been used for the practical waste management planning in both Boraas and Gothenburg. The models and the results from the two case studies have also been used by other waste management systems in Sweden as well as for national waste management studies. The project has been presented internationally for researchers and practitioners where it has contributed with modelling knowledge and results presenting the effectiveness of integrated waste management combined with district heating systems. The results concerning options for reducing greenhouse gases have also reached the political arena in the EU, e.g. through ISWA to the Copenhagen meeting (COP15)

  17. Water Activities in Forsmark (Part I). Removal of groundwater from final repository for spent fuel; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark (del I). Bortledande av grundvatten fraan slutfoervarsanlaeggningen foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec (Sweden)); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The construction, operation and decommissioning of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark are associated with a number of measures that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code. This report is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and describes water operations in the form of groundwater diversion from the repository (the report is also included in the permit application according to the Nuclear Activities Act). The main objective of the report is to describe hydrogeological and hydrological effects and the consequences that may arise in the surroundings of the repository due to the groundwater diversion. Moreover, the report presents prevention measures to reduce the effects of the groundwater diversion and mitigation measures that aim at its consequences

  18. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The remaining 76% is probably to be found in the silicate matrix. Through multivariate calculations (PCA and MLR) and geochemical calculations (PHREEQC) aluminium and sulphate have been identified as being important for antimony leaching from the ashes. It is thus likely that ettringite governs antimony leachability at alkaline pH. When ettringite is solubilized the leachability of antimony will be dependent on the presence of effective sorbents. To decrease the leachability of antimony from the ashes addition of sulphate solution to the ashes is suggested, to increase the stability of ettringite at alkaline pH. Below the pH-range where ettringite is stable addition of manganese solution would give a new effective sorbent for antimony in solution. It was also noted that all fly ashes with addition of activated carbon did not exceed any guide lines for antimony leaching.

  19. Environmental effects of large discharges of cooling water. Experiences from Swedish nuclear power plants; Miljoeeffekter av stora kylvattenutslaepp. Erfarenheter fraan de svenska kaernkraftverken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlin, Ulf; Lindahl, Sture; Neuman, Erik; Sandstroem, Olof; Svensson, Jonny

    2009-07-15

    Monitoring the environmental effects of cooling water intake and discharge from Swedish nuclear power stations started at the beginning of the 1960s and continues to this day. In parallel with long-term monitoring, research has provided new knowledge and methods to optimise possible discharge locations and design, and given the ability to forecast their environmental effects. Investigations into the environmental effects of cooling-water are a prerequisite for the issuing of power station operating permits by the environmental authorities. Research projects have been carried out by scientists at universities, while the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the Swedish Board of Fisheries, and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, are responsible for the greater part of the investigations as well as of the research work. The four nuclear power plants dealt with in this report are Oskarshamn, Ringhals, Barsebaeck and Forsmark. They were taken into operation in 1972, 1975, 1975 and 1980 resp. - a total of 12 reactors. After the closure of the Barsebaeck plants in 2005, ten reactors remain in service. The maximum cooling water discharge from the respective stations was 115, 165, 50 and 135 m3/s, which is comparable to the mean flow of an average Swedish river - c:a 150 m3/s. The report summarizes studies into the consequences of cooling water intake and discharge. Radiological investigations made at the plants are not covered by this review. The strategy for the investigations was elaborated already at the beginning of the 1960s. The investigations were divided into pre-studies, baseline investigations and monitoring of effects. Pre-studies were partly to gather information for the technical planning and design of cooling water intake and outlet constructions, and partly to survey the hydrographic and ecological situation in the area. Baseline investigations were to carefully map the hydrography and ecology in the area and their natural variations caused by changing weather and climate. When cooling water discharges began, the monitoring of effects started, mapping environmental impacts. To ensure that observed environmental changes were caused by cooling water discharges and not by natural variations, parallel measurements were carried out in undisturbed reference areas. The focus of the biological investigations has been directed towards fish using test fishing and daily records of commercial fishing. Age distributions, reproduction, growth, and the prevalence of disease and parasites have been analysed. Fish movements and behaviour related to cooling-water were mapped using mark-recapture experiments. The monitoring of effects included mapping the shape and size of the cooling-water plume and the temperature distribution in the discharge area. For certain biological variables, such as the movement of fish in relation to the cooling water plume, great efforts were made during the first years of power plant operation. In conjunction with the start of the plants, studies were also initiated to estimate the loss of fish on the cooling-water intake screens. Meteorological research projects investigated among other things, the risks for increased fog formation due to the discharge of warm water, while hydrography projects mainly concerned the development of methods for calculating the size and form of the cooling water plumes. Ecological studies were directed to the effects of increasing temperature on the production and degradation of biological material, on the benthic fauna responses, on the risk of fish parasite and disease outbreaks as well as on the combined effects of toxic substances and heat. The possibility of using cooling-water to improve fish recruitment was also studied. In conjunction with the construction of the Forsmark nuclear power plant, an artificial enclosure was made using rock excavated from the cooling water tunnels. Cooling water is led through this basin before discharge into the open 'Oeregrundsgrepen'. This 'Biotest basin' is an important instrument for the environmental monitoring at the plant and was for many years a central facility for Nordic research on the ecological effects of cooling water

  20. Reindeer and Wind Power - Study from the installation of two wind farms in Mala sameby; Renar och Vindkraft - Studie fraan anlaeggningen av tvaa vindkraftparker i Malaa sameby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarin, Anna; Nellemann, Christian; Sandstroem, Per; Roennegaard, Lars; Lundqvist, Henrik

    2013-05-15

    In the track of ever-expanding new infrastructure, such as wind power, roads and power lines, it becomes increasingly important to map and understand how free-ranging animals and wildlife respond. During the past decades, human - rangifer interactions have been assessed in over a hundred studies, with a strong bias on wild reindeer and caribou, although more recently also studies on domesticated reindeer in Norway, Finland, Sweden and Russia have been done with similar results. To clarify further the possible responses of domesticated reindeer to various disturbance sources, a review was made of over 15 existing disturbance studies of domesticated reindeer, we also discuss the effect of domestication on reindeer. The review shows the same pattern of avoidance in domesticated reindeer as for wild reindeer and caribou despite the domestication process. Sami reindeer husbandry today is an extensive form of pastoralism, which has led to a low degree of tameness among the reindeer. Domesticated reindeer can avoid infrastructure and human activity up to 12 km from the disturbance source and the avoided distance may shift between seasons and years and type of disturbance source, as well as diminish during periods of extreme starvation or insect harassment, similar to observation in wild reindeer and caribou. To get an overall picture of how the reindeer use their grazing land, it is therefore important to study large-scale and long-term habitat use of the reindeer whether they are domesticated or not. In this report, we want to share new information on how existing infrastructure such as roads and power lines in the landscape and construction phase of a new infrastructure for a wind farm affects the free roaming of the reindeer in a summer grazing area in a managed forest in northern Sweden.

  1. Survey of creep damage in a T-joint from a retired steam pipe system; Kartlaeggning av krypskador i ett T-stycke fraan ett utrangerat aangnaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan

    2009-06-15

    Unexpected failures and cracking have recently occurred in steam piping by creep although the service temperatures have been significantly below the limit temperature for creep rupture. Characterisation of such damage, mapping of the presence in Swedish plants and better knowledge of the presumptions for the phenomenon have been received in previous Vaermeforsk projects. A steam pipe system that never had been inspected or tested with respect to creep was replica tested at a number of test positions. The steam data was 450 deg C and 65 bars and the age was 35 years of almost continuous operation. Extensive creep damage was found in one T-joint. This component was the object of interest in the present project. Metallographic investigations were carried out by cutting the T-joint into sections for through thickness examinations of possible creep damage as well as characterisation of the microstructure. Ten sections were selected at different positions of four welds that the T-joint covered. In addition to the characterisation by means of creep damage and possible microstructure degradation or other anomalies the purpose of the investigation was to find out if the replica testing was a conservative method or not. Other expectations on the project were to gain additional knowledge of the creep phenomena's below the limit temperature and a verification of the computation models for crack propagation that were used in the previous Vaermeforsk projects in the area. Nine chemical analyses were performed on all different parent and weld metals of the T-joints. Most analyses resulted in a composition close to the nominal one, that is 13CrMo4-4 steel, the most frequently used heat resistant steel in steam piping for steam temperatures around the limit temperature in Sweden. The parent metal in which the creep cracks were found, however, had a composition that corresponds to 0,5Cr0,6Mo0,3V steel, a low alloy steel that is liable to cracking. Furthermore the branch part of the T-joint and the weld metal connecting this part to the pipe part of the T-joint were fabricated of 10CrMo9-10, a heat resistant steel frequently used in the creep range. The conclusions from the investigation are: The cracks were formed in the HAZ. The largest crack was 100 mm long and 3.25 mm deep. The wall thickness was 18 mm at the crack positions. All metallographic examinations were performed both with mechanical and electrolytic polishing. The weld cross sections showed that the cracks were surrounded by plenty of creep cavities, particularly at the crack tips. The creep cracks were situated at the weld between the T-joint and a valve, more exactly in the HAZ of the valve material. Chemical analysis showed that the valve was fabricated of a V-containing steel corresponding to 0,5Cr0,6Mo0,3V steel, whereas the nominal material in the pipeline was 13CrMo4-4 steel. Contributions to the crack formation were analysed. Significant system stresses may be estimated as less likely but can not be excluded. Computation of the geometry at the crack positions resulted in no stress concentrations. Therefore, there are reasons to believe that defects have initiated in service crack propagation. This is also indicated by comparisons to creep crack propagations computations in a foregoing Vaermeforsk project. The metallographical investigations indicated that a small part of the largest crack did not look like a creep crack. It could be a hydrogen crack. 0,5Cr0,6Mo0,3V steel is liable to reheat cracking that may appear at post weld heat treatment. Such cracks are formed by creep relaxations of residual stresses and have similar characteristics to service induced creep cracks. Reheat cracks have likely been the ruling initial defects that have made some creep propagation possible. If no significant system stresses work, a rather large initial crack is required to enable creep crack propagation in this case. No creep damage was observed in the other cross sections. This indicates that these creep cavitations found in the replica investigation was skin-deep. The microstructure had rather small and also normal heat affection that agrees with the present service temperature and service time. The creep damage distribution may differ from the observed one if significant system stresses occur. Earlier recommendations for testing, evaluation as well as actions associated with creep in main steam piping at service temperatures below the limit temperature can still be considered as valid

  2. The injection of TASS-tunnel. Design, implementation and results from the pre-injection; Injekteringen av TASS-tunneln. Design, genomfoerande och resultat fraan foerinjekteringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funehag, Johan (Chalmers university of technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Emmelin, Ann (Golder Associates (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The Swedish repository facility for spent nuclear fuel will be placed in crystalline rock at a depth of 400-500 m. In order to limit groundwater inflow to the facility, grouting is planned. To comply with the stringent material, execution and inflow restrictions, a series of research and development projects concerned with rock characterization for grouting, grouting materials and grouting design have been carried out by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). The understanding and methods developed were tested in the sealing project carried out at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL), Sweden, and presented in this report. The project consisted of the construction of a short tunnel at 450 m depth, the TASS-tunnel. Grouting was conducted as pre-grouting using ordinary grouting fans outside the planned tunnel contour, as well as with grout holes entirely within the planned contour. A cement-based low-pH grout and a silica based grouting agent, silica sol, were used. The methodology used included determination of the fracture transmissivity distribution; identification of the smallest hydraulic aperture that needs to be sealed; grout selection based on fracture aperture and grout penetrability; design of grout hole geometry, grouting pressure and time in order to achieve the penetration length required; and monitoring of the actual execution based on inflow in control holes with subsequent design revision. Special concern was given to equipment and execution due to the high groundwater pressures, 3.5 MPa. Before starting the construction, inflow to core drilled holes along the tunnel position amounted to 45-90 liters/minute. The project showed that it was possible to limit the inflow to the target value 1 liter/minute per 60 m tunnel

  3. Conversion of results from ash leaching in laboratory to field conditions. Final report; Oeversaettning av resultat fraan asklaknings foersoek i laboratorium till faeltfoerhaallanden. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westling, Olle; Larsson, Per-Erik [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    The leaching of different elements from stabilised wood ash used for recycling of nutrients to forest soil was investigated and compared in both laboratory and field experiments. The aim was to evaluate if a simplified laboratory method can be used to describe the leaching in field conditions in a realistic way. The laboratory leaching study was performed by mixing wood ash and distilled water, adjusted to pH 4.2. The leachate was poured off after 24 h and new solution added. The leachate was analysed for pH, acid neutralising capacity and base cations. This procedure, with daily change of solution, continued for 30 days, simulating the time of a forest rotation (80-100 years). The field study used wood ash in litter bags placed under the humus layer in a spruce forest with and without contact with mycorrhiza. Litterbags were removed and analysed after 6, 12, 18 and 30 months. The leaching of wood ash and crushed limestone were also compared in both the laboratory and the field study. The weight loss of wood ash and limestone after 30 days in the laboratory study (simulating a forest rotation) varied between 20 and 35%, indicating a very long time for complete weathering. The weight loss in the field study after 30 months (8-22%) also indicated a long weathering time. The leaching of wood ash during the 30-month field experiment showed a variation in the leaching pattern for different elements. The leaching of calcium increased in the beginning of the study, followed by a decrease. The leaching of magnesium was relatively linear in contrast to potassium, with a fast leaching of 35 to 40% of the original content after 6 months. The experiment with leaching of wood ash and crushed limestone during field conditions with and without contact with mycorrhiza showed no significant differences between the treatments. The comparison between laboratory and field leaching generally showed that the different methods describe the leaching rate of base cations in a similar way for different wood ash and limestone products. Magnesium was one exception with higher leaching rate in the field experiment in comparison to the laboratory leaching. Based on this study, the laboratory leaching test can provide useful information for development of sustainable methods to compensate for nutrient loss, by recycling of wood ash, after harvest of forest fuels.

  4. Biofuels from the forest. A study of environmental impacts and economy of different uses; Biobraensle fraan skogen. En studie av miljoekonsekvenser och ekonomi foer olika anvaendningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Amnell, Goesta; Anheden, Marie; Eidensten, Lars; Kirkegaard, Gunilla [Vattenfall Utveckling AB (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The energy and environmental council of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences initiated this study of how an additional 30 TWh/year of forest biofuel could be used in the Swedish energy system within a 10-year period. The specifications include that the forest biofuel shall be used in such a manner that the greatest possible reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will be achieved at the lowest cost without risking other environmental goals, such as good quality of local air. The figure chosen as starting point for the study, 30 TWh/year, was selected as it is this amount that available data have suggested could be extracted without negatively affecting the long-term productive capacity of forest land. The long-term potential of biofuel will probably be much larger than the volume used today, together with the additional use of 30 TWh/yr. We therefore studied fields of use that, totally, will be considerably larger than 30 TWh/yr. The starting point for comparisons of different uses for forest biofuel was the available benefit/utility for industrial, transportation and service sectors, together with domestic uses. The reference alternative was the existing uses of fossil fuels. Comparisons of different alternatives were made including differences in fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} emissions, emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust, as well as costs without environmental and energy taxes or subsidies. Monetary estimations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust in accordance with the EU ExternE Project were included in the costs. In our study, we have used two scenarios as starting points in order to cover the range of results. Summary of results: The largest reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions (generally about 0.6-1 Mtonnes CO{sub 2} /TWh forest biofuel and for heat pumps slightly more than 2 Mtonnes CO{sub 2}/TWh forest fuel) at the lowest cost are obtained when bioenergy replaces electricity produced by coal fired condensing power stations in neighbouring countries. In some of these cases, bioenergy would not imply any additional cost in comparison with the use of electricity produced by coal condensing plants. In most other cases the estimated additional costs will not be higher than about 60 SEK/tonne reduced CO{sub 2} emissions (up to 90 SEK/MWh electricity). If bioenergy in cases with additional costs is to replace electricity from coal condensing plants it is necessary to place a price on the CO{sub 2} emissions by coal power stations and/or submit them to carbon dioxide taxation. This is not the case today. Pellet boilers in multi-family houses can utilise considerable amounts of forest biofuel and provide heating at lower costs than electric boilers. District heating and cogeneration of power and district heating can also utilise large volumes of forest biofuel (up to 20 TWh resulting in more than 12 Mtonnes/year reduced CO{sub 2} emissions) at low added costs (about 60 SEK/tonne reduced CO{sub 2} emissions corresponding to 20-40 SEK/MWh district heating) in comparison with fossil alternatives. Emissions of other air pollutants can then more easily be minimised and will occur further from built-up areas. The amount of electricity that can be produced from forest biofuel at these low added costs in comparison with fossil alternatives is restricted by the level of district-heating production. Today the power transmission systems permit only limited exports of electrical power, and consequently important reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at low cost if electricity from biofuel-fired cogeneration plants, that cannot be exported, is used by new heat pumps in villas. This would also give lower emissions of other air pollutants in urban areas than if pellets or oil were used to fire the villa boilers. Heat pumps and pellet boilers will be the most favourable forest biofuel based heating alternative for villas heated by water radiators. Heat pumps give greater reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions at lower cost provided they can be assumed to be powered by electricity obtained from a forest biofuel based cogeneration plant. If transmission of electricity between Sweden and northern Europe could take place with considerably less physical restrictions than the case today, then the largest CO{sub 2} reductions at the lowest added costs would be obtained through maximal production of district heating and cogeneration electricity, heating of homes and premises that are not linked to the district heating using pellet boilers instead of electric boilers, and by reducing consumption of electricity in villas with direct electric heating by introduction of pellet stoves. In this scenario, the use of heat pumps in villas instead of electric boilers would mean reduced consumption of electricity produced by coal condensing plants and thus result in reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. However, this cannot be related to the use of forest biofuel. (abstract truncated)

  5. Atmospheric emission of nitrogen oxide from kraft recovery boilers in Sweden; Kartlaeggning av NO{sub x}-utslaepp fraan sodapannor i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders; Herstad Swaerd, Solvie [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    Recovery boiler NO{sub x} emissions are low compared with those from power boilers. However tighter environmental requirements to decrease the acidic emissions implies that all sources have to be addressed. There are an ongoing evaluation and development of NO{sub x} control technologies in the pulp industry. Basically air staging, selective catalytic reduction, SCR, and selective noncatalytic reduction, SNCR, have been discussed. Other NO{sub x} control options may be available as a result of ongoing research and development. As a background in the work to reduce the acid rain it has been considered necessary to have a good picture of the NO{sub x} emission from recovery boilers, and the Thermal Engineering Research Institute in Sweden have therefore sponsored this study. The intention is to give a good general view and try to explain the reasons for the large differences between boilers. Data from the 30 kraft recovery boilers which were in operation in Sweden during 1999 have been collected. Both NO{sub x} levels and specific conditions which could have an influence on the level have been included. The evaluation show a clear correlation between the nitrogen content in the liquor and the NO{sub x} level. It seams also that a long retention time in the furnace give an opportunity to reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide. For most boilers in Sweden the NO{sub x} levels are reported in mg/MJ and comparison could be done between different types of boilers. However for recovery boilers there could be a large uncertainty in the calculation which gives the amount (mg) of NO{sub x}, the definition of the heat input to be used (MJ) is either not clear. As a base for the study the measured concentration in ppm is used instead. The reported values are in the range of 30 - 100 ppm, however the majority of the boilers operate in a more narrow range 60-80 ppm. Air staging and other combustion methods could not reasonably reduce the NO{sub x} emission with more than 20% in the next decade. If the goal is higher other methods must be considered and the options today is SCR or SNCR. Both these secondary methods of reducing NO{sub x} has drawbacks: there is a safety risk if SNCR is used and SCR is not proven and development work will be required.

  6. Effekten av karbohydrat- og proteininntak på restitusjon av utholdenhetskapasiteten etter et utmattende arbeid

    OpenAIRE

    Rustad, Per Inge

    2011-01-01

    Innledning: Dietten i etterkant av trening og konkurranser er av stor betydning for restitusjonsprosessen. Få studier har imidlertid undersøkt restitusjonseffekten av karbohydratog proteininntak etter et utmattende arbeid på utholdenhetskapasiteten dagen etter. I vår studie ble det gjennomført totalt tre diettintervensjoner for å undersøke følgende problemstillinger; 1) undersøke utholdenhetskapasiteten dagen etter et utmattende utholdenhetsarbeid etter inntak av en høy karbohy...

  7. AVS-M: From Standards to Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye-Kui Wang

    2006-01-01

    AVS stands for the Audio Video coding Standard Workgroup of China, who develops audio/video coding standards as well as system and digital right management standards. AVS-M is the AVS video coding standard targeting for mobile multimedia applications. Besides the coding specification, AVS also developed the file format and Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) payload format specifications to enable the application of AVS-M video in various services. This paper reviews the high-level coding tools and features of the AVS-M coding standard as well as the file format and payload format standards.In particular, sixteen AVS-M high-level coding tools and features, which cover most of the high-level topics during AVS-M standardization, are discussed in some detail. After that, the error resilience tools are briefly reviewed before the file format and RTP payload format discussions. The coding efficiency and error resiliency performances of AVS-M are provided finally.H.264/AVC has been extensively used as a comparison in many of the discussions and the simulation results.

  8. The AV-8B Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    isa csestudy of the debate overthdeionfte United States Gover mn to prc--u the McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Advanced Hrrier V/STOL jet aircraft for the U.S...Sciences 3 ABSTRACT This thesis is a case study of the debate over the decision of the United States Government to procure the McDonnell Douglas IT-8...a egrate4 dur nq the 1ive To r perIoo by the introduction of the moderNtely prcod F1-18 aircraft. The F/1 8 proqrts will, 0euce to*n uber and tpes of

  9. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...

  10. Syncope and Idiopathic (Paroxysmal) AV Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole, Michele; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Guieu, Regis

    2015-08-01

    Syncope due to idiopathic AV block is characterized by: 1) ECG documentation (usually by means of prolonged ECG monitoring) of paroxysmal complete AV block with one or multiple consecutive pauses, without P-P cycle lengthening or PR interval prolongation, not triggered by atrial or ventricular premature beats nor by rate variations; 2) long history of recurrent syncope without prodromes; 3) absence of cardiac and ECG abnormalities; 4) absence of progression to persistent forms of AV block; 5) efficacy of cardiac pacing therapy. The patients affected by idiopathic AV block have low baseline adenosine plasma level values and show an increased susceptibility to exogenous adenosine. The APL value of the patients with idiopathic AV block is much lower than patients affected by vasovagal syncope who have high adenosine values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of AVS Audio Coding Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; ZHANG Caixia; ZHAO Xin

    2016-01-01

    Audio Video Coding Standard (AVS) is a second⁃generation source coding standard and the first standard for audio and video coding in China with independent intellectual property rights. Its performance has reached the international standard. Its coding efficiency is 2 to 3 times greater than that of MPEG⁃2. This technical solution is more simple, and it can greatly save channel resource. After more than ten years ’develop⁃ment, AVS has achieved great success. The latest version of the AVS audio coding standard is ongoing and mainly aims at the increasing demand for low bitrate and high quality audio services. The paper reviews the history and recent develop⁃ment of AVS audio coding standard in terms of basic fea⁃tures, key techniques and performance. Finally, the future de⁃velopment of AVS audio coding standard is discussed.

  12. Tolkning av det verbala och det visuella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbro Sjöberg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available I en tidigare publicerad artikel i Techne serien (Sjöberg, 2005 gjordes en genre-beskrivning av fenomenet skissbok. Genrebeskrivningen baserade sig på en analys av sex formgivarstuderandes skissböcker. I den nu aktuella artikeln redogörs för hur genren tillämpats i en slöjdpedagogisk kontext inom två kurser i Konsthand-arbete under åren 2002 respektive 2004 inom de didaktikbaserade ämnesteknolo-giska studierna i slöjdpedagogik vid Åbo Akademi, Vasa. En av målsättningarna för kurserna var att testa skissboken i en slöjdpedagogisk kontext. Under kursens gång hade de studerande som uppgift att utforska och dokumentera ett givet tema i sina skissböcker. Efter avslutad kurs skannades skissböckerna in för att utgöra empiriskt material för tolkning och analys av hur de studerande utformat dokumen-tationen i sina skissböcker på basen av de instruktioner de fått under kursens gång. I föreliggande studie redogörs för bearbetning, tolkning och analys av det empiris-ka materialet med hjälp av NVivo 9, en version av NVivo som underlättar bearbet-ning och den vetenskapliga tolkningen av visuellt material. Resultaten visar att uppmuntran till horisontell mediering i samband med dokumentation i skissbok kan leda till en mångsidig och personlig utforskning av givet tema.Sökord: metod, slöjd, NVivo, skissbok, lärarutbildningURN:NBN:no-29968

  13. Påvising av aminoglykosidresistens ved hjelp av massespektrometri. Utvikling av metode for deteksjon, stabilitet av aminoglykosid og molekylær karakterisering av teststammer

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarekvål, Torunn

    2014-01-01

    Aminoglykosid er potente antibiotika som vert brukt til behandling av alvorlege infeksjonar med aerobe bakteriar. Dei er baktericide og verkar ved å binda til ribosoma i bakteriane og på denne måten forstyrra den normale peptidsyntesen. Aminoglykosida er verdifulle medikament, men som for mange andre antibiotika er resistens mot desse midla eit aukande problem. Den viktigaste resistensmekanismen er aminoglykosidmodifiserande enzym (AME). Desse enzyma inaktiverer ...

  14. Uptake of AV-1451 in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Tyler J; Johnson, Derek R; Fang, Ping; Senjem, Matthew; Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Boeve, Bradley F; Pandey, Mukesh K; Kantarci, Kejal; Jones, David T; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Murray, Melissa; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Schwarz, Christopher G; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Lowe, Val J

    2017-09-08

    AV-1451 is an imaging agent labeled with the positron-emitting radiolabel Fluorine-18. 18F-AV-1451 binds paired helical filament tau (PHF-tau), a pathology related to Alzheimer's disease. In our study of AV-1451 uptake in the brains of cognitively normal subjects, we noted a case of a meningioma with visually significant uptake of AV-1451. We initiated the present retrospective study to further examine cases of meningioma that underwent AV-1451 imaging. We searched the patient records of 650 patients who had undergone AV-1451 at our institution for the keyword "meningioma" to identify potential cases. PET/CT and MRI results were visually reviewed and semi-quantitative analysis of PET was performed. A paired student's t test was run between background and tumor standard uptake values. Fisher's exact test was used to examine the association between AV-1451 uptake and presence of calcifications on CT. We identified 12 cases of meningioma, 58% (7/12) of which demonstrated uptake greater than background using both visual analysis and tumor-to-normal cortex ratios (T/N + 1.90 ± 0.83). The paired student's t test revealed no statistically significant difference between background and tumor standard uptake values (p = 0.09); however, cases with a T/N ratio greater than one showed statistically higher uptake in tumor tissue (p = 0.01). A significant association was noted between AV-1451 uptake and presence of calcifications (p = 0.01). AV-1451 PET imaging should be reviewed concurrently with anatomic imaging to prevent misleading interpretations of PHF-tau distribution due to meningiomas.

  15. Portering av programvara – metodik och fallstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhl, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Carasoft AB är ett företag som specialiserat sig på utveckling av dokumenthanteringssystem. Man erbjuder bland annat ett Windowsbaserat dokumenthanteringssystem vid namn Caradoc. Systemet består av flertalet DLL:er skrivna i Delphi och har inte ändrats eller kompilerats sedan 2004. Det här examensarbetet har i syfte att utreda om det finns möjlighet att inom rimlig tid portera Caradoc till Windows 7, med hjälp av den nya Delphi-versionen XE2. Efter en förstudie i ämnet portering, programspråk...

  16. Basic Considerations on AVS DRM Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie-Jun Huang; Yong-Liang Liu

    2006-01-01

    Digital Rights Management (DRM) is an important infrastructure for the digital media age. It is a part of the AVS (Audio and Video coding Standard) of China. AVS Trusted Decoder (ATD) that plays back digital media program according to rights conditions is the core of AVS DRM architecture. Adaptation layers are responsible for translating or negotiating between ATD and peripheral systems. The Packaging Adaptation Layer (PAL), Licensing Adaptation Layer (LAL) and Rendering Adaptation Layer (RAL) will help ATD to gain the interoperability in various DRM environments.

  17. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part II; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  18. Removal of groundwater from final repository in Forsmark. Description of consequences for nature values and forest production; Bortledande av grundvatten fraan slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Beskrivning av konsekvenser foer naturvaerden och skogsproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) has chosen Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes consequences for nature values and forestry due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report concerns nature values that depend on, or are favoured by, a groundwater table close to or above the ground surface

  19. Deletion of groundwater from a disposal facility in Laxemar. Description of the consequences for nature values and production land; Bortledande av grundvatten fraan en slutfoervarsanlaeggning i Laxemar. Beskrivning av konsekvenser foer naturvaerden och produktionsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    SKB has chosen Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar as site for the repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes consequences for nature values, agriculture and forestry due to groundwater diversion from a repository at the non-chosen Laxemar site in the municipality of Oskarshamn. The report concerns nature values that depend on, or are favoured by, a groundwater table close to or above the ground surface. Laxemar is a valuable area from a nature conservation point of view, primarily associated to the cultural- and forest landscape and its prior use for pasture and hay-making. Hence, these values depend on factors other than the level of the groundwater table. Except for old pastures and haymaking areas, many high nature values consist of hardwood-forest groves and old solitary deciduous trees. 67 groundwater-dependent or groundwater-favoured nature objects (wetlands, pieces of forest and surface water) are identified in the investigated area. No nature object is judged to have national value (class 1). 15 nature objects (pieces of forest) are judged to have regional value (class 2), 18 have municipal value (class 3) and 34 local value (class 4). It is judged that a drawdown of the groundwater table only would result in small consequences for the nature values of the area in its entirety. The nature objects that would be affected by the largest groundwater-table drawdown have relatively low nature values and consist of small wetlands with local value (class 4). The low nature values of these objects imply that the consequences of the groundwater diversion would be small. Nature objects with higher nature values (regional or municipal value) consist of forest key habitats and ancient pastures on previously argued land. The nature values of these objects are hence dependent on factors other than the level of the groundwater table, which implies that the consequences would be small also for these objects. The consequences would be largest (noticeable) for the stream Laxemaraan, due to reduced stream discharge and drier conditions along parts of the stream. The groundwater diversion would not cause any consequences for protected areas. The investigated area does not contain any known red-listed species associated to wetlands or wet forest areas. It is judged that the groundwater diversion would lead to insignificant to small consequences for protected frogs. There is a proposal concerning restoration of a wetland in Laxemaraan. This measure would partly counterbalance the consequences for frogs of the groundwater-table drawdown in Laxemar. It is judged that the groundwater diversion would lead to a harvest reduction of slightly more than 10% and a forest-yield reduction of approximately 20 % in the influence area of the groundwater table drawdown. These are rough judgements that provide upper reduction limits

  20. Evaluation of hearings. Results from reviews of the nuclear waste issue in the Swedish site candidate municipalities; Utvaerdering av utfraagningar. Resultat fraan genomlysningar av kaernavfallsfraagan i de svenska foerstudiekommunerna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to present an evaluation of the public hearings that took place in February of 2001 in the Swedish municipalities of Oesthammar, Tierp, and Aelvkarleby in Norduppland, Hultsfred and Oskarshamn in Smaaland, and Nykoeping in Soedermanland. These municipalities had participated in feasibility studies conducted by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). A company report on the results of these studies had been published shortly before the hearings (FUD-K). The regulatory authorities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), organized the hearings for additional information and aid in their ongoing evaluation of the SKB report. Representatives of the municipalities participated in the planning of the events, and a large meeting in Tierp in January 2001, that also involved the authorities, consultants and interested parties, agreed on the aims and practical arrangements. The authorities furthermore ordered a report for a summary and evaluation of the events, and the results are presented here. The aim of, and the preparations for, the hearings were based on a theoretical model developed within the RISCOM project, i.e. the RISCOM-model of transparency, which postulates three basic elements, i.e. technical/scientific issues, normative issues and authenticity. These elements combine to achieve an optimal clarification on the interaction between scientific and value-laden components in decision-making. An assumption is that the quality of decisions would improve given that transparency can be increased. The hearings were designed to 'stretch' the implementer by means of asking essential questions and to clarify what was achieved and known so far in the process, as well as to clarify what matters required further attention. The content covered technical, legal and social aspects on issues of nuclear waste management and the choices involved in the process towards building a future high level nuclear waste repository. The recently published report by SKB (FUD-K) contributed the main foundation for the program content, which was structured into the two parts of (a) the choice of methodology and (b) the choice of municipalities for the forthcoming site investigations. This report is based on the content of the actual hearings, e.g. questions, answers and comments from the proceedings and group discussions, as well as responses to three questionnaires. The report states that the majority of the participants at the hearings were those already involved, in one way or another, in the municipalities organized work related to the nuclear waste issue. Thus, the hearings did not attract a large number of novices or uninitiated individuals from the general public. The wide scope of considered aspects and the high level of knowledge among the participants were reflected by the questions put to the panel. The questionnaire responses also indicated high initial involvement in the hearings, and that the participants came well prepared to the meetings. The main preparation being studies of available reports and other materials, but also e.g. participation in information seminars or in meetings organized by the municipalities. Their reasons for participation often involved a desire to learn more in relation to specifically formulated questions and / or to gain a better understanding of the work and the overall process. The participants wanted to achieve a result that outlined pros and cons of various methodologies regarding waste management, and which stated the degree of reliability regarding the proposed technological solutions. Furthermore, to reach a substantial level of clarity regarding what can be considered as established facts in contrast to what remains uncertain or problematic. The results indicated that a majority of the participants preferred the proposed KBS-3 method to other alternatives with respect to the construction of a final repository. However, the need for a continuous awareness of current research and the developments of alternative methods was underlined. The participants were generally positive to the kind of hearings they had participated in, and they concluded that they had received responses to a substantial degree to the questions they had brought. The content of the hearings had to a large extent corresponded to their expectations, and they had not significantly changed their opinions. Ratings of central actors' credibility showed that the authorities enjoyed the highest trustworthiness and the local critics groups the lowest. The report points out that this result can only be related to the groups of participants at the hearings, and since that group can be considered relatively homogeneous and consisting of interested and active persons, any generalization to the larger population of the municipalities could be erroneous. (abstract truncated)

  1. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part III; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  2. Glycerine from transesterification of vegetable oils as an additive - practical experiments with pelleting and incineration of some biofuels; Glycerin fraan omfoerestring av vegetabiliska oljor som tillsatsmedel - praktiska foersoek med pelletering och eldning av naagra biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven; Oerberg, Haakan; Samuelsson, Robert; Thyrel, Mikael; Hedman, Bjoern; Kalen, Gunnar

    2011-07-01

    During transesterification of vegetable oils in particular, but also animal fats and used frying oils, glycerine is obtained as a by-product. It is important for transesterification economics that the glycerine by-product can be sold for the best possible price. In Sweden today, glycerine is often sold to biogas production for a few Swedish crowns per kilo. If other markets where glycerine replaces a more expensive product can be found, the willingness to pay for glycerine will increase. This project examined whether glycerine can be used as an additive in pelleting some biofuel types, and the value it would have in this use. The project investigated admixtures of appropriate amounts of glycerine of varying quality during pelleting of some types of fuel (straw, reed canary grass and pine wood). To determine how these affect pellet quality, the function of the pellet press, pellet storage properties, the risk of harmful emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulphur oxides (SO{sub 2}) and aldehydes during incineration of the pellets, the risk of ash sintering and the risk of corrosive deposits in flue gas channels were examined. In addition, the commercial value of the glycerine when added to pellets was estimated. Pelleting trials were conducted using 1 % and 5 % admixtures of four types of glycerine in three types of fuel. Two of the glycerine products were alkaline, originating from alkaline transesterification of rapeseed oil, and two were acidic, originating from acid esterification/ transesterification followed by alkaline transesterification, of rapeseed oil in one case and used frying oil in the other. The fuel types were pine wood, reed canary grass and straw. After pelleting, pellet durability, the amount of fine fraction and bulk density were measured. Chemical analyses were performed of glycerine types, fuel types and glycerine/fuel mixtures to evaluate ash melting behaviour and the risk of corrosion associated with alkali chlorides. Pellets from the trials were stored for 6 months, during which time moisture uptake and the incidence of mould were studied. After the storage experiments, pellet durability was measured again. Wherever possible, the experimental design was evaluated statistically using multivariate data analysis. About half the samples were incinerated and emissions of CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, particulate matter, acrolein and formaldehyde were measured. In addition, the average temperature and maximum temperature during incineration were measured and the amount of combustion residues and their content of unburned and sintered material were determined. Some ash samples from the combustion of glycerine/pine wood mixes were sent for chemical analysis. The admixture of glycerine in the fuel types generally resulted in pellets with lower durability, higher proportion of fines (fine fraction) and significantly lower bulk density. However, pellets with the same or slightly better durability and the same or lower proportion of fines were obtained by admixture of 1 % acidic glycerine to the fuel types. The specific energy consumption for pelleting the fuels containing glycerine was generally lowered, which may have been due to the lubricating properties of the glycerine. The addition of glycerine in all cases resulted in a decrease in pellet bulk density. Reed canary grass had the best durability, least share of fines and highest bulk density, while straw usually had the worst durability, highest share of fines and lowest bulk density

  3. Open absorption heat pump for waste heat utilization in the forest industry. A study of technical and economic potential; Oeppen absorptionsvaermepump foer uppgradering av spillvaerme fraan skogsindustrin. Studie av teknisk och ekonomisk potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermark, Mats; Vidlund, Anna

    2006-02-15

    Waste heat from the forest industry is mainly humid air or humid flue gases with somewhat too low dew point for direct use as district heating or for other qualified purposes. Upgrading of the temperature by heat pumps is thus often necessary for the full use of the waste heat. This study evaluates an open absorption heat, based on hygroscopic condensation. The hygroscopic condenser has the potential to replace mechanical heat pumps or conventional absorption heat pumps (based on lithium bromide) for the upgrading of heat from humid gases. The goal for the project is to evaluate technology and potential for an open absorption heat pump for heat recovery from humid gases in the forest industry. In an open heat pump the humid gas is brought in direct contact with the hygroscopic liquid (whereas a conventional heat pump uses an intermediate circuit with evaporation of water in the evaporator). The direct contact makes it possible to recover the heat at a higher temperature than the dew point of the humid gas without the use of evaporator. The target group for the study is the forest industry and its suppliers of technology and knowledge. The study has been carried out in cooperation with representatives from the forest industry and from suppliers of equipment. The study shows that the forest industry has good potential to upgrade waste heat from humid air to district heating. The waste heat can be extracted from various humid gases such as exit air from paper machines, wood driers, green liquid quenchers and flue gases from soda boilers, mesa kilns, bark-fired boilers and gas engines. Hygroscopic condensation is considered to give economic and environmental advantages compared to conventional absorption heat pumps due to much less consumption of driving heat. An interesting special case is the regeneration of the hygroscopic medium by direct contact with hot flue gases and for this application a patent application has been filed. Upgrading of waste heat to process steam (for use in pulp and paper plants) is technically more advanced. The high temperature level demands absorption liquids with high boiling point elevation (sodium hydroxide) and driving steam at 25 bar. The example studied uses waste heat at 50 deg C for production of low pressure steam at 1.2 bar, i.e. slightly above atmospheric pressure. Such low pressure steam can be used for steam injection in paper machines or upgraded to process steam of higher pressure by steam compression.

  4. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part I; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  5. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelter, Christopher; Raab, Udo; Lazarus, Friedrich; Ruppert, Volker; Vorwerk, Dierk

    2015-08-01

    The study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients. 63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5%), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8%). A high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5%). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7%). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5% at 6 month, 31.3% at 12 month and 19.2% at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1%), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5%) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5%). Re-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  6. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelter, Christopher, E-mail: christopher.schmelter@klinikum-ingolstadt.de; Raab, Udo, E-mail: udo.raab@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Lazarus, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.lazarus@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Nephrology (Germany); Ruppert, Volker, E-mail: volker.ruppert@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany); Vorwerk, Dierk, E-mail: dierk.vorwerk@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5 %), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8 %).ResultsA high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5 %). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7 %). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5 % at 6 month, 31.3 % at 12 month and 19.2 % at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1 %), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5 %) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5 %).ConclusionRe-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  7. Integrasjon av vindkraft i energisystemet : effekten av variabilitet på markedsverdien

    OpenAIRE

    Brekken, Tormod Ween

    2014-01-01

    Klimapolitikken bidrar til å fase ut termisk kraftproduksjon basert på fossile kilder. Dette kan føre til at en mindre andel av kraftproduksjonen kan respondere på prissignaler. Det er planlagt å øke andelen vindkraft i flere kraftmarkeder. Vindkraft er avhengig av været, og er karakterisert av varierende produksjon. Dette påvirker inntekten til hva produsenter av vindkraft vil tjene i kraftmarkedet. Studier har funnet at markedsverdien til vindkraft reduseres ved økte andeler vindkraft i ma...

  8. Forandring av selvoppfatning blant studenter i løpet av en bachelorutdanning i sykepleie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Olav Bjørnestad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selvoppfatning er av betydning for faglig framgang og kreativitet. Hensikten med denne studien var å beskrive forandring av selvoppfatning hos en gruppe sykepleierstudenter i løpet av sin treårige bachelorutdanning. En studiegruppe med 127 sykepleierstudenter ved en norsk høgskole besvarte et spørreskjema i første og siste studieår. Skalaer for måling av generell selvoppfatning og regelbevissthet samt spørsmål om bakgrunnsvariabler inngikk i spørreskjemaet. Resultatene viste at selvoppfatningen økte signifikant i løpet av utdanningen i den totale studiegruppen, og viktige faktorer var barn og opplevelse av tilfredshet. For ca 45% av deltakerne var selvoppfatningen enten lavere eller uforandret. Regelbevissthet minket i løpet av utdanningen og var ikke assosiert til studentenes selvoppfatning. Fortsatt forskning behøves for å klarlegge mulige påvirkningsfaktorer og for å finne tiltak som kan fremme en positiv utvikling av selvoppfatning hos studenter.

  9. En norsk pilotstudie av helsesøstres oppfatninger av pasienters health literacy: helsefremmende allmenndannelse

    OpenAIRE

    Hanne Søberg Finbråten; Kjell Sverre Pettersen

    2012-01-01

    Bakgrunn Uttrykket “ansvar for egen helse” innebærer også evnen til kritisk evaluering av helseinformasjon. Slike kunnskaper og ferdigheter reflekterer health literacy (HL) – på norsk; helsefremmende allmenndannelse, som handler om å forstå, kunne skaffe seg tilgang på, kritisk vurdere og adekvat anvende helseinformasjon for ervervelse av god helse. Hensikt Formålet var å kartlegge helsesøstres oppfatninger av brukeres tre hierarkiske nivåer av HL (Nutbeam 2000): functional HL (FHL), inte...

  10. Dicty_cDB: FC-AV24 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AV24 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16482-1 FC-AV24E (Li...nk to Original site) - - - - - - FC-AV24E 591 Show FC-AV24 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AV24 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AV/FC-AV24Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AV...24E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AV24 (FC-AV24Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AV/FC-AV24Q.Seq....RFWYFLSKIVKMKKSTGEIL NVTEIFEDKPQKVKNFGVFIRYNSRSGTHNIYKEYRDLTRCGAVSQMYDEMASRHSARES SIHIIDIKEIAASLTRRANTKQFHDS

  11. Energy consumption in farm operation buildings - A survey of 16 farms 2005-2006, complemented by measurements on two farms 2010-2012; Energifoerbrukning i jordbrukets driftsbyggnader - En kartlaeggning av 16 gaardar 2005-2006, kompletterat med maetningar paa tvaa gaardar 2010-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerndahl, Torsten; Neuman, Lars

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden the agricultural sector is estimated to use approximately 3,7 TWh per year as electricity or as fuel. About 34% of this total is estimated to be used in the production of beef, pork, eggs and milk, including the spreading of manures. There is also some energy used for harvesting ley and cereals as feed, which is not included. Most of the energy is used as electricity (approx 63%). These estimates are made by Edstroem et al (2005) who based them on data from elderly studies. Since the farmers have made great efforts to use less energy and there are less enterprises with dairy cows and pigs the total use of energy in farming is less than this estimation. Most of the technical equipment is still the same today on farms of equivalent size and production methods. However, herds of pigs and cattle are bigger now, and therefore new equipment is being used. This report are a revised edition of Hoerndahl, 2007 and Hoerndahl 2009 and new data from Neuman et al (2007) are added. The purpose revision was to update data about energy use on modern farms of a size, and with technical equipment, that could be expected to be in use for the next 10-15 years. This revision was possible due to a project at LRF funded by Agricultural Office.

  12. Kartlegging av PCB i sedimenter fra Indre Sørfjord

    OpenAIRE

    Skei, J.; Klungsøyr, J

    1990-01-01

    Som følge av forhøyede nivåer av PCB i fiskelever innerst i Sørfjorden er det gjennomført en sedimentundersøkelse for om mulig å finne kilden til PCB. Det ble ikke registrert høye nivåer av PCB i sedimentene. Høyeste konsentrasjoner ble målt i munningen av Eitrheimsvågen. Analyser av trafooljer brukt i Tyssedalsområdet viste spor av PCB.

  13. Arvelig hemokromatose - nytten av screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Åsberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Arvelig hemokromatose fører til jernopphopning i kroppen, men gir sjelden alvorlig helseskade. Nesten alle hemokromatosepasienter i vårt land er homozygote for C282Y-mutasjonen i HFE-genet. Omtrent 7 per 1000 innbyggere har denne genotypen. Alvorlig syke blir bare omkring 5-15% av homozygote menn og nesten ingen kvinner. Likevel er det holdepunkter for at screening for hemokromatose blant friske, yngre menn kan være kostnadseffektivt. Det er relativt lett å påvise om en person er disponert for sykdommen, i god tid før den bryter ut, og forebyggende behandling er billig og effektiv. Imidlertid kan vi ikke forutsi hvilke screeningpositive personer som ubehandlet får alvorlig sykdom. Et kontrollert forsøk med screening bør gjennomføresHereditary hemochromatosis – benefits of screening. Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to iron accumulation in the body; however, serious illness due to hemochromatosis is rare. In Norway, almost all patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for the C282Ymutation in the HFE-gene, a genotype carried by about 7 per 1000 inhabitants. Serious complications are seen in only about 5-15% of homozygous men and in very few women. Nevertheless, screening young men for hemochromatosis may be cost-effective. Detecting predisposed men is relatively straightforward, and prophylactic treatment is cheap and effective. However, we can not predict, among screen-positive men, the few who untreated will become seriously ill. A controlled screening trial should be conducted.

  14. Utvärdering av event marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Erik; Törnqvist, Johan

    2001-01-01

    Event marketing är en marknadsföringsform som har växt ordentligt under senare delen av 90-talet och det börjar bli ett naturligt inslag i företagens marknadskommunikation. Trots denna tillväxt har event marketing under en längre tid sammankopplats med brist på utvärderingsmetoder. En avsaknad av utvärderingsmetoder leder till svårigheter att avgöra vilka effekter en event marketing-satsning resulterar i, hur genomförandet kan förbättras samt huruvida event marketing är en lämplig form av mar...

  15. Eksakte metodar for analyse av tovegstabellar

    OpenAIRE

    Aaberge, Rolf

    1980-01-01

    Dei fleste matematisk-statistiske metodane som er utvikla til analyse av tabellar, byggjer på føresetnader om at talet på observasjonar i tabellcellene er "stort. Haldorsen (1977a) og (1977b) omtalar metodar som kviler på dette kravet. I denne rapporten skal vi presentere eksakte metodar for analyse av to-vegstabel lar, dvs. metodar som er gyldige sjølv om vi har småe observasjonstal i tabellcellene. I mange undersøkingar vil observasjonane ofte gi uttrykk for kva slags ...

  16. Grafisk presentasjon av GPenSim-simulering

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    GPenSim er et verktøy for modellering og simulering av diskret hendelsesystemer (DES). GPenSim er integrert i Matlab-plattformen, og har dermed tilgang til innebygde Matlabfunksjoner som plot etc. I GPenSim blir Petri net-grafen definert i Petri netdefinisjonsfiler. Resultatet av en simulering blir vist i tekst. Oppgaven gikk ut på å utvikle et verktøy som skulle presentere både Petri net-grafen og simuleringsresultatet grafisk. En grafisk presentasjon viser tydeligere sammenhe...

  17. AVS Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cliff Reader

    2006-01-01

    The AVS Workgroup has developed an IPR Policy to facilitate the adoption of standards in the marketplace.The policy is based on consideration of IPR issues in parallel with the technical work for drafting the standard. The paper describes the relationship between IPR and the standard, and how the goals for the standard must be complemented by goals for the IPR. The existing IPR policies of the ITU and ISO are outlined, and then the AVS IPR policy is described,organized by its three main components: commitment to license on declared basic terms, disclosure of intellectual property,and protection of IPR.

  18. Bruk av landstrøm for reduksjon av NOX og CO2 i norske havner

    OpenAIRE

    Frengstad, Åsmund Møll

    2014-01-01

    Bruk av Smart Grid og landstrøm for reduksjon av NOX- og CO2- utslipp i norske havner. I dag slippes det ut mye avgasser fra marine næringer i havner. Disse gassene bidrar både til internasjonale miljøutslipp i form av CO2, men også til lokal luftforurensing. Dette kan føre til redusert livskvalitet for befolkningen og besøkende til havnebyene. For å belyse problemet er Hurtigruten ASA benyttet som eksempel med de havnene den besøker på sin rute opp langs norskekysten. Rapporten gir en...

  19. Kunstpunkalliansen : En alternativ estetisk kontinuitet fra slutten av 1960-tallet til begynnelsen av 1990-tallet

    OpenAIRE

    Storsve, Gaute

    2007-01-01

    I denne oppgaven har jeg forsøkt å vise at det finnes en alternativ estetisk kontinuitet innenfor populærmusikken fra slutten av 1960-tallet til begynnelsen av 1990-tallet. Det som kjennetegner denne kontinuiteten er ulike former for krysninger av punkelementer med en sterk kunstbevissthet. Jeg valgte å kalle dette for kunstpunkalliansen. For å illustrere hva kunstpunkalliansen er har jeg analysert tre låter fra tre forskjellige band fra tre forskjellige tiår: The Velvet Undergrounds «Ven...

  20. Ishockeykjelke - Innfesting av spilleren: Utvikling av ny kjelke til det norske kjelkehockeylandslaget

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Kjelkehockey er basert på de samme prinsippene som ishockey, men er rettet mot utøvere med funksjonsnedsettelser i nedre del av kroppen. Utøverne sitter i en tilpasset kjelke med skøytestål på undersiden av bakre del av kjelken. De har en tilpasset hockeykølle i hver hånd, som har to funksjoner, i den ene enden er det pigger til å stake seg frem med på isen, og den andre enden ligner en vanlig hockeykølle og brukes til å håndter...

  1. Instrumentering av Bergsøysundbrua og Gjemnesundbrua

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlen, Adrian; Lystad, Tor Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gjemnessundbrua og Bergsøysundbrua på Europavei E39 i Møre og Romsdal, skal instrumenteres for identifikasjon av strukturelle og dynamiske egenskaper. Denne rapporten omhandler dokumentasjon og beskrivelse av det utførte arbeidet ved monteringen av måleutstyret. Det er også gjort analyser av de ulike konstruksjonsdelene akselerometersensorer og anemometre er montert på. Til slutt er de initielle responssignalene fra systemet behandlet, der egenfrekvenser og ...

  2. Dicty_cDB: FC-AV04 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AV04 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15991-1 FC-AV04P (Li...nk to Original site) FC-AV04F 307 FC-AV04Z 363 FC-AV04P 670 - - Show FC-AV04 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AV...al site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AV/FC-AV04Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AV...04P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AV04 (FC-AV04Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AV/FC-AV...B: ifnftskekkk*nnsfmfsvvtlffnfilfyffifnyffnyffisfffpiqiiiifnyfl fylffls*ipk*lki*av*dyfsnf*l**c*cslrnrkit**--

  3. The use of FTIR technique for determination of gas phase emissions from wood pellet manufacturing. Evaluation of the Time Correlated Tracer (TCT) method for assessment of diffuse terpene emissions from wood pellet production; Anvaendning av FTIR teknik foer bestaemning av gasformiga emissioner vid traepelletstillverkning. Utvaerdering av Time Correlated Tracer (TCT)-metoden foer bestaemning av diffusa terpenemissioner fraan pelletstillverkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedberg, Urban; Galle, Bo [Sundsvall Hospital (Sweden). Clinic of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

    2001-04-01

    In the original project proposal, quantification of the total emission of terpenes from wood pellet manufacturing with the novel TCT-method (Time Correlated Tracer) based on FTIR-technique (Fourier Transform Infrared) and tracer gas was suggested. The expected outcome was a general algorithm for the calculations of the emissions expressed as amount emitted per unit produced. This information would be useful when planning the location of new facilities in relation to domestic housing as well as to other industrial activities. Initial point sampling with an FTIR White cell was made in order to establish the locations of the sources of terpene emissions. The results showed that the dominating terpene emissions came from the smoke stacks gases and was not of such diffuse nature as originally believed. Neither in the pellet storage room, inside the main process facilities, outside the buildings, nor close to the wood chip storage piles, could terpene be detected with the FTIR point sampling cell. In the smoke stack gases terpenes, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, acetone, methanol, ethylene, acetylene, formaldehyde and methane was detected. The conclusions so far is that it is not economically or scientifically justifiable to continue the measurements with the proposed TCT method since, the terpene emissions are not of a diffuse nature. Instead it is concluded that terpene emission is best established by direct measurement in the smoke stack gases. In accordance with the intentions of the project, an algorithm for the terpene emission was established based on the measurements in the smoke stack gases. This algorithm shows an average emission of 255 grams of terpenes per produced ton of pellets. This gives an annual emission of 21,700 kg of gaseous terpenes from the investigated plant, based on an annual production of 85,000 tons pellets. When compared to other establishments processing wood, i.e. saw mills, this amount is not large. The results shed some light on other gaseous emissions and odors present in the factory which previously has raised some concerns among the process operators. In the pellet storage room, elevated levels of aldehydes, primarily hexanal and pentanal along with acetone and methanol were detected. Particularly the relatively high aldehyde levels raise concern from a occupational perspective. It is suspected that the odor from these chemicals also constitute the odors experienced among final users of the product when delivered to their homes. In and around the condensing tanks elevated levels of acetone and methanol were detected. Inside the production halls no elevated levels were detected. Outside the building, elevated levels of formaldehyde, around 1 ppm, was detected, which is above the permissible occupational exposure limit of 0.5 ppm. Finally, it was concluded that the blue haze emitted from the smoke stack, probably was made up of condensed tar.

  4. REMINDER Preparation for Retirement Programme - AVS Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The AVS seminar, which had to be cancelled in March this year, will be held on: Wednesday 26 September from 14:00 to 16:00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be led by Mr. Lorenz STAMPFLI. The session is open to all people already registered and any other person who is interested, without the need to register.

  5. REMINDER PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The AVS seminar, which had to be cancelled in March this year, will be held on: Wednesday 26 September from 14:00 to 16:00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be led by Mr. Lorenz STAMPFLI. The session is open to all people already registered and any other person who is interested, without the need to register.

  6. Acid volatile sulfide (AVS)- a comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The review by Rickard and Morse (this volume) adequately summarizes our current understanding with respect to acid-volatile sulfides (AVS). At the same time, this review addresses some of the misunderstandings with regard to measurements and dynamics of this important sedimentary sulfur pool. In

  7. Risikostyring av jetfuelprisen med futureskontrakter : en studie av hedgingstrategier for flyselskaper

    OpenAIRE

    Marker, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Denne oppgaven undersøker risikostyring av jetfuelprisen gjennom hedgingstrategier med WTI- og fyringsoljefutures som sikringsinstrument. Analysen tar sikte på å estimere minimum varians hedgingrater for ulike hedgingstrategier. Formålet er å finne hedgingstrategier som gir høyest hedgingeffektivitet, og dermed gir størst reduksjon i jetfuelprisrisiko. Første del av analysen vil estimere hedgingrater med utgangspunkt i flere analysemetoder under en klassisk lineær regresjonsmodell (CLRM). Hed...

  8. Aktivitetsbasert pedagogikk; en studie av bachelorstudenters utvikling av handlingskompetanse gjennom aktivitetsbasert pedagogikk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Margrete Hjelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Målet med artikkelen er å synliggjøre hvordan bachelorstudenter i ergoterapi kan utvikle profesjonell handlingskompetanse gjennom aktivitetsbasert pedagogikk. På bakgrunn av dette gjennomførte vi kvalitative fokusgruppeintervju med 12 ergoterapeutstudenter som hadde deltatt i undervisningsopplegget “Aktivitetsgrupper-lede og delta”. Datamaterialet ble analysert etter retningslinjer for fenomenologisk basert meningskondensering. Studentene diskuterte sine erfaringer og det kom tydelig fram at undervisningsopplegget ga dem muligheter til å bruke sitt engasjement og sin kreativitet i valg av aktiviteter for sin simulerte aktivitetsgruppe. Videre fikk de muligheter til å oppdage sider ved anvendelse av aktiviteter for ulike pasienter, som de ikke kunne forstå uten integrering av teori i praktisk ferdighetstrening. Ved planlegging, gjennomføring og refleksjon over å lede og delta i aktivitetsgrupper, oppøvet de evnen til handlingsrefleksjon. Aktivitetsbasert pedagogikk kan bidra til utvikling av profesjonell handlingskompetanse og det er behov for både teoretiske og praktiske læringsformer. Funnene ble diskutert i lys av pedagogisk handlingsteori.

  9. Low-Complexity Tools in AVS Part 7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yi; Qi-Chao Sun; Jie Dong; Lu Yu

    2006-01-01

    Audio Video coding Standard (AVS) is established by the AVS Working Group of China. The main goal of AVS part 7 is to provide high compression performance with relatively low complexity for mobility applications. There are 3 main low-complexity tools: deblocking filter, context-based adaptive 2D-VLC and direct intra prediction. These tools are presented and analyzed respectively. Finally, we compare the performance and the decoding speed of AVS part 7 and H.264 baseline profile. The analysis and results indicate that AVS part 7 achieves similar performance with lower cost.

  10. Overview of AVS-video: tools, performance and complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Yi, Feng; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Cixun

    2005-07-01

    Audio Video coding Standard (AVS) is established by the Working Group of China in the same name. AVS-video is an application driven coding standard. AVS Part 2 targets to high-definition digital video broadcasting and high-density storage media and AVS Part 7 targets to low complexity, low picture resolution mobility applications. Integer transform, intra and inter-picture prediction, in-loop deblocking filter and context-based two dimensional variable length coding are the major compression tools in AVS-video, which are well-tuned for target applications. It achieves similar performance to H.264/AVC with lower cost.

  11. Varmepumper i hushald. Analyse av endringar i effektforbruket hos hushald med panelomnar og vedfyring ved installasjon av ulike typar varmepumper

    OpenAIRE

    Øvrebotten, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Sidan oljekrisa på 1970-talet som førte til ein gradvis overgang frå bruk av oljekjelar og parafinkaminar til panelomnar og varmepumper, har andelen elektrisitet stadig auka mens andelen av olje har vore redusert. Andelen av elektrisitet hos hushalda utgjer i dag om lag 79 % av den samla energibruken hos hushalda i Noreg. Dette høge forbruket av elektrisitet hos hushalda bidreg til å skape problem med høge effekttoppar i kraftnettet som igjen skapar problem for kraftdistributørar og er med...

  12. A Novel MBAFF Scheme of AVS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Wen Chen; Guo-Ping Li; Yun He

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive frame/field coding techniques have been adopted in many international video standards for interlaced sequence coding. When the frame/field adaptation is applied on the picture level, the coding efficiency is improved greatly,compared with the pure frame coding or the pure field coding. The picture-level adaptive frame/field coding (PAFF) selects frame coding or field coding once for one picture. If this frame/field adaptation is extended to Macro Block (MB) level, the coding efficiency will be further increased. In this paper, a novel MB-level adaptive frame/field (MBAFF) coding scheme is proposed. In the proposed MBAFF scheme, the top field of the current picture is used as a reference. The experiments are implemented on the platforms of Audio Video coding Standard (AVS) base profile and H.264/AVC, respectively. On the AVS platform, 0.35dB gain can be achieved averagely, compared with AVS1.0 anchor. On the H.264/AVC platform, 0.16dB gain can be achieved averagely, compared with MBAFF scheme of H.264/AVC. Additionally, an extensive subjective quality enhancement can be achieved by the proposed scheme.

  13. Utveckling av ett webbforum med innehållshanteringssystemet Drupal

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    Detta examensarbete består av två huvuddelar. Den första delen är en teoretisk analys av innehållshanteringssystem i allmänhet och en forskning i hur det populära innehållshanteringsverktyget Drupal är uppbyggt. Den andra delen av arbetet är en praktisk genomgång av hur funktionalitet för ett webbforum kan byggas upp med hjälp av Drupals ramverk. Den teoretiska analysen undersöker vad ett innehållshanteringsverktyg är, vad det används till och vilka huvuddrag det i allmänhet består av. Sed...

  14. Teknologisk fravalg og tilvalg av fremtidig syke og funksjonshemmede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Solberg

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available I dette nummeret av Etikk i praksis ønsker vi å fokusere på et betent problemområde, nemlig etikken rundt teknologisk fravalg og tilvalg av fremtidige syke og funksjonshemmede barn. Det handler om abort, medisinsk teknologi og valg av barn. Det kan synes som om vi står overfor nye muligheter for fravalg og tilvalg som ikke bare setter en ny debatt, men som samtidig krever en tilbakevending og nyåpning av tidligere gjennomdiskuterte spørsmål og tema. Debattene rundt «valg av barn» berører dype, eksistensielle dimensjoner ved menneskelivet. I tillegg berører det store samfunnsmessige temaer som inklusjon og menneskeverd, selvbestemmelse, abort, eugenikk og samfunnets forståelse av funksjonshemming.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v2i1.1686

  15. Kvinnors upplevelser av komplicerad förlossning

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, Magdalena; Wahlberg, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Att vänta och föda barn beskrivs som en av de viktiga övergångsperioderna i livet och innebär ofta en personlig utveckling för den födande kvinnan. Då graviditeten och förlossningen av någon anledning kompliceras, kan denna process störas, och kvinnan kan istället få både fysiska och psykiska men i efterförloppet. Syftet med denna studie var att belysa kvinnors upplevelser av en komplicerad förlossning. Metoden var en granskning i form av en innehållsanalys av sju artiklar som utgjordes av fy...

  16. AVS 3D Video Coding Technology and System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siwei Ma; Shiqi Wang; Wen Gao

    2012-01-01

    Following the success of the audio video standard (AVS) for 2D video coding, in 2008, the China AVS workgroup started developing 3D video (3DV) coding techniques. In this paper, we discuss the background, technical features, and applications of AVS 3DV coding technology. We introduce two core techniques used in AVS 3DV coding: inter-view prediction and enhanced stereo packing coding. We elaborate on these techniques, which are used in the AVS real-time 3DV encoder. An application of the AVS 3DV coding system is presented to show the great practical value of this system. Simulation results show that the advanced techniques used in AVS 3DV coding provide remarkable coding gain compared with techniques used in a simulcast scheme.

  17. Analyse av klimatilpassningstiltak : en casestudie av avløpsnettet i Veumdalen, Fredrikstad kommune

    OpenAIRE

    Myking, Jakob Severin Eide

    2012-01-01

    Økt forståelse av fortidens klimaendringer og klimasystemet i sin helhet, har gitt forskerne mulighet til å anta fremtidens klimaendringer. Denne økte forståelsen har gitt sikre tegn på at klimaendringene er knyttet til en stor grad av usikkerhet. Det eneste som er sikkert, er at klimaendringer kommer til å skje, og at det er umulig å si med sikkerhet når eller med hvilken kraft de vil inntreffe. Det som derimot kan sies med sikkerhet, er at befolkningen kommer til å øke. Dette vil føre til ø...

  18. Optimering av FISH- teknik för detektion av Laktobaciller

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidi, Helaleh

    2008-01-01

    Sammanfattning Syftet med den här studien var att utveckla och optimera FISH (Fluorescense In Situ Hybridisation) tekniken som en snabb och ganska billig metod för detektion av laktobaciller. Det vill säga att kunna på objektsglas använda FISH tekniken för att identifiera laktobaciller på artnivå med fluorescensmärkta prober mot 16S och 23S RNA. FISH är en allmän och användbar metod för att detektera och lokalisera mikroorganismer eller en specifik grupp av mikroorganismer i provet (1). Metod...

  19. Kunnskapsutvikling i et profesjonsperspektiv - En kvantitativ studie av sosialarbeideres bruk av kunnskapsressurser i arbeidslivet

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Problemområde Profesjoner betraktes gjerne som grupper som rår over store deler av samfunnets ressurser. Som velferdsstatens portvakter anses de gjerne som grupper med definisjonsmakt og forvaltere av kunnskap (Molander og Smeby, 2013). Det moderne kunnskapssamfunnet byr imidlertid på nye utfordringer for profesjonsfeltet. Det stilles i økende grad krav til at profesjonsutøvere skal være faglig oppdaterte, utøve en kunnskapsbasert praksis og til en hver tid inneha nødvendig kompetanse. Sosial...

  20. Functional mathematical model of dual pathway AV nodal conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, A M; Guillem, M S; Zhang, Y; Millet, J; Mazgalev, T N

    2011-04-01

    Dual atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathway physiology is described as two different wave fronts that propagate from the atria to the His bundle: one with a longer effective refractory period [fast pathway (FP)] and a second with a shorter effective refractory period [slow pathway (SP)]. By using His electrogram alternance, we have developed a mathematical model of AV conduction that incorporates dual AV nodal pathway physiology. Experiments were performed on five rabbit atrial-AV nodal preparations to develop and test the presented model. His electrogram alternances from the inferior margin of the His bundle were used to identify fast and slow wave front propagations. The ability to predict AV conduction time and the interaction between FP and SP wave fronts have been analyzed during regular and irregular atrial rhythms (e.g., atrial fibrillation). In addition, the role of dual AV nodal pathway wave fronts in the generation of Wenckebach periodicities has been illustrated. Finally, AV node ablative modifications have been evaluated. The model accurately reproduced interactions between FP and SP during regular and irregular atrial pacing protocols. In all experiments, specificity and sensitivity higher than 85% were obtained in the prediction of the pathway responsible for conduction. It has been shown that, during atrial fibrillation, the SP ablation significantly increased the mean HH interval (204 ± 39 vs. 274 ± 50 ms, P AV node mechanisms and should be considered as a step forward in the studies of AV nodal conduction.

  1. AV nodal dual pathway electrophysiology and Wenckebach periodicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Mazgalev, Todor N

    2011-11-01

    The precise mechanism(s) governing the phenomenon of AV nodal Wenckebach periodicity is not fully elucidated. Currently 2 hypotheses, the decremental conduction and the Rosenbluethian step-delay, are most frequently used. We have provided new evidence that, in addition, dual pathway (DPW) electrophysiology is directly involved in the manifestation of AV nodal Wenckebach phenomenon. AV nodal cellular action potentials (APs) were recorded from 6 rabbit AV node preparations during standard A1A2 and incremental pacing protocols. His electrogram alternans, a validated index of DPW electrophysiology, was used to monitor fast (FP) and slow (SP) pathway conduction. The data were collected in intact AV nodes, as well as after SP ablation. In all studied hearts the Wenckebach cycle started with FP propagation, followed by transition to SP until its ultimate block. During this process complex cellular APs were observed, with decremental foot formations reflecting the fading FP and second depolarizations produced by the SP. In addition, the AV node cells exhibited a progressive loss in maximal diastolic membrane potential (MDP) due to incomplete repolarization. The pause created with the blocked Wenckebach beat was associated with restoration of MDP and reinitiation of the conduction cycle via the FP wavefront. DPW electrophysiology is dynamically involved in the development of AV nodal Wenckebach periodicity. In the intact AV node, the cycle starts with FP that is progressively weakened and then replaced by SP propagation, until block occurs. AV nodal SP modification did not eliminate Wenckebach periodicity but strongly affected its paradigm. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Legemiddelbivirkninger – forekomst og vurdering av årsakssammenhenger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Westergren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En gjennomgang av spontanrapportene fra den norske bivirkningsdatabasen viser en betydelig geografisk variasjon når det gjelder innrapportering av bivirkninger. I Norge blir disse meldingene evaluert ved RELIS (Regionale legemiddelinformasjonssentre av tverrfaglige team bestående av leger og farmasøyter. Bivirkningsarbeidet ved RELIS gjøres på oppdrag fra Statens legemiddelverk, som har det overordnede ansvar for legemiddelovervåkningen i Norge. Vurderingene baseres på kjent risikoprofil for mistenkte legemidler, indikasjon, dosering, tidsmessig sammenheng mellom reaksjon og medikamentinntak, effekt av seponering og eventuelle andre risikofaktorer. 3345 legemiddel/bivirkningskombinasjoner ble vurdert på bakgrunn av 1408 rapporter i 2006. De fleste mistenkte bivirkningene ble klassifisert som mulige, ettersom andre faktorer også kunne ha spilt en rolle. Få bivirkninger ble klassifisert som sikre. Informasjon om bivirkninger i litteratur og databaser er i flere tilfeller preget av manglende homogenitet, tilfeldige sammentreff i tid, manglende data og lite vurdering av sammenhengen mellom reaksjonen og medisinbruken. Kliniske studier har begrenset mulighet til å påvise annet enn de vanligste bivirkningene. Det kan ta år etter markedsføring å fastslå sammenhengen med mer sjeldne bivirkninger. Frekvenstabeller for bivirkninger er anslag basert på et begrenset antall pasienter, spesielt for nye legemidler. Evaluering av bivirkningsrapporter fra helsepersonell kan avdekke mangel på lett tilgjengelig informasjon og bidra til ny kunnskap om et legemiddels bivirkningsprofil

  3. Russisk oljetransport gjennom Barentshavet : En tilfellestudie av den norske responsen

    OpenAIRE

    Aasen, Kari

    2010-01-01

    Oppgaven er en tilfellestudie av den norske responsen på økningen av russisk oljetransport gjennom Barentshavet. Oljetransporten fra Nordvest-Russland tok seg plutselig dramatisk opp i 2002, noe som kom svært overraskende på norske myndigheter. Hensikten med oppgaven har derfor vært å kartlegge den norske responsen, for å finne ut hva som har preget den. På bakgrunn av kjennetegnene ved responsen har jeg deretter forsøkt å sannsynliggjøre hvilke oppfatninger av Russland som vært dominerende. ...

  4. Konsum av risiko-matvarer - Beskrivelse av en undersøkelse som skal kartlegge konsum av matvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI perioden 1999-2001 vil det bli gjennomført tre kostholdsundersøkelser som til sammen skal kartlegge konsum avmatvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter i Norge, fortrinnsvis kadmium, kvikksølv, PCB og dioksiner.Disse giftene finnes hovedsakelig i krabbe, flatfisk, skjell, gjedde og abbor, lever eller nyre fra vilt og viltvoksendesopp. Fordi gjennomsnittskonsumet er lavt, spørres det ikke spesifikt om disse matvarene i landsdekkende kostholdsundersøkelsersom 'Norkost'. Hensikten med studien er å kunne gi en bedre beskrivelse av eksponeringsfordelingeni befolkningen med tanke på miljøgifter. Fordelingen er antakelig skjev, dvs. et stort antall personerventes å ha et lavt inntak og noen få personer ventes å ha et relativt høyt inntak av de undersøkte stoffene. Eventuelleukjente risikogrupper vil kunne avdekkes, og det er av stor interesse å undersøke hvor stor eksponeringen i deutsatte gruppene er.Del A av undersøkelsen er landsdekkende og omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 10 000 tilfeldig valgtepersoner mellom 18 og 79 år. Del B omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 6000 tilfeldig valgte personer i sekskommuner, der tre er kystkommuner og tre er innlandskommuner. Kommunene blir valgt ut fra kjennskap til godtilgang på de aktuelle matvarene. Vi antar at der tilgangen på matvarene er god, er konsumet høyere. Del C avundersøkelsen vil omfatte høykonsumenter av aktuelle matvarer, valgt fra del B av undersøkelsen. Dette vil være endybdestudie der analyser av miljøgifter i blod, hår og urin også skal inngå.Undersøkelsen er den første i sitt slag her til lands og vi kjenner ikke til at tilsvarende studier er gjort i andreland. Hensikten med artikkelen er å gi en beskrivelse av undersøkelsen i en tidlig fase av gjennomføringen.Meltzer HM, Bergsten C, Stene LC, Stigum H, Wiborg ML, Lund-Larsen K, Alexander J. Consumption ofcontaminated foods – Description of a dietary survey

  5. Dicty_cDB: FC-AV01 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AV01 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16311-1 FC-AV01Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-AV01Z 643 - - - - Show FC-AV01 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AV01 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AV/FC-AV01Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AV...01Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AV01 (FC-AV01Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AV/FC-AV01Q.Seq....ed Amino Acid sequence ---SGSHGGSQSQSAGSDSQSAGSESSQSESGSQSQSESGSQSQSQSGSQSFSGSLYSGS YSGSQSGSQSGNSGAAVKQTGAGS

  6. Pollen transmission of asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) may facilitate mixed infection by two AV-2 isolates in asparagus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Ryusuke; Shimura, Hanako; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Ohki, Satoshi T; Masuta, Chikara

    2014-09-01

    Asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) is a member of the genus Ilarvirus and thought to induce the asparagus decline syndrome. AV-2 is known to be transmitted by seed, and the possibility of pollen transmission was proposed 25 years ago but not verified. In AV-2 sequence analyses, we have unexpectedly found mixed infection by two distinct AV-2 isolates in two asparagus plants. Because mixed infections by two related viruses are normally prevented by cross protection, we suspected that pollen transmission of AV-2 is involved in mixed infection. Immunohistochemical analyses and in situ hybridization using AV-2-infected tobacco plants revealed that AV-2 was localized in the meristem and associated with pollen grains. To experimentally produce a mixed infection via pollen transmission, two Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were infected with each of two AV-2 isolates were crossed. Derived cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequence analysis identified each AV-2 isolate in the progeny seedlings, suggesting that pollen transmission could indeed result in a mixed infection, at least in N. benthamiana.

  7. EST Table: AV399953 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399953 br--0128 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0016491(oxidoreductase activity)|GO:0055114(ox...idation reduction) 10/09/28 43 %/114 aa ref|XP_397141.3| PREDICTED: similar to NADPH dependent diflavin oxid...imilar to NADPH-dependent FMN and FAD containing oxidoreductase-like protein [Tribolium castaneum] AV399953 br-- ...

  8. EST Table: AV404903 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404903 prgv0575 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0004174(electron-transferring-flavoprotein deh...w homology 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 low homology AV404903 prgv ...

  9. Bochdalek Hernia As A Cause Of Intermittent AV Block

    OpenAIRE

    Etsadashvili, Kakhaber; Rashid, Haroon Mohammed; Jalabadze, Khatuna; Melia, Anzor

    2011-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is very rare cause of AV block. We report such a patient with sick sinus node syndrome and previous AAIR pacemaker implantation, in which intermittent AV block was diagnosed by 24-hours ECG monitoring and upgrade of pacing system to DDDR was suggested.

  10. Introduction to AVS2 Scene Video Coding Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaying Yan; Siwei Dong; Yonghong Tian; Tiejun Huang

    2016-01-01

    The second generation Audio Video Coding Standard (AVS2) is the most recent video coding standard. By introducing several new coding techniques, AVS2 can provide more efficient compression for scene videos such as surveillance videos, conference videos, etc. Due to the limited scenes, scene videos have great redundancy especially in background region. The new scene video coding techniques applied in AVS2 mainly focus on reducing redundancy in order to achieve higher compression. This paper introduces several important AVS2 scene video coding techniques. Experimental results show that with scene video coding tools, AVS2 can save nearly 40%BD⁃rate (Bjøntegaard⁃Delta bit⁃rate) on scene videos.

  11. Implementeringsforskning: vitenskap for forbedring av praksis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Flottorp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medisinsk forskning har ført til store framskritt de siste tiårene. Det er investert mye mer ressurser på basalforskning og klinisk forskning enn på å utvikle og evaluere metoder for å sikre at pasientene får nytte av forskningen. Formålet med implementeringsforskning er å redusere gapet mellom forskning og praksis, ved å utvikle og evaluere tiltak som kan sikre at behandlingen som pasientene mottar er kunnskapsbasert, at den er omsorgsfull og av god kvalitet.I denne artikkelen gjør vi rede for hva implementering og implementeringsforskning er. Vi belyser historikken til denne unge vitenskapen, og illustrerer mangfoldet i de faglige tilnærmingene og begrepene som brukes om det å få forskning brukt i praksis. Det finnes en rekke teorier om endring av atferd, både på individnivå og på organisatorisk nivå. Teoriene er imidlertid i liten grad testet empirisk, særlig når det gjelder å endre atferd i helsetjenesten.Systematiske oversikter over metodisk gode studier er den beste kilden til informasjon om effekt av implementeringstiltak. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC er en viktig kilde for slike oversikter. De systematiske oversiktene som er utarbeidet på dette feltet viser at passive dissemineringstiltak har begrenset effekt, mens mer aktive tiltak kan ha liten til moderat effekt. Det er ofte betydelig variasjon i effekt på tvers av studiene. Det er derfor viktig å få bedre kunnskap om hvilke faktorer som kan forklare slike forskjeller i effekt.Vi gir eksempler på norske implementeringsstudier, og refererer bidrag fra forskere ved Kunnskapssenteret. Implementeringsforskningen kan, hvis den lykkes, sikre pasientene bedre behandling.Flottorp S, Aakhus E. Implementation research: science for improving practice. Nor J Epidemiol 201 3; 23 (2: 187-196.ENGLISH SUMMARY Medical research has led to major advances in recent decades. More resources have been invested in basic and clinical research

  12. Cofactor requirement of HpyAV restriction endonuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Hong Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is the etiologic agent of common gastritis and a risk factor for gastric cancer. It is also one of the richest sources of Type II restriction-modification (R-M systems in microorganisms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have cloned, expressed and purified a new restriction endonuclease HpyAV from H. pylori strain 26695. We determined the HpyAV DNA recognition sequence and cleavage site as CCTTC 6/5. In addition, we found that HpyAV has a unique metal ion requirement: its cleavage activity is higher with transition metal ions than in Mg(++. The special metal ion requirement of HpyAV can be attributed to the presence of a HNH catalytic site similar to ColE9 nuclease instead of the canonical PD-X-D/EXK catalytic site found in many other REases. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to verify the catalytic residues of HpyAV. Mutation of the conserved metal-binding Asn311 and His320 to alanine eliminated cleavage activity. HpyAV variant H295A displayed approximately 1% of wt activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Some HNH-type endonucleases have unique metal ion cofactor requirement for optimal activities. Homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that HpyAV is a member of the HNH nuclease family. The identification of catalytic residues in HpyAV paved the way for further engineering of the metal binding site. A survey of sequenced microbial genomes uncovered 10 putative R-M systems that show high sequence similarity to the HpyAV system, suggesting lateral transfer of a prototypic HpyAV-like R-M system among these microorganisms.

  13. Particle dispersion at road building using fly ash - model review, investigation of influence of humidity content for dust emission and fly ash particle characterisation; Partikelspriding vid byggnation av vaeg med aska - modelloeversikt, undersoekning av fuktighetsgradens betydelse foer damning och karaktaerisering av partiklar fraan flygaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Wik, Ola; Frogner-Kockum, Paul

    2009-03-15

    Ashes from incineration may have very good properties, such as building materials in roads. This use assumes that the ashes do not have serious environmental and health effects. Since ash might generate large amounts of dust in handling the issue on the extent of dusting and dust properties has proved to be important to assess the risks of environmental impacts during use. Inhalable particles in the ambient air are a problem that has attracted much attention and is regarded as one of the most serious health related air pollutants. The present project has aimed to: describe appropriate models for calculating the emission and dispersion of dust in the air during the construction of ash containing roads, evaluate a new method to examine the importance of moisture for dusting from fly ash and investigate the properties of fly ash, making it possible to identify ash in samples of airborne particles. The target audience is ash manufacturers, contractors and consultants with a need for knowledge of ash dusting. Project modules have included: a literature review to identify appropriate modelling tools to describe the emission and dispersion of dust from road building with ash a method study in which a piece of equipment called Duster, have been evaluated for assessing the significance of the ash humidity to dusting, and an electron microscope study where morphology and composition of some ashes, cement and Merit have been studied to find ways to identify ash particles in dust samples. The results show that there is a lack of overall model tools that can describe the emissions from all the management operations of ashes at road building and that existing models sometimes lack key variables. Also, because of high silt content of ashes, some models are deemed inferior compared to when used for ordinary mineral material. Furthermore, attempts with the Duster shows that the method works, but with limited precision, and that dusting from the ash samples was reduced significantly at moisture contents above about 15%. The particle characterization study showed that ash specific chemical signal elements are preferred in the characterization. Important signal elements of ash can be S, Hg, Cd, and the ratio Mg/Al, but elements most appropriate might vary between specific types of ash and applications. The project has brought new knowledge about the possibilities to characterize ash particles and on the moisture needed to avoid dusting from ash. A method to try dusting from ash surfaces has been evaluated in laboratory and the project has also shown available, but in some respects inadequate, models for emission and dispersion of dust from handling of ash

  14. Consequences of increased extraction of forest fuel - A synthesis from the Energy Agency fuel program 2007-2011 Summary of the Synthesis Report; Konsekvenser av ett oekat uttag av skogsbraensle - En syntes fraan Energimyndighetens braensleprogram 2007-2011 Sammanfattning av syntesrapporten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a research synthesis of forest fuels. The full report (de Jong et al 2012) can be ordered from the Swedish Energy Agency (report number: ER 2012:08), or downloaded from www.energimyndigheten.se. The Energy Agency's research program 'Sustainable supply and refining of biofuels', also known as 'Fuel program', ran from 2007-01-01 to 2011-06-30. The results of the program are reported in synthesis reports for various program areas. The purpose of the synthesis reports is to compile the knowledge in various areas, to identify knowledge gaps that need to be elucidated further, and to place and discuss the aggregated research results in a larger energy- and societal perspective, including relations to environmental quality and forest policy environmental- and production goals. This report covers sub-project 'Forest fuel and environmental impacts', conducted during the years 2007-2011. The report covers projects within the program 'Sustainable supply and refining of biofuels', adjacent individual projects funded by the Energy Agency and certain other national related activities.

  15. Water Activities in Laxemar Simpevarp. Clab/encapsulation facility (Clink) - removal of groundwater, collection of cooling water from the sea and the construction of day water pond; Vattenverksamhet i Laxemar-Simpevarp. Clab/inkapslingsanlaeggning (Clink) - bortledande av grundvatten, uttag av kylvatten fraan havet samt anlaeggande av dagvattendamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    This report is an appendix to an Environmental Impact Assessment that accompanies a permit application according to the Swedish Environmental Code. The report concerns water operations (Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code) associated with construction of an encapsulation plant in direct connection to SKB's existing Clab facility on the Simpevarp peninsula in the Municipality of Oskarshamn (the report is also included in the permit application according to the Nuclear Activities Act). Moreover, the report deals with water operations associated with the operation of the integrated facility, which is named Clink. Specifically, the water operations that are treated in the report include diversion of groundwater, withdrawal of cooling water from the sea, and construction of a storm-water treatment pond. There are valid permits regarding diversion of groundwater and withdrawal of cooling water for the current facility and activities at Clab. It is presupposed that the cooling-water withdrawal from the sea to Clink can be handled within the limits of the valid Clab permit. The diversion of groundwater from Clink may be somewhat larger compared to the present diversion from Clab. The increase is due to a relatively small, additional rock shaft for the encapsulation plant, adjacent to the current surface facility and above one of the two existing rock caverns (Clab 1). Based on the location of the planned rock shaft (above one of the existing rock caverns) and its small volume, it is judged that the inflow of groundwater during operation of Clink will be only 5-10 percent larger compared to the inflow to the current Clab facility. It is possible that the inflow will be larger during the construction phase, prior to grouting of the shaft. Based on the limited increase of the groundwater inflow and results from the ongoing Clab monitoring programme, it is judged that the construction of the encapsulation plant and the operation of Clink will only lead to very small additional changes of groundwater levels in rock, directly adjacent to the facility. Calculations indicate that water saturation of rock caverns and recovery of groundwater levels in rock around the facility will require less than ten years subsequent to decommissioning of the facility and termination of the groundwater diversion. To sum up, the groundwater diversion is judged not to lead to any negative consequences for private wells or nature values. Water that is pumped from the rock shaft during the construction will pass a temporary oil separation and sedimentation facility, before it is discharged to recipient. The shaft will be grouted in order to reduce the inflow of groundwater. A number of measures are planned that will improve the storm-water handling at Clink compared to the present situation. One of these measures is to construct a new storm-water treatment pond in the vicinity of Clink. The purpose of the treatment pond is supplementary flow flattening and sedimentation in the existing storm-water system at Clab. It is judged that the construction of the storm-water treatment pond only causes insignificant ecological consequences. During operation of the storm-water treatment pond, heavy metals and other substances will accumulate in the bottom sediments of the pond, which will reduce the contaminant load on the storm-water recipient (the sea bay Herrgloet) compared to the present situation. Existing vegetation will be taken into consideration at construction of the storm-water treatment pond and improvement of the storm-water outlet to Herrgloet

  16. Bioseguridad en granjas avícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Ricaurte Galindo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available La bioseguridad es el conjunto de prácticas de manejo diseñadas para prevenir la entrada y transmisión de agentes patógenos que puedan afectar la sanidad en las granjas avícolas. La bioseguridad es una parte fundamental de cualquier empresa avícola ya que proporciona un aumento de la productividad de la parvada y un aumento en el rendimiento económico. En líneas generales, se debe contemplar la localización de la granja, características constructivas de los galpones, control de parvadas extraños a la granja, limpieza y desinfección de los galpones, control de visitas, evitar el stress en las aves encasetadas, evitar la contaminación del pienso, control de vacunaciones y medicaciones y control de deyecciones, cadáveres, etc.The biosecurity is the group of practical of handling designed to prevent the entrance and agents' pathologies transmission that can affect the sanity in the poultry farms. The biosecurity is since a fundamental part of any poultry company it provides an increase of the productivity of the chickens and hens and an increase in the economic yield. In general lines, the localization of the farm should be contemplated, characteristic constructive of the ship, control of strange chickens and hens to the farm, cleaning and disinfection of the ship, control of visits, to avoid the stress in the birds housed, to avoid the contamination of the I think, control of vaccinations and medications and dejections control, cadavers, etc.

  17. Phase 4 paroxysmal AV block in a patient with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butschek, Ross; Powell, Brian D; Littmann, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    A 72-year-old man with limited cutaneous systemic scleroderma was hospitalized for two episodes of witnessed syncope. The baseline 12-lead electrocardiogram was normal but on telemetry there were numerous episodes of paroxysmal AV block with asystolic periods of up to 7.5 s duration. Analysis of the rhythm strips revealed phase 4 intra-His bundle block characterized by critical P-P intervals that triggered the AV block, and a narrow range of junctional escape to subsequent P wave intervals that were required to release the AV block. A dual chamber pacemaker was implanted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ishockeykjelke - Understell: Utvikling av ny kjelke til det norske kjelkehockeylandslaget

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Kjelkehockey er basert på de samme prinsippene som ishockey, men er rettet mot utøvere med funksjonsnedsettelser i nedre del av kroppen. Utøverne sitter i en tilpasset kjelke med skøytestål på undersiden av bakre del av kjelken. De har en tilpasset hockeykølle i hver hånd, som har to funksjoner, i den ene enden er det pigger til å stake seg frem med på isen, og den andre enden ligner en vanlig hockeykølle og brukes til å håndter...

  19. Synthesis of Vaermeforsk's research programme 'Crops from field to energy'; Syntes av Vaermeforsks forskningsprogram 'Groedor fraan aaker till energi'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Gunnarsson, Carina; Roennbaeck, Marie; Olsson, Johanna

    2010-06-15

    Vaermeforsk and the Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have jointly run the research programme 'Crops from field to energy'. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilization of bioenergy from agriculture for combustion and heat and power production in Sweden. About 20 projects have studied different parts of the chain from cultivation, harvest and storage to combustion and recycling of ash to farmland for agricultural fuels (straw, hemp, Reed Canary Grass and short rotation willow crops (Salix)). The aim of this report has been to compile and synthesise progress made during the programme and realization of its aims, as well as to identify the need of further research. The most important progress and conclusions made during the programme are: Cultivation - More knowledge and concrete advice concerning planting and growth of Salix, as well as on suitable length of harvest season, which enables planting cost reductions and increased yields. Increased knowledge on cultivation of Reed Canary Grass and combined cultivation with leguminous plants. Harvest and logistics - Comparisons and costs for different alternatives for harvest, handling and logistics has been produced for all of the agricultural fuels, both via theoretical and practical efforts, which can serve as a basis for direct measures as well as continued research. Processing/combustion/ash - It is possible to produce briquettes made from Reed Canary Grass and peat. New knowledge on combustion of Reed Canary Grass with different boilers is produced. It is now recommended as a fuel for co-combustion with wood and peat in large scale plants. Recommendations on co-combustion of Reed Canary Grass and Salix with peat have also been put forward, based on combustion tests. Experience from Denmark on large scale combustion of straw and production of high quality straw has been compiled. Additional costs that may arise when using agricultural fuels instead of forest fuels have been investigated. Experience and knowledge concerning recycling of ash in the forestry sector has been identified and which may be applied in agriculture. Other topics - A calculation method has been made, which compares annual crops with perennial crops, which shows that Salix has good profitability (in SEK/hectare) and low production costs (in SEK/MWh) in comparison with other crops. The main obstacle for increasing the production and use of energy crops is that the cultivation is perceived to be unprofitable. To improve the competitiveness of energy crops, primarily in relation to wood chips, investment support should be given to farmers cultivating energy crops with high investment costs. Cooperation between farmers and energy users has been studied in the region of Vastra Gotaland in Sweden. Among the conclusions are that there needs to be profitability in all parts of the chain from field to energy plant, that structures for regional cooperation need to be modernized in order to increase the use of agricultural fuels in the plants. An inventory over agricultural fuel quantities available, possible farmers as well as areas for cultivation. Additional results are expected on important factors for increasing farmers interest in growing energy crops. Conclusions are drawn on realisation of the programmes aims. As a conclusion it can be stated that some projects have tackled problems and a broader set of aspects including the whole chain from field to plant, whereas some projects have contributed with parts, which together contribute to a better understanding. Most projects have given suggestions of solutions, but not tested them in reality, which gives rise to a need of more practical experiences in order to determine how problems may be solved in the best way and how obstacles for achieving a well functioning market can be removed. Remaining need of knowledge has been identified, as a result from projects as well as the workshop carried out, and is presented in this report. The need for research which was identified and prioritized at th e workshop includes: Cultivation - type of effort: Field trials regarding cultivation; Recommendations for cultivation of various crops in different geographical regions of the country; Investigation and demonstration of benefits of multifunctional systems and crops. Harvest and logistics - type of effort: Continued development and demonstration of harvest technology and logistical chains for all energy crops; Development of harvesting technology (not for straw), for in particular for Salix; Design and planning of terminals. Combustion - type of effort: Applied research and systematic investigation/verification of knowledge on combustion of agricultural fuels. Other topics - type of effort: Information and data regarding markets and policy instruments, Implementation of a functioning market for agricultural fuels, Demonstration of good examples, Data on sustainability for agricultural fuels

  20. Harvesting, loading and transportation of wood (willow) chips, from agricultural land. Systems and costs. Final report; Skoerd, lastning och transport av traeflis (Salix) fraan jordbruksmark. System och kostnader. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadders, G. [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    In the report, available equipment for harvesting, loading and transportation of willow chips is described. Advantages and disadvantages are highlighted. Further, the practical experiences gathered within the project are presented, as well as results from new calculations of the costs for harvesting willow chips with varying equipment. All of the studied methods including dumping the chips on the ground for short time storage are, according to the calculations, more expensive than the original method handling the chips in containers through out the handling chain. However, this is true only as long as there are no costs for waiting between the links in the chain. As some waiting is impossible to avoid, practical experiences has led to the conclusion that the original system is not sufficient by it self. How it can be replaced by and combined with other techniques is discussed. Presented data and analysis are based on the information gathered at visits with harvest contractors and road carriers during the late winter of 2001, and at meetings following up the experiences during the harvest season of 2000/2001. At the end of the report, the found conditions and some suggestions for actions are listed to serve for further discussion among the parties within the business.

  1. From crucial issue to additional question. A study of the political debate about nuclear waste in Sweden 1976-2009; Fraan oedesfraaga till oevrig fraaga. En studie av den politiska debatten om kaernavfallet i Sverige 1976-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nord, Lars; Stur, Elisabeth (Mid Sweden University (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The overall purpose of this paper is to investigate how the premises for the political decision processes in the issue of final disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste are affected by changes in the public opinion climate and global events. The paper therefore focuses on questions concerning how the national political debate leading up to decisions interacts with the media debate, and the public opinion dynamic that arises when the two debates relate to each other. Particular interest is devoted to the arguments and standpoints that occur in politics and media and how they refer to the prevailing public opinion situation and to conditions in the surrounding world of a political, legal, economic, ecological and technological nature. An analysis of the arenas and actors involved in the debates ought to provide valuable knowledge regarding how the political agenda has been formed at different points in time. The following questions are of central interest to the study: - What characterizes the parliamentary and the party political debate in the nuclear waste issue, and in what way have actors, standpoints and arguments changed over time? - What characterizes opinion formation and news reporting in the media in the nuclear waste issue and in what way have actors, standpoints and arguments changed over time? The course of the debate at four different times and in connection with four parliamentary elections during the period 1976-2009 is analyzed in the study. The subject of the analysis includes the four parliamentary parties the Centre Party, the Liberal Party, the Moderates and the Social Democrats. These four parties have been chosen because they have been represented in the Swedish Parliament during the entire period studied and are therefore reasonable to compare. The study has mainly been conducted as a qualitative textual analysis of public print, party documents and media content. The qualitative text analysis is complemented to some extent by other existing written documentation such as political memoirs and debate books. The results of the study show that the nuclear waste issue was at the centre of the domestic political debate during the 1970s, but then gradually lost ground in political importance during the following decades. What can most accurately be described as a make-or-break political issue at the start of the studied period was by the end of the same period at most a back-burner issue that was of limited interest and had virtually been removed from the political sphere. The nuclear waste debate serves as a good illustration of the life cycle of a political issue and illustrates the circumstances under which an issue can be politicized at one stage only to be marginalized and struck from the political agenda at a later stage. This metamorphosis in importance is seldom as clear-cut as in the analysis of the change undergone by the nuclear waste issue in the Swedish public debate. For example, six times as much was written on this subject in the four leading daily newspapers during the last three weeks of the 1976 election campaign as during the 1998 election campaign. When it comes to the number of parliamentary motions pertaining to nuclear power and nuclear waste, there were less than half as many during the parliamentary year 2009/10 compared with ten years earlier. In other words, this is an issue that is gradually declining in opinion-related importance, both in politics and in media coverage. The position of nuclear waste in the Swedish political debate can generally be explained by reference to an opinion-related interaction between politics and media, where in general political actors make rational judgements and take standpoints to maximize their own influence and to win voters, keep their party together or promote cooperation with other parties. Such judgements can explain why nuclear power and its environmental consequences were such a big issue in the 1976 election (when the Centre Party wanted to politicize the issue), as well as why it was such a small issue in the 1998 election (when all poli

  2. A study of the influence of noise from offshore wind power plants on the marine bottom fauna; En studie om hur bottenlevande fauna paaverkas av ljud fraan vindkraftverk till havs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem, Andreas; Granmo, Aake

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to examine changes of behaviour and activity patterns in marine soft bottom fauna under the influence of low frequent noise. Controlled experiments were performed at Kristineberg Marine Research Station in Fiskebaeckskil. The experiments were performed utilizing generator and vibrator techniques producing frequencies of 61, 178 and 721 Hz with an average sound pressure around 99 dB re 1 muPa. The selection of frequencies was based upon the sound profile measured at Utgrunden offshore wind farm in Kalmarsund (Ingemansson Technology, 2003) with the aim of recreating natural conditions. In order to quantify the sound exposure, measurements on both sound pressure and water particle acceleration in the test tanks were performed. In total four different marine soft bottom species were studied: a common little white mussel (Abra nitida), brittle star (Amphiura filiformis), brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) and juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). For the white mussel its burrowing ability was studied. First the speeds of burrowing down into the sediment and thereafter, the burrowing activity in the surface layer of the sediment for the duration of 96 hours were registered. During the experiments with the brittle star Amphiura filiformis the number of arms active in gathering food were observed shortly after the sound had started and for a period of 72 hours. When the brown shrimp was exposed for sound the number of prey items consumed during one day and after 4 days were observed. The study on juvenile plaice was only a shorter pilot study where the fish were exposed for sound during 15 minutes. During this restricted time swimming activity and burrowing activity were observed and after the initial 15 minutes also the respiration frequency during measurement for one minute were documented. The study showed that the burrowing activity increased for the white mussel compared to the controls during exposure of frequencies around 178 Hz after 24 hours exposure. The burrowing activity returned to normal after 48 h of exposure when the difference was not significantly different from the controls anymore. The observed change of behaviour could be interpreted as a response towards the artificially introduced sound and that an adaptation occurred towards the sound. A trend towards an increased activity also occurred during exposure to 61 Hz after the final measurement after 96 hours. Neither effects on activity nor behaviour in food collecting or consumption for brittle stars or brown shrimps could be established in this study. The pilot study on juvenile plaice revealed an increase in respiration during exposure to frequencies around 178 Hz and also a trend towards an increased respiration during exposure of 61 Hz. The effects on juvenile plaice during a long time exposure are uncertain. To sum up the results, this study showed that frequencies around 178 Hz seems to have an influence on certain soft bottom fauna at sound pressures of 99 dB re 1 muPa and with a maximal particle acceleration of 0,29 . 1,28 m/s2. Whether this is a common behavioral or only a species specific pattern has yet to be surveyed

  3. Hydrological and hydro-geological effects on wetlands and forest areas from the repository at Forsmark. Results from modelling with MIKE SHE; Hydrologiska och hydrogeologiska effekter paa vaatmarker och skogsomraaden av slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Resultat fraan modellering med MIKE SHE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Gustafsson, Ann-Marie; Aneljung, Maria; Sabel, Ulrika (DHI Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    This report provides background material for investigations and associated impact assessments concerning water operations in terms of withdrawal of groundwater from the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report presents detailed modelling results in the form of supplementary sensitivity analyses and detailed hydrological and hydrogeological analyses of specific nature objects in Forsmark. The sensitivity analyses aim to investigate the sensitivity of the modelling results to i) the meteorological conditions, ii) impervious surfaces and iii) the model description of the present SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste). A number of simulation cases aim to study cumulative effects of groundwater withdrawal from an extended SFR. The simulations are evaluated with respect to the groundwater table drawdown and head changes in the bedrock. The report analyses the hydrogeological and hydrological conditions for a number of selected wetland objects and forest objects. The selection of objects aims to cover different types of valuable nature objects at different geographical locations in relation to the influence area of the groundwater table drawdown. The analysis comprises groundwater levels at all nature objects, whereas wetlands with particularly high nature values have been studied in detail with respect to surface water levels, the need for water supply and object-specific water balances. These studies have been performed for different meteorological conditions in the form of a type (2006) and a statistically normal, dry and wet year, respectively, with a return period of 100 years for the dry- and wet years. All simulations for disturbed conditions with a fully open repository are done with a hydraulic conductivity of K{sub inj} = 10-7 or 10-8 m/s in the grouted zone. The results show that time-dependent precipitation and snow melt have large influence on the temporal variations of the depth to the groundwater table for undisturbed conditions. Precipitation and snow melt also have large influence on the drawdown of the groundwater table due to the groundwater withdrawal from the repository. For a normal year, based on precipitation data from the reference normal period 1961-1990, the annual average size of the influence area is 1.15 km2 for a grouting level of K{sub inj} = 10-7 m/s. Compared to the normal year, the size of the influence area is 17% larger during a dry year and 19% smaller during a wet year. The groundwater table drawdown also varies during individual years. For the type year 2006, the size of the influence area is approximately three times larger in November than in May. Implementation of the present SFR underground facility in the modelling tool MOUSE yields a groundwater inflow to SFR of 6.7 L/s, compared to a measured inflow of some 6 L/s. According to model calculations, the groundwater withdrawal from SFR causes groundwater table drawdown in an area with a size of 0.17 km2. The influence area is concentrated to the SFR pier and areas with vertical fracture zones in the rock, located north and northeast of Lake Bolundsfjaerden. The head change in the bedrock at the level 50 m b s l reaches the model boundary in the northeast. An extension of the SFR facility is planned. According to the modelling results, the extension will only yield small additional groundwater table drawdown and head changes in the bedrock. For the wetland objects, even a relatively small drawdown of the groundwater table may cause vegetation changes and ultimately overgrowth. The forests are not as sensitive to a drawdown of the groundwater table. According to the model calculations, the groundwater withdrawal from the repository yields a groundwater table drawdown that exceeds 0.1 m as an annual average for a normal year in one fifth the studied wetland objects and in half of the forest objects. The fraction of objects with a groundwater table drawdown is higher during a dry year and lower during a wet year. The surface-water depth in the studied wetland objects ranges from a few centimetres to half a metre. It is judged that a number of wetland objects may require water supply in order to maintain an undisturbed water level during groundwater withdrawal from the repository. According to the modelling results, the water-supply requirements are largest during spring and autumn. In one of the wetland objects, the water requirement is 3 L/s as an annual average for the type year 2006. Object-specific water balances and particle tracking calculations show that the inflow to the wetland objects mainly takes place through the Quaternary deposits. This is in accordance with the conceptual model, according to which there is a shallow groundwater flow system with many local recharge and discharge areas. The groundwater withdrawal from the repository implies that the water balance is changed for some of the studied wetland objects.

  4. NO{sub x}-abatement in bio-fuelled combustion units through catalytic reburning; Minskning av NO{sub x}-emissioner fraan biobraensleeldade anlaeggningar genom katalytisk reburning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, F.A. [Katator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-03-01

    A study concerning the possibility of using catalytic reburning in the abatement of nitrogen oxides from bio-fuelled combustion units has been accomplished. In catalytic reburning, the fuel is combusted at a low excess-air-ratio to minimize the necessary amount of reburning gas added downstream the combustion chamber. The reburning fuel (a reducing agent, e.g. natural gas or LPG) will react catalytically with oxygen and nitrogen oxides in the reburning catalyst to produce carbon oxides, water and nitrogen. Secondary air is injected downstream the reburning catalyst to facilitate an effective combustion of remaining CO and hydrocarbons in the oxidation catalyst, usually in a tail-end position. Experiments were carried out in a small-scale combustion unit (10-20 kW{sub fuel} for pellets of bio-fuel). The results indicate possible conversion degrees of 90% with respect to nitrogen oxides, without increased emissions of CO and hydrocarbons. The economic evaluation indicates a great sensitivity to the price of the reburning fuel. Problems with uneven flow conditions and concentration gradients are expected to reduce the performance of catalytic reburning. Damages caused by corrosion at low oxygen concentrations are likely to occur in positions with high metal temperatures, e.g. in the super-heater-portion of the flue-gas-channel. Hydrocarbon-SCR is an alternative method to obtain a reasonable reduction of the emissions of nitrogen oxides. Small amounts of certain hydrocarbons (e.g. LPG) are added to the flue-gas-stream at a normal excess-air-ratio to obtain a conversion degree of 50 - 70% over a transition-metal-exchanged zeolite catalyst. Continued experiments should focus on installations in large bio-fuelled appliances, where a detailed technical and economical evaluation is possible. Especially catalyst deactivation needs to be evaluated further.

  5. Noise annoyances from wind power: Survey of the population living close to a wind power plant. Final report: Part 3 Main study; Stoerningar fraan vindkraft: undersoekning bland maenniskor boende i naerheten av vindkraftverk. Slutrapport: Del 3 Huvudstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Eja [Halmstad Univ., Halmstad (Sweden). School of Business and Engineering; Persson-Waye, K. [Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of annoyance from wind turbines, a study was performed in Laholm in May 2000. The aim was to obtain dose response relationships between calculated sound levels and noise annoyance and appropriate sound description as well as analysing the influence of other variables on noise annoyance. A questionnaire survey was performed in 6 areas comprising 16 wind turbines, of which 14 had an effect of 600 kW. The purpose of the study was masked. Among questions on living conditions in the countryside, questions directly related to wind turbines were included. The study population (n=518) comprised one randomly selected subject between the ages of 18 to 75 years in each household living within a calculated wind turbine sound level of 25 to 40 dBA. The response rate was 68.7% (n=356). Calculated distributions of A-weighted sound level were performed for each area and plotted on geographical maps in 2.5 dBA steps. Each dwelling could thus be given a sound level within an interval of 2.5 dBA. The most frequently occurring source of noise annoyance was noise from rotor blades. The proportions of respondents annoyed by noise increased with calculated sound level. Among respondents exposed to sound levels of 35.0-37.5 dBA, 43% responded themselves to be rather or much annoyed. A-weighted sound level was only one variable explaining annoyance. Annoyance was correlated to a larger extent by the intrusiveness of the sound character swishing. Noise annoyance was interrelated to the respondents' opinion of the visual impact of wind turbines, while attitude towards wind power in general had no greater influence. Disturbance of spoilt view was reported to a similar degree as noise disturbance. Further investigations are needed to clarify factors of importance for the disturbance of view. All the wind turbines in the study had constant rotation speed. The greater wind turbines that are now erected often have variable speed, which may lead to a sound comprising other characteristics. The influence of this on noise annoyance is not known. Topography as well as type of ground surface probably has an impact on noise annoyance and visual disturbance, and the study should therefore be repeated in other areas with broken ground.

  6. From electricity to heat: A discourse-analytical policy study of the energy system conversion at national, municipal and household levels; Fraan el till vaerme: En diskursanalytisk policystudie av energiomstaellning paa statlig, kommunal och hushaallsnivaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perman, Karin

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse how space heating for single-family houses, and energy system conversion has been constructed and discussed at national, municipal and household levels. Political documents have been studied, and interviews have been carried out with politicians, civil servants and householders in the municipality of Falun. In order to study and analyse similarities and differences between these three political levels, the following main questions were asked: In which sense is the use of electrical heating formulated as problematic? How are the causes of these problems presented, and which solutions are suggested? What are the effects of how problems, causes and solutions are constructed? At the national level, the use of electricity produced by nuclear power was considered a problem. Initially the municipality's policy documents present the same problem, but there is a change of focus to the problem of imported electricity produced by fossil fuel, and the resulting emissions. At household level, the problem was often an old and badly functioning space-heating system. But some households did not formulate a problem before they converted. Instead they were influenced by their neighbours and thereby convinced. At all three political levels, there is consensus on the households' responsibility concerning energy transition. While industry tends to be considered incapable of cutting down its energy consumption, households are expected to take the responsibility seriously. Furthermore, within the household, the heating system tends to be constructed as a predominantly male concern. At all three levels, households are perceived as dependant on economical subsidies when taking the decision to convert from electrical heating. Although it is interesting that the interviewed householders only apply this view to others than themselves. They are convinced that other households need subsidies to act in an environmentally correct way. The discourse concerning the Swedish energy transition illustrates a shift away from a definition of ecological modernisation where environmental considerations influence economic development. The thesis clearly shows how economic arguments repeatedly influence environmental concerns. However, the tension between the two is played down and concealed through the lack of problemisation of the responsibility of industry, and through the focus on the need for education and future opportunities. Political dialogues concerning the use of electrical heating and the conversion of energy systems towards more renewable energies are dominated by economic arguments at the three levels. One effect of this is an assumption that energy policy instruments such as information and economic subsidies are essential for the energy transition. However, if householders rather are influenced by their neighbours should the government use economic subsidy as the main energy policy instrument

  7. 'Finnova Development Group'. Comb Configurated Costumer-close Network Installations with Underground Service Boxes. From project objectives to main solutions; 'Finnova' Innovativ Montage och Systemloesning foer Fjaerrvaermeanslutning av Villaomraade. Fraan projektmaal till huvudloesningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundson, Tommy [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (SE)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    The overall goal for a project, presented in this report, together with and three additional ones, is to produce at least one new, economically competitive solution for distribution of DH in residential areas with low heat demand density - which normally means distribution in villa areas. As a built in sub goal, the work was anticipated to end up in one demo project. The report presents how both goals are achieved. The presentation gives exhaustive descriptions of the system technologies, of the foreseen installation methods but also of working procedures used by the Finnova Development Group to reach the goals. A great deal of work has been dedicated to the issue of harmonizing system design and layout and methods for construction. The report gives, based on through literature studies both regarding Sweden and internationally, together with many decades of personal experiences for the members of the Finnova Development Group, an enveloping presentation of branch experiences related to system design, choice of materials and methods of installation and operation. Having this as a background, the report highlights on one hand which problems has to be dealt with on the other what should be avoided - if you want to avoid high installation costs and future problems - when designing a DH distribution system. Parallel to this, the success factors for distribution DH in low heat density areas are crystallized and discussed. Consequently, the work presented in this report has three 'foundation bolts': What should be avoided, what we want to achieve and success factors that are there to be used. With these identified and used a generally fit for use foundation for innovative solution can be built. This structure for innovative solution is thoroughly scrutinized with respect to material as well functional issues. The rather great complexity of a DH system, with all its components and functional requirements, are clearly demonstrated. Two main solutions are presented in the report. For the first one, 'Finnova AF', evidence is given that the overall goal is fulfilled. The goal being investment costs lower than SEK 50,000 per costumer - VAT not included and in the cost level of 2003/2004. The possibilities for the second one, 'Finnova LTH', may in the long run be even more promising, with respect to economy as well as functionally. The fulfilling of this requires, however, investigations and research and the time for these are not to be found within the time schedule given for this project. Other important issues dealt with regarding the two solutions are: estimated technical life length, need for and accessibility at maintenance and heat losses The two main solutions are named Comb Configurated Costumer Close Network (Finnova AF) and Villa Connection with Distribution Chambers (Finnova LTH). Both are in general terms presented in this report and fully and more detailed in reports no 2 and 3. A demo for the Finnova AF approach is right now being built in a villa area in the Granlunda suburb of Trelleborg in south Sweden. The system decisive features of the Finnova AF are three: The conventional DH substation is abandoned and replaced with a service and connection box in the garden at the site boundary, no pipe joints directly in ground are to be found, and almost all needed working moments can be performed by anyone of a working crew of 5 people. Among the identified success factors, especially the following should be mentioned: Maximum continuity. No 'extern specialists' needed, the civil works contractor should be able to perform 'almost' all working procedures with his own crew. One-step finished backfilling must be applied. And to obtain continuity, flexible coiled pipes and cold installation of network are necessary. The DH substation moved out of the customer's house. The DH supplier is supposed to be the owner of the service and maintenance box replacing the FC. This box contains a prefabricated, standardised, easily replaceable cassette. This cassette contains all necessary functions needed to deliver, measure and check the quality of heating and tap water being delivered. A new philosophy for the supply of tap hot water. Two pipes instead of one are used for the hot tap water supply. The smaller one normally is used for mere circulation. At higher sudden demands, both pipes serve as forward pipes, increasing the capacity. A high degree of standardization. A high degree of standardization, with respect to components as well as to interfaces, is necessary to minimize the gross working time, including periods of waiting during construction. And more time used can be directly transformed into higher costs for more than half of the working steps that sums up into a contract like this. Adding to this, standardisation and systemisation make life much easier for the DH supplier, when it comes to such things as future maintenance and renewal of the network as well as connecting new costumers in the area in question. As a spin-off, and as a result of the methodology of the Finnova Development Group, the report series can be used as a well of knowledge for further innovative solutions. In appendices, the following is presented: Definitions of technical and economical expressions used in the reports Rules of design for fluid pipes A market survey for machinery and other equipment suitable for the installation of DH piping in residential areas with low heat density.

  8. Noise and noise disturbances from wind power plants - Tests with interactive control of sound parameters for more comfortable and less perceptible sounds; Buller och bullerstoerningar fraan vindkraftverk - Foersoek med interaktiv styrning av ljudparametrar foer behagligare och mindre maerkbara ljud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson-Waye, K.; Oehrstroem, E.; Bjoerkman, M.; Agge, A. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    2001-12-01

    In experimental pilot studies, a methodology has been worked out for interactively varying sound parameters in wind power plants. In the tests, 24 persons varied the center frequency of different band-widths, the frequency of a sinus-tone and the amplitude-modulation of a sinus-tone in order to create as comfortable a sound as possible. The variations build on the noise from the two wind turbines Bonus and Wind World. The variations were performed with a constant dba level. The results showed that the majority preferred a low-frequency tone (94 Hz and 115 Hz for Wind World and Bonus, respectively). The mean of the most comfortable amplitude-modulation varied between 18 and 22 Hz, depending on the ground frequency. The mean of the center-frequency for the different band-widths varied from 785 to 1104 Hz. In order to study the influence of the wind velocity on the acoustic character of the noise, a long-time measurement program has been performed. A remotely controlled system has been developed, where wind velocity, wind direction, temperature and humidity are registered simultaneously with the noise. Long-time registrations have been performed for four different wing turbines.

  9. The Vaendoera test road, Sweden: A case study of long-term properties of roads constructed with MSWI bottom ash; Projekt Vaendoera: En studie av laangtidsegenskaper hos vaegar anlagda med bottenaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David; Arm, Maria; Westberg, Gunnar; Sjoestrand, Karin; Lyth, Martin; Wik, Ola [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering

    2006-03-15

    The accumulated effects of leaching and aging in a subbase layer of bottom ash were investigated in this study. The paved test road were constructed in 1987 in Linkoeping, Sweden, and has been used until the start of this study. The objective of this study was to investigate: (i) the accumulated effects of leaching and aging (ii) the accumulated effects of load and aging on the geotechnical properties (iii) the prerequisites for separate excavation of the bottom ash for possible reuse. The study started in September 2003 and included tests with falling weight deflectometer, triax testing on undisturbed core samples of bottom ash, sampling for chemical analysis. Three trenches were excavated in the test road, samples of the subbase layer and the subgrade were taken in the shaft walls and brought to the laboratory for leaching tests (EN 12457-2) and extraction, respectively. The extraction procedure was used to estimate extractable and chemically available fractions. It was found that the steady increase of stiffness which had been detected by falling weight deflectometer during the first years after construction had ceased. The undisturbed samples showed stiffness comparable with recently produced bottom ash from the same incineration plant, but lower stiffness if compared with the reference material of crushed rock. The permanent deformation was significantly larger for the samples compared with the crushed rock and recent (1999-2001) bottom ash from other incineration plants. The spatial distribution patterns of leachable easily soluble constituents reveal the existence of horizontal gradients, directed from the center of the road towards the shoulders of the road. This implies that horizontal transport by diffusion is the rate limiting leaching process for all easily soluble constituents underneath the pavement in a road. The bottom ash that was used in the sub-base layer was fresh at the time of the construction of the test road with a pH of about 11. Measured pH values in the collected bottom ash samples also show horizontal gradients with decreasing values towards the shoulder slopes and a pH front propagating from the road shoulders towards the center of the road. This indicates reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide. The spatial distribution of leachable trace elements in the subbase layer was found to reflect the distribution of pH and the aging process. No evidence of significant leaching where found with exception for the easily dissolvable elements SO{sub 4}, Ca, K, Na, Cl, Mg and Mo. The criteria for sensitive land use was only exceeded in a few sampling points in the subgrade. However, the origin of the subgrade is not clear which makes the interpretation of that data difficult. It turned out to be easy to excavate the different layers in the road construction separately which is favorable for future reuse.

  10. Aerobic effluent treatment with lower electric power consumption. Survey of results from questionnaire sent out to Swedish pulp and paper mills with biological effluent treatment plants; Aerob rening med laegre elfoerbrukning. Sammanstaellning av enkaetsvar fraan svenska skogsindustrier med biologisk rening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivard, Aasa; Simon, Olle

    2010-12-15

    A survey of the energy situation at 23 Swedish pulp and paper mills with aerobic effluent treatment plants has been performed. The electricity consumption for aeration equipment is about 80 % of the total electricity consumption. Proposed measures to increase energy efficiency are regular measurements of energy consumption, better control of the oxygen level in some mills and evaluation of measures to use the heat in process effluent before and after biological treatment

  11. Combined environmental impacts from production and use of the products. An EIS-application project for refineries; Sammanvaegd miljoepaaverkan fraan produktion och anvaendning av produkterna. Ett MKB-tillaempningsprojekt foer raffinaderier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, K; LoevbIad, G.; Stripple, H.

    2001-12-01

    At European refineries a change in production is planned in order to obtain better qualities of gasoline and diesel, from an environmental point of view. This change will, however, lead to higher emissions at the refineries. The present study of the combined effects of emissions at the refineries and the use of the products gives the opportunity for considering the entire system and gives a stronger positive signal than the traditional EIS would do. Three different methods were used: Net change in emissions to air; Exposure of men and ecosystems for air pollutants; and Exceeding norms and critical levels. The results for the Swedish refinery at Lysekil shows that the emissions from using the products are much higher than the emissions from the refinery for all cases studied. The net emissions from production and use of the products will be reduced for the new products compared to the present situation. Risks for exceeding norms and critical levels due to the changes at the refinery exist for emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, but a lower background load will probably mean that the total future load will be reasonably close to the critical level in the area affected by the refinery. In the urban environment, reduced risks for exceeding the levels for benzen and low levels for toluene and xylene give greater advantages than the increased emissions of sulfur and nitrogen close to the refinery.

  12. Pre-study - compilation and synthesis of knowledge about energy crops from cultivation to energy production; Foerstudie - sammanstaellning och syntes av kunskap och erfarenheter om groedor fraan aaker till energiproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Myringer, Aase; Palm, Ola; Roennbaeck, Marie; Tullin, Claes

    2007-06-15

    Energy crops constitute a yet not fully utilized potential as fuel for heating and power production. As competition for biomass hardens the interest for agricultural fuels such as straw, energy grain, willow, reed canary grass and hemp increases. Utilization of the potential for energy crops as fuels demands that cultivation and harvest are coordinated with transportation, storage and combustion of the crops. Together, Vaermeforsk and Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have taken the initiative to a common research programme. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilization of bioenergy from agriculture to combustion for heat and power production in Sweden. The vision is that during the programme, 2006 - 2009, decisive steps will be taken towards a working market for biofuels for bioenergy from agriculture. This survey has compiled and synthesized available knowledge and experiences about energy crops from the field to energy production. The aim has been to give a picture of knowledge today, to identify knowledge gaps and to synthesize knowledge of today into future research needs. A proposal of a research plan has been developed for the research programme.

  13. Decision support system on line to minimize the NO{sub x} emission. Results from Oerebro Energi; Beslutsstoed on line foer minimering av NO{sub x}. Resultat fraan Oerebro Energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, B.G.; Liao, B.; Sieurin, J. [EuroSim AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-05-01

    A Decision Support System to reduce NO{sub x} emission from combustion processes with SNCR system have been developed and tested in full scale at Oerebro Energy. The boiler is a 165 MWh{sub th} CFB and have been fired with a mixture of biomass, peat and coal. The results proves that the EuroSim method works to calculate the derivative included in the Decision Support System. The Decision Support System is a tool for the operator of the plant, he will be informed of the advantage of making an increase or decrease of the ammonia flow or excess air. The trend curves that are presented to the operator includes information about the economic value to make an adjustment of the ammonia flow. The derivative dNO{sub x}/dO{sub 2} shows the advantage of making a reduction in the excess air level, concerning the fee for NO{sub x}. In this case it is important to take into consideration the risk for understoichiometric combustion and corrosion. The results from the full scale test in the Oerebro Plant shows that during some time periods it is economical to shut off the ammonia flow. The derivative dNO{sub x}/dAF is under the profitability limit. This indicate that the cost for the ammonia is higher than the fee for the NO{sub x} emission. If the ammonia flow is added in excess, the emission of ammonia and N{sub 2}O will increase. During other time periods the Decision Support System shows that it is profitable to increase the ammonia flow, the derivative is lower than -0,2. The derivative dNO{sub x}/dO{sub 2} is normally between 10 and 20 (ppm/%). This indicate that it is a great potential to reduce the NO{sub x} fee by decreasing the excess air level in the boiler. 3 refs, 23 figs

  14. Review of results from SKB R and D on grouting technology for sealing the rock, years 1996-2000; Oeversikt av resuItat fraan SKB:s FoU inom injekteringsteknik foer bergtaetning aaren 1996-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, A. (ed.) [Swedpower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eklund, D. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. Soil and Rock Mechanics; Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. of Geology; Hansson, Paer [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Lagerblad, B. [Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Lindblom, U. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Wilen, P. [Swedpower AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    In order identify the current state of the art and developments needs, SKB assembled a group of experts from universities and other research organisations. Internal plans were written for the subprojects 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock' and 'Cement based grouting material'. Later internal plans for the subprojects 'Demands on grouting' and 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' were written. The aims, which were set for the different subprojects, were in short, to summarise the technological advances, establish a method for rock characterisation from a grouting point of view, develop conceptual and numerical models for simulation of the grouting course, characterise grout in a relevant way, develop understanding and theoretical know-how of durability and chemical influence, identify and develop a number of grouting materials for different situations, develop a specification of requirements for grouting and to verify the theories in laboratory. In the subproject 'Demands on grouting' a literature review was carried out. One important conclusion from the study is that the concept is not very well dealt with in the literature. SKB are currently investigating the prerequisites for the construction of the deep repository. One part of that work is to further specify demands on maximum allowed volume of leakage water for the repository as a whole and also for each part of the deep repository. In the subproject 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', the possibilities of using hydraulic tests for predictions and design have been studied. The idea of this study was to investigate correspondences and deviations to increase the understanding of what is measured in a water-loss measurement. One can draw the conclusion that hydraulic tests are useful when describing the fracture geometry. Numerical modelling and experiments indicate that the specific capacity, Q/{delta}h, (flow/head) is a robust parameter and that the distribution of specific capacities and calculated apertures pictures the geometric variations within the fracture. This distribution may, together with the area, also give an estimate of the fracture volume. The distribution of specific capacities and apertures within a fracture may help when choosing grouting strategy like choice of grout and order of grouting. The work in the subproject 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock ' has dealt with laboratory tests, numerical modelling and a summarising conceptual model. The results of the laboratory tests are a number of phenomenological studies of the spreading mechanisms. Preliminary attempts to take care of filtration and separation while grouting are incorporated in a numerical model. Software that generates fracture geometry, calculates penetration with respect to filtration and separation and evaluates the effect of grouting has been developed. A conceptual model has been developed, describing how to calculate the sealing efficiency and how a prediction of the leakage into a tunnel can be done. The subproject 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' has aimed to create a theoretical base for the modelling of the behaviour of weakness zones under the influence of different reinforcement systems in combination with pre-grouting of the zone. Freezing of a zone weathered down to gravel has also been studied. By, analytically or graphically, putting the ground reaction curve (GRC) together with the reaction curve of the reinforcement, the tunnel wall deformation is obtained in the current case. The studies show that, when using modern software for rock mechanical analyses, it is possible to create the necessary theoretical base for a decision on driving through a weakness zone in good bedrock. When driving, the great difficulty is probably to, fast enough, obtain relevant material parameters as input in the model. Therefore field investigations and ro

  15. Deregulation of the electric power market. Results from the pioneering countries Chile, England, Norway and Argentina; Avreglering av elmarknaden. Facit fraan de fyra pionjaerlaenderna Chile, England, Norge och Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, B.; Sannebro, N. [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    In Sweden the goal of the deregulation is to reach a more efficient utilization of the resources through increased competition, and to guarantee the customers flexible deliveries to lowest cost. This need free transition rights on the Swedish transmission grid. If the Swedish deregulation follows the pattern seen in the other countries, the deregulation will show effects also in related areas. 18 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Hearing on Systems Analysis for Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste? A report from hearings at the Council April 24 2008; Utfraagning om systemanalys foer slutfoervaring av kaernavfall. En rapport fraan Kaernavfallsraadets utfraagning den 24 april 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-22

    Oceanic excess radiocarbon data is widely used as a constraint for air-sea gas exchange. However, recent estimates of the global mean piston velocity (k) from Naegler et al., Krakauer et al., Sweeney et al. and Mueller et al. differ substantially despite the fact that they all are based on excess radiocarbon data from the GLODAP data base. Here I show that these estimates of (k) can be reconciled if first, the changing oceanic radiocarbon inventory due to net uptake of CO{sub 2} is taken into account; second, if realistic reconstructions of sea surface DELTA14C are used and third, if (k) is consistently reported with or without normalization to a Schmidt number of 660. These corrections applied, unnormalized estimates of (k) from these studies range between 15.1 and 18.2 cm/h. However, none of these estimates can be regarded as the only correct value for (k). I thus propose to use the 'average' of the corrected values of (k) presented here (16.5+-3.2 cm/h) as the best available estimate of the global mean unnormalized piston velocity (k), resulting in a gross ocean-to-atmosphere CO{sub 2} flux of 76 +- 15 PgC/yr for the mid-1990s

  17. From crucial issue to additional question. A study of the political debate about nuclear waste in Sweden 1976-2009; Fraan oedesfraaga till oevrig fraaga. En studie av den politiska debatten om kaernavfallet i Sverige 1976-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nord, Lars; Stur, Elisabeth (Mid Sweden University (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The overall purpose of this paper is to investigate how the premises for the political decision processes in the issue of final disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste are affected by changes in the public opinion climate and global events. The paper therefore focuses on questions concerning how the national political debate leading up to decisions interacts with the media debate, and the public opinion dynamic that arises when the two debates relate to each other. Particular interest is devoted to the arguments and standpoints that occur in politics and media and how they refer to the prevailing public opinion situation and to conditions in the surrounding world of a political, legal, economic, ecological and technological nature. An analysis of the arenas and actors involved in the debates ought to provide valuable knowledge regarding how the political agenda has been formed at different points in time. The following questions are of central interest to the study: - What characterizes the parliamentary and the party political debate in the nuclear waste issue, and in what way have actors, standpoints and arguments changed over time? - What characterizes opinion formation and news reporting in the media in the nuclear waste issue and in what way have actors, standpoints and arguments changed over time? The course of the debate at four different times and in connection with four parliamentary elections during the period 1976-2009 is analyzed in the study. The subject of the analysis includes the four parliamentary parties the Centre Party, the Liberal Party, the Moderates and the Social Democrats. These four parties have been chosen because they have been represented in the Swedish Parliament during the entire period studied and are therefore reasonable to compare. The study has mainly been conducted as a qualitative textual analysis of public print, party documents and media content. The qualitative text analysis is complemented to some extent by other existing written documentation such as political memoirs and debate books. The results of the study show that the nuclear waste issue was at the centre of the domestic political debate during the 1970s, but then gradually lost ground in political importance during the following decades. What can most accurately be described as a make-or-break political issue at the start of the studied period was by the end of the same period at most a back-burner issue that was of limited interest and had virtually been removed from the political sphere. The nuclear waste debate serves as a good illustration of the life cycle of a political issue and illustrates the circumstances under which an issue can be politicized at one stage only to be marginalized and struck from the political agenda at a later stage. This metamorphosis in importance is seldom as clear-cut as in the analysis of the change undergone by the nuclear waste issue in the Swedish public debate. For example, six times as much was written on this subject in the four leading daily newspapers during the last three weeks of the 1976 election campaign as during the 1998 election campaign. When it comes to the number of parliamentary motions pertaining to nuclear power and nuclear waste, there were less than half as many during the parliamentary year 2009/10 compared with ten years earlier. In other words, this is an issue that is gradually declining in opinion-related importance, both in politics and in media coverage. The position of nuclear waste in the Swedish political debate can generally be explained by reference to an opinion-related interaction between politics and media, where in general political actors make rational judgements and take standpoints to maximize their own influence and to win voters, keep their party together or promote cooperation with other parties. Such judgements can explain why nuclear power and its environmental consequences were such a big issue in the 1976 election (when the Centre Party wanted to politicize the issue), as well as why it was such a small issue in the 1998 election (when all political actors contributed to depoliticizing the issue). The interesting point is how the media coverage during these elections reflects the political positions and how compliantly the media's interpretations of the political positions are formed. The nuclear waste issue is characterized not only by the willingness of the parties to politicize or depoliticize during different periods, but also by the existence of other environment-related issues that compete for the attention of the parties, the media and the voters. The 1980s debate about algal blooms and mass seal deaths and the last decade's debate about the global climate threat are issues that probably influence the stand taken by public opinion-makers on the waste issue.

  18. Running buses on banana skins - Good examples of the municipalities that make biogas from food waste; Koera buss paa bananskal - Goda exempel fraan kommuner som goer biogas av matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Ulrika; Steinwig, Caroline (BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    The municipalities are responsible for taking care of food waste from households, commercial kitchens and restaurants. So there is ample supply of waste that municipalities can produce biogas, but the path is not easy. In this report we highlight some good examples of municipalities that have come a long way in terms of collecting food waste for anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. The idea is that you will be inspired by these examples and perhaps find new ideas and approaches on how more of the food waste could be biogas and biofertilizer in your community

  19. "Oktober i lederstolen" og "Harlekins Alle hjerters dag" : to noveller av Neil Gaiman : oversatt og kommentert

    OpenAIRE

    Eilertsen, Helle Elisabet Jæger

    2011-01-01

    Oppgaven består av oversettelser av to noveller skrevet av Neil Gaiman, og en kommentardel. Novellene er innenfor sjangeren fantastisk litteratur. Kommentardelen tar for seg relevante problemstillinger, blant annet oversettelse av navn, særegne uttrykk og dobbeltbetydning. Den tar også for seg hjemliggjøring/fremmedgjøring og valg av stil. Dette er knyttet til oversettelsesteoretikere som Schleiermacher, Nida, Koller og Berman.

  20. Liv og lerret Fire portretter og et "kryptoportrett" av Gustav KLimt

    OpenAIRE

    Gamborg, Siri Angela

    2009-01-01

    Studie av fire portretter og et "kryptoportrett" av Gustav Klimt. Analysen fokuserer på Klimts avbildning av kvinner og menn på forskjellig måte og ved hjelp av ulike stilistiske virkemidler. Kjønnsaspektet i studien er belyst utfra samtidskonteksten og kvinnenes spesielle situasjon i Wien rundt århundreskiftet 1800/1900 og Klimts fremstilling av disse elementene i sine portretter.

  1. Open Source AV solution supporting In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian; Pociunas, Gintas; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    the software to meet our expectations for a portable AV system for VAD. The system would make use of “off the shelf” hardware components which are widely available and easily replaced or expanded. The developed AV software and coding is contracted to be available as Copyleft Open Source to ensure low cost...... a stable AV software that has be developed and implemented for an in situ simulation initiative. This version (1.3) is the first on released as Open Source (Copyleft) software (see QR tag). We have found that it is possible to deliver multi-camera video assisted debriefing in a mobile, in situ simulation...... environment using an AV system constructed from “off the shelf” components and Open Source software....

  2. EST Table: AV403854 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403854 pg--0133 10/09/28 98 %/123 aa ref|ZP_03045664.1| tail length tape measure ...protein [Escherichia coli E22] gb|EDV82450.1| tail length tape measure protein [Escherichia coli E22] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV404025 pg-- ...

  3. EST Table: AV399431 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399431 NV120218 10/09/28 91 %/131 aa ref|NP_047488.1| CG30 [Bombyx mori NPV] gb|A...AC63757.1| CG30 [Bombyx mori NPV] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV399298 NV12 ...

  4. EST Table: AV405409 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV405409 wdV10576 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 33 %/246 aa ref|XP_001866937.1| scavenger r...ef|XP_967476.1| PREDICTED: similar to scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] AV405409 wdV1 ... ...eceptor cysteine-rich protein [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS44206.1| scavenger receptor cysteine-rich prote

  5. EST Table: AV404175 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404175 pg--0560 10/09/28 100 %/209 aa ref|NP_040587.1| capsid component [Enteroba...EFF06860.1| phage major capsid protein E [Escherichia coli B185] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV404434 pg-- ...

  6. EST Table: AV399451 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399451 NV120246 10/09/28 94 %/223 aa ref|NP_047521.1| AcMNPV orf124 [Bombyx mori ...NPV] gb|AAC63790.1| AcMNPV orf124 [Bombyx mori NPV] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV399564 NV12 ...

  7. EST Table: AV398238 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398238 NV021277 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0004871(signal transducer activity)|GO:0005515...zinc ion binding) 10/09/28 91 %/106 aa ref|XP_002007246.1| GI12833 [Drosophila mojavensis] gb|EDW17722.1| GI12833 [Drosophila mojav...1.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC003318 [Tribolium castaneum] AV398238 NV02 ...

  8. AV-95 Sun Devil: High-Speed Military Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The AV-95 Sun Devil must combine helicopter capabilities, such as vertical takeoff and landings (VTOL) and rotor-powered flight, along with long-duration cruise and high-speed dash capabilities unobtainable by conventional helicopters. To be able to perform both tasks, and perform them well, the AV-95 Sun Devil design incorporates several unconventional devices; the AV-95 uses two convertible turbofan engines, able to provide both shaft power for the main rotor and tall fan as well as jet thrust either separately or simultaneously. Other devices used for the AV-95 include a variable diameter main rotor and a blown flap. In helicopter mode, the AV-95 Sun Devil performs like a winged helicopter. The addition of wings to an attack helicopter results in two significant advantages. First, the addition of wings makes a helicopter more maneuverable than a wingless, but otherwise similar helicopter. Second, since the wings produce lift, rotor stall and compressibility effects can be significantly delayed at high tip velocities. In fixed-wing mode, the main rotor is completely off-loaded but slightly powered, and the rotor diameter has been minimized. The AV-95 Sun Devil has many advantages over other VTOL aircraft. The conversion process is simple and fast; conversion does not make the AV-95 vulnerable to enemy attack during conversion such as a tilt-wing or a tilt-rotor. Stop-rotor aircraft and a stowed rotor aircraft require heavy breaking of the rotor for conversion; this adds time for conversion and weight to the aircraft. Because the AV-95 never stops the rotor in flight, much weight is spared, and conversion is much simpler and faster.

  9. EST Table: AV404360 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404360 pg--0892 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 61 %/132 aa sp|P03764.2|STF_LAMBD RecName: ...Full=Side tail fiber protein 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV404360 pg-- ...

  10. EST Table: AV399747 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399747 NV120691 10/09/28 89 %/128 aa ref|YP_950793.1| gp41 [Maruca vitrata MNPV] ...gb|ABL76015.1| gp41 [Maruca vitrata MNPV] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV399524 NV12 ...

  11. Atle Næss: Roten av minus en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Hamrin Nesby

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Atle Næss har skrevet flere romaner, og to biografier om hhv Edevard Munch og Galileo Galilei. Med Roten av minus en kombinerer han roman- og biografigenren, og skriver både en kjærlighetshistorie, et utkast til en biografi og et riss av en selvbiografi som i sum blir til en roman om hvorvidt livet har den orden og nødvendighet som biografien er satt til å formidle

  12. Gradering av kvaliteten på dokumentasjonen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunn E. Vist

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hva menes med at noe er ”godt dokumentert”? I hvilken grad kan vi stole på forskningsresultater? Den mest brukte metoden for å vurdere kvalitet på dokumentasjon og styrke på anbefalinger er GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. GRADE brukes i systematiske oversikter og i retningslinjer der man vurderer effekten av og gir anbefalinger om ulike behandlingsalternativer. I GRADE gjøres et klart skille mellom kvaliteten på dokumentasjonen og styrken på anbefalingene. For å vurdere kvaliteten på dokumentasjonen tar GRADE utgangspunkt i en godt utført systematisk oversikt som omfatter den aktuelle problemstillingen. Både randomiserte forsøk og observasjonsstuder kan inngå. GRADE benytter fem kriterier som vurderes for eventuell nedgradering av kvaliteten på dokumentasjonen: studiekvalitet, konsistens mellom studiene, direkthet, presisjon og rapporteringsskjevheter. I tillegg kan observasjonsstudier vurderes for oppgradering ved følgende tre kriterier: sterke assosiasjoner, dose-responseffekter og forvekslingsfaktorer. Alle vurderingene noteres og presenteres sammen med resultatene i oppsummeringstabeller.Vist GE, Sæterdal I, Vandvik PO, Flottorp SA. Grading the quality of the evidence. Nor J Epidemiol 2013; 23 (2: 151-156.ENGLISH SUMMARY What is meant by the claim that something is “well documented”? How much confidence can we have in the results? The most commonly used method to grade the quality of the evidence is GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. GRADE is used in systematic reviews, where the effects of different treatments or options are being compared, and in guidelines with recommendations about the competing options. GRADE makes a clear distinction between the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendation. When grading the quality of the evidence with GRADE, the starting point is a well conducted systematic review of research on the

  13. Problemstillingar rundt framføring av transkribert musikk - Ei analyse av Bach/Busoni: Chaconne i d-moll

    OpenAIRE

    Flem, Kato Nogva

    2014-01-01

    Ei samanlikning og analyse av Busoni sin transkripsjon av Bach sin Chaconne frå partita nr. 2 for solofiolin. Partita for Violin No. 2 was written by Johann Sebastian Bach during 1717-1723 and consists of five movements; Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue and Chaconne. The chaconne is longer than the rest of the piece combined, and is frequently played separately. Yehudi Menuhin calls the Chaconne "the greatest structure for solo violin that exists." (Menuhin, 1997, p. 236) Violinist...

  14. Enhanced A-V nodal conduction (Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome) by congenitally hypoplastic A-V node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, R; Thiene, G; Corrado, D; Vincenzi, M; Rossi, L

    1992-11-01

    The basic anatomical substrate of enhanced A-V nodal conduction, manifesting or not as Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome, is still a controversial issue. We describe the case of a 34-year-old man who presented episodes of ventricular fibrillation. Electrophysiological studies showed that the AH interval was 55 ms, and increased by only 20 ms at paced cycle lengths of 300 ms; atrial pacing induced atrial fibrillation, with a shortest RR interval of 240 ms. Despite verapamil therapy, this patient died suddenly at home. Histological study disclosed a severe A-V node hypoplasia that was evidently congenital in nature; the rest of the conduction system was normal, and no accessory A-V pathways were present. We suggest that enhanced A-V nodal conduction in this patient was due to the developmental defect in the A-V node; this abnormality caused a loss of specific impulse-delaying function, and thus allowed rapid, unfiltered atrial impulses to reach the lower A-V junction and ventricles.

  15. Spectral analysis of the quadrangles Av-13 and Av-14 on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, F.; Frigeri, A.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Tosi, F.; Longobardo, A.; Ammannito, E.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Blewett, D. T.; Scully, J.; Palomba, E.; Denevi, B.; Yingst, A.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Av-13 (Tuccia) and Av-14 (Urbinia) quadrangles are located in the south-west region of Vesta. They are characterized by a large topographic variability, from the highest (Vestalia terra highlands) to the lowest (Rheasilvia basin). Many geological units in these quadrangles are not associated with mineralogical variability, as shown by the color-composite maps. Maps of mafic absorption band-center position reveal that the principal lithology is eucrite-rich howardite, but diogenite-rich howardite areas are also present, corresponding to particular features such as Antonia and Justina craters, which are characterized by strong mafic absorptions. These quadrangles, especially Urbinia, contain many bright ejecta, such as those of Tuccia crater, which are the highest reflectance materials on Vesta (Zambon et al., 2014). Dark areas are present and correspond to regions with deeper OH-signature. The two quadrangles contain many vertical ridge crests associated with the Rheasilvia impact. These ridges do not show mineralogical differences with respect to their surroundings, but have a distinctive appearance in color-ratio composite images.

  16. 快速 AVS 帧内预测算法%FAST AVS INTRA PREDICTION ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双龙

    2015-01-01

    As to the complexity process of choosing best probable encoding mode in AVS intra prediction,we proposed a fast intra predic-tion encoding algorithm.With the analysis of AVS intra prediction encoding theory and its implementation in reference software GDM2.1,we derived the threshold of zero coefficient block determination.The fast algorithm determines whether or not the current block is a zero coeffi-cient block according to its threshold discriminant condition.For zero coefficient block,it encodes cbp element directly and terminates intra prediction encoding in advance,which avoids the consequent complex process.As for the non-zero coefficient blocks,the fast selection algo-rithm associating the time domain SAD and the frequency domain SATD is used,which excludes 40% to 80% impossible prediction modes, and the rate distortion function is applied to the remained prediction modes to select the best prediction mode.It was verified through experi-ment that when PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratio)decreased within 0.25db and bits rate increased within 2%,the time of AVS encoding de-creased over 40%,and the encoding efficiency was largely improved as well.%针对 AVS(Audio Video code Standard)帧内预测中选择最优编码模式流程复杂的问题,提出一种快速帧内预测编码的算法。通过分析 AVS 帧内预测编码的原理及其在参考软件 GDM2.1中的代码实现,推导出判定零系数块的阈值。该快速算法根据零系数块的判定阈值条件判定当前块,对于零系数块,直接编码 cbp 元素,提前中止帧内预测编码,避免了后续的复杂流程;对于非零系数块,采用时域 SAD(Sum of Absolute Difference)与频域 SATD(Sum of Absolute Transformed Difference)相联合的快速选择算法,排除了40%~80%的不可能预测模式,对余下的模式采用率失真代价函数的方法选取最佳预测模式。经实验验证,在 PSNR(Peak Sig-nal to Noise Ratio)降低0

  17. Kortisonskepsis : En studie om holdninger til kortisonkrem blant foreldre av barn med atopisk eksem

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsen, Hanne Engstrøm

    2010-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Kortisonkremer er en viktig del av behandlingen mot atopisk eksem. Mange foreldre er skeptiske til bruken av kortisonkremer, fordi de har lest eller hørt om bivirkninger. Pasienters og pårørendes holdninger til bruk av kortisonkrem kan påvirke gjennomføringen av behandlingen. Formål: Vi ønsket å undersøke holdninger til bruk av kortisonkrem blant foreldre og pårørende av barn med atopisk eksem. Vi ville også undersøke om det er en sammenheng mellom kunnskapsnivå om kortisonkreme...

  18. Utviklingen av Noark-standarden 1984 – 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Sirevåg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen behandler utviklingen av Noark – standarden for elektronisk arkivdanning i norsk offentlig forvaltning – fra versjon 1 (1984 til versjon 5 (2008. Den beskriver omstendighetene som medførte at standarden ble til i 1984, og søker å forklare hvorfor og hvordan det lyktes å utbre standarden slik at Noark-systemer ble enerådende i offentlig forvaltning i løpet av 1990-årene. Riksarkivarens strategier i Noark-utviklingen behandles, – de som fra først av fikk Riksarkivaren til å engasjere seg i standardiseringsarbeidet, de som deretter fikk Riksarkivaren til å overta forvalteransvaret for Noark, og de som senere er endret eller justert som resultat av erfaringer med Noark-baserte systemer og av nyåpnede teknologiske muligheter. Særlig vekt legges på å belyse Riksarkivarens motiver for å overta ansvaret for Noark-standarden fra 1990. Noark plasseres også i det internasjonale bildet, og sammenholdes med andre standarder som ISO 15489 og EU-standarden MoReq. Da Noark-utviklingen startet i 1984, pågikk tilsvarende utviklingsprosjekter både i Danmark og i Sverige. Artikkelen søker forklaringer på at en journal- og sakarkivstandard bare ble en realitet i Norge.

  19. Kartläggning av byggprocessen hos Peab med hjälp av SCOR

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Detta är ett examensarbete utfört på Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap (ITN) i Norrköping som är en del av Linköpings Universitet i samarbete med Peab som intressent. Historiskt sett har byggbranschens intresse för logistik varit svalt vilket har lett till att logistiken inom denna bransch har halkat efter i förhållande till övriga branscher. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att utifrån ett logistiskt synsätt tillhandahålla anpassningsförslag till SCOR-processerna ”Make” och ”Retur...

  20. The role of AV and VV optimization for CRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Brabham, M.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an effective therapy for patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and a ventricular conduction delay; however, approximately 30% of patients do not experience significant clinical improvement with this treatment. Modern devices allow individualized programming of the AV delay and VV offset, which offer the possibility of improving clinical response rates with optimized programming. AV and VV delay optimization techniques have included echocardiography, device-based algorithms, and several other novel noninvasive techniques. While an acute improvement in hemodynamic function has been clearly demonstrated with optimized device settings, long-term clinical benefit is limited. In the majority of cases, an empiric AV delay with simultaneous biventricular or left ventricular pacing is adequate. The value of optimization of these intervals in “non-responders” still requires further investigation.

  1. Solmoduler på balkongfronter : Renovering av flerbostadshus i miljonprogrammet

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Under det senaste seklet har en intensiv energianvändning orsakat stora utsläpp av koldioxid och andra växthusgaser i atmosfären med negativa miljöeffekter som följd. Den alltjämt ökade efterfrågan på elektricitet runtom i världen måste mötas av förnybara energikällor i kombination med energieffektiviseringar för att inte riskera ytterligare miljöförstöring. I Sverige är bostads- och servicesektorn en intensiv energianvändare och några av de byggnader som förbrukar mest energi finns i miljonp...

  2. En kartläggning av stereoskopisk 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Holmström, Benny

    2011-01-01

    Det här lärdomsprovet är en genomgång av ett av den moderna tidens största modeord: stereoskopisk 3D och syskontermen autostereoskopisk 3D. Kort sagt de tekniker som går ut på att leverera en bild till vardera av människans två ögon och därmed simulera djup i tvådimensionella bilder. Det här kan göras på en mängd olika sätt, och i detta examensarbete går jag igenom de vanligaste teknikerna och förklarar dem kortfattat, en och en. Utöver tekniken analyserar jag även dagens marknad, teknikernas...

  3. Brachial artery aneurysms following brachio-cephalic AV fistula ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Usman; Parkinson, Frances; Mohiuddin, Kamran; Davies, Paula; Woolgar, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery aneurysms proximal to a long-standing arteriovenous (AV) fistula can be a serious complication. It is important to be aware of this and manage it appropriately. Vascular access nurses input all data regarding patients undergoing dialysis access procedures into a securely held database prospectively. This was retrospectively reviewed to identify cases of brachial artery aneurysms over the last 3 years. In Morriston Hospital, around 200 forearm and arm AV fistulas are performed annually for vascular access in renal dialysis patients. Of these, approximately 15 (7.5%) are ligated. Three patients who had developed brachial artery aneurysms following AV fistula ligation were identified. All 3 patients had developed brachial artery aneurysms following ligation of a long-standing brachio-cephalic AV fistula. Two patients presented with pain and a pulsatile mass in the arm, and one presented with pins and needles and discoloration of fingertips. Two were managed with resection of the aneurysm and reconstruction with a reversed long saphenous vein interposition graft, the third simply required ligation of a feeding arterial branch. True aneurysm formation proximal to an AV fistula that has been ligated is a rare complication. There are several reasons for why these aneurysms develop in such patients, the most plausible one being the increase in blood flow and resistance following ligation of the AV fistula. Of note, all the patients in this study were on immunosuppressive therapy following successful renal transplantation. Vigilance by the vascular access team and nephrologists is paramount to identify those patients who may warrant further evaluation and investigation by the vascular surgeon.

  4. Lesing av delvis motstridende tekster i syvende klasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Mork Rogne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikkelen ser vi på hvilken type informasjon elever i 7. klasse vektlegger for å konstruere en sammenhengende oppsummering av fire til dels motstridende tekster. Elever møter ofte flere tekster om samme tema – multiple tekster – og vi trenger økt kunnskap om hvordan de leser slike tekster. Elevene leste fire ulike tekster om en sykkelulykke. Tekstene presenterte informasjon som var delvis sammenfallende på tvers av alle tekstene, og delvis motstridende informasjon som innebar at enkelte tekster ga ulike beskrivelser av hendelsesforløpet. Vi testet elevenes ordavkodingsferdigheter, fikk dem til å fylle ut et spørreskjema om lesevaner og vi innhentet elevenes resultater på Nasjonal leseprøve. Etter lesing ba vi elevene gi en oppsummering av sykkelulykken. Elevene gjenga relativt mer sammenfallende informasjon enn motstridende informasjon. Gode resultater på Nasjonal leseprøve ser ut til å ha en sammenheng med elevenes ferdigheter i å konstruere en sammenhengende forståelse av de fire tekstene. Elever som oppga å lese mye på Internett hadde imidlertid fått med mindre av informasjonen som var felles for de fire tekstene i sine oppsummeringer. Vi fant også en negativ sammenheng mellom fritidslesing på Internett og resultatene fra Nasjonal leseprøve. Samlet sett indikerer resultatene at når elevene skal skape sammenheng mellom flere delvis motstridende tekster, så blir sammenfallende informasjon vektlagt mer enn motstridende informasjon. Dessuten ser det ut til at de elevene som bruker mest fritid til å lese på Internett, sliter mer med å sammenfatte innholdet i de fire tekstene enn de andre elevene.

  5. InterProScan Result: AV398312 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398312 AV398312_3_ORF2 E26799A422BE33BE PANTHER PTHR10795:SF30 SITE-1 PROTEASE (STEROL...-REGULATED, CLEAVES STEROL REGULATORY ELEMENT BINDING PROTEINS) NA ? IPR015500 unintegrated ...

  6. InterProScan Result: AV404435 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404435 AV404435_2_ORF1 15076070D471749D PROFILE PS50110 RESPONSE_REGULATORY 17.91...4 T IPR001789 Signal transduction response regulator, receiver domain Molecular Function: two-component resp

  7. Modellering og dimensjonering av kaianlegg etter Eurokode 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleaker, Tore; Tvervåg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Dette er sluttrapporten for masteroppgaven på en kaikonstruksjon utført ved NTNU, institutt for konstruksjonsteknikk. Det er i oppgaven gjennomført en prosjektering og dimensjonering av en betongkai etter NS-EN 1992-1-1. Det er også gjennomført et litteraturstudie med en tilhørende teoridel om bestandighet for betongkonstruksjoner i et marint miljø, samt at det er gjennomført en sannsynlighetsbasert bestandighetsanalyse av denne konstruksjonen. Avslutningsvis er det drøftet litt rundt teori, ...

  8. EST Table: AV403981 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available terminase large subunit (DNA packaging protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV403981 pg-- ... ...AV403981 pg--0297 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/265 aa ref|YP_002411376.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packag...ing protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] emb|CAR11828.1|

  9. Modellering av nedslagsfeltet- Veumdalen i Fredrikstad med programmet SWMM

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Fredrikstad kommune har hatt store prosjekter pågang i de siste årene i forbindelse med opprustning av ledningsnettet. Oppfylte kjellere har vært en viktig tema for kommunen, og de har en intensjon om å redusere faren for oversvømmelser i utsatte steder. En av de utsatte stedene i Fredrikstad er Veumdalen som har problemer med oversvømmelser nesten hvert år. Som en forebyggende tiltak har kommunen i samarbeid med COWI bygget en tunnel fra Veumveien/Veumbekken til Seutelva. Det ...

  10. EST Table: AV399012 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399012 NV060536 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 65 %/135 aa ref|XP_396932.2| PREDICTED: similar to vav...ene:AGAP010292 10/09/10 65 %/135 aa gnl|Amel|GB13170-PA 10/09/10 57 %/138 aa gi|189241833|ref|XP_972772.2| PREDICTED: similar to vav1 [Tribolium castaneum] AV399012 NV06 ... ...7 %/132 aa C35B8.2b#CE39333#WBGene00006887#locus:vav- 1#status:Partially_confirmed#UniProt:Q45FX5#protein_id

  11. EST Table: AV398785 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398785 NV060280 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 40 %/193 aa ref|XP_002005659.1| GI20589 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW09594.1| GI20589 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 40 %/193 aa FBpp0169806|DmojGI2.../10 n.h 10/09/10 35 %/184 aa gi|189234823|ref|XP_001809803.1| PREDICTED: similar to AGAP010960-PA [Tribolium castaneum] AV398785 NV06 ...

  12. EST Table: AV399741 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399741 NV120677 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0000213(tRNA-intron endonuclease activity)|GO:...0006388(tRNA splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation) 10/09/28 42 %/119 aa ref|NP_001127799.2| t...0/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 35 %/145 aa gnl|Amel|GB15173-PB 10/09/10 n.h AV399741 NV12 ...

  13. EST Table: AV399757 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399757 NV120719 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 83 %/234 aa ref|NP_047435.1| AcMNPV orf30 [...Bombyx mori NPV] gb|AAC63704.1| AcMNPV orf30 [Bombyx mori NPV] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV399757 NV12 ...

  14. Prosjektering og analyse av Nordøyvegen bru 3

    OpenAIRE

    Lauknes, Andreas; Arild, Audun

    2016-01-01

    Rapporten tar for seg prosjektering av en etteroppspent betongbru, der beregninger og dimensjoneringen er i henhold til det Europeiske regelverket, nasjonale tillegg og Håndbøker fra Statens vegvesen. Brua som skal dimensjoneres og bli gjort kapasitetskontroll for er Nordøyvegen bru 3, som skal bygges som en del av et større fastlandsprosjekt for nordøyene i Haram kommune. Brua skal bygges som en bjelke-/platebru, og konstruksjonsmetoden er fritt frambygg med totalt syv byggefaser. Den består...

  15. Fysisk aktivitet inom rehabiliteringen av anorexi : - En systematisk litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Högnäs, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur fysisk aktivitet påverkar unga flickor (12-24 år) med anorexi, i samband med rehabilitering. Skribenten vill dessutom ytterligare få specificerat vilken typ av fysisk aktivitet som kan vara lämplig för denna målgrupp. Frågeställningarna besvaras genom en systematisk litteraturstudie. Genom databassökning och frisökning hittades 14 relevanta artiklar som genomgick en kvalitetsgranskning, enligt en modifierad metod för kvalitetsgranskning av Forsberg & Wengs...

  16. Norsk passivhusstandard og Passivhauskonzept: en sammenlignende analyse av krav og kriterier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, Karin; Vestergaard, Inge

    kriterier som omfattes av passivhuskonseptet med tilhørende sertifisering og kriterier i Norsk Standard 3701. Gjennom analysen ønsker vi å systematisere og sammenlikne de forskjellige kriteriene i standarden: optimalisering, kuldebroer, lufttetthet og trykktesting, utnyttelse av passiv solenergi, bruk av...

  17. Ungdommers opplevelser med overdreven bruk av online-rollespillet World of Warcraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flaaten, Øivind; Torp, Steffen; Aarseth, Espen

    2010-01-01

    Ungdommers bruk av online-rollespill blir ofte problematisert (Falkner 2007). På bakgrunn av kvalitative intervjuer med ti ungdommer og fem pårørendekontakter beskrives i denne artikkelen ungdommenes opplevelser av online-spillet World of Warcraft (WoW). Denne pilotstudien gir en nyansert...

  18. Etableringen av Tesla Motors på det norske bilmarkedet : en empirisk studie av salgsdrivere og konkurranseeffekter

    OpenAIRE

    Asperheim, Hanne Henjum; Vedum, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Denne masterutredningen er en empirisk studie av Tesla Motors’ etablering på det norske bilmarkedet. Vi gjennomfører to separate analyser: Først fokuseres det på geografiske salgsforskjeller, deretter på effekten Tesla Motors har hatt på det norske nybilmarkedet. I vår første analyse utvikler vi en modell for å identifisere Teslas salgsdrivere, i form av geografiske og sosioøkonomiske variabler. Resultatene viser at et fylkes inntektsnivå, utdanningsnivå og miljøbevissthet har en positiv s...

  19. EST Table: AV404171 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404171 pg--0555 10/09/28 85 %/178 aa ref|ZP_05092873.1| phage tail tape measure p...rotein, lambda family [Carboxydibrachium pacificum DSM 12653] gb|EEB75267.1| phage tail tape measure protein

  20. EST Table: AV404301 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404301 pg--0808 10/09/28 81 %/199 aa ref|ZP_05092873.1| phage tail tape measure p...rotein, lambda family [Carboxydibrachium pacificum DSM 12653] gb|EEB75267.1| phage tail tape measure protein

  1. EST Table: AV404025 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404025 pg--0351 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 84 %/167 aa ref|ZP_05092873.1| phage tail tape measure... protein, lambda family [Carboxydibrachium pacificum DSM 12653] gb|EEB75267.1| phage tail tape measure

  2. EST Table: AV404116 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404116 pg--0495X 10/09/28 87 %/148 aa ref|YP_311293.1| putative tail length tape measure... protein [Shigella sonnei Ss046] gb|AAZ89058.1| putative tail length tape measure protein [Shigella s

  3. EST Table: AV400897 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400897 br--1948 10/09/28 47 %/180 aa ref|XP_967144.2| PREDICTED: similar to corneal wound healing...TED: similar to corneal wound healing-related protein [Tribolium castaneum] CK493011 br-- ...

  4. EST Table: AV405806 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV405806 wdV30260 10/09/28 65 %/199 aa ref|NP_001119709.1| transformer 2 isoform E ...[Bombyx mori] gb|AAX47003.1| transformer-2 protein E [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 low homology 10/08/27 low homolo

  5. EST Table: AV400604 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400604 br--1517 10/09/28 48 %/208 aa ref|XP_001863389.1| wolfram syndrome 1 [Cule...x quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS38516.1| wolfram syndrome 1 [Culex quinquefasciatus] 10/08/28 50 %/173 aa FBpp0291

  6. EST Table: AV398407 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398407 NV021774 10/09/28 100 %/186 aa ref|NP_001040215.1| stathmin [Bombyx mori] gb|ABD36259.1| stathmin...507-PA 10/09/10 48 %/236 aa gi|91083957|ref|XP_975021.1| PREDICTED: similar to stathmin [Tribolium castaneum] FS915193 NV02 ...

  7. EST Table: AV398495 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398495 NV021874 10/09/28 91 %/209 aa ref|NP_001040215.1| stathmin [Bombyx mori] gb|ABD36259.1| stathmin...07-PA 10/09/10 54 %/213 aa gi|91083957|ref|XP_975021.1| PREDICTED: similar to stathmin [Tribolium castaneum] FS915193 NV02 ...

  8. EST Table: AV401468 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401468 e96h0771 10/09/28 87 %/171 aa ref|NP_001040215.1| stathmin [Bombyx mori] gb|ABD36259.1| stathmin...07-PA 10/09/10 55 %/166 aa gi|91083957|ref|XP_975021.1| PREDICTED: similar to stathmin [Tribolium castaneum] FS915193 e96h ...

  9. EST Table: AV403752 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403752 pg--0009 10/09/28 100 %/257 aa ref|YP_002411376.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packaging... protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] emb|CAR11828.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packaging

  10. EST Table: AV404329 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404329 pg--0843 10/09/28 100 %/173 aa ref|NP_001136443.1| clathrin heavy chain [B...61 %/169 aa T20G5.1#CE00480#WBGene00011867#locus:chc-1#Clathrin heavy chain#status:Partially_confirmed#UniPr

  11. EST Table: AV405172 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV405172 prgv0893 10/09/28 85 %/198 aa gb|ABF55966.2| cleavage stimulation factor 6...ref|XP_970762.1| PREDICTED: similar to cleavage stimulation factor 64-kDa subunit [Tribolium castaneum] FS920483 prgv ...

  12. EST Table: AV400944 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400944 e96h0016 10/09/28 73 %/153 aa ref|XP_002005200.1| GI20361 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW09135.1| GI20361 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 73 %/153 aa FBpp0169578|DmojGI20361-PA 10/08

  13. EST Table: AV398908 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398908 NV060415 10/09/28 95 %/160 aa ref|XP_002004473.1| GI19595 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] ref|XP_002059335.1| GJ18395 [Drosophila virilis] gb|EDW08408.1| GI19595 [Drosophila mojavensis] gb|E

  14. EST Table: AV400707 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400707 br--1674X 10/09/28 54 %/135 aa ref|XP_002008152.1| GI11978 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW18628.1| GI11978 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 54 %/135 aa FBpp0161195|DmojGI11978-PA 10/0

  15. EST Table: AV401018 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401018 e96h0121 10/09/28 81 %/103 aa ref|XP_002007281.1| GI12464 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW17757.1| GI12464 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 81 %/103 aa FBpp0161681|DmojGI12464-PA 10/08

  16. EST Table: AV399925 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399925 br--0031 10/09/28 87 %/140 aa ref|XP_002008796.1| GI13691 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW19272.1| GI13691 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 87 %/140 aa FBpp0162908|DmojGI13691-PA 10/08

  17. EST Table: AV401292 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401292 e96h0497 10/09/28 99 %/102 aa ref|XP_002004473.1| GI19595 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] ref|XP_002059335.1| GJ18395 [Drosophila virilis] gb|EDW08408.1| GI19595 [Drosophila mojavensis] gb|E

  18. EST Table: AV405991 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV405991 wdV30476 10/09/28 81 %/103 aa ref|XP_002007281.1| GI12464 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW17757.1| GI12464 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 81 %/103 aa FBpp0161681|DmojGI12464-PA 10/08

  19. EST Table: AV399270 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399270 NV060991 10/09/28 41 %/162 aa ref|XP_002007640.1| GI13052 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW18116.1| GI13052 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 41 %/162 aa FBpp0162269|DmojGI13052-PA 10/08

  20. EST Table: AV402088 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV402088 heS00552 10/09/28 57 %/120 aa ref|XP_002003339.1| GI17860 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW12781.1| GI17860 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 57 %/120 aa FBpp0167077|DmojGI17860-PA 10/08

  1. EST Table: AV404032 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404032 pg--0359 10/09/28 39 %/179 aa ref|XP_002008018.1| GI12064 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW18494.1| GI12064 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 39 %/179 aa FBpp0161281|DmojGI12064-PA 10/08

  2. EST Table: AV398210 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398210 NV021247 10/09/28 77 %/206 aa ref|XP_001998997.1| GI23318 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW14458.1| GI23318 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 77 %/206 aa FBpp0172535|DmojGI23318-PA 10/08

  3. EST Table: AV398468 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398468 NV021845 10/09/28 40 %/208 aa ref|XP_001998750.1| GI23457 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW14211.1| GI23457 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 40 %/208 aa FBpp0172674|DmojGI23457-PA 10/08

  4. EST Table: AV398578 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398578 NV021976 10/09/28 61 %/149 aa ref|XP_968620.1| PREDICTED: similar to AGAP0.../08/28 55 %/161 aa FBpp0085738|SdhA-PC 10/08/27 60 %/131 aa C03G5.1#CE03917#WBGene00015391#locus:sdha-1#succinate dehydrogenase flav

  5. EST Table: AV401286 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401286 e96h0482 10/09/28 55 %/188 aa ref|XP_002004616.1| GI19509 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW08551.1| GI19509 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 55 %/188 aa FBpp0168726|DmojGI19509-PA 10/08

  6. EST Table: AV401287 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401287 e96h0483 10/09/28 93 %/160 aa ref|XP_002004473.1| GI19595 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] ref|XP_002059335.1| GJ18395 [Drosophila virilis] gb|EDW08408.1| GI19595 [Drosophila mojavensis] gb|E

  7. EST Table: AV406016 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV406016 wdV30506 10/09/28 81 %/103 aa ref|XP_002007281.1| GI12464 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW17757.1| GI12464 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 81 %/103 aa FBpp0161681|DmojGI12464-PA 10/08

  8. EST Table: AV406029 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV406029 wdV30520 10/09/28 70 %/125 aa ref|XP_002007572.1| GI12310 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW18048.1| GI12310 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 71 %/125 aa FBpp0127559|DanaGF24367-PA 10/08

  9. EST Table: AV400537 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400537 br--1414 10/09/28 41 %/216 aa ref|XP_002000083.1| GI10045 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW15544.1| GI10045 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 41 %/216 aa FBpp0159262|DmojGI10045-PA 10/08

  10. EST Table: AV400979 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400979 e96h0061 10/09/28 57 %/143 aa ref|XP_002004493.1| GI19964 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW08428.1| GI19964 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 57 %/143 aa FBpp0169181|DmojGI19964-PA 10/08

  11. EST Table: AV398644 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398644 NV060124 10/09/28 96 %/174 aa ref|XP_002004473.1| GI19595 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] ref|XP_002059335.1| GJ18395 [Drosophila virilis] gb|EDW08408.1| GI19595 [Drosophila mojavensis] gb|E

  12. EST Table: AV404441 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404441 pg--0982 10/09/28 79 %/229 aa ref|XP_001998398.1| GI23651 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW13859.1| GI23651 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 79 %/229 aa FBpp0172868|DmojGI23651-PA 10/08

  13. EST Table: AV398478 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398478 NV021855 10/09/28 99 %/204 aa ref|NP_001136443.1| clathrin heavy chain [Bo...6 %/204 aa T20G5.1#CE00480#WBGene00011867#locus:chc-1#Clathrin heavy chain#status:Partially_confirmed#UniPro

  14. EST Table: AV402568 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV402568 heS30139 10/09/28 48 %/151 aa ref|XP_002006691.1| GI18446 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW10626.1| GI18446 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 48 %/151 aa FBpp0167663|DmojGI18446-PA 10/08

  15. EST Table: AV404233 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404233 pg--0732 10/09/28 70 %/129 aa ref|XP_002003556.1| GI21941 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW12998.1| GI21941 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 70 %/129 aa FBpp0171158|DmojGI21941-PA 10/08

  16. EST Table: AV399704 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399704 NV120582 10/09/28 80 %/230 aa ref|XP_001998398.1| GI23651 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW13859.1| GI23651 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 80 %/230 aa FBpp0172868|DmojGI23651-PA 10/08

  17. EST Table: AV404790 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404790 prgv0452 10/09/28 65 %/113 aa ref|XP_001979237.1| GG24851 [Drosophila erec...10/09/10 59 %/106 aa gi|91086741|ref|XP_971589.1| PREDICTED: similar to riboflavin kinase [Tribolium castaneum] FS912700 prgv ...

  18. EST Table: AV400760 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400760 br--1758 10/09/28 64 %/214 aa ref|XP_307835.4| AGAP009424-PA [Anopheles ga...9241497|ref|XP_967205.2| PREDICTED: similar to neuron navigator 2 [Tribolium castaneum] BY916808 br-- ...

  19. EST Table: AV405194 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV405194 prgv0919 10/09/28 65 %/160 aa ref|XP_002000766.1| GI22341 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] gb|EDW16227.1| GI22341 [Drosophila mojavensis] 10/08/28 65 %/160 aa FBpp0171558|DmojGI22341-PA 10/08

  20. EST Table: AV403131 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403131 msgV0077 10/09/28 92 %/200 aa ref|XP_002004473.1| GI19595 [Drosophila mojav...ensis] ref|XP_002059335.1| GJ18395 [Drosophila virilis] gb|EDW08408.1| GI19595 [Drosophila mojavensis] gb|E

  1. EST Table: AV398368 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398368 NV021731 10/09/28 95 %/237 aa ref|NP_001136443.1| clathrin heavy chain [Bo...2 %/237 aa T20G5.1#CE00480#WBGene00011867#locus:chc-1#Clathrin heavy chain#status:Partially_confirmed#UniPro

  2. EST Table: AV399507 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399507 NV120319 10/09/28 70 %/144 aa ref|YP_803401.1| baculovirus repeated ORF-b [Anticars...ia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus] gb|ABI13791.1| baculovirus repeated ORF-b [Anticarsia gemmatali

  3. EST Table: AV403922 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403922 pg--0214 10/09/28 91 %/142 aa ref|ZP_06118881.2| DNA packaging protein FI ...[Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479] gb|EFC94454.1| DNA packaging protein FI [Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479

  4. EST Table: AV404246 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404246 pg--0747 10/09/28 91 %/130 aa ref|ZP_06118881.2| DNA packaging protein FI ...[Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479] gb|EFC94454.1| DNA packaging protein FI [Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479

  5. EST Table: AV403894 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ref|XP_001605691.1| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase app(e.coli) [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/08/28 52...%/206 aa gi|189241712|ref|XP_968082.2| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase app(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] AV403894 pg-- ...

  6. Centralized Library Services for Audiovisual Media. AV in Action 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederlands Bibliotheek en Lektuur Centrum, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Designed to provide assistance to countries in developing centralized services to their libraries for nonbook materials, this pamphlet contains examples from five countries that have succeeded in establishing such services. Those examples include: (1) "The Central Library Service for AV-Materials in Denmark" (Suzanne Hemmeth…

  7. EST Table: AV400204 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400204 br--0896 10/09/28 36 %/111 aa ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephen...093471|ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephensi ubiquitin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS914988 br-- ...

  8. EST Table: AV400925 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400925 br--1989 10/09/28 35 %/122 aa ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephen...nl|Amel|GB19565-PA 10/09/10 35 %/122 aa gi|91093471|ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephensi ubiquitin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS914988 br-- ...

  9. EST Table: AV400917 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400917 br--1979 10/09/28 46 %/148 aa ref|XP_975194.1| PREDICTED: similar to something about...|Amel|GB19080-PA 10/09/10 46 %/148 aa gi|91081571|ref|XP_975194.1| PREDICTED: similar to something about silencing protein 10 [Tribolium castaneum] FS937283 br-- ...

  10. EST Table: AV398194 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398194 NV021231 10/09/28 38 %/170 aa ref|NP_724426.2| vulcan, isoform D [Drosophi...la melanogaster] gb|AAM68355.2| vulcan, isoform D [Drosophila melanogaster] 10/08/28 38 %/170 aa FBpp0289730

  11. EST Table: AV406060 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV406060 wdV30561X 10/09/28 99 %/122 aa gb|ACN86367.1| troponin T transcript varian...006588#locus:tnt- 3#status:Partially_confirmed#UniProt:B9WRS6#protein_id:AC M46022.1 10/09/10 81 %/122 aa AG

  12. EST Table: AV405690 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV405690 wdV30118 10/09/28 93 %/225 aa ref|NP_001040124.1| exuperantia [Bombyx mori] gb|ABD36117.1| exuperan...9360-PA 10/09/10 53 %/220 aa gi|91085815|ref|XP_974770.1| PREDICTED: similar to exuperantia [Tribolium castaneum] FS919769 wdV3 ...

  13. EST Table: AV401231 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401231 e96h0406 10/09/28 100 %/169 aa ref|NP_001040343.1| peripheral-type benzodiazepine... receptor [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF51223.1| peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28

  14. EST Table: AV401871 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401871 heS00267 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0046872(metal ion binding) 10/09/28 65 %/194 aa gb|ACR61720.1| triglyce...ride lipase [Manduca sexta] 10/08/28 48 %/206 aa FBpp0147001|DgriGH13095-PA 10/08/2

  15. EST Table: AV398786 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398786 NV060281 10/09/28 96 %/126 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus xylo...philus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/28 96 %/126 aa FBpp0278212|DpseGA24908-PA 1

  16. EST Table: AV401011 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401011 e96h0108 10/09/28 100 %/105 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus xyl...ophilus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/28 100 %/105 aa FBpp0278212|DpseGA24908-PA

  17. EST Table: AV400057 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400057 br--0482 10/09/28 100 %/104 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus xyl...ophilus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/28 100 %/104 aa FBpp0278212|DpseGA24908-PA

  18. EST Table: AV398858 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398858 NV060362 10/09/28 100 %/102 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus xyl...ophilus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/28 100 %/102 aa FBpp0278212|DpseGA24908-PA

  19. EST Table: AV402944 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV402944 heS30768 10/09/28 76 %/117 aa gb|ACO12033.1| 40S ribosomal protein S8 [Lepeo...phtheirus salmonis] gb|ACO12251.1| 40S ribosomal protein S8 [Lepeophtheirus salmonis] 10/08/28 67 %/122 aa

  20. Rektorers forståelse av mobbing i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    2008-01-01

    PÅ opfordring fra redaktionen gives en kommentar med dansk vinkel til den norske artikel 'Rektorers forståelse av mobbning i skolen'.Den omtalte artikel er at betragte som første trin i indførelse af en nordisk mobbeforståelse med undgangspunkt i Dan Olweus begrebsafgrænsning.Der savnes også en i...

  1. EST Table: AV405516 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV405516 wdV10864 10/09/28 33 %/180 aa ref|XP_969213.1| PREDICTED: similar to artemis...0768|ref|XP_969213.1| PREDICTED: similar to artemis protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS920671 wdV1 ...

  2. EST Table: AV401629 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401629 e96h0968 10/09/28 70 %/161 aa ref|XP_002431431.1| Karyogamy protein KAR4, ...putative [Pediculus humanus corporis] gb|EEB18693.1| Karyogamy protein KAR4, putative [Pediculus humanus cor

  3. Forskerskoler som modeller for forskerutdanning: Progresjon og utvikling av ekspertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sten Ludvigsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available I de senere årene har forskerskoler blitt fremhevet som en mulig løsning på ulike utfordringer innenfor forskerutdanningen. På bakgrunn av erfaringer med to forskerskoler innenfor utdanningsvitenskap, vil vi i denne artikkelen belyse to problemstillinger: Hvordan kan man organisere læringsforløpet til ph.d.-kandidatene slik at det støtter deres progresjon? Og hva må forskerutdanningen inneholde for at ph.d.-kandidatene skal utvikle tilstrekkelig ekspertise innenfor et avgrenset kunnskapsområde?For å skape progresjon, bør utdanningsprogrammet bidra til å gi struktur og angi faglig retning. Videre må utdanningselementene være relevante for avhandlingsarbeidet. I tillegg kan progresjon fremmes gjennom seminarer, der utviklingen av tekster og artikler følges opp. Argumentet om at forskerskoler bør bygge på gode forskningsmiljøer har stått sentralt i utredningen av ulike modeller for forskerutdanning i Norge. Ett aspekt som har fått økende oppmerksomhet er betydningen av å oppnå en tilstrekkelig grad av spesialisering. Uten utvikling av en slik ekspertise, vil ph.d.-kandidatene ikke kunne publisere internasjonalt og delta i forskningsfellesskap.Ved Det utdanningsvitenskapelige fakultet har man de siste 10 årene utviklet flere typer forskerskoler. I denne artikkelen tar vi utgangspunkt i den UiO-finansierte, tematisk avgrensede forskerskolen «Læring, kommunikasjon og IKT» (2004–2008 og den NFR-finansierte nasjonale forskerskolen i utdanningsvitenskap, NATED (2008–2016, hvor ph.d.-kandidatene deltar i faglige aktiviteter organisert i fire spor.Metodene som brukes for å besvare problemstillingene omfatter intervjuer, spørreskjema og refleksjoner vedrørende de to ulike forskerskolene.Resultatene viser at man kan oppnå nødvendig spesialisering, høy kvalitet, høy tilfredshet og høy relevans ved bruk av forskerskoler som virkemiddel i forskerutdanningen. Begge forskerskolene har tilrettelagt for internasjonal

  4. Minimizing ventricular pacing by a novel atrioventricular (AV) delay hysteresis algorithm in patients with intact or compromised intrinsic AV conduction and different atrial and ventricular lead locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, Sami; Toivonen, Lauri

    2013-09-01

    To investigate if an advanced AV search hysteresis (AVSH) algorithm, Ventricular Intrinsic Preference (VIP(™)), reduces the incidence of ventricular pacing (VP) in sinus node dysfunction (SND) with both intact and compromised AV conduction and with intermittent AV block regardless of the lead positions in the right atria and the ventricle. Patients were classified as having intact AV (AVi) conduction if the PR interval was ≤ 210 ms on ECG and 1:1 AV conduction during atrial pacing up to 120 bpm with PR interval ≤ 350 ms. Otherwise the AV conduction was classified as compromised (AVc). Both AVi and AVc patients were randomized to VIP ON or OFF. VIP performed an intrinsic AV conduction search every 30 s for three consecutive atrial cycles with the extension of the sensed and paced AV (SAV/PAV) delays from basic values of 150/200 ms to 300/350 ms. Extended AV intervals were allowed for three cycles when VP occurred before returning to basic AV delays. The primary end-point was %VP at 12 months. Among 389 patients, 30.1% had intact and 69.9% had compromised AV conduction. The mean %VP at 12 months was 9.6% by VIP compared to 51.8% with standard AV settings in patients with AVi (P < 0.0001) and 28.0% versus 78.9% (P < 0.0001) with AVc. With VIP, excessive %VP among most used lead positions was not seen. Conversely, when VIP was off %VP was low only in patients who had leads in the RA septal-RV septal position (23.0%). VIP feature reduces VP both in patients with SND and with intermittent heart block regardless of the lead positions in the right atria and the ventricle.

  5. En obekväm sanning eller en stor bluff? : En analys av den visuella gestaltningen av fenomenet "global uppvärmning" i filmmediet

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anton; Oretoft, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    En uppsats som kritiskt granskar och analyserar den visuella gestaltningen i två dokumentärfilmer. Huvudtemat i filmerna är global uppvärmning och konsekvenserna av detta. Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka den visuella gestaltningen av den miljödebatt som filmerna är en del i och genom detta belysa frågor som berör visuell kultur och popularisering av vetenskap.

  6. Fra strømfordeling til pengestrøm? : Statnett fra forvaltningsbedrift til statsforetak : en konsekvensanalyse av omorganiseringen av Statnett seks år etter

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Halvor Gillund

    1998-01-01

    Fra strømfordeling til pengestrøm? Statnett fra forvaltningsbedrift til statsforetak en konsekvensanalyse av omorganiseringen av Statnett seks år etter. Tema for oppgaven er konsekvenser av endrete tilknytningsformer i staten. Temaet er kommet frem gjennom tilknytning til et samarbeidsprosjekt mellom Universitetet i Oslo ved Vitenskapsbutikken og Arbeids- og administrasjonsdepartementet. Årsaken til at man ønsker å se på slike forhold er den stadige kritikken mot en etter sigende alt for...

  7. En påle genom Dracula-filmernas hjärta? : En komparativ analys av adaptationer av Bram Stokers Dracula (1897) från åren 2000-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    En komparativ analys av adaptationer av Bram Stokers Dracula (1897) från åren 2000-2014 med syfte att undersöka resultatet av nästan 100 år av adaptationer och ett mål för att verkställa om en filmkanon har skapats kring karaktären.

  8. En påle genom Dracula-filmernas hjärta? : En komparativ analys av adaptationer av Bram Stokers Dracula (1897) från åren 2000-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    En komparativ analys av adaptationer av Bram Stokers Dracula (1897) från åren 2000-2014 med syfte att undersöka resultatet av nästan 100 år av adaptationer och ett mål för att verkställa om en filmkanon har skapats kring karaktären.

  9. Analysis of AVS-penogram in 3000 impotent patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minn, Young Guy; Choi, Hyung Ki [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-01

    Audio visual simulation penogram(AVS-penogram) is used as a screening method for evaluation of erectile dysfunction. In this study, 3000 patients were evaluated from Dec. 1986 to Dec. 1992 and finally diagnosed by comprehensive diagnostic methods. The patients were classified according to AVS-penogram curves into 4 types and correlated with the patient`s final diagnosis. For 800 patients who were evaluated with combined AVS-penogram and NPT monitoring, compatibility ratios between psychogenic and organic group were compared. After correlating each of the curve type with the patients and comparing erotic and nocturnal erection, following results were obtained. 1. The mean age of the patients was 41.25 years. 2. The overall rate of final diagnosis were 57.5%, 14.3%, 8.9% in psychogenic, arteriogenic and veogenic impotence. 3. Type I group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 87% of the patients. 4. Type IIA group was proved as organic impotence in 79% of the patients and most of them had neurogenic and arteriogenic impotence. 5. Type IIB group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 51%, organic impotence in 49% of the patients. Among the organic impotence group, most of them had arteriogenic, venogenic and neurogenic impotence. The difference of both group was statically insignificant. 6. Type IIC group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 39%, organic impotence in 61% of the patients. Further studies are needed for sub-classification of both groups. 7. The compatibility ratio of the AVS-penogram and NPTM was 85.9% in psychogenic group with normal finding in both tests and 44.7% in organic group with abnormal finding in both tests. In conclusion, AVS-penogram is a primary diagnostic method in screening impotent patients and type I is regarded as psychogenic impotence. In Type IIB and IIC, sub-classification of curve type is needed for differential diagnosis between psychogenic and organic impotence. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Forbuden frukt smaker best en studie av nordmenns spise- og drikkemønster av sjokolade, søtsaker, salt snacks, sukkerholdige leskedrikker og lignende

    OpenAIRE

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2010-01-01

    Denne studien er en del av forskningsprosjektene Young Food og HealthMeal. Begge prosjektene er finansiert av Norges forskningsråd. Temaet i rapporten er nordmenns spise- og drikkemønster av en type mat og drikke som helsemyndighetene ønsker at befolkningen skal redusere forbruket sitt av – slik som sjokolade, søtsaker, søte bakervarer, salt snacks og sukkerholdige drikker. Selv om forbruksutviklingen de seneste par årene har vist positive tendenser, har altså nordmenn fremdeles et langt høye...

  11. En handlingsmodell för förebyggandet av psykologiska komplikationer hos kvinnor som genomgår avbrytande av havandeskap

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstrakt Utvecklingsarbetet ”En handlingsmodell för förebyggandet av psykologiska komplikationer hos kvinnor som genomgår avbrytande av havandeskap”, är en fortsättning på examensarbetet ”Abort - En systematisk översikt av kvinnornas upplevelser och av vårdpersonalens betydelse” som publicerades och presenterades våren 2013. Syftet med utvecklingsarbetet är att producera en handlingsmodell för hälsovårdspersonalen. Handlingsmodellen kommer att ge råd och tips på hur man som hälsovårdspe...

  12. Cloning and characterization of a novel apolipoprotein gene, apolipoprotein AV, in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Luo, Huairong; Sun, Guotao; Wu, Guisheng; Wu, Gang; Wang, Yan; Man, Yong; Wang, Shu; Li, Jian; Chen, Baosheng

    2013-09-01

    Apolipoprotein AV (apoAV) modulates plasma triglyceride levels, which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. ApoAV is also involved in atherosclerosis lesion formation. In order to systematically evaluate the apolipoprotein-related gene profile in tree shrew, a model for its insusceptibility to atherosclerosis, we performed apoAV cloning and characterization. The full-length cDNA of apoAV was identified using SMART-RACE. ApoAV cDNA sequence revealed two transcripts, 1,948 and 1,397 base pairs, due to alternative polyadenylation. These two transcripts share the same open reading frame (ORF), which encodes a 369-amino acid protein with high identity to human apoAV (75 %), including a 23-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide. ApoAV is expressed exclusively in the liver. Mature apoAV was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and purified by Ni-chelated resin. Lipoprotein lipase activity was significantly stimulated by this recombinant protein. The full-length ORF of apoAV was cloned into pDsRed-monomer-N1 vector with a red fluorescent protein tag and was primarily localized in cytoplasm of hepG2 cells. The successful cloning, expression and localization of apoAV in tree shrew has laid down the foundation for further investigation on its structure and functions.

  13. Viktigheten av fysisk aktivitet og trening blant eldre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Lohne-Seiler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Regelmessig fysisk aktivitet er viktig for eldres helse. Sammenhengen mellom en fysisk aktiv livsstil og helsegevinster som forebygging av sykdom, opprettholdelse av uavhengighet og økt livskvalitet er godt dokumentert (ACSM's Position Stand 1998; Spirduso & Cronin, 2001; Taylor et al., 2004. Hensikten med denne oversiktsartikkelen er derfor å redegjøre for viktigheten av regelmessig fysisk aktivitet og trening i aldringsprosessen, samt utdype sammenhengen mellom en fysisk aktiv livsstil og fysisk funksjon blant eldre. Basert på en nasjonal multisenterstudie (Anderssen et al., 2009, tilfredsstilte 20% voksne og eldre (20-85 år de nasjonale anbefalinger om 30 minutter med daglig fysisk aktivitet. Kun 12% i den eldste aldersgruppen (80-85 år tilfredsstilte anbefalingene. Totalt fysisk aktivitetsnivå, målt ved hjelp av akselerometer, ble redusert med økende alder, hvor de eldste (80-85 år hadde 50% lavere aktivitetsnivå sammenlignet med de yngste (65-69 år (Lohne-Seiler et al., 2012. Fra 25-års alder reduseres utholdenhet og muskelstyrke med 10% per 10 år dersom individet er inaktiv (Heath et al., 1981; Wilmore, 1991. Systematisk utholdenhets- og styrketrening ser derimot ut til å redusere tapet med inntil halvparten, det vil si en reduksjon tilsvarende 5% per 10 år hos fysisk aktive individer (Heath et al., 1981. Eldre individer ser ut til å ha de samme treningsinduserte effekter som yngre, det vil si at man får effekt av økt aktivitet uansett alder, og da også lik prosentvis fremgang (Hagberg et al., 1989. Studier har vist at det er mulig å øke maksimalt oksygenopptak og maksimal muskelstyrke med inntil 10-20% i løpet av en 12 ukers intervensjon (Hagberg et al., 1989; Reeves et al., 2003; Lohne-Seiler et al, in press. Da muskelstyrke ser ut til å ha en sterk sammenheng med individets funksjonsevne/mobilitet, er det viktig å kunne tilrettelegge for systematisk styrketrening for eldre for på den måten å oppnå

  14. Kartlegging av læreres kunnskap er ikke enkelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidar Mosvold

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Læreres kunnskap har betydning for elevenes læring, og som et ledd i prosessen for styrking av kvaliteten i norsk skole har politikere i senere tid ytret ønske om å kartlegge læreres kunnskap. Kartlegging av læreres kunnskap er imidlertid ikke enkelt, og i denne artikkelen undersøker vi hvordan de samme lærernes undervisningskunnskap i matematikk kan se ut til å være forskjellig når den måles ved hjelp av oppgaver med ulikt format. Deltakerne i studien var 30 praktiserende lærere, og instrumentet besto av 28 flervalgsoppgaver med tilhørende åpne oppgaver. Sammenhengen mellom lærernes kunnskap slik den måles ved hjelp av flervalgsoppgavene og de åpne oppgavene er ikke alltid klar. Det er derfor nødvendig å tilnærme seg måling av læreres undervisnings-kunnskap i matematikk med stor varsomhet. Nærmere undersøkelser er nødvendig for å finne ut hva slags type kunnskap som kan måles med ulike typer oppgaver og hva slags måleinstrumenter som kan brukes til hvilke formål.Nøkkelord: Undervisningskunnskap i matematikk, kartlegging, måleinstrument-er, flervalgsoppgaver AbstractTeachers’ knowledge influence students’ learning, and as part of their attempts to increase the quality of Norwegian schools, politicians have announced their intentions to measure the knowledge of teachers. Measuring teacher knowledge is not straightforward, however, and this article investigates how a group of mathematics teachers’ knowledge might appear different when measured by items of different formats. The participants in this study were 30 in-service teachers, and the instrument consisted of 28 multiple-choice items with associated open-response items. The connection between the teachers’ know-ledge as measured by multiple-choice items and open-response items is not always straightforward. As an implication, it is necessary to approach measure-ment of teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching with great care. Further studies are

  15. Avsluttende studentevaluering i Bachelorutdanningen : avgangsstudenters vurdering av undervisning og utdanning ved Politihøgskolen, Kull 05–08

    OpenAIRE

    Hove, Kjersti

    2010-01-01

    Denne rapporten inneholder en oppsummering og enkle analyser av studenters evaluering av utdanningen ved slutten av studiet. Evalueringen bygger delvis på spørsmål hentet fra StudData, og en tilsvarende rapport fra HiO ( Hatlevik, Ida Katrine Riksaasen: Avgangsstudenten – Studentenes vurdering av undervisning, praksis, studieforhold, tilegnet kompetanse, studieatferd og fremtidig utdanning. HiO-notat nr 2 -2009) hvor analyser av flere studentgruppers evalueringer er sammenstilt. Rapporten fra...

  16. Radioactive waste from non-licensed activities - identification of waste, compilation of principles and guidance, and proposed system for final management; Radioaktivt avfall fraan icke tillstaandsbunden verksamhet (RAKET) - identifiering av aktuellt avfall, sammanstaellning av relevanta regler och principer, foerslag paa system foer omhaendertagande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.; Pers, K. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Presently national guidelines for the handling of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities are lacking in Sweden. Results and information presented in this report are intended to form a part of the basis for decisions on further work within the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute on regulations or other guidelines on final management and final disposal of this type of waste. An inventory of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities is presented in the report. In addition, existing rules and principles used in Sweden - and internationally - on the handling of radioactive and toxic waste and non-radioactive material are summarized. Based on these rules and principles a system is suggested for the final management of radioactive material from non-licensed activities. A model is shown for the estimation of dose as a consequence of leaching of radio-nuclides from different deposits. The model is applied on different types of waste, e.g. peat ashes, light concrete and low-level waste from a nuclear installation.

  17. Wirevagn : Utvecklingen av en utrullare för hisslinor

    OpenAIRE

    Rehnsfeldt, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Kandidatexamensarbetet som utgick från en förfrågan från företaget Irongrip AB hade som mål att utveckla ett produktförslag på en utlindare av stålvajer för hissmontörer. Irongrip AB som tillverkar och säljer verktyg för hantering av stålvajer hade uppmärksammat att en efterfrågan på en sådan produkt fanns på marknaden då befintliga lösningar var bristfälliga och inte hade alla de funktioner som är önskvärda hos en sådan produkt.Arbetet inleddes med en förstudie där studiebesök vid lindragnin...

  18. EST Table: AV400562 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400562 br--1452X 10/09/28 59 %/160 aa ref|XP_001843664.1| neuroendocrine protein ...7b2 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS33875.1| neuroendocrine protein 7b2 [Culex quinquefasciatus] 10/08/28 41 ...47 %/159 aa gi|91081787|ref|XP_973692.1| PREDICTED: similar to neuroendocrine protein 7b2 [Tribolium castaneum] BP115163 br-- ...

  19. EST Table: AV400244 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400244 br--1010 10/09/28 53 %/100 aa ref|XP_001654557.1| neuroendocrine protein 7...b2 [Aedes aegypti] gb|EAT46754.1| neuroendocrine protein 7b2 [Aedes aegypti] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BP115163 br-- ...

  20. EST Table: AV398380 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398380 NV021745 10/09/28 70 %/209 aa ref|XP_001648944.1| dendritic cell protein [...hort=eIF3m gb|EAT44291.1| dendritic cell protein [Aedes aegypti] 10/08/28 66 %/206 aa FBpp0276999|DpseGA2097...P_968265.1| PREDICTED: similar to dendritic cell protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS916297 NV02 ...

  1. EST Table: AV399091 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399091 NV060650 10/09/28 71 %/209 aa ref|XP_001648944.1| dendritic cell protein [...hort=eIF3m gb|EAT44291.1| dendritic cell protein [Aedes aegypti] 10/08/28 66 %/206 aa FBpp0276999|DpseGA2097...P_968265.1| PREDICTED: similar to dendritic cell protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS916297 NV06 ...

  2. EST Table: AV399252 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399252 NV060970 10/09/28 62 %/104 aa ref|NP_001119705.1| transformer 2 isoform A ...[Bombyx mori] gb|AAT42220.2| transformer-2 protein A [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 low homology NM_001126237 NV06 ...

  3. EST Table: AV400450 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400450 br--1258 10/09/28 98 %/184 aa ref|NP_001040380.1| F-box only protein 21 [B...ombyx mori] gb|ABF51283.1| F-box only protein 21 [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS910521 br-- ...

  4. EST Table: AV402699 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV402699 heS30352 10/09/28 96 %/136 aa ref|NP_001128387.1| scavenger receptor type ...C [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAG70411.1| scavenger receptor type C [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS765704 heS3 ...

  5. EST Table: AV402471 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV402471 heS01053 10/09/28 100 %/233 aa ref|NP_001128387.1| scavenger receptor type... C [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAG70411.1| scavenger receptor type C [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 35 %/207 aa FBpp0123883|Da...12043.1| PREDICTED: similar to scavenger receptor SR-C-like protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS765704 heS0 ...

  6. EST Table: AV405279 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV405279 wdV10395 10/09/28 66 %/172 aa ref|XP_002062541.1| GK17594 [Drosophila will.../27 33 %/169 aa T21E12.4#CE23997#WBGene00000962#locus:dhc-1#dynein heavy chain#status:Partially_confirmed#Un...17|ref|XP_975584.1| PREDICTED: similar to dynein heavy chain [Tribolium castaneum] DC550560 wdV1 ...

  7. EST Table: AV404429 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404429 pg--0968X 10/09/28 88 %/186 aa ref|NP_001116822.1| kinesin heavy chain [Bo...5-PA 10/08/27 44 %/109 aa R05D3.7#CE26945#WBGene00006840#locus:unc-116#Kinesin heavy chain#status:Confirmed#...56|ref|XP_973415.2| PREDICTED: similar to Kinesin heavy chain CG7765-PA [Tribolium castaneum] FS934567 pg-- ...

  8. EST Table: AV402302 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV402302 heS00852 10/09/28 98 %/239 aa ref|NP_001128387.1| scavenger receptor type ...C [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAG70411.1| scavenger receptor type C [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 31 %/247 aa FBpp0259854|Dya...043.1| PREDICTED: similar to scavenger receptor SR-C-like protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS765704 heS0 ...

  9. EST Table: AV398139 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398139 NV021172 10/09/28 46 %/243 aa ref|XP_001661901.1| DNA mismatch repair protein muts... [Aedes aegypti] gb|EAT36110.1| DNA mismatch repair protein muts [Aedes aegypti] 10/08/28 43 %/238 a...el|GB10970-PA 10/09/10 42 %/247 aa gi|91082687|ref|XP_971522.1| PREDICTED: similar to DNA mismatch repair protein muts [Tribolium castaneum] BY922838 NV02 ...

  10. Effekter av endringer i finansieringsansvaret for TNF-hemmere

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Terje P.; Bjarkum, Irina; Hobbel, Silje; Orderdalen, Karianne

    2009-01-01

    Tumor necreosis factor alfa (TNF-a) - hemmere, og andre biologiske inflammatoriske modifiserende legemidler blir brukt innen reumatologi, gastroenterologi og dermatologi. I denne rapporten analyseres effekter av endringer i finansieringssystemet for seks legemidler som faller innenfor disse legemiddelgruppene og som langt på vei er substitutter: Humira, Enbrel og Remicade som er TNF-hemmere, Raptiva og Orencia som er registrert under kategorien selektive immunsuppressiver og MabThera som er r...

  11. EST Table: AV401797 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401797 heS00172 10/09/28 94 %/235 aa ref|NP_001036831.1| saposin-related [Bombyx ...9/10 low homology 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 41 %/191 aa gi|91077504|ref|XP_966852.1| PREDICTED: similar to saposin isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] FS791050 heS0 ...

  12. EST Table: AV401078 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401078 e96h0200 10/09/28 42 %/112 aa ref|XP_001648294.1| Juvenile hormone-inducib...le protein, putative [Aedes aegypti] gb|EAT44634.1| Juvenile hormone-inducible protein, putative [Aedes aegy... 10/09/10 36 %/106 aa gi|91080979|ref|XP_974925.1| PREDICTED: similar to Juvenile hormone-inducible protein, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS808716 e96h ...

  13. Kritik av riskbegreppet - berättigad eller ej?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Halvorsen, Peder; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2009-01-01

    skull". Trots stora framsteg inom medicinen finns det skäl att stanna upp och fråga: Vad håller vi på med egentligen? Redaktörerna och författarna till denna bok lyfter fram behovet av att reflektera över medicinsk praktik och att kritiskt granska de teorier som ligger till grund för vad vi gör. I boken...

  14. Inkludering av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn i NIF-organisert idrett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Kristin Sisjord

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Norges Idrettsforbund og Olympiske og Paralympiske Komité (NIF har en uttalt målsetting om en åpen og inkluderende idrett. Hvordan kommer dette til uttrykk i den praktiske virksomheten? Denne artikkelen, som bygger på data fra en undersøkelse om likestilling og mangfold i den organiserte idretten (NIF, retter søkelyset mot arbeid med inklusjon av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn på ulike organisasjonsnivå i NIF: særforbund, idrettskretser og idrettslag. Datamaterialet er kvalitative intervju med representanter fra ulike organisasjonsnivå. Resultatene viser at NIFs overordnede politikk i varierende grad nedfelles i særforbundenes virksomhet, i idrettskretsene og i idrettslagene. Av særforbundene skiller Fotballforbundet og Klatreforbundet seg ut som aktive pådrivere i arbeidet med inkludering. Mange idrettslag oppfattet slike spørsmål som lite aktuelle i sitt rekrutteringsområde. Representanter for lag som hadde erfaring med inkludering og rekruttering av minoritetsungdom, tilkjennega varierte erfaringer og synspunkter.

  15. Toward robust AV conferencing on next-generation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haining; Cheng, Liang; El Zarki, Magda

    2005-01-01

    In order to enable a truly pervasive computing environment, next generation networks (including B3G and 4G) will merge the broadband wireless and wireline networking infrastructure. However, due to the tremendous complexity in administration and the unreliability of the wireless channel, provision of hard-guarantees for services on such networks will not happen in the foreseeable future. This consequently makes it particularly challenging to offer viable AV conferencing services due to their stringent synchronization, delay and data fidelity requirements. We propose in this paper a robust application-level solution for wireless mobile AV conferencing on B3G/4G networks. Expecting no special treatment from the network, we apply a novel adaptive delay and synchronization control mechanism to maintain the synchronization and reduce the latency as much as possible. We also employ a robust video coding technique that has better error-resilience capability. We investigate the performance of the proposed solution through simulations using a three-state hidden Markov chain as the generic end-to-end transport channel model. The results show that our scheme yields tight synchronization performance, relatively low end-to-end latency and satisfactory presentation quality. The scheme successfully provides a fairly robust AV conferencing service.

  16. Synliggörande av tyst kunskap i gymnasial yrkesutbildning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundgren

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yrkesutbildning skiljer sig från andra former av gymnasieutbildning genom att den innehåller praktisk kunskap som kan vara svårfångad, ofta benämnd som tyst kunskap. Tyst kunskap utgör en förutsättning för att yrkeselever ska kunna tillägna sig ett yrkes kultur, praxis och kunskapstradition. Med utgångspunkt i yrkeslärares berättelser beskrivs i artikeln med stöd av tre definierade kompetensområden, 1 yrkesfältet, 2 handlag i yrket samt 3 interaktion och social kompetens, hur yrkeslärare arbetar för att möjliggöra att ett yrkes tysta kunskaper kan läras i en skolmiljö. Resultatet visar betydelsen av att yrkeslärares tysta kunskaper blottläggs för eleverna genom att de i sin undervisning, berättar, visar och ställer frågor. Det är i dessa möten som den tysta kunskapens betydelse i yrkesutövning kan bli synlig för eleverna.

  17. Bruk av ordlæringsstrategier blant norske tyskelever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gausland

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Interessen for forskning på læringsstrategier er økende i Norge. Det finnes likevel ennå ingen publiserte empiriske studier som fokuserer på læringsstrategier i andre fremmedspråk. Hensikten med den foreliggende artikkelen er å gi et første innblikk i 54 norske tyskelevers bruk av ordlæringsstrategier. Studien er gjennomført som en skriftlig spørreundersøkelse hvor elevene beskrev hvordan de hadde arbeidet for å lære en liste med tysk-norske ordpar. Samlet sett ser vi at elevene behersker ordlæringsstrategier av ulik art, men at noen få strategier er hyppig forekomne hos de fleste elevene. Det viser seg at elevene i hovedsak bruker ordlæringsstrategier som inneholder element av repetisjon, altså strategier som krever lite kognitiv bearbeiding. Dernest blir metakognitive strategier som organiserer og planlegger læringen mest brukt. Artikkelens siste del sammenligner funn fra undersøkelsen med internasjonale studier og skisserer videre forskningsbehov innen feltet.

  18. Särhållning av gruvavfall med avseende på syrabildande potential : en studie av svenska sulfidmalmsgruvor

    OpenAIRE

    Sellin, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Gruvavfall utgör över 80 % av den totala mängden avfall i Sverige. Avfallet från gruvindustrin kan påverka våra ekosystem negativt om tungmetaller och försurande ämnen lämnar materialet. I Sverige utgör avfall från sulfidmalmer störst risk för miljön eftersom det innehåller mineral som genom kontakt med luft vittrar och producerar surt och metallhaltigt lakvatten. Efterbehandling av dessa material är viktigt för att förhindra läckage till omgivningen. Eftersom efterbehandli...

  19. Mellom bibel og menneskerettigheter : en studie av Vårt Land og Dagens vinkling av Palestina/Israel-konflikten

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Sammendrag Tittel: Israel og Palestina mellom bibel og menneskerettigheter. - Vinkling av Palestina/Israelkonflikten i avisene Vårt Land og Dagens lederartikler Spørsmålsstilling: Hvilke holdninger til Palestina/Israel-konflikten reflekterer lederartikler i de to kristne dagsavisene Dagen og Vårt Land? Er det mulig å spore en endring i vinklingen over tid? Hvordan kan disse lederartiklene gi oss innblikk i en debatt om Palestina/Israel-konflikten blant kristne i Norge? Metode...

  20. Å LESE MEDIETEKSTER PÅ IPADEN. Observasjoner av en medievant fireårings bruk av iPad i hjemmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Jæger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i tre observasjoner av en gutt på fire år som bruker iPad på fritiden. Den søker å synliggjøre de strategiene dette barnet velger for å skaffe seg tilgang til ulike medietekster, hvordan han leser og tolker dem, og den undersøker eventuelle spor av kritisk refleksjon hos barnet over disse tekstene. Teoretisk sett hviler den på en forståelse av mediekompetanse som en parallell prosess til utvikling av lese- og skrivekyndighet (literacy, og medieopplevelsene omtales som viktige møter med tekst. Artikkelen undersøker hvordan å lese medietekster kan legge et grunnlag for å utvikle en utvidet tekstkompetanse eller mediekompetanse. Konklusjonen legger vekt på motivasjon og lekenhet som barns primære inngang til medietekstene og som et grunnlag for å utvikle mediekompetanse (media literacy. The article is based on three observations of a four-year-old boy who uses the iPad in his spare time. It demonstrates the strategies that this boy applies to gain access to various media texts, and how he reads and interprets them. It also seeks to examine traces of critical reflection that he may demonstrate in relation to these texts. Theoretically, it rests on an understanding of media literacy as a parallel process to the development of literacy, and it seeks to demonstrate how reading media texts can create an important starting point for the development of media literacy. The Kindergarten practitioner’s role and opportunities to develop children's media literacy within a kindergarten context is a focus towards the end of the article. In conclusion, I argue that motivation and playfulness are important approaches to media texts and create an important foundation for the development of media literacy

  1. Har forhold under svangerskapet betydning for utviklingen av otitis media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari J. Kværner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGMed utgangspunkt i data fra et populasjonsbasert utvalg av 7 992 norske tvillinger ble sammenhengenmellom gjentatte ørebetennelser og forhold under svangerskapet studert. Som parametre på intrauterinevekstforhold ble informasjon om fødselsvekt og gestasjonsalder fra Medisinsk Fødselsregister benyttet.Informasjon om rapporterte øreinfeksjoner ble basert på spørreskjemaer som ble besvart av tvillingene ialderen 18–25 år. Først studerte vi individuelle effekter av fødselsvekt og gestasjonsalder på forekomsten avotitis media (OM. Rapportert fødselsvekt hos individer med OM var signifikant lavere enn hos kontrollene,med en gjennomsnittsforskjell på 86 gram. Hos de som rapporterte OM var gjennomsnittlig gestasjonsalder3 dager kortere enn i kontrollmaterialet. Deretter beregnet vi effekten av fødselsvekt ved bruk av co-twinkontroll metoden. Blant monozygote (MZ tvillingpar gjenspeiler fødselsvektforskjeller innenfor tvillingparetintra-uterine miljøforskjeller. Blant dizygote (DZ par kan vektforskjellen være både genetiske ogmiljøbetinget. Ved sammenligning av fødselsvektforskjeller innenfor tvillingparene er tvillingen som ikkehar gjentatte øreinfeksjoner en matchet kontroll blant OM diskordante par. Resultatene antyder at lavfødselsvekt er en risikofaktor for otitis media. Gjennomsnittlig vektforskjell blant par diskordante for OMvar 48 gram, og den av tvillingen som ikke rapporterte OM hadde signifikant høyere fødselsvekt.Kværner KJ, Tambs K, Harris J, Magnus P. Do pregnancy-related factors influence the development ofotitis media? Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (1: 55-58.  ENGLISH SUMMARYThe association between intrauterine growth, as measured by weight and gestational age, and the occurrenceof recurrent ear infections was studied using data from a population based sample of 7992 Norwegian twins.Perinatal measures were collected from the Medical Birth Registry, and reports of recurrent ear infectionswere based on

  2. Overvåking av norsk kosthold - metoder og resultater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Johansson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGKunnskap om endringer i matvarenes sammensetning og befolkningens kosthold er grunnleggende for utformingog oppfølging av en helsefremmende mat- og ernæringspolitikk. Dagens system for overvåking avkostholdet bygger først og fremst på en matvaredatabase og opplysninger om forbruket av matvarer fra tretyper datasett; matforsyningsstatistikk, forbruksundersøkelser og kostholdsundersøkelser. Det avgis årlig envurdering av utviklingen i norsk kosthold i forhold til mat- og ernæringspolitiske målsettinger. Det norskesystemet for overvåking av kostholdet er blitt betydelig styrket i løpet av 1990-årene ved innføringen avregelmessige kostholdsundersøkelser blant landsrepresentative utvalg av befolkningen i ulike aldersgrupperog økte ressurser til analyse av næringsinnholdet i matvarer. Det er imidlertid beskjedent sammenlignet meddatainnsamlingen i land som USA og Storbritannia. Det norske overvåkingssystemet er forsatt i enutviklingsfase, og det må justeres og kompletteres etter hvert. Dessuten vil det arbeides med å kvalitetssikredatainnsamlingen.Johansson L. Surveillance of the diet in Norway – methods and results.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYKnowledge about changes in composition and intake of foods, as well as changes in the prevalence of dietrelatedhealth problems is fundamental for an effective food and nutrition policy. The National Council onNutrition and Physical Activity is responsible for evaluating changes in the diet. Annually the Council publishesreports about trends in the Norwegian diet, and suggests measures to improve the diet. The Council, incooperation with the National Food Authority and the Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo,has established a national food and dietary surveillance system. This system is mainly based on a fooddatabase and food consumption data. The food consumption data include three principally different datasets: food supplies, household consumption surveys

  3. Diffusjon av influensa i Norge under spanskesyken 1918-19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenn-Erik Mamelund

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSpanskesyken var en verdensomspennende influensaepidemi som tok livet av minst 30 millioner mennesker,de fleste i løpet av noen få høstmåneder i 1918, men den strakk seg også inn i 1919. En siste svakbølge fant sted vinteren 1920. De første sporadiske tilfellene av spanskesyken i Norge oppsto i militærleirei begynnelsen av april 1918. Over tre måneder senere kom de første spredte tilfellene av det som skullevise seg å være starten på en ny stor influensapandemi. De første av disse oppsto i Kristiania, mest sannsynligetter smitteimport fra Skottland over Nordsjøen. Sommeren 1918 spredte spanskesyken seg raskt frasør til nord, fra kysten til innlandet innover fjordene, og fra de største byene og industrisentra via mindrebyer og andre tettsteder til landsbygda langs de viktigste ferdselsveiene. Da spanskesyken blusset opp igjenhøsten 1918 spredte den seg langsommere og trolig fra nord til sør, fortsatt fra kysten innover fjordene,men spredning fra byene langs kommunikasjonsveiene var mindre fremtredende. Vinteren 1918/19opptrådte influensaen spredt og sporadisk, tilsynelatende uten bestemt spredningsmønster og rekkefølge.Jernbanen, hurtigruten og automobilrutene spilte trolig en viktig rolle i spredningsprosessen, spesielt andrehalvår 1918. Ulik sosial interaksjon, for eksempel et marked som samlet store folkemengder, kan bidra til åforklare eksplosive utbrudd av influensa og diffusjon på lavt geografisk nivå.Mamelund S-E. The diffusion of influenza in Norway during the 1918-19 Pandemic.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYIn 1918-1919, a world-wide pandemic, the Spanish Influenza, swept over the entire globe, killing at least30 million people, most of them during the fall of 1918. A last, but small and less defined wave occurred inthe winter of 1920. The first sporadic cases of Spanish Influenza in Norway are known from army campsin the early days of April 1918. More than three months later, the first scattered

  4. Implementering av nye GOLD-stadier hos pasienter med KOLS i allmennpraksis

    OpenAIRE

    Storaker, Marit Aarvaag; Nerwey, Ibrahim; Kierulf-Strømme, Kirsten; Tengesdal, Randi Hauge; Wyller, Nora Guttormsgaard; Skårn, Elling Skeide; Cagrici, Ufuk

    2014-01-01

    Bakgrunn: GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) lanserte i 2011 nye kriterier for gradering av alvorlighetsgrad av KOLS, der man i tillegg til FEV1 ved spirometri også tar hensyn til antall eksaserbasjoner og pasientens symptombyrde. Mange pasienter havner i en lavere risikogruppe etter den nye inndelingen, og er følgelig overbehandlet med f.eks. inhalasjonssteroider. Andre kan identifiseres tidligere som høyrisikopasienter for hyppige eksaserbasjoner og raskt tap av l...

  5. STUDY ON EFFICIENT COMPUTATION AND PERFORMANCE OF AV-BASED REDUCED-RANK FILTERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bin; Yang Chenyang; Mao Shiyi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the complexity and performance of the Auxiliary Vector (AV) based reduced-rank filtering are addressed. The AV filters presented in the previous papers have the general form of the sum of the signature vector of the desired signal and a set of weighted AVs,which can be classified as three categories according to the orthogonality of their AVs and the optimality of the weight coefficients of the AVs. The AV filter with orthogonal AVs and optimal weight coefficients has the best performance, but requires considerable computational complexity and suffers from the numerical unstable operation. In order to reduce its computational load while keeping the superior performance, several low complexity algorithms are proposed to efficiently calculate the AVs and their weight coefficients. The diagonal loading technique is also introduced to solve the numerical unstability problem without complexity increase. The performance of the three types of AV filters is also compared through their application to Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDM A) systems for interference suppression.

  6. Utveckling av mjukglassomrörare : En studie för ökad luftinblandning

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Den här rapporten är ämnad som underlag till ett fortsatt utvecklingsarbete av en omrörare för mjukglassmaskiner. I en mjukglassmaskin kyls glassen under kontinuerlig omrörning, på så vis blandas luft in och ger glassen fluffighet. Omrörarens huvudfunktioner är luftinblandning, avskrapning av iskristaller längs innerhöljet av kylcylindern samt utmatning av mjukglass mot öppningsdörr. Med en ny utformning ska omröraren bidra till en mer kostnadseffektiv mjukglass-maskin samt ge en godare glass...

  7. Handlingsplan för ägare av transformatorer med korrosiv olja

    OpenAIRE

    Weidemann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Sedan början av 2000-talet har ett stort antal transformatorer havererat av en initialt, okänd anledning. Problemet visade sig vara att en antioxidationstillsats i oljan, dibensyl disulfid (DBDS), reagerat med kopparen i lindningarna och vilket gett upphov till avlagringar på isolationspapperet i form av kopparsulfid. Kopparsulfiden i sin tur försvagade papperets isolationsförmåga och allvarliga driftstörningar eller driftstopp på grund av kortslutningar kan ske. Ett stort antal studier har g...

  8. NATO i krigen mot terror : En analyse av NATOs rolle i Afghanistan etter 11. september

    OpenAIRE

    Berg-Hansen, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Denne oppgaven studerer NATOs rolle i den USA-ledede Operation Enduring Freedom i Afghanistan. Noen timer etter terrorangrepet mot USA 11. september 2001, påkalte NATO for første gang i historien sin grunnpilar, Artikkel 5 i NATO-traktaten, som fastslår at et angrep på ett av medlemmene er et angrep på alle NATO-landene. Til tross for alliansens påkallelse av Artikkel 5, ble NATO stående på sidelinjen i hovedfasen av "Operation Enduring Freedom". USA valgte å gjennomføre mesteparten av kamp...

  9. Tibetanisering : religiøs og etnisk utdanning av tibetanske flyktningbarn i Nord-India

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Trude

    2007-01-01

    Religiøs sosialisering og nasjonal identitet blant tibetanske flyktningbarn i Nord-India er tema for denne oppgaven. Mye av materialet bygger på feltarbeidet jeg utførte ved Tibetan Children’s Village (TCV) Dharamsala høsten 2003. TCV regnes som en av de viktigste sekulære utdanningsinstitusjonene for tibetanerne i eksil. Siden den kinesiske invasjonen av Tibet i 1950 har mer en 100 000 tibetanere flyktet over fjellene i Himalaya til India, Nepal og Bhutan. Et av Dalai Lamas og eksilregje...

  10. Prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation in DDD pacemaker patients with complete AV block under nominal AV intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram C Poller

    Full Text Available Optimization of the AV-interval (AVI in DDD pacemakers improves cardiac hemodynamics and reduces pacemaker syndromes. Manual optimization is typically not performed in clinical routine. In the present study we analyze the prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation under resting conditions in 160 patients with complete AV block (AVB under the pre-programmed AVI. We manually optimized sub-optimal AVI.We analyzed 160 pacemaker patients with complete AVB, both in sinus rhythm (AV-sense; n = 129 and under atrial pacing (AV-pace; n = 31. Using Doppler analyses of the transmitral inflow we classified the nominal AVI as: a normal, b too long (E/A wave fusion or c too short (A wave truncation. In patients with a sub-optimal AVI, we performed manual optimization according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography.All AVB patients with atrial pacing exhibited a normal transmitral inflow under the nominal AV-pace intervals (100%. In contrast, 25 AVB patients in sinus rhythm showed E/A wave fusion under the pre-programmed AV-sense intervals (19.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI: 12.6-26.2%. A wave truncations were not observed in any patient. All patients with a complete E/A wave fusion achieved a normal transmitral inflow after AV-sense interval reduction (mean optimized AVI: 79.4 ± 13.6 ms.Given the rate of 19.4% (CI 12.6-26.2% of patients with a too long nominal AV-sense interval, automatic algorithms may prove useful in improving cardiac hemodynamics, especially in the subgroup of atrially triggered pacemaker patients with AV node diseases.

  11. Prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation in DDD pacemaker patients with complete AV block under nominal AV intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poller, Wolfram C; Dreger, Henryk; Schwerg, Marius; Melzer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of the AV-interval (AVI) in DDD pacemakers improves cardiac hemodynamics and reduces pacemaker syndromes. Manual optimization is typically not performed in clinical routine. In the present study we analyze the prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation under resting conditions in 160 patients with complete AV block (AVB) under the pre-programmed AVI. We manually optimized sub-optimal AVI. We analyzed 160 pacemaker patients with complete AVB, both in sinus rhythm (AV-sense; n = 129) and under atrial pacing (AV-pace; n = 31). Using Doppler analyses of the transmitral inflow we classified the nominal AVI as: a) normal, b) too long (E/A wave fusion) or c) too short (A wave truncation). In patients with a sub-optimal AVI, we performed manual optimization according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography. All AVB patients with atrial pacing exhibited a normal transmitral inflow under the nominal AV-pace intervals (100%). In contrast, 25 AVB patients in sinus rhythm showed E/A wave fusion under the pre-programmed AV-sense intervals (19.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 12.6-26.2%). A wave truncations were not observed in any patient. All patients with a complete E/A wave fusion achieved a normal transmitral inflow after AV-sense interval reduction (mean optimized AVI: 79.4 ± 13.6 ms). Given the rate of 19.4% (CI 12.6-26.2%) of patients with a too long nominal AV-sense interval, automatic algorithms may prove useful in improving cardiac hemodynamics, especially in the subgroup of atrially triggered pacemaker patients with AV node diseases.

  12. Overvåking av vassdrag i Ringsaker - Undersøkelser av innsjøer og bekker i 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Løvik, J.; Brettum, Pål

    2013-01-01

    Rapporten omhandler vannkvalitet og miljøtilstand i fire innsjøer og fem mindre vassdrag i Ringsaker kommune i 2012. Hovedvekten er lagt på effekter av næringsstoffer, dvs. overgjødsling. Basert på mengder og sammensetning av planteplankton, sammensetning av dyreplankton samt fysisk/kjemiske støtteparametre vurderes innsjøenes økologiske tilstand mht. overgjødsling som følger: Ljøsvatnet: moderat, Sjusjøen: moderat, men nær grensen til god og Næra og Botsenden: god. Vurderingene bør betraktes...

  13. An uncommon case of spontaneous conversion from AV re-entry tachycardia to AV nodal re-entry tachycardia in a patient with dual tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljković, Ivan; Benko, Ivica; Manola, Šime; Radeljić, Vjekoslav; Pavlović, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 46-year old patient in whom an electrophysiology study (EP) was performed due to paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia documented in 12-lead ECG. During the EP study, supraventricular tachycardia was induced easily and it corresponded to orthodromic AV reentry tachycardia (AVRT) using a concealed left free wall accessory pathway. However, during the study AVRT spontaneously and repeatedly converted to the typical slow-fast AV node reentry tachycardia (AVNRT). Both accessory and AV nodal slow pathways were ablated, due to the finding that both AVRT and AVNRT were independently inducible during the EP study.

  14. Karakterisering av vannkjemisk status i bekker og innsjøer før utbygging av E 18 Grimstad-Kristiansand

    OpenAIRE

    Hindar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Førtilstanden er kartlagt for i alt 25 bekke- og innsjølokaliteter som blir krysset av planlagt E 18 fra Grimstad til Kristiansand. Forsuring har stått i fokus fordi deler av vegstrekningen vil gå gjennom sulfidgneis, og fordi det er avdekket omfattende problemer med avrenningsvann ved utsprengning i slik berggrunn. Det har vært et mål å forsøke å skille effekten av sur nedbør fra den påvirkning ueksponert og eksponert sulfidgneis gir. Naturtilstand i kombinasjon med sur nedbør gir sulfatkons...

  15. Harmonikk for det indre øret : En studie av harmonikk som assosiasjonsgiver i Bernard Herrmanns musikk til filmen Vertigo av Alfred Hitchcock

    OpenAIRE

    Bøe, Brynjar

    2012-01-01

    I denne oppgaven tar jeg for meg Bernard Herrmanns musikk til filmen Vertigo fra 1958, regissert av Alfred Hitchcock. Jeg vil forsøke å finne sammenhenger mellom komponistens bruk av harmonikk og filmfortellingen for øvrig. Jeg vil se hvilke hvordan filmkomponisten være med på å fortelle historien i filmen, og hvilke musikalske virkemidler, med vekt på harmonikkrelaterte sådan, han/hun har til rådighet for å gjøre dette. Jeg vil se på noen av de musikalske valgene Herrmann har tatt...

  16. Sensorisk realisme i Carlos Reygadas' Post Tenebras Lux (2012) - En undersøkelse av tilskuerhenvendelsen i lys av nyere realismeteori og filmfenomenologi

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Silja Espolin

    2015-01-01

    I dette prosjektet undersøker den meksikanske filmregissøren Carlos Reygadas fjerde og nyeste spillefilm Post Tenebras Lux (2012) i lys av den nærværsbaserte og "fysiske" tilskueropplevelsen den produserer. Prosjektet består av fire kapitler. I det første kapittelet presenterer jeg filmen i konteksten av en tendens som har markert seg på filmfestivaler verden over de siste to tiårene som går under flere navn, blant andre: slow cinema, hybridfilm og, det begrepet jeg har funnet mest fruktbart...

  17. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  18. Rettferdige minutter: Fordeling av spilletid i fotballkamper for aldersbestemte klasser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Anker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available På et fotballag i overgangen mellom barne- og ungdomsfotballen er spilletid på fotballbanen under kamp både en knapp ressurs og en kilde til diskusjoner om fordeling. Spørsmålet som er utgangspunkt for denne artikkelen, er hvilke hensyn som bør tas når trener og lagleder skal fordele samlet spilletid på enkeltspillere. Er det viktigst å vinne fotballkampen, eller har det størst betydning å fordele spilletiden mest mulig likt mellom spillerne? Skal det tas hensyn til guttenes evner, motivasjon og preferanser? Er deres familiebakgrunn og personlighet av betydning? Diskusjonen baserer seg på en gjennomgang av ulike politiske rettferdighetsteorier for fordeling av knappe goder.Nøkkelord: rettferdighet, practice, fordelingsrettferdighet, diskursetikk, idrettsetikkEnglish summary: Minutes of justice: Distribution of time during football matches in a boys' teamDuring a football match, time for playing can be considered as a limited good. In this article the point of departure is the redistribution of time in a boys' football team in the transition phase between children and youth football. The questions are how and under which conditions time for playing should be distributed among the players. Is winning the game more important than trying to let every player play for an equal amount of time? Should the boys' talents, motivation, and preferences be considered while distributing time, or are family background and personality of importance? Different theories of political justice for the distribution of limited goods underpin the discussion of how to distribute the minutes of playing time during a football match.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i1.1737

  19. Effects of AV-delay optimization on hemodynamic parameters in patients with VDD pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Nürnberg, Michael; Volker, Romana; Pachinger, Linda; Jarai, Rudolf; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Wojta, Johann; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) delay optimization improves hemodynamics and clinical parameters in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy and dual-chamber-pacemakers (PM). However, data on optimizing AV delay in patients treated with VDD-PMs are scarce. We, therefore, investigated the acute and chronic effects of AV delay optimization on hemodynamics in patients treated with VDD-PMs due to AV-conduction disturbances. In this prospective, single-center interventional trial, we included 64 patients (38 men, 26 women, median age: 77 (70-82) years) with implanted VDD-PM. AV-delay optimization was performed using a formula based on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG). Hemodynamic parameters (stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP)) were measured at baseline and follow-up after 3 months using impedance cardiography. Using an ECG formula for AV-delay optimization, the AV interval was decreased from 180 (180-180) to 75 (75-100) ms. At baseline, AV-delay optimization led to a significant increase of both SV (71.3 ± 15.8 vs. 55.3 ± 12.7 ml, p AV delay vs. nominal AV interval, respectively) and CO (5.1 ± 1.4 vs. 3.9 ± 1.0 l/min, p AV-delay optimization in patients treated with VDD-PMs exhibits immediate beneficial effects on hemodynamic parameters that are sustained for 3 months.

  20. Posthumanisme /nymaterialisme og nomadisme - affektive brytninger av barnehagens observasjonspraksiser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Merete Otterstad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article challenges observation as a method in early childhood, justified as a mapping tool for creating knowledge about children. Observation as data material is about writing down already known categorisation about children and their development. Categories and categorisation make a foundation for correspondence and coherence   - connections that might create generalising knowledge about children in early years. The article is about a research project conducted in a child-centre over a two-year period. We had an on-going conversation with the personnel around theories about ‘child development’. In the article we experiment with observation based on posthuman/newmaterial theories. Our specific interests are to explore the complexities around observation by asking; why observations, what do we expect through observation, and what might observation as datamaterial be/become? We are inspired by the Norwegian film “Kitchen Stories” (Salmer fra Kjøkkenet, Hamer, 2003 both as affect/provocation and desire (Koro-Ljungberg & MacLure, 2013. We search for affective bending and messiness (Lather, 2007; Law, 2004 to disturb and challenge observation as dominating paradigm in the field of early years, to break some patterns around the positioning of data material. Artikkelen utfordrer observasjon i barnehagen ut fra at metoden brukes som verktøy for å kartlegge og danne grunnlaget for utvikling av kunnskap om barn.  Observasjon som datamateriale innebærer iakttagelser og nedtegnelser av allerede gitte kategoriseringer om barn og barns utvikling.  Kategorier og kategorisering legger grunnlag for mønster som har i seg ideer om korrespondanse og koherens – sammenhenger som kan bidra til generaliserende kunnskap om barna i barnehagen. Omrisset av artikkelen dreies rundt et forskningsarbeid gjort i en barnehage over en toårs-periode, der vi sammen med de ansatte diskuterer teorier om barn og barns ’utvikling’. Vi bruker posthumane

  1. EST Table: AV401818 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401818 heS00196 10/09/28 77 %/219 aa ref|NP_001103813.1| P-element somatic inhibi...tor [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAF91871.1| Bombyx homolog of P-element somatic inhibitor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 35 %/...irmed#UniProt: Q9BLA0#protein_id:AAK09071.1 10/09/10 33 %/182 aa AGAP011446-PA Pr...otein|3L:24763465:24770148:-1|gene:AGAP011446 10/09/10 47 %/174 aa gnl|Amel|GB18145-PA 10/09/10 46 %/184 aa gi|18

  2. EST Table: AV400561 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400561 br--1451 10/09/28 62 %/198 aa ref|XP_001843664.1| neuroendocrine protein 7...b2 [Culex quinquefasciatus] gb|EDS33875.1| neuroendocrine protein 7b2 [Culex quinquefasciatus] 10/08/28 42 %.../196 aa FBpp0240992|DwilGK11849-PA 10/08/27 54 %/104 aa T03D8.3#CE18921#WBGene00011392#locus:sbt-1#neuroendocrine...45-PA 10/09/10 51 %/199 aa gi|91081787|ref|XP_973692.1| PREDICTED: similar to neuroendocrine protein 7b2 [Tribolium castaneum] BP115163 br-- ...

  3. EST Table: AV405781 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV405781 wdV30227 10/09/28 88 %/272 aa ref|NP_001106136.1| Annexin IX isoform B [Bo...mbyx mori] dbj|BAA92810.1| annexin IX-B [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 71 %/270 aa FBpp0280989|DpseGA19090-PA 10/08/...9 10/09/10 62 %/270 aa gnl|Amel|GB16448-PA 10/09/10 73 %/271 aa gi|91092420|ref|XP_967931.1| PREDICTED: similar to Annexin IX CG5730-PC [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001043376 wdV3 ...

  4. EST Table: AV402401 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV402401 heS00969 10/09/28 85 %/225 aa dbj|BAB16697.1| annexin [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAB16698.1| anne...a#CE23956#WBGene00003589#locus:nex- 2#Annexin#status:Confirmed#UniProt:Q27512#protein_id:CAA 82571.2 10/09/1... %/220 aa gnl|Amel|GB16448-PA 10/09/10 73 %/220 aa gi|91092420|ref|XP_967931.1| PREDICTED: similar to Annexin IX CG5730-PC [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001043376 heS0 ...

  5. EST Table: AV404085 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404085 pg--0423X 10/09/28 100 %/117 aa gb|ACH69160.1| myosin heavy chain [Bombyx ...mori] 10/08/28 84 %/116 aa FBpp0291042|Mhc-PO 10/08/27 60 %/116 aa F11C3.3#CE09349#WBGene00006789#locus:unc-54#myosin heav... gnl|Amel|GB30329-PA 10/09/10 83 %/116 aa gi|189239929|ref|XP_001813306.1| PREDICTED: similar to Myosin heavy chain CG17927-PF isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] FJ029109 pg-- ...

  6. EST Table: AV404226 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404226 pg--0725 10/09/28 81 %/264 aa gb|ACQ72825.1| myosin heavy chain [Bombyx ma...ndarina] 10/08/28 78 %/264 aa FBpp0291043|Mhc-PP 10/08/27 51 %/264 aa F11C3.3#CE09349#WBGene00006789#locus:unc-54#myosin heav... aa gnl|Amel|GB30329-PE 10/09/10 78 %/264 aa gi|189239927|ref|XP_001814139.1| PREDICTED: similar to Myosin heavy chain CG17927-PF isoform 7 [Tribolium castaneum] FJ029109 pg-- ...

  7. EST Table: AV403042 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403042 heS30974 10/09/28 62 %/228 aa ref|XP_321040.4| AGAP002015-PA [Anopheles ga...|DwilGK17594-PA 10/08/27 39 %/210 aa T21E12.4#CE23997#WBGene00000962#locus:dhc-1#dynein heavy chain#status:P...62 %/230 aa gi|91087317|ref|XP_975584.1| PREDICTED: similar to dynein heavy chain [Tribolium castaneum] DC550560 heS3 ...

  8. Framväxten av koncernfackligt samarbete inom metallindustrin

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellberg, Anders

    2006-01-01

    The chapter "Framväxten av koncernfackligt samarbete inom metallindustrin" (pp. 177-239) by Anders Kjellberg analyzes the rise and development of trade union cooperation within groups in Swedish metal industry. Special attention is paid to the two large metal enterprises in Finspång, situated in the northern part of the province of Östergötland: (1) the turbine company (for a long period of time called STAL), which were owned by the following groups: Asea, ABB, Alstom and today ...

  9. Gulliver's Travels av Jonathan Swift : fra politisk satire til barnebok

    OpenAIRE

    Krog, Kira Katarina

    2004-01-01

    Denne oppgaven tar for seg Jonathan Swifts bok Gulliver’s Travels’ (1727) utvikling fra politisk satire til barnebok. Med utgangspunkt i opplysningstidens tro på menneskets suverene fornuft og tradisjonen fra antikkens greske satire har oppgaven en historisk problemstilling. Den følger satirens og barnebokens utvikling gjennom tidene og ender i en lesning av en norsk barnebokversjon, utgitt nærmere 300 år etter førsteutgaven. Oppgaven har tre hoveddeler. Den første tar for seg hvordan bok...

  10. EST Table: AV401507 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401507 e96h0814 10/09/28 95 %/238 aa dbj|BAG15923.1| transposase [Bombyx mandarin...a] dbj|BAG15924.1| transposase [Bombyx mandarina] dbj|BAG15925.1| transposase [Bombyx mandarina] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS797048 e96h ...

  11. EST Table: AV398425 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398425 NV021796 10/09/28 92 %/176 aa ref|NP_001040254.1| beadex/dLMO protein [Bom...byx mori] gb|ABD36315.1| beadex/dLMO protein [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 87 %/123 aa FBpp0262745|DyakGE17735-PA 1...a gnl|Amel|GB11268-PA 10/09/10 76 %/156 aa gi|91080717|ref|XP_975367.1| PREDICTED: similar to beadex/dLMO protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS794536 NV02 ...

  12. EST Table: AV398143 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398143 NV021176 10/09/28 100 %/213 aa ref|NP_001040254.1| beadex/dLMO protein [Bo...mbyx mori] gb|ABD36315.1| beadex/dLMO protein [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 74 %/175 aa FBpp0262745|DyakGE17735-PA ... gnl|Amel|GB11268-PA 10/09/10 81 %/180 aa gi|91080717|ref|XP_975367.1| PREDICTED: similar to beadex/dLMO protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS794536 NV02 ...

  13. Fysiologiske effekter av delvis okklusjon under ettbeins utholdenhetsarbeid

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksen, Bjørnar Sandland

    2009-01-01

    Unilateral perifer aterosklerose i beinet har tidligere vist å gi en fysiologisk adaptasjon til sykdommen ved å endre den oksidative kapasiteten i muskelen (Jansson, 1988; Henriksson et al., 1980). Denne observasjonen er blitt fulgt opp med treningsstudier som har undersøkt effekten av ischemi ved sykkelarbeid hos friske (Sundberg, 1994), samt intervalltrening på tredemølle med okklusjon på begge beina (Abe et al., 2006). Det er imidlertid ikke utført noen treningsstudier med ett – beins knee...

  14. Endogenous RGS proteins modulate SA and AV nodal functions in isolated heart: implications for sick sinus syndrome and AV block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Huang, Xinyan; Piao, Lin; Lopatin, Anatoli N; Neubig, Richard R

    2007-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors play a pivotal role in regulating cardiac automaticity. Their function is controlled by regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins acting as GTPase-activating proteins for Galpha subunits to suppress Galpha(i) and Galpha(q) signaling. Using knock-in mice in which Galpha(i2)-RGS binding and negative regulation are disrupted by a genomic Galpha(i2)G184S (GS) point mutation, we recently (Fu Y, Huang X, Zhong H, Mortensen RM, D'Alecy LG, Neubig RR. Circ Res 98: 659-666, 2006) showed that endogenous RGS proteins suppress muscarinic receptor-mediated bradycardia. To determine whether this was due to direct regulation of cardiac pacemakers or to alterations in the central nervous system or vascular responses, we examined isolated, perfused hearts. Isoproterenol-stimulated beating rates of heterozygote (+/GS) and homozygote (GS/GS) hearts were significantly more sensitive to inhibition by carbachol than were those of wild type (+/+). Even greater effects were seen in the absence of isoproterenol; the potency of muscarinic-mediated bradycardia was enhanced fivefold in GS/GS and twofold in +/GS hearts compared with +/+. A(1)-adenosine receptor-mediated bradycardia was unaffected. In addition to effects on the sinoatrial node, +/GS and GS/GS hearts show significantly increased carbachol-induced third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. Atrial pacing studies demonstrated an increased PR interval and AV effective refractory period in GS/GS hearts compared with +/+. Thus loss of the inhibitory action of endogenous RGS proteins on Galpha(i2) potentiates muscarinic inhibition of cardiac automaticity and conduction. The severe carbachol-induced sinus bradycardia in Galpha(i2)G184S mice suggests a possible role for alterations of Galpha(i2) or RGS proteins in sick sinus syndrome and pathological AV block.

  15. InterProScan Result: AV398327 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398327 AV398327_4_ORF1 65C8DA7FC6C4D303 PANTHER PTHR10590 SODIUM/NUCLEOSIDE COTRA...NSPORTER 1.3e-109 T IPR008276 Concentrative nucleoside transporter Molecular Function: nucleoside:sodium sym

  16. InterProScan Result: AV400452 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400452 AV400452_2_ORF2 5E62868E5F66D93B PANTHER PTHR11523:SF15 SODIUM/POTASSIUM-D...EPENDENT ATPASE BETA SUBUNIT, INSECT NA ? IPR000402 unintegrated Molecular Function: sodium:potassium-exchan...ss: potassium ion transport (GO:0006813)|Biological Process: sodium ion transport (GO:0006814)|Cellular Component: membrane (GO:0016020) ...

  17. InterProScan Result: AV400452 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400452 AV400452_2_ORF2 5E62868E5F66D93B PANTHER PTHR11523 SODIUM/POTASSIUM-DEPEND...ENT ATPASE BETA SUBUNIT 1.1e-19 T IPR000402 ATPase, P-type cation exchange, beta subunit Molecular Function: sodiu...006754)|Biological Process: potassium ion transport (GO:0006813)|Biological Process: sodiu

  18. AVS/Express (application visualization system) user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsumi [Research Organization for Information Science Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kume, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-09-01

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment by the information system operating division. We introduced a server for image processing, AVS/Express for image processing software and Stereo viewing system. This report summarizes the information to use AVS/Express efficiently in the computer environment for image processing. (author)

  19. InterProScan Result: AV399953 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399953 AV399953_3_ORF1 920D8122A6A51D76 PFAM PF00175 NAD_binding_1 2.5e-08 T IPR001433 Oxido...reductase FAD/NAD(P)-binding Molecular Function: oxidoreductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  20. InterProScan Result: AV398312 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398312 AV398312_1_ORF2 384AC61A6604E3FD PANTHER PTHR10795:SF30 SITE-1 PROTEASE (STEROL...-REGULATED, CLEAVES STEROL REGULATORY ELEMENT BINDING PROTEINS) 1.8e-17 T IPR015500 unintegrated ...

  1. InterProScan Result: AV405377 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV405377 AV405377_1_ORF1 5614E1377E837F70 SUPERFAMILY SSF103473 MFS general substra...te transporter 2.1e-06 T IPR016196 Major facilitator superfamily, general substrate transporter ...

  2. InterProScan Result: AV399408 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399408 AV399408_2_ORF1 5D6D9219C673BB29 PFAM PF05274 Baculo_E25 1.3e-78 T IPR007938 unintegrated Cellular... Component: viral envelope (GO:0019031)|Cellular Component: host cell nucleus (GO:0042025) ...

  3. Pilot Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation of START:AV Assessments in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Sellers, Brian G; Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Dvoskin, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a new structured professional judgment guide for assessing short-term risks in adolescents. The scheme may be distinguished from other youth risk assessment and treatment planning instruments by its inclusion of 23 dynamic factors that are each rated for both vulnerability and strength. In addition, START:AV is also unique in that it focuses on multiple adverse outcomes-namely, violence, self-harm, suicide, unauthorized leave, substance abuse, self-neglect, victimization, and general offending-over the short-term (i.e., weeks to months) rather than long-term (i.e., years). This paper describes a pilot implementation and preliminary evaluation of START:AV in three secure juvenile correctional facilities in the southern United States. Specifically, we examined the descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of START:AV assessments completed by 21 case managers on 291 adolescent offenders (250 boys and 41 girls) at the time of admission. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of completing START:AV assessments as part of routine practice. Findings also highlight differences in the characteristics of START:AV assessments for boys and girls and differential associations between the eight START:AV risk domains. Though results are promising, further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of START:AV assessments completed in the field.

  4. InterProScan Result: AV401371 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401371 AV401371_2_ORF2 4E899180012BEB2A GENE3D G3DSA:3.30.465.10 no description 7...e-07 T IPR016169 CO dehydrogenase flavoprotein-like, FAD-binding, subdomain 2 Molecular Function: catalytic

  5. Third-degree AV block sensitive to prednisolone 72 hours post AVNRT ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwani, Abdul S; Schröder, Anna I; Blaschke, Daniela; Blaschke, Florian; Huemer, Martin; Attanasio, Philipp; Pieske, Burkert; Boldt, Leif-Hendrik; Haverkamp, Wilhelm

    2017-05-01

    A patient developed a transient first-degree AV block during a radiofrequency ablation of an atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. Three days later the patient presented with a third-degree AV block. It resolved within 24 h under antiphlogistic therapy. Patient was asymptomatic without necessity for pacemaker implantation at 12 months follow-up.

  6. InterProScan Result: AV404903 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404903 AV404903_2_ORF1 4CB4FF124EAAC1C5 PFAM PF05187 ETF_QO 1.7e-14 T IPR007859 Electron transfer flav...oprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase Molecular Function: electron-transferring-flavoprote

  7. Association of temporary complete AV block and junctional ectopic tachycardia after surgery for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Christian; Dähnert, Ingo; Kostelka, Martin; Mende, Meinhardt; Gebauer, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) is a postoperative complication with a mortality rate of up to 14% after surgery for congenital heart disease. This study evaluated the risk factors of JET and explored the association of postoperative temporary third degree atrioventricular (AV) block and the occurrence of JET. Data were collected retrospectively from 1158 patients who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease. The overall incidence of JET was 2.8%. Temporary third degree AV block occurred in 1.6% of cases. Permanent third degree AV block requiring pacemaker implantation occurred in 1% of cases. In all, 56% of patients with JET had temporary AV block (P AV block (P = 0.56). temporary third degree AV block did not suffer from JET. A correlation between temporary third degree AV block and postoperative JET could be observed. The risk factors identified for JET include younger age groups at the time of surgery, longer aortic cross clamping time and surgical procedures in proximity to the AV node.

  8. InterProScan Result: AV399740 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399740 AV399740_3_ORF2 7A42A41D4F3F6388 PFAM PF00067 p450 1.2e-19 T IPR001128 Cytochrome P450 Molecular... Function: monooxygenase activity (GO:0004497)|Molecular Function: iron ion binding (GO:0005506)|Molecular... Function: electron carrier activity (GO:0009055)|Molecular Function: heme binding (GO:0020037) ...

  9. InterProScan Result: AV404187 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404187 AV404187_4_ORF1 AB84B56694D3FC58 PFAM PF00267 Porin_1 3.5e-13 T IPR001702 Por...in, Gram-negative type Molecular Function: transporter activity (GO:0005215)|Biological Process: transport (GO:0006810)|Cellular Component: membrane (GO:0016020) ...

  10. InterProScan Result: AV404181 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404181 AV404181_1_ORF1 F6474B68BA8D3768 PANTHER PTHR10783:SF4 XENOTROPIC AND POLY...TROPIC MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS RECEPTOR XPR1 NA ? IPR004342 unintegrated Cellular Component: integral to membrane (GO:0016021) ...

  11. InterProScan Result: AV404181 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404181 AV404181_1_ORF1 F6474B68BA8D3768 PANTHER PTHR10783:SF4 XENOTROPIC AND POLY...TROPIC MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS RECEPTOR XPR1 1.4e-114 T IPR004342 unintegrated Cellular Component: integral to membrane (GO:0016021) ...

  12. InterProScan Result: AV399344 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399344 AV399344_1_ORF2 5604F45CA0D42E5E PFAM PF05314 Baculo_ODV-E27 1.4e-47 T IPR007978 Baculovirus occlus...ion-derived virus envelope EC27 Cellular Component: viral envelope (GO:0019031) ...

  13. InterProScan Result: AV399741 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399741 AV399741_2_ORF2 F87D90D9B5BA6C11 PFAM PF02778 tRNA_int_endo_N 5.4e-08 T IPR006678 tRNA intro...n endonuclease, N-terminal Molecular Function: tRNA-intron endonuclease activity (GO:0000213) ...

  14. InterProScan Result: AV405061 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV405061 AV405061_3_ORF2 400BDC036077591E PANTHER PTHR10590 SODIUM/NUCLEOSIDE COTRA...NSPORTER 1.8e-12 T IPR008276 Concentrative nucleoside transporter Molecular Function: nucleoside:sodium symp

  15. InterProScan Result: AV398727 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398727 AV398727_2_ORF2 9953252ABA69E49B PFAM PF00762 Ferrochelatase 8.4e-28 T IPR001015 Ferroche...latase Molecular Function: ferrochelatase activity (GO:0004325)|Biological Process: heme biosynthetic process (GO:0006783) ...

  16. InterProScan Result: AV399409 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 429 Baculovirus LEF-11 Biological Process: viral infectious cycle (GO:0019058)|Biological Process: regulation of transcription (GO:0045449) ... ...AV399409 AV399409_1_ORF2 07DC81A7C7B2FA42 PFAM PF06385 Baculo_LEF-11 3e-33 T IPR009

  17. InterProScan Result: AV403947 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403947 AV403947_3_ORF2 9625723E9868C46D PANTHER PTHR13768:SF2 GAMMA-SOLUBLE NSF A...TTACHMENT PROTEIN (SNAP-GAMMA) 8.7e-75 T IPR011990 unintegrated Molecular Function: binding (GO:0005488) ...

  18. InterProScan Result: AV401295 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401295 AV401295_2_ORF2 87FC32DE014A3D18 PROFILE PS50141 A_DEAMIN_EDITASE 15.862 T IPR002466 Adenosine deam...inase/editase Molecular Function: RNA binding (GO:0003723)|Molecular Function: adenosine deam

  19. InterProScan Result: AV401829 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401829 AV401829_3_ORF1 B72A6A008C2EBEA4 PANTHER PTHR11359 AMP DEAMINASE NA ? IPR0...01365 unintegrated Biological Process: purine ribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process (GO:0009168)|Molecular Function: deaminase activity (GO:0019239) ...

  20. InterProScan Result: AV401295 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401295 AV401295_2_ORF2 87FC32DE014A3D18 PANTHER PTHR10910:SF17 ADENOSINE DEAMINAS...ular Function: adenosine deaminase activity (GO:0004000)|Biological Process: RNA processing (GO:0006396) ...

  1. InterProScan Result: AV401829 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401829 AV401829_3_ORF1 B72A6A008C2EBEA4 PANTHER PTHR11359 AMP DEAMINASE 6e-56 T I...PR001365 unintegrated Biological Process: purine ribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process (GO:0009168)|Molecular Function: deaminase activity (GO:0019239) ...

  2. InterProScan Result: AV401888 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401888 AV401888_3_ORF1 2F04E8AA567F7BCF PANTHER PTHR11511 INSECT HEMOCYANIN-RELAT...ED 1.5e-119 T IPR013788 Arthropod hemocyanin/insect LSP Molecular Function: oxygen transporter activity (GO:0005344)|Biological Process: transport (GO:0006810) ...

  3. InterProScan Result: AV402282 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV402282 AV402282_2_ORF1 D1F0DCC6A8296985 PANTHER PTHR11511 INSECT HEMOCYANIN-RELAT...ED 5e-97 T IPR013788 Arthropod hemocyanin/insect LSP Molecular Function: oxygen transporter activity (GO:0005344)|Biological Process: transport (GO:0006810) ...

  4. InterProScan Result: AV399297 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ulovirus p35, apoptosis preventing protein Biological Process: anti-apoptosis (GO:0006916)|Molecular Function: caspase inhibitor activity (GO:0043027) ... ...AV399297 AV399297_3_ORF2 F5C6B0DD046B3A9D PFAM PF02331 P35 5.2e-107 T IPR003429 Bac

  5. Selvbestemmelse og oppdragelse : en teoretisk analyse av oppdragelsens påvirkning på utviklingen av selvbestemmelse

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    1) Problemstilling Hensikten med oppgaven er å rette fokus mot oppdragelse som en påvirkningsfaktor på utviklingen av selvbestemmelsen, og hvilken betydning behovstilfredsstillelse har for individets subjektive velvære. Oppdragelse er et populært tema som stadig blir debattert i mediene. Det diskuteres blant annet hvorfor oppdragelse er viktig, hvordan det er mulig å oppdra barn på best mulig måte og hvem som er viktige oppdragere i dagens samfunn. Vår oppgave handler om individets selvbes...

  6. 中国新一代图像编码格式"AVS"%Chinese new Video coding format AVS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ 中国在光盘、无线LAN、家庭内部网络等各种领域不断推出自己的规格.其中,包括中国计划2004年实现标准化的新一代图像编码格式"AVS".中国科学院有关负责人将在NAB2004技术论坛"Leading Edge Tech for TV"上,就定位相当于"MPEG"的AVS规格发表演讲.

  7. Endrer motivasjonen seg i løpet av de fire første ukene av livsstilsendringskurset EasyLife?

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Hanne Embretsen; Nordengen, Solveig

    2011-01-01

    Vi har undersøkt motivasjonsregulering hos deltagere i et livsstilsendringsprogram. Teoretisk har vi benyttet oss av Helseoppfatningsmodellen (The Health Belief Model; Rosenstock, 1966), Den transteoretiske modellen (The Transtheoretical Model; DiClemente & Prochaska, 1982; Marcus & Simkin, 1994), Selvbestemmelsesteorien (Self-Determination Theory; Deci & Ryan, 2000) og Rosenstocks fire modeller for ansvar. For å kartlegge motivasjonsregulering har vi benyttet oss av BREQ-2 (Markland & Tobin ...

  8. Kosttilskudd og doping : metabolisme av synefrin og oktopamin og utskillelse i urin etter inntak av tilsvarende kosttilskuddsprodukter hhv. et spesielt matinntak

    OpenAIRE

    Stensrud, Linda Sørvang

    2010-01-01

    Etter at efedrin ble forbudt som tilsetningsstoff i kosttilskuddsprodukter på grunn av faren for uheldige bivirkninger, har det de senere årene dukket opp flere produkter med innhold av synefrin. Synefrin er et stimulerende stoff med lignende struktur som efedrin, men den sentralstimulerende effekten er mindre. En vanlig kilde til synefrin, som blir brukt som tilsetningsstoff i kosttilskuddspreparater og næringsmidler, er Citrus aurantium (bitterappelsin). Et annet stimulerende stoff med lign...

  9. Skolebasert forebygging av røyking blant ungdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Jøsendal m.fl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available SAMMENDRAGI første del av denne artikkelen gjennomgås en del utvalgte studier av skolebaserte tiltak mot røyking. Utviklingenhar gått gjennom tre faser der den siste generasjonen er de omfattende tiltakene som baserer seg på ensosial påvirkningsmodell. Godt planlagte tiltak som er basert på denne modellen har vist seg å føre til at færrebegynner å røyke. I artikkelens andre del presenteres et prosjekt som gjennomføres av Den NorskeKreftforening og som omfatter 4 441 elever fra 195 klasser ved 99 ungdomsskoler. Valg av undervisningstemaog pedagogiske tilnærminger er begrunnet i aktuelle sosialpsykologiske begreper og modeller ogerfaringer fra tidligere forskning. Intervensjonen bygger et stykke på vei på en sosial påvirkningsmodell.Skolene er delt i fire grupper. Gruppe A er kontrollgruppe. Elevene i gruppe B gjennomgår et undervisningsprogram,foreldrene involveres og lærerne gjennomgår kurser i hvordan de skal gjennomføre intervensjonen.I gruppe C gjør en det samme som i gruppe B, men lærerne kurses ikke. I gruppe D gjør en det samme som igruppe B, men foreldrene involveres ikke. Underveis gjennomføres det blant annet spørreskjemaundersøkelserblant elevene for å studere endringer i røykevaner, hvilke grupper av elever en lykkes best i å nå,hvordan elevene reagerer på tiltakene og hva som kan forklare eventuelle positive virkninger av intervensjonene.Foreløpige analyser av resultatene etter et halvt års oppfølging tyder på at det er færrest sombegynner å røyke i gruppe B, med andre ord at virkningene av tiltakene er best der lærerne kurses ogforeldrene involveres.Jøsendal O, Aarø LE, Bergh IH. School-based prevention of smoking among youths.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYThe first part of this article presents selected studies of school-based intervention programmes againstsmoking. Historically it can be distinguished between three phases in the development of such programmes.The last generation are the

  10. Examination of office visit patient preferences for the after-visit summary (AVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Marolee; Dontje, Katherine; Holzman, Greg; Corser, Bill; Keskimaki, Abigail; Chant, Ericka

    2014-01-01

    The federal government advocates the practice of routinely providing an after-visit summary (AVS) to patients after each office-based visit as an element of stage 1 meaningful use. A significant potential benefit of the AVS is improved patient engagement achieved by enabling patients and family members to better understand and retain key health information. The methodology for this study was a mixed-methods pilot study to examine, through the perspectives of adult primary care patients, how relevant and actionable data can be better formatted in the AVS. Results of this study suggest that the goal of the AVS to serve as a communication tool to engage and support patients is frequently not being met. Further study is needed to understand, from the viewpoints of patients and providers, what barriers are keeping them from optimally providing and using the information on the AVS.

  11. 77 FR 12163 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft Aerospace GmbH; Fairchild Dornier GmbH; Dornier... Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft Aerospace GmbH; Fairchild Dornier GmbH; Dornier...: 2012-04-06 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft Aerospace...

  12. Vurdering av andrespråksinnlærere - en utfordring i skolen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Palm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vurdering av andrespråkselevers språkkompetanse og språkutvikling er en sentral del av læreres arbeid, og forskning har vist at dette er en utfordring for skolene. Det er stor variasjon i vurderingsformer, og skolene mangler ofte vurderingskompetanse. På bakgrunn av dette utarbeidet Utdanningsdirektoratet i 2007 vurderingsverktøyet Kartleggingsmateriell. Språkkompetanse i grunnleggende norsk for språklige minoriteter. Materiellet er utarbeidet blant annet med referanse til Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. I artikkelen redegjør vi for en undersøkelse der målet var å finne ut hvorvidt dette kartleggingsmateriellet er hensiktsmessig for å vurdere andrespråkselevers språkkompetanse. Hoveddataene er innhentet gjennom kasusstudier ved tre grunnskoler, der vi intervjuet skoleledelse og lærere samt observerte kartleggingssituasjoner og klasseromsundervisning. Kasusstudiene ble senere fulgt opp av to spørreundersøkelser, én til de samme skolene, og én til et større antall skoler for å få bredere innsikt i kartleggingspraksis og skolers oppfatninger av denne formen for vurdering. Undersøkelsen viser at flere av informantene mener verktøyet kan bidra til mer tilpasset og systematisk andrespråkopplæring og bedre vurdering av andrespråkselevenes språkkompetanse. Samtidig er det utfordringer knyttet til å bruke vurderingsverktøyet, dette skyldes blant annet mangelfull kompetanse i skolen når det gjelder andrespråkstilegnelse og vurdering av elevenes språkkompetanse. Det er ikke tidligere forsket på bruk av et slikt konkret kartleggingsverktøy i norsk grunnskole. Undersøkelsen kan gi et bidrag til økt kunnskap om vurdering av andrespråkskompetanse og tilpasset undervisning for andrespråksinnlærere.

  13. [(18) F]AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Lowe, Val J; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Weigand, Stephen D; Senjem, Matthew L; Schwarz, Christopher G; Spychalla, Anthony J; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2017-01-01

    The [(18) F]AV-1451 positron emission tomography ligand allows the in vivo assessment of tau proteins in the brain. It shows strong binding in Alzheimer's dementia, but little is known about how it performs in progressive supranuclear palsy, a primary 4R tauopathy. The objectives of this study were to determine whether [(18) F]AV-1451 uptake can be observed in progressive supranuclear palsy and to characterize the regional distribution when compared with controls and Alzheimer's dementia. [(18) F]AV-1451 positron emission tomography was performed in 10 patients with probable progressive supranuclear palsy. These patients were age- and gender-matched to 50 controls and 10 Alzheimer's dementia patients who had undergone identical [(18) F]AV-1451 imaging. Regional comparisons of [(18) F]AV-1451 uptake were performed across the whole brain using region-of-interest and voxel-level analyses, and correlations between regional [(18) F]AV-1451 and the progressive supranuclear palsy rating scale were assessed. An elevated [(18) F]AV-1451 signal was observed in progressive supranuclear palsy when compared with controls in the pallidum, midbrain, dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and frontal regions. Signal in the cerebellar dentate and pallidum were also greater in progressive supranuclear palsy when compared with Alzheimer's dementia. Conversely, the [(18) F]AV-1451 signal across the cortex was higher in Alzheimer's dementia when compared with progressive supranuclear palsy. The [(18) F]AV-1451 signal in a number of regions correlated with the progressive supranuclear palsy rating scale. Progressive supranuclear palsy is associated with an elevated [(18) F]AV-1451 signal in a characteristic and distinct regional pattern that correlates with disease severity and differs from the patterns observed in Alzheimer's dementia. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  14. In vivo retention of (18)F-AV-1451 in corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruben; Schöll, Michael; Widner, Håkan; van Westen, Danielle; Svenningsson, Per; Hägerström, Douglas; Ohlsson, Tomas; Jögi, Jonas; Nilsson, Christer; Hansson, Oskar

    2017-08-22

    To study the usefulness of (18)F-AV-1451 PET in patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS). We recruited 8 patients with CBS, 17 controls, 31 patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and 11 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) from the Swedish BioFINDER study. All patients underwent clinical assessment, (18)F-AV-1451 PET, MRI, and quantification of β-amyloid pathology. A subset of participants also underwent (18)F-FDG-PET. In the 8 patients with CBS, 6 had imaging findings compatible with the corticobasal degeneration pathology and 2 with typical AD pathology. In the 6 patients with CBS without typical AD pathology, there were substantial retentions of (18)F-AV-1451 in the motor cortex, corticospinal tract, and basal ganglia contralateral to the most affected body side. These patients could be clearly distinguished from patients with AD dementia or PSP using (18)F-AV-1451. However, cortical atrophy was more widespread than the cortical retention of (18)F-AV1451 in these CBS cases, and cortical AV-1451 uptake did not correlate with cortical thickness or glucose hypometabolism. These results are in sharp contrast to AD dementia, where (18)F-AV-1451 retention was more widespread than cortical atrophy, and correlated well with cortical thickness and hypometabolism. Patients with CBS without typical AD pathology exhibited AV-1451 retention in the motor cortex, corticospinal tract, and basal ganglia contralateral to the affected body side, clearly different from controls and patients with AD dementia or PSP. However, cortical atrophy measured with MRI and decreased (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake were more widespread than (18)F-AV-1451 uptake and probably represent earlier, yet less specific, markers of CBS. This study provides Class III evidence that (18)F-AV-1451 PET distinguishes between CBS and AD or PSP. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  15. In vivo retention of 18F-AV-1451 in corticobasal syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöll, Michael; Widner, Håkan; van Westen, Danielle; Svenningsson, Per; Hägerström, Douglas; Ohlsson, Tomas; Jögi, Jonas; Nilsson, Christer

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the usefulness of 18F-AV-1451 PET in patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS). Methods: We recruited 8 patients with CBS, 17 controls, 31 patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and 11 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) from the Swedish BioFINDER study. All patients underwent clinical assessment, 18F-AV-1451 PET, MRI, and quantification of β-amyloid pathology. A subset of participants also underwent 18F-FDG-PET. Results: In the 8 patients with CBS, 6 had imaging findings compatible with the corticobasal degeneration pathology and 2 with typical AD pathology. In the 6 patients with CBS without typical AD pathology, there were substantial retentions of 18F-AV-1451 in the motor cortex, corticospinal tract, and basal ganglia contralateral to the most affected body side. These patients could be clearly distinguished from patients with AD dementia or PSP using 18F-AV-1451. However, cortical atrophy was more widespread than the cortical retention of 18F-AV1451 in these CBS cases, and cortical AV-1451 uptake did not correlate with cortical thickness or glucose hypometabolism. These results are in sharp contrast to AD dementia, where 18F-AV-1451 retention was more widespread than cortical atrophy, and correlated well with cortical thickness and hypometabolism. Conclusions: Patients with CBS without typical AD pathology exhibited AV-1451 retention in the motor cortex, corticospinal tract, and basal ganglia contralateral to the affected body side, clearly different from controls and patients with AD dementia or PSP. However, cortical atrophy measured with MRI and decreased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake were more widespread than 18F-AV-1451 uptake and probably represent earlier, yet less specific, markers of CBS. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that 18F-AV-1451 PET distinguishes between CBS and AD or PSP. PMID:28754841

  16. Value of the adenosine test for diagnosis of dual AV nodal physiology in patients with AV nodal reentrant tachycardia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌全; 胡申江; 鲁端; 王建安

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed at assessing the value of the adenosine test for noninvasive diagnosis of dual AV nodal physiology(DAVNP) in patients with AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Methods: 53 patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) were given incremental doses of adenosine intravenously during sinus rhythm before electrophysiological study. The adenosine test was repeated on a subset of 18 patients with AVNRT after radiofrequency catheter ablation. Results: Sudden increments of PR interval of more than 60 msec between two consecutive beats were observed in 26(83.9%) of 31 patients with typical AVNRT and 2 (9.1%) of 22 patients with AVRT and AT (P<0.01). The maximal PR increment between 2 consecutive beats in the AVNRT group(105±45ms) was significantly greater than that in the AVRT and AT group (20±13ms) (P<0.01).In postablation adenosine test, DAVNP was eliminated in all 8 patients who underwent slow pathway abolition that EPS showed the slow pathway disappeared and 4 of 10 patients who underwent slow pathway modification that EPS showed the slow pathway persisted. Six of 10 patients who exhibited persistent duality showed a marked reduction in the number of beats conducted in the slow pathway after adenosine injection(P<0.01).Conclusions: Administration of adenosine during sinus rhythm may be a useful bedside test for diagnosis of DAVNP in high percentage of patients with typical AVNRT and additionally for evaluating the effects of radiofrequency ablation.

  17. Realization of AVS +DVB -S2 Professional Integrated Receiver Decoder%AVS +DVB -S2专业解码器的实现方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周钦光; 杨雪松

    2015-01-01

    AVS +是我国自主创新的视频编码技术,可解决广播电视行业面临的频道资源问题。介绍了一种具备 DVB -S2专业多流接收和多节目再复用解密功能的 AVS +专业高清解码器的实现方法,该设备不仅能完成传统专业数字卫星解码器的所有功能,而且能进行 DVB -S2专业接收、再复用、多节目的CI 接口任意组合解密和 AVS +高清解码,为广电运营商提供了一种成本低、功能强大的 DVB -S2专业AVS +解码设备,将为早日实现 AVS +端到端应用的全覆盖做出一定的贡献。%AVS +is a Chinese independent innovative technology for video encoding.Its objective is to solve frequency resource problem in broadcasting television industry.This article shows the realization of AVS +high definition Integrated Receiver decoder,which can not only all functions of traditional and professional digital satellite decoder,but also the functions of DVB -S2 professional receiving,re-multiplexing for CI combination decrypting of multiple programs,and AVS +high definition decoding.In other words,this decoder provides op-erators with a low-cost but powerful functioning DVB -S2 professional receiving and AVS +high definition de-coding solution,making a certain contribution to the overall coverage of AVS +end -to -end application.

  18. BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage is required for AV endocardial cushion maturation and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Jacob G; Baer, Daniel R; Barton, Julie A; Hawkins, Travis; Wu, Bingruo; Trusk, Thomas C; Harris, Stephen E; Zhou, Bin; Mishina, Yuji; Sugi, Yukiko

    2017-10-01

    Distal outgrowth, maturation and remodeling of the endocardial cushion mesenchyme in the atrioventricular (AV) canal are the essential morphogenetic events during four-chambered heart formation. Mesenchymalized AV endocardial cushions give rise to the AV valves and the membranous ventricular septum (VS). Failure of these processes results in several human congenital heart defects. Despite this clinical relevance, the mechanisms governing how mesenchymalized AV endocardial cushions mature and remodel into the membranous VS and AV valves have only begun to be elucidated. The role of BMP signaling in the myocardial and secondary heart forming lineage has been well studied; however, little is known about the role of BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage. To fill this knowledge gap, we generated Bmp2 endocardial lineage-specific conditional knockouts (referred to as Bmp2 cKO(Endo)) by crossing conditionally-targeted Bmp2(flox/flox) mice with a Cre-driver line, Nfatc1(Cre), wherein Cre-mediated recombination was restricted to the endocardial cells and their mesenchymal progeny. Bmp2 cKO(Endo) mouse embryos did not exhibit failure or delay in the initial AV endocardial cushion formation at embryonic day (ED) 9.5-11.5; however, significant reductions in AV cushion size were detected in Bmp2 cKO(Endo) mouse embryos when compared to control embryos at ED13.5 and ED16.5. Moreover, deletion of Bmp2 from the endocardial lineage consistently resulted in membranous ventricular septal defects (VSDs), and mitral valve deficiencies, as evidenced by the absence of stratification of mitral valves at birth. Muscular VSDs were not found in Bmp2 cKO(Endo) mouse hearts. To understand the underlying morphogenetic mechanisms leading to a decrease in cushion size, cell proliferation and cell death were examined for AV endocardial cushions. Phospho-histone H3 analyses for cell proliferation and TUNEL assays for apoptotic cell death did not reveal significant differences between control

  19. A 2:1 AV rhythm: an adverse effect of a long AV delay during DDI pacing and its prevention by the ventricular intrinsic preference algorithm in DDD mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Oginosawa, Yasushi; Kohno, Ritsuko; Tamura, Masahito; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Otsuji, Yutaka; Abe, Haruhiko

    2012-07-01

    A 91-year-old woman received a dual-chamber pacemaker for sick sinus syndrome and intermittently abnormal atrioventricular (AV) conduction. The pacemaker was set in DDI mode with a 350-ms AV delay to preserve intrinsic ventricular activity. She complained of palpitation during AV sequential pacing. The electrocardiogram showed a 2:1 AV rhythm from 1:1 ventriculoatrial (VA) conduction during ventricular pacing in DDI mode with a long AV interval. After reprogramming of the pacemaker in DDD mode with a 250-ms AV interval and additional 100-ms prolongation of the AV interval by the ventricular intrinsic preference function, VA conduction disappeared and the patient's symptom were alleviated without increasing unnecessary right ventricular pacing.

  20. Ansatte perspektiver på utvikling av tverrfaglighet i ny sykehusavdeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildfrid V. Brataas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen omhandler en følgestudie om ansattes perspektiver på teamorganisert og brukerinvolvert tverrfaglig samarbeid i en ny rehabiliteringsavdeling i et norsk sykehus. Studiens formål var å bringe frem mer kunnskap om forhold av betydning ved utvikling av tverrfaglige arbeidsformer i sammensatte helsetjenester.Metode: Undersøkelsen var kvalitativt beskrivende og fortolkende med bruk av fokusgruppeintervjuer tre og fem år etter oppstart av rehabiliteringsavdelingen.Resultater: Over en femårsperiode var praksis erfart å endre karakter, fra flerfaglig samarbeid til funksjonelt tverrfaglig samarbeid. Profesjonsoverbyggende teori om rehabiliterings-virksomheten og ledelsens kvalitetsorientering var erfart som hjelp for teamenes utvikling av funksjonell tverrfaglighet.Konklusjon: Langsiktighet, kvalitetsorientert ledelse og teamorganisert rehabiliteringsarbeid basert på profesjonsoverbyggende teoriramme synes å underbygge utvikling av funksjonell tverrfaglighetsforståelse og praksis. Denne kunnskapen er relevant ved omlegging til teamorganisert rehabiliteringsvirksomhet i eksisterende og nye virksomheter. Det er behov for mer forskning om betydning av personfaktorer og motivasjon, ledelse og overbyggende teorirammeverk for samarbeidsutvikling og kvalitet i praksis.

  1. Nodal recovery, dual pathway physiology, and concealed conduction determine complex AV dynamics in human atrial tachyarrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masè, Michela; Glass, Leon; Disertori, Marcello; Ravelli, Flavia

    2012-11-15

    The genesis of complex ventricular rhythms during atrial tachyarrhythmias in humans is not fully understood. To clarify the dynamics of atrioventricular (AV) conduction in response to a regular high-rate atrial activation, 29 episodes of spontaneous or pacing-induced atrial flutter (AFL), covering a wide range of atrial rates (cycle lengths from 145 to 270 ms), were analyzed in 10 patients. AV patterns were identified by applying firing sequence and surrogate data analysis to atrial and ventricular activation series, whereas modular simulation with a difference-equation AV node model was used to correlate the patterns with specific nodal properties. AV node response at high atrial rate was characterized by 1) AV patterns of decreasing conduction ratios at the shortening of atrial cycle length (from 236.3 ± 32.4 to 172.6 ± 17.8 ms) according to a Farey sequence ordering (conduction ratio from 0.34 ± 0.12 to 0.23 ± 0.06; P AV block patterns occurring during regular atrial tachyarrhythmias. The characterization of AV nodal function during different AFL forms constitutes an intermediate step toward the understanding of complex ventricular rhythms during atrial fibrillation.

  2. Baseline HV-interval predicts complete AV-block secondary to transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-In; Merx, Marc W; Meyer, Christian; Kirmanoglou, Kiriakos; Hellhammer, Katharina; Ohlig, Jan; Katsani, Dimitra; Zeus, Tobias; Westenfeld, Ralf; Eickholt, Christian; Linke, Axel; Kelm, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Development of AV-block is a frequent complication associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). To date little is known about the predictive value of the HV-interval prior to TAVI with respect to the risk of AV-block development. HV-interval was determined in 25 consecutive elderly patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) before and immediately after TAVI. All patients subsequently underwent TAVI and 8 of these 25 patients (32%) developed complete AV-block during the TAVI procedure requiring permanent pacemaker implantation. Six of these 8 patients (75%) had marked HV prolongation (>54 ms). Pre-procedural HV-interval was significantly prolonged in the subgroup developing complete AV-block (62.1 ms±13.0 vs 49.2 ms±12.9; P=0.029). Prolongation of the HV-interval above 54 ms was associated with a higher rate of complete AV-block (sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 77.8%, P=0.01). HV-interval was prolonged in approximately one third of our elderly patients with aortic valve stenosis and associated with a high rate of complete AV-block following TAVI. HV-interval is easily obtained during TAVI screening procedures, thus facilitating identification of patients at risk for complete AV-block due to TAVI and consequently enabling bespoke risk management.

  3. Mot en professionalisering av det pedagogiska ledarskapet vid Umeå universitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven B Eriksson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Det pedagogiska ledarskapet inom högre utbildning fokuseras allt mer. Det understryks genom att flera lärosäten föreskriver såväl att pedagogiska ledare ska finnas på olika nivåer, som vilka övergripande uppgifter dessa ska ha. Denna artikel är ett resultat av en fallstudie av hur de tillägnade kunskaperna och färdigheterna från kursen Pedagogiskt ledarskap, en kurs för målgruppen studierektorer/pedagogiskt ansvariga eller motsvarande arrangerad av Universitetspedagogiskt centrum, har bidragit till deltagarnas professionalisering av det pedagogiska ledarskapet ett år efter kursens slut. Fallstudien genomfördes genom gruppintervjuer. Respondenterna uttryckte att de fått ett stärkt självförtroende i rollen som pedagogiska ledare samt att kursen bidrog till en professionalisering av rollen som pedagogiska ledare genom att stärka identiteten, att skapa en början till en handlingsetik bestående av delvis delade värderingar kring det pedagogiska ansvaret samt ge utbildning och träning i färdigheter som har sin grund i teoretisk kunskap. Kursen Pedagogiskt ledarskap ger därmed ett stöd i en process mot en professionalisering av det pedagogiska ledarskapet vid Umeå universitet.

  4. Performance Comparison of AVS and H.264/AVC Video Coding Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Fu Wang; De-Bin Zhao

    2006-01-01

    A new audio and video compression standard of China, known as advanced Audio Video coding Standard (AVS),is emerging. This standard provides a technical solution for many applications within the information industry such as digital broadcast, high-density laser-digital storage media, and so on. The basic part of AVS, AVS1-P2, targets standard definition (SD) and high definition (HD) format video compression, and aims to achieve similar coding efficiency as H.264/AVC but with lower computational complexity. In this paper, we first briefly describe the major coding tools in AVS1-P2, and then perform the coding efficiency comparison between AVS1-P2 Jizhun profile and H.264/AVC main profile. The experimental results show that the AVS1-P2 Jizhun profile has an average of 2.96% efficiency loss relative to H.264/AVC main profile in terms of bit-rate saving on HD progressive-scan sequences, and an average of 28.52% coding loss on interlace-scan sequences.Nevertheless, AVS1-P2 possesses a valuable feature of lower computational complexity.

  5. Developing a computational model of human hand kinetics using AVS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowitz, Mark S. [State Univ. of New York, Binghamton, NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop a finite element model of the human hand at the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR), this project extended existing computational tools for analyzing and visualizing hand kinetics. These tools employ a commercial, scientific visualization package called AVS. FORTRAN and C code, originally written by David Giurintano of the Gillis W. Long Hansen`s Disease Center, was ported to a different computing platform, debugged, and documented. Usability features were added and the code was made more modular and readable. When the code is used to visualize bone movement and tendon paths for the thumb, graphical output is consistent with expected results. However, numerical values for forces and moments at the thumb joints do not yet appear to be accurate enough to be included in ISCR`s finite element model. Future work includes debugging the parts of the code that calculate forces and moments and verifying the correctness of these values.

  6. EST Table: AV398400 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398400 NV021766 10/09/28 97 %/109 aa ref|NP_001091759.1| annexin isoform 2 [Bomby.../27 47 %/107 aa T07C4.9a#CE23956#WBGene00003589#locus:nex- 2#Annexin#status:Confirmed#UniProt:Q27512#protein...1|gene:ANXB10B 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 48 %/104 aa gi|91090858|ref|XP_967143.1| PREDICTED: similar to annexin B13a isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001098288 NV02 ... ...x mori] gb|ABD36280.1| annexin isoform 2 [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 67 %/103 aa FBpp0123640|DanaGF20448-PA 10/08

  7. American AV: Edgar Dale and the Information Age Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the influential scholar Edgar Dale, alongside a generation of educational technologists, helped build an essential place for AV materials and pedagogical methods in the American classroom. It also shows that, for decades, the Payne Fund philanthropy supported multimedia research agendas that shaped ideas about teaching and technology, far beyond involvement in their famed studies on motion pictures and children in the 1930s. With his writings and research programs, Dale advanced concepts of media experience and systematicity, which came to be understood as common sense to the information society. In so doing he was a leading contributor to the discursive and ideological structure of our age of technological and informational abundance.

  8. EST Table: AV404143 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404143 pg--0524 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/131 aa pdb|3FZB|A Chain A, Crystal Structure... Of The Tail Terminator Protein From Phage Lambda (Gpu-Wt) pdb|3FZB|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of T...he Tail Terminator Protein From Phage Lambda (Gpu-Wt) pdb|3FZB|C Chain C, Crystal Structure Of The Tail Term...inator Protein From Phage Lambda (Gpu-Wt) pdb|3FZB|D Chain D, Crystal Structure O...f The Tail Terminator Protein From Phage Lambda (Gpu-Wt) pdb|3FZB|E Chain E, Crystal Structure Of The Tail T

  9. En språkfundert kompetansemodell for planlegging av undervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Knain

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available I utdanningsvitenskapelig litteratur er ulike former for ”literacy” et vedvarende fokus både teoretisk og empirisk. I engelskspråklig naturfagdidaktisk litteratur brukes betegnelsen ”scientific literacy”. Jeg skisserer i denne artikkelen et planleggingsverktøy for undervisning som bygger på en eksplisitt teoretisk modell for deltakelse gjennom språk. Modellen er bindeledd mellom et generalisert kompetansebegrep og planlegging av undervisning ved at den knytter sammen de didaktiske spørsmålene hva, hvem, hvordan og hvorfor med en modell for funksjonell deltakelse. Modellen er spesielt relevant for et allmenndannende ”naturfag for alle”, men favner også et naturfag som fokuserer på utdanning av framtidas naturvitere. Artikkelen retter seg mot naturfag i skolen, men modellen bør kunne anvendes også i andre skolefag. Modellen peker mot et situert og transformativt kompetansebegrep.Nøkkelord: naturfag , kompetanse , diskurs , deltakelse, undervisning og læringAbstractVarious forms of literacy have long been the focus of educational discourses, not the least in science education where the term “scientific literacy” has been an enduring concern for decades. In this article I describe a tool for designing teaching based on a theoretical perspective on participation through language. The model connects a general conception of competence with the planning of teaching. To do so it drowe on the didactical questions of “what, who, how and why”. The model is particularly relevant in a “science for all” perspective but also for the educating of future science specialists. Although school science is the primary focus in this article, the model should be applicable to other school subjects as well. The model opens for a situated and transformative notion of competence.Keywords: scientific literacy, discourse, participation, teaching and learning

  10. Stöttning av skrivande i ett digitalt diskussionsforum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Hållsten

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vi vet att studenter ofta upplever akademiskt skrivande som svårt. Att skrivandet dessutom förläggs till en digital lärplattform underlättar kanske inte alltid. Större studentgrupper och minskade resurser, parallellt med ett större utbud av distanskurser, gör att digitala lärplattformar blir än viktigare inom högre utbildning. Forskning visar dock att vi i första hand använder lärplattformar i administrativt syfte, trots möjligheter till en mer pedagogisk användning, exempelvis genom mer interaktion och ett större fokus på skrivandet. Hur kan lärplattformens design och användning utvecklas pedagogiskt, närmare bestämt med ett genrepedagogiskt upplägg?Empirin för artikeln är en distanskurs i kriminologi, där all kursaktivitet skedde över utbildningens lärplattform. Kursdesignen och lärarnas aktivitet (instruktioner, responsgivande och annan stöttning analyserades tillsammans med ett mindre antal studenters användande av lärplattformen i arbetet med uppgiften Lärandedialogen. Vilka genrepedagogiska drag uppvisas redan i kursdesignen, och vilka skulle kunna förstärkas? Genrepedagogiken tar fasta på den muntliga dialogen kring text och innehåll. Därför diskuteras även hur man kan se den skriftliga, asynkrona diskussionen som något liknande det muntliga seminariesamtalet.

  11. En kartlegging av forekomsten av forskjellige rusmidler blant norske motorvognførere pågrepet av politiet, med mistanke om påvirket kjøring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari-Mette Beylich m. fl Beylich m. fl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSjåfører som mistenkes for påvirket kjøring blir i første omgang vurdert av politiet med henblikk på om det kunskal rekvireres alkoholanalyse eller om det også skal tas prøve med hensyn på andre rusmidler (narkotika,medikamenter med ruspotensial ved Statens rettstoksikologiske institutt (SRI. Rutinemessig vil SRI undersøkedet politiet rekvirerer, men prøvene lagres inntil to år etter at de er analysert. Ved supplerende analyse i ettertidkan man således få et mer fullstendig bilde av hva mistenkte, påvirkede bilførere hadde i kroppen da de avgaprøve. I den foreliggende undersøkelsen ble 1197 prøver fra februar og september 1993 analysert på et bredtspekter av andre rusmidler foruten alkohol, uavhengig av hva politiets mistanke hadde vært. Vi fant da at alkoholalene var til stede i 55 % av prøvene, andre rusmidler alene i 16%, både alkohol og andre rusmidler i 14%, mensverken alkohol eller andre rusmidler ble påvist i 15% av prøvene. Politiets mistanke med hensyn til alkoholpåvirkningble bekreftet av analyseresultatene i 71% av tilfellene, og mistanke om forekomst av andre rusmidler i58% av tilfellene. Tidligere studier og denne undersøkelsen viste at bilførere som mistenkes for påvirket kjøringsynes å representere en gruppe med storbruk av alkohol og misbruk av andre stoff.Beylich K-M, Christophersen AS, Skurtveit S, Bjørneboe A, Mørland J. Frequency of different drugs in  ENGLISH SUMMARYDrivers apprehended under the suspicion of drunken or drugged driving are primarily evaluated by the police withregard to whether alcohol or drugs should be looked for in the blood samples taken shortly after apprehension.Until March 1996 all blood samples were sent to the National Institute of Forensic Toxicology (NIFT, for analysis.NIFT routinely perform only those analyses requested, but the samples are stored for up to two years afteranalysis. By later additional analyses of this material one could obtain a more

  12. Subcortical (18) F-AV-1451 binding patterns in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hanna; Choi, Jae Yong; Hwang, Mi Song; Lee, Seung Ha; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Myung Sik; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of cortical and subcortical tau pathology is the primary pathological substrate for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). (18) F-AV-1451, a radiotracer that binds to the pathological tau protein, may be helpful for in vivo visualization and quantitation of tau pathology in PSP. The objectives of this study were to investigate cortical and subcortical (18) F-AV-1451 binding patterns in patients with PSP. We recruited 14 PSP patients and compared their cortical and subcortical binding patterns in (18) F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography (PET) studies with those of 15 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and 15 healthy controls. In both the PD and PSP groups, subcortical (18) F-AV-1451 binding did not correlate with the severity of motor dysfunctions, and cortical binding did not differ between the controls and each patient group. However, the PSP patients showed greater (18) F-AV-1451 binding in the putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and dentate nucleus when compared with the controls, whereas the PD patients showed lower (18) F-AV-1451 binding in the substantia nigra than controls. The PSP and PD patients showed distinct subcortical (18) F-AV-1451 binding patterns reflecting subcortical tau pathology in PSP and reduced nigral neuromelanin in PD. However, there was no correlation with the severity of motor dysfunction, no cortical regions with increased binding in PSP patients, and variable degrees of subcortical binding even in the controls. Therefore, the (18) F-AV-1451 PET may be less than ideal for assessing tau pathology in PSP. Further studies will be required to validate the clinical correlation and to understand the clinical utility of (18) F-AV-1451 PET for PSP patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Pathological correlations of [F-18]-AV-1451 imaging in non-alzheimer tauopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquié, Marta; Normandin, Marc D; Meltzer, Avery C; Siao Tick Chong, Michael; Andrea, Nicolas V; Antón-Fernández, Alejandro; Klunk, William E; Mathis, Chester A; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Debnath, Manik; Bien, Elizabeth A; Vanderburg, Charles R; Costantino, Isabel; Makaretz, Sara; DeVos, Sarah L; Oakley, Derek H; Gomperts, Stephen N; Growdon, John H; Domoto-Reilly, Kimiko; Lucente, Diane; Dickerson, Bradford C; Frosch, Matthew P; Hyman, Bradley T; Johnson, Keith A; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that positron emission tomography (PET) tracer AV-1451 exhibits high binding affinity for paired helical filament (PHF)-tau pathology in Alzheimer's brains. However, the ability of this ligand to bind to tau lesions in other tauopathies remains controversial. Our goal was to examine the correlation of in vivo and postmortem AV-1451 binding patterns in three autopsy-confirmed non-Alzheimer tauopathy cases. We quantified in vivo retention of [F-18]-AV-1451 and performed autoradiography, [H-3]-AV-1451 binding assays, and quantitative tau measurements in postmortem brain samples from two progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases and a MAPT P301L mutation carrier. They all underwent [F-18]-AV-1451 PET imaging before death. The three subjects exhibited [F-18]-AV-1451 in vivo retention predominantly in basal ganglia and midbrain. Neuropathological examination confirmed the PSP diagnosis in the first two subjects; the MAPT P301L mutation carrier had an atypical tauopathy characterized by grain-like tau-containing neurites in gray and white matter with heaviest burden in basal ganglia. In all three cases, autoradiography failed to show detectable [F-18]-AV-1451 binding in multiple brain regions examined, with the exception of entorhinal cortex (reflecting incidental age-related neurofibrillary tangles) and neuromelanin-containing neurons in the substantia nigra (off-target binding). The lack of a consistent significant correlation between in vivo [F-18]-AV-1541 retention and postmortem in vitro binding and tau measures in these cases suggests that this ligand has low affinity for tau lesions primarily made of straight tau filaments. AV-1451 may have limited utility for in vivo selective and reliable detection of tau aggregates in these non-Alzheimer tauopathies. ANN NEUROL 2017;81:117-128. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  14. AV interval optimization using pressure volume loops in dual chamber pacemaker patients with maintained systolic left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Frank; Hanke, Thorsten; Fitschen, Joern; Heringlake, Matthias; Bode, Frank; Schunkert, Heribert; Wiegand, Uwe K H

    2012-08-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) interval optimization is often deemed too time-consuming in dual-chamber pacemaker patients with maintained LV function. Thus the majority of patients are left at their default AV interval. To quantify the magnitude of hemodynamic improvement following AV interval optimization in chronically paced dual chamber pacemaker patients. A pressure volume catheter was placed in the left ventricle of 19 patients with chronic dual chamber pacing and an ejection fraction >45 % undergoing elective coronary angiography. AV interval was varied in 10 ms steps from 80 to 300 ms, and pressure volume loops were recorded during breath hold. The average optimal AV interval was 152 ± 39 ms compared to 155 ± 8 ms for the average default AV interval (range 100-240 ms). The average improvement in stroke work following AV interval optimization was 935 ± 760 mmHg/ml (range 0-2,908; p AV interval changes the average stroke work by 207 ± 162 mmHg/ml. AV interval optimization also leads to improved systolic dyssynchrony indices (17.7 ± 7.0 vs. 19.4 ± 7.1 %; p = 0.01). The overall hemodynamic effect of AV interval optimization in patients with maintained LV function is in the same range as for patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy for several parameters. The positive effect of AV interval optimization also applies to patients who have been chronically paced for years.

  15. Den blivande förskollärarens formering. En studie av verksamhetsförlagda handledningssamtal, argumentationstraditioner och metaforik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Hjort

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I denna studie analyserar vi hur erfarna förskollärare i rollen som handledare introducerar förskollärarstudenter i professionen. Studien genomförs mot bakgrund av ett delvis nytt uppdrag som förskolan fått under senare år, som bland annat yttrar sig i att förskolan nu är en del av utbildningssystemet. Med utgångspunkt i det teoretiska begreppet argumentationstraditioner och genom att analysera metaforiken i deltagarnas resonerande, studeras hur erfarna och blivande förskollärare navigerar spänningar centrala för professionen. Deltagarnas betoning av vissa argumentationstraditioner och användningen av viss metaforik diskuteras i termer av vad de implicerar för utvecklingen av de barn som deltar i en förskoleverksamhet som formas av dessa.

  16. LNG tidscertepartier : En innføring generelt og regulering av boil-off spesielt

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Johan Storm

    2005-01-01

    Oppgaven gir en innføring i langsiktige LNG tidscertepartier. Den tar for seg både hva som er særegent for denne kontraktstypen generelt, og gir en oversikt over typiske sider ved den konkrete reguleringen av et utvalg certepartier. Som et spesialemne, tar oppgaven for seg reguleringen av ansvaret for boil-off mellom partene. Dette er et fenomen som er spesielt for LNG farten. LNG certepartier tar for seg transport av LNG med skip. LNG står for Liquefied Natural Gas, eller flytende naturg...

  17. Måleegenskaper ved den norske versjonen av Teacher's Report Form (TRF)

    OpenAIRE

    Kornør, Hege; Drugli, May Britt

    2011-01-01

    Beskrivelse. TRF inngår som én av tre tester i Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Thomas Achenbach og Leslie Rescorla står bak denne testen, som kom ut i sin originalversjon på engelsk 2001. Torunn S. Nøvik og Sonja Heyerdahl publiserte den norske oversettelsen av TRF i 2002. TRF skal besvares av lærere for å kartlegge faglig fungering, tilpasning og problemområder hos barn og ungdom i skolealder. Problemdelen har én totalskåre som danner utgangspunkt for...

  18. "The Power of Christ Compels You". En studie av eksorsisme i tre filmer.

    OpenAIRE

    Morland, Espen Steensnæs

    2014-01-01

    Denne oppgaven er en studie av fenomenet eksorsisme i de tre filmene The Exorcist (1973), The Exorcist III (1990) og The Exorcism of Emily Rose (2005). Målet har vært å finne ut hvilke roller eksorsisme, kjønnsroller, det overnaturlige og Den katolske kirke spiller i disse tre filmene. I tillegg inneholder oppgaven en sammenligning av de tre filmene. De tre filmene er både like og forskjellige når det gjelder deres tilnærming til eksorsisme. En viktig del av det katolske eksorsismeritualet...

  19. [The functional dissociation of conduction within the human AV-node (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M; Narula, O S; Ehlers, E; Luckmann, E; Pantlen, H

    1980-07-15

    The functional dissociation (FD) of conduction within the AV-node is characterized by sudden prolongations and/or shortenings of the AH-time during stimulation. Examples for FD are presented during regular atrial stimulation and atrial extrastimulus technique. The appearance of FD is no proof for functional impairment of the AV-node. The blockade of the parasympathetic nervous system abolishes FD and leads to the well known continuous and regular adaptation of the AH-time with the various kinds of stimulation examined. It is recommended to replace the term "pathways" by the more comprehensive concept of functional dissociation with the AV-node.

  20. Om inflammatorisk tarmsykdom, samt protokollutvikling for isolasjon av enkeltceller fra colonslimhinnebiopsier

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Jim André; Krokstrand, Tobias Tysnes

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatorisk tarmsykdom (IBD) omfatter primært de to tilstandene, ulcerøs kolitt (UC) og morbus Crohn (MbC). Begge tilstandene karakteriseres ved kronisk inflammasjon i fordøyelseskanalen. Etiologien er ukjent, men en teori som har blitt fremmet er dysregulasjon av immunresponsen mot den kommensale tarmflora hos genetisk predisponerte individer. Insidensen av IBD er høyere i den vestlige verden enn i utviklingsland, og Norge er et av landene med høyest registrert insidens. Tilstanden kan...

  1. Langtidseffekten av kalking på lystgassemisjonen frå dyrka organisk jord

    OpenAIRE

    Hovlandsdal, Linn

    2011-01-01

    Kultivert jord er den viktigaste antropogene kjelda til dinitrogenoksid (N2O), også kalla lystgass. N2O er ein klimagass og bidreg til øydelegging av stratosfærisk ozon. Dyrka myrjord har ein større emisjon av N2O enn mineraljord. Sjølv om dyrka myrjord berre utgjer 7 – 8 % av det totale dyrka arealet i Noreg, kan dei potensielt vere ein stor bidragsytar til N2O - emisjonen frå norsk jordbruk. pH i jord er ein nøkkelvariabel for dei fleste biologiske prosessane i jorda. Kalking kan føre ti...

  2. Religion, visdom och humanism : en teologisk läsning av Hermann Hesses Siddhartha

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, Henning E.

    2007-01-01

    Hermann Hesse (1877-1962) er en av 1900-tallets mest leste og innflytelserike forfattere. Hele hans forfatterskap kan sies å være historien om hans egen søken etter sannhet. Han var influert av Freud, Jung, mystikk og østerlandsk filosofi, men ønsket ikke å bli plassert under en etikette. I flere av sine mest berømte verker forteller han om en person som samtidig er han selv og en representant for menneskeheten. Denne personen søker sannheten om seg selv og den absolutte sannheten, men kan i...

  3. Vad vill kvinnor ha? : En undersökning av en lokaltidnings bilaga i form av ett livsstilsmagasin.

    OpenAIRE

    Heurling, Åsa; Lovisa, Lesse

    2011-01-01

    Folkbladet är en dagstidning i Norrköping med en stark lokal prägel vars prenumeranter till största delen är sportintresserade män. För att försöka bredda sin läsekrets har man sedan 2009 gett ut en tidning kallad Trend, som vänder sig till kvinnor i åldern 20 - 50 år. Denna tidning med lokal prägel, i form av ett livsstilsmagasin för kvinnor, handlar om mode, skönhet, heminredning och resor. Maga- sinet ges ut i fyra nummer per år och delas ut gratis till alla hushåll i Norrköping med omnejd...

  4. Value of the adenosine test for diagnosis of dual AV nodal physiology in patients with AV nodal reentrant tachycardia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌全; 胡申江; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objectives:This study was aimed at assessing the value of the adenosine test for noninvasive diagnosis of dual AV nodal physiology(DAVNP) in patients with AV nodal reentrant tachycardia(VANRT).Methods:53 patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia(PSVT) were given incremental doses of adenosine intravenously during sinus rhythm before electrophysiological study.The adenosine test was repeated on a subset of 18 patients with AVNRT after radiofrequency catheter ablation.Results:Sudden increments of PR interval of more than 60 msec between two consecutive beats were observed in 26(83.9%) of 31 patients with typical AVNRT and 2(9.1%) of 22 patients with AVRT and AT(P<0.01),The maximal PR increment between 2 consecutive beats in the AVNRT group(105±45ms) was significantly greater than that in the AVRT and AT group[(20±13ms) (P<0.01),In postablation adenosine test,DAVNP was eliminated in all 8 patients who underwent slow pathway abolition that EPS showed the slow pathway disappeared and 4 of 10 patients who underwent slow pathway modification that EPS showed the slow pathway disappeared and 4 of 10 patients who underwent slow pathway modification that EPS whosed the slow pathway persisted.Six of 10 patients whw exhibited persistent duality showed a marked reduction in the number of beats conducted in the slow pathway after adenosine injection(P<0.01),COnclusions:Administration of adenosine during sinus rhythm may be a useful bedside test for diagnosis of DAVNP in high percentage of patients with typical AVNRT and additionally for evaluating the effects of radiofrequency ablation.

  5. Värdering och redovisning till verkligt värde av finansiella instrument : en studie av IAS 39 och SFAS 157

    OpenAIRE

    Campner, Britta; Liang, Yucong; Melkersson, Rickard

    2009-01-01

    Bakgrund och problem: Som ett steg i konvergeringsprocessen med FASB startade IASB år2006 ett projekt med syfte att skapa en enhetlig standard för värdering till verkligt värde i helaIFRS. I den inledande fasen av projektet utformades ett discussion paper, där denamerikanska motsvarigheten för värdering till verkligt värde, SFAS 157, användes somutgångspunkt. En av de standarder som i hög grad innefattar värdering till verkligt värde ochsåledes berörs i stor utsträckning av projektet är IAS 3...

  6. Utveckling av fryssäker vaccinväska : För transport av vaccin till svårtillgängliga områden

    OpenAIRE

    TILLQVIST, VIKTOR; Sandqvist, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Detta projekt fokuserar på att förhindra att vaccinet förstörs vid transport, samt underlätta för vårdpersonal som arbetar för att transportera vaccin till otillgängliga områden. Vaccin måste förvaras kylt. Därför utgörs transporten av vaccin av en så kallad kylkedja. Projektet behandlar den sista delen i kylkedjan, den så kallade last miltransportation. Idag varierar kunskapen hos arbetarna vilket medför variationer i utförandet av de rutiner som är utvecklade för att på ett säkert sätt pake...

  7. Analys av miljöanpassad ogräsbekämpning

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Svenska Kraftnät är ett statligt affärsverk vars huvuduppgift är drift och underhåll av det svenska elstamnätet. Bekämpningen av oönskad vegetation är en del i underhållsarbetet i anläggningarna och sker i dagsläget med det kemiska bekämpningsmedlet Roundup. Svenska Kraftnät önskar att minska eller ersätta den kemiska ogräsbekämpningen med en miljöanpassad metod och rapporten syftar till att undersöka den möjligheten.  En av de möjliga metoderna, NCC Spuma, testades i ett fältförsök i en av S...

  8. Transformasjon av Lækjargata : fra transportåre til en levende bygate

    OpenAIRE

    Pétursdóttir, Tinna Rut

    2016-01-01

    Lækjargata, en av de viktigste bygatene i Reykjavík, og temaet for dette prosjektet, er et eksempel på en gate som har blitt overtatt av privatbiler med lite fokus på myke trafikanter. Gaten er et svært viktig innslag i bybildet, har stor historisk betydning og en sterk identitet, som man dessverre ikke kan nyte på grunn av bilene. Målet med oppgaven er å finne en måte å transformere Lækjargata til å bli en levende bygate ved hjelp av blå og grønne strukturer og samtidig bidra til å skape en ...

  9. Eksklusive fellesskap: Et kritisk blikk på nyurbanismen i lys av Kentlands, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Andersen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i nyurbanismen, en amerikansk byplanleggingsbevegelse, og deres byutviklingsprosjekt Kentlands i Maryland, USA. Deres påstand er at en gjennom de rette designprinsippene vil få det ønskede samfunnet. Her argumenteres det for at den fysiske determinismen som ligger til grunn for den nyurbanistiske ideologien er for enkel. Mens nyurbanistene hevder at de skaper heterogene og lokaliserte fellesskap gjennom realiseringen av deres egne designprinsipper, hevdes det her med støtte i en sosialantropologisk studie av Kentlands at dannelsen av slike fellesskap er noe mer komplisert. Innbyggerne viste seg i praksis til og med å handle mot et slikt ideal. Sosial praksis, de nyurbanistiske designreglene, samt den felles interessen for å opprettholde eiendomsverdiene, førte til etableringen av en "eksklusiv enklave" snarere enn et inkluderende bomiljø.Nøkkelord: Nyurbanisme, byplanlegging, designregler, eksklusive enklaver

  10. InterProScan Result: AV400452 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400452 AV400452_2_ORF2 5E62868E5F66D93B PANTHER PTHR11523:SF15 SODIUM/POTASSIUM-D...EPENDENT ATPASE BETA SUBUNIT, INSECT 1.1e-19 T IPR000402 unintegrated Molecular Function: sodium:potassium-e...Process: potassium ion transport (GO:0006813)|Biological Process: sodium ion transport (GO:0006814)|Cellular Component: membrane (GO:0016020) ...

  11. The Galactic NH - AV Relation and its Application to Historical Galactic SNRs

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Wen-Wu; Xiang, F Y

    2013-01-01

    We refine a classic relation between the hydrogen column density (NH) and optical extinction (Av) by employing 39 Galactic Supernova Remnants (SNRs) with X-rays, optical and/or infra-red data available. We find NH = (1.69+/-0.07)*10^21 Av cm^(-2) mag^(-1) . Applying this relation to three Galactic SNRs with good historical records allows us to further constrain either their progenitor's distances or magnitudes, which is independent access to their distances.

  12. [(18)F]AV-1451 binding to neuromelanin in the substantia nigra in PD and PSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakeley, Sarah; Cho, Sang Soo; Koshimori, Yuko; Rusjan, Pablo; Ghadery, Christine; Kim, Jinhee; Lang, Anthony E; Houle, Sylvain; Strafella, Antonio P

    2017-09-07

    This study investigated binding of [(18)F]AV-1451 to neuromelanin in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). [(18)F]AV-1451 is a positron emission tomography radiotracer designed to bind pathological tau. A post-mortem study using [(18)F]AV-1451 discovered off-target binding properties to neuromelanin in the substantia nigra. A subsequent clinical study reported a 30% decrease in [(18)F]AV-1451 binding in the midbrain of PD patients. A total of 12 patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls were recruited. An anatomical MRI and a 90-min PET scan, using [(18)F]AV-1451, were acquired from all participants. The standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) from 60 to 90 min post-injection was calculated for the substantia nigra, using the cerebellar cortex as the reference region. The substantia nigra was delineated using automated region of interest software. An independent samples ANOVA and LSD post hoc testing were used to test for differences in [(18)F]AV-1451 SUVR between groups. Substantia nigra SUVR from 60 to 90 min was significantly greater in HC compared to both PSP and PD groups. Although the PD group had the lowest SUVR, there was no significant difference in substantia nigra uptake between PD and PSP. [(18)F]AV-1451 may be the first PET radiotracer capable of imaging neurodegeneration of the substantia nigra in parkinsonisms. Further testing must be done in PD and atypical parkinsonian disorders to support this off-target use of [(18)F]AV-1451.

  13. Dynamics of AV coupling during human atrial fibrillation: role of atrial rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masè, M; Marini, M; Disertori, M; Ravelli, F

    2015-07-01

    The causal relationship between atrial and ventricular activities during human atrial fibrillation (AF) is poorly understood. This study analyzed the effects of an increase in atrial rate on the link between atrial and ventricular activities during AF. Atrial and ventricular time series were determined in 14 patients during the spontaneous acceleration of the atrial rhythm at AF onset. The dynamic relationship between atrial and ventricular activities was quantified in terms of atrioventricular (AV) coupling by AV synchrogram analysis. The technique identified n:m coupling patterns (n atrial beats in m ventricular cycles), quantifying their percentage, maximal length, and conduction ratio (= m/n). Simulations with a difference-equation AV model were performed to correlate the observed dynamics to specific atrial/nodal properties. The atrial rate increase significantly affected AV coupling and ventricular response during AF. The shortening of atrial intervals from 185 ± 32 to 165 ± 24 ms (P AV patterns with progressively decreasing m/n ratios (from conduction ratio = 0.34 ± 0.09 to 0.29 ± 0.08, P AV block and coupling instability at higher atrial rates were associated with increased ventricular interval variability (from 123 ± 52 to 133 ± 55 ms, P AV pattern transitions and coupling instability in patients were predicted, assuming the filtering of high-rate irregular atrial beats by the slow recovery of nodal excitability. These results support the role of atrial rate in determining AV coupling and ventricular response and may have implications for rate control in AF. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Utilization of Electrocardiographic P-wave Duration for AV Interval Optimization in Dual-Chamber Pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorajja, Dan; Bhakta, Mayurkumar D; Scott, Luis Rp; Altemose, Gregory T; Srivathsan, Komandoor

    2010-09-05

    Empiric programming of the atrio-ventricular (AV) delay is commonly performed during pacemaker implantation. Transmitral flow assessment by Doppler echocardiography can be used to find the optimal AV delay by Ritter's method, but this cannot easily be performed during pacemaker implantation. We sought to determine a non-invasive surrogate for this assessment. Since electrocardiographic P-wave duration estimates atrial activation time, we hypothesized this measurement may provide a more appropriate basis for programming AV intervals. A total of 19 patients were examined at the time of dual chamber pacemaker implantation, 13 (68%) being male with a mean age of 77. Each patient had the optimal AV interval determined by Ritter's method. The P-wave duration was measured independently on electrocardiograms using MUSE® Cardiology Information System (version 7.1.1). The relationship between P-wave duration and the optimal AV interval was analyzed. The P-wave duration and optimal AV delay were related by a correlation coefficient of 0.815 and a correction factor of 1.26. The mean BMI was 27. The presence of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and valvular heart disease was 13 (68%), 3 (16%), and 2 (11%) respectively. Mean echocardiographic parameters included an ejection fraction of 58%, left atrial index of 32 ml/m(2), and diastolic dysfunction grade 1 (out of 4). In patients with dual chamber pacemakers in AV sequentially paced mode and normal EF, electrocardiographic P-wave duration correlates to the optimal AV delay by Ritter's method by a factor of 1.26.

  15. Tungstate and Carbonate Ions Sorption Using Anion Exchangers AV-17-8 and Purolite A400

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chegrintsev S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper shows the results of tungstate and carbonate ion sorption using strongly basic anion exchangers AV-17-8 and Purolite A400. It has been established that anion exchanger AV-17-8 in the chloride form with parameters of 168 g of tungstate ion and 157 g of carbonate ion per 1 kg of anion exchanger has the maximum capacity for the tungstate and carbonate ions.

  16. Helhetsorienterad utvärdering av kollektivtrafikåtgärder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiselius, Lena Winslott; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    Under hösten 2008 och våren 2009 har forskare vid Avd. Trafik och väg vid Lunds Tekniska Högskola, DTU Transport vid Danmarks Tekniska Universitet samt National-ekonomiska institutionen vid Lunds Universitet genomfört ett forskningsprojekt med syfte att studera tillämpningen av en sammansatt...... (helhetsorienterad) analys av kollektiv-trafikåtgärder....

  17. InterProScan Result: AV399741 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399741 AV399741_2_ORF2 F87D90D9B5BA6C11 SUPERFAMILY SSF55267 tRNA-intron endonucl...ease N-terminal domain-like 8.3e-06 T IPR006678 tRNA intron endonuclease, N-terminal Molecular Function: tRNA-intron endonuclease activity (GO:0000213) ...

  18. Kvalitetsutvärdering av biomedicin och närliggande huvudområden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffler, Hakon; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa; Emgård, Mia

    2014-01-01

    UKÄ:s utvärdering av biomedicinutbildningar visar på en mycket varierad kvalitet. Nio av 21 utbildningar håller toppklass medan mer än hälften bedöms vara bristande. 21 utbildningar inom biomedicin har satts under lupp. Kvaliteten bedöms som vanligt efter en tregradig skala: mycket hög kvalitet...

  19. [F-18]-AV-1451 binding correlates with postmortem neurofibrillary tangle Braak staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquié, Marta; Siao Tick Chong, Michael; Antón-Fernández, Alejandro; Verwer, Eline E; Sáez-Calveras, Nil; Meltzer, Avery C; Ramanan, Prianca; Amaral, Ana C; Gonzalez, Jose; Normandin, Marc D; Frosch, Matthew P; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2017-06-13

    [F-18]-AV-1451, a PET tracer specifically developed to detect brain neurofibrillary tau pathology, has the potential to facilitate accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), staging of brain tau burden and monitoring disease progression. Recent PET studies show that patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD dementia exhibit significantly higher in vivo [F-18]-AV-1451 retention than cognitively normal controls. Importantly, PET patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 correlate well with disease severity and seem to match the predicted topographic Braak staging of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in AD, although this awaits confirmation. We studied the correlation of autoradiographic binding patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 and the stereotypical spatiotemporal pattern of progression of NFTs using legacy postmortem brain samples representing different Braak NFT stages (I-VI). We performed [F-18]-AV-1451 phosphor-screen autoradiography and quantitative tau measurements (stereologically based NFT counts and biochemical analysis of tau pathology) in three brain regions (entorhinal cortex, superior temporal sulcus and visual cortex) in a total of 22 cases: low Braak (I-II, n = 6), intermediate Braak (III-IV, n = 7) and high Braak (V-VI, n = 9). Strong and selective [F-18]-AV-1451 binding was detected in all tangle-containing regions matching precisely the observed pattern of PHF-tau immunostaining across the different Braak stages. As expected, no signal was detected in the white matter or other non-tangle containing regions. Quantification of [F-18]-AV-1451 binding was very significantly correlated with the number of NFTs present in each brain region and with the total tau and phospho-tau content as reported by Western blot and ELISA. [F-18]-AV-1451 is a promising biomarker for in vivo quantification of brain tau burden in AD. Neuroimaging-pathologic studies conducted on postmortem material from individuals imaged while alive are now needed to confirm these observations.

  20. Adaptationer av Esaias Tegnérs Frithiofs saga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordenfors, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Tegnérs versepos över urnordiska myter hade länge ett starkt om den nordiska läsande allmänheten - därtill starkt understött av Bernhard Crusells omtyckta tonsättningar av dikterna. Men också i Tyskland har Frithiofs saga haft en påfallande genomslagskraft. I uppsatsen granskas särskilt tonsättar...

  1. Et sosiologisk blikk på mobbing. En teoretisk studie av paradigmet og fenomenet mobbing

    OpenAIRE

    Stemland, Linn

    2007-01-01

    Mobbing er et tema som har fått stadig mer oppmerksomhet i samfunnsdebatten. Det er gjort lite sosiologisk forskning omkring fenomenet mobbing. Forskningsfeltet mobbing er i dag konstruert og dominert av psykologiens begreper og forståelse. I denne oppgaven prøver jeg å nærme meg en sosiologisk forståelse av begrepet og fenomenet mobbing.

  2. Helhetsorienterad utvärdering av kollektivtrafikåtgärder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiselius, Lena Winslott; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    Under hösten 2008 och våren 2009 har forskare vid Avd. Trafik och väg vid Lunds Tekniska Högskola, DTU Transport vid Danmarks Tekniska Universitet samt National-ekonomiska institutionen vid Lunds Universitet genomfört ett forskningsprojekt med syfte att studera tillämpningen av en sammansatt...... (helhetsorienterad) analys av kollektiv-trafikåtgärder....

  3. Phylogenetic position and replication kinetics of Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h isolated from Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hua Huang

    Full Text Available Insect-specific ascoviruses with a circular genome are distributed in the USA, France, Australia and Indonesia. Here, we report the first ascovirus isolation from Spodoptera exigua in Hunan, China. DNA-DNA hybridization to published ascoviruses demonstrated that the new China ascovirus isolate is a variant of Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3a (HvAV-3a, thus named HvAV-3h. We investigated the phylogenetic position, cell infection, vesicle production and viral DNA replication kinetics of HvAV-3h, as well as its host-ranges. The major capsid protein (MCP gene and the delta DNA polymerase (DNA po1 gene of HvAV-3h were sequenced and compared with the available ascovirus isolates for phylogenetic analysis. This shows a close relationship with HvAV-3g, originally isolated from Indonesia, HvAV-3e from Australia and HvAV-3c from United States. HvAV-3h infection induced vesicle production in the SeE1 cells derived from S. exigua and Sf9 cells derived from S. frugiperda, resulting in more vesicles generated in Sf9 than SeE1. Viral DNA replication kinetics of HvAV-3h also demonstrated a difference between the two cell lines tested. HvAV-3h could readily infect three important insect pests Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner and Spodoptera litura (Fabricius from two genera in different subfamilies with high mortalities.

  4. First-degree AV block-an entirely benign finding or a potentially curable cause of cardiac disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Fredrik; Daubert, James P

    2013-05-01

    First-degree atrioventricular (AV) block is a delay within the AV conduction system and is defined as a prolongation of the PR interval beyond the upper limit of what is considered normal (generally 0.20 s). Up until recently, first-degree AV block was considered an entirely benign condition. In fact, some complain that it is a misnomer since there is only delay and no actual block in the AV conduction system (usually within the AV node). However, it has long been acknowledged that extreme forms of first-degree AV block (typically a PR interval exceeding 0.30 s) can cause symptoms due to inadequate timing of atrial and ventricular contractions, similar to the so-called pacemaker syndrome. Consequently, the current guidelines state that permanent pacemaker implantation is reasonable for first-degree AV block with symptoms similar to those of pacemaker syndrome or with hemodynamic compromise, but also stresses that there is little evidence to suggest that pacemakers improve survival in patients with isolated first-degree AV block. Recent reports suggest that it may be time to revisit the impact of first-degree AV block. Also, several findings in post hoc analyses of randomized device trials give important insights in possible treatment options. The present review aims to provide an update on the current knowledge concerning the impact of first-degree AV block and also to address the issue of pacing in patients with this condition. ©2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Patients' and procedural characteristics of AV-block during slow pathway modulation for AVNRT-single center 10year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmer, Kristina; Dechering, Dirk G; Köbe, Julia; Leitz, Patrick; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Lange, Phillip S; Kochhäuser, Simon; Reinke, Florian; Pott, Christian; Mönnig, Gerold; Breithardt, Günter; Eckardt, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Permanent AV-block is a recognized and feared complication of slow pathway modulation for AVNRT. We aimed to assess incidence of transient and permanent AV-block as well as consequences of transient AV-block in a large contemporary AVNRT ablation cohort. We searched our single center prospective ablation database for occurrence of transient and permanent AV-block during slow pathway modulation between January 2004 and October 2015. We analyzed patients' and procedural characteristics as well as outcome of patients in whom transient or permanent AV-block occurred. Of 9170 patients who underwent a catheter ablation at our institution between January 2004 and October 2015, 2101 patients (64% women, mean age 50±18years) underwent slow pathway modulation. In three patients, permanent AV-block occurred during RF application. Additional two patients had transient AV-block that recovered (after a few minutes and 25min), but recurred within two days of the procedure. All five patients underwent dual chamber pacemaker implantation (0.2%). Transient AV-block related to RF delivery occurred in 44 patients (2%). Transient mechanical AV-block occurred in additional 17 patients (0.8%). In 12 patients, ablation was continued despite transient AV-block. One of these patients developed permanent AV-block. Permanent AV-block following slow pathway modulation is a rare event, occurring in 0.2% of patients in a large contemporary single center cohort. Transient AV-block is more frequent (2%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Amyloid deposition after cerebral hypoperfusion: evidenced on [(18)F]AV-45 positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Lun; Lin, Kun-Ju; Ho, Meng-Yang; Chang, Yeu-Jhy; Chang, Chien-Hung; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Lee, Tsong-Hai

    2012-08-15

    Animal studies have shown that cerebral hypoperfusion may be associated with amyloid plaque accumulation. Amyloid plaque is known to be associated with dementia and [(18)F]AV-45 is a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that binds to extracelluar plaques. We hypothesized that demented patients with cerebral hypoperfusion may have increased [(18)F]AV-45 uptake. Five demented patients with cerebral hypoperfusion due to unilateral carotid artery stenosis (CAS) were examined with [(18)F]AV-45 PET, and the results were compared with six elderly controls. The standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) of each region of interest (ROI) was created using whole cerebellum as the reference region. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for obtaining structural information. Patients with dementia and unilateral CAS had a higher global [(18)F]AV-45 SUVR (1.34 ± 0.06) as compared with controls (1.10 ± 0.04, p=0.0043), especially over the frontal, temporal, precuneus, anterior cingulate and occipital regions. The statistical distribution maps revealed a significantly increased [(18)F]AV-45 SUVR in the medial frontal, caudate, thalamus, posterior cingulate, occipital and middle and superior temporal regions ipsilateral to the side of CAS (pAV-45 binding is increased in demented patients with CAS, and its distribution is lateralized to the CAS side, suggesting that amyloid-related dementia may occur under cerebral hypoperfusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. BMP-2 induces versican and hyaluronan that contribute to post-EMT AV cushion cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inai, Kei; Burnside, Jessica L; Hoffman, Stanley; Toole, Bryan P; Sugi, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    Distal outgrowth and maturation of mesenchymalized endocardial cushions are critical morphogenetic events during post-EMT atrioventricular (AV) valvuloseptal morphogenesis. We explored the role of BMP-2 in the regulation of valvulogenic extracellular matrix (ECM) components, versican and hyaluronan (HA), and cell migration during post-EMT AV cushion distal outgrowth/expansion. We observed intense staining of versican and HA in AV cushion mesenchyme from the early cushion expansion stage, Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage-17 to the cushion maturation stage, HH stage-29 in the chick. Based on this expression pattern we examined the role of BMP-2 in regulating versican and HA using 3D AV cushion mesenchymal cell (CMC) aggregate cultures on hydrated collagen gels. BMP-2 induced versican expression and HA deposition as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2 by CMCs in a dose dependent manner. Noggin, an antagonist of BMP, abolished BMP-2-induced versican and HA as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2. We further examined whether BMP-2-promoted cell migration was associated with expression of versican and HA. BMP-2- promoted cell migration was significantly impaired by treatments with versican siRNA and HA oligomer. In conclusion, we provide evidence that BMP-2 induces expression of versican and HA by AV CMCs and that these ECM components contribute to BMP-2-induced CMC migration, indicating critical roles for BMP-2 in distal outgrowth/expansion of mesenchymalized AV cushions.

  8. BMP-2 induces versican and hyaluronan that contribute to post-EMT AV cushion cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Inai

    Full Text Available Distal outgrowth and maturation of mesenchymalized endocardial cushions are critical morphogenetic events during post-EMT atrioventricular (AV valvuloseptal morphogenesis. We explored the role of BMP-2 in the regulation of valvulogenic extracellular matrix (ECM components, versican and hyaluronan (HA, and cell migration during post-EMT AV cushion distal outgrowth/expansion. We observed intense staining of versican and HA in AV cushion mesenchyme from the early cushion expansion stage, Hamburger and Hamilton (HH stage-17 to the cushion maturation stage, HH stage-29 in the chick. Based on this expression pattern we examined the role of BMP-2 in regulating versican and HA using 3D AV cushion mesenchymal cell (CMC aggregate cultures on hydrated collagen gels. BMP-2 induced versican expression and HA deposition as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2 by CMCs in a dose dependent manner. Noggin, an antagonist of BMP, abolished BMP-2-induced versican and HA as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2. We further examined whether BMP-2-promoted cell migration was associated with expression of versican and HA. BMP-2- promoted cell migration was significantly impaired by treatments with versican siRNA and HA oligomer. In conclusion, we provide evidence that BMP-2 induces expression of versican and HA by AV CMCs and that these ECM components contribute to BMP-2-induced CMC migration, indicating critical roles for BMP-2 in distal outgrowth/expansion of mesenchymalized AV cushions.

  9. Apolipoprotein A-V interaction with members of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Stefan K; Lookene, Aivar; Beckstead, Jennifer A;

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-V is a potent modulator of plasma triacylglycerol levels. To investigate the molecular basis for this phenomenon we explored the ability of apolipoprotein A-V, in most experiments complexed to disks of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, to interact with two members of the low densit...... to receptor-covered sensor chips. Our results indicate that apolipoprotein A-V may influence plasma lipid homeostasis by enhancing receptor-mediated endocytosis of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-27......Apolipoprotein A-V is a potent modulator of plasma triacylglycerol levels. To investigate the molecular basis for this phenomenon we explored the ability of apolipoprotein A-V, in most experiments complexed to disks of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, to interact with two members of the low density...... lipoprotein receptor family, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and the mosaic type-1 receptor, SorLA. Experiments using surface plasmon resonance showed specific binding of both free and lipid-bound apolipoprotein A-V to both receptors. The binding was calcium dependent and was inhibited...

  10. Dementia care mapping – en mulig metode for utvikling av demensomsorg i sykehjem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Mork Rokstad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen omhandler en studie av Dementia Care Mapping (DCM anvendt i et norsk sykehjem. Hensikten med studien var å undersøke om det skjer et perspektivskifte i personalgruppen ved bruk av DCM-metoden, og om dette får konsekvenser for praksis. I studien inngikk fokusgruppeintervju med personalet i sykehjemsavdelingen. Bakgrunnsopplysningene som sykepleierne reflekterte over, var kartlegging av trivsel og velvære hos pasientene innsamlet gjennom DCM-metoden, og meldt tilbake til personalet. Personalet opplevde at tilbakemeldingene førte til økt bevissthet i samhandling med pasientene. Ifølge deres utsagn medførte prosjektet flere konkrete endringer i måten de møtte pasientene på. Kartleggingen foretatt etter tre måneder viste større grad av trivsel og velvære i pasientgruppen. Dette peker i retning av at DCM kan være en nyttig metode for kvalitetsutvikling av demensomsorgen i sykehjem. Det er imidlertid behov for videre forskning med et strammere design og et større utvalg for å bekrefte funnene.

  11. ADVANCED VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (RIC AVS) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Powell; M. Reich

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this AVS testing program is to use bench-scale test equipment to produce a vitrified product at maximum waste loading from the specified AZ-101 waste simulant and conduct a TTT analysis using laboratory scale melts to show compliance with the DOE Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS). The vitrified product complies with the following WAPS. A borosilicate glass with a waste loading of 60.9-wt% was produced from a slurry feed of AZ101 simulant. Glass durability testing, glass characterization testing, and testing methodology were performed in accordance with the Department of Energy approved Test Plan. The glass has two crystalline phases and good uniformity of composition. The Product Consistency Test on the 6 location-specific samples are at least 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below the mean PCT results for the EA glass. Standard deviations were less than 10% of measured values. The glass transition temperature averaged 658 {+-} 9 C. A TTT diagram was produced. There was measured cesium loss of about 2%, and compliance with the Universal Treatment Standards.

  12. Eye-tracking studie av vektoranalys på LTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ögren, Magnus; Nyström, Marcus

    detaljerad inblick i hur studenterna tänkte medan de löste problemet. Vi använder modern eye-tracking teknik för att mäta hur LTH-studenters visuella uppmärksamhet fördelar sig mellan texter, matematiska formler och figurer när de löser problem inom vektoranalys. Genom att filma studenters ögonrörelser med...... en höghastighetskamera ger eye-tracking data information om var man tittar med väldigt hög spatial och temporal upplösning. Detta gör att man kan följa lösningsprocessen millisekund för millisekund från problempresentation till svar. Med eye-tracking kan man alltså skilja på process och produkt....... Vektoranalys är ett mycket visuellt ämne där matematiska formler ofta har en konkret grafisk tolkning. Detta gör vektoranalysen till ett speciellt lämpligt ämne att studera med eye-tracking teknologin, då försökspersonens byte av fokus mellan formler och figurer kan utvärderas. Vi kommer att presentera...

  13. Eye-tracking studie av vektoranalys på LTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ögren, Magnus; Nyström, Marcus

    detaljerad inblick i hur studenterna tänkte medan de löste problemet. Vi använder modern eye-tracking teknik för att mäta hur LTH-studenters visuella uppmärksamhet fördelar sig mellan texter, matematiska formler och figurer när de löser problem inom vektoranalys. Genom att filma studenters ögonrörelser med...... en höghastighetskamera ger eye-tracking data information om var man tittar med väldigt hög spatial och temporal upplösning. Detta gör att man kan följa lösningsprocessen millisekund för millisekund från problempresentation till svar. Med eye-tracking kan man alltså skilja på process och produkt....... Vektoranalys är ett mycket visuellt ämne där matematiska formler ofta har en konkret grafisk tolkning. Detta gör vektoranalysen till ett speciellt lämpligt ämne att studera med eye-tracking teknologin, då försökspersonens byte av fokus mellan formler och figurer kan utvärderas. Vi kommer att presentera...

  14. Whether noninvasive optimization of AV and VV delays improves the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Bożena; Chudzik, Michał; Klimczak, Artur; Rosiak, Marcin; Lewek, Joanna; Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Device optimization is not routinely performed in patients who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implantation. Noninvasive optimization of CRT devices by measurement of cardiac output (CO) can be used as a simple method to assess ventricular systolic performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether optimization of atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) delay can improve hemodynamic response to CRT and whether this optimization should be performed for each patient individually. Twenty patients with advanced heart failure New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% and left bundle branch block (QRS ≥ 120 ms) in sinus rhythm were evaluated from 24 h to 48 h after implantation of a CRT device by means of impedance cardiography (ICG). CO was first measured at each patient's intrinsic rhythm. Patients then underwent adjustments of AV and VV delay from 80 ms to 140 ms and from -60 ms to +60 ms, respectively in 20 ms increment steps and CO at each setting was measured by ICG. Both AV and VV delays were programmed according to the greatest improvement in CO compared to intrinsic rhythm. There was a statistically signifi cant increase in CO measured at the intrinsic rhythm compared to different AV delay by mean of 21% (3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 4.6 ± 0.1 L/min, p AV/VV delays with left ventricle-preexcitation or simultaneous biventricular pacing caused additional increased CO from intrinsic rhythm by mean of 32.6% (3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 5.04 ± ± 1.0 L/min, p AV/VV setting delays also resulted in improved hemodynamic responses compared to VV factory setting delay. Both AV and VV delay optimization should be performed in clinical practice. Optimal AV delay improved outcome. However, combination of optimized AV/VV delays provided the best hemodynamic response. Optimized AV/VV delays with left ventricle-preexcitation or simultaneous biventricular pacing increased hemodynamic output compared to intrinsic

  15. Universell utforming og den vanskelige avgrensingen av «alle»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Christian Risan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Universell utforming er et prinsipp hvor målsetningen er at «utforming av produkter og omgivelser [skal skje] på en slik måte at de kan brukes av alle mennesker, i så stor utstrekning som mulig, uten behov for tilpassing og en spesiell utforming.» (Aslaksen mfl, 1997, den første norske definisjonen I løpet av de siste 15 årene har dette prinsippet blitt fremmet i Norge som et utvetydig fremskritt. Det kan imidlertid være farlig å tro at en ren teknisk løsning kan bygge bro over politiske kontroverser (Imrie 2012, og i denne artikkelen vil vi vise hvordan viktige ideologiske premisser er skjult under paraplyen om universalitet. Vårt empiriske felt er norsk boligpolitikk fra etterkrigstiden og fram til i dag. Innenfor dette feltet ser vi at det har vært argumentert for ulike versjoner av «universell utforming» de siste 40 årene, selv om navnet «universell utforming» er av nyere dato. Vi vil vise hvordan prinsippet har endret seg fra å ha et sosialdemokratisk innhold – før det ble omdøpt til «universell utforming» – for å bli inkorporert i et nyliberalt boligpolitisk paradigme de siste 15 årene. De sosialdemokratiske forgjengerne til «universell utforming» ble til dels formulert som videreutviklinger av en boligpolitikk for sosial rettferdighet og økonomisk likhet. Med innføringen av begrepet «universell utforming» har denne brede sosiale rammen forsvunnet, men under dekke av universalitet og entydig framskrittsoptimisme har denne politiske endringen blitt underkommunisert.[i] [i] Prosjektet er finansiert av Husbanken. Prosjektmedarbeiderne har bestått av NIBR-forskerne Erik Henningsen, Siri Nørve og Lars Risan. Underveis har disse forskerne intervjuet og snakket med en rekke personer innenfor feltene funksjonshemming- og boligpolitikk. Vi takker også Jon Guttu, Olav Rand Bringa, Tore Lange for mange konstruktive innspill. 

  16. Frequency-dependent electrophysiological remodeling of the AV node by hydroalcohol extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) during experimental atrial fibrillation: the role of endogenous nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khori, Vahid; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Yazdi, Hamidreza; Rakhshan, Elnaz; Mirabbasi, Abbas; Changizi, Shima; Mazandarani, Masumeh; Nayebpour, Mohsen

    2012-06-01

    The study assessed the hydroalcohol extract effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on (i) the basic and rate-dependent electrophysiological properties of the AV node, (ii) remodeling of the AV node during experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) and (iii) the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the effects of saffron on the AV node. Stimulation protocols in isolated AV node were used to quantify AV nodal recovery, facilitation and fatigue in four groups of rabbits (n = 8-16 per group). In addition, the nodal response to AF was evaluated at multiple cycle lengths and during AF. Saffron had a depressant effect on AV nodal rate-dependent properties; further, it increased Wenckebach block cycle length, functional refractory period, facilitation and fatigue (p AV node (p AV node during AF by saffron. Saffron increased the AV nodal refractoriness and zone of concealment. These depressant effects of saffron were mediated by endogenous NO. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. 阿弗菌素链霉菌突变株AV-m-481发酵产物的研究%Fermentation Products of AV-m-481, A Mutant Strain of Streptomyces avermitilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶少兵; 冯军; 赵文杰; 程晴华; 林纲

    2003-01-01

    高产菌株Streptomyces avermitilis AV-h-169用亚硝基胍进行处理后得到了一不产阿弗菌素的突变株AV-m-481,从该突变株的发酵产物中分离纯化出化合物AV-L-1和AV-L-2.质谱和核磁共振谱等测定表明它们分别为阿弗菌素A1a和A2a的糖苷配基.

  18. Flåtten Ixodes ricinus som sykdomsvektor i Sør-Norge. Etablering og utvikling av PCR-baserte påvisningsmetoder og påvisning av Babesia, Borrelia og Anaplasma

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    NORSK SAMMENDRAG: Hensikten med denne undersøkelsen var å undersøke flåtten Ixodes ricinus som smittebærer av Ehrlichia/ Anaplasma, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lata og Babesia i Sør-Norge, og å etablere DNA-basert metode for påvisning av Babesia og forbedre metode for påvisning av Ehrlichia/ Anaplasma. For å kontrollere variasjon i følsomheten av Ehrlichia/ Anaplasma PCR med 16s rDNA primere Ehr 521/747, ble en internkontroll konstruert. Internkontrollen er et DNA-fragment so...

  19. A Practical ECG Criterion to Unmask Left Accessory AV Connections in Patients With Subtle Preexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Jenkins; Shah, Jignesh; Charnigo, Richard; Tackett, Andrea; Darrat, Yousef H; Bailey, Alison; Delisle, Brian; Kakavand, Bahram; DI Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Morales, Gustavo; Elayi, Claude S

    2015-05-20

    Accessory AV-connections capable of antegrade conduction need to be recognized because of the potential for life-threatening arrhythmias. However, the preexcited ECG pattern may be subtle, especially among left-sided AV-connections. We explored whether additional ECG criteria might help identify left-sided AV-connections. We analyzed 156 patients who underwent an electrophysiology study (EPS) and ablation for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias (PSVT). Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with left-sided AV-connections (Group 1) and all other PSVT (Group 2). Various ECG parameters were compared before and after ablation in both groups. The EPS identified left-sided AV-connections among 43 patients (Group 1) and excluded it among 113 (Group 2). Baseline ECG in Group 1 demonstrated obvious preexcitation among 24/43 patients (55.8%), the remaining 19/43 missing obvious preexcitation. R/S ratio > 0.5 in V1 was noted in 38/43 (88.4%) patients in Group 1 before ablation (median 1.00; IQR 0.58-2.20), including 16/19 (84.2%) patients lacking obvious left-sided AVconnections. Conversely, only 10/113 (8.8%) patients in Group 2 had R/S ratios in V1 ≥ 0.5 (0.20; 0.10-0.31), P AV-connections (sensitivity 93.0%). The negative predictive value of this combined criterion was 103/106 (97.2%). In symptomatic patients, combining the R/S ratio (≥ 0.5) in lead V1 with the classic preexcitation pattern on ECG markedly improved the sensitivity to diagnose left-sided AV-connections. This ratio may be particularly useful among patients lacking obvious preexcitation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A novel curve fitting method for AV optimisation of biventricular pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Jones, Siana; Sohaib, S M Afzal; Finegold, Judith A; Siggers, Jennifer H; Stegemann, Berthold; Whinnett, Zachary I; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we designed and tested a new algorithm, which we call the 'restricted parabola', to identify the optimum atrioventricular (AV) delay in patients with biventricular pacemakers. This algorithm automatically restricts the hemodynamic data used for curve fitting to the parabolic zone in order to avoid inadvertently selecting an AV optimum that is too long.We used R, a programming language and software environment for statistical computing, to create an algorithm which applies multiple different cut-offs to partition curve fitting of a dataset into a parabolic and a plateau region and then selects the best cut-off using a least squares method. In 82 patients, AV delay was adjusted and beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured non-invasively using our multiple-repetition protocol. The novel algorithm was compared to fitting a parabola across the whole dataset to identify how many patients had a plateau region, and whether a higher hemodynamic response was achieved with one method.In 9/82 patients, the restricted parabola algorithm detected that the pattern was not parabolic at longer AV delays. For these patients, the optimal AV delay predicted by the restricted parabola algorithm increased SBP by 1.36 mmHg above that predicted by the conventional parabolic algorithm (95% confidence interval: 0.65 to 2.07 mmHg, p-value = 0.002).AV optima selected using our novel restricted parabola algorithm give a greater improvement in acute hemodynamics than fitting a parabola across all tested AV delays. Such an algorithm may assist the development of automated methods for biventricular pacemaker optimisation.

  1. Increased basal ganglia binding of (18) F-AV-1451 in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruben; Schain, Martin; Nilsson, Christer; Strandberg, Olof; Olsson, Tomas; Hägerström, Douglas; Jögi, Jonas; Borroni, Edilio; Schöll, Michael; Honer, Michael; Hansson, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is difficult to diagnose accurately. The recently developed tau PET tracers may improve the diagnostic work-up of PSP. Regional tau accumulation was studied using (18) F-AV-1451 PET in 11 patients with PSP and 11 age-matched healthy controls in the Swedish BioFinder study. (18) F-AV-1451 standard uptake volume ratios were significantly higher in the basal ganglia in PSP patients when compared with controls (globus pallidus 1.75 vs 1.50; putamen 1.51 vs 1.35). Retention in the basal ganglia was correlated with age in both groups (r = .43-.78, P AV-1451 retention was observed in the cerebral cortex or white matter of either PSP patients or controls, and autoradiography did not reveal any specific binding of AV-1451 to PSP tau aggregates. We found higher (18) F-AV-1451 retention in the basal ganglia of PSP patients when compared with healthy elderly controls, but also increases with age in both controls and patients. As a result of the overlap in retention between diagnostic groups and the age-dependent increase present also in controls, (18) F-AV-1451 PET might not reliably distinguish individual patients with PSP from controls. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether (18) F-AV-1451 PET might be useful as a progression marker in clinical PSP trials. © The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Integrated rate-dependent and dual pathway AV nodal functions: principles and assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billette, Jacques; Tadros, Rafik

    2014-01-15

    The atrioventricular (AV) node conducts slowly and has a long refractory period. These features sustain the filtering of atrial impulses and hence are often modulated to optimize ventricular rate during supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The AV node is also the site of a clinically common reentrant arrhythmia. Its function is assessed for a variety of purposes from its responses to a premature protocol (S1S2, test beats introduced at different cycle lengths) repeatedly performed at different basic rates and/or to an incremental pacing protocol (increasingly faster rates). Puzzlingly, resulting data and interpretation differ with protocols as well as with chosen recovery and refractory indexes, and are further complicated by the presence of built-in fast and slow pathways. This problem applies to endocavitary investigations of arrhythmias as well as to many experimental functional studies. This review supports an integrated framework of rate-dependent and dual pathway AV nodal function that can account for these puzzling characteristics. The framework was established from AV nodal responses to S1S2S3 protocols that, compared with standard S1S2 protocols, allow for an orderly quantitative dissociation of the different factors involved in changes in AV nodal conduction and refractory indexes under rate-dependent and dual pathway function. Although largely based on data from experimental studies, the proposed framework may well apply to the human AV node. In conclusion, the rate-dependent and dual pathway properties of the AV node can be integrated within a common functional framework the contribution of which to individual responses can be quantitatively determined with properly designed protocols and analytic tools.

  3. Left-sided approach of AV junction ablation for drug refractory atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Yuniadi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available AV junction ablation has been proven effective to treat symptomatic atrial fibrillation refractory to antiarrhythmias or fail of pulmonary vein isolation. However, about 15% of conventional right-sided approach AV junction ablation failed to produce complete heart block. This study aimed to characterize His bundle potential at ablation site during conventional or left-sided approach of AV junction ablation. Twenty symptomatic AF patient (age of 60.5 ± 9.28 and 11 are females underwent conventional AV junction ablation. If 10 applications of radiofrequency energy are failed, then the ablation was performed by left-sided approach. Seventeen patients are successfully ablated by conventional approach. In 3 patients, conventional was failed but successfully ablated by left-sided approach. The His bundle amplitude at ablation site was significantly larger in left-sided than correspondence right-sided (16.0 ± 4.99 mm vs. 6.9 ± 4.02 mm respectively, p = 0.001, 95% CI -14.0 to -4.3. ROC analysis of His bundle potential amplitude recorded from right-sided revealed that cut off point of > 4.87 mm given the sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 53.8% for successful right-sided approach of AV junction ablation. In case of failed conventional approach, the left-sided approach is effective for AV junction ablation. An early switch to the left-sided approach may avoid multiple RF applications in patients with a low amplitude His-bundle potential (< 4.87 mm. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:109-14Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, AV junction ablation, left-sided approach

  4. Mygg och Bti i nedre Dalälven : Utvärdering av ett vetenskapligt uppföljningsprogram

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Christer; Malm-Renöfält, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    Denna rapport redovisar uppdraget att granska den vetenskapliga uppföljningen avmyggkontrollprogrammet i nedre Dalälven. Rapporten beskriver hur frågorna iuppföljningsprogrammet besvarats samt diskuterar relevansen av de frågor somingått i uppdraget. Det konstateras att den vetenskapliga uppföljningen av eventuellaeffekter av spridning av Bti brustit i försöksdesign och analys. Det insamladematerialet ger inte underlag för de slutsatser som dragits. De frågor som ingått iuppdraget har därmed ...

  5. Videodokumentasjon ved gjennomføring av praktisk eksamen i sykepleie - hvordan kan dette forbedre studentens praksiske ferdigheter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjertrud Husøy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hensikten med studiet var å belyse hvordan videodokumentasjon av praktiske handlinger i sykepleie kunne brukes som evalueringordning av studenter. Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i et forskningsprosjekt for utprøving av nye lærings og evalueringsformer i bachelorutdanningen i sykepleie, der 13 studentgrupper gjennomførte sin praktiske eksamen ved innlevering av video av 16 utvalgte øvelser. Tradisjonell praktisk eksamen i samme studentkull ble gjennomført for 10 studentgrupper. Prosjektet er en kvalitativ kasusstudie og analyse er gjort etter inspirasjon av Giorgi‘s empiriske fenomenologi. Diskusjonen tar utgangspunkt i Vygotsky‘s sosiokulturelle syn på læring og Dewey‘s prinsipp om at all læring er basert på erfaring. Funnene er presentert i følgende deler: Første del omhandler videodokumentasjon og refleksjon. De to neste delene viser funn i forhold til mesterlæring og situert læring på vei mot forståelse av hva sykepleie er. Deretter er teknisk utfordringer belyst, og til slutt en drøfting av forhold ved oppøving av praktiske sykepleieferdigheter. Konklusjonen her er at video egner seg til å dokumentere sykepleiehandlinger. Dette har størst verdi for læring og refleksjon, i mindre grad som eksamensform.

  6. Vannkjemisk og økologisk tilstand i sidevassdrag til Orkla. - Undersøkelser av vannkvalitet, bunndyr, yngel-/ungfisk og hydromorfologiske påvirkninger

    OpenAIRE

    Bergan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Det er foretatt vannkjemiske og biologiske undersøkelser i tilsammen 12 vannforekomster i Vannområde Orkla høsten 2010. Vannforekomstene er typifisert på bakgrunn av kalsiuminnhold og fargetall i henhold til ny vannforskrift. Det er foretatt en klassifisering og vurdering av vannkjemisk tilstand på bakgrunn av punktprøvenes innhold av fosfor, nitrogen, KOF og TKB. Økologisk tilstand er klassifisert ved bruk av bunndyr som kvalitetselement i 10 vannforekomster, der 9 av 10 har en tilstand som ...

  7. Hvor moralsk tenker fotballspillere? – en empirisk studie av toppfotball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tore Ødegård

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Det er en utbredt oppfatning at det økende prestasjonskravet i toppfotball fører til en svekkelse av moral og fair play-holdninger. Men hvordan tenker toppfotballspillere i forhold til ulike dilemmaer som oppstår på banen, og er det forskjeller mellom toppfotballspillere og spillere på lavere nivå?  For å avklare dette gjennomførte vi en empirisk undersøkelse der vi intervjuet spillere og trener i én toppklubb og én breddeklubb. Vi var interessert i to hovedproblemstillinger:  1 Hva tenker fotballspillere på ulike prestasjonsnivå om etikk og moralske dilemmaer i fotball? 2 Hvilke faktorer påvirker spillerne, direkte og indirekte, i deres vurderinger og handlinger? Resultatene fra undersøkelsen viser at det er store forskjeller mellom de to prestasjonsnivåene. Spillerne på breddenivået føler generelt et større ansvar for å opptre ærlig på banen enn hva som er tilfelle på toppnivået. Vi fant 4 spesifikke faktorer i toppfotballen som bidrar til umoralsk opptreden. For det første opplever spillerne en forventning om at de prioriterer resultat foran fair play. For det andre bidrar tilstedeværelsen av supportere på kamper til en slik prioritering. For det tredje vil handlinger som er i strid med fair play signaliseres som akseptable internt i miljøet, selv om de ofte signaliseres som uakseptable overfor media og omverdenen. For det fjerde kan spillere oppleve det som vanskelig å gå i mot trenerens oppfordringer til en pragmatisk og resultatfokusert opptreden.Nøkkelord: moral, etikk, fair play, footballEnglish summary: How morally do football players think? – an empirical study of moral dilemmas in elite footballIt is a common view that the increasing focus on achievement and success in elite football leads to a weakening of moral and fair play attitudes. But how do elite players think and what do they think about different dilemmas that appear on the field, and is there a difference between elite players and lower

  8. 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Luca; Vázquez Rodríguez, Patricia; Hong, Young T; Allinson, Kieren S J; Williamson, David; Borchert, Robin J; Sami, Saber; Cope, Thomas E; Bevan-Jones, W Richard; Jones, P Simon; Arnold, Robert; Surendranathan, Ajenthan; Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Fryer, Tim D; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; O'Brien, John T; Rowe, James B

    2017-03-01

    The ability to assess the distribution and extent of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy in vivo would help to develop biomarkers for these tauopathies and clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies. New radioligands for positron emission tomography have generated considerable interest, and controversy, in their potential as tau biomarkers. We assessed the radiotracer 18F-AV-1451 with positron emission tomography imaging to compare the distribution and intensity of tau pathology in 15 patients with Alzheimer's pathology (including amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment), 19 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Regional analysis of variance and a support vector machine were used to compare and discriminate the clinical groups, respectively. We also examined the 18F-AV-1451 autoradiographic binding in post-mortem tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and a control case to assess the 18F-AV-1451 binding specificity to Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's tau pathology. There was increased 18F-AV-1451 binding in multiple regions in living patients with Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy relative to controls [main effect of group, F(2,41) = 17.5, P AV-1451 binding was significantly increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease, relative to patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and with control subjects, in the hippocampus and in occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal cortices (t's > 2.2, P's AV-1451 binding was elevated in the midbrain (t = 2.1, P AV-1451 uptake in the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, midbrain, and in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum (t's > 2.7, P's AV-1451 strongly bound to Alzheimer-related tau pathology, but less specifically in progressive supranuclear palsy. 18F-AV-1451 binding to the basal ganglia was strong in all groups in vivo. Postmortem histochemical staining showed absence of

  9. Kjøring med mistanke om påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørg S. Christophersen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGStatens rettstoksikologiske institutt har i løpet av de siste år registrert en stor økning av prøver fra bilføreremistenkt for kjøring under påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol. Antall positive saker økte 42% fra1994 til 1995. De hyppigste påviste stoffer er tetrahydrocannabinol, amfetamin, benzodiazepiner og opiater(morfin/kodein. Bruk av tyngre narkotiske stoffer har blitt mer vanlig i trafikksammenheng og antall positivetilfeller har økt betydelig mer enn totalt antall saker. Fra 1994 til 1995 økte antall positive amfetaminprøvermed 75% (fra 533 til 937 og antall positive prøver som følge av heroininntak økte med 87% (fra 92 til 172.Bruk av flere stoffer samtidig er vanlig, over 60 % av sakene i 1995 var positive på mer enn ett stoff, alkoholikke medregnet. De fleste tilfeller var representert av menn i alderen 25-32 år (37%. Kvinner var representerti ca. 11% av sakene.Christophersen AS, Skurtveit S, Mørland J. Drivers suspected to drive under the influence of drugs otherthan alcohol. Nor J Epidemiol 1996; 6 (1: 45-48.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe National Institute of Forensic Toxicology has registered a large increase in the number of samples fromdrivers suspected to drive under influence of drugs other than alcohol. The number of drug positive casesincreased 42% from 1994 to 1995. The most frequent drugs detected are tetrahydrocannabinol, amphetamine,benzodiazepines and opiates (morphine/codeine. The frequency of hard narcotic drug use has increased morethan the total number of cases. From 1994 to 1995, the number of amphetamine positive samples increased75% (from 533 to 937 and the number of samples positive due to heroin use (detection of the metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine in urine increased 87%. Multi-drug use is common and more than one drug wasdetected in more than 60% of the cases from 1995, alcohol not included. Most of the cases were representedby men 25-32 years old (37%. Women were represented in about

  10. Vorticity-divergence semi-Lagrangian global atmospheric model SL-AV20: dynamical core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstykh, Mikhail; Shashkin, Vladimir; Fadeev, Rostislav; Goyman, Gordey

    2017-05-01

    SL-AV (semi-Lagrangian, based on the absolute vorticity equation) is a global hydrostatic atmospheric model. Its latest version, SL-AV20, provides global operational medium-range weather forecast with 20 km resolution over Russia. The lower-resolution configurations of SL-AV20 are being tested for seasonal prediction and climate modeling. The article presents the model dynamical core. Its main features are a vorticity-divergence formulation at the unstaggered grid, high-order finite-difference approximations, semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit discretization and the reduced latitude-longitude grid with variable resolution in latitude. The accuracy of SL-AV20 numerical solutions using a reduced lat-lon grid and the variable resolution in latitude is tested with two idealized test cases. Accuracy and stability of SL-AV20 in the presence of the orography forcing are tested using the mountain-induced Rossby wave test case. The results of all three tests are in good agreement with other published model solutions. It is shown that the use of the reduced grid does not significantly affect the accuracy up to the 25 % reduction in the number of grid points with respect to the regular grid. Variable resolution in latitude allows us to improve the accuracy of a solution in the region of interest.

  11. An av-RGD integrin inhibitor toolbox: drug discovery insight, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatley, Richard; Macdonald, Simon; Slack, Robert; Le, Joelle; Ludbrook, Steve; Lukey, Pauline

    2017-09-25

    There is a requirement for efficacious and safe medicines to treat diseases with high unmet need. The resurgence in av RGD integrin inhibitor drug discovery is poised to contribute to this requirement. However, drug discovery in the av integrin space is notoriously difficult due to the receptors being structurally very similar as well as the polar zwitterionic nature of the pharmacophore. This review aims to guide drug discovery research in this field through an av inhibitor toolbox, consisting of small molecules and antibodies. Small molecule av tool compounds with extended profiles in avb1, 3, 5, 6 and 8 cell adhesion assays, with key physicochemical properties, have been collated to assist in the selection of the right tool for the right experiment. This should also facilitate an understanding of partial selectivity profiles of compounds generated in different assays across research institutions. Prospects for further av integrin research and the critical importance of target validation are discussed, where increased knowledge of the selectivity for individual RGD v integrins is key. Insights into the design of small molecule RGD chemotypes for topical or oral administration are provided and clinical findings on advanced molecules are examined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Electrocardiographic and chronobiological features of paroxysmal AV block recorded by ambulatory electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ken; Takeda, Shiho; Saito, Yuko; Kawamura, Mami; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Yano, Hayato; Sata, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the electrocardiographic and chronobio-logical features of paroxysmal atrioventricular (AV) block (PAVB) using data from ambulatory electrocardiography (AECG). The study population consisted of five men and six women aged from 47 to 82 years of age. Main presenting symptoms were pre-syncope in five patients (45.5%) and syncope in three patients (27.3%). Organic cardiovascular diseases were seen in eight patients (72.7%), and AV conduction disturbances were seen in six patients (54.5%), such as right bundle branch block, first to second degree AV block on standard 12-lead electrocardiography. Incidence of PAVB events were 1-329 (37.9 ± 98.0) episodes/patient/day, and the maximum pause during Holter recordings was 3.3-12.4 (6.39 ± 3.09) seconds. This maximum pause caused by intrinsic AV block was longer than that of vagally mediated AV block (8.4 ± 3.2 sec vs 4.7 ± 1.0 sec, p<0.05). In chronobiological analysis, episodes of PAVB exhibited a circadian rhythm characterized by a peak between 2:00 am and 4:00 am and a trough between 0:00 pm and 2:00 pm. AECG is a useful tool to detect the maximum pause occurring during sleep and provides critical data necessary to prevent the sudden cardiac death caused by PAVB.

  13. sugE: A gene involved in tributyltin (TBT) resistance of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Micaelo, Nuno; Félix, Vitor; Song, Jun-Young; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial resistance to tributyltin (TBT) is still unclear. The results herein presented contribute to clarify that mechanism in the TBT-resistant bacterium Aeromonas molluscorum Av27. We have identified and cloned a new gene that is involved in TBT resistance in this strain. The gene is highly homologous (84%) to the Aeromonas hydrophila-sugE gene belonging to the small multidrug resistance gene family (SMR), which includes genes involved in the transport of lipophilic drugs. In Av27, expression of the Av27-sugE was observed at the early logarithmic growth phase in the presence of a high TBT concentration (500 μM), thus suggesting the contribution of this gene for TBT resistance. E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to ethidium bromide (EtBr), chloramphenicol (CP) and tetracycline (TE), besides TBT. According to the Moriguchi logP (miLogP) values, EtBr, CP and TE have similar properties and are substrates for the sugE-efflux system. Despite the different miLogP of TBT, E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to this compound. So it seems that TBT is also a substrate for the SugE protein. The modelling studies performed also support this hypothesis. The data herein presented clearly indicate that sugE is involved in TBT resistance of this bacterium.

  14. Gjenstand for saksbehandling og verdi som dokumentasjon – analyse av journalføringskriteriene i arkivforskriften

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Nesland

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen handler om hvordan journalføringskriteriene «gjenstand for saksbehandling» og «verdi som dokumentasjon» er ment å skulle forstås, basert på hvordan kriteriene er omtalt og definert i eksisterende teori og litteratur.Artikkelen viser at det ikke eksisterer en omforent forståelse av kriterienes innhold, det vil si at kriteriene er tillagt ulik betydning i ulike tekster. Det har tegnet seg et bilde av at de relativt få tekstene som faktisk inneholder beskrivelser av journalføringskriteriene og begrepene kriteriene er bygget opp av, i hovedsak nærmer seg kriteriene enten på en dialektisk-relasjonell eller på en semiotisk-relasjonell måte, hvilket gir to tilsynelatende ulike tolkningsresultater. Det foreligger med andre ord en viss tolkningsmotstrid, hvilket nødvendigvis innebærer at det fortsatt er vanskelig å svare entydig på spørsmålet om hvordan journalføringskriteriene er ment å skulle forstås, og samtidig gir grunn til kritikk av det etablerte systemet.

  15. Context-Aware UPnP-AV Services for Adaptive Home Multimedia Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Tusch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One possibility to provide mobile multimedia in domestic multimedia systems is the use of Universal Plug and Play Audio Visual (UPnP-AV devices. In a standard UPnP-AV scenario, multimedia content provided by a Media Server device is streamed to Media Renderer devices by the initiation of a Control Point. However, there is no provisioning of context-aware multimedia content customization. This paper presents an enhancement of standard UPnP-AV services for home multimedia environments regarding context awareness. It comes up with context profile definitions, shows how this context information can be queried from the Media Renderers, and illustrates how a Control Point can use this information to tailor a media stream from the Media Server to one or more Media Renderers. Moreover, since a standard Control Point implementation only queries one Media Server at a time, there is no global view on the content of all Media Servers in the UPnP-AV network. This paper also presents an approach of multimedia content integration on the Media Server side that provides fast search for content on the network. Finally, a number of performance measurements show the overhead costs of our enhancements to UPnP-AV in order to achieve the benefits.

  16. Brain uptake of a non-radioactive pseudo-carrier and its effect on the biodistribution of [(18)F]AV-133 in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianying; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Shuxian; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Aifang; Han, Jie; Zhu, Lin; Kung, Hank F; Qiao, Jinping

    2015-07-01

    9-[(18)F]Fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([(18)F]AV-133) is a new PET imaging agent targeting vesicular monoamine transporter type II (VMAT2). To shorten the preparation of [(18)F]AV-133 and to make it more widely available, a simple and rapid purification method using solid-phase extraction (SPE) instead of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The SPE method produced doses containing the non-radioactive pseudo-carrier 9-hydroxypropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (AV-149). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the brain uptake of AV-149 by UPLC-MS/MS and its effect on the biodistribution of [(18)F]AV-133 in the brains of mice. The mice were injected with a bolus including [(18)F]AV-133 and different doses of AV-149. Brain tissue and blood samples were harvested. The effect of different amounts of AV-149 on [(18)F]AV-133 was evaluated by quantifying the brain distribution of radiolabelled tracer [(18)F]AV-133. The concentrations of AV-149 in the brain and plasma were analyzed using a UPLC-MS/MS method. The concentrations of AV-149 in the brain and plasma exhibited a good linear relationship with the doses. The receptor occupancy curve was fit, and the calculated ED50 value was 8.165mg/kg. The brain biodistribution and regional selectivity of [(18)F]AV-133 had no obvious differences at AV-149 doses lower than 0.1mg/kg. With increasing doses of AV-149, the brain biodistribution of [(18)F]AV-133 changed significantly. The results are important to further support that the improved radiolabelling procedure of [(18)F]AV-133 using an SPE method may be suitable for routine clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Unusual Resistance of Avian Defensin AvBD7 to Proteolytic Enzymes Preserves Its Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Geoffrey; Kravtzoff, Amanda; Joulin-Giet, Alix; Lecaille, Fabien; Labas, Valérie; Meudal, Hervé; Loth, Karine; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Gilbert, Florence B.; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Brömme, Dieter; Schouler, Catherine; Landon, Céline; Lalmanach, Gilles; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Defensins are frontline peptides of mucosal immunity in the animal kingdom, including birds. Their resistance to proteolysis and their ensuing ability to maintain antimicrobial potential remains questionable and was therefore investigated. We have shown by bottom-up mass spectrometry analysis of protein extracts that both avian beta-defensins AvBD2 and AvBD7 were ubiquitously distributed along the chicken gut. Cathepsin B was found by immunoblotting in jejunum, ileum, caecum, and caecal tonsils, while cathepsins K, L, and S were merely identified in caecal tonsils. Hydrolysis product of AvBD2 and AvBD7 incubated with a panel of proteases was analysed by RP-HPLC, mass spectrometry and antimicrobial assays. AvBD2 and AvBD7 were resistant to serine proteases and to cathepsins D and H. Conversely cysteine cathepsins B, K, L, and S degraded AvBD2 and abolished its antibacterial activity. Only cathepsin K cleaved AvBD7 and released Ile4-AvBD7, a N-terminal truncated natural peptidoform of AvBD7 that displayed antibacterial activity. Besides the 3-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet typical of beta-defensins, structural analysis of AvBD7 by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy highlighted the restricted accessibility of the C-terminus embedded by the N-terminal region and gave a formal evidence of a salt bridge (Asp9-Arg12) that could account for proteolysis resistance. The differential susceptibility of avian defensins to proteolysis opens intriguing questions about a distinctive role in the mucosal immunity against pathogen invasion. PMID:27561012

  18. Open Source AV solution supporting In Situ Simulation and Clinical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Pociunas, Gintas; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    2015-01-01

    GintasView ver 1.3 includes the possibility for time tagging using a mobile device. After simulation the time tagged file is exported to the AV software on the laptop and appears as an integrated video feed/timeline. Conclusions We have found that it is possible to deliver multi-camera video assisted......In situ simulation is simulation done in the actual clinical environment exceeding the simulation immersion compared to that of the embedded simulation centers and facilitating an increased realistic learning experience. Doing this without compromising (all) the educational principals used...... in simulation centers, we sought to include an audio-visual (AV) system for video assisted debriefing (VAD). The difference being that components must be portable and adaptable to a range of clinical environments. A mobile AV system would ideally feature: • Multi camera video capture capability. • Time tagging...

  19. Kvinnans upplevelser under tredje trimestern av sin första graviditet

    OpenAIRE

    Oscarsson, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med studien var att nå en djupare förståelse i hur kvinnan upplever sin första graviditet. Det teoretiska perspektivet var Katie Erikssons ontologiska hälsomodell där ”hälsa som görande- varande-vardande” har används. Designen är kvalitativ och som metod har innehållsanalys används. Materialet består av fem böcker, där kvinnor skriver om sina upplevelser om graviditeten. Frågeställning: Hur upplever kvinnan slutskedet av sin första graviditet? Studien är deduktiv i av...

  20. Samling, sökning och visualisering av loggfiler från testenheter

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenqvist, Fredrik; Henriksson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Idag genererar företag stora mängder av loggfiler vilket gör det svårt att hitta och undersöka felmeddelanden i alla loggfiler. En loggsamlare med Logstash, Elasticsearch och Kibana som bas har implementerats hos Ericsson Linköping. Loggsamlarens syfte är att samla loggar från testenheter och möjliggöra sökning och visualisering av dem. En utvärdering av Elasticsearch har genomförts för att se i vilken grad söktiden för sökfrågor ökar med ökad datamängd. Utvärderingen gav en indikation om att...

  1. Utvärdering av arbetsmiljön på en träbränslemottagning : En studie om spridning av trämögelsporer

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson-Höök, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Karlstads Energi AB:s vågstation vid Hedenverket i Karlstad är en anläggning där invägning och analys av träbränsle utförs. Provtagning och hantering av träbränsle hör till de dagliga arbetsuppgifterna för personalen. Vid nära hantering av trämaterial finns risken att exponeras för trämögelsporer. Exponering av mikrobiologiska luftföroreningar kan orsaka hälsobesvär på lungor och luftvägar hos människor. Efter utförd riskbedömning av vågstationen noterades en oro att trämögelsporer och dammpa...

  2. Multinational evaluation of the interpretability of the iterative method of optimisation of AV delay for CRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Claire E; Kyriacou, Andreas; Jones, Siana; Pabari, Punam; Cole, Graham; Baruah, Resham; Hughes, Alun D; Francis, Darrel P

    2013-09-20

    AV delay optimisation of biventricular pacing devices (cardiac resynchronisation therapy, CRT) is performed in trials and recommended by current guidelines. The Doppler echocardiographic iterative method is the most commonly recommended. Yet whether it can be executed reliably has never been tested formally. 36 multinational specialists, familiar with using the echocardiographic iterative method of CRT optimisation, were shown 20-40 sets of transmitral Doppler traces at 6-8 AV settings and asked to select the optimal AV delay. Unknown to the specialists, some Doppler datasets appeared in duplicate, allowing assessment of both inter and intra-specialist interpretation. On the Kappa scale of agreement (1 = perfect agreement, 0 = chance alone), the agreement regarding optimal AV delay between specialists was poor (kappa=0.12 ± 0.08). More importantly, agreement of specialists with themselves (i.e. viewing identical sets of traces, twice) was also poor, with Kappa=0.23 ± 0.07 and mean absolute difference in optimum AV delay of 83 ms between first and second viewing of the same traces. Iterative AV optimisation is not executed reliably by experts, even in an artificially simplified context where biological variability and variation in image acquisition are eliminated by use of identical traces. This cannot be blamed on insufficient skills of some experts or discordant methods of selecting the optimum, because operators also showed poor agreement with themselves when assessing the same trace. Instead, guidelines should retract any recommendation for this algorithm. Guideline-development processes might usefully begin with a rudimentary check on proposed algorithms, to establish at least minimal credibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. AV-1451 tau and β-amyloid positron emission tomography imaging in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Kejal; Lowe, Val J; Boeve, Bradley F; Senjem, Matthew L; Tosakulwong, Nikki; Lesnick, Timothy G; Spychalla, Anthony J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Fields, Julie A; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Ferman, Tanis J; Jones, David T; Murray, Melissa E; Knopman, David S; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C

    2017-01-01

    Patients with probable dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) often have Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology. Our objective was to determine the pattern of positron emission tomography (PET) tau tracer AV-1451 uptake in patients with probable DLB, compared to AD, and its relationship to β-amyloid deposition on PET. Consecutive patients with clinically probable DLB (n = 19) from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center underwent magnetic resonance imaging, AV-1451, and Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB) PET examinations. Age- and sex-matched groups of AD dementia (n = 19) patients and clinically normal controls (n = 95) from an epidemiological cohort served as a comparison groups. Atlas- and voxel-based analyses were performed. The AD dementia group had significantly higher AV-1451 uptake than the probable DLB group, and medial temporal uptake completely distinguished AD dementia from probable DLB. Patients with probable DLB had greater AV-1451 uptake in the posterior temporoparietal and occipital cortex compared to clinically normal controls, and in probable DLB, the uptake in these regions correlated with global cortical PiB uptake (Spearman rho = 0.63; p = 0.006). Medial temporal lobe AV-1451 uptake distinguishes AD dementia from probable DLB, which may be useful for differential diagnosis. Elevated posterior temporoparietal and occipital AV-1451 uptake in probable DLB and its association with global cortical PiB uptake suggest an atypical pattern of tau deposition in DLB. ANN NEUROL 2017;81:58-67. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  4. Litterær kompetanse - portrett av tre lesarar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallvard Kjelen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen drøfter eit sentralt problemfelt innom litteraturdidaktikken, nemleg tilhøvet mellom litterær lesing som fagleg kompetanse og litterær lesing som oppleving. Problemfeltet er særleg knytt til Louise Rosenblatts arbeid. Ho viser ved hjelp av omgrepa efferent og estetisk lesing korleis det er ei utfordring for litteraturlæraren å utvikle ei litteraturundervisning som i tilstrekkeleg grad tek omsyn til kjensler og røynsler. I ein litteraturteoretisk kontekst er subjektive responsar på litterære tekstar irrelevante, men i ein litteraturdidaktisk kontekst er subjektive responsar høgst relevante. Denne artikkelen bidrar inn i diskusjon-en mellom anna ved å trekkje inn meir empirisk basert litteraturteori som referanseramme. Artikkelen presenterer tre lesarars litterære responsar, og viser korleis kunnskap om individuelle lesarresponsar kan vere utgangspunkt for ei litteraturundervisning som balanserer ei fagleg tilnærming til litteratur opp mot ei meir opplevingsbasert tilnærming.Emneord: Litteraturundervisning, litterær kompetanse, empirisk litteraturteori, lesarresponsAbstractThe article discusses a key issue in literature didactics, namely the relation between literary reading as an academic competence, and literary reading as an experience. The discussion draws heavily on Louise Rosenblatt’s work. By using the concepts efferent and aesthetic reading, she shows how it is a challenge for the teacher of literature to develop literature teaching that adequately takes emotions and experience into account. In a literature-theoretical context, subjective responses to literary texts are irrelevant; but in a didactics context, the subjective responses are highly relevant.  This article contributes to the discussion by bringing in a more empirically based literature theory as a frame of reference. The article presents three readers’ literary responses, and shows how knowledge of individual reader responses can be the basis for

  5. 77 FR 41400 - AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  6. Norsk pelsdyrhold – bærekraftig utvikling eller styrt avvikling? — Gjennomgang av pelsdyrnæringen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Anne Karin; Steine, Torstein; Tveito, Guri

    2014-01-01

    Utvalget for gjennomgang av pelsdyrnæringen i Norge ble oppnevnt ved kongelig resolusjon 4. oktober 2013. Utvalget gir med dette sin utredning.......Utvalget for gjennomgang av pelsdyrnæringen i Norge ble oppnevnt ved kongelig resolusjon 4. oktober 2013. Utvalget gir med dette sin utredning....

  7. Pseudobegivenheter i nyhetsmediene : Hvilke faktorer påvirker publiseringen av arrangerte PR-nyheter?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    I 1961 navngav den amerikanske kulturhistorikeren Daniel J. Boorstin et fenomen han kalte «pseudobegivenheter». Pseudobegivenheter er arrangerte begivenheter som først og fremst er tilrettelagt for mediedekning. Denne masteroppgavens tar for seg hvilke faktorer som påvirker publiseringen av slike arrangerte PR-nyheter i nyhetsmediene. De relevante faktorene ble funnet gjennom grundige undersøkelser av tre forskningsspørsmål med vekt på hvilke nyhetsverdier som har betydning for publiseringen,...

  8. Rate-adaptive AV delay and exercise performance following cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Nesan; Prada-Delgado, Oscar; Campos, Ana Garcia; Grimster, Alex; Valencia, Oswaldo; Baltabaeva, Aigul; Jones, Sue; Anderson, Lisa

    2012-11-01

    Physiological shortening of the atrioventricular (AV) interval with increasing heart rate is well documented in normal human beings and is an established component of dual-chamber pacing for bradycardia. To assess the effect of exercise on optimal AV delay and the impact of a patient-specific rate-adaptive AV delay (RAAVD) on exercise capacity in patients with heart failure following cardiac resynchronization therapy. Phase 1: We performed iterative AV optimization at rest and exercise in 52 cardiac resynchronization therapy patients in atrial-sensed mode (mean age 71.6 ± 9.2 years, 25% females). Phase 2: Subsequently, 20 consecutive volunteers from this group (mean age 69.2 ± 9.6 years, 15% females) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with RAAVD individually programmed ON (RAAVD-ON) or OFF (RAAVD-OFF). Phase 1: In 94% of the patients, there was a marked reduction (mean 50%) in optimal AV delay with exercise. The optimal resting vs exercise AV delay was 114.2 ± 29 ms at a heart rate of 64.4 ± 7.1 beats/min vs 57 ± 31 ms at a heart rate of 103 ± 13 beats/min (P AV delay with exercise, and 3 (6%) showed no change. Phase 2: With RAAVD-ON, significantly better exercise times were achieved (8.7 ± 3.2 minutes) compared with RAAVD-OFF (7.9 ± 3.2 minutes; P = .003), and there was a significant improvement in Vo(2)max (RAAVD-ON 16.1 ± 4.0 vs RAAVD-OFF 14.9 ± 3.7 mL/(kg · min); P = .024). There was a dramatic reduction in optimal AV delay with physiological exercise in the majority of this heart failure cardiac resynchronization therapy cohort. Replicating this physiological response with a programmable RAAVD translated into a 10% improvement in exercise capacity. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Framtagning av ny lyftytrystning för gasturbin SGT-600/700

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Emma

    2008-01-01

    I detta Examensarbete har en ny lyftutrustning till gasturbin SGT-600/700 olika moduler tagits fram. Examensarbetet har utförts på Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB i Finspång på avdelningen GPTP (leverans gasturbin teknik package installation). Målet med arbetet har varit att skapa en lyftutrustning som är mer flexibel än den befintliga lyftutrustningen och klarar samlyft (lyft med hjälp av två kranar). Arbetet har utförts med hjälp av olika metoder som QFD, funktionsmedel-träd och morpho...

  10. Betydningen av drektige reinsimlers ernæring for kalvers vekst, klimatiske toleranse og overlevelse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Rognmo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forsøkene (viste at tilleggsforing av underernærte simler i siste del av drektighetsperioden kun synes å ha effekt på fødselsvekten for kalvene forutsatt at simlene får høyverdig ernæring etter kalving. Den forskjellige ernæringsbakgrunn før kalving synes således ikke å innvirke på melkeproduksjon/kvalitet, da vektutviklingen for alle grupper av kalver i dette forsøket gikk parallelt i de tre første ukene etter kalving. Det ble heller ikke på noe punkt funnet signifikante forskjeller gruppene imellom når det gjelder kalvenes klimatiske toleranse. Det er dog bemerkelsesverdig at det var stor dødelighet blant de små kalvene etter unge små simler i GRUPPE L. Dette funn er interessant sett i sammenheng med resultatene fra Røros (se bidrag fra Dag Lenvik, side som viser at avkastningen fra en flokk kan økes markant om man konsentrerte slakteuttaket på små kalver og forhindrer bedekning av små, unge simler gjennom fjerning av eldre, store bukker. Med det forbehold at våre forsøk er utført på dyr i innhegning med et lavt aktivitetsnivå, kan man fra våreforsøk foreløpig konkludere med at tillegsfor ing av simler i siste halvdel av drektighetsperioden har effekt på kalvenes fødselsvekt, men at vektutviklingen for kalven er uavhengig av simlenes ernæringshistorie, om sistnevnte tilbys høyverdig ernæring etter kalving. Da små kalver etter underernærte simler viste høy dødelighet like etter fødselen, vil imidlertid tilleggsforing kunne øke avkastningen om det er mange unge simler i flokken. Resultatene fra Røros tyder imidlertid på at dette resultat normalt kan oppnås uten ekstra omkostninger gjennom et selektivt slakteuttak.

  11. Kriminalromanen: En undersøkelse av dens popularitet og kvalitet

    OpenAIRE

    Hopland, Maria Lüpke

    2013-01-01

    De siste årene har kriminalromanen oppnådd enorm popularitet hos det norske publikum. Samtidig blir den til tider svært hardt angrepet av akademikere og intellektuelle i dagspressen. Denne oppgaven utforsker forskjellene i denne mottakelsen. To forskjellige teoretiske tilnærminger ser ut til å bli brukt i lesningen og forståelsen av kriminalromanen. Den ene forstår kriminalromanen som en type formellitteratur, som har som mål å følge sin formel på best mulig måte, mens de...

  12. Når eplet faller langt fra stammen ... : en studie av voksne utenlandsadopterte i Norge

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Mariann

    2000-01-01

    Utenlandsadopsjon er et tema som stort sett har blitt drøftet og undersøkt i forhold til foreldre og barn. Ettersom den første generasjonen av adopterte nå har blitt voksne er det verdifull kunnskap å hente ut fra deres egne erfaringer og tanker rundt det å være adoptert. Det viser seg at deres formidling av erfaringer kan være med på å sette utenlandsadopsjon i et nytt perspektiv og rette fokus mot problemstillinger som ikke har blitt gitt så mye oppmerksomhet tidligere. Jeg har vært i ...

  13. Kilgore Trout - He Tried : en tematisk analyse av Kilgore Trouts rolle i forfatterskapet til Kurt Vonnegut

    OpenAIRE

    Glomsrød, Jannicke Storm

    2007-01-01

    Hvilke roller og funksjoner innehar Kilgore Trout-karakteren i Kurt Vonneguts forfatterskap? Hvilken betydning har han og hva ligger til grunn for denne gjennomgangsfigurens ankomst og endelige avgang i litteraturen? I denne oppgaven søker jeg å undersøke og finne svaret på disse spørsmålene. Kilgore Trout går igjen i syv av Vonneguts fjorten romaner og er en gjennomgangsfigur i drøye 32 år av dennes forfatterskap, som strekker seg over 53 år med Player Piano fra 1952 i den ene enden og A ...

  14. Correlliansk Wicca -En analyse av et nyreligiøst trossamfunn i vekst-

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Monica Frankrig

    2015-01-01

    Correlliansk wicca er en tradisjon innenfor wicca som baserer sin praksis på læren til High- Correll familien. Den correllianske wicca- tradisjonen ble grunnlagt av Caroline High- Correll. Correllianere anser seg selv for å være åpne for mange ulike livssyn og praksiser. De tror at det guddommelige kommer innenfra oss selv, og at religion eksisterer for å hjelpe oss til å finne det guddommelige i hver av oss, og ikke for å forsøke å erstatte denne guddommeligheten. Correllianere mener at alle...

  15. Gaskromatografisk metod för analys av GHB i urin

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    En metod för detektering och kvantifiering av gamma-hydroxysmörsyra (GHB) i urin med gaskromatografi (GC) är framtagen på Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset. Metoden är relativt unik då den inte kräver upparbetning i form av derivatisering, indunstning eller extraktion. Urinen surgörs med koncentrerad saltsyra och internstandard, gamma-valerolakton, tillsätts. GHB övergår då till laktonformen, gamma-butyrolakton (GBL). Därefter injiceras provet direkt på en GC-FID med en kapillärkolonn för gly...

  16. Overvåking av Tokke-Vinje-vassdraget 2009-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kaste, Ø.; Skancke, L.; Eriksen, T.; Kile, M.; Nylend, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Rapporten viser resultater fra vanndirektiv-relatert overvåking i 2009-2011 i Tokke-Vinje-vassdraget i Telemark. Omfanget av overvåkingen har variert mellom årene, men kvalitetselementene planteplankton, dyreplankton, påvekstalger og bunndyr, samt vannkjemiske og bakteriologiske støtteparametre har inngått i minst ett av årene. Målet med overvåkingen var å klassifisere tilstanden i utvalgte vannforekomster i forhold til vanndirektivets bestemmelser, samt identifisere lokaliteter hvor det er b...

  17. Implementering av NSAID-profylakse mot post-ERCP pankreatitt - et kvalitetsforbedringsprosjekt ved Gastrolab, Drammen sykehus

    OpenAIRE

    Brummenæs, Kristine Aase; Dahl, Kamilla Haug; Giske, Anna Havnevik; Hovind, Magrit Jarlsdatter; Nordberg, Eva Kibsgaard; Xalid, Mahabad

    2014-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Bakgrunn for valg av oppgave var spørsmålet om pankreatitt som komplikasjon til ERCP (endoskopisk retrograd cholangiopankreatografi) kunne forebygges svært enkelt med en engangsdose NSAID gitt i forbindelse med prosedyren. Selv om pasientgruppen som årlig gjennomgår ERCP er liten, og komplikasjoner relativ sjelden, kan noen av disse likevel bli svært alvorlig og i verste fall livstruende. Kunnskapsgrunnlaget/Metode: Det ble gjort søk i McMasterPlus, PubMed, og retningslinjer. Innfør...

  18. Kartlegging og overvåking av eremitt Osmoderma eremita i Norge 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Endrestøl, Anders; Flåten, Magne*; Hanssen, Oddvar

    2013-01-01

    Eremitten Osmoderma eremita er en stor, brunsvart bille i familien skarabider. Den lever i gamle, hule løvtrær og er vurdert som truet i store deler av Europa. I Norge ble den antatt å være utdødd inntil den ble gjenfunnet i Tønsberg i 2008. Den er listet i kategori kritisk truet (CR) i Norsk rødliste for arter 2010, og er en prioritert art (fredet) i Norge. I tillegg er den vurdert som nær truet (NT) på global rødliste. Handlingsplanen for eremitt ble publisert av Direktoratet fo...

  19. Byte av kommunikationsstrategi när nationsobligatoriet faller : En fallstudie av hur nationerna i Uppsala bör agera om nationsobligatoriet faller

    OpenAIRE

    Rantakokko, Elin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Title: Change of communication strategy when the compulsory nation membership falls (Byte av kommunikationsstrategi när nationsobligatoriet faller) Number of pages: 51 (58 including enclosures) Author: Elin Rantakokko Tutor: Peder Hård af Segerstad Course: Media and Communication Studies 30 hp Period: Spring of 2008 University: Division of Media and Communication, Department of Information Science, Uppsala University Purpose/Aim: This essay will result in some guidelines how the nati...

  20. Påvising og karakterisering av PGE2 reseptorar med omsyn på regulering av matriks metalloproteinasar frå osteosarkomcellelinjer

    OpenAIRE

    Oma, Hildegunn

    2007-01-01

    Enkelte kroniske inflammatoriske sjukdommar er kjent å disponere for utvikling av kreft. Ettersom fleire COX-2 hemmarar har synt kjemoterapeutisk effekt er det skapt stor interesse kring PGE2 si generelle rolle, og relevans i høve til kreft. PGE2 regulerer ei rekkje cellulære prosessar gjennom binding til fire prostaglandin E reseptorar (EP reseptorar). Matriks metalloproteinsar (MMPar) er ei gruppe enzym som er vist å vere involvert mellom anna ved tumorinvasjon, metastasering og angiogense....