WorldWideScience

Sample records for fraan maetningar av

  1. Results from measurements of natural radiation in and from filters in some water treatment plants; Maetningar av naturlig radioaktivitet i och fraan filter vid naagra vattenverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergren, Inger; Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Ek, Britt-Marie [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Large water treatment plants often process surface water where the concentration of natural radionuclides is so low that treatment of the water produces no radiation dose or waste problem. The level of natural radionuclides in ground water is higher than in surface water and often so high that mitigation is needed to clean the water. Specific treatment of the filters and filter masses is needed in some cases because the natural radionuclides precipitate in the filters. The radiation doses received by personnel at the ground water treatment plants are often low because of the relatively short time the workers spend inside the treatment plant. The results presented here indicate no need for extra action to insure radiation protection with regard to radioactivity inside the treatment plant or during processing of the filters and waste. A comprehensive discussion of the problems associated with the concentrating of natural radionuclides in water filters is presented in this report.

  2. Environmental monitoring at the nuclear power plants and Studsvik 1994. Results from measurements of radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples; Omgivningskontroll vid kaernkraftverken och Studsvik 1994. Resultat fraan maetningar av radionuklidhalter i miljoeprover

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    Bengtson, P.; Larsson, C.M.; Luening, M.

    1996-04-01

    As expected, marine samples from the vicinity of the power plants show detectable radionuclide concentrations, caused by the discharges from the plants. Very low concentrations are noted in the terrestrial samples. At several locations, the effects of the Chernobyl disaster still dominate. 12 refs, tabs.

  3. 60 kvinnor per dag undersoeks nu med vaerldsunikt digitalt mammografisystem fraan Sectra

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Helsingborgs kvinnor faar kraftigt saenkt straaldos fraan mammografi60 kvinnor per dag undersoeks nu med vaerldsunikt digitalt mammografisystem fraan SectraSectras digitala mammografisystem, Sectra MicroDose Mammography, har nu passerat 1.500 undersoekta kvinnor inom Helsingborgs Lasaretts screeningprogram foer mammografi" (1 page).

  4. Measurements on and simulations of a biogas-fuelled bus; Maetningar paa och simulering av biogasbuss

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    Olsson, L.O.; Nilsson, Johan

    1995-03-01

    Mathematical models for torque/fuel consumption and emissions have been studied for a biogas-fuelled bus used in urban traffic in Linkoeping, Sweden. It is noted that the cycle ECE R-49 is not representative for city buses, but that the Braunschweig cycle gives rather good agreement. 2 refs, 37 figs

  5. Disposal of residue from sifting of combustible waste; Avsaettning av siktrest fraan foerbehandling av braennbart avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik

    2012-11-01

    In waste to energy plants, unwanted species in the fuel may cause corrosion, deposits, agglomeration in the fuel bed, and emissions of pollutants. Countermeasures to such problems are often costly. For at least some of the waste, the fuel properties can be improved by introducing a pretreatment system in which the fine fraction is separated from the waste by sifting. This method has been studied in an earlier Waste Refinery project, WR-06. That study pointed at advantages in performance of the boiler plant and a rough economical analysis indicated substantial benefits. The drawback of the pretreatment was that the residue (the fine fraction) showed as high content of total organic carbon (TOC) as 37 %, by weight. Such a waste fraction is not allowed to be landfilled in Sweden. High TOC content is also a limiting factor for usage as a secondary construction material. To become an applicable pretreatment method, it is necessary to find an appropriate disposal method for the residue material. Present work investigates different possibilities to handle the sifting residue, assuming it has the same properties as in previous study. The residue from sifting needs further treatment, preferably with energy recovery. There are some alternatives, such as combustion, gasification, anaerobic or aerobic digestion. To reduce problems associated by combustion, the waste may be burnt in another more suitable furnace. An alternative is gasification, but that treatment method is not yet an established process for waste fuels. Another option is treatment by anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The high concentrations of metals, however, limit the use of the biologically treated waste to landfilling sites, where it may be utilized as a construction material. The high metal concentrations in the sifting residue imply that it must be kept separate from other biodegradable wastes which are used to produce fertilizers. Thus, this treatment alternative will likely require substantial new investments. Instead of treating the fine residue thermally or biologically, an alternative is to extend the pretreatment system in order to separate a fraction containing less combustible material. This could be accomplished by, for example, passing the fine fraction through a density classifier, such as a wind sieve or a ballistic sieve. Hopefully, the light fine fraction will consist mainly of combustible material while the denser fine fraction will contain a sufficiently low amount of carbon to allow utilization as filling or construction material at landfill sites. Full-scale tests are required to determine if the proposed pretreatment method is applicable in practice.

  6. Energy recovery of combustible fraction from shredding of wastes containing metals; Energiaatervinning av braennbar fraktion fraan fragmentering av metallhaltigt avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne [Stena Metall, Goeteborg (Sweden); Victoren, Anders; Niemi, Jere [Metso Power, Tammerfors (Finland); Johansson, Andreas [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    Combustible products from fragmentation are not allowed to be deposited on landfills any more in Sweden. These products have to be material recovered or energy recovered. The combustible fraction from recovered metal scrap, SLF (shredder light fraction), contains metals and the chlorine content is relatively high. Due to this there could be a risk with deposits and corrosion on convection surfaces in combustion plants. Co-combustion with sewage sludge could be a solution for solving problems with the difficult contents in SLF. The aim of the project was to do a theoretical judgment of how sewage sludge could affect deposit formation and corrosion when co-combusted with SLF. Due to the high amount of water in the sewage sludge the percentage of sewage sludge in the fuel mixture was limited. The maximum percentage of energy used was 3.5 % (ca 13% on weight basis). The thermodynamic calculations showed that at combustion with 100% SLF the lead and zinc chlorides in gaseous form increased 5-6 times in comparative with combustion with ordinary waste combustion in Boraas. But as the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations will not consider the kinetics and just calculate independent of time the results should be considered as indicative and not directly comparative to actual boiler conditions. All lead and zinc were assumed reactive which will probably not be the case in a boiler. In the calculations the aluminum was removed from the calculations (not taken into account) and the alkali-phosphor reactions are incomplete due to lack of reliable thermodynamic data. These defiance's should be considered when evaluating the results from the thermodynamic chemical equilibrium calculations as well as the fact that the calculations cannot yet take into account the possible erosive effect the high ash amount could have on the deposits. The calculations showed that co-combusting with SLF (ca 20%) gave high amounts of gaseous lead chlorides. Also high amount of zinc chlorides were formed but the content was in the same range as when firing normal waste. These chlorides condensate at a lower temperature than alkali chlorides do. The deposit and corrosion problems can therefore occur at lower material temperatures at superheaters, economizer and furnace walls. Up to 20% (energy basis) of SLF co-combusted in a boiler at 40 bar without superheater, would not significantly increase the corrosion problems. Combusted in a boiler at 20 bar (without superheater) should decrease the risk for problems with lead chloride (and zinc chloride) deposits on the convection tubes even more.

  7. Dry anaerobic digestion of rejects from pre-treated food waste; Torroetning av rejekt fraan foerbehandling av matavfall

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    Bohn, Irene [NSR, Helsingborg (Sweden); Murto, Marika; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Bioteknik, LTH, Lund (Sweden); Rosqvist, Haakan [Rosqvist Resurs, Klaagerup (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    When the organic fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is digested anaerobically in a continuously stirred tank reactor there is a need for a pretreatment to make the waste pumpable and remove contaminants. In one type of pretreatment the material passes through a screw press which separates waste in a liquid fraction and a dry fraction (the reject). At NSR this technique is used and at present the reject is incinerated. A previous study has shown that about 30 % of the methane potential of the incoming organic waste can be found in the reject. The aim of the present project was to investigate the possibilities of realizing the methane potential through batch wise dry anaerobic digestion followed by composting as an alternative to incineration. In the technique used in the present project the material was digested in an anaerobic leach-bed with recirculation of leachate over the bed. It is important that the material is sufficiently porous to let the leachate spread evenly through the leach-bed. Treatment of reject and a mixture of reject and structural material were tested to investigate if the addition of structural material had an effect on the porosity. The flow of liquid through a leach-bed of reject and one of reject mixed with structural material was studied using LiBr as tracer. The digestate from the dry digestion process was composted, and the resulting compost was evaluated. The odor from the digestate, the active compost and the compost product was measured by analyzing the odor in the air of the porous space in heaps of the different materials. This was used to evaluate the risk of odor problems. The dry digestion and the tracer experiment both showed that mixing the reject with structural material had a positive effect on the flow of liquid through the material and the digestion process. Addition of structural material to the reject was needed in order to achieve an efficient digestion process. Using tracers proved to be a useful way of indicating the homogeneity of the flow through the leach-bed. Dry anaerobic digestion of reject mixed with structural material gave a methane yield of 100 Nm{sup 3} methane per ton of mixture treated which was equal to the expected methane yield. When composting the material the requirements for hygienization was achieved and the concentrations of heavy metals in the resulting compost were below the guideline value. The content of visible contaminants larger than 2 mm in the screened compost were above the guideline value, which means that screening the compost on a 15 mm screen is not a sufficient post treatment. The odor potential of the screened compost was approximately 300 OU{sub E}/m{sup 3} and should not lead to any odor problems. However the odor potential of the digestate and the active compost material was higher.

  8. Removal of radionuclides from household water; Metoder foer avlaegsnande av radionuklider fraan hushaallsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Turtiainen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, K.; Salonen, L.; Arvela, H.

    2007-02-15

    Research upon methods for removing radionuclides from household water was initiated in Finland in 1995. Three research projects, of which two were carried out with National Technology Agency of Finland and one with CEC, have been completed by the end of 2002. One of the main objectives of the research was to compose a guidebook for consumers and water treatment companies. Radon can be removed from household water by aeration and by activated carbon filtration. Aerators that are well designed and set up can remove over 90% of waterborne radon. The best aerators have achieved removal efficiencies that are nearly 100%. However, setting up an aeration system requires thorough planning. Also, activated carbon filtration removes radon efficiently. The removal efficiencies have been over 90%, often nearly 100%. Depending on the water quality and usage, the carbon batch inside the filter needs to be changed every 2 - 3 years. Since activated carbon filters emit gamma radiation while in use, they should not be installed inside the dwelling but in a separate building or by the well. It is recommended that uranium be removed from drinking water by anion exchange, which is the most efficient removal method for this purpose. Typically, the removal efficiencies are nearly 100%. The one exception is the so called tap filter, the removal efficiency of which depends on uranium concentration in raw water and the rate of water flow. High saline concentration in water may extricate uranium from ion exchange resin. Changes in plumbing pressure or pH-value do not have any significant influence in uranium retention. Removal efficiencies of lead and polonium vary a lot depending on the chemical form in which they occur in water. They can be reliably removed from water by reverse osmosis only. Other treatment methods, such as ion exchange and activated carbon filtration, remove lead and polonium partly. Lead and polonium are removed more efficiently when they are bound onto smaller particles than larger particles. Testing simultaneous removal of radon, iron and magnesium by two commercial devices gave promising results: radon removal efficiency was over 98%. Furthermore, it was found that certain fluoride removal equipment can be applied to simultaneous removal of uranium, radium, lead and polonium. (orig.)

  9. Life cycle assessment of biogas from sewage treatment sludge; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan avloppsreningsverksslam

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    Palm, David; Ek, Mats (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-08-15

    This report analyses the environmental impact from 1MJ of biogas (as vehicle fuel) produced by anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Data are primarily taken from Kaeppala sewage treatment plant, but have been complemented with data from literature. As a base case, the biogas has only been given the environmental burden from upgrading and purification of raw gas. This is because the anaerobic digestion is an inherent part of the waste water treatment in Sweden, biogas being produced regardless of its chosen end utilization. Calculations have also been performed with system expansion where the anaerobic digestion, sludge treatment and replaced mineral fertilizer have been included in the analysis, as well as calculations based on economic and energy allocation. The results have been characterised in accordance to CML (2007) for the potential of global warming on a 100 year perspective, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical oxidation creation and particles. The study represents a Swedish state-of-the-art plant for biogas production but also includes a sensitivity analysis that cover a Swedish average plant and a worst case plant. The sensitivity analysis shows a major impact on the results from methane leakage during anaerobic digestion and upgrading. The electricity consumption and choice of Swedish average electricity versus Swedish marginal electricity is of less importance for the outcome of the study

  10. Sieving of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash; Siktning av askor fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, Jelena

    2010-07-01

    Waste-to-Energy is steadily increasing in Sweden and more than 46 % of municipal solid waste (MSW) is being incinerated. Solid residues from MSW incineration (MSWI) mainly constitute of bottom ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Bottom ashes from MSWI amounted to 0.7 millions of tons and APC residues to 0.2 millions of tons in 2008. Bottom ashes from MSWI contain pollutants like metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cu), metalloids (e.g. As, Se), elements forming oxyanions (e.g. Sb, Cr, Mo) and easily soluble salts like chlorides and sulphates. These constituents can leach out polluting the environment if ash comes in contact with water. Treatment methods for decreasing the amount of pollutants in ashes or their mobility are therefore needed. Sieving was investigated as a separate or a complementary treatment method for MSWI ashes. Hypothesis was that the large share of pollutant concentrations could be removed from the ashes through separation of the finest fractions. The rest is less harmful to the environment, more acceptable as secondary construction material or less costly to landfill. Investigation included three MSWI ashes, namely bottom ash from Boraas Energy och Miljoe's plant with fluid bad, boiler ash from the same plant and bottom ash from Renova's stocker grate type plant. Ashes were sieved in 2-4 size fractions. Total content of pollutants and their leachability (batch leaching test, L/S=10 l/kg) was assessed for each of the fractions. Leaching results were compared to limit values stipulated by Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for acceptance of waste at landfills as wells as to recommendations for reuse of waste as a construction material. Results from bottom ash from the stocker grate type incinerator and from the boiler ash confirm the hypothesis that pollutants leach out in higher concentrations from the finer fractions. A large amount of pollutant could be removed from the ashes through sieving, but the goal to produce a fraction that could be landfilled at the landfill of a lower class was not achieved. A much polluted fine fraction was produced through sieving of bottom ash from the stocker grate type incinerator, not fulfilling criteria for landfilling at landfills for non-hazardous waste. Bottom ash from the fluid bad plant could not be improved from the environmental point of view if some of the size fractions where removed. Leaching of sulphates increased while that of chlorides decreased with increased particle size, making coarser fractions reach in sulphates if the finer were removed. A more effective treatment method than sieving is needed if MSWI ashes are to fulfill criteria for landfilling at landfills for inert waste or recommendations for their reuse as secondary construction materials. Sieving is recommended as a complementary to another method e.g. treatment with cement. In order to optimize a sieve size, an analysis should be made on the amount of ashes to be removed by sieving, leaching properties of resulting fractions as well as costs for landfilling, transport, treatment etc

  11. Life cycle analysis of biogas from residues; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan restprodukter

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    Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael [Dep. for Miljoe- och Energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Hoegskola, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to carry out life cycle assessments for different biogas systems where biogas is produced from different residues. The investigated residues are distiller's waste, rapeseed cake, whey permeate, concentrated whey permeate, fodder milk, fish residues, bakery residues and glycerol. The environmental impact categories included are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical ozone creation potential, particles and energy balance. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, especially the energy input in various operations and processes. A general conclusion is that all studied residues are very well suited for production of biogas if there is no demand for them as animal feed today. All biogas systems also reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases compared to petrol and diesel and meet the requirements presented in the EU renewable energy directive (RED). The results of the study also show that the investigated biogas systems are complex and many different parameters affect the result. These parameters are both integrated in the life cycle assessment method, but also in the inventory data used.

  12. Survey on non-nuclear radioactive waste; Kartlaeggning av radioaktivt avfall fraan icke kaernteknisk verksamhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    On request from the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish government has in May 2002 set up a non-standing committee for non-nuclear radioactive waste. The objective was to elaborate proposals for a national system for the management of all types of non-nuclear radioactive wastes with special consideration of inter alia the polluter pays principle and the responsibility of the producers. The committee will deliver its proposals to the government 1 December 2003. SSI has assisted the committee to the necessary extent to fulfill the investigation. This report is a summery of SSI's background material concerning non-nuclear radioactive waste in Sweden.

  13. Environmental impact by toxic compounds from waste treatment; Miljoepaaverkan fraan toxiska aemnen vid hantering av avfall

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    Loefblad, Gun; Bisaillon, Mattias; Sundberg, Johan (Profu AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    The study deals with emissions of toxic compounds from waste treatment to the environment with the aim of improving the state of knowledge and to find a way of describing the environmental impact from these substances. Toxicity is one of a number of environmental aspects necessary to address in the planning of waste treatment and in the daily waste treatment routines in order to fulfill the environmental objective A Non-Toxic Environment and other environmental requirements. The study includes waste to incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion. A comparison between methods were made for biological household waste. According to our study, the compounds of importance for waste treatment are metals and persistent organic compounds. These tend to bioaccumulate and enrich in food chains. The substances are important for the environmental objective A Non-Toxic Environment. In a first step the compounds chosen in this study may be suggested for describing toxicity from waste treatment: As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, dioxin, PCB, the phthalate DEHP and the brominated flame retardant HBCDD. Other substances may be added to the list in a next step from up-dated and quality-assured characterisation factors or from other requirements or preferences. There is a limited knowledge on toxic compounds in waste flows and in different environmental compartments. More data are available for metals than for organic substances. There is also a limited knowledge on the fate of the compounds during the waste treatment processes. Most information is found for incineration. During composting and anaerobic digestion the metals will mainly be emitted to the environment by use of the compost and the anaerobic digestion residue. Organic substances will to some extent be degraded during the processes. However, there are gaps of knowledge to fill for the further work on estimating toxic emissions. There is mainly a need for more extensive data on toxic compounds in waste and their variations. A test was made to use a weighted index for toxicity - such as used for climate impact, acidification, etc. in system analyses for waste treatment. The result was not useful due to the limited availability of characterisation factors for the chosen substances. In stead, the toxic impact was assessed by other comparisons, from a local and a national perspective. No acute effects on human health and on the environment are expected to occur from waste processes or from the use of compost and anaerobic digestion residue. The conclusion is that emissions of toxic substances from waste treatment will contribute to the present fugitive levels of pollutants in the environment. The toxic impact is proposed to be quantified as the total emission of metals and persistent organic pollutants, without consideration to the way emissions are made; to air, water and soil. Emissions, even though they are small, contribute to present levels of pollution with the risk of further elevated concentrations and further dispersion in nutrient chains. In all environ metal work it is essential to reduce emissions of toxic persistent compounds. Many activities in society contribute to the total levels. Waste treatment is an unavoidable activity in the society. By massive actions to limit the use and to con tol the emissions of toxic compounds, a cleaner waste is expected to be the result. In addition, measures such as more effective source separation and separation of hazardous waste will make a more optimised treatment of different types of waste possible

  14. Climate impacts from import of waste fuels; Klimatpaaverkan fraan import av braennbart avfall

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    Haraldsson, Maarten; Sundberg, Johan (Profu, Moelndal (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    Imports of combustible waste has increased in recent years and imported waste has become an increasingly important fuel in the Swedish district heating systems. The projections for the next few years show that the imports can be much higher, partly due to reduced amounts of waste in the wake of economic downturn the world economy, partly because several new incinerators will be put into operation. In a environmental perspective, imports are controversial and it has been proposed that imports should be restricted. This report provides an assessment of the climate impact of importing waste for combustion. The report shows that greenhouse gas emissions due to imports of waste to the Swedish district heating plants in 2007 was reduced by 500 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide. This is equivalent to the emissions from 300 000 Swedes car journeys a year, or 2.5% of the total emission reduction target set by the Government for the non-trading sector until 2020. Imports of wood waste-chips accounts for the largest reduction, but the study shows that imports of other types of waste contribute to a reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases. The reasons for the reduction is that the use of imported waste fuel substitute for other heating and electricity generation, which gives the consequence that emissions are avoided. The largest emission reductions are obtained, however, by the importation of household waste by replacing the alternative waste treatment of the corresponding waste in the country of origin. In the countries from which imports of waste currently takes place there is a lack of treatment capacity for organic waste. The alternative treatment available is primarily deposition. This treatment causes significant emissions of methane, which is a very strong greenhouse gas. The shipment of waste that occur as a result of imports gives a marginal contribution of greenhouse gases, compared against the emission reductions outlined above

  15. Recycling of nutrients through struvite precipitation from digestions residues; Aatervinning av naering genom struvitfaellninggsaemnen fraan roetrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Liisa; Loewgren, Sofia; Thelin, Gunnar (Ekobalans Fenix AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    The aim of the project which is described in this report was to gather information about struvite precipitation and studies that have been performed within this area, and also to investigate struvite precipitation in four different digestates through laboratory experiments. Digestates from biogas plants with household waste, beet, manure and distillery residues as raw materials were used in this study. Struvite, MgNH{sub 4}PO{sub 4}-6H{sub 2}O, is a white crystal powder which is soluble at low pH and precipitates at pH 7-11. For struvite to precipitate the solution also has to be over saturated and the influence of other competitive ions has to be low. Many studies in struvite precipitation have been done as laboratory trials and in pilot plants. The experiments were performed on for example digestates from sewage treatment plants. The reactors were stirred or aerated and the solutions were either dewatered or non dewatered. The experiments were performed both with and without the addition of phosphate. A few full scale plants are also described in this report. Most of them consist of a fluidized bed and are connected to sewage treatment plants. Dewatered sewage sludge is most commonly used but there are also examples of non dewatered sludge. Some of the products from the full scale plants are sold as fertilizers. MgCl{sub 2}-6H{sub 2}O is the most common magnesium additive in the studies that have been summarized in this report, but for example Mg(OH){sub 2} has also been used in a few cases. The laboratory experiments in this report were performed on non dewatered and dewatered digestates. The dewatering was performed by filtration in three steps, except for the digestate from distillery residues which was centrifuged. The experiments were performed with and without phosphate addition. First, a few trials on synthetic solutions were performed to verify the chosen experimental conditions. All of the trials, with the synthetic and digestate solutions, were performed in magnetic stirred glass beakers. MgCl{sub 2}-6H{sub 2}O, NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-2H{sub 2}O and NaOH were used as chemical additives. The pH was increased to 8,5 for the dewatered digestates and 9 for the non dewatered digestates. Based on the experiments an estimation of the cost of the chemical additives was done for each digestate. The costs were based on the trials with the dewatered digestates with phosphate addition for all the digestates, and the dewatered digestate from distillery residues without the addition of phosphate. The cost per amount of produced struvite, with the addition of phosphate, was at about the same level for household waste, manure and distillery residues. For the digestate from beet it was a bit higher. The corresponding cost for digestate from distillery residues without phosphate addition was the least expensive. For all of the digestates the cost of MgCl{sub 2}-6H{sub 2}O and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (which would be more suitable than NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-2H{sub 2}O in large scale plants) per amount of produced struvite was at about the same level, but the cost of NaOH varied a lot between the different digestates. Since the costs in this comparison are based on merely a few trials in laboratory scale without optimizing the process for any digestate and prices from only one supplier, it is important to emphasize that this is a rough estimation. It is hard to estimate the value of precipitates from digestates as fertilizers since there is no clear correlation between the content of nutrients and the market price for fertilizers. However, the value of struvite fertilizers will most likely increase since phosphorus is an finite raw material and the production of nitrogen fertilizers needs a lot of energy which is connected to the price of oil. It is also possible that the environmental profile can contribute to a higher value

  16. Alternatives for handling of digestate from large biogas plants; Foeraedling av roetrest fraan storskaliga biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarsrud, Peter (Kretsloppskontoret Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bisaillon, Mattias (Profu (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Hanna; Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Jakobsson, Emma; Jarlsvik, Tisse; Martinsson, Ulf (Goeteborg Energi (Sweden)); Jensen, Carl (Renova (Sweden)); Johansson, Lars-Gunnar (Biogas Vaest/LRF (Sweden)); Kanerot, Mija (Boraas Energi och Miljoe (Sweden)); Ling, Daniel (Laeckeby Water (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Biogas plants located in city environments are becoming increasingly common in Sweden. More and more municipalities are electing to collect food waste for treatment in a biogas plant. The environment target of treating 35 % all organic waste biologically try to obtain from municipalities. Certain demands are placed on biogas plants and their system environments if they are to be able to treat food waste successfully. Firstly, there needs to be a use for the nutrient-rich biofertilizer product, and secondly it must be possible to clean the reject water before it is released to the recipient. The goal of the project is to conduct a system analysis from the economic and environmental perspectives to investigate what is the best alternative for dealing with the digestate and reject water for two biogas plants located in city environments. The plants used as the point of departure for the study are a planned biogas plant in Gothenburg and an existing biogas plant in Boraas. The plant in Boraas is planned to be included in an energy combine with ethanol production. The target group for the project comprises biogas plants built in city environments with the purpose of treating food waste, but also other plants that treat organic waste in a digester, e.g., sludge from sewage treatment works. Table 1 below shows the results for each technology studied. [Table 1 Results from system analysis.] The results of the system analysis show that the best alternative for Gothenburg, both from an economical point of view and when considering the climate impact, is to transport and spread the un-dewatered digestate directly onto arable land. On the basis of acidification and eutrophication potentials, the best alternative is to treat the reject water with the DeAmmon process. From the economic perspective, the best alternative for Boraas is to continue with the treatment method used today at the plant, that is, SBR. From the perspective of climate impact, the best alternative is to spread the un-dewatered digestate directly onto arable land. On the basis of acidification and eutrophication potentials, the best alternative is to treat the reject water with some form of stripping method, or SBR. The news value of the project is deemed to be high, since demands on the treatment of organic waste are growing strongly. The results of this project are free to use, however specific input data has been used in our system analysis, and a separate analysis should be conducted for each specific plant

  17. Leachates from wood ash - effects of storage on soil; Lakvatten fraan skogsbraensleaska - markpaaverkan av lagring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valeur, Inger; Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans FenixAB, Lund (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    In this study we monitored leachate from wood ash stored in a pile in an outdoor environment during six months. Our aim was to contribute with knowledge about leaching behavior and risks connected to storages of wood ash, and more generally leaching from piles affected by various weather conditions. Impacts on soil from storage of wood ash was also included in the study as well as different transport scenarios for recycling wood ash to the forest. Bioenergy output from Swedish forests has more than doubled the last 10 years and as nutrient rich parts as needles and branches (grot) is also taken out, the nutrient export from the forest site has increased by a factor of three to five. To counteract depletion of nutrients in forest soils, wood ash is returned to the forest. Apart from nitrogen, wood ash contains all the nutrients and trace elements that were in the wood before combustion. The wood ash must be hardened before spreading to make it less reactive. The ash self hardens when stored in an outdoor environment for 3 to 6 months and according to the waste act this should be done on a paved area. However, wood ash which is meant to be recycled to the forest has naturally very low amounts of polluting elements and shall also fulfill limit values, set up by the Swedish Forest Agency. As it is so that the storage is during a limited period of time and the ash shall be transported, not only to one place but too several smaller areas, this has given rise to the thought of storing the ash closer to the spreading area. However, the ash would then probably be stored in a non paved area, as the number of paved areas in forests is scarce. If storage close to the spreading area could be done, the distance for transports connected to recycling the ash would presumably be decrease by a factor of two or three. To get permission to store ash on a non paved area, there must be enough data available which can ensure that there are no environmental risks associated to the storage. Most risk assessments are done from standardized extractions methods, which are based upon addition of excess water to the ash. This process is fairly different from what happens when ash is stored in a pile and rained upon. Thus it is difficult, or not yet shown, how a figure given from an extraction with excess water should be translated to the total amount of leached elements from ash storages. Collecting leachates from landfills where ash is stored also has its problems, as it often is contaminated with elements from other wastes being stored at the landfill

  18. Effects of the sound from sea-based windmills on fish in the Gulf of Bothnia; Effekter av undervattensljud fraan havsbaserade vindkraftverk paa fisk fraan Bottniska viken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baamstedt, Ulf; Larsson, Stefan; Stenman, Aasa (Umeaa Marine Sciences Centre, Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden)); Magnhagen, Carin (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)); Sigray, Peter (Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory studies in large tanks with fish exposed to sound similar to that generated by sea-based windmills at a distance of 80 m, gave the following results: - European perch, brown trout and roach from the Gulf of Bothnia did not show any significant behavioral responses on the individual frequencies between 6 and 180 Hz that were tested. - Predation experiments with brown trout, where mysids were prey, showed large individual variability but no statistically significant effect of the generated sound. - Analysis of the stress hormone cortisol in brown trout and roach did not show any effects from sound treatment. - Analysis of cortisol in European perch showed a weak but statistically significant lower level from sound treated individuals compared to the control. - Analyses of cortisol showed both very large individual variability and differences between species, with the order: brown trout << European perch < roach. In summary, our results show that European perch, brown trout and roach from the Gulf of Bothnia are not affected by the sound corresponding to the frequency and effect found at 80 m distance from a wind mill in the sea. Such sound has therefore probably no effects on the species outside this area. We can not generalize to the area closer to a wind mill, neither to other species of fish. However, out choice of species was made in order to include representatives from three different hearing anatomies, and thereby different capabilities of sensing sound, which make our results more general than if just one species would have been used. Subsequent measurements of particle acceleration and background noise under the conditions used in the fish experiments showed that the design of the experiments was relevant for frequencies above 30 Hz. Experiments using 30 Hz or lower frequencies were disturbed by the background noise, and results from these experiments should therefore not be considered as an effect of sound generated by the hydrophone. In order to evaluate such frequencies, alternative technical equipment that can produce higher sound intensities at low frequencies are required

  19. Regional formation of oxidants. Caused by emissions from wood firing; Regional oxidantbildning. Till foeljd av utslaepp fraan vedeldning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Y [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-09-01

    An atmospheric trajectory model has been used in case studies to calculate the regional ozone formation due to emissions from household wood burning in Sweden. The simulations are conducted in various types of environments and describe a number of different meteorological conditions. The case studies show that the ozone contribution from wood burning is low. The formation of PAN and aldehydes is more pronounced. The concentration of PAN in Sweden is, however, expected to be far below the levels affecting health and environment as are the concentrations of aldehydes. 25 refs, 7 tabs

  20. Management of polluted waters from a repository at Forsmark; Omhaendertagande av foerorenade vattenfloeden fraan ett slutfoervar i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridderstolpe, Peter; Straae, Daniel (WRS Uppsala AB, Uppsala (SE)). e-mail: info@wrs.se

    2007-05-15

    During both the construction and the deposition phase of the final repository, several kinds of polluted waters will occur that must be handled. The waters under consideration in this report are (1) sanitary wastewater, (2) drainage water from the repository, (3) leachate from the rock stockpile and (4) storm water. The aim of this report has been to produce an overview of the different flows of polluted waters and their properties, as well as to propose adequate strategies for their treatment. The report is part of SKB's environmental impact assessment work, but is also meant to be a usable tool in further planning. The sanitary wastewater clearly is the polluted water that possesses the greatest potential risk to human health and the environment. On the other hand it is fully treatable, which means that nuisance and negative environmental impact can be avoided. It is during the construction phase that the largest amounts of both water and pollutants are to be expected. Therefore, the prevailing conditions during construction phase are proposed to be used for dimensioning of technical solutions as well as for environmental impact assessments. The study of different techniques for treatment of sanitary wastewater has included a method called 'open wastewater planning'. The method helps its users to consider the local physical conditions and the prerequisites of the planned activities, as well as the legislative, practical and economical demands. The work comprises three different technical solutions that have been outlined on system level, all of which responds to the national environmental legislation as well as what has been considered as reasonable practical and economical demands. Before the final decision is made, it is recommended that the alternatives are evaluated from a broad perspective by SKB, taking into consideration the value of recycling and goodwill. Discharged leachate from the rock stockpile is expected to contain the greatest amount of nitrogen, at most 6 tonnes a year. Drainage water from the repository will also contain nitrogen and will in addition be slightly saline, but still rather clean. The local physical conditions for construction of outdoor, biological treatment steps for treatment of drainage water and leachate have been found to be good. A total nitrogen reduction of 50 percent in leachate and drainage water is considered reasonable from an environmental, practical and economical point of view. The proposed steps taken, the discharge to the recipient 'kylvattenkanalen' (the cooling water intake channel) is estimated to be restricted to a maximum of three tonnes of nitrogen a year. There is no expected impact on the cooling water quality of relevance to the operation of the nuclear power plant. The possibilities for local storm water control are considered to be good. As long as a thorough planning is carried out, the risks for floods and negative local environmental impact resulting from unwanted substances in storm water will be minimized. It is also the authors' opinion that the proposed ways of resolving the problem locally will save money, considering both the investment and the maintenance costs. The authors' conclusive assessment of the environmental impact of the different polluted waters is that it will be small as long as the suggested measures are taken. Locally, there will be an impact on the small forest lake 'Tjaernpussen'. The water of the lake will be slightly saline, and in the case of a combined tertiary treatment of wastewater with treatment of leachate and drainage water, or a new local treatment facility for wastewater, the nutrient levels of the lake water will increase. This will increase the growth of macrophytes, as well as micro algae. The water will get a greenish colour and decreased clarity, but there is no risk for oxygen depletion or bad smell. Costs for treatment of the polluted waters have been estimated and found reasonable. Investments for treatment of sanitary water will not exceed 2.5 million SEK. Operation and maintenance costs included, the annual cost will approximately reach a 200,000 SEK a year. Costs for treatment of drainage water and leachate are of the same magnitude. Expressed per kg reduced nitrogen, the treatment cost will be about 70 SEK per kg

  1. Management of polluted waters from a repository at Oskarshamn; Omhaendertagande av foerorenade vattenfloeden fraan ett slutfoervar i Oskarshamn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridderstolpe, Peter; Straae, Daniel (WRS Uppsala AB, Uppsala (SE)). e-mail: info@wrs.se

    2007-05-15

    During both the construction and the deposition phase of the final repository, several kinds of polluted waters will occur that must be handled. The waters under consideration in this report are (1) sanitary wastewater, (2) drainage water from the repository, (3) leachate from the rock stockpile and (4) storm water. The aim of this report has been to produce an overview of the different flows of polluted waters and their properties, as well as to propose adequate strategies for their treatment. Several different alternatives of action have been investigated and compared in terms of environmental impact, economy and technical aspects. The report is part of SKB's environmental impact assessment work, but is also meant to be a usable tool in further planning. It is during the construction phase that the largest amounts of both water and pollutants are to be expected. Therefore, the conditions during the construction phase are proposed to be used for dimensioning of technical solutions as well as for environmental impact assessments. The study of different techniques for treatment of sanitary wastewater has included a method called ''open wastewater planning''. The work comprises six different technical solutions that have been outlined on system level, all of which responds to the national environmental legislation, as well as what has been considered as reasonable practical and economical demands. A urine diverting system combined with a local system for treatment of wastewater has been found to be the most interesting solution. The least attractive alternative in relation to the claimed demands is a traditional system for mixed wastewater connected to the existing wastewater treatment plant at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. This is mostly due to the high estimated cost for the connection pipe. Discharged leachate from the rock stockpile is expected to contain the greatest amount of nitrogen, at most 6 tonnes a year. Drainage water from the repository will also contain nitrogen and will in addition be slightly saline, but still rather clean. The local physical conditions for construction of outdoor, biological treatment steps as overland flow areas and wetlands for treatment of drainage water and leachate have been found to be good. A total nitrogen reduction of 50 percent in leachate and drainage water is considered reasonable from an environmental, practical and economical point of view. The proposed steps taken, the discharge to the recipient Ekerumsviken (the Baltic Sea) is estimated to be restricted to a maximum of three tonnes of nitrogen a year. The possibilities for local storm water control are considered to be good. As long as a thorough planning is carried out, risks for floods and negative local environmental impact resulting from unwanted substances in storm water will be minimised. It is also the authors opinion that the proposed ways of resolving the problem locally will save money, considering both the investment and the maintenance costs. The authors conclusive assessment of the environmental impact from the different polluted waters is that it will be small as long as the suggested measures are taken. Locally, the creek Oxhagsdiket will change its character in terms of a higher and more even flow. Today the creek is periodically dry; in the future it will lead 20-30 litres/second all year around. The water will be slightly saline and spiked with nutrients, especially in the upper part. This change of character is not necessarily negative; with the proposed ponds and wetlands an interesting water body is expected in terms of biodiversity and aesthetics. There will be no health risks for humans or animals. During summer time, the salinity in the lower part of Laxemaraan may equal that of Ekerumsviken. Situations like these are assessed not to have any negative impact on the water body, neither in the wetland upstream nor downstream of road 743. The annual content of phosphorous in the discharged treated sanitary wastewater has been estimated to a maximum of 25 kg a year. The treated wastewater will be diluted directly after discharge with the drainage water also discharged into Oxhagsdiket. The remaining phosphorous will stimulate biotic growth, but can not lead to algal bloom or other adverse situations in the recipients. Where the tributary Oxhagsdiket meets the stream Laxemaraan, the concentrations of phosphorous will be equal or lower than the ones of the stream water. Considering sampling results from the recipient control program, the primary production in Ekerumsviken is not restricted by nitrogen. Therefore, the discharged amount of nitrogen resulting from the activities of the final repository will not lead to increased algal production. Furthermore, the retention time in the bay is short and the concentration of ammonium is low, which means that the level of dissolved oxygen won't be reduced. Investments for treatment of sanitary wastewater will not exceed 4 million SEK.

  2. People's experiences of noise from wind power plants; Maenniskors upplevelser av ljud fraan vindkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Eja; Persson Waye, Kerstin (Goeteborg Univ., Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. of Medicine. Dept. of Public Health and Community Medicine); Forssen, Jens (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Applied Acoustics)

    2009-04-15

    The erection of wind turbines is preceded by an Environmental Impact Assessment which involves an estimation of the impact of wind turbines on people living nearby. One impact to be assessed is sound. It is important to generate scientifically based knowledge in order to describe how the sound will be perceived in order to ensure that the sound from wind turbines will not have an adverse health effect on the residents in the area. The objective of a joint analysis of the results from two field studies was to show the relationship between sound levels from wind turbines at the dwelling and the perception of the sound, as well as to describe factors influencing this relationship. The objective of a diary study, where the participants reported how often they were home and if so, if they were outdoors, was to describe how often the sound from wind turbines is heard and at which meteorological conditions. The results of long term sound measurements were compared with calculated values applying different models in order to study the accuracy of the sound propagation model used today. Another aim was to see if variations of meteorological factors influenced the sound propagation to such a degree that they should be included in the calculations of sound levels. The joint analyses of the two studies of annoyance confirm and strengthen previous reported data. The proportion that notices wind turbine sound as well as the proportion that were annoyed by the sound increased with increasing sound levels. The probability to be annoyed by the noise was larger if the turbines were visible from the dwelling and for people living in an agricultural landscape, whereas differences in terrain had no impact. The only association between sound level and health related variables other than annoyance was that of being disturbed in the sleep. Participants in the diary study more often reported that they could hear sound from the wind turbines when the electrical power increased, i.e. the electricity production increased. A statistically significant relationship between how often the sound was heard and the calculated sound level at the dwelling was found, even though the amount of time the participants spent outdoor varied substantially; the higher calculated sound level, the more often the sound was heard. The diary study also gave some insight in the relationship between hearing and wind speed. The results indicate that the wind turbine sound could be heard also at relatively high wind speeds when the sound is expected to be masked. Long term measurements of wind turbine sound at 550 meters from a modern turbine showed that the calculated levels agreed well with the measured. Sound levels calculated with a parabolic equation model, which takes into account the variation of meteorological factors, did not give a better prediction in comparison with the model commonly used at environmental permit proceedings. Meteorological variations are probably only of importance for sound propagation at longer distances. Meteorological circumstances could however be of importance for estimation of the source sound levels; the largest uncertainty in the calculations. The studies show that the sound levels vary also within the same wind speed, and indicate that the wind turbine sound could be heard also at wind speeds when it should be masked by other wind induced sounds. This implies that the description in the Environmental Impact Assessment of the sound that the neighbours possibly will hear should be extended, even though the sound propagation model used today is sufficient. Further studies regarding the possibility to hear the sound at high wind speed are needed as the number of participants in the diary study was small. Data also suggest that the risk for sleep disturbance should be further explored

  3. Final report of the drive of the TASS-tunnel; Slutrapport fraan drivningen av TASS-tunneln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlzen, Rickard; Johansson, Emmeli (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    When building the Final repository for spent Nuclear Fuel it is of importance for Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) to be able to show that long term safety can be obtained by the three barriers that are included in the KBS-3 final repository. The backfill refers to the material that will be installed in deposition tunnels in order to backfill them and its purpose is to maintain the multiple barrier function by keeping the buffer at place and minimize the water inflow to the tunnel. This means that it is of importance to achieve good contour with minimal dispersal of excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The hydrological properties of the backfill and the EDZ will affect the large scale hydrological conductivity of the deposition tunnels. From the end of 2007 to the end of 2008 SKB excavated an approximately 90 m long and 19 m2 cross cut tunnel named TASS at the Aespoe Hard rock laboratory. The excavation of the tunnel was made by the project 'Sealing of tunnel at great depth'. The ambition in the two subprojects that controlled the excavation of the tunnel was to excavate a tunnel in the best possible way. Earlier research and experiences in tunnel excavation has been used to place demands on performance and how it should be documented. By doing so it has been possible to ensure that the excavation of the tunnel was done in a controlled and traceable way so it can be repeatable and that it has been possible to estimate contour and minimize EDZ. The system that was developed during the excavation of the tunnel to maintain motivation, ensure traceability within the documentation and quality of performed work has worked well and are recommended to be used in future projects. The parameters that are important for the performance should be follow-up with short intervals and the feedback shall be fast and precise, which will increase the motivation at the same time as mistakes won't be systematic in the production. The administrative work with controlling documents has given continuous improvements. The knowledge of the aim for the project and the achievements of those involved have played an important role in detecting, documenting and handling of aberrations. In the purchasing of the contractor a strong emphasis were placed on the knowledge and skills of the management and workers together with the quality of equipment and machinery for tunnelling. This has given good dividends and improved the quality of work performed considerably. The contract in its entirety, including how its aim has been passed on into the practical work, gave the client the ability to control the execution and the contractor the opportunity to complete a quality-assured work without conflicts regarding compensation. This has been a major contributing factor to the good cooperation. When the client takes a more distinct performance responsibility, the role of the entire organization is changing. Among other things are the demands increasing on the availability in quickly maintaining the communication between the client and the contactor in the field and that all understand and accept the client's intentions in the instructions given. The work to achieve a good tunnel contour has been very successful and the contour encounters the controlling requirements of the production line of the backfilling method. The average over break in the tunnel was approximately 16% with small amounts of under break. The area variations of the tunnel shows that the tunnel area never reaches the theoretical area and the largest area is reached approximately 0,7 m before the border of the next round. The introduction of electronic detonators improved the tunnel contour and increased the proportion of visible drill holes. The average amount of visible drill holes identified in the tunnel contour was 78%. With the drilling pattern that were used and the introduction of electronic detonators it has been possible to use contour explosives in the tunnel floor, with good result of visible drill holes. The introduction of electronic detonators also took care of the problem of cut-off holes, which pretty much disappeared and re-blasting was minimized. The EDZ was evaluated in /Olsson et al. 2009/ and shows that no continuous EDZ was found. The performed drilling has been evaluated by looking at the drilling accuracy and precision. Geodetic surveying was performed of the collaring of 15-20 evenly distributed drill holes in the contour; all the drill holes in the floor and a varying amount of helpers and stope holes in each round. Afterwards the endpoints were calculated. The resulting data has then been evaluated and even compared with obtained data of the location of collaring and endpoints from the jumbo

  4. Quantification and characterization of emissions from small-scale biofuel combustion; Kvantifiering och karakterisering av faktiska utslaepp fraan smaaskalig biobraensleeldning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Linda; Gustavsson, Lennart; Johansson, Mathias; Oesterberg, Stefan; Tullin, Claes; Persson, Henrik [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Cooper, David; Sjoedin, Aake; Potter, Annika; Brorstroem-Lunden, Eva [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    This report is the final report of a project within the BHM research program. A comprehensive set of emission measurements has been conducted on domestic biomass boilers for wood logs and wood pellets. Within the project development of a simple method for field sampling has also been included. During the emission studies, different boilers with respect to age, design, and biomass fuels are included in the study, which also covers two oil-fired boilers for comparison. The total number of measurements cases was 29, from which 25 were measured at the laboratory and the remaining in field. Two of the cases were domestic oil burning, and were included as a comparison. The gas measurements comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ), oxygen (O{sub 2} ), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). Particle emissions were characterised by mass concentration, number concentration, and the corresponding particle size distributions. The mass concentration of particles ranged from 13 mg/MJ (wood pellets) up to 2200 mg/MJ for a water cooled wood boiler without heat storage tank. The CO emission increased with increased air ratio, which indicates that air supply was not the limiting parameter for CO burnout. Poor combustion conditions could instead be explained by poor mixing conditions, or that the excess air was that large that it can be suspected to cool the combustion chamber, resulting in high CO emissions. The TOC emission was shown to correlate to the CO emission. TOC varied between 1 and 4800 mg/MJ, presented as methane-equivalents, and CO-emissions between 30 and 16400 mg/MJ. Both TOC and CO are indicators of combustion conditions. The large variations in concentrations can be explained by the large differences in combustion devices, operation of the equipment, and fuel-quality, investigated. Methane made up the largest fraction of the VOC emissions in all of the measurements cases. In general, the pellet burners were more equal in performance with lower emissions than the wood boilers. The lowest emissions from wood boilers were obtained from combustion of dry wood logs in modern, ceramic-lined boilers connected to heat storage tanks. It was also observed that most emissions could be considerably lowered by connecting an old-type wood boiler to a heat storage tank, (however increased flue gas temperature was observed) or by firing small (in relation to the combustion chamber) batches of wood. A simple method for measurement of CO, CO{sub 2} , O{sub 2} , OGC/TOC, NO{sub x} , and VOC has been developed and verified within this project. With the simple method flue gas from the chimney on a roof can be collected in foil balloons. The method does not need electricity.

  5. Analyses of copper from a prototype capsule 5 and 6; Analyser av koppar fraan prototypkapsel 5 och 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, Claes; Lundholm, Martin; Persson, Dan; Jakobsson, Dan; Sedlakova, Miroslava; Randelius, Mats; Karlsson, Oskar; Rydgren, Pontus; Kimab, Swerea

    2012-12-15

    'Prototype' is a series of experiments where SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, expose the full scale copper canisters under conditions intended to be representative of a repository for spent nuclear fuel, however, without radioactivity (SKB 2012) . Copper from one of these installations, deposition 5, has been studied for corrosion . Samples were also taken from the capsule that had been exposed in deposition 6. Drill cores across the capsule wall has been documented regarding microstructure. All samples have been exposed for about seven years in the prototype repository. Studies carried out leads to the following conclusions: Regarding the ring on top of the capsule from the deposition 5; There are local corrosion with a depth of 3-5 microns. The general or uniform corrosion that has occurred can not be quantified. The relatively sharp traces of processing of the material before exposure indicates that the general corrosion was minor. Small amounts of corrosion product has been detected in surface analysis. The surface profile on the copper surface, aside from the grooves after processing and areas of local corrosion, are relatively even. Metallographic examination of cross section shows no tendency to pitting or intergranular corrosion. Analysis for hydrogen by melting a quantity of metal does not show any increased hydrogen content. Regarding the material of the capsule from the deposition 6: The capsule has not been specifically tested for corrosion. Cross sections of drill cores through the copper canister has been documented and metallo graphically exhibits nothing remarkable.

  6. Anaerobic degradation of phthalates in unsorted household wastes; Anaerob nedbrytning av ftalater med ymp fraan anaerobt behandlat hushaallsavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, H.

    1993-10-01

    Phthalic acid and diethyl phthalate were tested for their biodegradability in anaerobic, unsorted household wastes. The compounds were analyzed by measuring absorbance after centrifugation of a water suspension. This cheap and rapid method was proven to be applicable. Both phthalic acid and diethyl phthalate disappeared almost completely in 1-3 months, using initial concentrations from 50 to 250 mg/l. The same methodology was used for diethylhexyl phthalate, but did not work. The stoichiometrically expected amounts of methane were not found for any of the compounds, and in case of diethyl phthalate an inhibition of the methane production was observed. (36 refs., 17 figs.)

  7. Farm scale production of combined heat and power from biogas; Gaardsbaserad och gaardsnaera produktion av kraftvaerme fraan biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Mikael

    2010-08-15

    The Swedish agricultural sector accounts for a significant and unutilized part of the Swedish biogas potential. There is also considerable interest among Swedish farmers to increase the production and utilization of biogas. The purpose of this study is to analyze the prerequisites for the production of combined heat and power (CHP) from biogas based on manure in different scale and with different technologies. The purpose is also to present economic calculations and the conditions required to reach profitability. Based on current economic conditions and with the assumptions made in the assessment, it is difficult to achieve profitability with conventional production of biogas. Levels of investment and operating costs are greatly dependent of scale and a larger biogas plant is normally more profitable than a smaller. There are, however, only marginal differences between a large farm based biogas plant and a much larger plant treating manure from several farms. The reason is that the positive effects of scale regarding investments, comparing the two plants, are reduced by increased costs for transportation and sanitation. However, the sanitation unit adapted at the large plant enables the plant to receive different external substrates such as food industry waste etc. resulting in a much higher biogas production per amount of treated substrate. The following conclusions are drawn in this study: - to achieve profitability in the production of CHP from biogas based on manure it is required, in most cases, that some of the heat produced could be used externally and that the digestate is given an economic value; - there are clear positive effects of scale between the smaller and the larger farm based biogas plant. However, differences are marginal between a large farm based biogas plant and a larger plant treating manure from several farms; - thermophilic operation could improve the profitability if used to increase the amount of substrate treated and especially if it is used to sanitize the substrate when needed; - the current level of investment subsidy is usually not sufficient to reach profitability; - the proposed production based subsidy of 0.2 SEK/kWh (about 0.03 USD/kWh) of biogas would be of significant importance and make most of the plants reach break-even with low or even no utilization of the heat produced. Future studies should make more in-depth analyzes of the qualities and the economic value of the digestate. It is also of great interest to future investigate the feasibility of thermophilic biogas production in practical trials. They should also address the possibility to sanitize the substrate during thermophilic conditions as when needed as an alternative to the conventional method to heat the substrate to 70 deg C

  8. Treatment of biofuel ashes for forest recycling; Behandling av aska fraan biobraenslen foer spridning paa skogsmark - etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, H.; Sjoeblom, R. [AaF-Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    Logging residues are the easiest available fuel for an increased production of energy in Sweden from renewable sources. A consequence of their removal from the forest is that the cycle of mineral nutrients is broken. The purpose of recycling the ash after this fuel to forest land is to compensate for the removal and close again the nutrient cycle. Recycling nutrients and returning the inorganic components of the biomass removed from the forest should be performed in accordance with general principles of environmental protection, health considerations and the good house-keeping of natural resources. The activities should also be carried out in accordance with the needs of the forest and energy plant owners regarding good technology and economy. This implies that functional requirements originating from these principles and needs should be clearly structured and formulated and that such requirements should provide a basis for the continued development work as well as for the implementation of suitable, economical and efficient systems. Returning inorganic constituents implies that the principle of recirculation is followed as well as that nutrients are brought back which improves accretion in the forest. At the same time, the risk of damage to the forest can be assessed as insignificant. Furthermore the risks to human health are also assessed to be insignificant provided that pertinent precautions are taken to avoid dusting. In the present report, technical and economical aspects of importance for the selection of method as well as for the establishment of a system are described and discussed. The need for further development work is identified in the following areas: functional requirements - operational requirements, sampling, testing and quality assurance, granulation, curing processes and drying/sintering. 102 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  9. Washing of fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste using water as leachant; Vattentvaett av flygaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Zhao, Dongmei

    2010-03-15

    Ashes from combustion of municipal solid waste contain a large amount of minerals, salts and other metal compounds that are more or less soluble in water. The metal salts are often enriched in the fly ash which leads to a classification of the ash as hazardous waste. This makes ash management complicated and costly. Many stabilisation methods for Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been developed and most of them are based on a removal of chloride and sulfate in addition to a binding of metals in less soluble forms. The aim is to avoid the common situation that the ash does not comply to leaching limit values due to release of harmless salts. The aim of this project was to investigate if a simple washing with water can remove enough of the fly ash content of chloride and sulphate so that the ash can be landfilled in a simpler and less costly way than today. The project was focused on fly ashes from the MSWI units owned by Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB and Renova AB Goeteborg, i.e. a electro filter ash from grate fired boilers at Renova and a cyclone ash from a fluid bed boiler at Boraas. The results show that the main part of the chloride content of the ashes can be removed easily, but the washing with water is less effective in the removal of sulphate. A water-to-ash ratio of 1-2 l/kg removes about 100% of chloride but only 8-16% of the sulphate content. In many cases, the leachability of sulphate increases after the washing step. This is due to the rather complex sulphate chemistry with several possible reactions taking place in the ash-water system. For both the tested ashes the high level of chloride leaching is an important factor that prevents admittance on a landfill for hazardous waste without treatment.. The leaching of certain metals, such as Pb, is also high from both ashes but in the case of the Renova fly ash this is dealt with by treatment of the ash according to the Bamberg method. After a water washing with L/S 1-2 (L/kg dry ash) both ashes the washed ash complies with the landfill directive for hazardous waste that can be landfilled in Sweden. The content of dioxins and furans in the ashes were only marginally affected by the washing process as shown by a 13% increase. However, the results show that this type of washing does not remove dioxins from the solid phase which is an important piece of information.Only a few components were still too leachable for the ashes to comply with criteria for nonhazardous waste (for the Renova ash sulphate and Se and for the Boraas ash only Cr). The leaching of Cr from that ash could perhaps be decreased by chemical reduction to insoluble forms. However, this has not been tested in this project. Calculations of the investments that would be necessary in order to install water washing of fly ash at the two MSWI plants showed that the costs are too high to make it profitable today. The costs were compared to the usual management of these fly ashes which is export to Norway for landfilling (Boraas Energi och Miljoe) and stabilization using the Bamberg method followed by land filling on the company's landfill site in Goeteborg (Renova AB). The results obtained in this project can, however, become useful if the situation changes in a later stage and a washing of the ash becomes interesting again. In that case a more detailed process design must be carried out, especially concerning the filtration step since this was the most costly part of the system

  10. AUTOMATION AV GALLERKLIPPARE

    OpenAIRE

    Taboada Vargas, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Detta examensarbete handlar om automatisering och assistans att CE-märka en maskin. Arbetet innefattade automationsplanering, tillverkning av elskåp, montering på maskin och igångkörning. Automationsplaneringen bestod av elritningar och programmering. Elsystemet bestod av elskåp med bl.a. programmerbar logik, touch-panel och säkerhetskomponenter. CE-märkning utfördes enligt de direktiv, standarder och säkerhetsföreskrifter som bör följas. Nu med det nya automatiserade systemet är samm...

  11. Evaluation and development of methods for determining methane emissions from biogas plants - Literature Study; Vaerdering och utveckling av maetmetoder foer bestaemning av metanemissioner fraan biogasanlaeggningar - Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Willen, Agnes; Rodhe, Lena (JTI, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Previous work in areas such as framework of voluntary commitment shows that there is a need for techniques for measurement of methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources in the handling of organic residuals. There are no established methods for determining for instance emissions of methane from open or partially open tanks and cisterns, typically residue storage and the like. This report gives results from Phase 1 of this project, in which literary studies, market research studies, interviews and site visits have been made to identify a number of methods applied for the determination of emissions from open areas, such as liquid surfaces, but also land. Focus is on methods that can be applied to plants for biological treatment, which also includes the water treatment process at the treatment plants, but also the procedures used in measurements on land, landfills and processing plants are studied. First, the report gives a brief overview of a large number of measurement methods, where more detailed descriptions of four methods are given. The four methods are considered to be the most promising to pursue in the following phases of the project: - chamber technology; - sampling hood; - plume measurement with DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar); - air input in a covered storage.

  12. Energy recovery of combustible fraction from fragmentation of metal scrap - Phase 2; Energiaatervinning av braennbar fraktion fraan fragmentering av metallhaltigt avfall - Steg 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne (Stena Metall AB (Sweden)); Davidsson, Kent (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Jonsson, Torbjoern; Pettersson, Jesper (HTC, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Victoren, Anders; Andersson, Hans (Metso Power AB (Sweden)); Widen, Christoffer (Lidkoepings Vaermeverk AB (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    More recovered fuels have been put on the fuel market since the landfill ban of organic wastes was implemented. SLF (shredder light fraction = fluff) which is a waste from recovery of metal scrap has mostly been put on landfill until now. Due to high chlorine and metal content in this fuel there is a risk of increased deposit and corrosion problems in incineration plants. This project investigated if co-combustion with sewage sludge could reduce these problems. The purpose of the project was also to document the influence of SLF when it comes to deposits and corrosion in an incineration plant. In this project SLF has been co-combusted with normal waste with and without sewage sludge in the 20 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler in Lidkoeping. Three combustion tests have been performed: - Ref - Reference test (normal fuel mix = 50% household waste/50% industrial waste). - F1 - Test 1 (75% normal fuel mix , 21% SLF and 4% sewage sludge) - F2 - Test 2 (77% normal fuel mix and 23% SLF) The fuel mix is specified as percentage of energy content. The tests lasted 3 days and during the last 24 hours corrosion and deposit probes were exposed inside the boiler. The surface temperatures of the corrosion probes were 280, 350 and 420 deg C in each test. At the same time as the probes were exposed the boiler operation was followed and samples of fuel, ash and flue gas were taken. The results clearly show that sewage sludge initially decreases the deposit and corrosion problems at SLF combustion. Lower amounts of deposits were measured and the deposits were less corrosive when 4% of sewage sludge was added to the fuel mix with normal waste and SLF (F1). Co-combustion of more than 20% SLF and wastes (F2) increase initially the amount of the deposits and the deposits were also initially more corrosive. Long-term consequences are not investigated in this project. The project has not shown a distinct explanation why sewage sludge gives these good effects. Several possible causes, as shown in earlier projects [2][3][4], could be the content of sulphur, aluminium silicates, the high ash content and also the content of phosphorous. The sulphur reacts with the alkaline to sulphates and will be deposited as non corrosive deposits on tubes or go out as fly ash. The aluminium silicates and alkaline can form compounds with high melting temperatures and will leave the boiler as bottom or fly ash. The higher amount of ash in sludge can result in that sticky particles stick to the ash particles and are transported out with the flue gas without being deposited on tubes in the boiler. Phosphorous was found in the ashes (not bottom ash) and in the deposits down stream the convection pass. Increased tube temperature (280 to 420 deg C) increased the initial corrosion. The results indicate chlorine induced corrosion in all tests at all temperatures on the low alloy steel 16Mo3. No or very low content of cupper, lead and zinc were detected close to the corrosion front on the tube metal surface on 16 Mo3. Due to this these elements will not be expected to affect the corrosion attacks. The deposits decrease and the chlorine content in the deposits increase downstream the convection pass in comparison to upstream the convection pass. The alkaline content in the deposits decreased despite of the increase of chlorine. These results were shown in all tests. The ash content in the fuel into the boiler increased by 38% when adding sludge and SLF. When SLF was co-combusted with normal fuel the ash content in the fuel mix increased 19%. This higher ash content in the fuel will increase the cost of ash handling of the bottom ash and the empty pass ash. The analyses made in this project do not show other than that the ashes can be sent to the same places as used for the normal fuel ashes. The dry flue gas cleaning device could successfully handle the variation of emissions as to fulfill the requirements of the permission

  13. Regional monitoring of deposition and effects of air pollution; Regional oevervakning av nedfall och effekter av luftfoeroreningar. Sammanfattande slutrapport fraan ett samarbetsprojekt mellan IVL, laenen och Naturvaardsverket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akselsson, Cecilia; Ferm, Martin; Hallgren Larsson, Eva; Knulst, Johan; Loevblad, Gun; Malm, Gunnar; Westling, Olle

    2000-05-01

    Regional programmes in Sweden focused on deposition and effects of air pollutants have been evaluated by IVL, Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Various air quality protection associations and regional environmental authorities initiated the monitoring programmes during the period 1985 to 1990. The result of the evaluation is a revised and coordinated programme with improved methods. The new regional programme combines collection of field data with national model calculations of deposition of air pollutants. The new programme involves collection of deposition on open field (bulk) and in forest stands (throughfall), and soil solution, according to national and international standards. Improved methods for monitoring of base cation and nitrogen deposition have been developed. Ambient air concentrations are measured at some locations. The purpose is to describe environmental conditions, regional differences, and temporal changes. Data on forest stands, such as needle loss, growth, and soil chemistry, are available since most locations are permanent forest plots, established for scientific forest observations. Regional dispersion and deposition of air pollutants will be calculated with a model (SMHI-MATCH), developed for simulating the dispersion and deposition of Swedish emissions in relation to the long-range transport on a relatively fine scale (grid square 11 km). The programme also includes developed methods for data handling, interpretation, evaluation, quality assurance and demonstration of results in written reports and via Internet.

  14. Measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in Swedish consumption milk between 1991 1996; Maetningar av {sup 137}Cs och {sup 90}Sr i konsumtionsmjoelk mellan 1991 och 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moere, H

    1997-04-01

    The sources for the radioactivity are the nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Milk is sampled and measured as an important indicator of the Chernobyl load of radionuclides that cows can metabolize and that will ultimately give a dose to humans. Milk was responsible for 13-19% of the total intake of {sup 137}Cs from foodstuffs for the average person in 1994. Our milk measurement program covered 90% of all produced consumption milk in Sweden in 1995. Milk samples are taken every second month from the dairies. {sup 90}Sr is only measured on pooled yearly samples from some dairies; these dairies covered 50% of the total production of consumption milk in Sweden in 1995. The mean value per year of {sup 137}Cs for the whole country has decreased from 0.52 to 0.26 Bq/l between 1991 and 1996, which corresponds to a committed effective dose equivalent for humans of 1.1-0.50 microSv for {sup 137}Cs. For {sup 90}Sr during the 1991-1996 period the country-wide mean varied between 0.08 and 0.06 Bq/l, resulting in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.4-0.3 microSv. 7 refs.

  15. Skyggedom av enkepensjonsdommen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rognlien, Ida Gundersby

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgaven undersøker om bortfall av ektefellepensjon ved lovendring med tilbakevirkende kraft er i strid med retten til eiendom etter EMK TP 1 art 1. Skyggedommetoden/ Feminist Judgments -metoden brukes for å gjenskrive enkepensjonsdommen Rt.2006.262 i et feministisk perspektiv. Da mannen døde.......1975.220. I spørsmålet om inngrepet er proporsjonalt ble vektlagt at det ikke foreligger en transparent avveining av de relevante interessene. Videre er hensynene bak og behovene for den opprinnelige ektefellepensjonen fortsatt tilstede, og de er ikke tilstrekkelig avveid mot formålene med inngrepet...

  16. Forenkling av tekniske systemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Førland-Larsen, Arne; Bramslev, Katharina; Halderaker, Ingrid

    De fleste moderne kontorbygg har omfattende tekniske installasjoner. Mange byggeiere opplever at dagens kompliserte tekniske anlegg ikke fungerer som de skal. De ender med å få reklamasjoner, høyt energiforbruk og klager på inneklima. Kan en kraftig forenkling av ventilasjons-, oppvarmings- og...

  17. En av gutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Cecilie Basberg; Rysst, Mari; Bjerck, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Hvilken betydning har kjønn og klær for kvinner som arbeider i mannsdominerte arbeiderklasseyrker? Forfatterne av denne artikkelen finner at kvinnene må nedtone sitt kjønn og sin seksualitet gjennom å dekke til kroppen, i klær laget for menn, for å signalisere at de er på jobb for å arbeide. Hvor...

  18. Summer Student Report - AV Workflow

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    The AV Workflow is web application which allows cern users to publish, update and delete videos from cds. During my summer internship I implemented the backend of the new version of the AV Worklow in python using the django framework.

  19. Validering av Evolution 220

    OpenAIRE

    Krakeli, Tor-Arne

    2013-01-01

    - Det har blitt kjøpt inn et nytt spektrofotometer (Evolution 220, Thermo Scientific) til BioLab Nofima. I den forbindelsen har det blitt utført en validering som involverer kalibreringsstandarder fra produsenten og en test på normal distribusjon (t-test) på to metoder (Total fosfor, Tryptofan). Denne valideringen fant Evolution 220 til å være et akseptabelt alternativ til det allerede benyttede spektrofotometeret (Helios Beta). På bakgrunn av noen instrumentbegrensninger må de aktuelle an...

  20. Ultralydfremstilling av fostervekst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synnøve Lian Johnsen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultralyd billeddanning er i dag den beste undersøkelsesmetoden vi har til å overvåke fosterets utvikling og vekst. Ultralydmåling av fosterets størrelse og biometriske referansetabeller for svangerskapet brukes til å fastsette svangerskapets alder, beregne termin og vurdere fosterets vekst. Optimal studiedesign er ulik for hvert av disse formålene. Det er stor variasjon i fysiologisk vekst og en utfordring å identifisere fostre som har dårlig tilvekst. En enkeltmåling av fosteret kan fortelle oss om det er lite eller stort i forhold til andre fostre, men ikke om størrelsen er passelig i forhold til forventet fysiologisk vekst for dette fosteret. Tilpassede referansemodeller ("customised" justerer forventet størrelse i relasjon til føtale og maternelle faktorer og har vist seg å bedre identifisere sanne veksthemmede fostre enn bare å klassifisere i henhold til 2,5, 5 eller 10 persentilen. Men et foster som i utgangspunktet er stort for alderen, men etter hvert vokser langsomt vil ikke nødvendigvis bli fanget opp ved en slik enkeltmåling. Serielle målinger vil hjelpe, men en slik longitudinell metode blir ikke fullt ut utnyttet før det appliseres betinget ("conditional" vekstberegning. Betingelsesleddene for variasjon i vekst og målemetode kalkuleres ut fra longitudinelle data og kan så anvendes for det enkelte foster. En første måling brukes til å beregne forventet vekst og variasjon for en neste måling. Denne metoden forventes å skjerpe diagnostikken for vekst-avvik i alle vektklasser og kan sammen med tilpasningen av andre faktorer bedre overvåkningen av risikosvangerskapUltrasonographic imaging is today the best method for assessing fetal size and monitoring fetal growth. Ultrasound measurements of fetal size are used for age, size and growth assessment, but the statistical design and analysis are different for each of these purposes. Physiological ranges for fetal growth are wide and the identification of fetal

  1. Helseeffekter av byluftpartikler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Refsnes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Svevestøv i byluft består av forbrenningspartikler og mineralpartikler med svært forskjellige størrelser og kjemiske egenskaper. Svevestøvet kan deles inn i størrelsesfraksjoner som PMAmbient particulate matter (PM comprises particles from different combustion processes and a variety of mineral particles. The particles vary widely in size distribution and chemical/physical characteristics. PM is often divided into size fractions with different aerodynamic diameters: PM10 (PM ! 10 mm, PM2.5 (PM ! 2.5 mm and PM0.1 (PM ! 0.1 mm. Recent population studies have found an association between an increase in mortality and morbidity due to lung and/or cardiovascular disease and short-term increases in PM. The relative risk (RR was approximately 1.005 for an increase in 10 mg/m3 PM10, without an observed threshold even at concentrations below 10 mg/m3. Chronic exposure has been investigated to a lesser extent, but longterm exposure to PM2.5 has been found to be associated with an approximately 10-fold greater increase in RR than short-term exposures. Experimental studies with volunteers in chamber and field studies show mild lung or cardiovascular responses at concentrations of ambient particles (PM2.5/PM10: 100-200 mg/m3 that may occur during episodes of air pollution. Animal studies at higher concentrations have shown stronger responses. The experimental studies support the epidemiological evidence for an adverse health effect of PM. Both population- and experimental studies indicate the existence of vulnerable individuals. At low to average ambient concentrations there seems to exist a discrepancy between the results of population- and experimental studies that might be due to the absence of the most vulnerable individuals in the experimental studies. Together with cell culture experiments, human and animal studies indicate the importance of physical and chemical properties of the particles (size, content of metals, organics, endotoxins, etc. for

  2. Læring av erfaring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramvi, Ellen

    Hva skal til for å lære av erfaring? Denne avhandlingen er en empirisk baseret undersøkelse av ungdosmskolelæreres muligheter og betingelser for å "lære av erfaring" i den særlige betydning av begrepet  W. Bion gir i sin psykoanalytiske teori. Undersøgelsen baserer seg på et feltarbeid som strekker...... seg over ett skoleår. Datamaterialet ble samlet inn via observerasjoner og mer eller mindre strukturerte samtaler med lærere ved to forskellige norske ungdsomsskoler. Analysen av materialet foregår i to trinn: først en fenomenologisk analyse, tett på lærernes egne beskrivelser og refleksjoner av...... lærerarbeidet, dets udfordringer og vanskeligheter, og deretter en psykoanalytisk perspektivering av de fenomenologiske analyseresultatene. Analysen viser en almindelig lærerhverdag og en skoleorganisation, hvor lærernes "læring av erfaring" i stor utstrekning blokkeres i et vekselspill mellem lærernes flukt...

  3. Optimization and Technical/Economical Evaluation of Biogas Production from Biosludge from Pulp and Paper Mills; Optimering och teknisk/ekonomisk utvaerdering av biogasproduktion fraan bioslam fraan massa-/pappersbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, Xu-Bin; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Joergen; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2010-04-15

    The biogas potentials from biosludges from six different pulp- and paper mills have been evaluated. It ranged from 100 - 200 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS (volatile solids) for all six mills where five of them gave results between 150 - 200 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS. Long-term semi-continuous trials with biosludges from two of the mills showed stable biogas production throughout the testing period. Pretreatments with enzymes and ultrasound were tested but showed no significant effect on the methane potential. The investment costs for two production plants were calculated. For a small plant using 7 ton biosludge TS/d (total solids per day), producing 305 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 30 MSEK and for a larger plant using 20 ton biosludge TS/d, producing 871 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 51 MSEK (1 USD approx 7 SEK)

  4. Patient doses from x-ray examinations in Sweden - a compilation of the results from the reports from the Swedish health care 1999; Patientdoser fraan roentgenundersoekningar i Sverige - sammanstaellning av resultaten fraan sjukvaardens rapportering 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitz, W.; Joensson, Helene

    2001-01-01

    In early 1999 the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) requested data on patient doses and frequency of x-ray examinations from the 30 licensees with the largest activities. This was comprising five conventional x-ray examinations, mammography and six computed tomography examinations. Patient doses and other relevant data from roughly 400 x-ray stands with an average of 20 patients each were reported. The average of the patient doses was calculated for each x-ray stand and examination type. The average values for the twelve types of examinations varied with a factor up to 15. It must be emphasized that a judgement of x-ray examinations based on one single parameter, the patient dose, is not fair. Low doses may imply poor diagnostic accuracy, high doses may be justified when the patient sample is representing many unusual clinical problems which are leading to more excessive examinations, which might be the case in e. g. university hospitals. Another problem is that the various examination types are not defined unambiguously, meaning that the clinical problem to be solved and hence the extent of the examination may differ between various clinics. Some parameters that are directly influencing the spread in patient dose have been identified, e. g. different sensitivities of the image receptors, different numbers of projections, differences in patient anatomy and different fluoroscopy times. It became obvious that the large dose variations cannot be accounted for by merely medical reasons. This is supported by the response from clinics after being informed that their doses were high. Straight forward countermeasures for dose reduction could be taken as e. g. changing the (insensitive) image receptor, increasing the filtration or modifying the examination methodology. Based on these results SSI will continue with the work of introducing diagnostic reference levels. In addition to numerical values and instructions on how and how often assessments have to be performed examples on good medical practice will be given, a task that will involve also representatives from various medical professions.

  5. Mödrars upplevelser av att drabbas av postpartumdepression

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Rebecca; Pitkämäki, Kia

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund: Postpartumdepression (PPD) drabbar mellan 8-15% av alla kvinnor som föder barn och innebär stora påfrestningar för både modern, partnern och spädbarnet. Utvecklandet av PPD har multifaktoriella orsaker som tidigare psykiatrisk sjukdom, dåligt parförhållande och brist på socialt stöd. Syfte: Studiens syfte var att undersöka kvinnors upplevelser av postpartumdepression. Metod: Studien är en litteraturöversikt där vetenskapliga artiklar motsvarande studiens syfte granskades. Samtliga a...

  6. Verdsettelse av Bremnes Seashore AS

    OpenAIRE

    Selle, Simon Flatebø

    2017-01-01

    Siden etablering i 1946 har Bremnes Seashore AS ønsket å levere verdens beste lakseprodukt. Det startet i det små med pigghå og regnbueørret før det i 1970 ble satset på det vi i dag kjenner som kommersiell lakseoppdrett. Bremnes beskrives av Innovasjon Norge som bransjerevolusjonær. Spesielt viktig var deres utvikling og implementering av pre-rigor foredling som i dag utgjør standarden for ethvert moderne fiskeslakteri. I nyere tid ønsker de å gjøre det igjen med utvikling av ...

  7. Lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    En miljømessig effektiv lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger sikter mot å begrense - og helst redusere - biltrafikk og miljøproblemer knyttet til bytransport, sammenliknet med alternative lokaliseringer. En effektiv transportmessig lokalisering kan også bidra til å redusere tap av verdifulle...... arealer (f eks jordbruksareal eller natur- og friluftsområder) utenfor dagens tettstedsgrense. Tiltaket må samtidig utformes slik at en kan bevare viktige bomiljøkvaliteter og så mye som mulig av de grønne arealene innenfor tettbebyggelsen....

  8. Motorsystem : Roderstyrning av autonom segelrobot

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Examensarbetet har gjorts på begäran av ÅSR (Åland Sailing Robots) genom Anna Friebe. Syftet med arbetet är att skapa energisnålt motorsystem för styrning av vindflöjeln och roder till 4 meter lång segelrobot som ägs av ÅSR. Ett exemplar av den styranordningen som jag anser kommer att fungera bäst för en robotsegelbåt har konstruerats och kopplats upp på testbänk där jag sedan har lämnat över arbetet för programmering. I detta arbete har jag undersökt motorer, givare, motorstyrni...

  9. Effektivisering av arbetet med rumsbeskrivningar

    OpenAIRE

    Enström, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    För att ta byggbranschen till nästa steg i utvecklingen är BIM det naturliga steget. Iteorin tycks många av lösningarna som medföljer implementationen av BIM varaenkla att förstå och skapa, i praktiken ligger dock de tekniska lösningarna långt ifrånen full implementation i branschen. I arbetet med olika typer av beskrivningar inomett byggprojekt har utvecklingen med hjälp av BIM stått still länge. Då det inte finnsnågot vedertaget sätt att utnyttja en BIM-modells information för att fylla oli...

  10. Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunin, V.; Alekseev, V.; Akim, E.; Eubanks, M.; Kingham, K.; Treuhaft, R.; Sukhanov, K.

    1995-01-01

    A proposed new space radio astronomy mission for astrometry is described. The Astrometry VLBI (very long baseline) in Space (AVS) nominal mission includes two identical spacecraft, each with a 4-m antenna sending data to a 70-m ground station. The goals of AVS are improving astrometry accuracy to the microarcsecond level and improving the accuracy of the transformation between the inertial radio and optical coordinate reference frames.

  11. Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Reyes, George

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a new space radio astronomy mission for astrometry using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) called Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS). The ultimate goals of AVS are improving the accuracy of radio astrometry measurements to the microarcsecond level in one epoch of measurements and improving the accuracy of the transformation between the inertial radio and optical coordinate reference frames. This study will also assess the impact of this mission on astrophysics astrometry and geophysics.

  12. Klubbhusverksamheten - Betydelse av dagligt arbete

    OpenAIRE

    Niskanen, Karolina

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med undersökningen är att beskriva klubbhusmedlemmarnas uppfattning om det dagliga arbetet och dess betydelse för välmående i vardagen. Undersökningen utfördes i form av kvalitativa intervjuer med fem medlemmar av klubbhuset Pelaren i Mariehamn. Forskningsfrågorna som skulle besvaras var hur klubbhusmedlemmarna uppfattar arbete, vad arbete har för betydelse för deras hälsa, vilka aktiviteter de upplever som betydelsefulla i klubbhusverksamheten samt vad i klubbhusmiljön som stöder dem ...

  13. Simulering av muskelaktivitet vid pedalbromsning

    OpenAIRE

    Ejdepalm, Erik; Westerdahl, Walter

    2009-01-01

    En muskeloskeletal kroppsmodell har undersökts med avseende på maximal muskelbelastning genom biomekanisk simulering i programmet AnyBody. En kroppsmodell har låtits interagera med ett reglage i form av en bromspedal från en Saab 9-3 och muskelbelastningen till följd av att pedalen trampas ned har minimerats. De parametrar hos pedalen som har varierats är initialvinkeln och returfjäderns fjäderkonstant. Den sits på vilken kroppsmodellen sitter har flyttats vertikalt och horisontellt i förhåll...

  14. Weight reduction, energy loss and gaseous emissions for different collection systems for food waste from households; Viktreducering, energifoerlust och gasemissioner vid olika insamlingssystem av matavfall fraan hushaall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternald, Olle [and others

    2010-09-15

    This project investigates the weight reduction of biodegradable household waste for different types of collections systems. The report is based on empirical experiments simulating the path taken by biodegradable waste through the different systems, from kitchen to final treatment. Data from the empirical experiments have been coordinated with existing data covering the quantities of bio waste collection received by final treatment facilities. This project has resulted in updated data, which reflects the quantities of the biodegradable waste generated at household level. Through this data, it has been possible to calculate the effectiveness of the different systems for collecting biodegradable waste, including their effectiveness as a source for biogas and soil conditioner. The results regarding waste weight reduction show that systems that use paper bags give a substantial weight reduction in both the kitchen (12%) as well as in the garbage disposal container, resulting in an average total weight reduction of 27%. For the bio-plastic bag, there is a small, measurable weight reduction of 7% in the kitchen. One-family household containers also show a reduction but for multiple households contains (typically used for apartment blocks) the reduction was much smaller. The average total weight reduction for bio-plastic systems was 10%. The corresponding value for total weight reduction for plastic bags in an optical system was 2%-4%, with an average of 2%. The largest share of the reduction consists of water, but some carbon is also emitted. Another conclusion of the report it that a larger share of the biodegradable waste generated by the Swedish households is collected than previously assumed. The data for generated (collected) biodegradable waste material shows higher levels and larger differences between the different collection systems than the data for the received (weighted) material at the treatment facilities. The data shows the effectiveness of each system and is significant for the biogas extraction levels and soil conditioner qualities. It is desirable that a large share of the biodegradable household waste is collected, both from an environmental perspective as well as in order to meet the Swedish national targets for biodegradable waste collection. Correlating existing data with data from the empirical experiments shows that 185 kg of biodegradable waste is collected from households using a paper bag-based system and 122 kg from household using a plastic bag-based system. This is equivalent to a 50% higher collection level for paper bag systems compared with plastic bag systems. The equivalent amount of bio waste is reduced in the combustible waste. Based on these numbers, the paper bag based systems offers 39% more methane per connected household than an optical plastic bag based system. Per kilogram incoming wet material, the there is a 23% methane advantage for the paper-based system. However, there is no significant difference in methane content per collected amount of bio waste between the methods. The data sample for bioplastic bags is too small in order to be included in the comparison. The carbon dioxide emissions show that a decomposition process of biodegradable waste is occurring in all types of collection systems. The nitrous oxide emissions are most likely negligible from an environmental perspective, although the results are not statistically verified. No measurable emission levels of methane can be detected, which is very encouraging from an environmental perspective

  15. Conversion of lime kilns from oil firing to biofuel firing: Operating experience and modelling; Konvertering av mesaugnar fraan olje- till biobraensleeldning: Drifterfarenheter och modellering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsborn, Rickard; Berglin, Niklas; Richards, Tobias

    2007-12-15

    Alternative fuels and techniques affect the operation of the lime kiln and the recausticizing plant, as well as the liquor cycle. An important effect is due to the introduction of non-process elements (NPEs), e.g. potassium, phosphorus and magnesium that accumulate in the liquor and lime cycles, respectively. Temperature profile and flame stability in the kiln also tend to change, which may have effects on ring formation. Availability and maintenance requirements for different technical solutions are important for the real saving of fossil fuel that can be reached over a longer period. The project has aimed to compile experience of the type indicated above, and to develop tools that may facilitate conversion to biofuel firing. The objective has been to gain comprehensive knowledge of the biofuels that can be used for lime kiln firing and compare them, focusing on practical experience from the plants that use or have used biofuels. One goal has been to develop validated models that can be used to describe changes that occur in the lime kiln and the chemical recovery cycle when changing fuels. The primary target group for the report is people working with energy and process related tasks in the pulp industry, and those delivering fuels or system solutions to the industry. The project has comprised data collection and modelling, as well as interviews with operations managers and visits to the mills that have several years of experience with firing of biofuels to replace oil in the lime kiln. A compilation of operating experience shows that conversion to biofuel firing is fully possible with both bark and wood powder, or with fuel gas from gasification of bark or wood shavings, and that the biofuel can replace the main part of the fuel oil in the lime kiln. However, the possibility to introduce biofuels into the lime kiln varies from mill to mill, as the mill have different possibilities to handle variations in availability of the kiln and mass flows of lime. In general, maintenance requirements increase considerably, where the major cause of unplanned stops is in the drying, e.g. fires are common. Bed agglomeration is a common cause of shutdowns in the gasifiers. There is a risk for decreased capacity in both the lime kiln and in the white liquor preparation. In general, the availability of the biofuel systems is low or very low compared to other parts of a modern kraft pulp mill. Mass balance calculations show that the amount of make-up lime needed to maintain low concentrations of impurities in the lime mud will increase to a varying extent for different biofuels. Lignin, tall oil, and wood powder give relatively small increases. Firing of bark powder causes an increase in the demand for make-up lime by 2-3 kg/ADt. An increase in the potassium and chloride levels is also to be expected when firing biofuels. These effects may be acceptable in some mills, while other mills have low tolerance towards the increased flows and concentrations. Studies of the effects in mill by mill are thus recommended. Simulation of flows and temperature profiles have been carried out and validated for two cases: bark powder in one mill (A) and gasified bark in another mill (C). When comparing the temperature of the solid material in the kiln at mill A it is pointed out that it is not possible to reach the same hot-end temperatures as with oil and that are needed for proper sintering of the lime particles. Simulation of fuel gas from gasified bark in mill C shows that both capacity and lime quality could stay unchanged when converting from fuel oil. It should be noted that the assumptions regarding flame length have great influence on the maximum temperature and thereby also on the degree of sintering of the reburned lime. Lignin shows a temperature profile similar to fuel oil, provided that it has been dried to the same low moisture content as the bark powder

  16. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The remaining 76% is probably to be found in the silicate matrix. Through multivariate calculations (PCA and MLR) and geochemical calculations (PHREEQC) aluminium and sulphate have been identified as being important for antimony leaching from the ashes. It is thus likely that ettringite governs antimony leachability at alkaline pH. When ettringite is solubilized the leachability of antimony will be dependent on the presence of effective sorbents. To decrease the leachability of antimony from the ashes addition of sulphate solution to the ashes is suggested, to increase the stability of ettringite at alkaline pH. Below the pH-range where ettringite is stable addition of manganese solution would give a new effective sorbent for antimony in solution. It was also noted that all fly ashes with addition of activated carbon did not exceed any guide lines for antimony leaching.

  17. Water Activities in Forsmark (Part I). Removal of groundwater from final repository for spent fuel; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark (del I). Bortledande av grundvatten fraan slutfoervarsanlaeggningen foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [EmpTec (Sweden); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per [Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The construction, operation and decommissioning of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark are associated with a number of measures that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code. This report is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and describes water operations in the form of groundwater diversion from the repository (the report is also included in the permit application according to the Nuclear Activities Act). The main objective of the report is to describe hydrogeological and hydrological effects and the consequences that may arise in the surroundings of the repository due to the groundwater diversion. Moreover, the report presents prevention measures to reduce the effects of the groundwater diversion and mitigation measures that aim at its consequences

  18. Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content; Metodutveckling foer indirekt bestaemning av PAH-halt utgaaende fraan maett momentan CO-halt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingman, Rolf; Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult Stockholm AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the project 'Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content' is to investigate the possibility to develop a method for continuous optimisation of NO{sub x}-emissions by decreased air ratio, without significant increase of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as PAH. The general idea has been to find a indirect online method to predict the emissions of heavier hydrocarbons by: - creating a correlation between the content of CO and PAH, - controlling the air ratio by the CO-content, and - integrating the calculated PAH-content from CO-content. Today many boilers are operated with a low air ratio to minimise the NO{sub x} content and the NO{sub x}-fee. A low ratio increases the risk of high CO contents in the flue gas as well as increased contents of VOC and PAH. Other boilers are operated with high air ratios in order to minimise the CO content, which in some cases will result in unnecessary high NO{sub x} emissions. One of the main difficulties in optimising the air ratio to the most environmental friendly level is the lack of a suitable and well proven PAH instrument. There are today no available instruments for instantaneous and continuous measurement of PAH. PAH is normally measured as an average value during a period of at least one hour. It is not possible to detect short peaks. The development of the CO-method has been based on data from a CFB-boiler in Korsta in Sundsvall (Vaermeforskrapport 541). The data shows a clear correlation between THC and CO. The correlation seems to be mostly dependent of moisture content and load. The development presented in the report shows that it is possible to find a method to predict the PAH content from the CO-content in the flue gas. The next phase aims to improve and implement the method, by measurements and adaptation in a plant. The practical use of the method is as a tool to optimise the emission of CO, NO{sub x}, THC and PAH and/or to predict the PAH-emission during continuous operation.

  19. Solid fuels - A round robin test of solid residual products from heating plants. Fasta braenslen - cirkelanalys av fasta restprodukter fraan foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwall, J; Samuelsson, R [Sveriges Lanbruksuniversitet, Enheten foer Biomassa, Energi- och Fibergroedor, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1992-03-01

    A round robin test, where six ashes (three coal ashes and three bioashes) were analyzed with respect to 'fuelspecific' parameters, major and minor elements and trace elements, has been carried out. Thirteen laboratories from Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway participated and the purpose of the investigation was to compare and evaluate common methods of analysis for ashes. The standard deviation of the used methods was compared to the precision calculated from the reported reproducability in corresponding standard methods for fuels. The results show that, without taking the significant outliers into account, the precision of the analysis of moisture content, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and the predominant part of major and minor elements was of the order of the corresponding analysis for fuels. The analysis of carbon and calorific value showed a variation somewhat higher than that for fuel analysis, while the results for volatile matter and the tracer elements were considerably less precise. The result for the amount of unburned matter showed significant groupings, not only between the ashes but also between the laboratories. The groupings were explained mainly by the different experimental parameters used during the ashing step. (au) (5 refs., 10 figs., 38 tabs.).

  20. Solid fuels - A round robin test of solid residual products from heating plants; Fasta braenslen - cirkelanalys av fasta restprodukter fraan foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwall, J; Samuelsson, R [Sveriges Lanbruksuniversitet, Enheten foer Biomassa, Energi- och Fibergroedor, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1992-03-01

    A round robin test, where six ashes (three coal ashes and three bioashes) were analyzed with respect to `fuelspecific` parameters, major and minor elements and trace elements, has been carried out. Thirteen laboratories from Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway participated and the purpose of the investigation was to compare and evaluate common methods of analysis for ashes. The standard deviation of the used methods was compared to the precision calculated from the reported reproducability in corresponding standard methods for fuels. The results show that, without taking the significant outliers into account, the precision of the analysis of moisture content, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and the predominant part of major and minor elements was of the order of the corresponding analysis for fuels. The analysis of carbon and calorific value showed a variation somewhat higher than that for fuel analysis, while the results for volatile matter and the tracer elements were considerably less precise. The result for the amount of unburned matter showed significant groupings, not only between the ashes but also between the laboratories. The groupings were explained mainly by the different experimental parameters used during the ashing step. (au) (5 refs., 10 figs., 38 tabs.).

  1. System analyse cellulose ethanol in combines - Combustion characterisation of lignin from cellulose based ethanol production; Systemanalys foer cellulosabaserad etanol i kombinat - Foerbraenningskarakterisering av lignin fraan cellulosabaserad etanolproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstedt, Jan; Wingren, Anders; Magnusson, Staffan; Wiinikka, Henrik; Westbom, Urban; Lidman, Marcus; Groenberg, Carola

    2012-02-15

    In this work 3 different hydrolysed lignin fractions produced from Sugarcane Bagasse, Spruce and Wheat Straw were burned in a 150 kW horizontal furnace equipped with a powder burner to assess the combustion behaviour of hydrolysed lignin fuels. The combustion experiments showed that the feeding properties of all three lignin fractions were better compared to ordinary wood powder

  2. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass - A techno-economic study of pretreatment with NMMO; Biogas fraan lignocellulosa - Tekno-ekonomisk utvaerdering av foerbehandling med NMMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Berglund Odhner, Peter; Teghammar, Anna; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam, Olsson, Marcus; Ascue, Johnny

    2013-09-01

    Biogas has been identified as one of the most cost-effective renewable fuels. In order to increase biogas production, yields from traditionally substrates either need to be improved or other alternative substrates must be made available for anaerobic digestion. Cellulose and lignocellulose rich wastes are available in large amounts and have great potential to be utilized for biogas production. This project focused on the optimization of the pretreatment conditions when using the organic solvent N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) to enhance the methane yield from forest residues and straw. It also focused on a techno-economic evaluation of this pre-treatment technology. NMMO has previously been shown to be effective in dissolving cellulose and, as a consequence, in increasing the methane yield during the subsequent digestion. The goal of this project was to develop a technology that increases energy production from domestic substrates in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way. The treatment works well at lower temperatures (9 C), which means that water from the district heating system can advantageously be used in the treatment. The results showed that treatment with NMMO at 90 deg C doubles the methane yield from forest residues and increases the methane yield from straw by 50 %. For the techno-economic evaluation, the base case was assumed to be a facility with a capacity of 100 000 tones forest residues/year. After a washing and filtration step, the treated material will be utilized in a co-digestion process where 33 % of the incoming material consists of forest residues and the rest is source-sorted household waste. The scale-up, process design, simulation and calculations were made using the software tool Intelligent SuperPro Design. The total investment costs were calculated to be about 145 million, when forest residues or straw are to be used as raw material. Costs for operation (i.e. raw materials, energy, waste management, maintenance and personnel costs) were set against the incomes from the products (i.e. methane, carbon dioxide and the lignin-rich digested residue) to see if the process was profitable. The internal return rate (IRR), a parameter that indicates whether a process is profitable or not, indicated that evaluated processes with capacities over 50 000 tons forest residues/year are profitable. However, co-digestion of forest residues with sewage sludge instead of household waste was not profitable. Both the laboratory results and the energy and economic calculations showed that the washing and filtration step is critical for the proposed process. The energy balance calculation resulted in an EROI value of 0.5, which means that the produced methane from forest residues counted up only the half of the energy needed for the treatment as well as NMMO separation and recycling. It is important to separate the NMMO well after the treatment, since remaining NMMO at concentrations higher than 0.002 % were found to inhibit the subsequent digestion step. Also it was showed out to be important that the washing step operates with small amounts of water to save energy within the NMMO recovery. A rotary vacuum filtration is therefore recommended for the washing and filtration step, and a mechanical vapor design is recommended for the evaporation, saving up to 70 - 90 % energy compared to a conventional design. Treatment of straw with recycled instead of fresh NMMO has also been tested and equal amounts of methane were obtained. After a well-functioning washing and filtration step, NMMO could not be detected in the di gestate residue.

  3. Outlet of products of biological treatment- what will be the future problems and opportunities?; Avsaettning av energiprodukter fraan biologisk behandling - vilka fraagestaellningar kommer att bli aktuella?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, Hanna

    2010-01-15

    Biological treatment and related products is a topical subject, which increases year after year, not only in Sweden but all over the world. In this phase of expansion, it is interesting to find out what subjects could become relevant for products from this treatment method in the future. The following products are incorporated in the concept 'energy products' from biological treatment: sludge from sewage treatment plants, digestate from waste digestion plants, biogas, ethanol, and products from biorefinery. Questions regarding the process of these products are not included in this project. The purpose is to bring forward a catalogue of ideas of current and future topics in the field of biological treatment. The goal is to identify development projects which could be of interest for upcoming programs at Waste Refinery. Issues and project proposals for each product have been identified by the writer's network, and in discussions tabled at a workshop arranged by Waste Refinery in the autumn of 2009. At the present time, almost all digestate is sold, but there are problems. Though the plants have found an outlet for their products, they do not receive adequate return on them. Moreover, a lot of water is being transported. Many stakeholders within Waste Refinery, as well as external stakeholders, have requested a project on refining of digestate. Other topical issues regarding digestate are how new, non-food substrates and additives affect the quality of the digestate. Sewage treatment plants have to pay large amounts of money for the disposal of sludge. If Waste Refinery can include sewage sludge in their range of work, there will be several synergies between sludge and digestate. Matters, that need to be solved in the near future, are how to best achieve hygienisation of sewage sludge in order to guarantee salmonella-free sludge. As for biogas, the demand will be determined by factors such as the access of raw material, whether it becomes a vehicle fuel to count on in the future, taxes and means of control (i.e. environmental objectives). Concrete project proposals regarding the gas composition and measurement of raw gas, as well as the minimization of emissions have been received. There are also many questions regarding the distribution of biogas. As for ethanol, the questions primarily regard the process and new substrates identified in interesting fields. Such matters and project ideas have, however, not been considered, as this report is intended to identify questions about the products. Contact with various ethanol producers and researchers has shown that there is, as it seems, no need for further development of ethanol as a product. Waste Refinery has already touched the subject of biorefinery in the WR 20 project, refinement of digestion residue. No project proposals have been identified for products from biorefinery, either by the writer's network or during the workshop. One proposal is to do a more thorough study of biorefinery under the management of Waste Refinery

  4. The injection of TASS-tunnel. Design, implementation and results from the pre-injection; Injekteringen av TASS-tunneln. Design, genomfoerande och resultat fraan foerinjekteringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funehag, Johan (Chalmers university of technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Emmelin, Ann (Golder Associates (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The Swedish repository facility for spent nuclear fuel will be placed in crystalline rock at a depth of 400-500 m. In order to limit groundwater inflow to the facility, grouting is planned. To comply with the stringent material, execution and inflow restrictions, a series of research and development projects concerned with rock characterization for grouting, grouting materials and grouting design have been carried out by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). The understanding and methods developed were tested in the sealing project carried out at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL), Sweden, and presented in this report. The project consisted of the construction of a short tunnel at 450 m depth, the TASS-tunnel. Grouting was conducted as pre-grouting using ordinary grouting fans outside the planned tunnel contour, as well as with grout holes entirely within the planned contour. A cement-based low-pH grout and a silica based grouting agent, silica sol, were used. The methodology used included determination of the fracture transmissivity distribution; identification of the smallest hydraulic aperture that needs to be sealed; grout selection based on fracture aperture and grout penetrability; design of grout hole geometry, grouting pressure and time in order to achieve the penetration length required; and monitoring of the actual execution based on inflow in control holes with subsequent design revision. Special concern was given to equipment and execution due to the high groundwater pressures, 3.5 MPa. Before starting the construction, inflow to core drilled holes along the tunnel position amounted to 45-90 liters/minute. The project showed that it was possible to limit the inflow to the target value 1 liter/minute per 60 m tunnel

  5. Waste treatment in a systems perspective - Summary report -; Systemstudie Avfall - Sammanfattning - Sammanfattning av huvudresultat fraan projektet 'Termisk och biologisk avfallsbehandling i ett systemperspektiv'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Johan; Bisaillon, Mattias; Haraldsson, Maarten; Norrman Eriksson, Ola; Sahlin, Jenny; Nilsson, Karolina

    2010-07-01

    The report 'Waste treatment in a systems perspective - Summary report' summarizes the main results from the studies made within the research project 'Thermal and biological treatment in a systems perspective'. The aim of the project is to develop tools and methodologies for systems analysis of waste management. The tools are used to evaluate waste treatment technologies for both household waste and commercial waste in a systems perspective. The focus is set to the municipal/regional waste and district heating system. However, to generate a full system analysis it is also important to consider effects that occur in the systems environment, such as the transport sector, the electricity production system, the agricultural sector etc. The report describes the benefits of using systems models for waste management planning by illustrating interesting results from the case studies made within the framework of the project. The report also presents the outcome from the whole project on an aggregated level as well as how the results and models have been used in different spin off projects. More thorough descriptions of models, methodologies and results are given in the reports for the two case studies, mainly. These reports presents two different case studies for municipal/regional waste management systems and are published by Waste Refinery, 'A systems study of the waste management system in Gothenburg' and 'A systems study of the waste management system in Boraas'. The models and methodology developed in the research project has been used in several 'spin-off projects'. Some of the main results of these studies will be presented in this report, together with references to more extensive descriptions. We can conclude, after these three years of research, that the results from the system studies have been used for the practical waste management planning in both Boraas and Gothenburg. The models and the results from the two case studies have also been used by other waste management systems in Sweden as well as for national waste management studies. The project has been presented internationally for researchers and practitioners where it has contributed with modelling knowledge and results presenting the effectiveness of integrated waste management combined with district heating systems. The results concerning options for reducing greenhouse gases have also reached the political arena in the EU, e.g. through ISWA to the Copenhagen meeting (COP15)

  6. Evaluation of Co-Digestion of Biosludge from Pulp and Paper Mills; Utvaerdering av samroetningspotential foer bioslam fraan massa-/pappersbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Andreas; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Joergen; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2011-02-15

    The biogas potentials from 2 biosludges from the pulp- and paper industry and 10 possible co-digestion substrates have been evaluated. 6 combinations, each including two co-digestion substrates and one biosludge, were evaluated in lab scale biogas reactors. Stable biogas processes were obtained with all combinations and the rawgas potential was higher in the co-digestion processes then for the biosludges alone (0.31- 0.43 compared to 0.21- 0.22 NL/g VS) The investment costs for two production plants were calculated. For a plant using 7 ton biosludge TS/d (total solids per day), co-digested with evaporation condensate (3 m3/d) and fibre sludge (3 ton/d) and thereby producing 850 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 43 MSEK excluding ground works. For a larger plant using 20 ton biosludge TS/d, co-digested with food waste (8 ton/d) and cereal residues (12 ton/d) and producing 2 500 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr, the investment cost was estimated to 51 MSEK excluding ground works

  7. Use of ashes from straw and grass on agricultural land. Conditions and recommendations; Spridning av aska fraan straabraenslen paa aakermark. Foerutsaettningar och rekommendationer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadders, G.; Floden, S.

    1997-12-31

    The composition of ashes from straw fuel varies depending on the plant species, any fertilisation during the growing season, and weather conditions during the year in question, etc. The composition of ashes will also vary depending on what type of boiler the fuel has been combusted in. In this report the discussion has been restricted to so-called `grate boilers` with a capacity of <5 MW. In such boilers one can distinguish between the so-called `bottom ashes` from the boiler grate and the `fly-ashes` which are extracted from exhaust gases. Today there are no regulations prescribing how ashes from straw and energy crops shall be handled. However, there is a policy on biofuel ash recycling which was developed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. In their policy the Environmental Protection Agency states that `whatever is removed may be returned`. Through the use of ashes from straw fuels as plant nutrients, the nutrients removed at harvest are returned. At the same time new supplies of minerals from external sources, and thereby following input of undesirable substances such as for instance cadmium, are avoided. The alternative i.e., dumping the ashes in landfills, results in unnecessary costs. In an explanatory note accompanying the agency document, it is stated that the ashes should preferably be returned to the crop and soil from which they had originated. If the ashes are to be spread on other land, the agency proposes that the restrictions imposed on sludge applications be applied here as well. In our opinion, it would be unreasonable for limitations on the use of ashes from agricultural crops as plant nutrients to be more strict than those concerning the use of fertilizers. Since chemical fertilizers can be used on any type of crop, there is no logical reason why the same should not also apply to ashes from straw fuels. Thus we recommend that the application of such ashes to non-energy crops be allowed. If there is reason to suspect high contents of undesirable metals in the soil, a soil analysis should also be performed. However, this advice applies to the use of all types of plant-nutrient amendments, not just straw fuels. Furthermore, it is unreasonable to expect each individual farm to be responsible for carrying out such an analysis. In a number of limited tests with straw ashes, lime spreaders gave better results than conventional manure-spreaders, according to the operator. However, even with this type of spreader the dose was too large. With two pages summary in English. Tables with text in English. 23 refs, 7 tabs

  8. Follow-up on analysis of dioxins in residues from Swedish waste incineration; Uppfoeljande undersoekning av dioxin i rester fraan svensk avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindskog, Aasa (Tyrens, Stockholm (Sweden)) (ed.)

    2009-10-15

    As a consequence of a debate in the late 1990's, a major study of the residues from waste incineration was performed in Sweden. In 1999, samples were collected from 21 of the 22, at the time, existing plants. Focus of the study was to analyse dioxin in flue gas treatment residue. A few analyses were also done on slag/bottom ash. A new follow-up study was decided to be carried out after some years. The present report present the result from the follow-up study from 2006 where 24 out of 29 waste incineration plants participated. Between 1999 and 2006 a number of changes have taken place in the waste incineration industry. A few new plants have been built, a few have been closed, a new and stricter law has come into force and the technical development has continued. These changes have together led to a positive development for waste incineration. As a result, the dioxin content in the flue gas residues has decreased, when the results from the two studies are being compared. The decrease is even larger for slag/bottom ash. In the 1999 study the dioxin content in the flue gas treatment residues varied from 0,2 ng/g to 18 ng/g (I-TEQ) with an average of 2-3 ng/g. The total amount for all plants was 160 g. The variation between the dioxin content in the flue gas treatment residues in the later study is smaller, the lowest value is 0,3 ng/g and the highest 5 ng/g. The average is 1,6 ng/g and the median is 1,2 ng/g, both lower that the values from 1999. The total dioxin amount for 2006 is larger than for 1999, 185 g. Although, it must be considered that the amount of incinerated waste has almost doubled during the same period. The dioxin content in the slag/bottom ash has decreased since the former study was performed. At 1999, samples of slag/bottom ash from only seven plants were analysed. The median was 0,03 ng/g and the total dioxin amount from all plants was approximated to 10 g. In the 2006 study the median amounted to 0,005 ng/g and the total amount to 9 g (calculated on wet weight). Using the same model for transforming into dry weight as in 1999, the amount equals 7 g

  9. Harvest and logistics for better profitability from small cultivations of Short Rotation Willow Coppice; Skoerdeteknik och logistik foer baettre loensamhet fraan smaa odlingar av Salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Forsberg, Maya; Rosenqvist, Haakan; Jonsson, Nils; Sundberg, Martin

    2010-06-15

    In Sweden, the political desire to increase the amount of short rotation willow coppice (Salix) plantations has been expressed. However, for various reasons interest from farmers has been low. The hypothesis of this study is that the total area of Salix cultivation can be increased by also cultivating fields smaller than those generally considered economic today. In order to lower production costs, machine systems adapted for harvest of smaller fields are required. The possibility of using farmers' existing tractors and more convenient machines, as well as achieving lower machine costs for smaller fields, may increase farmers' interest. The long-term objective is to achieve large-scale deliveries of willow with small-scale solutions at farm level, as an option and complement to today's more large-scale systems for harvesting willow. Costs, energy use and climatic impact (CO{sub 2} emissions) for two harvest and logistical chains suitable for small fields have been calculated from field to energy plant, and methods for minimizing these costs have been analyzed. Comparison is made with the direct chipping system, the most commonly used in Sweden today. The systems studied comprised: 1. Direct bundling harvest system with a tractor-towed harvester, collection of bundles in the field with a trailer-mounted crane, and storage in a pile before delivery. Chipping is performed at the energy plant. 2. Direct billeting with a tractor-towed harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and trailer for collection, and storage in a pile before delivery. 3. Direct chipping with a self-propelled modified forage harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and container for collection, and direct delivery to plant. Both the billet and bundle systems show higher costs than the direct chipping system, irrespective of field size. The analysis of different scenarios and conditions shows possibilities of lowering the costs through certain measures. Furthermore, the billets and bundles can be stored for longer periods at field's edge, unlike chips, which facilitates increased security of supply according to the needs of energy plants. This can motivate a higher payment from the plant. The drying process taking place during storage, delivers a dryer fuel, which may give added value for some customers. Hence, the choice of machine system seems to be more dependent on whether the product needs to be stored or not, rather than on field size. In addition, there are other possible advantages with the two systems that should be taken into account when comparing with the currently-used direct chipping system, such as the possibility of increased rural employment or characteristics that suit smaller fields better. An example of the latter is the fact that harvest and delivery does not need to take place at the same time, i.e. extra costs for disruptions in harvest or delivery are avoided. The most important measure for reducing total system costs for the studied billet system is to increase the harvesters' capacity. For the studied bundle system costs for field- and road transport need to be reduced. These costs can be reduced by using a more efficient system for collection of bundles in the field and by utilizing a lorry's load capacity better during transport to the plant. One way of increasing utilisation of the load capacity is to increase the density of the bundles. However this requires a new or modified construction of the harvesting machine and more knowledge of how the drying process of the bundles is affected by this

  10. Patient doses from x-ray examinations in Sweden - follow-up of remedial actions; Patientdoser fraan roentgenundersoekningar i Sverige - uppfoeljning av aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Helene; Leitz, W

    2002-03-01

    In early 1999 the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) requested data about patient doses etc. for a number of specified x-ray examinations. The aim was on one hand to get a basis for planned regulations on diagnostic reference levels (DRL) and on the other hand to obtain an overview of how the situation is in the country with respect to patient doses. The licensees who reported dose values exceeding (provisional) DRL were asked to perform investigations about the grounds for the high dose and to take remedial actions for reducing the dose. In this report the outcome is presented. The dose reductions were large: on average between 35 and 60 % for the various examinations. A large proportion of the measures taken were simple and cheap, such as increase of radiation quality, improved examination methodology (smaller radiation fields, use of compression, reduced number of images or fluoroscopy time) and optimising the film processing. This is indicating that the planned regulations on diagnostic reference levels have a good chance to succeed with a large reduction of the patient doses in Sweden.

  11. Reindeer and Wind Power - Study from the installation of two wind farms in Mala sameby; Renar och Vindkraft - Studie fraan anlaeggningen av tvaa vindkraftparker i Malaa sameby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarin, Anna; Nellemann, Christian; Sandstroem, Per; Roennegaard, Lars; Lundqvist, Henrik

    2013-05-15

    In the track of ever-expanding new infrastructure, such as wind power, roads and power lines, it becomes increasingly important to map and understand how free-ranging animals and wildlife respond. During the past decades, human - rangifer interactions have been assessed in over a hundred studies, with a strong bias on wild reindeer and caribou, although more recently also studies on domesticated reindeer in Norway, Finland, Sweden and Russia have been done with similar results. To clarify further the possible responses of domesticated reindeer to various disturbance sources, a review was made of over 15 existing disturbance studies of domesticated reindeer, we also discuss the effect of domestication on reindeer. The review shows the same pattern of avoidance in domesticated reindeer as for wild reindeer and caribou despite the domestication process. Sami reindeer husbandry today is an extensive form of pastoralism, which has led to a low degree of tameness among the reindeer. Domesticated reindeer can avoid infrastructure and human activity up to 12 km from the disturbance source and the avoided distance may shift between seasons and years and type of disturbance source, as well as diminish during periods of extreme starvation or insect harassment, similar to observation in wild reindeer and caribou. To get an overall picture of how the reindeer use their grazing land, it is therefore important to study large-scale and long-term habitat use of the reindeer whether they are domesticated or not. In this report, we want to share new information on how existing infrastructure such as roads and power lines in the landscape and construction phase of a new infrastructure for a wind farm affects the free roaming of the reindeer in a summer grazing area in a managed forest in northern Sweden.

  12. Biofuels from the forest. A study of environmental impacts and economy of different uses; Biobraensle fraan skogen. En studie av miljoekonsekvenser och ekonomi foer olika anvaendningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Amnell, Goesta; Anheden, Marie; Eidensten, Lars; Kirkegaard, Gunilla [Vattenfall Utveckling AB (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The energy and environmental council of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences initiated this study of how an additional 30 TWh/year of forest biofuel could be used in the Swedish energy system within a 10-year period. The specifications include that the forest biofuel shall be used in such a manner that the greatest possible reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will be achieved at the lowest cost without risking other environmental goals, such as good quality of local air. The figure chosen as starting point for the study, 30 TWh/year, was selected as it is this amount that available data have suggested could be extracted without negatively affecting the long-term productive capacity of forest land. The long-term potential of biofuel will probably be much larger than the volume used today, together with the additional use of 30 TWh/yr. We therefore studied fields of use that, totally, will be considerably larger than 30 TWh/yr. The starting point for comparisons of different uses for forest biofuel was the available benefit/utility for industrial, transportation and service sectors, together with domestic uses. The reference alternative was the existing uses of fossil fuels. Comparisons of different alternatives were made including differences in fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} emissions, emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust, as well as costs without environmental and energy taxes or subsidies. Monetary estimations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust in accordance with the EU ExternE Project were included in the costs. In our study, we have used two scenarios as starting points in order to cover the range of results. Summary of results: The largest reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions (generally about 0.6-1 Mtonnes CO{sub 2} /TWh forest biofuel and for heat pumps slightly more than 2 Mtonnes CO{sub 2}/TWh forest fuel) at the lowest cost are obtained when bioenergy replaces electricity produced by coal fired condensing power stations in neighbouring countries. In some of these cases, bioenergy would not imply any additional cost in comparison with the use of electricity produced by coal condensing plants. In most other cases the estimated additional costs will not be higher than about 60 SEK/tonne reduced CO{sub 2} emissions (up to 90 SEK/MWh electricity). If bioenergy in cases with additional costs is to replace electricity from coal condensing plants it is necessary to place a price on the CO{sub 2} emissions by coal power stations and/or submit them to carbon dioxide taxation. This is not the case today. Pellet boilers in multi-family houses can utilise considerable amounts of forest biofuel and provide heating at lower costs than electric boilers. District heating and cogeneration of power and district heating can also utilise large volumes of forest biofuel (up to 20 TWh resulting in more than 12 Mtonnes/year reduced CO{sub 2} emissions) at low added costs (about 60 SEK/tonne reduced CO{sub 2} emissions corresponding to 20-40 SEK/MWh district heating) in comparison with fossil alternatives. Emissions of other air pollutants can then more easily be minimised and will occur further from built-up areas. The amount of electricity that can be produced from forest biofuel at these low added costs in comparison with fossil alternatives is restricted by the level of district-heating production. Today the power transmission systems permit only limited exports of electrical power, and consequently important reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at low cost if electricity from biofuel-fired cogeneration plants, that cannot be exported, is used by new heat pumps in villas. This would also give lower emissions of other air pollutants in urban areas than if pellets or oil were used to fire the villa boilers. Heat pumps and pellet boilers will be the most favourable forest biofuel based heating alternative for villas heated by water radiators. Heat pumps give greater reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions at lower cost provided they can be assumed to be powered by electricity obtained from a forest biofuel based cogeneration plant. If transmission of electricity between Sweden and northern Europe could take place with considerably less physical restrictions than the case today, then the largest CO{sub 2} reductions at the lowest added costs would be obtained through maximal production of district heating and cogeneration electricity, heating of homes and premises that are not linked to the district heating using pellet boilers instead of electric boilers, and by reducing consumption of electricity in villas with direct electric heating by introduction of pellet stoves. In this scenario, the use of heat pumps in villas instead of electric boilers would mean reduced consumption of electricity produced by coal condensing plants and thus result in reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. However, this cannot be related to the use of forest biofuel. (abstract truncated)

  13. Bruk av kartleggingsresultater i forbedringsarbeid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Thomas; Hansen, Line Skov

    . Barnehagen har gjerne tilgang på informasjon fra kartlegginger, men det er ikke alltid denne informasjonen blir systematisk analysert og aktivt brukt i forbedringsarbeid. Forfatterne viser hvordan slike analyser kan gjennomføres på forskjellige nivåer i den enkelte barnehage, og vektlegger viktigheten av...

  14. Analyse av LOD-tiltak

    OpenAIRE

    Kunduraci, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    Endrede klimatiske forhold og større urbanisering medfører økte oversvømmelsesskader i urbane områder. Ekstreme nedbørhendelser opptrer oftere og kraftigere. Utbygging med tette flater hindrer infiltrasjon til grunnen. Den naturlige utjevningen av overvann reduseres. Dette resulterer i økende belastninger på det eksisterende avløpssystemet. Kapasiteten på avløpsnettet er mange steder overbelastet og er ikke i stand til å håndtere overvannsmengder under styrtregn. Lokal overvannsdisponering el...

  15. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part I; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  16. Deletion of groundwater from a disposal facility in Laxemar. Description of the consequences for nature values and production land; Bortledande av grundvatten fraan en slutfoervarsanlaeggning i Laxemar. Beskrivning av konsekvenser foer naturvaerden och produktionsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    SKB has chosen Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar as site for the repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes consequences for nature values, agriculture and forestry due to groundwater diversion from a repository at the non-chosen Laxemar site in the municipality of Oskarshamn. The report concerns nature values that depend on, or are favoured by, a groundwater table close to or above the ground surface. Laxemar is a valuable area from a nature conservation point of view, primarily associated to the cultural- and forest landscape and its prior use for pasture and hay-making. Hence, these values depend on factors other than the level of the groundwater table. Except for old pastures and haymaking areas, many high nature values consist of hardwood-forest groves and old solitary deciduous trees. 67 groundwater-dependent or groundwater-favoured nature objects (wetlands, pieces of forest and surface water) are identified in the investigated area. No nature object is judged to have national value (class 1). 15 nature objects (pieces of forest) are judged to have regional value (class 2), 18 have municipal value (class 3) and 34 local value (class 4). It is judged that a drawdown of the groundwater table only would result in small consequences for the nature values of the area in its entirety. The nature objects that would be affected by the largest groundwater-table drawdown have relatively low nature values and consist of small wetlands with local value (class 4). The low nature values of these objects imply that the consequences of the groundwater diversion would be small. Nature objects with higher nature values (regional or municipal value) consist of forest key habitats and ancient pastures on previously argued land. The nature values of these objects are hence dependent on factors other than the level of the groundwater table, which implies that the consequences would be small also for these objects. The consequences would be largest (noticeable) for the stream Laxemaraan, due to reduced stream discharge and drier conditions along parts of the stream. The groundwater diversion would not cause any consequences for protected areas. The investigated area does not contain any known red-listed species associated to wetlands or wet forest areas. It is judged that the groundwater diversion would lead to insignificant to small consequences for protected frogs. There is a proposal concerning restoration of a wetland in Laxemaraan. This measure would partly counterbalance the consequences for frogs of the groundwater-table drawdown in Laxemar. It is judged that the groundwater diversion would lead to a harvest reduction of slightly more than 10% and a forest-yield reduction of approximately 20 % in the influence area of the groundwater table drawdown. These are rough judgements that provide upper reduction limits

  17. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part II; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  18. Evaluation of hearings. Results from reviews of the nuclear waste issue in the Swedish site candidate municipalities; Utvaerdering av utfraagningar. Resultat fraan genomlysningar av kaernavfallsfraagan i de svenska foerstudiekommunerna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to present an evaluation of the public hearings that took place in February of 2001 in the Swedish municipalities of Oesthammar, Tierp, and Aelvkarleby in Norduppland, Hultsfred and Oskarshamn in Smaaland, and Nykoeping in Soedermanland. These municipalities had participated in feasibility studies conducted by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). A company report on the results of these studies had been published shortly before the hearings (FUD-K). The regulatory authorities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), organized the hearings for additional information and aid in their ongoing evaluation of the SKB report. Representatives of the municipalities participated in the planning of the events, and a large meeting in Tierp in January 2001, that also involved the authorities, consultants and interested parties, agreed on the aims and practical arrangements. The authorities furthermore ordered a report for a summary and evaluation of the events, and the results are presented here. The aim of, and the preparations for, the hearings were based on a theoretical model developed within the RISCOM project, i.e. the RISCOM-model of transparency, which postulates three basic elements, i.e. technical/scientific issues, normative issues and authenticity. These elements combine to achieve an optimal clarification on the interaction between scientific and value-laden components in decision-making. An assumption is that the quality of decisions would improve given that transparency can be increased. The hearings were designed to 'stretch' the implementer by means of asking essential questions and to clarify what was achieved and known so far in the process, as well as to clarify what matters required further attention. The content covered technical, legal and social aspects on issues of nuclear waste management and the choices involved in the process towards building a future high level nuclear waste repository. The recently published report by SKB (FUD-K) contributed the main foundation for the program content, which was structured into the two parts of (a) the choice of methodology and (b) the choice of municipalities for the forthcoming site investigations. This report is based on the content of the actual hearings, e.g. questions, answers and comments from the proceedings and group discussions, as well as responses to three questionnaires. The report states that the majority of the participants at the hearings were those already involved, in one way or another, in the municipalities organized work related to the nuclear waste issue. Thus, the hearings did not attract a large number of novices or uninitiated individuals from the general public. The wide scope of considered aspects and the high level of knowledge among the participants were reflected by the questions put to the panel. The questionnaire responses also indicated high initial involvement in the hearings, and that the participants came well prepared to the meetings. The main preparation being studies of available reports and other materials, but also e.g. participation in information seminars or in meetings organized by the municipalities. Their reasons for participation often involved a desire to learn more in relation to specifically formulated questions and / or to gain a better understanding of the work and the overall process. The participants wanted to achieve a result that outlined pros and cons of various methodologies regarding waste management, and which stated the degree of reliability regarding the proposed technological solutions. Furthermore, to reach a substantial level of clarity regarding what can be considered as established facts in contrast to what remains uncertain or problematic. The results indicated that a majority of the participants preferred the proposed KBS-3 method to other alternatives with respect to the construction of a final repository. However, the need for a continuous awareness of current research and the developments of alternative methods was underlined. The participants were generally positive to the kind of hearings they had participated in, and they concluded that they had received responses to a substantial degree to the questions they had brought. The content of the hearings had to a large extent corresponded to their expectations, and they had not significantly changed their opinions. Ratings of central actors' credibility showed that the authorities enjoyed the highest trustworthiness and the local critics groups the lowest. The report points out that this result can only be related to the groups of participants at the hearings, and since that group can be considered relatively homogeneous and consisting of interested and active persons, any generalization to the larger population of the municipalities could be erroneous. (abstract truncated)

  19. Effects of liming and ash recycling on the outflow of mercury from forest soils - a theoretical study; Inverkan av kalkning och askaaterfoering paa utfloedet av kvicksilver fraan skogsmark - en teoretisk studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Arne; Nilsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    1994-12-31

    In this report, a theoretical review is made of the probable effects that spreading of lime and woodash in forests will have on the turnover of mercury in soil and on the outflow of mercury into water systems. As a result of historic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere, a large proportion of Swedish forest land has significantly increased concentrations of mercury, which is gradually leaching into lakes and watercourses. If an increased application of lime or woodash to forest soils were to result in a major change in the outflow of mercury, it could in time have a considerable effect on the mercury concentrations in lake fish. The fish in a large number of lakes in the southern part of Sweden already have mercury concentrations which are so high as to make them unsuitable for use as food. In conclusion, the theoretical assessment indicates in general that any effects on the mercury situation in lakes as a result of liming or woodash treatment of forest land are marginal or towards the positive side. It is not likely that these treatments increases the outflow of organic matter from soil. Any worsening of the mercury situation in lakes and watercourses will therefore hardly be the result of soil changes, but rather of processes in lakes and streams. Most of the evidence, however suggests that liming/ash treatment has predominantly positive effects with regard to the lake processes that control mercury levels in fish. At this juncture, available experience indicates that the mercury situation in the environment is in no way a decisive factor in determining where and how lime or ash should be applied to forest land. 64 refs, 2 figs

  20. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part III; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  1. Cesium-137 in ash from combustion of biofuels. Application of regulations from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority; Cesium-137 i aska fraan foerbraenning av biobraenslen. Tillaempning av Straalsaekerhetsmyndighetens regler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf (Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (SE))

    2009-03-19

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM, has issued an ordinance on ash contaminated with Cesium-137. It implies amongst other things that ash containing 0,5 - 10 kBq/kg Cesium-137 (so-called contaminated ash) can be used for geotechnical purposes provided that the content in a near-by well does not exceed 1 Bq/litre and that the increase in a near-by fish producing recipient does not exceed 0,1 Bq/litre. The initial plan with the presently reported work was to provide a compilation of how the ordinance for Cesium-137 can be applied in practical work. It became evident, however, in the course of the work that issues related to the co-variation between potassium and Cesium needed further investigation. As a result, the present report comprises also a compilation of this extended information search. Cesium-137 is present in ash as a result of the accident in a nuclear power reactor in Chernobyl in 1986 during which material having a very small grain size was spread to a high altitude. A few days later, Cesium-137 was deposited during rains over large parts of Sweden. This activity penetrated to a depth of one or a few decimetres during the course of the subsequent few days and weeks, after which it was partially taken up by plants and spread in the ecosystem. Section 2 has the character of a handbook. It provides basic information on radiation, and also about the ordinance and other material from the SSI. Section 3 comprises compilations of relevant international status of knowledge. This regards how potassium and Cesium behave in soil and ash, and also how spreading of Cesium can be modelled. Cesium behaves similarly to Potassium but with the difference that Cesium is bonded much more strongly to mineral soil and ash. Potassium and Cesium appears in soil in four different forms: dissolved in the pore water, exchangeable, non-exchangeable and as bonded to minerals. The amount dissolved in the pore water is the smallest and that bonded to minerals is the largest. The differences are large. The transitions between Cesium/Potassium in the pore water and in the exchangeable positions are rapid. Other transitions are slow. Over the course of a few years, Cesium becomes bonded as non-exchangeable and after a few decades, the content of non-exchangeable and mineral Cesium may be comparable in magnitude. The migration rate depends on the availability. Before Cesium-137 in fallout becomes absorbed, it is transported with the water, and this is the reason for the initial rapid penetration into soil on the order of a decimeter. When most of the Cesium-137 has become non-exchangeable and mineral, the migration rate may be as low as on the order of a millimetre per year. There is an interesting finding to report about clay. For short term migration, i e shortly after a fallout, clay provides a retention that is far superior to that of sand. This is probably related to the fact that clay contains many more positions for ion exchange as compared to sand. After some time when most of the Cesium appears in non-exchangeable and mineral positions, clay and sand are comparable. It might be tempting to assume that organic soils would provide a good retention since they can absorb nutrients from artificial fertilizers and keep them available to plants. Measurements have shown, however, that Cesium-137 may migrate rapidly in soils that lack a mineral component, e g soils consisting of peat. This can be assumed to relate to the fact that the bonding to the many exchangeable positions is much weaker as compared to those in non-exchangeable and in mineral positions. The data on ash are scarce. The data found indicate that the availability of Cesium-137 is high in fresh ash, but that the bonding is remarkably strong already after a few years. It cannot be taken for granted without further information that fresh water conditions apply also when the salt content in the pore water is high. Investigations have shown, however, that the solid mineral phase prefers Cesium before potassium also in such cases. Although the difference between potassium and Cesium is smaller, it is nevertheless sufficient for separation of Cesium from chloride in a migration situation. After such a separation has taken place, the distribution coefficients for fresh water conditions may be applied. In section 4, techniques that have been developed previously in the Swedish Ash Programme are applied to Cesium-137 in soil containing some mineral matter. The result is that the content of Cesium-137 in near-by wells and lakes become insignificant and far below the limits issued by the SSM. Exceptions to this are pure organic soils, soils made up entirely of lime, and water that drains on the surface. The results of this analysis are utilized in Section 5 as a basis for suggestions for a simple control programme as well as practical advice.

  2. Removal of groundwater from final repository in Forsmark. Description of consequences for nature values and forest production; Bortledande av grundvatten fraan slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Beskrivning av konsekvenser foer naturvaerden och skogsproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) has chosen Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes consequences for nature values and forestry due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report concerns nature values that depend on, or are favoured by, a groundwater table close to or above the ground surface

  3. Open absorption heat pump for waste heat utilization in the forest industry. A study of technical and economic potential; Oeppen absorptionsvaermepump foer uppgradering av spillvaerme fraan skogsindustrin. Studie av teknisk och ekonomisk potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermark, Mats; Vidlund, Anna

    2006-02-15

    Waste heat from the forest industry is mainly humid air or humid flue gases with somewhat too low dew point for direct use as district heating or for other qualified purposes. Upgrading of the temperature by heat pumps is thus often necessary for the full use of the waste heat. This study evaluates an open absorption heat, based on hygroscopic condensation. The hygroscopic condenser has the potential to replace mechanical heat pumps or conventional absorption heat pumps (based on lithium bromide) for the upgrading of heat from humid gases. The goal for the project is to evaluate technology and potential for an open absorption heat pump for heat recovery from humid gases in the forest industry. In an open heat pump the humid gas is brought in direct contact with the hygroscopic liquid (whereas a conventional heat pump uses an intermediate circuit with evaporation of water in the evaporator). The direct contact makes it possible to recover the heat at a higher temperature than the dew point of the humid gas without the use of evaporator. The target group for the study is the forest industry and its suppliers of technology and knowledge. The study has been carried out in cooperation with representatives from the forest industry and from suppliers of equipment. The study shows that the forest industry has good potential to upgrade waste heat from humid air to district heating. The waste heat can be extracted from various humid gases such as exit air from paper machines, wood driers, green liquid quenchers and flue gases from soda boilers, mesa kilns, bark-fired boilers and gas engines. Hygroscopic condensation is considered to give economic and environmental advantages compared to conventional absorption heat pumps due to much less consumption of driving heat. An interesting special case is the regeneration of the hygroscopic medium by direct contact with hot flue gases and for this application a patent application has been filed. Upgrading of waste heat to process steam (for use in pulp and paper plants) is technically more advanced. The high temperature level demands absorption liquids with high boiling point elevation (sodium hydroxide) and driving steam at 25 bar. The example studied uses waste heat at 50 deg C for production of low pressure steam at 1.2 bar, i.e. slightly above atmospheric pressure. Such low pressure steam can be used for steam injection in paper machines or upgraded to process steam of higher pressure by steam compression.

  4. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...

  5. Arctic Visiting Speakers Series (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. E.; Griswold, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers (AVS) Series funds researchers and other arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic research topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Host applications are accepted on an on-going basis, depending on funding availability. Applications need to be submitted at least 1 month prior to the expected tour dates. Interested hosts can choose speakers from an online Speakers Bureau or invite a speaker of their choice. Preference is given to individuals and organizations to host speakers that reach a broad audience and the general public. AVS tours are encouraged to span several days, allowing ample time for interactions with faculty, students, local media, and community members. Applications for both domestic and international visits will be considered. Applications for international visits should involve participation of more than one host organization and must include either a US-based speaker or a US-based organization. This is a small but important program that educates the public about Arctic issues. There have been 27 tours since 2007 that have impacted communities across the globe including: Gatineau, Quebec Canada; St. Petersburg, Russia; Piscataway, New Jersey; Cordova, Alaska; Nuuk, Greenland; Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania; Oslo, Norway; Inari, Finland; Borgarnes, Iceland; San Francisco, California and Wolcott, Vermont to name a few. Tours have included lectures to K-12 schools, college and university students, tribal organizations, Boy Scout troops, science center and museum patrons, and the general public. There are approximately 300 attendees enjoying each AVS tour, roughly 4100 people have been reached since 2007. The expectations for each tour are extremely manageable. Hosts must submit a schedule of events and a tour summary to be posted online

  6. VISUALISERINGSTAVLA : Visualisering av Kanban boards

    OpenAIRE

    Y. F. Sam, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Hos många företag används whiteboards för att visualisera arbetsprocessen. En vanlig metodik för detta är så kallade Kanban boards, ett system av tabeller och lappar för att indikera olika avvikelser eller moment i projekt med datum och annan relevant information. Företag kan även välja att använda en mjukvara som simulerar samma metodik, ett exempel på detta är så kallade Elektroniska kanban boards. I detta arbete har båda dessa metoder (whiteboard samt en digital lösning) observerats hos tr...

  7. Effekt av ulike desinfeksjonsstrategier mot Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Fossmo, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Kontroll med bakterier som Listeria utgjør en stor utfordring for mange matprodusenter. Listeria monocytogenes er hovedsakelig et produksjonshygienisk problem, forbedret hygiene kan derfor være tiltak for å redusere overlevelse og smitteoverføring av bakterien i produksjonsmiljø. Hensikten med forsøkene i oppgaven var å undersøke effekten av ulike desinfeksjonsstrategier på drap av L. monocytogenes, både når bakteriene var i biofilm og i suspensjon. Dette inkluderte bruk av tradisjonelle desi...

  8. Efficient Software HEVC to AVS2 Transcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucong Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The second generation of Audio and Video coding Standard (AVS is developed by the IEEE 1857 Working Group under project 1857.4 and was standardized in 2016 by the AVS Working Group of China as the new broadcasting standard AVS2. High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC is the newest global video coding standard announced in 2013. More and more codings are migrating from H.264/AVC to HEVC because of its higher compression performance. In this paper, we propose an efficient HEVC to AVS2 transcoding algorithm, which applies a multi-stage decoding information utilization framework to maximize the usage of the decoding information in the transcoding process. The proposed algorithm achieves 11×–17× speed gains over the AVS2 reference software RD 14.0 with a modest BD-rate loss of 9.6%–16.6%.

  9. Arvelig hemokromatose - nytten av screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Åsberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Arvelig hemokromatose fører til jernopphopning i kroppen, men gir sjelden alvorlig helseskade. Nesten alle hemokromatosepasienter i vårt land er homozygote for C282Y-mutasjonen i HFE-genet. Omtrent 7 per 1000 innbyggere har denne genotypen. Alvorlig syke blir bare omkring 5-15% av homozygote menn og nesten ingen kvinner. Likevel er det holdepunkter for at screening for hemokromatose blant friske, yngre menn kan være kostnadseffektivt. Det er relativt lett å påvise om en person er disponert for sykdommen, i god tid før den bryter ut, og forebyggende behandling er billig og effektiv. Imidlertid kan vi ikke forutsi hvilke screeningpositive personer som ubehandlet får alvorlig sykdom. Et kontrollert forsøk med screening bør gjennomføresHereditary hemochromatosis – benefits of screening. Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to iron accumulation in the body; however, serious illness due to hemochromatosis is rare. In Norway, almost all patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for the C282Ymutation in the HFE-gene, a genotype carried by about 7 per 1000 inhabitants. Serious complications are seen in only about 5-15% of homozygous men and in very few women. Nevertheless, screening young men for hemochromatosis may be cost-effective. Detecting predisposed men is relatively straightforward, and prophylactic treatment is cheap and effective. However, we can not predict, among screen-positive men, the few who untreated will become seriously ill. A controlled screening trial should be conducted.

  10. Undersøkelse av forekomst av elvemusling i Grense Jakobselv

    OpenAIRE

    Aspholm, Paul Eric; Brodersen, Christopher; Nilsen, Even; Terentjev, Nikolai; Kashulin, Nikolai; Polykarpova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Sensommeren 2014 ble det midtre partiet av Grense Jakobselv fra Elvheim til sørenden av Lasaruskulpen undersøkt for forekomst av elvemusling. De nedre delene av Grense Jakobselv og sideelver har vært undersøkt tidligere (2003 og 2005). I disse tidligere undersøkelsene har det ikke blitt påvist elvemusling eller skall av døde muslinger. Under undersøkelsen i 22. – 23. juli 2014 ble de første elvemuslingene funnet like oppstrøms Sandvasselva. Denne undersøkelsen omfattet i alt 12 forhåndsutvalg...

  11. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  12. Energy consumption in farm operation buildings - A survey of 16 farms 2005-2006, complemented by measurements on two farms 2010-2012; Energifoerbrukning i jordbrukets driftsbyggnader - En kartlaeggning av 16 gaardar 2005-2006, kompletterat med maetningar paa tvaa gaardar 2010-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerndahl, Torsten; Neuman, Lars

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden the agricultural sector is estimated to use approximately 3,7 TWh per year as electricity or as fuel. About 34% of this total is estimated to be used in the production of beef, pork, eggs and milk, including the spreading of manures. There is also some energy used for harvesting ley and cereals as feed, which is not included. Most of the energy is used as electricity (approx 63%). These estimates are made by Edstroem et al (2005) who based them on data from elderly studies. Since the farmers have made great efforts to use less energy and there are less enterprises with dairy cows and pigs the total use of energy in farming is less than this estimation. Most of the technical equipment is still the same today on farms of equivalent size and production methods. However, herds of pigs and cattle are bigger now, and therefore new equipment is being used. This report are a revised edition of Hoerndahl, 2007 and Hoerndahl 2009 and new data from Neuman et al (2007) are added. The purpose revision was to update data about energy use on modern farms of a size, and with technical equipment, that could be expected to be in use for the next 10-15 years. This revision was possible due to a project at LRF funded by Agricultural Office.

  13. Embolization of AV intra-hepatic fistulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallarini, G; Saitta, S; Cariati, M; Nicorelli, M; de Caro, G

    1982-05-01

    The use of therapeutic embolization in a case of hepatic AV fistula with portal flow inversion and portal hypertension is described. Indications, technique and an illustrative case followed up for one year after the intervention are presented.

  14. Evaluering av KS’ ulike ledelsesutviklingstilbud for kommunesektoren

    OpenAIRE

    Haave, Hanne; Hafting, Tore; Haugstveit, Yngve; Odden, Sigrun

    2008-01-01

    Norsk: Denne rapporten presenterer en evaluering av ledelsesutviklingstilbud i KS. De ledelsesutviklingsprogrammene som omfattes av evalueringen er i første rekke: Rådmentor, Krefter i bevegelse, Jazz endringsledelse, Medarbeiderskap, B-link og Skreddersydde program. Evalueringens hovedproblemstilling er å undersøke om og i hvilken grad KS’ ledelsesutviklingstilbud samsvarer med dominerende perspektiver og mål i KS’ arbeidsgiverstrategi «Stolt og unik, arbeidsgiverstrateg...

  15. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelter, Christopher, E-mail: christopher.schmelter@klinikum-ingolstadt.de; Raab, Udo, E-mail: udo.raab@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Lazarus, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.lazarus@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Nephrology (Germany); Ruppert, Volker, E-mail: volker.ruppert@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany); Vorwerk, Dierk, E-mail: dierk.vorwerk@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5 %), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8 %).ResultsA high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5 %). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7 %). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5 % at 6 month, 31.3 % at 12 month and 19.2 % at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1 %), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5 %) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5 %).ConclusionRe-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  16. Analyse av overvannsnettet i Ås sentrum ved bruk av simuleringsprogrammet SWMM

    OpenAIRE

    Dvergsnes, Eirunn

    2016-01-01

    Jorden står ovenfor klimaendringer med økende temperaturer og en hyppigere forekomst av intense nedbørshendelser. For overvannssystemer i urbane strøk er den økte nedbørintensiteten en stor utfordring. Urbanisering har medført en stor andel tette flater, og lukking av naturlige bekkesystemer. Dette krever en raskere bortledning av regnvannet gjennom rør i bakken. Store deler av det norske overvannssystemet er ikke dimensjonert etter dagens norske standard. Denne ble revidert se...

  17. Veileder for kravspesifikasjon for leie av kontorarealer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Førland-Larsen, Arne

    Investorer og leietakere blir stadig mer interessert i helse- og miljøkvaliteter. Men kunnskapen er lav hos de fleste om hva de skal etterspørre og hvordan slike kvaliteter kan dokumenteres. Meglere har en viktig rolle som formidler av kvaliteter. Grønn Byggallianse har i samarbeid med blant annet...... Norsk Eiendom, Enova og NGBC utarbeidet en mal for standard kravspesifikasjon for leie av kontorlokaler. Målet med malen er å bidra til at leietager får det produktet han trenger til riktig pris og at man unngår unødig miljøbelastning. Målet er videre at å bidra og stimulere til, at innleie....../utleie prosesser startes med en dialogbasert prosess. Standarden er tenkt som et hjelpemiddel til en systematisk gjennomgang av, og diskusjon av hvilke kvaliteter som har prioritet, høy, middel eller lav prioritet for leietaker. Resultatet av dialog og diskusjon fastlegger endelige krav til kvalitet og...

  18. Å speide etter spiritualitet. En analyse av spiritualitetsbegrepet i speiderbevegelsen

    OpenAIRE

    Holmefjord, Aina

    2015-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven inneholder analyser av speiderbevegelsens bruk av begrepet "spiritualitet" i to bøker skrevet av bevegelsens grunnlegger; "Scouting for Boys" og "Rovering to Succes" og to dokumenter av The World Organization of he Scoutmovement . Robert Baden-Powell grunnlag speiderbevegelsen i 1908 og hans litteratur og bøker publisert på tidlig 1900-tallet setter rammeverk for mye av dagens speiderbevegelses ideologi og visjon. Speiderbevegelsen har et r...

  19. Acid volatile sulfide (AVS)- a comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The review by Rickard and Morse (this volume) adequately summarizes our current understanding with respect to acid-volatile sulfides (AVS). At the same time, this review addresses some of the misunderstandings with regard to measurements and dynamics of this important sedimentary sulfur pool. In

  20. Tilsetningsstoff og tekniske hjelpestoff ved produksjon av filet av hvitfisk. Faglig sluttrapport

    OpenAIRE

    Lorentzen, Grete Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Målsettingen med dette prosjektet har vært å øke den generelle kunnskapen om bruk av tilsetningsstoffer og tekniske hjelpestoffer ved produksjon av hvitfiskfilet. I prosjektet er det gjennomført et litteraturstudium på hvilken effekt ulike tilsetningsstoffer har på fiskefilet. Deretter er det laget en veileder hvor målet har vært å gi en lettfattet og oversiktlig informasjon om hvilke tilsetningsstoffer det er lov å bruke, hvilken effekt de har, og eksempler på praktisk bruk av tilsetningssto...

  1. Bruk av urtemedisiner blant gravide i Mali : Intervju av 72 healere i Bamako, Siby og Dioila

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zayadi, Waled

    2012-01-01

    WHO’s rapport fra 2001 viser til at hele 75 % av Mali sin populasjon bruker tradisjonell medisin. Det er beregnet til å være 1 medisinmann pr 500 innbyggere. Hovedmålet med denne oppgaven var å undersøke tradisjonelle medisinmenns behandling av sykdom og plager i svangerskapet i Mali. Det er lite som vites om bruk av urtemedisiner blant gravide i Mali. Det er heller ingen studier gjort fra healerens side. Studien var med på å kartlegge hvilke urter som brukes til den enkelte plagen. I ette...

  2. Forskere i norske avisers dekning av skole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Andersson-Bakken

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skolen er stadig i medienes søkelys, og i denne artikkelen ser vi nærmere på hvordan forskere bidrar med sine fagkunnskaper i skoledebatten i mediene. Den problemstillingen vi ønsker å besvare, er: Hvilken rolle har forskere i norske avisers dekning av skole? For å svare på dette har vi gjort en analyse av samtlige artikler om skole i VG, Bergens Tidende og Aftenposten i 2013. Resultatene viser at det forekommer en navngitt forsker i ca. 12 % av avisenes artikler om skole (209 av 1712 artikler. Det er imidlertid forskjell mellom avisene, og i VG opptrer det forskere i ca. 24 % av artiklene om skole, mens andelen både i Aftenposten og BT er ca. 11 %. Undersøkelsen viser videre at det er mange forskere som får mulighet til å uttale seg om skole i disse tre avisene, men det store flertallet av disse uttaler seg kun én gang. Vi fant også at forskere ofte uttaler seg om rammene for skolens undervisningsvirksomhet, og sjelden om det som foregår i klasserommene. Resultatene av vår empiriske undersøkelse stemmer i stor grad overens med hovedtendensene i tidligere studier av forskere i media, noe som indikerer at forskernes rolle i norske avisers skoledekning ikke skiller seg markant ut fra den rollen forskere har i media generelt. Våre resultater peker imidlertid på én viktig forskjell: Forskere ser ut til å være uvanlig godt synlige i norske avisers dekning av skole.Nøkkelord: skoleforskning, media, forskningsformidlingAbstractSchool is a frequently debated topic in the media, and this article investigates how researchers contribute with their knowledge in this media debate. The research question is: What characterizes researcher participation in Norwegian newspaper coverage of school? To answer this question we have analyzed all articles about school in the Norwegian newspapers VG, Bergens Tidende and Aftenposten during 2013. The results show that there is a named researcher in about 12 % of the newspaper articles about school

  3. Redesign av Escola forlag sine skoleordbøker

    OpenAIRE

    Heggen, Inger Helene

    2007-01-01

    Rapporten består av en litteraturstudie (med begrepsavklaringer og en gjennomgang av ordboktypografiens historie – med hovedvekt på engelsk ordboktypografi), en analyse av ettspråklige ordbøker i dag (både norske og engelske), og en analyse av Escola Forlags ordbøker (bokmål og nynorsk utgave). Til slutt – en demononstrasjon av min resulterende redesign av ordbøkene (omslag og innmat). Her har det vært særlig viktig å tydeliggjøre oppslagsordene og oppslagsordenes underelementer s...

  4. Kartlegging av PCB i sedimenter fra Indre Sørfjord

    OpenAIRE

    Skei, J.; Klungsøyr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Som følge av forhøyede nivåer av PCB i fiskelever innerst i Sørfjorden er det gjennomført en sedimentundersøkelse for om mulig å finne kilden til PCB. Det ble ikke registrert høye nivåer av PCB i sedimentene. Høyeste konsentrasjoner ble målt i munningen av Eitrheimsvågen. Analyser av trafooljer brukt i Tyssedalsområdet viste spor av PCB. Statens forurensningstilsyn (SFT)

  5. Distributed Trust Management and Rogue AV Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    Integrate with QTM – Particularly important in federated systems (e.g., dynamically composable SOAs) • Investigate the use of reactive mechanisms – Global...of demonstrators surfaced on Capitol Hill in opposition to the Democrats’ health care legislation. MAGAZINE PREVIEW Making Health Care Better By...sale will be sent on saving green forests in Amazonia . Have more questions? You can contact us easy via Online Supoort. Green AV an award-winning

  6. Particle dispersion at road building using fly ash - model review, investigation of influence of humidity content for dust emission and fly ash particle characterisation; Partikelspriding vid byggnation av vaeg med aska - modelloeversikt, undersoekning av fuktighetsgradens betydelse foer damning och karaktaerisering av partiklar fraan flygaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Wik, Ola; Frogner-Kockum, Paul

    2009-03-15

    Ashes from incineration may have very good properties, such as building materials in roads. This use assumes that the ashes do not have serious environmental and health effects. Since ash might generate large amounts of dust in handling the issue on the extent of dusting and dust properties has proved to be important to assess the risks of environmental impacts during use. Inhalable particles in the ambient air are a problem that has attracted much attention and is regarded as one of the most serious health related air pollutants. The present project has aimed to: describe appropriate models for calculating the emission and dispersion of dust in the air during the construction of ash containing roads, evaluate a new method to examine the importance of moisture for dusting from fly ash and investigate the properties of fly ash, making it possible to identify ash in samples of airborne particles. The target audience is ash manufacturers, contractors and consultants with a need for knowledge of ash dusting. Project modules have included: a literature review to identify appropriate modelling tools to describe the emission and dispersion of dust from road building with ash a method study in which a piece of equipment called Duster, have been evaluated for assessing the significance of the ash humidity to dusting, and an electron microscope study where morphology and composition of some ashes, cement and Merit have been studied to find ways to identify ash particles in dust samples. The results show that there is a lack of overall model tools that can describe the emissions from all the management operations of ashes at road building and that existing models sometimes lack key variables. Also, because of high silt content of ashes, some models are deemed inferior compared to when used for ordinary mineral material. Furthermore, attempts with the Duster shows that the method works, but with limited precision, and that dusting from the ash samples was reduced significantly at moisture contents above about 15%. The particle characterization study showed that ash specific chemical signal elements are preferred in the characterization. Important signal elements of ash can be S, Hg, Cd, and the ratio Mg/Al, but elements most appropriate might vary between specific types of ash and applications. The project has brought new knowledge about the possibilities to characterize ash particles and on the moisture needed to avoid dusting from ash. A method to try dusting from ash surfaces has been evaluated in laboratory and the project has also shown available, but in some respects inadequate, models for emission and dispersion of dust from handling of ash

  7. Water Activities in Laxemar Simpevarp. Clab/encapsulation facility (Clink) - removal of groundwater, collection of cooling water from the sea and the construction of day water pond; Vattenverksamhet i Laxemar-Simpevarp. Clab/inkapslingsanlaeggning (Clink) - bortledande av grundvatten, uttag av kylvatten fraan havet samt anlaeggande av dagvattendamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    This report is an appendix to an Environmental Impact Assessment that accompanies a permit application according to the Swedish Environmental Code. The report concerns water operations (Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code) associated with construction of an encapsulation plant in direct connection to SKB's existing Clab facility on the Simpevarp peninsula in the Municipality of Oskarshamn (the report is also included in the permit application according to the Nuclear Activities Act). Moreover, the report deals with water operations associated with the operation of the integrated facility, which is named Clink. Specifically, the water operations that are treated in the report include diversion of groundwater, withdrawal of cooling water from the sea, and construction of a storm-water treatment pond. There are valid permits regarding diversion of groundwater and withdrawal of cooling water for the current facility and activities at Clab. It is presupposed that the cooling-water withdrawal from the sea to Clink can be handled within the limits of the valid Clab permit. The diversion of groundwater from Clink may be somewhat larger compared to the present diversion from Clab. The increase is due to a relatively small, additional rock shaft for the encapsulation plant, adjacent to the current surface facility and above one of the two existing rock caverns (Clab 1). Based on the location of the planned rock shaft (above one of the existing rock caverns) and its small volume, it is judged that the inflow of groundwater during operation of Clink will be only 5-10 percent larger compared to the inflow to the current Clab facility. It is possible that the inflow will be larger during the construction phase, prior to grouting of the shaft. Based on the limited increase of the groundwater inflow and results from the ongoing Clab monitoring programme, it is judged that the construction of the encapsulation plant and the operation of Clink will only lead to very small additional changes of groundwater levels in rock, directly adjacent to the facility. Calculations indicate that water saturation of rock caverns and recovery of groundwater levels in rock around the facility will require less than ten years subsequent to decommissioning of the facility and termination of the groundwater diversion. To sum up, the groundwater diversion is judged not to lead to any negative consequences for private wells or nature values. Water that is pumped from the rock shaft during the construction will pass a temporary oil separation and sedimentation facility, before it is discharged to recipient. The shaft will be grouted in order to reduce the inflow of groundwater. A number of measures are planned that will improve the storm-water handling at Clink compared to the present situation. One of these measures is to construct a new storm-water treatment pond in the vicinity of Clink. The purpose of the treatment pond is supplementary flow flattening and sedimentation in the existing storm-water system at Clab. It is judged that the construction of the storm-water treatment pond only causes insignificant ecological consequences. During operation of the storm-water treatment pond, heavy metals and other substances will accumulate in the bottom sediments of the pond, which will reduce the contaminant load on the storm-water recipient (the sea bay Herrgloet) compared to the present situation. Existing vegetation will be taken into consideration at construction of the storm-water treatment pond and improvement of the storm-water outlet to Herrgloet

  8. Consequences of increased extraction of forest fuel - A synthesis from the Energy Agency fuel program 2007-2011 Summary of the Synthesis Report; Konsekvenser av ett oekat uttag av skogsbraensle - En syntes fraan Energimyndighetens braensleprogram 2007-2011 Sammanfattning av syntesrapporten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a research synthesis of forest fuels. The full report (de Jong et al 2012) can be ordered from the Swedish Energy Agency (report number: ER 2012:08), or downloaded from www.energimyndigheten.se. The Energy Agency's research program 'Sustainable supply and refining of biofuels', also known as 'Fuel program', ran from 2007-01-01 to 2011-06-30. The results of the program are reported in synthesis reports for various program areas. The purpose of the synthesis reports is to compile the knowledge in various areas, to identify knowledge gaps that need to be elucidated further, and to place and discuss the aggregated research results in a larger energy- and societal perspective, including relations to environmental quality and forest policy environmental- and production goals. This report covers sub-project 'Forest fuel and environmental impacts', conducted during the years 2007-2011. The report covers projects within the program 'Sustainable supply and refining of biofuels', adjacent individual projects funded by the Energy Agency and certain other national related activities.

  9. Konsum av risiko-matvarer - Beskrivelse av en undersøkelse som skal kartlegge konsum av matvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI perioden 1999-2001 vil det bli gjennomført tre kostholdsundersøkelser som til sammen skal kartlegge konsum avmatvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter i Norge, fortrinnsvis kadmium, kvikksølv, PCB og dioksiner.Disse giftene finnes hovedsakelig i krabbe, flatfisk, skjell, gjedde og abbor, lever eller nyre fra vilt og viltvoksendesopp. Fordi gjennomsnittskonsumet er lavt, spørres det ikke spesifikt om disse matvarene i landsdekkende kostholdsundersøkelsersom 'Norkost'. Hensikten med studien er å kunne gi en bedre beskrivelse av eksponeringsfordelingeni befolkningen med tanke på miljøgifter. Fordelingen er antakelig skjev, dvs. et stort antall personerventes å ha et lavt inntak og noen få personer ventes å ha et relativt høyt inntak av de undersøkte stoffene. Eventuelleukjente risikogrupper vil kunne avdekkes, og det er av stor interesse å undersøke hvor stor eksponeringen i deutsatte gruppene er.Del A av undersøkelsen er landsdekkende og omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 10 000 tilfeldig valgtepersoner mellom 18 og 79 år. Del B omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 6000 tilfeldig valgte personer i sekskommuner, der tre er kystkommuner og tre er innlandskommuner. Kommunene blir valgt ut fra kjennskap til godtilgang på de aktuelle matvarene. Vi antar at der tilgangen på matvarene er god, er konsumet høyere. Del C avundersøkelsen vil omfatte høykonsumenter av aktuelle matvarer, valgt fra del B av undersøkelsen. Dette vil være endybdestudie der analyser av miljøgifter i blod, hår og urin også skal inngå.Undersøkelsen er den første i sitt slag her til lands og vi kjenner ikke til at tilsvarende studier er gjort i andreland. Hensikten med artikkelen er å gi en beskrivelse av undersøkelsen i en tidlig fase av gjennomføringen.Meltzer HM, Bergsten C, Stene LC, Stigum H, Wiborg ML, Lund-Larsen K, Alexander J. Consumption ofcontaminated foods – Description of a dietary survey

  10. Design av oppbevaringsprodukt: Utvikling av et entrémøbel for IKEA

    OpenAIRE

    Bosvik, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Et av IKEAs store satsingsområder er oppbevaring. IKEA ønsker å nå ut til så mange mennesker som mulig med sine produkter. Deres visjon om å skape en bedre hverdag for de mange menneskene er et bevis på dette. Temaet for dette masterprosjektet har vært oppbevaring. En del av oppgaven har også vært å finne fokusområde innenfor temaet oppbevaring. Valget falt på entreen og utviklingen av entrémøbelet RÅDE. Oppgaven er gjort i samarbeid med IKEA Leangen i Trondheim. RÅDE er utviklet blant an...

  11. Barns opplevelse av postoperativ smerte og smertebehandling

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Torgun

    2016-01-01

    Master i intensivsykepleie Bakgrunn: Postoperativ smerte hos barn er underbehandlet til tross for mye smerteforskning. Ulike studier har vist at barn opplever moderat til sterk smerte postoperativt. Ubehandlet smerte kan skape unødvendig lidelse for barn og øker risiko for komplikasjoner. Hensikt: Det finnes ingen forskning på norske barns opplevelse av postoperativ smerte og smertebehandling. Studiens hensikt er å få en større forståelse for hvordan barn opplever postoperativ smerte og sm...

  12. Implementering av BIM i bærekraftig oppgradering av bygninger: Mulighetsstudie for utføring av tilstandsanalyser med nettbrett

    OpenAIRE

    Vik, Vidar Samson

    2012-01-01

    Vi opplever i dag en økt hyppighet av klimakatastrofer som flom og tørke som følge av økt konsentrasjon av klimagasser i atmosfæren. Dette har ført til et behov for å redusere klimagassutslippene fra industrien på jorden. Byggebransjen, ofte kalt 40 % -bransjen, står for om lag 40 % av klimagassutslippene, og har dermed et stort potensial for reduksjon. BIM er en prosess som søker å redusere ressursbruken, og er dermed en bærekraftig prosess som har blitt tatt i bruk i stor skala i nybygg. Re...

  13. Surhetsvariasjoner som følge av nedtapping av et regulert vann.

    OpenAIRE

    Selmer-Olsen, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Det har vært utført analyser og lagringsforsøk med prøver av tørrlagt bunnmateriale fra Trevatn tatt våren 1976. Prøver tatt ute i terrenget om høsten etter en lang tørr sommer viste stort sett samme bilde som prøvene fra våren etter lagring i laboratoriet under aerobe betingelser. Tabell 2 viser hvordan pH og SO4-S varierer med Iagringsbetingelsene. Oksydasjonsprosessene som slikt materiale blir utsatt for ved lufttilgang over et lengre tidsrom kan resultere i utvasking av meget sure forbind...

  14. Utveckling av examination av examensarbeten på kandidatnivå

    OpenAIRE

    Trofast, Tobias; Haugum, Dag; Lundberg, Jonas; Nygren, Victoria; Nyström, Tommie; Svensson, Gary; Thunborg, Maria; Törnqvist, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Detta paper beskriver arbetet med att utveckla en modell för utveckling av examination av examensarbeten på kandidatnivå (UEX) vid Institutionen för Teknik och Naturvetenskap, Linköpings Universitet under läsåret 2010-2011. Modellen har utvecklats och testats vid utbildningsprogrammet Grafisk Design och Kommunikation (GDK), men med syfte att kunna appliceras även på andra kandidatprograms examensarbete. Det projektet prövat är om man kan höja kvaliteten på examensarbeten och effektiviteten i ...

  15. Upplevelser av "Employer Branding" : En kvalitativ fallstudie av anställda hos BA

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansson, Otto; Elisabeth, Mackenhauer

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur medarbetarna på BA (fiktivt namn) upplever organisationens interna Employer Branding-arbete samt att belysa de aspekter som eventuellt skiljer strategi mot upplevelse. Det gjordes ett målinriktat urval av organisation medan valet av deltagare var ett slumpmässigt urval vilket resulterade i åtta respondenter (n= 8). Studien var en kvalitativ fallstudie med ett psykologiskt angreppssätt och innehöll en ostrukturerad intervju som tillsammans m...

  16. AVS user's guide on the basis of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuko, Kenji; Kato, Katsumi; Kume, Etsuo; Fujii, Minoru.

    1997-07-01

    The special guides for the use of visualization software AVS have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The purpose of these guides is to help the AVS users understand easily the use of the one, due to the fact that it is so difficult for beginners to understand the original manuals. In this report, 'Transportation Evacuation Simulation' is taken up as an object of visualization, and the procedure of visualization and images recording by using the AVS are described. By using the AVS according to this report, a series of the procedure which are necessary for use of the AVS can be acquired. (author)

  17. Implementeringsforskning: vitenskap for forbedring av praksis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Flottorp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medisinsk forskning har ført til store framskritt de siste tiårene. Det er investert mye mer ressurser på basalforskning og klinisk forskning enn på å utvikle og evaluere metoder for å sikre at pasientene får nytte av forskningen. Formålet med implementeringsforskning er å redusere gapet mellom forskning og praksis, ved å utvikle og evaluere tiltak som kan sikre at behandlingen som pasientene mottar er kunnskapsbasert, at den er omsorgsfull og av god kvalitet.I denne artikkelen gjør vi rede for hva implementering og implementeringsforskning er. Vi belyser historikken til denne unge vitenskapen, og illustrerer mangfoldet i de faglige tilnærmingene og begrepene som brukes om det å få forskning brukt i praksis. Det finnes en rekke teorier om endring av atferd, både på individnivå og på organisatorisk nivå. Teoriene er imidlertid i liten grad testet empirisk, særlig når det gjelder å endre atferd i helsetjenesten.Systematiske oversikter over metodisk gode studier er den beste kilden til informasjon om effekt av implementeringstiltak. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC er en viktig kilde for slike oversikter. De systematiske oversiktene som er utarbeidet på dette feltet viser at passive dissemineringstiltak har begrenset effekt, mens mer aktive tiltak kan ha liten til moderat effekt. Det er ofte betydelig variasjon i effekt på tvers av studiene. Det er derfor viktig å få bedre kunnskap om hvilke faktorer som kan forklare slike forskjeller i effekt.Vi gir eksempler på norske implementeringsstudier, og refererer bidrag fra forskere ved Kunnskapssenteret. Implementeringsforskningen kan, hvis den lykkes, sikre pasientene bedre behandling.Flottorp S, Aakhus E. Implementation research: science for improving practice. Nor J Epidemiol 201 3; 23 (2: 187-196.ENGLISH SUMMARY Medical research has led to major advances in recent decades. More resources have been invested in basic and clinical research

  18. Deregulation of the electric power market. Results from the pioneering countries Chile, England, Norway and Argentina; Avreglering av elmarknaden. Facit fraan de fyra pionjaerlaenderna Chile, England, Norge och Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, B; Sannebro, N [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    In Sweden the goal of the deregulation is to reach a more efficient utilization of the resources through increased competition, and to guarantee the customers flexible deliveries to lowest cost. This need free transition rights on the Swedish transmission grid. If the Swedish deregulation follows the pattern seen in the other countries, the deregulation will show effects also in related areas. 18 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Hydrological and hydro-geological effects on wetlands and forest areas from the repository at Forsmark. Results from modelling with MIKE SHE; Hydrologiska och hydrogeologiska effekter paa vaatmarker och skogsomraaden av slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Resultat fraan modellering med MIKE SHE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Gustafsson, Ann-Marie; Aneljung, Maria; Sabel, Ulrika (DHI Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    This report provides background material for investigations and associated impact assessments concerning water operations in terms of withdrawal of groundwater from the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report presents detailed modelling results in the form of supplementary sensitivity analyses and detailed hydrological and hydrogeological analyses of specific nature objects in Forsmark. The sensitivity analyses aim to investigate the sensitivity of the modelling results to i) the meteorological conditions, ii) impervious surfaces and iii) the model description of the present SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste). A number of simulation cases aim to study cumulative effects of groundwater withdrawal from an extended SFR. The simulations are evaluated with respect to the groundwater table drawdown and head changes in the bedrock. The report analyses the hydrogeological and hydrological conditions for a number of selected wetland objects and forest objects. The selection of objects aims to cover different types of valuable nature objects at different geographical locations in relation to the influence area of the groundwater table drawdown. The analysis comprises groundwater levels at all nature objects, whereas wetlands with particularly high nature values have been studied in detail with respect to surface water levels, the need for water supply and object-specific water balances. These studies have been performed for different meteorological conditions in the form of a type (2006) and a statistically normal, dry and wet year, respectively, with a return period of 100 years for the dry- and wet years. All simulations for disturbed conditions with a fully open repository are done with a hydraulic conductivity of K{sub inj} = 10-7 or 10-8 m/s in the grouted zone. The results show that time-dependent precipitation and snow melt have large influence on the temporal variations of the depth to the groundwater table for undisturbed conditions. Precipitation and snow melt also have large influence on the drawdown of the groundwater table due to the groundwater withdrawal from the repository. For a normal year, based on precipitation data from the reference normal period 1961-1990, the annual average size of the influence area is 1.15 km2 for a grouting level of K{sub inj} = 10-7 m/s. Compared to the normal year, the size of the influence area is 17% larger during a dry year and 19% smaller during a wet year. The groundwater table drawdown also varies during individual years. For the type year 2006, the size of the influence area is approximately three times larger in November than in May. Implementation of the present SFR underground facility in the modelling tool MOUSE yields a groundwater inflow to SFR of 6.7 L/s, compared to a measured inflow of some 6 L/s. According to model calculations, the groundwater withdrawal from SFR causes groundwater table drawdown in an area with a size of 0.17 km2. The influence area is concentrated to the SFR pier and areas with vertical fracture zones in the rock, located north and northeast of Lake Bolundsfjaerden. The head change in the bedrock at the level 50 m b s l reaches the model boundary in the northeast. An extension of the SFR facility is planned. According to the modelling results, the extension will only yield small additional groundwater table drawdown and head changes in the bedrock. For the wetland objects, even a relatively small drawdown of the groundwater table may cause vegetation changes and ultimately overgrowth. The forests are not as sensitive to a drawdown of the groundwater table. According to the model calculations, the groundwater withdrawal from the repository yields a groundwater table drawdown that exceeds 0.1 m as an annual average for a normal year in one fifth the studied wetland objects and in half of the forest objects. The fraction of objects with a groundwater table drawdown is higher during a dry year and lower during a wet year. The surface-water depth in the studied wetland objects ranges from a few centimetres to half a metre. It is judged that a number of wetland objects may require water supply in order to maintain an undisturbed water level during groundwater withdrawal from the repository. According to the modelling results, the water-supply requirements are largest during spring and autumn. In one of the wetland objects, the water requirement is 3 L/s as an annual average for the type year 2006. Object-specific water balances and particle tracking calculations show that the inflow to the wetland objects mainly takes place through the Quaternary deposits. This is in accordance with the conceptual model, according to which there is a shallow groundwater flow system with many local recharge and discharge areas. The groundwater withdrawal from the repository implies that the water balance is changed for some of the studied wetland objects.

  20. Noise annoyances from wind power: Survey of the population living close to a wind power plant. Final report: Part 3 Main study; Stoerningar fraan vindkraft: undersoekning bland maenniskor boende i naerheten av vindkraftverk. Slutrapport: Del 3 Huvudstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Eja [Halmstad Univ., Halmstad (Sweden). School of Business and Engineering; Persson-Waye, K. [Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of annoyance from wind turbines, a study was performed in Laholm in May 2000. The aim was to obtain dose response relationships between calculated sound levels and noise annoyance and appropriate sound description as well as analysing the influence of other variables on noise annoyance. A questionnaire survey was performed in 6 areas comprising 16 wind turbines, of which 14 had an effect of 600 kW. The purpose of the study was masked. Among questions on living conditions in the countryside, questions directly related to wind turbines were included. The study population (n=518) comprised one randomly selected subject between the ages of 18 to 75 years in each household living within a calculated wind turbine sound level of 25 to 40 dBA. The response rate was 68.7% (n=356). Calculated distributions of A-weighted sound level were performed for each area and plotted on geographical maps in 2.5 dBA steps. Each dwelling could thus be given a sound level within an interval of 2.5 dBA. The most frequently occurring source of noise annoyance was noise from rotor blades. The proportions of respondents annoyed by noise increased with calculated sound level. Among respondents exposed to sound levels of 35.0-37.5 dBA, 43% responded themselves to be rather or much annoyed. A-weighted sound level was only one variable explaining annoyance. Annoyance was correlated to a larger extent by the intrusiveness of the sound character swishing. Noise annoyance was interrelated to the respondents' opinion of the visual impact of wind turbines, while attitude towards wind power in general had no greater influence. Disturbance of spoilt view was reported to a similar degree as noise disturbance. Further investigations are needed to clarify factors of importance for the disturbance of view. All the wind turbines in the study had constant rotation speed. The greater wind turbines that are now erected often have variable speed, which may lead to a sound comprising other characteristics. The influence of this on noise annoyance is not known. Topography as well as type of ground surface probably has an impact on noise annoyance and visual disturbance, and the study should therefore be repeated in other areas with broken ground.

  1. Review of results from SKB R and D on grouting technology for sealing the rock, years 1996-2000; Oeversikt av resuItat fraan SKB:s FoU inom injekteringsteknik foer bergtaetning aaren 1996-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, A. (ed.) [Swedpower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eklund, D. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. Soil and Rock Mechanics; Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. of Geology; Hansson, Paer [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Lagerblad, B. [Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Lindblom, U. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Wilen, P. [Swedpower AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    In order identify the current state of the art and developments needs, SKB assembled a group of experts from universities and other research organisations. Internal plans were written for the subprojects 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock' and 'Cement based grouting material'. Later internal plans for the subprojects 'Demands on grouting' and 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' were written. The aims, which were set for the different subprojects, were in short, to summarise the technological advances, establish a method for rock characterisation from a grouting point of view, develop conceptual and numerical models for simulation of the grouting course, characterise grout in a relevant way, develop understanding and theoretical know-how of durability and chemical influence, identify and develop a number of grouting materials for different situations, develop a specification of requirements for grouting and to verify the theories in laboratory. In the subproject 'Demands on grouting' a literature review was carried out. One important conclusion from the study is that the concept is not very well dealt with in the literature. SKB are currently investigating the prerequisites for the construction of the deep repository. One part of that work is to further specify demands on maximum allowed volume of leakage water for the repository as a whole and also for each part of the deep repository. In the subproject 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', the possibilities of using hydraulic tests for predictions and design have been studied. The idea of this study was to investigate correspondences and deviations to increase the understanding of what is measured in a water-loss measurement. One can draw the conclusion that hydraulic tests are useful when describing the fracture geometry. Numerical modelling and experiments indicate that the specific capacity, Q/{delta}h, (flow/head) is a robust parameter and that the distribution of specific capacities and calculated apertures pictures the geometric variations within the fracture. This distribution may, together with the area, also give an estimate of the fracture volume. The distribution of specific capacities and apertures within a fracture may help when choosing grouting strategy like choice of grout and order of grouting. The work in the subproject 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock ' has dealt with laboratory tests, numerical modelling and a summarising conceptual model. The results of the laboratory tests are a number of phenomenological studies of the spreading mechanisms. Preliminary attempts to take care of filtration and separation while grouting are incorporated in a numerical model. Software that generates fracture geometry, calculates penetration with respect to filtration and separation and evaluates the effect of grouting has been developed. A conceptual model has been developed, describing how to calculate the sealing efficiency and how a prediction of the leakage into a tunnel can be done. The subproject 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' has aimed to create a theoretical base for the modelling of the behaviour of weakness zones under the influence of different reinforcement systems in combination with pre-grouting of the zone. Freezing of a zone weathered down to gravel has also been studied. By, analytically or graphically, putting the ground reaction curve (GRC) together with the reaction curve of the reinforcement, the tunnel wall deformation is obtained in the current case. The studies show that, when using modern software for rock mechanical analyses, it is possible to create the necessary theoretical base for a decision on driving through a weakness zone in good bedrock. When driving, the great difficulty is probably to, fast enough, obtain relevant material parameters as input in the model. Therefore field investigations and rock mechanical analyses should be carried through already at the planning stage. The subproject 'Cement based grouting material' is divided into three parts. The part 'Inventory and characterisation of material' has mainly dealt with finely ground cements and different types of super plasticizers. The biggest durability problem regarding cement-based grouts is that they contain water-soluble components. Durability will mainly be a function water penetration through the grouted zone. This will, in turn, depend on the coefficient of fullness in the fracture system and the permeability of the stiffened grout. Therefore, a valuation of leaching and durability has to be based on studies of grout in fractures in the rock and calcium content of the penetrating water. Grout based on granulated blast-furnace slag and/or silica fume contains less calcium hydroxide, which decreases the leaching. These cements are, however, very slow if they aren't accelerated.(abstract truncated)

  2. Pre-study - compilation and synthesis of knowledge about energy crops from cultivation to energy production; Foerstudie - sammanstaellning och syntes av kunskap och erfarenheter om groedor fraan aaker till energiproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Myringer, Aase; Palm, Ola; Roennbaeck, Marie; Tullin, Claes

    2007-06-15

    Energy crops constitute a yet not fully utilized potential as fuel for heating and power production. As competition for biomass hardens the interest for agricultural fuels such as straw, energy grain, willow, reed canary grass and hemp increases. Utilization of the potential for energy crops as fuels demands that cultivation and harvest are coordinated with transportation, storage and combustion of the crops. Together, Vaermeforsk and Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have taken the initiative to a common research programme. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilization of bioenergy from agriculture to combustion for heat and power production in Sweden. The vision is that during the programme, 2006 - 2009, decisive steps will be taken towards a working market for biofuels for bioenergy from agriculture. This survey has compiled and synthesized available knowledge and experiences about energy crops from the field to energy production. The aim has been to give a picture of knowledge today, to identify knowledge gaps and to synthesize knowledge of today into future research needs. A proposal of a research plan has been developed for the research programme.

  3. Guidelines for methodological choices when calculating impacts on the Swedish environmental objectives from changing the energy use; Vaegledning till metodval vid beraekning av paaverkan fraan foeraendrad energianvaendning paa de svenska miljoemaalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Gode, Jenny; Axelsson, Ulrik

    2009-01-15

    The guidelines in this report have been developed by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, within a project financed by the Environmental Objectives Council, the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The idea originated from an earlier project for the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, where the potential of a business model for energy efficiency (Energy Performance Contracting, EPC) to contribute to fulfil the national environmental objectives was studied. When environmental impacts from the studied EPC projects was to be calculated, it was evident how many difficult methodological choices one is faced with when trying to follow up the environmental impacts from projects changing the energy use. A second project was then performed to further analyse the issues involved. The result is this guideline report. The guidelines are on the first hand directed at companies and municipalities performing projects with effects on the energy use, that want to calculate impacts from these on the Swedish environmental objectives. The guidelines can also be useful for county administrations, central authorities and other actors with interest in the issues. A starting point for the recommendations is the Swedish environmental objectives, with focus on those of special interest in relation to energy use and airborne emissions. These are Reduced climate impact, Clean air, Natural acidification only, Zero eutrophication and A good built environment. The environmental objectives are mainly concentrated on what affects the Swedish environment. However, not only emissions in Sweden cause such effects, but also emissions in other countries can be transported by air and fall down and cause impacts in Sweden. Thus, the guidelines focus on Sweden, but include to a certain extent also emissions in other countries. Another starting point is that the guidelines are developed to follow up effects from individual projects or measures. This differs in fundamental aspects from follow up of effects within a geographic unit (for example a municipality) or of environmental impacts from an organisation on a yearly basis. When following up environmental impacts from something other than a project perspective, the recommendations given are not doubtlessly applicable, since what are the most correct methodological choices differ depending on the starting point. The report is called guidelines, and not handbook or manual. This is because of the fact that there are many aspects to consider in the topical methodological choices, and the recommendations are to be considered as approximations. The aim of the report is therefore also to function as a knowledge survey in the area of environmental assessment of energy use, with in-depth background information of the recommendations and references to supplementary literature. The guidelines cover stationary energy use (hence, transport is not covered), with primary energy and life cycle perspectives to embrace total environmental impacts and facilitate comparisons between energy carriers. However, comparisons should always be made with caution, since there are several aspects to consider in conversions between energy carriers. Such aspects are how impacts are transferred between local, national and international levels, between Sweden and other countries, or between different environmental objectives. Weighting between such aspects are very difficult, and measures that reduce impacts in general are therefore preferable, when this is possible

  4. Nuclear Energy, Geothermal Energy and the Environment. Reports to the Energy Commission's Expertgroup for Safety and Environment. Kaernenergi, geotermisk energi och miljoe. Underlagsrapporter till rapport om miljoeeffekter och risker vid utnyttjandet av energi fraan Expertgruppen foer saekerhet och miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains reports on uranium mining, working conditions in the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, risks at storage of spent fuel elements, environmental impact of future reactor technology, effects of waste heat disposal and risks at geothermal energy extraction in Sweden. These reports have been use by the expert group to produce their final paper.

  5. The Vaendoera test road, Sweden: A case study of long-term properties of roads constructed with MSWI bottom ash; Projekt Vaendoera: En studie av laangtidsegenskaper hos vaegar anlagda med bottenaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David; Arm, Maria; Westberg, Gunnar; Sjoestrand, Karin; Lyth, Martin; Wik, Ola [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering

    2006-03-15

    The accumulated effects of leaching and aging in a subbase layer of bottom ash were investigated in this study. The paved test road were constructed in 1987 in Linkoeping, Sweden, and has been used until the start of this study. The objective of this study was to investigate: (i) the accumulated effects of leaching and aging (ii) the accumulated effects of load and aging on the geotechnical properties (iii) the prerequisites for separate excavation of the bottom ash for possible reuse. The study started in September 2003 and included tests with falling weight deflectometer, triax testing on undisturbed core samples of bottom ash, sampling for chemical analysis. Three trenches were excavated in the test road, samples of the subbase layer and the subgrade were taken in the shaft walls and brought to the laboratory for leaching tests (EN 12457-2) and extraction, respectively. The extraction procedure was used to estimate extractable and chemically available fractions. It was found that the steady increase of stiffness which had been detected by falling weight deflectometer during the first years after construction had ceased. The undisturbed samples showed stiffness comparable with recently produced bottom ash from the same incineration plant, but lower stiffness if compared with the reference material of crushed rock. The permanent deformation was significantly larger for the samples compared with the crushed rock and recent (1999-2001) bottom ash from other incineration plants. The spatial distribution patterns of leachable easily soluble constituents reveal the existence of horizontal gradients, directed from the center of the road towards the shoulders of the road. This implies that horizontal transport by diffusion is the rate limiting leaching process for all easily soluble constituents underneath the pavement in a road. The bottom ash that was used in the sub-base layer was fresh at the time of the construction of the test road with a pH of about 11. Measured pH values in the collected bottom ash samples also show horizontal gradients with decreasing values towards the shoulder slopes and a pH front propagating from the road shoulders towards the center of the road. This indicates reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide. The spatial distribution of leachable trace elements in the subbase layer was found to reflect the distribution of pH and the aging process. No evidence of significant leaching where found with exception for the easily dissolvable elements SO{sub 4}, Ca, K, Na, Cl, Mg and Mo. The criteria for sensitive land use was only exceeded in a few sampling points in the subgrade. However, the origin of the subgrade is not clear which makes the interpretation of that data difficult. It turned out to be easy to excavate the different layers in the road construction separately which is favorable for future reuse.

  6. Deposition and effects on some aquatic organisms of particulate matter emitted from some peat fuelled power plants in Finland. Deposition och effekter paa naagra vattenlevande organismer av emitterat stoft fraan naagra torveldade kraftverk i Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, C; Fischer, S; Hellstroem, T; Notini, M; Steen, B; Waltersson, E; Landner, L

    1982-01-01

    At three different peat fuelled plants in Finland, environmental studies have been carried out with the aim of obtaining part of the background data necessary for the formulation of environmental guidelines in relation to the future use of peat for energy and heat production in Sweden. The present project was comprised of (a) field studies of the composition pattern of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and of heavy metals in the surroundings of some existing peat fuelled power plants, and (b) laboratory tests with a few aquatic organisms to check the possible biological effects induced by emitted particles. The results of these studies indicate that the deposition of (PAH) in the surroundings of three power plants (measured by snow sampling and by analysis of kale grown in the area) did not exceed the background level, whereas the deposition of heavy metals emitted from one power plant resulted in increased concentrations of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and possibly of Hg, compared to the assumed background level. Biological tests with particles originating from two different peat fuelled power plants showed that only weak, but obvious, effects could be detected at concentrations corresponding to realistic deposition levels. These effects are supposed to be due to the metal content of the particles rather than to the PAH content. When evaluating the lab results, it should be considered that a certain fixation of metals dissolved in the snow melting water may take place in the soil surface. Therefore, the biological effect studies, carried out so far, do not indicate that peat combustion at the investigated power plants, using efficient flue gas cleaning systems, cause any considerable biological effects in the surroundings of the plants. However, it is evident that the present set of data does not allow a general evaluation of the over-all environmental impact of peat combustion.

  7. Decision support system on line to minimize the NO{sub x} emission. Results from Oerebro Energi; Beslutsstoed on line foer minimering av NO{sub x}. Resultat fraan Oerebro Energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, B G; Liao, B; Sieurin, J [EuroSim AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-05-01

    A Decision Support System to reduce NO{sub x} emission from combustion processes with SNCR system have been developed and tested in full scale at Oerebro Energy. The boiler is a 165 MWh{sub th} CFB and have been fired with a mixture of biomass, peat and coal. The results proves that the EuroSim method works to calculate the derivative included in the Decision Support System. The Decision Support System is a tool for the operator of the plant, he will be informed of the advantage of making an increase or decrease of the ammonia flow or excess air. The trend curves that are presented to the operator includes information about the economic value to make an adjustment of the ammonia flow. The derivative dNO{sub x}/dO{sub 2} shows the advantage of making a reduction in the excess air level, concerning the fee for NO{sub x}. In this case it is important to take into consideration the risk for understoichiometric combustion and corrosion. The results from the full scale test in the Oerebro Plant shows that during some time periods it is economical to shut off the ammonia flow. The derivative dNO{sub x}/dAF is under the profitability limit. This indicate that the cost for the ammonia is higher than the fee for the NO{sub x} emission. If the ammonia flow is added in excess, the emission of ammonia and N{sub 2}O will increase. During other time periods the Decision Support System shows that it is profitable to increase the ammonia flow, the derivative is lower than -0,2. The derivative dNO{sub x}/dO{sub 2} is normally between 10 and 20 (ppm/%). This indicate that it is a great potential to reduce the NO{sub x} fee by decreasing the excess air level in the boiler. 3 refs, 23 figs

  8. Efficient recovery and upgrading of waste heat from humid air in the forest industry. Pre-feasibility study; Energieffektivisering inom skogsindustrin genom spillvaermeaatervinning fraan vaatluft. Foerprojektering och loensamhetsbedoemning av anlaeggningsalternativ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingman, Daniel; Gustafsson, Maria; Westermark, Mats

    2007-12-15

    Within the pulp and paper and saw mill industries there are large quantities of waste heat in the form of moist air or humid flue gases. The temperature and dew point are generally too low for the streams to be useful as process heat. Waste heat can be recovered from humid gas streams e.g. outgoing gas from paper machines, lumber dryers, green liquor flash tanks, flue gases from power and recovery boilers, lime kilns etc. In general, this waste heat is available around 50-65 deg C. One way to utilise the heat on a higher temperature level is by means of heat pumping. The present project studies the possibility to use a recently developed absorption heat pump technology for upgrading waste heat to district heating or process steam. Via direct contact between the absorbent and humid gas stream, the moisture is condensed in the absorbent and the latent heat simultaneously increases the liquid's temperature. A number of process solutions have been calculated in terms of technical and economic performance. The process can be designed for production of hot water or process steam from upgraded waste heat. The end product is indirectly governed be the selection of absorbent or working medium. Investigated absorbents are solutions of potassium formate, sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid, of which the former two have been included in the techno-economic calculations. The upgraded heat can either save costs by replacing primary fuel or result in increased revenues by exporting produced heat. Internally, the produced heat often replaces oil or electricity on the margin. The choice of regeneration method for the used and diluted absorbent is governed by the mill's energy situation. Industries with large waste heat resources, high value on process steam and use of heat on district heat level, waste heat driven regeneration is advisable. Industries with similar value on MP and LP steam should use back-pressure regeneration with MP steam for optimum cost and energy efficiency for the heat upgrading process. The project was started with a questionnaire to the forest industry, including questions on temperature requirements for the upgraded heat. Out of 16 addressed and evaluated industries, three were selected for a more in-deep assessment. The following mills were selected: Braviken, Froevi and Malaa saw mill. Cost effective process solutions production of both process steam and district heating were studied for a number of waste heat sources. Upgraded waste heat is primary considered on the level of 85-90 deg C, but also hot water and process steam on 1-3 bar level. Waste heat sources evaluated in the techno-economic assessment are paper machine outlet, flue gases from power and recovery boilers as well as from lumber dryers. The results within every category are considered to be relatively general for similar companies in the forest industry. For all cases, a heat factor (coefficient of performance) 1.5-1.7 is calculated, i.e. the relation between upgraded waste heat (when applicable also incl. process steam) and the driving steam. A feasibility study for the three industries was carried out for four different process solutions for a pre-fabricated module of approximately 5 MW upgraded waste heat capacity. The investment cost for these modules was calculated to MSEK 14-19 on a +-30% level. The specific investment cost in relation to the upgraded waste heat capacity, varies between SEK 2,700 and 3,700 per kW of useful heat. The economic assessment shows a payback time under 2 years for three of the four processes that produce hot water and LLP steam. The forth process, for upgrading waste heat to LP steam (3 bara) via steam compression, is not profitable with the present assumptions. With the current energy costs there are no incentives to upgrade waste heat to LP steam with an absorption heat pump and steam compression. The study has shown that this novel absorption heat pump technology has technical and economical potential to increase the competitiveness of the forest industry. The profitability has been shown to be very good for a number of typical sources of waste heat in moist air within the forest industry

  9. Deregulation of the electric power market. Results from the pioneering countries Chile, England, Norway and Argentina; Avreglering av elmarknaden. Facit fraan de fyra pionjaerlaenderna Chile, England, Norge och Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, B.; Sannebro, N. [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    In Sweden the goal of the deregulation is to reach a more efficient utilization of the resources through increased competition, and to guarantee the customers flexible deliveries to lowest cost. This need free transition rights on the Swedish transmission grid. If the Swedish deregulation follows the pattern seen in the other countries, the deregulation will show effects also in related areas. 18 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Synthesis of Vaermeforsk's research programme 'Crops from field to energy'; Syntes av Vaermeforsks forskningsprogram 'Groedor fraan aaker till energi'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Gunnarsson, Carina; Roennbaeck, Marie; Olsson, Johanna

    2010-06-15

    Vaermeforsk and the Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have jointly run the research programme 'Crops from field to energy'. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilization of bioenergy from agriculture for combustion and heat and power production in Sweden. About 20 projects have studied different parts of the chain from cultivation, harvest and storage to combustion and recycling of ash to farmland for agricultural fuels (straw, hemp, Reed Canary Grass and short rotation willow crops (Salix)). The aim of this report has been to compile and synthesise progress made during the programme and realization of its aims, as well as to identify the need of further research. The most important progress and conclusions made during the programme are: Cultivation - More knowledge and concrete advice concerning planting and growth of Salix, as well as on suitable length of harvest season, which enables planting cost reductions and increased yields. Increased knowledge on cultivation of Reed Canary Grass and combined cultivation with leguminous plants. Harvest and logistics - Comparisons and costs for different alternatives for harvest, handling and logistics has been produced for all of the agricultural fuels, both via theoretical and practical efforts, which can serve as a basis for direct measures as well as continued research. Processing/combustion/ash - It is possible to produce briquettes made from Reed Canary Grass and peat. New knowledge on combustion of Reed Canary Grass with different boilers is produced. It is now recommended as a fuel for co-combustion with wood and peat in large scale plants. Recommendations on co-combustion of Reed Canary Grass and Salix with peat have also been put forward, based on combustion tests. Experience from Denmark on large scale combustion of straw and production of high quality straw has been compiled. Additional costs that may arise when using agricultural fuels instead of forest fuels have been investigated. Experience and knowledge concerning recycling of ash in the forestry sector has been identified and which may be applied in agriculture. Other topics - A calculation method has been made, which compares annual crops with perennial crops, which shows that Salix has good profitability (in SEK/hectare) and low production costs (in SEK/MWh) in comparison with other crops. The main obstacle for increasing the production and use of energy crops is that the cultivation is perceived to be unprofitable. To improve the competitiveness of energy crops, primarily in relation to wood chips, investment support should be given to farmers cultivating energy crops with high investment costs. Cooperation between farmers and energy users has been studied in the region of Vastra Gotaland in Sweden. Among the conclusions are that there needs to be profitability in all parts of the chain from field to energy plant, that structures for regional cooperation need to be modernized in order to increase the use of agricultural fuels in the plants. An inventory over agricultural fuel quantities available, possible farmers as well as areas for cultivation. Additional results are expected on important factors for increasing farmers interest in growing energy crops. Conclusions are drawn on realisation of the programmes aims. As a conclusion it can be stated that some projects have tackled problems and a broader set of aspects including the whole chain from field to plant, whereas some projects have contributed with parts, which together contribute to a better understanding. Most projects have given suggestions of solutions, but not tested them in reality, which gives rise to a need of more practical experiences in order to determine how problems may be solved in the best way and how obstacles for achieving a well functioning market can be removed. Remaining need of knowledge has been identified, as a result from projects as well as the workshop carried out, and is presented in this report. The need for research which was identified and prioritized at th e workshop includes: Cultivation - type of effort: Field trials regarding cultivation; Recommendations for cultivation of various crops in different geographical regions of the country; Investigation and demonstration of benefits of multifunctional systems and crops. Harvest and logistics - type of effort: Continued development and demonstration of harvest technology and logistical chains for all energy crops; Development of harvesting technology (not for straw), for in particular for Salix; Design and planning of terminals. Combustion - type of effort: Applied research and systematic investigation/verification of knowledge on combustion of agricultural fuels. Other topics - type of effort: Information and data regarding markets and policy instruments, Implementation of a functioning market for agricultural fuels, Demonstration of good examples, Data on sustainability for agricultural fuels

  11. From crucial issue to additional question. A study of the political debate about nuclear waste in Sweden 1976-2009; Fraan oedesfraaga till oevrig fraaga. En studie av den politiska debatten om kaernavfallet i Sverige 1976-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nord, Lars; Stur, Elisabeth (Mid Sweden University (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The overall purpose of this paper is to investigate how the premises for the political decision processes in the issue of final disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste are affected by changes in the public opinion climate and global events. The paper therefore focuses on questions concerning how the national political debate leading up to decisions interacts with the media debate, and the public opinion dynamic that arises when the two debates relate to each other. Particular interest is devoted to the arguments and standpoints that occur in politics and media and how they refer to the prevailing public opinion situation and to conditions in the surrounding world of a political, legal, economic, ecological and technological nature. An analysis of the arenas and actors involved in the debates ought to provide valuable knowledge regarding how the political agenda has been formed at different points in time. The following questions are of central interest to the study: - What characterizes the parliamentary and the party political debate in the nuclear waste issue, and in what way have actors, standpoints and arguments changed over time? - What characterizes opinion formation and news reporting in the media in the nuclear waste issue and in what way have actors, standpoints and arguments changed over time? The course of the debate at four different times and in connection with four parliamentary elections during the period 1976-2009 is analyzed in the study. The subject of the analysis includes the four parliamentary parties the Centre Party, the Liberal Party, the Moderates and the Social Democrats. These four parties have been chosen because they have been represented in the Swedish Parliament during the entire period studied and are therefore reasonable to compare. The study has mainly been conducted as a qualitative textual analysis of public print, party documents and media content. The qualitative text analysis is complemented to some extent by other existing written documentation such as political memoirs and debate books. The results of the study show that the nuclear waste issue was at the centre of the domestic political debate during the 1970s, but then gradually lost ground in political importance during the following decades. What can most accurately be described as a make-or-break political issue at the start of the studied period was by the end of the same period at most a back-burner issue that was of limited interest and had virtually been removed from the political sphere. The nuclear waste debate serves as a good illustration of the life cycle of a political issue and illustrates the circumstances under which an issue can be politicized at one stage only to be marginalized and struck from the political agenda at a later stage. This metamorphosis in importance is seldom as clear-cut as in the analysis of the change undergone by the nuclear waste issue in the Swedish public debate. For example, six times as much was written on this subject in the four leading daily newspapers during the last three weeks of the 1976 election campaign as during the 1998 election campaign. When it comes to the number of parliamentary motions pertaining to nuclear power and nuclear waste, there were less than half as many during the parliamentary year 2009/10 compared with ten years earlier. In other words, this is an issue that is gradually declining in opinion-related importance, both in politics and in media coverage. The position of nuclear waste in the Swedish political debate can generally be explained by reference to an opinion-related interaction between politics and media, where in general political actors make rational judgements and take standpoints to maximize their own influence and to win voters, keep their party together or promote cooperation with other parties. Such judgements can explain why nuclear power and its environmental consequences were such a big issue in the 1976 election (when the Centre Party wanted to politicize the issue), as well as why it was such a small issue in the 1998 election (when all political actors contributed to depoliticizing the issue). The interesting point is how the media coverage during these elections reflects the political positions and how compliantly the media's interpretations of the political positions are formed. The nuclear waste issue is characterized not only by the willingness of the parties to politicize or depoliticize during different periods, but also by the existence of other environment-related issues that compete for the attention of the parties, the media and the voters. The 1980s debate about algal blooms and mass seal deaths and the last decade's debate about the global climate threat are issues that probably influence the stand taken by public opinion-makers on the waste issue.

  12. Noise and noise disturbances from wind power plants - Tests with interactive control of sound parameters for more comfortable and less perceptible sounds; Buller och bullerstoerningar fraan vindkraftverk - Foersoek med interaktiv styrning av ljudparametrar foer behagligare och mindre maerkbara ljud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson-Waye, K.; Oehrstroem, E.; Bjoerkman, M.; Agge, A. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    2001-12-01

    In experimental pilot studies, a methodology has been worked out for interactively varying sound parameters in wind power plants. In the tests, 24 persons varied the center frequency of different band-widths, the frequency of a sinus-tone and the amplitude-modulation of a sinus-tone in order to create as comfortable a sound as possible. The variations build on the noise from the two wind turbines Bonus and Wind World. The variations were performed with a constant dba level. The results showed that the majority preferred a low-frequency tone (94 Hz and 115 Hz for Wind World and Bonus, respectively). The mean of the most comfortable amplitude-modulation varied between 18 and 22 Hz, depending on the ground frequency. The mean of the center-frequency for the different band-widths varied from 785 to 1104 Hz. In order to study the influence of the wind velocity on the acoustic character of the noise, a long-time measurement program has been performed. A remotely controlled system has been developed, where wind velocity, wind direction, temperature and humidity are registered simultaneously with the noise. Long-time registrations have been performed for four different wing turbines.

  13. Aerobic effluent treatment with lower electric power consumption. Survey of results from questionnaire sent out to Swedish pulp and paper mills with biological effluent treatment plants; Aerob rening med laegre elfoerbrukning. Sammanstaellning av enkaetsvar fraan svenska skogsindustrier med biologisk rening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivard, Aasa; Simon, Olle

    2010-12-15

    A survey of the energy situation at 23 Swedish pulp and paper mills with aerobic effluent treatment plants has been performed. The electricity consumption for aeration equipment is about 80 % of the total electricity consumption. Proposed measures to increase energy efficiency are regular measurements of energy consumption, better control of the oxygen level in some mills and evaluation of measures to use the heat in process effluent before and after biological treatment

  14. Combined environmental impacts from production and use of the products. An EIS-application project for refineries; Sammanvaegd miljoepaaverkan fraan produktion och anvaendning av produkterna. Ett MKB-tillaempningsprojekt foer raffinaderier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, K; LoevbIad, G.; Stripple, H.

    2001-12-01

    At European refineries a change in production is planned in order to obtain better qualities of gasoline and diesel, from an environmental point of view. This change will, however, lead to higher emissions at the refineries. The present study of the combined effects of emissions at the refineries and the use of the products gives the opportunity for considering the entire system and gives a stronger positive signal than the traditional EIS would do. Three different methods were used: Net change in emissions to air; Exposure of men and ecosystems for air pollutants; and Exceeding norms and critical levels. The results for the Swedish refinery at Lysekil shows that the emissions from using the products are much higher than the emissions from the refinery for all cases studied. The net emissions from production and use of the products will be reduced for the new products compared to the present situation. Risks for exceeding norms and critical levels due to the changes at the refinery exist for emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, but a lower background load will probably mean that the total future load will be reasonably close to the critical level in the area affected by the refinery. In the urban environment, reduced risks for exceeding the levels for benzen and low levels for toluene and xylene give greater advantages than the increased emissions of sulfur and nitrogen close to the refinery.

  15. A study of the influence of noise from offshore wind power plants on the marine bottom fauna; En studie om hur bottenlevande fauna paaverkas av ljud fraan vindkraftverk till havs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem, Andreas; Granmo, Aake

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to examine changes of behaviour and activity patterns in marine soft bottom fauna under the influence of low frequent noise. Controlled experiments were performed at Kristineberg Marine Research Station in Fiskebaeckskil. The experiments were performed utilizing generator and vibrator techniques producing frequencies of 61, 178 and 721 Hz with an average sound pressure around 99 dB re 1 muPa. The selection of frequencies was based upon the sound profile measured at Utgrunden offshore wind farm in Kalmarsund (Ingemansson Technology, 2003) with the aim of recreating natural conditions. In order to quantify the sound exposure, measurements on both sound pressure and water particle acceleration in the test tanks were performed. In total four different marine soft bottom species were studied: a common little white mussel (Abra nitida), brittle star (Amphiura filiformis), brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) and juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). For the white mussel its burrowing ability was studied. First the speeds of burrowing down into the sediment and thereafter, the burrowing activity in the surface layer of the sediment for the duration of 96 hours were registered. During the experiments with the brittle star Amphiura filiformis the number of arms active in gathering food were observed shortly after the sound had started and for a period of 72 hours. When the brown shrimp was exposed for sound the number of prey items consumed during one day and after 4 days were observed. The study on juvenile plaice was only a shorter pilot study where the fish were exposed for sound during 15 minutes. During this restricted time swimming activity and burrowing activity were observed and after the initial 15 minutes also the respiration frequency during measurement for one minute were documented. The study showed that the burrowing activity increased for the white mussel compared to the controls during exposure of frequencies around 178 Hz after 24 hours exposure. The burrowing activity returned to normal after 48 h of exposure when the difference was not significantly different from the controls anymore. The observed change of behaviour could be interpreted as a response towards the artificially introduced sound and that an adaptation occurred towards the sound. A trend towards an increased activity also occurred during exposure to 61 Hz after the final measurement after 96 hours. Neither effects on activity nor behaviour in food collecting or consumption for brittle stars or brown shrimps could be established in this study. The pilot study on juvenile plaice revealed an increase in respiration during exposure to frequencies around 178 Hz and also a trend towards an increased respiration during exposure of 61 Hz. The effects on juvenile plaice during a long time exposure are uncertain. To sum up the results, this study showed that frequencies around 178 Hz seems to have an influence on certain soft bottom fauna at sound pressures of 99 dB re 1 muPa and with a maximal particle acceleration of 0,29 . 1,28 m/s2. Whether this is a common behavioral or only a species specific pattern has yet to be surveyed

  16. 'Finnova Development Group'. Comb Configurated Costumer-close Network Installations with Underground Service Boxes. From project objectives to main solutions; 'Finnova' Innovativ Montage och Systemloesning foer Fjaerrvaermeanslutning av Villaomraade. Fraan projektmaal till huvudloesningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundson, Tommy [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (SE)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    The overall goal for a project, presented in this report, together with and three additional ones, is to produce at least one new, economically competitive solution for distribution of DH in residential areas with low heat demand density - which normally means distribution in villa areas. As a built in sub goal, the work was anticipated to end up in one demo project. The report presents how both goals are achieved. The presentation gives exhaustive descriptions of the system technologies, of the foreseen installation methods but also of working procedures used by the Finnova Development Group to reach the goals. A great deal of work has been dedicated to the issue of harmonizing system design and layout and methods for construction. The report gives, based on through literature studies both regarding Sweden and internationally, together with many decades of personal experiences for the members of the Finnova Development Group, an enveloping presentation of branch experiences related to system design, choice of materials and methods of installation and operation. Having this as a background, the report highlights on one hand which problems has to be dealt with on the other what should be avoided - if you want to avoid high installation costs and future problems - when designing a DH distribution system. Parallel to this, the success factors for distribution DH in low heat density areas are crystallized and discussed. Consequently, the work presented in this report has three 'foundation bolts': What should be avoided, what we want to achieve and success factors that are there to be used. With these identified and used a generally fit for use foundation for innovative solution can be built. This structure for innovative solution is thoroughly scrutinized with respect to material as well functional issues. The rather great complexity of a DH system, with all its components and functional requirements, are clearly demonstrated. Two main solutions are presented in the report. For the first one, 'Finnova AF', evidence is given that the overall goal is fulfilled. The goal being investment costs lower than SEK 50,000 per costumer - VAT not included and in the cost level of 2003/2004. The possibilities for the second one, 'Finnova LTH', may in the long run be even more promising, with respect to economy as well as functionally. The fulfilling of this requires, however, investigations and research and the time for these are not to be found within the time schedule given for this project. Other important issues dealt with regarding the two solutions are: estimated technical life length, need for and accessibility at maintenance and heat losses The two main solutions are named Comb Configurated Costumer Close Network (Finnova AF) and Villa Connection with Distribution Chambers (Finnova LTH). Both are in general terms presented in this report and fully and more detailed in reports no 2 and 3. A demo for the Finnova AF approach is right now being built in a villa area in the Granlunda suburb of Trelleborg in south Sweden. The system decisive features of the Finnova AF are three: The conventional DH substation is abandoned and replaced with a service and connection box in the garden at the site boundary, no pipe joints directly in ground are to be found, and almost all needed working moments can be performed by anyone of a working crew of 5 people. Among the identified success factors, especially the following should be mentioned: Maximum continuity. No 'extern specialists' needed, the civil works contractor should be able to perform 'almost' all working procedures with his own crew. One-step finished backfilling must be applied. And to obtain continuity, flexible coiled pipes and cold installation of network are necessary. The DH substation moved out of the customer's house. The DH supplier is supposed to be the owner of the service and maintenance box replacing the FC. This box contains a prefabricated, standardised, easily replaceable cassette. This cassette contains all necessary functions needed to deliver, measure and check the quality of heating and tap water being delivered. A new philosophy for the supply of tap hot water. Two pipes instead of one are used for the hot tap water supply. The smaller one normally is used for mere circulation. At higher sudden demands, both pipes serve as forward pipes, increasing the capacity. A high degree of standardization. A high degree of standardization, with respect to components as well as to interfaces, is necessary to minimize the gross working time, including periods of waiting during construction. And more time used can be directly transformed into higher costs for more than half of the working steps that sums up into a contract like this. Adding to this, standardisation and systemisation make life much easier for the DH supplier, when it comes to such things as future maintenance and renewal of the network as well as connecting new costumers in the area in question. As a spin-off, and as a result of the methodology of the Finnova Development Group, the report series can be used as a well of knowledge for further innovative solutions. In appendices, the following is presented: Definitions of technical and economical expressions used in the reports Rules of design for fluid pipes A market survey for machinery and other equipment suitable for the installation of DH piping in residential areas with low heat density.

  17. Noise annoyances from wind power: Survey of the population living close to a wind power plant. Final report: Part 3 Main study; Stoerningar fraan vindkraft: undersoekning bland maenniskor boende i naerheten av vindkraftverk. Slutrapport: Del 3 Huvudstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Eja [Halmstad Univ., Halmstad (Sweden). School of Business and Engineering; Persson-Waye, K [Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of annoyance from wind turbines, a study was performed in Laholm in May 2000. The aim was to obtain dose response relationships between calculated sound levels and noise annoyance and appropriate sound description as well as analysing the influence of other variables on noise annoyance. A questionnaire survey was performed in 6 areas comprising 16 wind turbines, of which 14 had an effect of 600 kW. The purpose of the study was masked. Among questions on living conditions in the countryside, questions directly related to wind turbines were included. The study population (n=518) comprised one randomly selected subject between the ages of 18 to 75 years in each household living within a calculated wind turbine sound level of 25 to 40 dBA. The response rate was 68.7% (n=356). Calculated distributions of A-weighted sound level were performed for each area and plotted on geographical maps in 2.5 dBA steps. Each dwelling could thus be given a sound level within an interval of 2.5 dBA. The most frequently occurring source of noise annoyance was noise from rotor blades. The proportions of respondents annoyed by noise increased with calculated sound level. Among respondents exposed to sound levels of 35.0-37.5 dBA, 43% responded themselves to be rather or much annoyed. A-weighted sound level was only one variable explaining annoyance. Annoyance was correlated to a larger extent by the intrusiveness of the sound character swishing. Noise annoyance was interrelated to the respondents' opinion of the visual impact of wind turbines, while attitude towards wind power in general had no greater influence. Disturbance of spoilt view was reported to a similar degree as noise disturbance. Further investigations are needed to clarify factors of importance for the disturbance of view. All the wind turbines in the study had constant rotation speed. The greater wind turbines that are now erected often have variable speed, which may lead to a sound comprising other characteristics. The influence of this on noise annoyance is not known. Topography as well as type of ground surface probably has an impact on noise annoyance and visual disturbance, and the study should therefore be repeated in other areas with broken ground.

  18. Running buses on banana skins - Good examples of the municipalities that make biogas from food waste; Koera buss paa bananskal - Goda exempel fraan kommuner som goer biogas av matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Ulrika; Steinwig, Caroline (BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    The municipalities are responsible for taking care of food waste from households, commercial kitchens and restaurants. So there is ample supply of waste that municipalities can produce biogas, but the path is not easy. In this report we highlight some good examples of municipalities that have come a long way in terms of collecting food waste for anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. The idea is that you will be inspired by these examples and perhaps find new ideas and approaches on how more of the food waste could be biogas and biofertilizer in your community

  19. Bruk av amniocenteser og chorionbiopsier i Norge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttorm Haugen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGInvasiv prenatal diagnostikk i form av amniocentese (fostervannsprøve og chorionbiopsi (morkakeprøveutføres i ca. 2% av alle svangerskap i Norge per år. Dette er betydelig færre undersøkelser ennhva som utføres i de andre nordiske land. De fleste får utført amniocentese pga. høy maternell alder(aldersindikasjon som her i landet er ≥ 38 år ved fødselstermin. Chorionbiopsi er forbeholdt kvinnermed kjente arvelige lidelser i familien, dvs. kvinner med høy risiko for å få et affisert foster. De undersøkelsersom foreligger over svangerskapsutfall samt forekomst av komplikasjoner etter amniocenteseog chorionbiopsi er hovedsakelig utført i andre land på kvinner med generelt lavere risiko ( ≥ 35 år ennfor dem som får utført invasiv prenatal diagnostikk i Norge. Pga. vår restriktive praksis kan ikke disseresultatene uten videre overføres til Norge. Vi mangler eksakte data over svangerskapsutfall og evt.komplikasjoner etter disse undersøkelsene i en norsk populasjon.Haugen G, van der Hagen CB. The use of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling in Norway.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYAmniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling are performed in about 2% of all pregnancies in Norwaywhich is far less than in the other Nordic countries. Most of the amniocenteses are performed due toadvanced maternal age. In Norway this is defined as maternal age ≥ 38 years at term. Couples withknown chromosomal aberrations or genetic diseases in their families, i.e. women at a high risk of havingan affected fetus, are offered chorionic villus sampling. Earlier studies on complications and pregnancyoutcome following amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling have been performed in other countriesmainly on women at a lower risk ( ≥ 35 years than for the women having such tests in Norway. We donot have data on pregnancy outcome and possible complications following amniocentesis and chorionicvillus sampling in a Norwegian

  20. Analys av nickel med ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Wallman, Karin; Löfgren, Stefan; Sonesten, Lars; Demandt, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Vid en granskning av nickelhalter för perioden 1985-2007 upptäcktes ett nivåskifte i tidsserierna på flera stationer mellan 2001 och 2002. Skiftet visade sig bero på att prover innan 2002 inte korrigerades för kalciuminterferens, medan prover under åren 2002-2007 korrigerades. Syftet med denna rapport är att utreda om resultaten före 2002 i efterhand kan korrigeras för kalciuminterferensen. Från 2002 finns ett antal prover (N=347) med resultat som både är kalciumkorrigerade och som inte är de...

  1. An Overview of the HomePlug AV2 Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Yonge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HomePlug AV2 is the solution identified by the HomePlug Alliance to achieve the improved data rate performance required by the new generation of multimedia applications without the need to install extra wires. Developed by industry-leading participants in the HomePlug AV Technical Working Group, the HomePlug AV2 technology provides Gigabit-class connection speeds over the existing AC wires within home. It is designed to meet the market demands for the full set of future in-home networking connectivity. Moreover, HomePlug AV2 guarantees backward interoperability with other HomePlug systems. In this paper, the HomePlug AV2 system architecture is introduced and the technical details of the key features at both the PHY and MAC layers are described. The HomePlug AV2 performance is assessed, through simulations reproducing real home scenarios.

  2. Avveckling av aktiebolag : Case: Likvidation av Företag X Ab

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Josefine

    2015-01-01

    Syftet med detta lärdomsprov är att ta reda på hur man idag i Finland kan avveckla ett aktiebolag. De fyra olika avvecklingssätten likvidation, konkurs, fusion och delning av aktiebolag är de sätt som används i Finland för att upplösa aktiebolag. I lärdomsprovet har fokus mest lagts på likvidation av aktiebolag. Lärdomsprovet ger svar på bl.a. hur en likvidation går till, vem som kan vara likvidator, vad som är skillnaden mellan en frivillig likvidation och en tvångsmässig likvidation m.m. Lä...

  3. Når kontakter betyr alt : En studie av bruken av nettverksmediet LinkedIn

    OpenAIRE

    Blaalid, Maren Hyvang

    2012-01-01

    LinkedIn er et av de mest populære sosiale mediene i Norge og tiltrekker seg stadig flere medlemmer. I denne masteroppgaven studerer jeg bruken av LinkedIn for å undersøke hva som er det særegne ved dette nettverksmediet. Jeg har utført en spørreundersøkelse blant 280 brukere for å få innsikt i hvem de er, hvorfor de bruker LinkedIn og hvordan de gjør det. Funnene fra analysen viser at brukerne kjennetegnes ved at de er selvstendige og formålsrasjonelle, som bruker LinkedIn strategisk for å n...

  4. Pollen transmission of asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) may facilitate mixed infection by two AV-2 isolates in asparagus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Ryusuke; Shimura, Hanako; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Ohki, Satoshi T; Masuta, Chikara

    2014-09-01

    Asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) is a member of the genus Ilarvirus and thought to induce the asparagus decline syndrome. AV-2 is known to be transmitted by seed, and the possibility of pollen transmission was proposed 25 years ago but not verified. In AV-2 sequence analyses, we have unexpectedly found mixed infection by two distinct AV-2 isolates in two asparagus plants. Because mixed infections by two related viruses are normally prevented by cross protection, we suspected that pollen transmission of AV-2 is involved in mixed infection. Immunohistochemical analyses and in situ hybridization using AV-2-infected tobacco plants revealed that AV-2 was localized in the meristem and associated with pollen grains. To experimentally produce a mixed infection via pollen transmission, two Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were infected with each of two AV-2 isolates were crossed. Derived cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequence analysis identified each AV-2 isolate in the progeny seedlings, suggesting that pollen transmission could indeed result in a mixed infection, at least in N. benthamiana.

  5. Spa-typing av stammer av Staphylococcus aureus fra blodkulturer analysert ved UNN Tromsø 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Midtgard, Anette

    2011-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Staphylococcus aureus er et av de vanligste patogenene som kan skape sykdom hos mennesket. Mange av oss er bærere av bakterien i nese eller hals, og det er vist at persisterende bærere har høyere risiko for å utvikle S. aureus-infeksjoner enn andre. De fleste S. aureus-infeksjonene blant bærere er forårsaket av pasientens egen bakteriestamme. Materiale og metode: 140 blodkulturisolater fra pasienter med S. aureus bakteriemi analysert ved Avdeling for mikrobiologi og smitte...

  6. Effekt av melkesyrebakteriers metabolisme på utviklingen av Escherichia coli O157:H7 i melk

    OpenAIRE

    Westblad, Anne Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Dagens regelverk sier at all melk som omsettes skal være varmebehandlet, men åpner samtidig for salg av melkeprodukter basert på upasteurisert melk, forutsatt overholdelse av visse krav. Dermed kan småskalavirksomheter framstille melkeprodukter av upasteurisert melk hvis de skulle ønske det. Et slikt ønske er ofte begrunnet i tradisjoner og praktiske forhold. I tillegg er det flere som påstår at råmelk er sunnere enn pasteurisert melk og at råmelkas mikroflora hemmer vekst av uønskede bakteri...

  7. EST Table: AV398539 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398539 NV021929 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0005622(intracellular)|GO:0008270(zinc ion bin...0769|gb|EEZ97216.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC011009 [Tribolium castaneum] AV398539 NV02 ...

  8. AVS-1357 inhibits melanogenesis via prolonged ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Seo-Hyoung; Chae, Chong Hak; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that a derivative of imidazole, AVS-1357, is a novel skin-whitening compound. AVS-1357 was found to significantly inhibit melanin production in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not directly inhibit tyrosinase. Furthermore, we found that AVS-1357 induced prolonged activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, while it downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. It has been reported that the activation of ERK and/or Akt is involved in melanogenesis. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVS-1357 on melanogenesis in the absence or presence of PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of the ERK pathway) and/or LY294002 (a specific inhibitor of the Akt pathway). PD98059 dramatically increased melanogenesis, whereas LY294002 had no effect. Furthermore, PD98059 attenuated AVS-1357 induced ERK activation, as well as the downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase. These findings suggest that the effects of AVS-1357 occur via downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase, which is caused by AVS-1357-induced prolonged ERK activation. Taken together, our results indicate that AVS-1357 has the potential as a new skin whitening agent.

  9. Mineralogical Mapping of Quadrangle Av-2 (belicia) and Av-3 (caparronia) on 4 Vesta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, K.; Frigeri, A.; Barucci, M. A.; Sunshine, J.; Jaumann, R.; Palomba, E.; Blewett, D. T.; Yingst, A.; Marchi, S.; De Sanctis, C. M.; Matz, K.-D.; Roatsch, Th.; Preusker, F.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Since the arrival of the Dawn spacecraft at 4 Vesta on July 16, 2011 the Visible and InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (VIR) has acquired hyperspectral images of Vesta's surface, which enable to characterize Vesta's mineralogical composition in the wavelength range from 0.25 to 5.1µm. As part of the analysis of Vesta's surface composition the science team is preparing a series of 15 quadrangle maps showing the results derived from the spectroscopic analysis of the VIR and FC color data. We present preliminary results of the spectroscopic analysis achieved for the quadrangles Av-2 (Belicia) and Av-3 (Caparronia), which show Vesta's surface between 21°N - 66° N°, 0° - 90°E and 90° - 180° E, respectively. These results are based on the analysis of the combination of the visible albedo, spectral parameters including the position, depth of the pyroxene absorptions, as well as color ratio composites using the VIR channels centering at 749nm/438nm (Red), 749nm/917nm (Green) and 438nm/749nm (Blue). Vesta's rotation axis, however, is tilted ~29° with respect to its orbital plane. Since Dawn arrived during northern winter, portions of Vesta north of ~45° N are dominated by extended shadows or have not yet been imaged due to permanent night. Thus, limited FC color or VIR hyperspectral data have been available for the quadrangles Av-2 and Av-3. The illuminated parts are dominated by a heavily-cratered northern terrain with ancient troughs and grooves and named after the prominent relatively large impact craters Belicia (~37°N/48°E) and Caparronia (~36°N/167°E). Numerous impact craters of different size, morphology, and state of surface degradation are apparent. Most spectral variations are strongly affected by the extreme illumination conditions, making the analysis of albedo variations and spectral signatures rather difficult. Their interpretation thus remains. Nevertheless, VIR spectra show clear evidence of Vesta's surface composition similar to those of HED

  10. Cofactor requirement of HpyAV restriction endonuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Hong Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is the etiologic agent of common gastritis and a risk factor for gastric cancer. It is also one of the richest sources of Type II restriction-modification (R-M systems in microorganisms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have cloned, expressed and purified a new restriction endonuclease HpyAV from H. pylori strain 26695. We determined the HpyAV DNA recognition sequence and cleavage site as CCTTC 6/5. In addition, we found that HpyAV has a unique metal ion requirement: its cleavage activity is higher with transition metal ions than in Mg(++. The special metal ion requirement of HpyAV can be attributed to the presence of a HNH catalytic site similar to ColE9 nuclease instead of the canonical PD-X-D/EXK catalytic site found in many other REases. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to verify the catalytic residues of HpyAV. Mutation of the conserved metal-binding Asn311 and His320 to alanine eliminated cleavage activity. HpyAV variant H295A displayed approximately 1% of wt activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Some HNH-type endonucleases have unique metal ion cofactor requirement for optimal activities. Homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that HpyAV is a member of the HNH nuclease family. The identification of catalytic residues in HpyAV paved the way for further engineering of the metal binding site. A survey of sequenced microbial genomes uncovered 10 putative R-M systems that show high sequence similarity to the HpyAV system, suggesting lateral transfer of a prototypic HpyAV-like R-M system among these microorganisms.

  11. [AVS concentrations in Xinan Creek and the influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Bing; Wen, Yan-Mao; Li, Feng; Wu, Chang-Hua; Duan, Zhi-Peng

    2012-07-01

    Sediment and overlying water samples were collected at 10 sampling stations at Xinan Creek, a tidal river in Pearl River Delta, and analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics as well as microbial incicators, in order to reveal the main factors dominating the spatial distribution of acid volatile sulfide (AVS). The effects of Eh, SRB OC and TS on the spatial distribution of AVS were investigated and the impact of AVS on the toxicity of heavy metals in the studied area was evaluated. The results showed that the range of AVS was 0.207-41.453 micromol x g(-1), with an average of 6.684 micromol x g(-1), which is relatively high compared to the results in other studies. The AVS value of the surface layer was higher than the bottom layer in 5 stations. The AVS values in both the surface layer and the bottom layer were highly variable, the coefficients of variation being 93.61% and 153.09% , respectively. The analytical results revealed that TS was the factor with the greatest impact on the spatial distribution of AVS, and the order was TS > OC > Eh > SRB. Potential ecological risk of heavy metals existed in 60% of the smpling stations based on the value of Sigma (SEM5-AVS), however, with the criterion of [Sigma(SEM5-AVS)]/foc, none of them had inacceptable ecological risk. Furthermore, in terms of single species of heavy metals, there was certain risk of toxic effect for all the five heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb). The above mentioned results will provide valuable data for the in-depth study of the formation mechanism of AVS and helpful reference for environmental impact assessment and scientific rehabilitation of heavy metals in polluted rivers.

  12. Modellering av urbane pluviale flommer ved bruk av værradar

    OpenAIRE

    Kjølseth, Tora Marie Hveem; Vatne, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Ekstreme nedbørhendelser med påfølgende pluviale flommer forårsaker store skader på infrastruktur og bebyggelse. Skadene fører til betydelige samfunnskostnader, og problemet er økende. Avrenningsmodeller kan benyttes for å simulere flomforløpet til en nedbørhendelse, og er et mye brukt verktøy i planlegging, prosjektering, dimensjonering og drift av overvann-systemer. Som inngangsdata i avrenningsmodeller er det vanlig å bruke konstruert nedbør, der det tas utgangspunkt i målinger og statisti...

  13. Transport og akkumulering av jern i profiler av et dyrket myrareal

    OpenAIRE

    Ødelien, M.; Selmer-Olsen, A. R.; Lie, Ole

    1980-01-01

    En mindre del av et stort dyrket myrareal på eiendommen Vivang, Våler i Solør, har uvanlig jernrik torv. Her har havre hatt god vegetativ vekst, men meget dårlig kjerneutvikling (5,10). Det siste har vist seg å skyldes molybdenmangel, som særlig må antas å ha årsakssammenheng med det store jerninnholdet i torva. I denne artikkelen er arealet med molybdenmangel kalt A og et tilgrensende areal uten synlige tegn til slik mangel B. Tabellene 1-3 viser kjemiske analyseresultater for torv fra 3 pro...

  14. En undersökning av Norwegians kriskommunikation under flygstrejken 2015. : En textanalys av Facebookinlägg och pressmeddelanden.

    OpenAIRE

    Emma, Mickelsson

    2016-01-01

    Numera lever vi i ett krissamhälle där vi nästan varje dag nås av budskap från olika typer av kriser. När en organisation drabbas av en kris är det viktigt att tänka på vilken kommunikation man använder för att nå ut med sitt budskap. Uppsatsens syfte var att undersöka hur en organisation använder sig av olika försvarsstrategier och retoriska appeller i sin kriskommunikation. Organisationen som valdes ut var flygbolaget Norwegian och deras hantering av den 11 dagar långa flygs...

  15. Slutrapport - utökad samordning av landskapsövervakning och uppföljning av Natura 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhl, Göran; Gardfjell, Hans; Glimskär, Anders; Hagner, Åsa; Holm, Sören; Walheim, Mats

    2007-01-01

    I denna kortversion av 2006 års slutrapport från projektet ”utökad samordning av landskaps- övervakning och uppföljning av Natura 2000” redovisas de viktigaste resultaten på ett sätt som gör dem enklare tillgängliga för inriktningsbeslut om ambitionsnivå för uppföljnings- arbetet. Nuvarande målsättning är att Naturamoment införlivas i Nationell Inventering av Landskapet i Sverige (NILS) och Riksinventeringen av Skog (RIS) från och med 2008; under 2009 beräknas kompletteran...

  16. An Overview of the HomePlug AV2 Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yonge, Larry; Abad, Jose; Afkhamie, Kaywan; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Katar, Srinivas; Lioe, Hidayat; Pagani, Pascal; Riva, Raffaele; Schneider, Daniel M.; Schwager, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    HomePlug AV2 is the solution identified by the HomePlug Alliance to achieve the improved data rate performance required by the new generation of multimedia applications without the need to install extra wires. Developed by industry-leading participants in the HomePlug AV Technical Working Group, the HomePlug AV2 technology provides Gigabit-class connection speeds over the existing AC wires within home. It is designed to meet the market demands for the full set of future in-home networking co...

  17. A case of pancreatic AV malformation in an elderly man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin; Kedia, Saurabh; Sonika, Ujjwal; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Pal, Sujoy; Garg, Pramod

    2018-06-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain and weight loss for 6 months. Abdominal imaging showed a large vascular lesion in the head and neck of pancreas suggestive of arteriovenous malformation (AV malformation). Endoscopic ultrasound was done which showed features of AV malformation with no evidence of pancreatic malignancy. Surgery was planned for definitive treatment of malformation. Digital subtraction angiography with angioembolization was done prior to surgery to reduce vascularity of the lesion. He recovered after a pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathology of the resected specimen confirmed the pancreatic AV malformation. There has been no recurrence at 2 years of follow-up.

  18. Förändring av förpackning som utökning av marknadsmixen : En studie av fem snabbrörliga konsumentvaror inom livsmedelsbranschen

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, Carolina; Eriksson, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    Denna uppsats behandlar förändring av förpackning som en möjlig utökning av produktkategorin i Kotler & Kellers utvidgade marknadsmix. I marknadsmixen behandlas förpackningen som statisk under en varas livstid och studiens syfte var att se om förpackningsförändringar istället bör ske vid flertalet tillfällen. Genom existerande litteratur identifierades tre centrala begrepp som ansågs betydelsefulla för studien; förpackning, förändring av förpackning och differentiering. Fem olika företag ...

  19. Open Source AV solution supporting In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian; Pociunas, Gintas; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    the software to meet our expectations for a portable AV system for VAD. The system would make use of “off the shelf” hardware components which are widely available and easily replaced or expanded. The developed AV software and coding is contracted to be available as Copyleft Open Source to ensure low cost...... a stable AV software that has be developed and implemented for an in situ simulation initiative. This version (1.3) is the first on released as Open Source (Copyleft) software (see QR tag). We have found that it is possible to deliver multi-camera video assisted debriefing in a mobile, in situ simulation...... environment using an AV system constructed from “off the shelf” components and Open Source software....

  20. Practically perfect: learning by doing at AVS congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-18

    It has been some time since Cambridge vet school last hosted the annual AVS congress, which meant that this year's congress committee faced a steep learning curve. However, as Gill Harris reports, it rose to the occasion. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Knihovna Sociologického ústavu AV ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hesová, Nela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017) E-ISSN 1805-2800 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : library Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies https://www.lib.cas.cz/casopis-informace/knihovna-sociologickeho-ustavu-av-cr/

  2. EST Table: AV399390 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399390 NV120162 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/181 aa ref|YP_002884244.1| Ac13-like ...yhedrovirus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV399390 NV12 ...

  3. AVS (Application Visualization System) user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuko, Kenji; Kato, Katsumi [Research Organization for Information Science Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Gorai, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Kazuhiko

    1996-03-01

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment by the information system operating division. We introduced a server for image processing, AVS for image processing software and an animation processing system (video, frame scan converter). This report summarizes the information to use AVS and to develop and maintain computer and network environment for image processing. (author).

  4. Effekt av ulike kjemiske- og biologiske preparater på forekomsten av Fusarium og mykotoksiner i havre

    OpenAIRE

    Shakery, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Aksfusariose er en vanlig sykdom på korn forårsaket av flere ulike Fusarium-arter. En Fusarium-infeksjon på akset gir tap av avling i tillegg til en reduksjon i kvaliteten på kornet. Reduksjonen i kvalitet skjer i hovedsak gjennom produksjon av en rekke toksiske metabolitter (mykotoksiner) som kan være en helserisiko for både dyr og mennesker. I de senere årene har det vært økt fokus på Fusarium og mykotoksiner i korn både i Norge og i store deler av verden. En årsak til det...

  5. Clearance of materials from dismantling of nuclear facilities in Sweden - a study on whether the EU recommendations are applicable in Sweden; Friklassning av material fraan rivning av kaerntekniska anlaeggningar i Sverige - en utredning om EU:s rekommenderade regler aer tillaempbara i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrefors, Gunilla [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    The report presents a study on whether the EU recommendations on clearance of metals, buildings and building rubble from the dismantling of nuclear facilities are applicable in Sweden. Analyses are made to estimate the amounts of waste that would be released from dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants and to what degree the costs of the licence holders would be influenced. A summary and evaluation of different methods and equipments for measurement is also given. The main conclusion is that the EU recommendations are applicable in Sweden.

  6. Radioactive waste from non-licensed activities - identification of waste, compilation of principles and guidance, and proposed system for final management; Radioaktivt avfall fraan icke tillstaandsbunden verksamhet (RAKET) - identifiering av aktuellt avfall, sammanstaellning av relevanta regler och principer, foerslag paa system foer omhaendertagande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.; Pers, K. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Presently national guidelines for the handling of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities are lacking in Sweden. Results and information presented in this report are intended to form a part of the basis for decisions on further work within the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute on regulations or other guidelines on final management and final disposal of this type of waste. An inventory of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities is presented in the report. In addition, existing rules and principles used in Sweden - and internationally - on the handling of radioactive and toxic waste and non-radioactive material are summarized. Based on these rules and principles a system is suggested for the final management of radioactive material from non-licensed activities. A model is shown for the estimation of dose as a consequence of leaching of radio-nuclides from different deposits. The model is applied on different types of waste, e.g. peat ashes, light concrete and low-level waste from a nuclear installation.

  7. The role of AV and VV optimization for CRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Brabham, M.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an effective therapy for patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and a ventricular conduction delay; however, approximately 30% of patients do not experience significant clinical improvement with this treatment. Modern devices allow individualized programming of the AV delay and VV offset, which offer the possibility of improving clinical response rates with optimized programming. AV and VV delay optimization techniques have included echocardiography, device-based algorithms, and several other novel noninvasive techniques. While an acute improvement in hemodynamic function has been clearly demonstrated with optimized device settings, long-term clinical benefit is limited. In the majority of cases, an empiric AV delay with simultaneous biventricular or left ventricular pacing is adequate. The value of optimization of these intervals in “non-responders” still requires further investigation.

  8. Lesing av delvis motstridende tekster i syvende klasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Mork Rogne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikkelen ser vi på hvilken type informasjon elever i 7. klasse vektlegger for å konstruere en sammenhengende oppsummering av fire til dels motstridende tekster. Elever møter ofte flere tekster om samme tema – multiple tekster – og vi trenger økt kunnskap om hvordan de leser slike tekster. Elevene leste fire ulike tekster om en sykkelulykke. Tekstene presenterte informasjon som var delvis sammenfallende på tvers av alle tekstene, og delvis motstridende informasjon som innebar at enkelte tekster ga ulike beskrivelser av hendelsesforløpet. Vi testet elevenes ordavkodingsferdigheter, fikk dem til å fylle ut et spørreskjema om lesevaner og vi innhentet elevenes resultater på Nasjonal leseprøve. Etter lesing ba vi elevene gi en oppsummering av sykkelulykken. Elevene gjenga relativt mer sammenfallende informasjon enn motstridende informasjon. Gode resultater på Nasjonal leseprøve ser ut til å ha en sammenheng med elevenes ferdigheter i å konstruere en sammenhengende forståelse av de fire tekstene. Elever som oppga å lese mye på Internett hadde imidlertid fått med mindre av informasjonen som var felles for de fire tekstene i sine oppsummeringer. Vi fant også en negativ sammenheng mellom fritidslesing på Internett og resultatene fra Nasjonal leseprøve. Samlet sett indikerer resultatene at når elevene skal skape sammenheng mellom flere delvis motstridende tekster, så blir sammenfallende informasjon vektlagt mer enn motstridende informasjon. Dessuten ser det ut til at de elevene som bruker mest fritid til å lese på Internett, sliter mer med å sammenfatte innholdet i de fire tekstene enn de andre elevene.

  9. EST Table: AV403981 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available terminase large subunit (DNA packaging protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV403981 pg-- ... ...AV403981 pg--0297 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/265 aa ref|YP_002411376.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packag...ing protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] emb|CAR11828.1|

  10. Kvantifisering av overvann: Case Brøset

    OpenAIRE

    Huurnink, Jon Egenberg

    2012-01-01

    Oppgaven forsøker å vise den systemresponsen som er særegen for konvensjonelle tiltak og blå-grønne tiltak. Dette er aktuelt på Brøset bydel som en del av Fremtiden byer prosjektet og skal bygges om til boligområde. MIKE URBAN og MIKE 21 er benyttet til å lage en konseptuell modell.Ved å sammenligne sommer- og vinterforhold, i tillegg til ulike gjentaksintervaller (1, 20 og 100år), vil kurver for videreført vannmengde gi et inntrykk av tiltakenes effekt. Dette gir beslutningsstøtte for Komm...

  11. EST Table: AV398396 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398396 NV021762 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0005622(intracellular)|GO:0008270(zinc ion bin...ding) 10/09/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 30 %/120 aa AGAP003111-PA Protein|2R:32505726:32508690:1|gene:AGAP003111 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV398396 NV02 ...

  12. Vindkraftverk av UHPC 2.2 : En undersökning av högpresterande betong med syntetfiberarmeringen STRUX

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Michaéla; Nilsson, Thina

    2013-01-01

    Användandet av betong som ersättare för stål vid produktionen av vindkraftverkstorn har ökat den senaste tiden. Betongtorn är betydligt billigare än ståltorn men problem som sprickbildningar, frostsprängningar och följaktligen armeringskorrosion har uppstått bl a på grund av vibrationer från rotorn. I fundamentet i vindkraftverk kan ovan nämnda problem också uppstå och det uppfyller således inte alltid funktionskraven. Det här examensarbetet undersöker möjligheten att eliminera dessa problem ...

  13. User guide of AVS/ITBL for numerical environmental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Nobuko; Yamagishi, Nobuhiro; Arakawa, Takuya; Kuraishi, Hideaki

    2005-02-01

    The Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has carried out the ITBL (Information-Technology Based Laboratory) project which is one of e-Japan priority policy programs. The goal of the ITBL project is to create the vertical research environment in which intellectual resources such as remote computers, programs and data can be shared in Japanese research institutions and cooperative studies among researchers can be supported. AVS/ITBL is the visualization tool which has been developed aiming at realizing the efficient visualization in the ITBL environment. This visualization tool is one of the tools of ITBL infrastructure software and operates in cooperation with AVS/Express. Main functions of AVS/ITBL are as follows: it can directly read data files located on remote computers, it can display and control an image on the web browser, it can collaboratively display an image among remote researchers, and it can perform visualization process as a batch. In this paper, utilization of AVS/ITBL to the numerical environmental system, which is one of the applications in ITBL project, is presented. And the outline of the operation in this utilization is indicated. (author)

  14. EST Table: AV403752 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403752 pg--0009 10/09/28 100 %/257 aa ref|YP_002411376.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packaging... protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] emb|CAR11828.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packaging

  15. EST Table: AV403922 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403922 pg--0214 10/09/28 91 %/142 aa ref|ZP_06118881.2| DNA packaging protein FI ...[Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479] gb|EFC94454.1| DNA packaging protein FI [Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479

  16. EST Table: AV404246 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404246 pg--0747 10/09/28 91 %/130 aa ref|ZP_06118881.2| DNA packaging protein FI ...[Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479] gb|EFC94454.1| DNA packaging protein FI [Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479

  17. EST Table: AV403894 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ref|XP_001605691.1| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase app(e.coli) [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/08/28 52...%/206 aa gi|189241712|ref|XP_968082.2| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase app(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] AV403894 pg-- ...

  18. EST Table: AV399990 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399990 br--0239 10/09/28 100 %/110 aa ref|NP_001037364.1| cellular retinoic acid .../09/10 57 %/107 aa gnl|Amel|GB15299-PA 10/09/10 59 %/107 aa gi|282165782|ref|NP_001164130.1| cellular FABP-like protein isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001043899 br-- ...

  19. Rektorers forståelse av mobbing i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    2008-01-01

    PÅ opfordring fra redaktionen gives en kommentar med dansk vinkel til den norske artikel 'Rektorers forståelse av mobbning i skolen'.Den omtalte artikel er at betragte som første trin i indførelse af en nordisk mobbeforståelse med undgangspunkt i Dan Olweus begrebsafgrænsning.Der savnes også en i...

  20. EST Table: AV400897 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400897 br--1948 10/09/28 47 %/180 aa ref|XP_967144.2| PREDICTED: similar to corneal wound healing...TED: similar to corneal wound healing-related protein [Tribolium castaneum] CK493011 br-- ...

  1. EST Table: AV399507 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399507 NV120319 10/09/28 70 %/144 aa ref|YP_803401.1| baculovirus repeated ORF-b [Anticars...ia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus] gb|ABI13791.1| baculovirus repeated ORF-b [Anticarsia gemmatali

  2. EST Table: AV401629 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401629 e96h0968 10/09/28 70 %/161 aa ref|XP_002431431.1| Karyogamy protein KAR4, ...putative [Pediculus humanus corporis] gb|EEB18693.1| Karyogamy protein KAR4, putative [Pediculus humanus cor

  3. Screening av PFAS og Dekloran forbindelser i utvalgte arktiske toppredatorer

    OpenAIRE

    Schlabach, Martin; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Herzke, Dorte; Hanssen, Linda; Routti, Heli; Borgen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a screening study into the occurrence of selected perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and dechloranes in Arctic top predators. The emerging PFCs F53 F53B, and PFBS were not detected neither in bird eggs nor in mammals. However, different dechloranes were detected in all samples. Screening av PFAS og Dekloran forbindelser i utvalgte arktiske toppredatorer

  4. EST Table: AV400925 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400925 br--1989 10/09/28 35 %/122 aa ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephen...nl|Amel|GB19565-PA 10/09/10 35 %/122 aa gi|91093471|ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephensi ubiquitin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS914988 br-- ...

  5. EST Table: AV400204 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400204 br--0896 10/09/28 36 %/111 aa ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephen...093471|ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephensi ubiquitin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS914988 br-- ...

  6. Analysis of AVS-penogram in 3000 impotent patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minn, Young Guy; Choi, Hyung Ki [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-01

    Audio visual simulation penogram(AVS-penogram) is used as a screening method for evaluation of erectile dysfunction. In this study, 3000 patients were evaluated from Dec. 1986 to Dec. 1992 and finally diagnosed by comprehensive diagnostic methods. The patients were classified according to AVS-penogram curves into 4 types and correlated with the patient`s final diagnosis. For 800 patients who were evaluated with combined AVS-penogram and NPT monitoring, compatibility ratios between psychogenic and organic group were compared. After correlating each of the curve type with the patients and comparing erotic and nocturnal erection, following results were obtained. 1. The mean age of the patients was 41.25 years. 2. The overall rate of final diagnosis were 57.5%, 14.3%, 8.9% in psychogenic, arteriogenic and veogenic impotence. 3. Type I group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 87% of the patients. 4. Type IIA group was proved as organic impotence in 79% of the patients and most of them had neurogenic and arteriogenic impotence. 5. Type IIB group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 51%, organic impotence in 49% of the patients. Among the organic impotence group, most of them had arteriogenic, venogenic and neurogenic impotence. The difference of both group was statically insignificant. 6. Type IIC group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 39%, organic impotence in 61% of the patients. Further studies are needed for sub-classification of both groups. 7. The compatibility ratio of the AVS-penogram and NPTM was 85.9% in psychogenic group with normal finding in both tests and 44.7% in organic group with abnormal finding in both tests. In conclusion, AVS-penogram is a primary diagnostic method in screening impotent patients and type I is regarded as psychogenic impotence. In Type IIB and IIC, sub-classification of curve type is needed for differential diagnosis between psychogenic and organic impotence. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Kokken lagar mat! Utøving og utvikling av yrkeskunnskap på kjøkenet sett i lys av 2300 år gamle kunnskapsformer.

    OpenAIRE

    Gascogne, Marit

    2011-01-01

    Master i yrkespedagogikk Tema for masteroppgåva er utøving og utvikling av yrkeskunnskap i kokkfaget. Bakgrunnen for arbeidet er resultat frå andre forskingsprosjekt i masterstudiet og innføringa av den nye reforma, kunnskapsløftet, i den vidaregåande skulen. Analyse av litteratur, observasjon og intervju av yrkesutøvarar er metodane som er brukt for å finne svar på problemstillinga: Korleis kan Aristoteles sine gnosis-former brukast til å skildre yrkeskunnskap og utvikling av yrkesk...

  8. Påliteligheten av selvrapportert alkoholkonsum. Svalbardstudien 1988-89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Høyer m. fl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSvalbard er spesielt godt egnet til å vurdere påliteligheten av selvrapportert alkoholkonsum. På grunn av detlave prisnivået for alkohol er ulovlig import eller hjemmeproduksjon av alkohol ukjent på Svalbard. Dessutener samfunnet lite og oversiktlig, slik at det er praktisk mulig å undersøke hele befolkningen. I den aktuellestudien registrerte vi alt salg av alkohol til fastboende nordmenn på Svalbard i oktober og november 1988. Isamme tidsperiode ble alle nordmenn 18 år eller eldre invitert til å ta del i en helseundersøkelse der det inngikkspørsmål om alkoholbruk. Vi fant at selvrapportert alkoholkonsum utgjorde rundt 40% av salgsvolumet.På grunn av de spesielle forhold når det gjelder alkoholomsetning på Svalbard er det grunn til å anta atestimatet i denne studien er mer pålitelig sammenlignet med tilsvarende studier fra andre områder.Høyer G, Nilssen O, Brenn T, Schirmer H. The reliability of self-reported alcohol consumption.The Svalbard study 1988-89. Nor J Epidemiol 1996; 6 (1: 109-113.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, Svalbard offers a unique setting for validation studies on self-reportedalcohol consumption. No counterfeit production or illegal import exists, thus making a complete registrationof all sources of alcohol possible. In this study we recorded sales from all agencies selling alcohol onSvalbard over a two month period in 1988. During the same period all adults living permanently on Svalbardwere invited to take part in a health screening. As part of the screening a self-administered questionnaire onalcohol consumption was introduced to the participants. We found that the self-reported volume accounted forapproximately 40 percent of the sales volume. Because of the unique situation applying to Svalbard, theestimate made in this study is believed to be more reliable compared to other studies using sales volume tovalidate self-reports.

  9. Hvilken rolle spiller hybrid shopping i kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk?

    OpenAIRE

    Varem, Andrea; Nervik, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Temaet for denne bacheloroppgaven er hybrid shopping i kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk. Etter en omfattende gjennomgang av eksisterende teori rundt kundereisen fikk vi et inntrykk av at det er et gap i forskningen knyttet til kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk, på tross av størrelsen på dette markedet. Det vi fant av teori på feltet var i stor grad basert på kvantitative undersøkelser, og vi ønsker derfor å belyse kundereisen i denne konteksten gjennom et kvalitativt forskningsdesign. Med ut...

  10. Overvåking av jordboende sopp i Røsskleiva NR, Bamble 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Brandrud, Tor Erik; Dima, Bàlint

    2017-01-01

    Brandrud, T.E. & Dima, B. 2017. Overvåking av jordboende sopp i Røsskleiva NR, Bamble 2016. – NINA Kortrapport 80. 15 s. Kartlegging (start av overvåking) av habitat-spesifikke, jordboende kalksopper i nordre del av Røsskleiva NR ble gjennomført i 2016, før oppstart av skjøtselstiltak med storfébeiting. Tilsammen 27 habitat-spesifikke arter, inkludert 18 rødlistede arter ble registrert i løpet av to registreringsrunder i 2016. Funnene fordelte seg på 10 kalkbarskogsopper, 5 kalklinde-skogs...

  11. Validation of a Real-time AVS Encoder on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Fang Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A whole I frame AVS real-time video encoder is designed and implemented on FPGA platform in this paper. The system uses the structure of the flow calculation, coupled with a dual-port RAM memory between/among the various functional modules. Reusable design and pipeline design are used to optimize various encoding module and to ensure the efficient operation of the pipeline. Through the simulation of ISE software and the verification of Xilinx Vritex-4 pro platform, it can be seen that the highest working frequency can be up to 110 MHz, meeting the requirements of the whole I frame real- time encoding of AVS in CIF resolution.

  12. Leaning av arbetspunkt för urindiagnostik

    OpenAIRE

    Romar, Arne Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Lean är en metod som ämnar förbättra arbetsprocesser, öka kvalitén och förhindra slöseri av resurser. Fler och fler företag och institutioner i västvärlden har den senaste tiden börjat implementera läran och verktygen som ursprungligen kom från Toyota och deras produktionssystem. Sjukhus och sjukhuslaboratorier är inget undantag, patienterna och provmängderna blir större samtidigt som krav på inbesparningar sker. Därför behövs alternativa lösningar i form av lean för att få tillstånd en effek...

  13. Wirevagn : Utvecklingen av en utrullare för hisslinor

    OpenAIRE

    Rehnsfeldt, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Kandidatexamensarbetet som utgick från en förfrågan från företaget Irongrip AB hade som mål att utveckla ett produktförslag på en utlindare av stålvajer för hissmontörer. Irongrip AB som tillverkar och säljer verktyg för hantering av stålvajer hade uppmärksammat att en efterfrågan på en sådan produkt fanns på marknaden då befintliga lösningar var bristfälliga och inte hade alla de funktioner som är önskvärda hos en sådan produkt.Arbetet inleddes med en förstudie där studiebesök vid lindragnin...

  14. Nyttan av franchising i den svenska fastighetsmäklarbranschen

    OpenAIRE

    Herke, Marie; Olivers, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    Franchising är det mest vanliga kedjekonceptet i fastighetsmäklarbranschen och flera av de största fastighetsmäklarkedjorna är franchisekedjor. De fristående mäklarbyråerna får allt svårare att klara sig i den ökade konkurrensen. Det är främst fristående mäklarbyråer på mindre orter med ett etablerat varumärke samt nischade mäklarbyråer som klarar sig i konkurrensen med de stora kedjorna. På senare år har antalet kedjeanslutna fastighetsmäklare ökat betydligt och flertalet av mäklarkedjorna ä...

  15. Utforming av stålrammer til ridehall

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsrud, Roar

    2013-01-01

    NORSK: Oppgaven går ut på å dimensjonere forskjellige bærerammer til en ridehall på kobberud gård i Lier kommune i Buskerud. Kriterier i oppgaven er at alle forbindelser mellom søyler og bjelker skal kunne utføres som en boltet forbindelse for en så praktisk oppreising av bygget som mulig. Det gir også mulighet for og montere selve bæresystemet på egenhånd om man har nødvendig utstyr. Det er dermed viktig at man bruker så lite stål som mulig for å redusere vekt av søyler og bjelker. Bearbe...

  16. Electrical storm after CRT implantation treated by AV delay optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Nicolas; Marijon, Eloi; Boveda, Serge; Albenque, Jean-Paul

    2010-02-01

    We present a case of symptomatic ischemic heart failure with an indication for cardiac resynchronization and implantable cardiac defibrillator therapy in primary prevention. After implantation, the patient developed a severe electrical storm with multiple shocks. Hemodynamic improvement based only on AV delay, guided by echocardiography and ECG, brought about a dramatic improvement in the situation. We discuss the pathophysiology of electrical storm occurring immediately after LV pacing.

  17. EST Table: AV401797 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401797 heS00172 10/09/28 94 %/235 aa ref|NP_001036831.1| saposin-related [Bombyx ...9/10 low homology 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 41 %/191 aa gi|91077504|ref|XP_966852.1| PREDICTED: similar to saposin isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] FS791050 heS0 ...

  18. Inkludering av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn i NIF-organisert idrett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Kristin Sisjord

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Norges Idrettsforbund og Olympiske og Paralympiske Komité (NIF har en uttalt målsetting om en åpen og inkluderende idrett. Hvordan kommer dette til uttrykk i den praktiske virksomheten? Denne artikkelen, som bygger på data fra en undersøkelse om likestilling og mangfold i den organiserte idretten (NIF, retter søkelyset mot arbeid med inklusjon av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn på ulike organisasjonsnivå i NIF: særforbund, idrettskretser og idrettslag. Datamaterialet er kvalitative intervju med representanter fra ulike organisasjonsnivå. Resultatene viser at NIFs overordnede politikk i varierende grad nedfelles i særforbundenes virksomhet, i idrettskretsene og i idrettslagene. Av særforbundene skiller Fotballforbundet og Klatreforbundet seg ut som aktive pådrivere i arbeidet med inkludering. Mange idrettslag oppfattet slike spørsmål som lite aktuelle i sitt rekrutteringsområde. Representanter for lag som hadde erfaring med inkludering og rekruttering av minoritetsungdom, tilkjennega varierte erfaringer og synspunkter.

  19. ANALYSE AV SAMVARIASJON MELLOM MÅLT ARBEIDSBELASTNING (NAS) OG DEN SUBJEKTIVE OPPLEVELSEN AV ARBEIDSBELASTNINGEN (NASA-TLX) VED INTENSIVAVDELINGER

    OpenAIRE

    Graarud, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    SAMMENDRAG Sykehus generelt og intensivavdelinger spesielt er under økende press for å kunne drive god og riktig ressursforvaltning. Dermed øker også behov for å kunne dokumentere intensiv-avdelingenes aktivitet og ressursbehov. Nursing Activities Score (NAS) blir ved flere av landets intensivavdelinger brukt som scoringsverktøy for arbeidsbelastning. Det er et verktøy som har til hensikt å kartlegge behovet for antall sykepleiere per pasient. Det er i Norge flere sykepleiere per intensivpasi...

  20. Å LESE MEDIETEKSTER PÅ IPADEN. Observasjoner av en medievant fireårings bruk av iPad i hjemmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Jæger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i tre observasjoner av en gutt på fire år som bruker iPad på fritiden. Den søker å synliggjøre de strategiene dette barnet velger for å skaffe seg tilgang til ulike medietekster, hvordan han leser og tolker dem, og den undersøker eventuelle spor av kritisk refleksjon hos barnet over disse tekstene. Teoretisk sett hviler den på en forståelse av mediekompetanse som en parallell prosess til utvikling av lese- og skrivekyndighet (literacy, og medieopplevelsene omtales som viktige møter med tekst. Artikkelen undersøker hvordan å lese medietekster kan legge et grunnlag for å utvikle en utvidet tekstkompetanse eller mediekompetanse. Konklusjonen legger vekt på motivasjon og lekenhet som barns primære inngang til medietekstene og som et grunnlag for å utvikle mediekompetanse (media literacy. The article is based on three observations of a four-year-old boy who uses the iPad in his spare time. It demonstrates the strategies that this boy applies to gain access to various media texts, and how he reads and interprets them. It also seeks to examine traces of critical reflection that he may demonstrate in relation to these texts. Theoretically, it rests on an understanding of media literacy as a parallel process to the development of literacy, and it seeks to demonstrate how reading media texts can create an important starting point for the development of media literacy. The Kindergarten practitioner’s role and opportunities to develop children's media literacy within a kindergarten context is a focus towards the end of the article. In conclusion, I argue that motivation and playfulness are important approaches to media texts and create an important foundation for the development of media literacy

  1. Har forhold under svangerskapet betydning for utviklingen av otitis media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari J. Kværner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGMed utgangspunkt i data fra et populasjonsbasert utvalg av 7 992 norske tvillinger ble sammenhengenmellom gjentatte ørebetennelser og forhold under svangerskapet studert. Som parametre på intrauterinevekstforhold ble informasjon om fødselsvekt og gestasjonsalder fra Medisinsk Fødselsregister benyttet.Informasjon om rapporterte øreinfeksjoner ble basert på spørreskjemaer som ble besvart av tvillingene ialderen 18–25 år. Først studerte vi individuelle effekter av fødselsvekt og gestasjonsalder på forekomsten avotitis media (OM. Rapportert fødselsvekt hos individer med OM var signifikant lavere enn hos kontrollene,med en gjennomsnittsforskjell på 86 gram. Hos de som rapporterte OM var gjennomsnittlig gestasjonsalder3 dager kortere enn i kontrollmaterialet. Deretter beregnet vi effekten av fødselsvekt ved bruk av co-twinkontroll metoden. Blant monozygote (MZ tvillingpar gjenspeiler fødselsvektforskjeller innenfor tvillingparetintra-uterine miljøforskjeller. Blant dizygote (DZ par kan vektforskjellen være både genetiske ogmiljøbetinget. Ved sammenligning av fødselsvektforskjeller innenfor tvillingparene er tvillingen som ikkehar gjentatte øreinfeksjoner en matchet kontroll blant OM diskordante par. Resultatene antyder at lavfødselsvekt er en risikofaktor for otitis media. Gjennomsnittlig vektforskjell blant par diskordante for OMvar 48 gram, og den av tvillingen som ikke rapporterte OM hadde signifikant høyere fødselsvekt.Kværner KJ, Tambs K, Harris J, Magnus P. Do pregnancy-related factors influence the development ofotitis media? Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (1: 55-58.  ENGLISH SUMMARYThe association between intrauterine growth, as measured by weight and gestational age, and the occurrenceof recurrent ear infections was studied using data from a population based sample of 7992 Norwegian twins.Perinatal measures were collected from the Medical Birth Registry, and reports of recurrent ear infectionswere based on

  2. Overvåking av norsk kosthold - metoder og resultater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Johansson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGKunnskap om endringer i matvarenes sammensetning og befolkningens kosthold er grunnleggende for utformingog oppfølging av en helsefremmende mat- og ernæringspolitikk. Dagens system for overvåking avkostholdet bygger først og fremst på en matvaredatabase og opplysninger om forbruket av matvarer fra tretyper datasett; matforsyningsstatistikk, forbruksundersøkelser og kostholdsundersøkelser. Det avgis årlig envurdering av utviklingen i norsk kosthold i forhold til mat- og ernæringspolitiske målsettinger. Det norskesystemet for overvåking av kostholdet er blitt betydelig styrket i løpet av 1990-årene ved innføringen avregelmessige kostholdsundersøkelser blant landsrepresentative utvalg av befolkningen i ulike aldersgrupperog økte ressurser til analyse av næringsinnholdet i matvarer. Det er imidlertid beskjedent sammenlignet meddatainnsamlingen i land som USA og Storbritannia. Det norske overvåkingssystemet er forsatt i enutviklingsfase, og det må justeres og kompletteres etter hvert. Dessuten vil det arbeides med å kvalitetssikredatainnsamlingen.Johansson L. Surveillance of the diet in Norway – methods and results.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYKnowledge about changes in composition and intake of foods, as well as changes in the prevalence of dietrelatedhealth problems is fundamental for an effective food and nutrition policy. The National Council onNutrition and Physical Activity is responsible for evaluating changes in the diet. Annually the Council publishesreports about trends in the Norwegian diet, and suggests measures to improve the diet. The Council, incooperation with the National Food Authority and the Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo,has established a national food and dietary surveillance system. This system is mainly based on a fooddatabase and food consumption data. The food consumption data include three principally different datasets: food supplies, household consumption surveys

  3. Diffusjon av influensa i Norge under spanskesyken 1918-19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenn-Erik Mamelund

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSpanskesyken var en verdensomspennende influensaepidemi som tok livet av minst 30 millioner mennesker,de fleste i løpet av noen få høstmåneder i 1918, men den strakk seg også inn i 1919. En siste svakbølge fant sted vinteren 1920. De første sporadiske tilfellene av spanskesyken i Norge oppsto i militærleirei begynnelsen av april 1918. Over tre måneder senere kom de første spredte tilfellene av det som skullevise seg å være starten på en ny stor influensapandemi. De første av disse oppsto i Kristiania, mest sannsynligetter smitteimport fra Skottland over Nordsjøen. Sommeren 1918 spredte spanskesyken seg raskt frasør til nord, fra kysten til innlandet innover fjordene, og fra de største byene og industrisentra via mindrebyer og andre tettsteder til landsbygda langs de viktigste ferdselsveiene. Da spanskesyken blusset opp igjenhøsten 1918 spredte den seg langsommere og trolig fra nord til sør, fortsatt fra kysten innover fjordene,men spredning fra byene langs kommunikasjonsveiene var mindre fremtredende. Vinteren 1918/19opptrådte influensaen spredt og sporadisk, tilsynelatende uten bestemt spredningsmønster og rekkefølge.Jernbanen, hurtigruten og automobilrutene spilte trolig en viktig rolle i spredningsprosessen, spesielt andrehalvår 1918. Ulik sosial interaksjon, for eksempel et marked som samlet store folkemengder, kan bidra til åforklare eksplosive utbrudd av influensa og diffusjon på lavt geografisk nivå.Mamelund S-E. The diffusion of influenza in Norway during the 1918-19 Pandemic.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYIn 1918-1919, a world-wide pandemic, the Spanish Influenza, swept over the entire globe, killing at least30 million people, most of them during the fall of 1918. A last, but small and less defined wave occurred inthe winter of 1920. The first sporadic cases of Spanish Influenza in Norway are known from army campsin the early days of April 1918. More than three months later, the first scattered

  4. IceBridge LVIS POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge LVIS POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data (IPPLV1B) data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 and 610 POS AV systems flown...

  5. IceBridge POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude (IPAPP1B) data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 POS AV system flown with the Digital...

  6. KS-LAB Kontroll av hydrometer ASTM 152H : (prosess 14-433 i hb014 og NS8005)

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, El Hadj

    2007-01-01

    I forbindelse med kvalitetssikring av slemmeanalyser ved bruk av hydrometer har det vist seg å være behov for systematisk kontroll ved innkjøp og bruk av hydrometre. Rapporten beskriver registrerte avvik ved sammenligning av hydrometre og angir hvorledes kontroll av hydrometer skal foregå for å sikre at anvendt utstyr tilfredsstiller gjeldende krav.

  7. Et studium av samfunnsansvar (CSR) for norske utenlandsetablerte akvakulturselskaper; Marine Harvest og Cermaq Mainstream i Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sæther, Malin

    2010-01-01

    Oppgaven er et studium av samfunnsansvar for norsk utenlandsetablert akvakulturnæring. Valg av tema er motivert av interessen for den eksisterende samfunnsdebatten omkring næringen og internasjonale næringsstrukturer med fotfeste i utviklingsland. Norsk tilstedeværelse i Chile eksemplifisert ved Marine Harvest og Cermaq Mainstream er anvendt som case studium. Presentasjon og drøfting av Corporate social responsibility (CSR), oversatt til norsk som Selskapers samfunnsansvar, ...

  8. Det afghanska valet i svensk media : En diskursanalys av svensk medias rapportering om parlamentsvalet 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Den här uppsatsen analyserar svensk medias rapportering om valet i Afghanistan 2010. Med hjälp av metoder framtagna av Van Dijk har en analys av artiklar som berör valet 2010 gjorts. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna är postkolonialism och orientalism. Med hjälp av de perspektiven och Van Dijks medieanalys analyseras materialet för att tydliggöra strukturer i media.

  9. Ungdommers opplevelser med overdreven bruk av online-rollespillet World of Warcraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flaaten, Øivind; Torp, Steffen; Aarseth, Espen

    2010-01-01

    Ungdommers bruk av online-rollespill blir ofte problematisert (Falkner 2007). På bakgrunn av kvalitative intervjuer med ti ungdommer og fem pårørendekontakter beskrives i denne artikkelen ungdommenes opplevelser av online-spillet World of Warcraft (WoW). Denne pilotstudien gir en nyansert...... for konflikt og hjelpeløshet. Helsefremmende arbeid basert på dialog og tidlig intervensjon kan forhindre at online-spilladferd kommer ut av kontroll....

  10. En obekväm sanning eller en stor bluff? : En analys av den visuella gestaltningen av fenomenet "global uppvärmning" i filmmediet

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anton; Oretoft, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    En uppsats som kritiskt granskar och analyserar den visuella gestaltningen i två dokumentärfilmer. Huvudtemat i filmerna är global uppvärmning och konsekvenserna av detta. Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka den visuella gestaltningen av den miljödebatt som filmerna är en del i och genom detta belysa frågor som berör visuell kultur och popularisering av vetenskap.

  11. Forbuden frukt smaker best en studie av nordmenns spise- og drikkemønster av sjokolade, søtsaker, salt snacks, sukkerholdige leskedrikker og lignende

    OpenAIRE

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2010-01-01

    Denne studien er en del av forskningsprosjektene Young Food og HealthMeal. Begge prosjektene er finansiert av Norges forskningsråd. Temaet i rapporten er nordmenns spise- og drikkemønster av en type mat og drikke som helsemyndighetene ønsker at befolkningen skal redusere forbruket sitt av – slik som sjokolade, søtsaker, søte bakervarer, salt snacks og sukkerholdige drikker. Selv om forbruksutviklingen de seneste par årene har vist positive tendenser, har altså nordmenn fremdeles et langt høye...

  12. …med andre ord. ”10 stadier i oversettelse av sangtekst”. Oversettelse av Stevie Wonder og Stephen Sondheim til norsk

    OpenAIRE

    Iveland, Kari

    2017-01-01

    Norges musikkhøgskole. Masteroppgave. Utøving med fordypningsemne SAMMENDRAG AV OPPGAVEN --- Denne masteroppgaven er en del av en utøvende master og inneholder en analytisk og en praktisk del. Formålet er å finne en metode, et verktøy, for oversettelse av sangtekst, og å identifisere faktorer i språket som må tas hensyn til i oversettelse. Samlet viser den ulike språklige egenskaper som er med på å prege arbeidet med oversettelser av sangtekster. Med utgangspunkt i teorier om tolknin...

  13. Rettferdige minutter: Fordeling av spilletid i fotballkamper for aldersbestemte klasser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Anker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available På et fotballag i overgangen mellom barne- og ungdomsfotballen er spilletid på fotballbanen under kamp både en knapp ressurs og en kilde til diskusjoner om fordeling. Spørsmålet som er utgangspunkt for denne artikkelen, er hvilke hensyn som bør tas når trener og lagleder skal fordele samlet spilletid på enkeltspillere. Er det viktigst å vinne fotballkampen, eller har det størst betydning å fordele spilletiden mest mulig likt mellom spillerne? Skal det tas hensyn til guttenes evner, motivasjon og preferanser? Er deres familiebakgrunn og personlighet av betydning? Diskusjonen baserer seg på en gjennomgang av ulike politiske rettferdighetsteorier for fordeling av knappe goder.Nøkkelord: rettferdighet, practice, fordelingsrettferdighet, diskursetikk, idrettsetikkEnglish summary: Minutes of justice: Distribution of time during football matches in a boys' teamDuring a football match, time for playing can be considered as a limited good. In this article the point of departure is the redistribution of time in a boys' football team in the transition phase between children and youth football. The questions are how and under which conditions time for playing should be distributed among the players. Is winning the game more important than trying to let every player play for an equal amount of time? Should the boys' talents, motivation, and preferences be considered while distributing time, or are family background and personality of importance? Different theories of political justice for the distribution of limited goods underpin the discussion of how to distribute the minutes of playing time during a football match.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i1.1737

  14. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  15. Tillämpning av IAS 40 i onoterade fastighetsbolag

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Fredrik; Nilsson, Karolina; Ericsson, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Enligt IAS 40 – Förvaltningsfastigheter, definieras förvaltningsfastigheter som ”mark eller byggnader eller del av byggnad som innehas i syfte att generera hyresinkomster eller värdestegring”. Onoterade fastighetsbolag i Sverige har idag möjlighet att välja mellan att värdera sina fastigheter till anskaffningsvärde eller verkligt värde. IAS – International Accounting Standards är en internationell redovisningsstandard inom EU som började tillämpas i januari 2001, men blev obligatorisk för bör...

  16. EST Table: AV404130 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n (Reed-Steinberg cell-expressed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 53...78 aa gnl|Amel|GB30360-PB 10/09/10 54 %/199 aa gi|189241063|ref|XP_967018.2| PREDICTED: similar to restin (Reed-Steinberg cell-expres...sed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] FS906662 pg-- ... ...AV404130 pg--0509 10/09/28 54 %/199 aa ref|XP_967018.2| PREDICTED: similar to resti

  17. Kjønnsforskjeller i forekomst av legemiddelrelaterte bivirkninger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedvig Nordeng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGKvinnelig kjønn er blitt identifisert som risikofaktor for legemiddelrelaterte bivirkninger både i primærhelsetjenestenog under sykehusopphold. Hyppigere forekomst av bivirkninger kan forklares delvis,men ikke fullstendig, av at kvinner som gruppe konsumerer oftere og flere legemidler. Videre har legemiddelbrukhos kvinner i mange tilfeller tilknytning til biologiske tilstander som menstruasjon, graviditetog menopause, og den øker med alderen. Det er viktig å ta i betraktning kulturelle forskjeller hoskvinner og menn som kan være med på å overestimere kjønnsforskjellene i bivirkningsforekomsten.Kvinner bruker helsevesenet hyppigere og rapporterer oftere bivirkninger. Høyere bivirkningsfrekvenshos kvinner kan også være resultat av at kvinner generelt får høyere dose per kg enn menn fordikvinner veier mindre. Kjønnsforskjeller i bivirkninger kan i tillegg være knyttet til forskjellig aktivitet ileverenzymene cytochrom P450, som metaboliserer de fleste legemidler. Strukturelle og funksjonellekjønnsforskjeller finnes også i nyrer, lunger, hjerte/kar- og mage/tarmsystemet, og påvirker i varierendegrad effekt og sikkerhet av legemidler.Nordeng H. Gender differences in the occurrence of adverse drug events.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYBoth pharmacoepidemiological and clinical studies have identified female gender as a risk factor foradverse events of drugs, both in primary care and in a hospital setting. Frequent occurrence of adverseevents can partly, but not totally, be explained by the fact that women as a group consume more drugsthan men. Women’s drug consumption can to a certain degree be related to menstruation, pregnancyand menopause, and increases with age. It is essential to take into account cultural differences that cancontribute to an overestimation of the gender effect of adverse drug events. Women use the health caresystem more frequently and report more often and more willingly adverse events. Higher

  18. Physiologic AV valvular insufficiency in cine MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yoon Hyung; Kang, Eun Joo; Baik, Seung Kug; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi [Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To give a help in the interpretation of cardiac cine-MR examination, the extent, shape, and timing of appearance of signal void regions near atrioventricular(A-V) valve prospectively evaluate in the healthy population. Using an axial gradient-echo technique with small flip angle, repetition time(TR) of 36 msec and echo time(TE) of 22 msec, 20 volunteers without known valvular abnormalities undertook cardiac cine-MR imaging including atrioventricular valve areas. Transient signal void was observed within the near the tricuspid(13/20 = 65%) and mitral valves(9/20 = 45%), respectively, which is so called {sup p}hysioloic atrioventricular valvular insufficiency{sup .} Eight subjects revealed the signal void areas near both tricuspid and mitral valves but, 5 subjects did not show any evidence of physiologic insufficiency. This physiologic condition does not extend more than 1 cm proximal to A-V valve plane and is generally observed only during early systole. Its morphology is semilunar or triangular configuration with the base to the valve plane in most cases of normal tricuspid insufficiency and small globular appearance in most cases of normal mitral insufficiency. Awareness of normal signal void areas near the A-V valve and their characteristics is critical in the interpretation of cardiac cine MR examinations and maybe helpful in the study of the normal cardiac physiology.

  19. Physiologic AV valvular insufficiency in cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yoon Hyung; Kang, Eun Joo; Baik, Seung Kug; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1994-01-01

    To give a help in the interpretation of cardiac cine-MR examination, the extent, shape, and timing of appearance of signal void regions near atrioventricular(A-V) valve prospectively evaluate in the healthy population. Using an axial gradient-echo technique with small flip angle, repetition time(TR) of 36 msec and echo time(TE) of 22 msec, 20 volunteers without known valvular abnormalities undertook cardiac cine-MR imaging including atrioventricular valve areas. Transient signal void was observed within the near the tricuspid(13/20 = 65%) and mitral valves(9/20 = 45%), respectively, which is so called p hysioloic atrioventricular valvular insufficiency . Eight subjects revealed the signal void areas near both tricuspid and mitral valves but, 5 subjects did not show any evidence of physiologic insufficiency. This physiologic condition does not extend more than 1 cm proximal to A-V valve plane and is generally observed only during early systole. Its morphology is semilunar or triangular configuration with the base to the valve plane in most cases of normal tricuspid insufficiency and small globular appearance in most cases of normal mitral insufficiency. Awareness of normal signal void areas near the A-V valve and their characteristics is critical in the interpretation of cardiac cine MR examinations and maybe helpful in the study of the normal cardiac physiology

  20. UNIPASS for AvSP? A Broader View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N. Eva

    2001-01-01

    UNIPASS is a general-purpose probabilistic computer program consisting of three major modules, including preprocessor, solver and postprocessor. UNIPASS contains a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI), numerous state-of-the-art probabilistic analysis techniques, a large library of statistical distributions and a function module with a large library of support functions that can easily define any complex limit-state function in a scripting FORTRAN-like syntax format. Its inverse probability analysis and sensitivities analysis capabilities make it a powerful design aid in any product cycle. Its precise numerical analysis engine is accurate enough to push the failure probabilities of a design to well below 10 (exp -50). UNIPASS is equipped with advanced artificial intelligence that is designed to handle systems with an essentially unlimited number of random variables with ease and efficiency. Its modular arrangement allows you to tailor an analysis to the desired level of accuracy and efficiency. The depth and comprehensiveness of UNIPASS are built upon the decades of experience and expertise of industry leaders including Boeing Aircraft, NASA and the DoD. Its rich content also makes UNIPASS a valuable instructional tool for random processes and probabilistic mechanics. The topics include: 1) Reliability in AvSP; 2) Role of UNIPASS in AvSP; and 3) Examples. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  1. Cerebral av angiomas: 3-dimensional demonstration by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.; Hosten, N.; Neumann, K.; Lemke, A.J.; Langer, R.; Lanksch, W.R.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    In 20 patients with known or suspected supratentorial arteriovenous malformations, an attempt was made to see how far CT angiography with 3-dimensional reconstructions is able to make a diagnosis and to differentiate the various components of the angioma. Spiral CT was performed following an intravenous bolus injection of 60-80 ml of iodine containing contrast medium. In all patients the diagnosis was confirmed by intra-arterial DSA of the vertebral vessels. In 13 patients, av malformations could be diagnosed following multiplanar 3-D reconstructions which agreed with the findings on DSA. The large supplying vessels, the nidus and the large draining veins could be defined with certainty. In 6 patients follow-up examination after embolisation was performed. The results could be demonstrated in three dimensions and the success of treatment could be documented unequivocally. CT angiography with 3-D reconstruction is able to supply important information in the majority of intracranial av malformations, both during initial investigation and following treatment. (orig.) [de

  2. Selvbestemmelse og oppdragelse : en teoretisk analyse av oppdragelsens påvirkning på utviklingen av selvbestemmelse

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Marit Svennevig; Haugstvedt, Merete Lehne Rugdal

    2007-01-01

    1) Problemstilling Hensikten med oppgaven er å rette fokus mot oppdragelse som en påvirkningsfaktor på utviklingen av selvbestemmelsen, og hvilken betydning behovstilfredsstillelse har for individets subjektive velvære. Oppdragelse er et populært tema som stadig blir debattert i mediene. Det diskuteres blant annet hvorfor oppdragelse er viktig, hvordan det er mulig å oppdra barn på best mulig måte og hvem som er viktige oppdragere i dagens samfunn. Vår oppgave handler om individets selvbes...

  3. Are acid volatile sulfides (AVS) important trace metals sinks in semi-arid mangroves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Hermano Melo; Nóbrega, Gabriel Nuto; Otero, Xose L; Ferreira, Tiago Osório

    2018-01-01

    Acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) formation and its role on trace metals bioavailability were studied in semi-arid mangroves. The semi-arid climatic conditions at the studied sites, marked by low rainfall and high evapotranspiration rates, clearly limited the AVS formation (AVS contents varied from 0.10 to 2.34μmolg -1 ) by favoring oxic conditions (Eh>+350mV). The AVS contents were strongly correlated with reactive iron and organic carbon (r=0.84; r=0.83 respectively), evidencing their dominant role for AVS formation under semi-arid conditions. On the other hand, the recorded ΣSEM/AVS values remained >1 evidencing a little control of AVS over the bioavailability of trace metals and, thus, its minor role as a sink for toxic metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. O tornar-se avó no processo de individuação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dal Ri Kipper

    Full Text Available O tornar-se avó assinala um período de transição no ciclo de vida familiar, marcado por transformações psíquicas significativas para os avós, caracterizando a quarta individuação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a experiência de tornar-se avó e sua importância no processo de individuação. Foi utilizado delineamento de estudo de caso coletivo. Onze avós maternas, com idades entre 49 e 66 anos, cujas filhas tiveram seu primeiro filho, responderam a uma entrevista semi-estruturada. Todas as avós tinham tido seus primeiros netos e a entrevista referia-se a sua experiência como avós desses netos. Os dados mostraram que o ser avó é uma fonte de renovação e renascimento. O estudo propiciou que as participantes refletissem sobre seus diferentes papéis familiares: avó, mãe, neta e filha. Os dados sugerem que tornar-se avó possibilita que antigos conflitos sejam repensados, renovando antigos vínculos e desejos, o que permite que a avó dê mais um passo rumo à sua individuação.

  5. American AV: Edgar Dale and the Information Age Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the influential scholar Edgar Dale, alongside a generation of educational technologists, helped build an essential place for AV materials and pedagogical methods in the American classroom. It also shows that, for decades, the Payne Fund philanthropy supported multimedia research agendas that shaped ideas about teaching and technology, far beyond involvement in their famed studies on motion pictures and children in the 1930s. With his writings and research programs, Dale advanced concepts of media experience and systematicity, which came to be understood as common sense to the information society. In so doing he was a leading contributor to the discursive and ideological structure of our age of technological and informational abundance.

  6. EST Table: AV399395 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399395 NV120168 10/09/28 100 %/139 aa ref|NP_001037386.1| glyceraldehyde-3-phosph...ate dehydrogenase [Bombyx mori] gb|ABA43638.2| glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 81 %/139...id:CAA88697.1 10/09/10 89 %/142 aa AGAP009623-PA Protein|3R:37154051:37155049:1|gene:AGAP009623 10/09/10 79 %/139... aa gnl|Amel|GB14798-PA 10/09/10 84 %/139 aa gi|91088023|ref|XP_974181.1| PREDICTED: similar to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Tribolium castaneum] DN237090 NV12 ...

  7. Finansiering av investeringar i immateriella tillgångar

    OpenAIRE

    Voltaire, Christian; Gillebrink, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Vid en bedömning av ett kreditärende ser banken till projektets företagsekonomiska förutsättningar. För företag som har immateriella tillgångar som de viktigaste tillgångarna i sin redovisning kan det uppstå problem när de ansöker om kredit hos banker. Detta beror på att immateriella tillgångar inte fungerar på samma sätt som materiella och därigenom tillbringar vag säkerhet för en beviljad kredit. Syftet med denna uppsats är att söka finna vad det är som krävs för att ett tjänsteföretag ska ...

  8. UTVÄRDERING AV UTVALDA SD-WAN PRODUKTER

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerblom, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Denna jämförelsestudie ämnar att undersöka marknadens leverantörer av nätverksutrustning de- finierade som Software Defined Wide Area Networks(SD-WAN). SD-WAN är en innovativ teknik som applicerar virtualisering och Software defined networking koncept i Wide Area Networks (WAN) för att skapa kostnadseffektiva nätverk. Studien har utförts på företaget Curitiba som idag arbetar med konsulttjänster inom utvalda WAN-optimering och SD-WAN-produkter. Arbetets syfte är att utvärdera SD-WAN-lösningar...

  9. Verksamhetsanalys, Planering och Utveckling av en webbtjänst

    OpenAIRE

    Kindstedt, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Arbetet behandlar utvecklingsprocessen av programmet SECTMA, ett cirkeltränings-program designat för människor som utövar kampsporter. Programmet är designat för alla konditionsnivåer från toppidrottare till de som endast vill förbättra sin kondition. Arbetet är tudelat, i den första delen går jag igenom teori för STOF och Agile för att skapa en grund och en förståelse för hur jag vill utveckla programmet. Den andra delen följer med utvecklingsprocessen stegvis. STOF erbjuder ett ramverk...

  10. Prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation in DDD pacemaker patients with complete AV block under nominal AV intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram C Poller

    Full Text Available Optimization of the AV-interval (AVI in DDD pacemakers improves cardiac hemodynamics and reduces pacemaker syndromes. Manual optimization is typically not performed in clinical routine. In the present study we analyze the prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation under resting conditions in 160 patients with complete AV block (AVB under the pre-programmed AVI. We manually optimized sub-optimal AVI.We analyzed 160 pacemaker patients with complete AVB, both in sinus rhythm (AV-sense; n = 129 and under atrial pacing (AV-pace; n = 31. Using Doppler analyses of the transmitral inflow we classified the nominal AVI as: a normal, b too long (E/A wave fusion or c too short (A wave truncation. In patients with a sub-optimal AVI, we performed manual optimization according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography.All AVB patients with atrial pacing exhibited a normal transmitral inflow under the nominal AV-pace intervals (100%. In contrast, 25 AVB patients in sinus rhythm showed E/A wave fusion under the pre-programmed AV-sense intervals (19.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI: 12.6-26.2%. A wave truncations were not observed in any patient. All patients with a complete E/A wave fusion achieved a normal transmitral inflow after AV-sense interval reduction (mean optimized AVI: 79.4 ± 13.6 ms.Given the rate of 19.4% (CI 12.6-26.2% of patients with a too long nominal AV-sense interval, automatic algorithms may prove useful in improving cardiac hemodynamics, especially in the subgroup of atrially triggered pacemaker patients with AV node diseases.

  11. TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND INTERSTELLAR DUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.; Aldering, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND NON-UNIFORM INTERSTELLAR DUST ABSTRACT We investigate the time variation of the visual extinction, AV, and the total-to-selective extinction ratio, RV, resulting from interstellar dust in front of an expanding photospheric disk of a type Ia supernova (SN Ia). We simulate interstellar dust clouds according to a power law power spectrum and produce extinction maps that either follow a pseudo-Gaussian distribution or a lognormal distribution. The RV maps are produced through a correlation between AV and RV. With maps of AV and RV generated in each case (pseudo-Gaussian and lognormal), we then compute the effective AV and RV for a SN as its photospheric disk expands behind the dust screen. We find for a small percentage of SNe the AV and RV values can vary by a large factor from day to day in the first 40 days after explosion.

  12. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, H J; Van Griethuysen, C; Koelmans, A A

    2008-01-01

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics.

  13. Rommet som den tredje pedagog - En studie av pedagogers forståelse av rommets betydning - med fokus på estetisk virksomhet

    OpenAIRE

    Krokstad, Inger Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgaven «Rommet som den tredje pedagog i tre Reggio Emilia-inspirerte barnehager. En studie av pedagogers forståelse av rommets betydning –med fokus på estetisk virksomhet» har til hensikt å bidra til økt kunnskap om estetisk virksomhet som er forbundet med Reggio Emilias tanke om rommet som den tredje pedagog. Avhandlingens problemstilling er: Hvilke mønster kan identifiseres i barnehagepedagogens forståelse av rommet som den tredje pedagog-med fokus på estetisk virksomhet? ...

  14. Rehabilitering efter dekompression och diskoperation - framställandet av en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning : Ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Examensarbetet är ett praktiskt inriktat examensarbete med fokus på rehabiliteringen efter en dekompressions- och diskoperation. Det är ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus med syftet att framställa en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning. Önskemål från uppdragsgivare var att utforma en tydlig patientanvisning för ryggopererade bestående av skriftliga instruktioner angående postoperativ rehabilitering i form av vardagliga aktiviteter, fysisk aktivitet, ryggens viloställningar, vi...

  15. Vad vill kvinnor ha? : En undersökning av en lokaltidnings bilaga i form av ett livsstilsmagasin.

    OpenAIRE

    Heurling, Åsa; Lovisa, Lesse

    2011-01-01

    Folkbladet är en dagstidning i Norrköping med en stark lokal prägel vars prenumeranter till största delen är sportintresserade män. För att försöka bredda sin läsekrets har man sedan 2009 gett ut en tidning kallad Trend, som vänder sig till kvinnor i åldern 20 - 50 år. Denna tidning med lokal prägel, i form av ett livsstilsmagasin för kvinnor, handlar om mode, skönhet, heminredning och resor. Maga- sinet ges ut i fyra nummer per år och delas ut gratis till alla hushåll i Norrköping med omnejd...

  16. Dialogmøte om teknologi for trenging av fisk i merd

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksen, Kristian; Sunde, Leif Magne; Digre, Hanne; Svendsen, Erik; Rundtop, Per; Erikson, Ulf Gøran

    2013-01-01

    SINTEF Fiskeri og havbruk arrangerte den 19. mars 2013, i samarbeid med Fiskeri- og havbruksnæringens forskningsfond (FHF), et dialogmøte med fokus på teknologi for trenging av fisk i merd. Under møtet ble status for gjeldene teknologi og operasjoner for trenging av fisk i merd, samt resultater fra forskningsprosjekter tilknyttet trengeprosessen, presentert. Videre ble det samlet innspill om utfordringer tilknyttet trenging av fisk i produksjons- og ventemerd fra oppdrettsbedrifter, leverandø...

  17. "Dem vil at barna skal ha noe å gjøre" : En casestudie av Habbo.no

    OpenAIRE

    Kvaale, Torkel

    2012-01-01

    Denne oppgaven er en kvalitativ casestudie av Habbo.no, en virtuell verden der hovedgruppen av brukere er barn og unge. Det kvalitative forskningsintervju representerer metodeverktøyet som er brukt for innsamlingen av data, og datamaterialet består av 10 intervjuer med tilsammen 13 brukere av Habbo.no, i alderen 10-12 år. Habbo ble skapt av det finske selskapet Sulake i 2000 som hevder at denne er verdens største virtuelle verden for tenåringer. Habbo.no er kun én av til sammen 35 unike H...

  18. Lyden av de mørke sjeler - Lyd og musikk i videospillet Dark Souls

    OpenAIRE

    Burdal, Kristin Johnsrud

    2014-01-01

    Dark Souls er et videospill som skiller seg fra måten de fleste moderne videospill er bygget opp. Lyd og musikk er en viktig del av dette, og i denne oppgava har vi sett på hvordan lyd og musikk brukes i videospillet. Målet var å finne ut hva lyd og musikk har å si for spillopplevelsen. Dette har vi kommet fram til ved analyse av lyden, og analyse av et utvalg av musikkstykker. For å peke på hvordan lydbruken i Dark Souls skiller seg ut, har vi i tillegg sammenligna det med lydbruken andre vi...

  19. Magnetic hard disks for audio-visual use; AV yo jiki disk baitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tei, Y.; Sakaguchi, S.; Uwazumi, H. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Computers, consumer, and communications are converging and fusing. The key device in homes in the near future will be an audiovisual hard disk drive (AV-HDD). The reason is that there is no other AV cash memory with high capacity, high speed, and a low price than the HDD. Fuji Electric has early started developing an AV magnetic hard disk, a core-functional element of the AV-HDD, to take the initiative in the market. This paper describes the state of plastic medium development, which is regarded as a next-generation strategic commodity. (author)

  20. Effekt av å benytte sosiale medier i kampanjer for å fremme sunne levevaner

    OpenAIRE

    Strømme, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Hensikten med denne systematiske oversikten er å svare på spørsmålet: Hva er effekten av å benytte sosiale medier i kampanjer for å påvirke holdninger, kunnskap og atferd knyttet til sunne levevaner? Metode: Systematiske søk ble gjort i 11 bibliografiske baser. Tilleggssøk ble gjort i Google Scholar. Utvelgelse og vurdering av publikasjoner ble gjort av to personer uavhengig av hverandre. Risiko for systematiske feil ble vurdert med sjekklisten til Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation...

  1. Open-Loop Audio-Visual Stimulation (AVS): A Useful Tool for Management of Insomnia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hsin-Yi Jean; Riegel, Barbara; McCurry, Susan M; Vitiello, Michael V

    2016-03-01

    Audio Visual Stimulation (AVS), a form of neurofeedback, is a non-pharmacological intervention that has been used for both performance enhancement and symptom management. We review the history of AVS, its two sub-types (close- and open-loop), and discuss its clinical implications. We also describe a promising new application of AVS to improve sleep, and potentially decrease pain. AVS research can be traced back to the late 1800s. AVS's efficacy has been demonstrated for both performance enhancement and symptom management. Although AVS is commonly used in clinical settings, there is limited literature evaluating clinical outcomes and mechanisms of action. One of the challenges to AVS research is the lack of standardized terms, which makes systematic review and literature consolidation difficult. Future studies using AVS as an intervention should; (1) use operational definitions that are consistent with the existing literature, such as AVS, Audio-visual Entrainment, or Light and Sound Stimulation, (2) provide a clear rationale for the chosen training frequency modality, (3) use a randomized controlled design, and (4) follow the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and/or related guidelines when disseminating results.

  2. Inventering av Suldalslågen. Produksjonspotensial for sjøvandrende laksefisk

    OpenAIRE

    Foldvik, Anders; Pettersen, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    Foldvik, A. & Pettersen, O. 2017. Inventering av Suldalslågen. Produksjonspotensial for sjøvandrende laksefisk. - NINA Kortrapport 75, 18 s. Reguleringen av Suldalslågen til kraftproduksjon har hatt negative effekter for habitat for laksefisk, blant annet i form av sedimentering og begroing av substratet. Disse prosessene har blitt forsøkt motvirket ved å ha en serie med spyleflommer på over 200 m3/s om høsten. På oppdrag fra Statkraft inverterte NINA oppvekst- og gyteforhold for laks i Su...

  3. IAS 40 i ljuset av ägarförhållanden : Värdering av förvaltningsfastigheter i börsnoterade respektive statliga bolag

    OpenAIRE

    Klarin, Olof; Sandell, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Sammanfattning: Redovisningen av förvaltningsfastigheter enligt IAS 40 har tidigare beskrivits i ett stort antal olika vetenskapliga alster. Merparten av dessa har dock tittat på börsnoterade bolag men det finns även andra företag som tillämpar IAS-reglerna. En grupp företag som gör det är de bolag som ägs av svenska staten. Ett av målen med IFRS är att skapa jämförbarhet och då bör inte ägarformen ha någon betydelse för redovisning och värdering. Denna studies syfte är därför att skapa insik...

  4. Idag lever Kjell med Britt-Marie : En kritisk diskursanalys av framställningen av homosexualitet i TV-reklam

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensson, Sophia; Olsson, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur homosexualitet skildras i svensk TV-reklam. Detta med anledning av mediers möjligheter till att påverka publiken samt utifrån heteronormen i samhället. För att uppfylla målet med studien har ett par frågeställningar formulerats: “Vilka diskursiva teman framkommer i resultatet och vad säger de om framställningen av homosexualitet i TV-reklam?” och “Skiljer sig framställningen av homosexualitet från framställningen av heterosexualitet och i så fall hur?”. Sex...

  5. ADVANCED VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (RIC AVS) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Powell; M. Reich

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this AVS testing program is to use bench-scale test equipment to produce a vitrified product at maximum waste loading from the specified AZ-101 waste simulant and conduct a TTT analysis using laboratory scale melts to show compliance with the DOE Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS). The vitrified product complies with the following WAPS. A borosilicate glass with a waste loading of 60.9-wt% was produced from a slurry feed of AZ101 simulant. Glass durability testing, glass characterization testing, and testing methodology were performed in accordance with the Department of Energy approved Test Plan. The glass has two crystalline phases and good uniformity of composition. The Product Consistency Test on the 6 location-specific samples are at least 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below the mean PCT results for the EA glass. Standard deviations were less than 10% of measured values. The glass transition temperature averaged 658 {+-} 9 C. A TTT diagram was produced. There was measured cesium loss of about 2%, and compliance with the Universal Treatment Standards.

  6. ADVANCED VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (RIC AVS) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this AVS testing program is to use bench-scale test equipment to produce a vitrified product at maximum waste loading from the specified AZ-101 waste simulant and conduct a TTT analysis using laboratory scale melts to show compliance with the DOE Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS). The vitrified product complies with the following WAPS. A borosilicate glass with a waste loading of 60.9-wt% was produced from a slurry feed of AZ101 simulant. Glass durability testing, glass characterization testing, and testing methodology were performed in accordance with the Department of Energy approved Test Plan. The glass has two crystalline phases and good uniformity of composition. The Product Consistency Test on the 6 location-specific samples are at least 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below the mean PCT results for the EA glass. Standard deviations were less than 10% of measured values. The glass transition temperature averaged 658 ± 9 C. A TTT diagram was produced. There was measured cesium loss of about 2%, and compliance with the Universal Treatment Standards

  7. Geologic and Mineralogic Mapping of Av-6 (Gegania) and Av-7 (Lucaria) Quadrangles of Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Yingst, R. A.; Jaumann, R.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Preusker, F.; Palomba, E.; Roatsch, T.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4 Vesta in July 2011 and is now collecting imaging and spectroscopic data during its one-year orbital mission. The maps we present are based on information obtained by the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer VIR-MS and the multi-color Framing Camera FC. VIR covers the wavelength range between 0.25 to 5.1 µm while FC covers the range 0.4 to 1.0 µm. The VIR instrument has a significant higher spectral resolution than FC but the latter achieves higher spatial resolution data. As part of the geological and mineralogical analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangles have been defined covering the entire surface of Vesta. We report about the mapping results of quadrangle Av-6 (Gegania) and Av-7 (Lucaria). The Gegania quadrangle is dominated by old craters showing no ejecta blankets and rays while several small fresh craters do. The most obvious geologic features are a set of equatorial troughs, a group of three ghost craters of similar diameter (~57 km), an ejecta mantling of the Gegania crater and three smaller craters showing bright and dark ejecta rays. The quadrangle contains two main geologic units: 1) the northern cratered trough terrain and 2) the equatorial ridge and trough terrain. The quadrangle shows moderate variation in Band II center wavelength and Band II depth. FC color ratio variations of some recent craters and their ejecta are linked to the bright and dark material. The bright material is possibly excavated eucritic material while the dark material could be remnants of a CM2 impator(s) or an excavated subsurface layer of endogenic origin. The most prominent geologic features in the Lucaria quadrangle are the 40 km long hill Lucaria Tholus, a set of equatorial troughs, some relatively fresh craters with bright and dark material and mass wasting. The quadrangle contains three main geologic units: 1) the northern cratered trough terrain, 2) the equatorial ridge and trough terrain, and 3) the

  8. Elevers oppfatning av lærers tilbakemeldingspraksis: om sammenheng mellom graden av VfL-praksis og elevenes opplevde nytte av lærers skriftlige tilbakemeldinger i skriftlig norsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Eriksen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Formålet med denne studien var å undersøke elevers oppfatninger av norsklærerens tilbakemeldingspraksis i skriftlig norsk. På bakgrunn av omfattende internasjonal forskning innen feltet ‘Vurdering for læring’ (VfL er det i denne studien utviklet teoridrevne hypoteser som testes ved å analysere et datasett fra to videregående skoler. Hypotesene er at elevene oppfatter lærers tilbakemelding som mer nyttig hvis den 1 retter seg mot målet med opplæringen, 2 gir elevene informasjon via en forklaring eller instruks om hvordan de skal komme nærmere målet og 3 at lærer legger til rette for bruk av tilbakemeldingen. Strukturell likningsmodellering (SEM av resultater fra en spørreundersøkelse blant elever (N = 213 er brukt som metode til å estimere forholdet mellom de fire latente variablene kriterier, forklaring, bruk og nytte (avhengig variabel. SEM er brukt fordi metoden egner seg til å undersøke sammenhenger i komplekse datasett. Funn er at elevene oppfatter at hvis lærer forklarer hvordan de kan forbedre seg, er dette positivt statistisk assosiert med opplevd nytte. Et mer overraskende funn er at lærerens tilrettelegging for bruk av tilbakemeldinger ikke er signifikant assosiert med opplevd nytte. Resultatene blir diskutert i artikkelen.

  9. AVS/Express (application visualization system) user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsumi [Research Organization for Information Science Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kume, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-09-01

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment by the information system operating division. We introduced a server for image processing, AVS/Express for image processing software and Stereo viewing system. This report summarizes the information to use AVS/Express efficiently in the computer environment for image processing. (author)

  10. Association of temporary complete AV block and junctional ectopic tachycardia after surgery for congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paech, Christian; Dähnert, Ingo; Kostelka, Martin; Mende, Meinhardt; Gebauer, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) is a postoperative complication with a mortality rate of up to 14% after surgery for congenital heart disease. This study evaluated the risk factors of JET and explored the association of postoperative temporary third degree atrioventricular (AV) block and the occurrence of JET. Data were collected retrospectively from 1158 patients who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease. The overall incidence of JET was 2.8%. Temporary third degree AV block occurred in 1.6% of cases. Permanent third degree AV block requiring pacemaker implantation occurred in 1% of cases. In all, 56% of patients with JET had temporary AV block (P < 0.001), whereas no case of postoperative JET was reported in patients with permanent AV block (P = 0.56). temporary third degree AV block did not suffer from JET. A correlation between temporary third degree AV block and postoperative JET could be observed. The risk factors identified for JET include younger age groups at the time of surgery, longer aortic cross clamping time and surgical procedures in proximity to the AV node

  11. InterProScan Result: AV399409 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 429 Baculovirus LEF-11 Biological Process: viral infectious cycle (GO:0019058)|Biological Process: regulation of transcription (GO:0045449) ... ...AV399409 AV399409_1_ORF2 07DC81A7C7B2FA42 PFAM PF06385 Baculo_LEF-11 3e-33 T IPR009

  12. InterProScan Result: AV399408 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399408 AV399408_2_ORF1 5D6D9219C673BB29 PFAM PF05274 Baculo_E25 1.3e-78 T IPR007938 unintegrated Cellular... Component: viral envelope (GO:0019031)|Cellular Component: host cell nucleus (GO:0042025) ...

  13. Temporal dynamics of AVS and SEM in sediment of shallow freshwater floodplain lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.; Lange, de H.J.; Heuij, van der M.; Bies, S.C.; Gillissen, F.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Acid volatile sulfide (AVS) is an operationally defined sulfide fraction, which is considered important for trace metal fate in reduced sediments. Understanding AVS formation rates is important for the management of metal polluted sediment. However, little lis known about the fate and dynamics of

  14. InterProScan Result: AV399740 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399740 AV399740_3_ORF2 7A42A41D4F3F6388 PFAM PF00067 p450 1.2e-19 T IPR001128 Cytochrome P450 Molecular... Function: monooxygenase activity (GO:0004497)|Molecular Function: iron ion binding (GO:0005506)|Molecular... Function: electron carrier activity (GO:0009055)|Molecular Function: heme binding (GO:0020037) ...

  15. Examination of office visit patient preferences for the after-visit summary (AVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Marolee; Dontje, Katherine; Holzman, Greg; Corser, Bill; Keskimaki, Abigail; Chant, Ericka

    2014-01-01

    The federal government advocates the practice of routinely providing an after-visit summary (AVS) to patients after each office-based visit as an element of stage 1 meaningful use. A significant potential benefit of the AVS is improved patient engagement achieved by enabling patients and family members to better understand and retain key health information. The methodology for this study was a mixed-methods pilot study to examine, through the perspectives of adult primary care patients, how relevant and actionable data can be better formatted in the AVS. Results of this study suggest that the goal of the AVS to serve as a communication tool to engage and support patients is frequently not being met. Further study is needed to understand, from the viewpoints of patients and providers, what barriers are keeping them from optimally providing and using the information on the AVS.

  16. En kartlegging av forekomsten av forskjellige rusmidler blant norske motorvognførere pågrepet av politiet, med mistanke om påvirket kjøring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari-Mette Beylich m. fl Beylich m. fl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSjåfører som mistenkes for påvirket kjøring blir i første omgang vurdert av politiet med henblikk på om det kunskal rekvireres alkoholanalyse eller om det også skal tas prøve med hensyn på andre rusmidler (narkotika,medikamenter med ruspotensial ved Statens rettstoksikologiske institutt (SRI. Rutinemessig vil SRI undersøkedet politiet rekvirerer, men prøvene lagres inntil to år etter at de er analysert. Ved supplerende analyse i ettertidkan man således få et mer fullstendig bilde av hva mistenkte, påvirkede bilførere hadde i kroppen da de avgaprøve. I den foreliggende undersøkelsen ble 1197 prøver fra februar og september 1993 analysert på et bredtspekter av andre rusmidler foruten alkohol, uavhengig av hva politiets mistanke hadde vært. Vi fant da at alkoholalene var til stede i 55 % av prøvene, andre rusmidler alene i 16%, både alkohol og andre rusmidler i 14%, mensverken alkohol eller andre rusmidler ble påvist i 15% av prøvene. Politiets mistanke med hensyn til alkoholpåvirkningble bekreftet av analyseresultatene i 71% av tilfellene, og mistanke om forekomst av andre rusmidler i58% av tilfellene. Tidligere studier og denne undersøkelsen viste at bilførere som mistenkes for påvirket kjøringsynes å representere en gruppe med storbruk av alkohol og misbruk av andre stoff.Beylich K-M, Christophersen AS, Skurtveit S, Bjørneboe A, Mørland J. Frequency of different drugs in  ENGLISH SUMMARYDrivers apprehended under the suspicion of drunken or drugged driving are primarily evaluated by the police withregard to whether alcohol or drugs should be looked for in the blood samples taken shortly after apprehension.Until March 1996 all blood samples were sent to the National Institute of Forensic Toxicology (NIFT, for analysis.NIFT routinely perform only those analyses requested, but the samples are stored for up to two years afteranalysis. By later additional analyses of this material one could obtain a more

  17. Hvor moralsk tenker fotballspillere? – en empirisk studie av toppfotball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tore Ødegård

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Det er en utbredt oppfatning at det økende prestasjonskravet i toppfotball fører til en svekkelse av moral og fair play-holdninger. Men hvordan tenker toppfotballspillere i forhold til ulike dilemmaer som oppstår på banen, og er det forskjeller mellom toppfotballspillere og spillere på lavere nivå?  For å avklare dette gjennomførte vi en empirisk undersøkelse der vi intervjuet spillere og trener i én toppklubb og én breddeklubb. Vi var interessert i to hovedproblemstillinger:  1 Hva tenker fotballspillere på ulike prestasjonsnivå om etikk og moralske dilemmaer i fotball? 2 Hvilke faktorer påvirker spillerne, direkte og indirekte, i deres vurderinger og handlinger? Resultatene fra undersøkelsen viser at det er store forskjeller mellom de to prestasjonsnivåene. Spillerne på breddenivået føler generelt et større ansvar for å opptre ærlig på banen enn hva som er tilfelle på toppnivået. Vi fant 4 spesifikke faktorer i toppfotballen som bidrar til umoralsk opptreden. For det første opplever spillerne en forventning om at de prioriterer resultat foran fair play. For det andre bidrar tilstedeværelsen av supportere på kamper til en slik prioritering. For det tredje vil handlinger som er i strid med fair play signaliseres som akseptable internt i miljøet, selv om de ofte signaliseres som uakseptable overfor media og omverdenen. For det fjerde kan spillere oppleve det som vanskelig å gå i mot trenerens oppfordringer til en pragmatisk og resultatfokusert opptreden.Nøkkelord: moral, etikk, fair play, footballEnglish summary: How morally do football players think? – an empirical study of moral dilemmas in elite footballIt is a common view that the increasing focus on achievement and success in elite football leads to a weakening of moral and fair play attitudes. But how do elite players think and what do they think about different dilemmas that appear on the field, and is there a difference between elite players and lower

  18. Vurdering av andrespråksinnlærere - en utfordring i skolen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Palm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vurdering av andrespråkselevers språkkompetanse og språkutvikling er en sentral del av læreres arbeid, og forskning har vist at dette er en utfordring for skolene. Det er stor variasjon i vurderingsformer, og skolene mangler ofte vurderingskompetanse. På bakgrunn av dette utarbeidet Utdanningsdirektoratet i 2007 vurderingsverktøyet Kartleggingsmateriell. Språkkompetanse i grunnleggende norsk for språklige minoriteter. Materiellet er utarbeidet blant annet med referanse til Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. I artikkelen redegjør vi for en undersøkelse der målet var å finne ut hvorvidt dette kartleggingsmateriellet er hensiktsmessig for å vurdere andrespråkselevers språkkompetanse. Hoveddataene er innhentet gjennom kasusstudier ved tre grunnskoler, der vi intervjuet skoleledelse og lærere samt observerte kartleggingssituasjoner og klasseromsundervisning. Kasusstudiene ble senere fulgt opp av to spørreundersøkelser, én til de samme skolene, og én til et større antall skoler for å få bredere innsikt i kartleggingspraksis og skolers oppfatninger av denne formen for vurdering. Undersøkelsen viser at flere av informantene mener verktøyet kan bidra til mer tilpasset og systematisk andrespråkopplæring og bedre vurdering av andrespråkselevenes språkkompetanse. Samtidig er det utfordringer knyttet til å bruke vurderingsverktøyet, dette skyldes blant annet mangelfull kompetanse i skolen når det gjelder andrespråkstilegnelse og vurdering av elevenes språkkompetanse. Det er ikke tidligere forsket på bruk av et slikt konkret kartleggingsverktøy i norsk grunnskole. Undersøkelsen kan gi et bidrag til økt kunnskap om vurdering av andrespråkskompetanse og tilpasset undervisning for andrespråksinnlærere.

  19. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, H.J. de [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands); Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: marieke.delange@wur.nl; Griethuysen, C. van; Koelmans, A.A. [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics. - Change in AVS is a good proxy for sediment disturbance and combined with SEM it can be used as a suitable predictor for biotic effects of sediment contamination.

  20. Bruk av rusmidler blant norske 15-16 åringer. Resultater fra den norske delen av de europeiske skoleundersøkelsene - ESPAD 1995, 1999 og 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Bye, Elin Kristin; Skretting, Astrid

    2003-01-01

    - Tobakk Omkring 60 prosent av 15 - 16 åringene oppga i 2003 at de noen gang har røykt tobakk, omkring 30 prosent hadde røykt i løpet av de siste 30 dager. En andel på 18 prosent hadde røykt daglig i løpet av siste måned. Det er flere jenter enn gutter som oppgir at de røyker. Mens det var en økning fra 1995 til 1999 i andelen 15 - 16 åringer som røyker tobakk, var det en nedgang fra 1999 til 2003. En andel på fire prosent oppga i 2003 at de hadde røykt ...

  1. House owners' views on investing in district heating - a study of applied sales strategies and the customers choice at conversion from electric heating; Smaahusaegarnas syn paa att koepa fjaerrvaerme - en studie av tillaempade foersaeljningsstrategier och kunders val vid konvertering fraan direktverkande el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin; Pyrko, Jurek [Div. of Efficient Energy Systems, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents results from the project 'Converting direct resistive electric heating into district heating - customer related aspects'. The main objective of this study was to investigate how specific households within one housing area (Sandsbro in Vaexjoe with 110 one-family houses) experienced the conversion process, in order to understand the reasons behind 'yes' or 'no' responses to the utility's offer. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with a specially selected sample of households from 10 converted and 13 not converted houses was chosen as the main method. The investigation led to the following conclusions and recommendations: Household reactions to the terms of sale and conversion: Many households felt that the decisions were rushed - there is a need for better planning, especially for the older households. The information provided was evaluated as detailed and sufficient. The 'demonstration villa' was a good idea but the installation should be done more professionally - aesthetics are very important here. Home visits were the only personal contact and should be conducted in all houses in order to answer questions and explain problems. Co-ordination of excavation should be better in order to limit the time the ground is open. A few of the households undertook some of the works themselves to reduce costs but the compensation was often considered as too low to motivate customers. Household opinions on the product and/or service: Almost all households felt that the thermal comfort was better than before - more stable indoor temperature, no problems with overheated radiators or smell of burning dust. On the other hand, hot water comfort was worse - longer waiting time for hot water and too low water temperature during summer. Aesthetics were considered very important and could be crucial for the decision to convert the heating system. Many of the interviewed households were uncertain how to adjust and take care of the system - there is a notable need for information here. Household understanding of the economic terms of the district heating conversion: It was clear that many of the interviewed households did not have a view about the change of energy costs after conversion. It was also difficult for them to make a profitability analysis before the decision. However, the offer was considered to be very favourable in this specific case. It is important that the offer and investment comes at the right time for the households - regardless of the price. One argument raised against district heating conversion was fear of monopoly and high energy costs. All households, even those not converted, were convinced that the investment would be paid back in the future because of an increased property value following conversion. Household reasons to say 'no' to district heating conversion: The household has recently invested in a new heating system or in a secondary system, Negative views about aesthetics of the waterborne system, It's too labour intensive to convert, Wrong facts or misunderstanding. Household reasons to say 'yes' to district heating conversion: Improved thermal comfort, Convenience, Low investment costs, Expectations about lower energy costs, Few alternatives to direct resistive space heating, Better than electricity from an environmental point of view. Statistical analysis proved that variables such as 'age', 'type of household' and 'energy use level' could, to some extent, be related to the decision to convert from electric radiators to district heating.

  2. Greenhouse gases during storage and after application of digested and non-digested dairy cattle slurry including ammonia emissions and barley yield; Vaexthusgaser fraan roetad och oroetad noetflytgoedsel vid lagring och efter spridning, samt bestaemning av ammoniakavgaang och skoerd i vaarkorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodhe, Lena; Ascue, Johnny; Tersmeden, Marianne; Willen, Agnes; Nordberg, Aake; Salomon, Eva; Sundberg, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Given that the manure-based biogas production is likely to increase in the coming years , it's important to find a proper handling of digested manure that have low emissions of both climate gases methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O ) as ammonia (NH{sub 3}) , which indirectly contributes to emissions of N{sub 2}O. The project have; Quantified GHG emissions, from undigested and digested manure during storage in winter and summer, and during land application in autumn and spring. Examined the effect on GHG emissions of covering digested manure during storage in winter and summer, and quantified NH{sub 3} emissions, yield and apparent nitrogen (N) recovery in spring barley.

  3. Environmental impacts from the EPSPEX-system. Part 1. Life-cycle analysis of a District Heating System with PEX-pipes insulated by expanded polystyrene; Miljoebelastning fraan EPSPEX-systemet. Del 1: Livscykelanalys av Polystyrenisolerat Fjaerrvaermesytem med PEX-mediaroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Kristin; Olsson, A. Maria; Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-15

    The EPSPEX system is a distribution system for district heat with media pipes of cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) insulated by blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS). In this low-pressure distribution system two pipes are used for a space heating circuit, having layers of EVAL to hinder oxygen diffusion, whereas two pipes without diffusion barrier are used for delivery of hot tap water and warm water circulation. The four pipes are placed in the insulating blocks of EPS. Environmental impacts from production, laying and use of an EPSPEX district heat distribution system have been investigated using life cycle methodology. The distribution system is a secondary system developed specially for areas with low heat density. The case studied is the installation and use of an EPSPEX system in Vraaen, Vaernamo, Sweden. The environmental impacts are described in four categories: climate change, acidification, eutrophication and use of finite resources. Four weighting methods have also been used in the evaluation: EPS2000, Ecoscarcity, ExternE and EcoIndicator99. While carefully considering the precise circumstances of this study, the findings can be adapted for using the EPSPEX district heat distribution systems in other areas. During this study the question was raised of how this district heat delivery system compares with systems that use conventional district heating pipes. This has been further investigated and is reported in the second part of this report. In the second part the environmental impacts from the EPSPEX system have been compared with the impacts from conventional twin pipes (polyurethane insulated steel media pipes) used in a comparable setting. A discussion on the environmental choice between media pipes of PEX and steel can also be found in the second part. It should be noted that the two systems for district heat distribution are not fully comparable in function. The EPSPEX system has stricter limitations regarding pressure and temperature compared with the conventional system. The EPSPEX system is also limited in use for well drained ground conditions above the water table. Conventional district heating pipes do not have this limitation. The most important possibility to decrease the environmental impacts from the EPSPEX system is to increase the insulation, this even though the distribution system is comparably well insulated to start with. The environmental life cycle impacts of the distribution pipe system - production, laying and use - are dominated by the extra heat that has to be generated to cover the heat losses from the system. When this report was written, measurements from systems in use to confirm the model calculation of heat losses are still lacking. More fine-tuned results can be achieved when studies of the EPSPEX system in use have been concluded. Among different components in the EPSPEX system the impacts from production and transport of EPS-blocks make the major impact. Thus, it is important to utilize the polystyrene material as efficiently as possible, minimizing spillage, and to ensure that unavoidable spillage is recycled as material. However, the environmental impacts from production of the insulating blocks are well outweighed by the decreased environmental impacts gained by using the insulation. In product development it is thus important to ensure that the insulating capacity of the EPSPEX system is never decreased. Machines used for excavating the pipe trenches combust diesel oil, and the production and use of this diesel oil generates a substantial part of the environmental impacts by several of the assessment methods used. If possible, it is desirable to further minimize the excavation work and to use 'mini excavators' and low emitting machines (especially regarding nitrous oxides). The brass swaged coupling used to connect the PEX-pipes, gives a strong impact regarding acidification and the two weighting methods EPS2000 and Ecoscarcity, especially when compared to the very small volume fraction these devices constitute. It would be advisable to study if the devices could be made from other material or from recycled material.

  4. House owners' views on investing in district heating - a study of applied sales strategies and the customers choice at conversion from electric heating; Smaahusaegarnas syn paa att koepa fjaerrvaerme - en studie av tillaempade foersaeljningsstrategier och kunders val vid konvertering fraan direktverkande el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin; Pyrko, Jurek [Div. of Efficient Energy Systems, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents results from the project 'Converting direct resistive electric heating into district heating - customer related aspects'. The main objective of this study was to investigate how specific households within one housing area (Sandsbro in Vaexjoe with 110 one-family houses) experienced the conversion process, in order to understand the reasons behind 'yes' or 'no' responses to the utility's offer. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with a specially selected sample of households from 10 converted and 13 not converted houses was chosen as the main method. The investigation led to the following conclusions and recommendations: Household reactions to the terms of sale and conversion: Many households felt that the decisions were rushed - there is a need for better planning, especially for the older households. The information provided was evaluated as detailed and sufficient. The 'demonstration villa' was a good idea but the installation should be done more professionally - aesthetics are very important here. Home visits were the only personal contact and should be conducted in all houses in order to answer questions and explain problems. Co-ordination of excavation should be better in order to limit the time the ground is open. A few of the households undertook some of the works themselves to reduce costs but the compensation was often considered as too low to motivate customers. Household opinions on the product and/or service: Almost all households felt that the thermal comfort was better than before - more stable indoor temperature, no problems with overheated radiators or smell of burning dust. On the other hand, hot water comfort was worse - longer waiting time for hot water and too low water temperature during summer. Aesthetics were considered very important and could be crucial for the decision to convert the heating system. Many of the interviewed households were uncertain how to adjust and take care of the system - there is a notable need for information here. Household understanding of the economic terms of the district heating conversion: It was clear that many of the interviewed households did not have a view about the change of energy costs after conversion. It was also difficult for them to make a profitability analysis before the decision. However, the offer was considered to be very favourable in this specific case. It is important that the offer and investment comes at the right time for the households - regardless of the price. One argument raised against district heating conversion was fear of monopoly and high energy costs. All households, even those not converted, were convinced that the investment would be paid back in the future because of an increased property value following conversion. Household reasons to say 'no' to district heating conversion: The household has recently invested in a new heating system or in a secondary system, Negative views about aesthetics of the waterborne system, It's too labour intensive to convert, Wrong facts or misunderstanding. Household reasons to say 'yes' to district heating conversion: Improved thermal comfort, Convenience, Low investment costs, Expectations about lower energy costs, Few alternatives to direct resistive space heating, Better than electricity from an environmental point of view. Statistical analysis proved that variables such as 'age', 'type of household' and 'energy use level' could, to some extent, be related to the decision to convert from electric radiators to district heating.

  5. Environmental monitoring at the nuclear power plants and Studsvik 1992-1993. Results from measurements of radionuclide contents of environmental samples, and from random checks by SSI; Omgivningskontroll vid kaernkraftverken och Studsvik 1992-1993. Resultat fraan maetning av radionuklidhalter i miljoeprover, samt SSIs stickprovsmaetningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtson, P.; Larsson, C.M.; Simenstad, P.; Suomela, J.

    1995-09-01

    Marine samples from the vicinity of the plants show elevated radionuclide concentrations, caused by discharges from the plants. Very low concentrations are noted in terrestrial samples. At several locations, the effects of the Chernobyl disaster still dominates. Control samples measured by SSI have confirmed the measurements performed by the operators. 8 refs, 6 tabs, 46 figs.

  6. Environmental impacts from the EPSPEX-system. Part 1. Life-cycle analysis of a District Heating System with PEX-pipes insulated by expanded polystyrene; Miljoebelastning fraan EPSPEX-systemet. Del 1: Livscykelanalys av Polystyrenisolerat Fjaerrvaermesytem med PEX-mediaroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Kristin; Olsson, A Maria; Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-15

    The EPSPEX system is a distribution system for district heat with media pipes of cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) insulated by blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS). In this low-pressure distribution system two pipes are used for a space heating circuit, having layers of EVAL to hinder oxygen diffusion, whereas two pipes without diffusion barrier are used for delivery of hot tap water and warm water circulation. The four pipes are placed in the insulating blocks of EPS. Environmental impacts from production, laying and use of an EPSPEX district heat distribution system have been investigated using life cycle methodology. The distribution system is a secondary system developed specially for areas with low heat density. The case studied is the installation and use of an EPSPEX system in Vraaen, Vaernamo, Sweden. The environmental impacts are described in four categories: climate change, acidification, eutrophication and use of finite resources. Four weighting methods have also been used in the evaluation: EPS2000, Ecoscarcity, ExternE and EcoIndicator99. While carefully considering the precise circumstances of this study, the findings can be adapted for using the EPSPEX district heat distribution systems in other areas. During this study the question was raised of how this district heat delivery system compares with systems that use conventional district heating pipes. This has been further investigated and is reported in the second part of this report. In the second part the environmental impacts from the EPSPEX system have been compared with the impacts from conventional twin pipes (polyurethane insulated steel media pipes) used in a comparable setting. A discussion on the environmental choice between media pipes of PEX and steel can also be found in the second part. It should be noted that the two systems for district heat distribution are not fully comparable in function. The EPSPEX system has stricter limitations regarding pressure and temperature compared with the conventional system. The EPSPEX system is also limited in use for well drained ground conditions above the water table. Conventional district heating pipes do not have this limitation. The most important possibility to decrease the environmental impacts from the EPSPEX system is to increase the insulation, this even though the distribution system is comparably well insulated to start with. The environmental life cycle impacts of the distribution pipe system - production, laying and use - are dominated by the extra heat that has to be generated to cover the heat losses from the system. When this report was written, measurements from systems in use to confirm the model calculation of heat losses are still lacking. More fine-tuned results can be achieved when studies of the EPSPEX system in use have been concluded. Among different components in the EPSPEX system the impacts from production and transport of EPS-blocks make the major impact. Thus, it is important to utilize the polystyrene material as efficiently as possible, minimizing spillage, and to ensure that unavoidable spillage is recycled as material. However, the environmental impacts from production of the insulating blocks are well outweighed by the decreased environmental impacts gained by using the insulation. In product development it is thus important to ensure that the insulating capacity of the EPSPEX system is never decreased. Machines used for excavating the pipe trenches combust diesel oil, and the production and use of this diesel oil generates a substantial part of the environmental impacts by several of the assessment methods used. If possible, it is desirable to further minimize the excavation work and to use 'mini excavators' and low emitting machines (especially regarding nitrous oxides). The brass swaged coupling used to connect the PEX-pipes, gives a strong impact regarding acidification and the two weighting methods EPS2000 and Ecoscarcity, especially when compared to the very small volume fraction these devices constitute. It would be advisable to study if the devices could be made from other material or from recycled material.

  7. Site selection for disposal of nuclear waste - on what grounds? A report from hearings at the Council June 4-5 2008; Platsval foer slutfoervar av kaernavfall - paa vilka grunder? En rapport fraan kaernavfallsraadets utfraaning den 4-5 juni 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    As part of the Nuclear Waste Council's own knowledge-building on site selection, the Council organized a hearing on the what grounds site selection will be made. The public hearing, had several objectives: to contribute to knowledge building on site selection for Nuclear Waste Council and other actors, to contribute to an improved basis for site selection by clarifying the factors and values of importance, to clarify the different actors' expectations SKB's future accounting, to highlight how to deal with different aspects (safety, geological, environmental, infrastructural, socio-economic and democratic) instruments for site selection, and to identify operators of critical issues. The report is divided into the following sections: The Government's View on the upcoming Site Selection; the Site Selection Process, The View of the Local Communities on the Site Selection; the Current Status of the Selection Process, SKB's plans, the Site-Selection Factors; he Authorities' perspective; the Environmental Organizations perspective; Reflections of the Council on the Hearings; Discussion and Analysis of Key Issues related to Groundwater Flow, Final Discussion

  8. Helsekonsekvenser av vektendring - er slanking fordelaktig? En litteraturoversikt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johanne Søgaard

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGLangsom vektøkning gjennom livet inntil kroppsmasseindeks (KMI 27 ser ikke ut til å gi særlige negative utfallmht. total dødelighet. En økning på ! 20 kg fra 18 års alder er trolig negativt – det samme er vektøkning ut fra enhøy utgangsvekt. Selv om mange studier finner økt dødelighet hos yngre og middelaldrende personer med KMI > 27,er det foreløpig ingen studier som har vist at vektreduksjon blant friske overvektige personer gir økt levetid. Flerestudier viser tvert imot en assosiasjon mellom vektreduksjon og økt dødelighet. Heller ikke studier som prøver åbegrense analysene til personer med frivillig vekttap, finner redusert dødelighet etter vektreduksjon blant friskeovervektige individer. Noen få studier har vist redusert dødelighet blant overvektige personer med etablertesykdommer eller høy risiko for hjerte-karsykdom og diabetes. Når det gjelder sykelighet har de fleste studier entenikke funnet noen assosiasjon mellom vektreduksjon og sykelighet, eller funnet økt sykelighet. Unntaket er diabetes,der vekttap i enkelte studier samvarierer med redusert sykelighet. Det er i mange studier funnet sammenheng mellomvekttap og økt risiko for lårhalsbrudd og gallesten. De fleste studier har imidlertid vist at moderat vektreduksjon(vekttap på opp til 10% fører til redusert blodtrykk, forbedret glukosekontroll, redusert kolesterolnivå, forbedretdyslipidemi, forbedret lungefunksjon, bedre søvnkvalitet og redusert søvnapnè. Moderat vekttap vil også kunnelindre leddsmerter. Dette tilsynelatende paradoks diskuteres i artikkelen – bl.a. drøftes de metodeproblemer som erinnebygget i mange av studiene. Fordi det har vist seg vanskelig for personer med kraftig overvekt å redusere vektenpermanent – og fordi resultatene mht. helseeffektene av vektreduksjon er usikre, bør hovedinnsatsen settes inn iforhold til å forebygge overvekt/fedme overfor enkeltpersoner med potensielle problemer. Personer med

  9. Percepções e sentimentos de adolescentes criados por avós

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Flávia Juliana Dourado

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo tem como objetivo conhecer as percepções e os sentimentos de adolescentes criados por avós. Busca-se, especificamente: 1) descrever a percepção dos adolescentes sobre seus avós, seus sentimentos por eles e as relações estabelecidas com os mesmos; 2) descrever como percebem as figuras parentais biológicas, seus sentimentos por eles e suas relações com os mesmos; 3) compreender a experiência dos adolescentes acerca do fato de serem criados pelos avós; e 4) descrever a...

  10. Migrering av en webbsida från Joomla! till WordPress.

    OpenAIRE

    Konu, Tommi

    2013-01-01

    Denna rapport bygger på examensarbetet för Högskoleexamen i Medieteknik vid Umeå Universitet.Examensarbetet har utförts med VK Effekt på uppdrag av Västerbottens-Kuriren. Denna rapport kommer att behandla en migrering mellan systemen Joomla! och WordPress.Rapportens syfte är att kortfattat berätta om vilka valmöjligheter som finns vid en migrering, samtdemonstrera och visa en av vägarna som kan tas vid en migrering av en hemsida mellan olika CMS. This report is based on the thesis for the...

  11. Preparation, quality control and physico-chemical properties of 99mTc-BAT-AV-45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiankang Zhang; Xingqin Zhou; Xiaofeng Qin

    2012-01-01

    One novel styrylpyridine derivatives(AV-45) coupled with 99m Tc complex was synthesized. 99m Tc-BAT-AV-45 was prepared by a ligand exchange reaction employing sodium glucoheptonate, and effects of the amount of ligand, stannous chloride, sodium glucoheptonate and pH value of reaction mixture on the radiolabeling yield were studied in details. Quality control was performed by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Besides the stability, partition coefficient and electrophoresis of 99m Tc-BAT-AV-45 were also investigated. The results showed that the average radiolabeling yield was (95 ± 1%) and 99m Tc-BAT-AV-45 with suitable lipophilicity was stable and uncharged at physiological pH. (author)

  12. Konstruktionen av stress : En kvalitativ studie om hur stress upplevs i banksektorn

    OpenAIRE

    Blohm, Martin; Konradsson, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Bakgrund: Arbetslivet förändras ständigt till följd av digitaliseringen och tillgången till information ökar kraftigt. Banksektorn är en av de sektorer som påverkats mest av dessa förändringar och studier har visat att arbetsrelaterad stress ökar till följd av detta. Det är lätt att utifrån studier och fackliga undersökningar förknippa stress i banksektorn med arbetsmiljöproblem eftersom fokus ligger på ohälsa och sjukskrivning. Samtidigt vill många människor arbeta i banksektorn och i andra ...

  13. Föräldrars upplevelse av insatsen föräldrakoordinator.

    OpenAIRE

    Aspén-Franzén, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Föräldrakoordination är en barnfokuserad alternativ konfliktlösningsmetod som praktiserats i Sverige sedan 2009. Denna intervjustudie har undersökt separerade föräldrars upplevelse av att få stöd i sitt föräldrasamarbete av en föräldrakoordinator. Intervjuer har genomförts med sju föräldrar som haft insatsen föräldrakoordinator under minst sex månader. Samtliga deltagande föräldrar har flera års erfarenhet av svårlösta konflikter med den andra föräldern och har tidigare provat andra former av...

  14. Crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the plant food allergen Pru av 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall’Antonia, Yuliya; Pavkov, Tea; Fuchs, Heidemarie; Breiteneder, Heimo; Keller, Walter, E-mail: walter.keller@uni-graz.at

    2005-02-01

    Crystals of Pru av 2, the first allergenic thaumatin-like protein, have been obtained and diffracted to 1.6 Å at a synchrotron. Using an annealing protocol, the resolution limit was improved to 1.3 Å:.

  15. Adaptationer av Esaias Tegnérs Frithiofs saga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordenfors, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Tegnérs versepos över urnordiska myter hade länge ett starkt om den nordiska läsande allmänheten - därtill starkt understött av Bernhard Crusells omtyckta tonsättningar av dikterna. Men också i Tyskland har Frithiofs saga haft en påfallande genomslagskraft. I uppsatsen granskas särskilt tonsättar...

  16. Et sosiologisk blikk på mobbing. En teoretisk studie av paradigmet og fenomenet mobbing

    OpenAIRE

    Stemland, Linn

    2007-01-01

    Mobbing er et tema som har fått stadig mer oppmerksomhet i samfunnsdebatten. Det er gjort lite sosiologisk forskning omkring fenomenet mobbing. Forskningsfeltet mobbing er i dag konstruert og dominert av psykologiens begreper og forståelse. I denne oppgaven prøver jeg å nærme meg en sosiologisk forståelse av begrepet og fenomenet mobbing.

  17. Helhetsorienterad utvärdering av kollektivtrafikåtgärder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiselius, Lena Winslott; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    Under hösten 2008 och våren 2009 har forskare vid Avd. Trafik och väg vid Lunds Tekniska Högskola, DTU Transport vid Danmarks Tekniska Universitet samt National-ekonomiska institutionen vid Lunds Universitet genomfört ett forskningsprojekt med syfte att studera tillämpningen av en sammansatt...... (helhetsorienterad) analys av kollektiv-trafikåtgärder....

  18. Reduction of opioid withdrawal and potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by systemic AV411 (ibudilast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Lewis, Susannah S; Coats, Benjamen D; Skyba, David A; Crysdale, Nicole Y; Berkelhammer, Debra L; Brzeski, Anita; Northcutt, Alexis; Vietz, Christine M; Judd, Charles M; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R; Johnson, Kirk W

    2009-02-01

    Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we examined whether drugs previously shown to suppress glial proinflammatory responses can alter other clinically relevant opioid effects; namely, withdrawal or acute analgesia. AV411 (ibudilast) and minocycline, drugs with distinct mechanisms of action that result in attenuation of glial proinflammatory responses, each reduced naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Analysis of brain nuclei associated with opioid withdrawal revealed that morphine altered expression of glial activation markers, cytokines, chemokines, and a neurotrophic factor. AV411 attenuated many of these morphine-induced effects. AV411 also protected against spontaneous withdrawal-induced hyperactivity and weight loss recorded across a 12-day timecourse. Notably, in the spontaneous withdrawal study, AV411 treatment was delayed relative to the start of the morphine regimen so to also test whether AV411 could still be effective in the face of established morphine dependence, which it was. AV411 did not simply attenuate all opioid effects, as co-administering AV411 with morphine or oxycodone caused three-to-five-fold increases in acute analgesic potency, as revealed by leftward shifts in the analgesic dose response curves. Timecourse analyses revealed that plasma morphine levels were not altered by AV411, suggestive that potentiated analgesia was not simply due to prolongation of morphine exposure or increased plasma concentrations. These data support and extend similar potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by minocycline, again providing converging lines of evidence of glial involvement. Hence, suppression of glial proinflammatory responses can significantly reduce opioid withdrawal, while improving analgesia.

  19. First application of the meteorological Mini-UAV 'M{sup 2}AV'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiess, T.; Bange, J.; Buschmann, M.; Voersmann, P. [Braunschweig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik

    2007-04-15

    The limitations of manned airborne meteorological measurements led to a new unmanned system, the Meteorological Mini-UAV (M{sup 2}AV), recently developed by the Institute of Aerospace Systems, Technical University of Braunschweig. The task was to develop, test and verify a meteorological sensor package as payload for an already available carrier aircraft, the UAV 'Carolo T200'. Thereby the limitations in size and mass had to be respected. The M{sup 2}AV is capable of performing turbulence and wind vector measurements within the atmospheric boundary layer and permits very short measurement cycles as an economic supplement during meteorological campaigns. The article gives details on the technical items. Results from meteorological data sets measured by the M{sup 2}AV are used for data quality assessment. In October 2005 the M{sup 2}AV participated in the meteorological field experiment 'LAUNCH 2005' in Lindenberg near Berlin. The M{sup 2}AV data were compared with lidar and sodar/RASS measurements. Furthermore, an in situ comparison of temperature, humidity and wind vector data with the helicopter-borne turbulence probe Helipod was analysed and gave information about the M{sup 2}AV data quality. (orig.)

  20. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis and Epigenetic Variations Associated with Congenital Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppala Radhakrishna

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defect (CHD is the most common cause of death from congenital anomaly. Among several candidate epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation may play an important role in the etiology of CHDs. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using an Illumina Infinium 450k human methylation assay in a cohort of 24 newborns who had aortic valve stenosis (AVS, with gestational-age matched controls. The study identified significantly-altered CpG methylation at 59 sites in 52 genes in AVS subjects as compared to controls (either hypermethylated or demethylated. Gene Ontology analysis identified biological processes and functions for these genes including positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Consistent with prior clinical data, the molecular function categories as determined using DAVID identified low-density lipoprotein receptor binding, lipoprotein receptor binding and identical protein binding to be over-represented in the AVS group. A significant epigenetic change in the APOA5 and PCSK9 genes known to be involved in AVS was also observed. A large number CpG methylation sites individually demonstrated good to excellent diagnostic accuracy for the prediction of AVS status, thus raising possibility of molecular screening markers for this disorder. Using epigenetic analysis we were able to identify genes significantly involved in the pathogenesis of AVS.

  1. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis and Epigenetic Variations Associated with Congenital Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Uppala; Albayrak, Samet; Alpay-Savasan, Zeynep; Zeb, Amna; Turkoglu, Onur; Sobolewski, Paul; Bahado-Singh, Ray O

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common cause of death from congenital anomaly. Among several candidate epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation may play an important role in the etiology of CHDs. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using an Illumina Infinium 450k human methylation assay in a cohort of 24 newborns who had aortic valve stenosis (AVS), with gestational-age matched controls. The study identified significantly-altered CpG methylation at 59 sites in 52 genes in AVS subjects as compared to controls (either hypermethylated or demethylated). Gene Ontology analysis identified biological processes and functions for these genes including positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Consistent with prior clinical data, the molecular function categories as determined using DAVID identified low-density lipoprotein receptor binding, lipoprotein receptor binding and identical protein binding to be over-represented in the AVS group. A significant epigenetic change in the APOA5 and PCSK9 genes known to be involved in AVS was also observed. A large number CpG methylation sites individually demonstrated good to excellent diagnostic accuracy for the prediction of AVS status, thus raising possibility of molecular screening markers for this disorder. Using epigenetic analysis we were able to identify genes significantly involved in the pathogenesis of AVS.

  2. What are the keys to successful adrenal venous sampling (AVS) in patients with primary aldosteronism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William F; Stanson, Anthony W

    2009-01-01

    Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the criterion standard to distinguish between unilateral and bilateral adrenal disease in patients with primary aldosteronism. The keys to successful AVS include appropriate patient selection, careful patient preparation, focused technical expertise, defined protocol, and accurate data interpretation. The use of AVS should be based on patient preferences, patient age, clinical comorbidities, and the clinical probability of finding an aldosterone-producing adenoma. AVS is optimally performed in the fasting state in the morning. AVS is an intricate procedure because the right adrenal vein is small and may be difficult to locate - the success rate depends on the proficiency of the angiographer. The key factors that determine the successful catheterization of both adrenal veins are experience, dedication and repetition. With experience, and focusing the expertise to 1 or 2 radiologists at a referral centre, the AVS success rate can be as high as 96%. A centre-specific, written protocol is mandatory. The protocol should be developed by an interested group of endocrinologists, radiologists and laboratory personnel. Safeguards should be in place to prevent mislabelling of the blood tubes in the radiology suite and to prevent sample mix-up in the laboratory.

  3. Reduktion av slöseri inom den spanska ölindustrin : – en studie av åtgärder och metoder i spåren av krisen

    OpenAIRE

    Carlström, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Den rådande eurokrisen har påverkat det spanska samhället och den spanska ölindustrin negativt. Industrin står inför utmaningar vad gäller minskad försäljning och förändrade kundpreferenser. I tider då intäkterna och försäljningen minskar finns det många sätt att öka sina marginaler. Ett av detta sätt är att börja arbeta med resurseffektivitet och att se till att slöseriet av de resurser man har minskar. De frågor studien besvarar är hur bryggeriindustrin i Spanien har arbetat för att minska ...

  4. AV3V lesions reduce the pressor response to L-glutamate into the RVLM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre Antonio; Colombari, Eduardo; De Luca, Laurival A; Colombari, Débora Simões de Almeida; Menani, José V

    2006-05-01

    Neurons from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) directly activate sympathetic pre-ganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. Hypertensive responses and sympathetic activation produced by different stimuli are strongly affected by lesions of the preoptic periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V region). Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of acute (1 day) and chronic (15 days) electrolytic lesions of the AV3V region on the pressor responses produced by injections of the excitatory amino acid L-glutamate into the RVLM of unanesthetized rats. Male Holtzman rats with sham or electrolytic AV3V lesions and a stainless steel cannula implanted into the RVLM were used. The pressor responses produced by injections of L-glutamate (1, 5 and 10 nmol/100 nl) into the RVLM were reduced 1 day (9 +/- 4, 39 +/- 6 and 37 +/- 4 mm Hg, respectively) and 15 days after AV3V lesions (13 +/- 6, 39 +/- 4 and 43 +/- 4 mm Hg, respectively, vs. sham lesions: 29 +/- 3, 50 +/- 2 and 58 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively). Injections of L-glutamate into the RVLM in sham or AV3V-lesioned rats produced no significant change in the heart rate (HR). Baroreflex bradycardia and tachycardia produced by iv phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside, respectively, and the pressor and bradycardic responses to chemoreflex activation with iv potassium cyanide were not modified by AV3V lesions. The results suggest that signals from the AV3V region are important for sympathetic activation induced by L-glutamate into the RVLM.

  5. Kjøring med mistanke om påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørg S. Christophersen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGStatens rettstoksikologiske institutt har i løpet av de siste år registrert en stor økning av prøver fra bilføreremistenkt for kjøring under påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol. Antall positive saker økte 42% fra1994 til 1995. De hyppigste påviste stoffer er tetrahydrocannabinol, amfetamin, benzodiazepiner og opiater(morfin/kodein. Bruk av tyngre narkotiske stoffer har blitt mer vanlig i trafikksammenheng og antall positivetilfeller har økt betydelig mer enn totalt antall saker. Fra 1994 til 1995 økte antall positive amfetaminprøvermed 75% (fra 533 til 937 og antall positive prøver som følge av heroininntak økte med 87% (fra 92 til 172.Bruk av flere stoffer samtidig er vanlig, over 60 % av sakene i 1995 var positive på mer enn ett stoff, alkoholikke medregnet. De fleste tilfeller var representert av menn i alderen 25-32 år (37%. Kvinner var representerti ca. 11% av sakene.Christophersen AS, Skurtveit S, Mørland J. Drivers suspected to drive under the influence of drugs otherthan alcohol. Nor J Epidemiol 1996; 6 (1: 45-48.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe National Institute of Forensic Toxicology has registered a large increase in the number of samples fromdrivers suspected to drive under influence of drugs other than alcohol. The number of drug positive casesincreased 42% from 1994 to 1995. The most frequent drugs detected are tetrahydrocannabinol, amphetamine,benzodiazepines and opiates (morphine/codeine. The frequency of hard narcotic drug use has increased morethan the total number of cases. From 1994 to 1995, the number of amphetamine positive samples increased75% (from 533 to 937 and the number of samples positive due to heroin use (detection of the metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine in urine increased 87%. Multi-drug use is common and more than one drug wasdetected in more than 60% of the cases from 1995, alcohol not included. Most of the cases were representedby men 25-32 years old (37%. Women were represented in about

  6. Vorticity-divergence semi-Lagrangian global atmospheric model SL-AV20: dynamical core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstykh, Mikhail; Shashkin, Vladimir; Fadeev, Rostislav; Goyman, Gordey

    2017-05-01

    SL-AV (semi-Lagrangian, based on the absolute vorticity equation) is a global hydrostatic atmospheric model. Its latest version, SL-AV20, provides global operational medium-range weather forecast with 20 km resolution over Russia. The lower-resolution configurations of SL-AV20 are being tested for seasonal prediction and climate modeling. The article presents the model dynamical core. Its main features are a vorticity-divergence formulation at the unstaggered grid, high-order finite-difference approximations, semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit discretization and the reduced latitude-longitude grid with variable resolution in latitude. The accuracy of SL-AV20 numerical solutions using a reduced lat-lon grid and the variable resolution in latitude is tested with two idealized test cases. Accuracy and stability of SL-AV20 in the presence of the orography forcing are tested using the mountain-induced Rossby wave test case. The results of all three tests are in good agreement with other published model solutions. It is shown that the use of the reduced grid does not significantly affect the accuracy up to the 25 % reduction in the number of grid points with respect to the regular grid. Variable resolution in latitude allows us to improve the accuracy of a solution in the region of interest.

  7. sugE: A gene involved in tributyltin (TBT) resistance of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Micaelo, Nuno; Félix, Vitor; Song, Jun-Young; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial resistance to tributyltin (TBT) is still unclear. The results herein presented contribute to clarify that mechanism in the TBT-resistant bacterium Aeromonas molluscorum Av27. We have identified and cloned a new gene that is involved in TBT resistance in this strain. The gene is highly homologous (84%) to the Aeromonas hydrophila-sugE gene belonging to the small multidrug resistance gene family (SMR), which includes genes involved in the transport of lipophilic drugs. In Av27, expression of the Av27-sugE was observed at the early logarithmic growth phase in the presence of a high TBT concentration (500 μM), thus suggesting the contribution of this gene for TBT resistance. E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to ethidium bromide (EtBr), chloramphenicol (CP) and tetracycline (TE), besides TBT. According to the Moriguchi logP (miLogP) values, EtBr, CP and TE have similar properties and are substrates for the sugE-efflux system. Despite the different miLogP of TBT, E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to this compound. So it seems that TBT is also a substrate for the SugE protein. The modelling studies performed also support this hypothesis. The data herein presented clearly indicate that sugE is involved in TBT resistance of this bacterium.

  8. Influence of commercial (Fluka) naphthenic acids on acid volatile sulfide (AVS) production and divalent metal precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Andrew D; Kinley, Ciera M; Rodgers, John H; Friesen, Vanessa; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Haakensen, Monique C

    2016-12-01

    Energy-derived waters containing naphthenic acids (NAs) are complex mixtures often comprising a suite of potentially problematic constituents (e.g. organics, metals, and metalloids) that need treatment prior to beneficial use, including release to receiving aquatic systems. It has previously been suggested that NAs can have biostatic or biocidal properties that could inhibit microbially driven processes (e.g. dissimilatory sulfate reduction) used to transfer or transform metals in passive treatment systems (i.e. constructed wetlands). The overall objective of this study was to measure the effects of a commercially available (Fluka) NA on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), production of sulfides (as acid-volatile sulfides [AVS]), and precipitation of divalent metals (i.e. Cu, Ni, Zn). These endpoints were assessed following 21-d aqueous exposures of NAs using bench-scale reactors. After 21-days, AVS molar concentrations were not statistically different (pAVS production was sufficient in all NA treatments to achieve ∑SEM:AVS AVS) could be used to treat metals occurring in NAs affected waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamisk Ledarutveckling : En ny metod för personlig utveckling av ledare skapad genom integration av två etablerade metoder för personlig utveckling

    OpenAIRE

    Rudbäck, Marie-Christine

    2013-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie är att teoretiskt pröva att integrera en etablerad metod för personlig utveckling, The Skilled Helper, med metoden Dynamisk Pedagogik och skapa en ny metod för en specifik tillämpning, personlig utveckling av ledare. Integrationen görs med hjälp av en etablerad metametod för metodutveckling. De bägge ingående metoderna värderas enligt fastställda kriterier. Samma kriterier används sedan för att värdera den nya metod som designas. Med detta har studien uppnått en jämför...

  10. Etikk i anvendt idrettspsykologi: en kvalitativ studie av idrettspsykologiske rådgiveres etiske utfordringer i anvendt idrettspsykologi, og håndtering av disse

    OpenAIRE

    Ulltang, Espen

    2015-01-01

    Masteroppgave - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2015 Idrettspsykologi er et fag som arbeider for å utvikle mentale ferdigheter hos utøvere og trenere. De som arbeider med anvendt idrettspsykologi møter en rekke etiske utfordringer i sin praksis, men kunnskap om dette synes mangelfullt i Norge. Internasjonalt er det publisert en rekke essays, artikler, og bøker om etiske utfordringer i anvendelsen av faget, men ingen studier viser hvordan norske idrettspsykologiske rådgivere opplever sl...

  11. Patients' and procedural characteristics of AV-block during slow pathway modulation for AVNRT-single center 10year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmer, Kristina; Dechering, Dirk G; Köbe, Julia; Leitz, Patrick; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Lange, Phillip S; Kochhäuser, Simon; Reinke, Florian; Pott, Christian; Mönnig, Gerold; Breithardt, Günter; Eckardt, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Permanent AV-block is a recognized and feared complication of slow pathway modulation for AVNRT. We aimed to assess incidence of transient and permanent AV-block as well as consequences of transient AV-block in a large contemporary AVNRT ablation cohort. We searched our single center prospective ablation database for occurrence of transient and permanent AV-block during slow pathway modulation between January 2004 and October 2015. We analyzed patients' and procedural characteristics as well as outcome of patients in whom transient or permanent AV-block occurred. Of 9170 patients who underwent a catheter ablation at our institution between January 2004 and October 2015, 2101 patients (64% women, mean age 50±18years) underwent slow pathway modulation. In three patients, permanent AV-block occurred during RF application. Additional two patients had transient AV-block that recovered (after a few minutes and 25min), but recurred within two days of the procedure. All five patients underwent dual chamber pacemaker implantation (0.2%). Transient AV-block related to RF delivery occurred in 44 patients (2%). Transient mechanical AV-block occurred in additional 17 patients (0.8%). In 12 patients, ablation was continued despite transient AV-block. One of these patients developed permanent AV-block. Permanent AV-block following slow pathway modulation is a rare event, occurring in 0.2% of patients in a large contemporary single center cohort. Transient AV-block is more frequent (2%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Handelsbankens användande av CRM -Är det lönsamt?

    OpenAIRE

    Salman Kanbar, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Frågeställning: På vilket sätt används CRM av Handelsbanken och hur påverkar det bankens lönsamhet? Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att kunna öka kunskapen om hur Handelsbanken tillämpar CRM och för att undersöka om användandet av CRM i bankens verksamhet är lönsamt eller inte. Metod: För att svara på studiens syfte blev en intervju utförd med Handelsbanken. Ännu en anledning till varför en intervju gjordes var på grund av att det var nödvändigt för att få det primärdata som behövdes och fö...

  13. Modellering och analys av grundvattenflödet i en byggnads grundläggning

    OpenAIRE

    Hargelius, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    På en fastighet i Luthagen i Uppsala uppfördes en byggnad grundlagd på träpålar år 1936. Under 60-talet uppstod läckage på en spillvattenledning vilket ledde till en kontaminering av sprickvattenakviferen där träpålar är särskilt utsatta för påverkan av bakterie, svamp- och virusangrepp till följd av torrläggning. För att spola bort kontaminerat sprickvatten och för att hålla en jämn sprickvattennivå i akviferen installerades påfyllningsbrunnar på två platser i källaren under huset. Brunnarna...

  14. Stereotyper: en omedveten kategorisering. : En jämlikhetsanalys av Intryck- Värmlands landstings personaltidning

    OpenAIRE

    Åhlander, Karolina; Jost, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Jämlikhet är något som ligger i tiden. Hur jämlikhetsmedvetna är egentligen dagens medier? Vi har på uppdrag av Värmlandslandsting gjort en jämlikhetanalys av deras personaltidning, Intryck. En tidning som når samtliga anställda inom organisationen. Vi har gjort en text- och bildanalys med utgångspunkt från ett analysverktyg vi kallar för jämlikhetstrappan. Vårt syfte har varit att urskilja stereotyper och om tidningen använder sig av sitt befintliga underlag för att göra tidningen så jämlik ...

  15. Forholdet mellom stat og kommune i styring av norsk utdanningspolitikk 1970 - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Engeland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen er skrevet ut fra en antakelse om at norsk utdanningsforvaltning etter 1990 illustrerer forsøk på å styrke den statlige forvaltning innen et desentralisert system. Ikke minst er dette tydelig ved at nasjonal styring av utdanning særlig etter århundreskiftet har økt på bekostning av det lokale selvstyret. I forhold til maktfordelingen mellom staten og kommunene er vi nå nærmest tilbake til situasjonen før den politiske desentraliseringsbølgen startet mot slutten av 1970-tallet. Det nasjonale nivået er i ferd med å etablere et styringsgrep på skolesiden som er så omfattende at det mangler sidestykke i moderne tid. Det nye er at dette skjer innen et system hvor inntektssystemet (1986 gir kommunene ansvar for undervisningen, og hvor statens mulighet til å bruke økonomiske styringsmidler er redusert.

  16. If You Live in a Nuclear Submarine : En diskursanalys av Xbox One i Time & Forbes

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Magnus; Stabell Jebsen, Carl Axel

    2014-01-01

    Xbox One är en spelkonsol från företaget Microsoft och en uppföljare till Xbox 360. Konsolen presenterades officiellt vid en presskonferens den 21 maj 2013 och före presentationen så fanns det ett av många rykten om ett krav på att vara ständigt uppkopplad mot internet som rapporterades i media. Syftet med uppsatsen har varit att i utifrån efterförloppet av Microsofts premiärlansering av spelkonsolen Xbox One undersöka den diskursiva bild som nyhetsmedierna Forbes och Time använder för att sk...

  17. Boye och "jag" : En grammatisk analys av en litterär persona

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Elina

    2015-01-01

    I denna uppsats använder jag den interpersonella metafunktionen inom systemisk-funktionell grammatik för att undersöka sex av Karin Boyes dikter, detta med syfte att se huruvida en sådan här analys kan säga något av intresse om diktjaget. Analysen genomfördes enligt Holmberg och Karlssons modell i Grammatik med betydelse, där subjekt och finit tagits ut varpå språkhandlingar markerats och modalitet kommenterats. Dikterna är hämtade ur Boyes Samlade dikter. Av min analys framgår att jaget beha...

  18. The parsec-scale relationship between ICO and AV in local molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheoljong; Leroy, Adam K.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Indebetouw, Remy; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    We measure the parsec-scale relationship between integrated CO intensity (ICO) and visual extinction (AV) in 24 local molecular clouds using maps of CO emission and dust optical depth from Planck. This relationship informs our understanding of CO emission across environments, but clean Milky Way measurements remain scarce. We find uniform ICO for a given AV, with the results bracketed by previous studies of the Pipe and Perseus clouds. Our measured ICO-AV relation broadly agrees with the standard Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor, the relation found for the Magellanic clouds at coarser resolution, and numerical simulations by Glover & Clark (2016). This supports the idea that CO emission primarily depends on shielding, which protects molecules from dissociating radiation. Evidence for CO saturation at high AV and a threshold for CO emission at low AV varies remains uncertain due to insufficient resolution and ambiguities in background subtraction. Resolution of order 0.1 pc may be required to measure these features. We use this ICO-AV relation to predict how the CO-to-H2 conversion factor (XCO) would change if the Solar Neighbourhood clouds had different dust-to-gas ratio (metallicity). The calculations highlight the need for improved observations of the CO emission threshold and H I shielding layer depth. They are also sensitive to the shape of the column density distribution. Because local clouds collectively show a self-similar distribution, we predict a shallow metallicity dependence for XCO down to a few tenths of solar metallicity. However, our calculations also imply dramatic variations in cloud-to-cloud XCO at subsolar metallicity.

  19. Fromleik i Black Supper, Piss Christ og Crucifixion, tre fotografi av Andres Serrano

    OpenAIRE

    Vinje, Lilly

    2006-01-01

    Oppgåva skal omhandla tre utvalgte foto av fotografen Andres Serrano, ein amerikanar født i 1950. Enkeltbileta det er snakk om er Black Supper (1990), Piss Christ og Crucifixion (begge 1987). Dei er laga ved at kitschfigurar er nedsenka i gjennomsiktige behaldarar fyllte av kroppsvæsker og vatn; vatn i Black Supper, urin i Piss Christ og blod i Crucifixion. Henholdsvis framstiller dei Nattverden, Jesus på krossen og Krossfestinga (tre figurar). Serrano befinn seg med desse innanfor religiøs k...

  20. Vegetasjonskartlegging av Muddvær, Vegaøyan verdensarv, Vega kommune

    OpenAIRE

    Bär, Annette; Carlsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Muddværet ble vegetasjonskartlagt for å få oversikt over de botaniske verdiene. Vegetasjonstyper etter Fremstad (1997) er framstilt på kart og rapporten inneholder i tillegg en artsliste over registrerte planter. Kartleggingen skal brukes som grunnlag for en senere utarbeiding av en skjøtselsplan for området og ses i sammenheng med tidligere kartlegginger og utarbeiding av skjøtselsplaner for Vegaøyan verdensarvområde (bl.a. Hatten m.fl. 2007; Hatten & Carlsen 2007a,b).

  1. "Konsesjon til radikalere" : Norges anerkjennelse av Nord-Vietnam i 1971

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Cristian H.

    2012-01-01

    Emnet for oppgaven er Norges anerkjennelse av Nord-Vietnam som en selvstendig stat. Dette skjedde i 1971 mens Nord-Vietnam var i krig med Sør-Vietnam og USA. Norge var det første NATO-landet som fattet prinsippvedtak om dette, og Danmark fulgte etter. Det hele provoserte USA i så stor grad at Nixon-administrasjonen var nær ved å kalle ambassadørene sine i Oslo og København hjem. Det var regjeringen Bratteli som stod for utførelsen av anerkjennelsen etter at Arbeiderpartiet kom tilbake til reg...

  2. Dolphin Sky, del A : utvikling av integrert design- og helhetskonsept for sveveløsning

    OpenAIRE

    Rummelhoff, Kristoffer Ødegaard

    2016-01-01

    Det er store utfordringer knyttet til veiutvikling, kø og situasjoner hvor biler ikke strekker til, spesielt i et land som Norge hvor fjell og fjord skaper naturlige hindringer. Dette er en av flere motivasjoner for å utvikle en miljøvennlig flyvende bil. Masteroppgaven er en fremtidsrettet konseptutvikling- og designoppgave for et nytt konsept hvor det integreres en sveveløsning på en lettvekts trehjulsbil. Tidligere arbeid har blitt benyttet i gjennomførelsen av konseptutvikling; inter...

  3. Millennials och baby boomers attityder till fake news : Generationernas upplevelser av nyhetsmediers sanningshalt

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfsson, Claes; Strömberg, Markus; Stenberg, John

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att ta reda på generationerna millennials och baby boomers inställning till mediernas sanningshalt och politiska neutralitet. Detta gjordes med hjälp av följande frågeställningar: Vilka attityder och vilken inställning har millennials och baby boomers till nyhetsmediernas sanningshalt? Finns skillnader och likheter kvar när vi väger in variablerna kön och politiskt ställningstagande?   För att definiera generationerna använde vi oss av Cliff Zukins generationsteor...

  4. Periodic Sorption of Tungstate Ions on Anionite AV-17-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’yachenko Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple sorption of sodium tungstate resulting from the autoclave-soda digestion of a tungsten-bearing concentrate was studied using anion-exchange resin AV-17-8. The choice of ion exchange resin was carried out under static conditions using highly basic anionites. The sorption and desorption plots for tungstate and carbonate ions were demonstrated under dynamic conditions. The total dynamic capacity of the resin was estimated for each species of the ions in three sorption cycles. The applicability of the AV-17-8 resin as a sorbent in the autoclave-soda process flowsheet was determined.

  5. Analyse av en konfliktfylt planprosess. Medvirkning og makt – i spenningsforholdet mellom ulike stedsidentiteter

    OpenAIRE

    Ihle, Hilde Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    Oppgaven beskriver reguleringsplanprosessen i 2015, og leter etter spor av Sætres stedsidentitet i historiske planer og debatt. Jeg ser etter identitetsuttrykk forstått som stedsfølelse (sence of place), den sosiale konteksten der stedet skapes og gjenskapes gjennom sosiale praksiser (locale) og den fysiske beskrivelsen av stedet (location). I oppgaven ser jeg på hvordan innbyggerne påvirket prosessen gjennom dialog på to Facebook-sider, avisinnlegg og høringsinnspill. Jeg analyserer akti...

  6. Sjuksköterskors upplevelse vid vård av patienter med substansbrukssyndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Johansson; Frida, Zetterman

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund Tidigare forskning visar att sjuksköterskor har förutfattade meningar om patienter med en stigmatiserande diagnos. Sjuksköterskor stigmatiserar och har negativa attityder som påverkar deras vård av dessa patienter. Individer med substansbrukssyndrom är en grupp som är särskilt utsatt för stigmatisering i samhället. Dessa individer påträffas inom samtliga specialiteter inom vården. Denna studie fokuserar därför på sjuksköterskors upplevelse av patienter med substansbrukssyndrom. Syfte...

  7. Risikovurdering av miljøgifter i sediment utenfor tidligere Hurum fabrikker

    OpenAIRE

    Håvardstun, J.; Berge, J.

    2011-01-01

    I forbindelse med et pålegg fra Klima og forurensningsdirektoratet er det gjennomført en vurdering av hvilken miljørisiko som sedimentene utenfor tidligere Hurum fabrikker representerer. Vurderingen er gjennomført på basis undersøkelser av sedimentene gjennomført i 2007. Risikovurderingen er gjennomført etter direktoratets veileder (TA-2230/2007). Hovedkonklusjonen er at sedimentforurensningen i grunnområdene nær land (< 10 m dyp) utenfor fabrikkområdet utgjør en risiko for skade på økosystem...

  8. Betydningen av drektige reinsimlers ernæring for kalvers vekst, klimatiske toleranse og overlevelse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Rognmo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forsøkene (viste at tilleggsforing av underernærte simler i siste del av drektighetsperioden kun synes å ha effekt på fødselsvekten for kalvene forutsatt at simlene får høyverdig ernæring etter kalving. Den forskjellige ernæringsbakgrunn før kalving synes således ikke å innvirke på melkeproduksjon/kvalitet, da vektutviklingen for alle grupper av kalver i dette forsøket gikk parallelt i de tre første ukene etter kalving. Det ble heller ikke på noe punkt funnet signifikante forskjeller gruppene imellom når det gjelder kalvenes klimatiske toleranse. Det er dog bemerkelsesverdig at det var stor dødelighet blant de små kalvene etter unge små simler i GRUPPE L. Dette funn er interessant sett i sammenheng med resultatene fra Røros (se bidrag fra Dag Lenvik, side som viser at avkastningen fra en flokk kan økes markant om man konsentrerte slakteuttaket på små kalver og forhindrer bedekning av små, unge simler gjennom fjerning av eldre, store bukker. Med det forbehold at våre forsøk er utført på dyr i innhegning med et lavt aktivitetsnivå, kan man fra våreforsøk foreløpig konkludere med at tillegsfor ing av simler i siste halvdel av drektighetsperioden har effekt på kalvenes fødselsvekt, men at vektutviklingen for kalven er uavhengig av simlenes ernæringshistorie, om sistnevnte tilbys høyverdig ernæring etter kalving. Da små kalver etter underernærte simler viste høy dødelighet like etter fødselen, vil imidlertid tilleggsforing kunne øke avkastningen om det er mange unge simler i flokken. Resultatene fra Røros tyder imidlertid på at dette resultat normalt kan oppnås uten ekstra omkostninger gjennom et selektivt slakteuttak.

  9. Konstruktion av vertikaltransportör för materialhantering

    OpenAIRE

    Furu, Micke

    2012-01-01

    Rotab Rostfria Transportörer AB tillverkar och utvecklar material- och godshanteringsutrustning. Företaget levererar även kompletta materialhanteringslösningar i form av godshanteringsanläggningar som ofta består av transportband och paketeringsutrustning. Examensarbetets mål är att utveckla en vertikaltransportör som ska transportera gods mellan två transportband belägna på olika höjder, transporten ska kunna varieras mellan 1000 - 3000 mm. Transportören ska undvika de två stora nackdelarna ...

  10. Nyutdannede allmennlærere og deres opplevelse av faglig kompetanse i leseopplæring generelt og av elever med lesevansker spesielt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Grimsæth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Teoretisk og praktisk kunnskap fungerer etter ulik logikk, ingen teori kan helt omsettes til praksis. Det er derfor av interesse å undersøke nærmere hvordan nyutdannede lærere opplever både sin fagkunnskap og nyervervede kompetanse i yrket. Undersøkelsen som her blir presentert har følgende problemstilling: Hvordan opplever nyutdannede lærere sin kompetanse i leseopplæring generelt og leseopplæring av elever med lesevansker spesielt? Denne pilotundersøkelsen tar utgangspunkt i Q- metoden; nyutdannede lærere plasserer subjektive utsagn trykt på individuelle kort i en matrise. Pilotundersøkelsen baserer seg på 10 respondenter, vi valgte derfor en kvalitativ analyse av resultatene av Q-sorteringen. Resultatene viser at nyutdannede lærere opplever at de mangler kunnskap og kompetanse både i praktisk leseopplæring generelt og om lesevansker spesielt. Kartleggingsmateriell blir i liten grad brukt som grunnlag for informantenes tilrettelegging av arbeidsmåter i leseopplæring. Inkludering og sammenholdte klasser står sterkt hos informantene, men de savner informasjon om elever med lesevansker og om tilgjengelig hjelpemateriell. Resultatene understreker betydningen av veiledning av nyutdannede lærere og ikke minst deres behov for fora for faglig utvikling, faglig utveksling og refleksive diskusjoner.Nøkkelord: Nyutdannede allmennlærere; opplevd fagkunnskap og kompetanse; leseopplæring, lesevansker, Q-metodologi, læring i praksis.AbstractTheory and practice are based on different logics; this means that no theory can be fully implemented in practice. For this reason, it is interesting to investigate newly qualified teachers’ perceptions of their expertise and competence. In order to study this phenomena, the following research question was formulated: How do newly qualified teachers perceive their competence in the field of reading education in general and reading difficulties in particular? This pilot study is based on Q

  11. Vannmagasinet er ikke fullt før det renner over : en analyse av effekten av redusert etterspørsel i et vannkraftsystem, eksemplifisert med energieffektivisering i bygninger

    OpenAIRE

    Siljan, Marte

    2010-01-01

    Energieffektivisering i bygninger regnes som et av de mest kostnadseffektive tiltakene for å redusere forbruk av energi, samt bidra til reduksjon i klimagassutslipp. I følge rapporter fra blant annet Lavenergiutvalget (2009) og Klimakur 2020 (2010), vil det være mulig å frigjøre rundt 10 TWh elektrisitet fra norske bygninger i løpet av de neste ti årene. Denne masteroppgaven tar for seg følgene av en tilsvarende etterspørselsreduksjon i det norske kraftsystemet. Norge har et kraftsystem med n...

  12. Skladování energie – téma v hledáčku AV ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Magdalena; Hrubý, Jan; Chomát, Miroslav; Zima, Patrik

    -, č. 2 (2016), s. 7-9 ISSN 1210-9525. [Technology Perspectives for Energy Storage. Praha, 30.11.2015] Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/3 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : energy storage * renewable energy sources * strategy AV21 initiative Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  13. HPCMP CREATE (trademark)-AV Quality Assurance: Best Practices for Validating and Supporting Computation-Based Engineering Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    30/2015 Oct 2008-Sep 2015 HPCMP CREATE™- AV Quality Assurance: Best Practices for Validating and Supporting Computation-Based Engineering Software...2) “Does this tool adequately perform any and all advertised capabilities?” This paper will describe how the HPCMP CREATE Air Vehicles ( AV ...discussed and their strengths and weaknesses within the CREATE- AV framework addressed. Work toward the HPCMP CREATE, Quality Assurance, Aviation

  14. Specialized treatment for Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD): Treatment rationales and preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian

    ½-years of therapy. We focus on how patients change in regards to important outcomes, including both acute symptoms and more personality based problems such as self-reflection, interpersonal problems and ability to describe feelings. Conclusions: Consistency of results with regard to theories about Av...

  15. Diphenylhydantoin and lidocaine modification of A-V conduction in halothane-anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlee, J L; Homer, L D; Tobey, R E

    1975-07-01

    The effect of halothane on A-V conduction was evaluated in gods during atrial pacing using the technique of His-bundle electrocardiography. In addition, the effects of lidocaine and diphenylkydantoin (DPH) on A-V conuction were examined during halothane anesthesia. Effects of these drugs on three subintervals of A-V conduction were compared. These included the -H (stimulus atifact of His-bundle deflection-atrioventricular conduction), H-Q (His-budnle deflection onset of QRS complex-His-Purkinje conduction), and H-S intervals(His-bundle delfection to end of QRS COmplex-total intraventricular conduction). Linear regression best described the relationship between duration of interval (P-H, H-V,and H-S) and heart rate during incremental increases in the atrial paced rate. Data from these experiments were fitted to a multiple lenear regression model that predicted the effect of increasing concentrations of halothan, lidocaine, and DPH on slope and intercept coefficients. In creasing concentrations of halothan ( 30 and 45 mg/100 ml arterial). Both lidocaine and DPH further depressed conduction at all levels of halothan anesthesia. The P-H interval was particularly sensitive todrug effefts. This may represent potentiation of the normal slowing of conduction through the AVnode in response to incremental increases in heart rate (fatigue response.) We conclude thatboth lidocaine and DPH fail to reverse the depressant effect of halothane on A-V conduction. This may explain their ineffectiveness in treating certain types of arrhythmias during halothane anesthesia.

  16. AV nodal function during atrial fibrillation: the role of electrotonic modulation of propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Jalife, J.; Beaumont, J.; Vaidya, D.

    1996-01-01

    The irregular ventricular rhythm that accompanies atrial fibrillation (AF) has been explained in terms of concealed conduction within the AV node (AVN). However, the cellular basis of concealed conduction in AF remains poorly understood. Our hypothesis is that electrotonic modulation of AVN

  17. Trace metals in floodplain lake sediments : SEM/AVS as indicator of bioavailability and ecological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis addresses the geochemical aspects of AVS (Acid Volatile Sulfide) and SEM (Simultaneously Extracted Metals) in floodplain lake sediment, its spatial distribution in floodplain lakes and dynamics over time, the link with effects on single species (bioassays), as well as the impact of

  18. Identification of a potential toxic hot spot associated with AVS spatial and seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, O; Rodríguez, A; Blasco, J

    2009-04-01

    In risk assessment of aquatic sediments, much attention is paid to the difference between acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) as indicators of metal availability. Ten representative sampling sites were selected along the estuary of the Guadalete River. Surficial sediments were sampled in winter and summer to better understand SEM and AVS spatial and seasonal distributions and to establish priority risk areas. Total SEM concentration (SigmaSEM) ranged from 0.3 to 4.7 micromol g(-1). It was not significantly different between seasons, however, it showed a significant difference between sampling stations. AVS concentrations were much more variable, showing significant spatial and temporal variations. The values ranged from 0.8 to 22.4 micromol g(-1). The SEM/AVS ratio was found to be <1 at all except one station located near the mouth of the estuary. The results provided information on a potential pollution source near the mouth of the estuary, probably associated with vessel-related activities carried out in a local harbor area located near the station.

  19. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Griethuysen, van C.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the

  20. Impact of e-AV Biology Website for Learning about Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraini, Siti Hadiati; Choo, Koo Ah; Hin, Hew Soon; Hoon, Teoh Sian

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the design and development of a Website for Biology in senior high schools in Indonesia. The teaching media, namely e-AV Biology, was developed with the main features of video lessons and other features in supporting the students' learning process. Some video lessons describe the production process of Biofuel or Renewable…

  1. A-V Delay Versus Cardiac Output Measured with Thorax Bioimpedance Monitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondra, Vlastimil; Halámek, Josef; Viščor, Ivo; Jurák, Pavel; Novák, M.; Lipoldová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2008), s. 73 ISSN 1556-7451. [World Congress on Heart Disease /14./. 26.07.2008-29.07.2008, Toronto] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : atrio-ventricular delay * resynchronization therapy * impedance cardiography * cardiac output Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  2. Identification of the human ApoAV gene as a novel RORα target gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Ulrika; Nilsson, Tina; McPheat, Jane; Stroemstedt, Per-Erik; Bamberg, Krister; Balendran, Clare; Kang, Daiwu

    2005-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-α (RORα) (NR1F1) is an orphan nuclear receptor with a potential role in metabolism. Previous studies have shown that RORα regulates transcription of the murine Apolipoprotein AI gene and human Apolipoprotein CIII genes. In the present study, we present evidence that RORα also induces transcription of the human Apolipoprotein AV gene, a recently identified apolipoprotein associated with triglyceride levels. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of RORα increased the endogenous expression of ApoAV in HepG2 cells and RORα also enhanced the activity of an ApoAV promoter construct in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. Deletion and mutation studies identified three AGGTCA motifs in the ApoAV promoter that mediate RORα transactivation, one of which overlaps with a previously identified binding site for PPARα. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby RORα modulates lipid metabolism and implies RORα as a potential target for the treatment of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis

  3. Identification of the human ApoAV gene as a novel ROR{alpha} target gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Ulrika [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden); Nilsson, Tina [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden); McPheat, Jane [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden); Stroemstedt, Per-Erik [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden); Bamberg, Krister [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden); Balendran, Clare [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden); Kang, Daiwu [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden)

    2005-04-29

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-{alpha} (ROR{alpha}) (NR1F1) is an orphan nuclear receptor with a potential role in metabolism. Previous studies have shown that ROR{alpha} regulates transcription of the murine Apolipoprotein AI gene and human Apolipoprotein CIII genes. In the present study, we present evidence that ROR{alpha} also induces transcription of the human Apolipoprotein AV gene, a recently identified apolipoprotein associated with triglyceride levels. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of ROR{alpha} increased the endogenous expression of ApoAV in HepG2 cells and ROR{alpha} also enhanced the activity of an ApoAV promoter construct in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. Deletion and mutation studies identified three AGGTCA motifs in the ApoAV promoter that mediate ROR{alpha} transactivation, one of which overlaps with a previously identified binding site for PPAR{alpha}. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby ROR{alpha} modulates lipid metabolism and implies ROR{alpha} as a potential target for the treatment of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  4. Kunnskapsgrunnlag for forslaget om et forbud mot synlig oppstilling av tobakksvarer. Evaluering av det offentlige tobakksforebyggende arbeid i Norge 2003-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Karl Erik; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    - I nasjonal strategiplan for det tobakksforebyggende arbeidet 2006-2010 ønsket Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet å få utredet forslaget om forbud mot synlig oppstilling av tobakksvarer. Departementet har allerede hatt forslaget på høring, og represen tanter fra tobakksindustrien og handelsnæringen hevdet i sine svar at tiltaket bl.a. var i strid med EØS- reglene og at det ikke kunne dokumenteres effekt. Før departementet eventuelt skal arbeide videre med et lo vfor...

  5. Sensitiv responsivitet i barnehagen: En kvalitativ studie av hvordan profesjonell omsorg i barnehagen påvirkes av personalets empatiske identifikasjon med og relasjoner til det enkelte barn

    OpenAIRE

    Selmer-Olsen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Tema for denne masteroppgaven er sensitiv responsivitet i barnehagen, og jeg har undersøkt hvordan profesjonelle omsorgsgiveres relasjoner til enkeltbarn får innvirkning på omsorgen. Problemstillingen er som følger: Hvordan påvirkes den profesjonelle omsorgen i barnehagen av personalets empatiske identifikasjon med og relasjoner til det enkelte barn? For å besvare problemstillingen har jeg gjennomført en kvalitativ undersøkelse med en hermeneutisk tilnærming, bygget på en sosialkonstruktivist...

  6. Geologic Mapping of the Av-11 Pinaria Quadrangle of Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, P.; Hoogenboom, T.; Williams, D.; Yingst, R. A.; Jaumann, R.; Gaskell, R.; Preusker, F.; Nathues, A.; Roatsch, T.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the Dawn's orbital mapping investigation of Vesta, the Science Team is conducting geologic mapping of the surface in the form of 15 quadrangle maps, including quadrangle Av-11 (Pinaria). The base map is a monochrome Framing Camera (FC) mosaic at ~70 m/pixel, supplemented by Digital Terrain Models (DTM) and FC color ratio images, both at ~250 m/pixel, slope and contour maps, and Visible and Infrared (VIR) hyperspectral images. Av-11 straddles the 45-degree longitude in the South Polar Region, and is dominated by the rim of the ~505 km south polar topographic feature, Rheasilvia. Sparsely cratered (relatively), Av-11 is dominated by a 20 km high rim scarp (Matronalia Rupes) and by arcuate ridges and troughs forming a radial to spiral pattern across the basin floor. Primary geologic features of Av-11 include the following. Ridge-and-groove terrain radiating arcuately from the central mound unit, interpreted to be structural disruption of the basin floor associated with basin formation. The largest crater in Av-11 is Pinaria (37 km). Mass wasting deposits are observed on its floor. Secondary crater chains and fields are also evident. Mass wasting observed along Rheasilvia rim scarp and in the largest craters indicates scarp failure is a significant process. Parallel fault scarps mark this deposit of slumped debris at the base of 20 km high Matronalia Rupes, which may have formed during or shortly after basin excavation. We interpret most of these deposits as slump material emplaced as a result of the effects of basin formation and collapse. Lobate materials are characterized by lineations and lobate scarps and interpreted as Rheasilvia ejecta deposit outside Rheasilvia rim (the smoothest terrain on Vesta), and are consistent with formation by ejecta. Partial burial of older craters near the edge of these deposits are also observed.

  7. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients.

  8. The Unusual Resistance of Avian Defensin AvBD7 to Proteolytic Enzymes Preserves Its Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Geoffrey; Kravtzoff, Amanda; Joulin-Giet, Alix; Lecaille, Fabien; Labas, Valérie; Meudal, Hervé; Loth, Karine; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Gilbert, Florence B; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Brömme, Dieter; Schouler, Catherine; Landon, Céline; Lalmanach, Gilles; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Defensins are frontline peptides of mucosal immunity in the animal kingdom, including birds. Their resistance to proteolysis and their ensuing ability to maintain antimicrobial potential remains questionable and was therefore investigated. We have shown by bottom-up mass spectrometry analysis of protein extracts that both avian beta-defensins AvBD2 and AvBD7 were ubiquitously distributed along the chicken gut. Cathepsin B was found by immunoblotting in jejunum, ileum, caecum, and caecal tonsils, while cathepsins K, L, and S were merely identified in caecal tonsils. Hydrolysis product of AvBD2 and AvBD7 incubated with a panel of proteases was analysed by RP-HPLC, mass spectrometry and antimicrobial assays. AvBD2 and AvBD7 were resistant to serine proteases and to cathepsins D and H. Conversely cysteine cathepsins B, K, L, and S degraded AvBD2 and abolished its antibacterial activity. Only cathepsin K cleaved AvBD7 and released Ile4-AvBD7, a N-terminal truncated natural peptidoform of AvBD7 that displayed antibacterial activity. Besides the 3-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet typical of beta-defensins, structural analysis of AvBD7 by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy highlighted the restricted accessibility of the C-terminus embedded by the N-terminal region and gave a formal evidence of a salt bridge (Asp9-Arg12) that could account for proteolysis resistance. The differential susceptibility of avian defensins to proteolysis opens intriguing questions about a distinctive role in the mucosal immunity against pathogen invasion.

  9. Effekten av styrketräning kan begränsas mer av samtidig högintensiv intermittent aerob träning än av lågintensiv kontinuerlig aerob träning

    OpenAIRE

    Jutman, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Introduktion Utifrån tidigare forskning har en modell föreslagits som beskriver att lågintensiv aerob uthållighetsträning ska ha mindre negativ påverkan på effekten av styrketräning jämfört med högintensiv aerob uthållighetsträning. Detta påstående har funnit visst stöd i litteraturen men vidare forskning krävs för att det ska kunna fastställas. Syfte Denna studie syftar till att undersöka ifall det föreligger någon skillnad mellan högintensiv aerob intermittent löpträning och lågintensiv aer...

  10. 78 FR 52872 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft Aerospace GmbH; Fairchild Dornier GmbH; Dornier... certain 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft Aerospace GmbH; Fairchild... send any written relevant data, views, or arguments about this proposed AD. Send your comments to an...

  11. Improved insecticidal toxicity by fusing Cry1Ac of Bacillus thuringiensis with Av3 of Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fu; Cheng, Xing; Ding, Xuezhi; Yao, Ting; Chen, Hanna; Li, Wenping; Hu, Shengbiao; Yu, Ziquan; Sun, Yunjun; Zhang, Youming; Xia, Liqiu

    2014-05-01

    Av3, a neurotoxin of Anemonia viridis, is toxic to crustaceans and cockroaches but inactive in mammals. In the present study, Av3 was expressed in Escherichia coli Origami B (DE3) and purified by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The purified Av3 was injected into the hemocoel of Helicoverpa armigera, rendering the worm paralyzed. Then, Av3 was expressed alone or fusion expressed with the Cry1Ac in acrystalliferous strain Cry(-)B of Bacillus thuringiensis. The shape of Cry1Ac was changed by fusion with Av3. The expressed fusion protein, Cry1AcAv3, formed irregular rhombus- or crescent-shaped crystalline inclusions, which is quite different from the shape of original Cry1Ac crystals. The toxicity of Cry1Ac was improved by fused expression. Compared with original Cry1Ac expressed in Cry(-)B, the oral toxicity of Cry1AcAv3 to H. armigera was elevated about 2.6-fold. No toxicity was detected when Av3 was expressed in Cry(-)B alone. The present study confirmed that marine toxins could be used in bio-control and implied that fused expression with other insecticidal proteins could be an efficient way for their application.

  12. 30 CFR 773.8 - General provisions for review of permit application information and entry of information into AVS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application information and entry of information into AVS. 773.8 Section 773.8 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... into AVS. (a) Based on an administratively complete application, we, the regulatory authority, must undertake the reviews required under §§ 773.9 through 773.11 of this part. (b) We will enter into AVS— (1...

  13. Spatial and seasonal variations of Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) and Simultaneously Extracted Metals (SEM) in Dutch marine and freshwater sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoop MAGT; den Hollander HA; Kerdijk HN; LAC; ECO; Delft Hydraulics

    1995-01-01

    In het kader van het project Exposure Assessment zijn Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) en Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) gehalten bepaald in een aantal mariene en zoetwater sedimenten. AVS-gehalten varieren van niet aantoonbaar (<0.1) tot ongeveer 50 notmol per gram droog sediment. In het

  14. Spatial and seasonal variations of Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) and Simultaneously Extracted Metals (SEM) in Dutch marine and freshwater sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop MAGT van den; Hollander HA den; Kerdijk HN; LAC; ECO; Delft Hydraulics

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of the project Exposure Assessment, Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) contents of Dutch marine and freshwater sediments were determined. For the present set of fifteen marine and six freshwater sediments AVS levels vary between non-detectable

  15. Valg av metode for en landsrepresentativ undersøkelse av kostholdet blant sped- og småbarn i Norge - Spedkost og Småbarnskost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Lande

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI 1998-99 er den første landsrepresentative kostholdsundersøkelsen blant spedbarn og småbarn gjennomført i Norgefor å beskrive kostholdet blant barn opp til 2 års alder og relatere kostvanene til de kostanbefalingene som gis.Inntaket av både næringsstoffer og fremmedstoffer skal beregnes. Undersøkelsen inngår i Statens råd for ernæringog fysisk aktivitet (SEF sitt system for kartlegging av kostholdet i den norske befolkningen, og er et samarbeidmellom SEF, Statens næringsmiddeltilsyn, Institutt for ernæringsforskning ved Universitetet i Oslo og Statistisksentralbyrå. Hovedmålet er å øke kunnskapen om kostholdet til spedbarn og småbarn i Norge, for å få et bedregrunnlag for å fremme et godt kosthold og forebygge kostholdsrelaterte helseproblemer i denne aldersgruppen.Semikvantitative matvarefrekvensskjema ble vurdert å være den beste metoden å benytte. Det ble utviklet 3 forskjelligeselvadministrerte matvarefrekvensskjema (optisk lesbare for å kartlegge kostholdet blant 6, 12 og 24 månedergamle barn. Bilder av matporsjoner ble inkludert som hjelp til å bestemme mengder. Frekvensskjemaene ble sendtpr. post til mødrene av et landsrepresentativt utvalg av 3000 6 måneder gamle barn. De samme barna ble fulgt oppved 12 måneders alder ved at barnas mødre da mottok et nytt frekvensskjema (Spedkost. Videre ble et frekvensskjemasendt mødrene til et landsrepresentativt utvalg av 3000 24 måneder gamle barn (Småbarnskost. Data forbarnas vekt og lengde ble samlet inn i samarbeid med landets helsestasjoner. Det er gjennomført en pilotundersøkelsefor å prøve ut frekvensskjemaene og undersøkelsesopplegg. Videre blir frekvensskjemaene validert mot veidregistrering over 7 dager. Datainnsamlingen ble avsluttet i juli 1999, og rapporter fra undersøkelsen er ventet i år2000. Hensikten med artikkelen er å beskrive metoden og begrunne valg av metode for Spedkost og Småbarnskost.Lande B, Frost Andersen L, Bærug A

  16. Optimering av nanocellulosa för tillämpning som papperstyrkeadditiv

    OpenAIRE

    Englöf, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Syftet med projektet var att undersöka hur homogeniserings förhållanden (tryck antal passager och därmed energiinsatsen) vid framställning av MFC (mikrofibrillär cellulosa), från enzymatiskt förbehandlade pappersmassafibrer påverkar hållfastheten av papper förstärkt med MFC. Arbetsgivaren för projektet var Innventia och det laborativa arbetet har utförts i deras lokaler. Fördelen med att använda MFC som tillsats i papper är att arket blir starkare [1]. Detta medför att en mindre mängd materia...

  17. Teoretisk och praktisk genomgång av IPv6 och dess säkerhetsaspekter

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, David

    2012-01-01

    Den här uppsatsen går teoretiskt och praktiskt igenom IPv6 för att skapa en förståelse för det nya protokollet. Uppsatsen beskriver utöver den teoretiska genomgången av protokollet även det praktiska arbete som ligger bakom implementationen som är tänkt att kunna ge såväl privatpersoner som mindre organisationer tillgång till en säker IPv6 lösning även om Internetleverantören endast kan erbjuda IPv4.   Arbetet är gjort på eget initiativ då behovet av kunskap kring IPv6 växer lavinartat och då...

  18. Tillståndslös kommunikation: En studie av JavaScript-ramverk

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Undersökningens syfte är att ta reda på hur JavaScript‐ramverk presterar i jämförelse med  ren JavaScript i en kommunikation med en webbservice. Kommunikationen med en  webbservice är tillståndslös. Detta innebär att en webbapplikations förfrågan mot en  webbservice alltid är en ny förfrågan. En webbservice kommer inte ihåg klientens tidigare  frågor.   Det finns idag en rad olika JavaScript‐ramverk som klarar av en kommunikation av sådan  karaktär. Denna undersökning kommer att utvärdera pre...

  19. Expansion av e-handelsverksamhet i detaljhandeln : En studie om utmaningar och framgångsfaktorer

    OpenAIRE

    Steen Lagerstam, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    I vårt allt mer digitaliserade samhälle har internet fått en central roll, och har förändrat många aspekter i vårt vardagsliv. Ett av de områden som påverkats starkt av denna utveckling, är den svenska detaljhandelns e-handelsmarknad. De senaste 10 åren har dess omsättning sexdubblats, och prognoser tyder på att denna expansiva trend kommer att hålla i sig. Detta innebär helt nya förutsättningar för de svenska detaljhandelsföretag som tidigare bara bedrivit försäljning i fysiska butiker, elle...

  20. [AV-reentrant tachycardia and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome : Diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Frederik; Eckardt, Lars; Busch, Sonia; Estner, Heidi L; Steven, Daniel; Sommer, Philipp; von Bary, Christian; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht

    2016-12-01

    The AV-reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) is a supraventricular tachycardia with an incidence of 1-3/1000. The pathophysiological basis is an accessory atrioventricular pathway (AP). Patients with AVRT typically present with palpitations, an on-off characteristic, anxiety, dyspnea, and polyuria. This type of tachycardia may often be terminated by vagal maneuvers. Although the clinical presentation of AVRT is quite similar to AV-nodal reentrant tachycardias, the correct diagnosis is often facilitated by analyzing a standard 12-lead ECG at normal heart rate showing ventricular preexcitation. Curative catheter ablation of the AP represents the therapy of choice in symptomatic patients. This article is the fourth part of a series written to improve the professional education of young electrophysiologists. It explains pathophysiology, symptoms, and electrophysiological findings of an invasive EP study. It focusses on mapping and ablation of accessory pathways.

  1. 15-åringers opplevelser av overvekt hos jevnaldrende, en fenomenologisk-hermeneutisk studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidun Rognsaa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hensikten med denne studien er å studere hvordan 15-åringer opplever overvekt hos jevnaldrende. Datamaterialet består av dybdeintervju med syv ungdommer. Det er benyttet fenomenologisk-hermeneutisk analyse. Ungdommene opplever å stå i en posisjon mellom makt og avmakt. I denne mellomposisjonen framkommer det at ungdommene distanserer seg ved hjelp av relasjonell makt, men samtidig setter de seg selv i en avmaktssituasjon i forhold til ungdomskulturens spilleregler. Ungdommene moraliserer ved å skape en situasjon hvor de underkjenner overvektige, samtidig mangler de ytterligere sanksjoneringsmuligheter. Rangordninger skapes gjennom at ungdommene degraderer overvektige, men de må selv også innordne seg i egen kultur. Ungdommene fratar overvektige sitt menneskeverd gjennom å redusere menneskelige egenskaper og gjør dem til objekt. Gjennom denne objektiviseringen setter de seg selv utenfor det å få tak i overvektiges refleksjons- og erfaringsgrunnlag.

  2. Kvalitetsutvärdering av biomedicin och närliggande huvudområden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffler, Hakon; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa; Emgård, Mia

    2014-01-01

    UKÄ:s utvärdering av biomedicinutbildningar visar på en mycket varierad kvalitet. Nio av 21 utbildningar håller toppklass medan mer än hälften bedöms vara bristande. 21 utbildningar inom biomedicin har satts under lupp. Kvaliteten bedöms som vanligt efter en tregradig skala: mycket hög kvalitet...... biomedicinstudenternas förmåga att göra etiska bedömningar. Flera utbildningar har inte kunnat visa att studenterna kan göra etiska bedömningar. De har heller inte kunnat visa att studenterna känner till vilka regelverk som gäller vid etikprövning. Detta är särskilt allvarligt eftersom man inom biomedicin genomför...

  3. Tillverkningsmetod för tillverkning av däcksluckor med glas

    OpenAIRE

    Gripenberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Arbetet går ut på att hitta ett system för att tillverka däcksluckor med glas internt på Nautor. Detta är idag en produkt som vi köper utifrån av en extern leverantör till höga priser därför att vi inte själva har ett fungerande koncept för dylika produkter. Arbetet består av att kartlägga vilka olika tillverkningsmetoder som finns som är lämpade för detta ändamål, (Handlaminat, Injecering, Prepreg, mm). En eller två tillverkningsmetoder väljs ut och därefter tillverkas ett provexemp...

  4. Multifaktormodeller på den svenska marknaden - En studie av OMX Stockholm mellan 1996 och 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarfrid, Peter; Henningsson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Bakgrund:CAPM räcker i flera tillfällen inte till för att estimera framtida avkastning. Vissa av prisavvikelsernafrån CAPM är väldokumenterade och har bestått över tid, vilket har lett till uppkomsten avkorrigerande faktorer. En modell som använder sig av två sådana korrigerande faktorer är Fama ochFrenchs tre-faktormodell. Den har testats flertalet gånger på den svenska marknaden där den visat gehögre förklaringsgrader än CAPM. År 2012 samt år 2014 presenterades två nya multifaktormodeller,s...

  5. Correlation of early-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET images to FDG images: preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Lin, Kun-Ju [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taipei (China); Chang Gung University, Healthy Aging Research Center and Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Huang, Chin-Chang; Hsu, Wen-Chun [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Neurology, Taipei (China); Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taipei (China); Kung, Mei-Ping [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taipei (China); Chang Gung University, Healthy Aging Research Center and Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-04-15

    {sup 18}F-Florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging plaque pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), while PET images of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for cerebral glucose metabolism can provide complementary information to amyloid plaque images for diagnosis of AD. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the perfusion-like property of relative cerebral blood flow estimates (R{sub 1}) and summed early-phase AV-45 images [perfusion AV-45 (pAV-45)] and optimize the early time frame for pAV-45. Dynamic AV-45 PET scans (0-180 min) were performed in seven subjects. pAV-45, late-phase AV-45, and FDG images were spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute template aided by individual MRI images, and the corresponding standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) was computed. The R{sub 1} images were derived from a simplified reference tissue model. Correlations between regional and voxelwise R{sub 1} and the corresponding FDG images were calculated. An optimization of time frames of pAV-45 was conducted in terms of correlation to FDG images. The optimal early time frame was validated in a separate cohort. The regional distribution in the R{sub 1} images correlated well (R = 0.91) to that of the FDG within subjects. Consistently high correlation was noted across a long range of time frames. The maximal correlation of pAV-45 to FDG SUVR of R = 0.95 was observed at the time frame of 1-6 min, while the peak correlation of R = 0.99 happened at 0-2 min between pAV-45 and R{sub 1}. A similar result was achieved in the validation cohort. Preliminary results showed that the distribution patterns of R{sub 1} and pAV-45 images are highly correlated with normalized FDG images, and the initial 5-min early time frame of 1-6 min is potentially useful in providing complementary FDG-like information to the amyloid plaque density by late-phase AV-45 images. (orig.)

  6. Correlation of early-phase 18F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET images to FDG images: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Chin-Chang; Hsu, Wen-Chun; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Kung, Mei-Ping

    2012-01-01

    18 F-Florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging plaque pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), while PET images of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for cerebral glucose metabolism can provide complementary information to amyloid plaque images for diagnosis of AD. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the perfusion-like property of relative cerebral blood flow estimates (R 1 ) and summed early-phase AV-45 images [perfusion AV-45 (pAV-45)] and optimize the early time frame for pAV-45. Dynamic AV-45 PET scans (0-180 min) were performed in seven subjects. pAV-45, late-phase AV-45, and FDG images were spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute template aided by individual MRI images, and the corresponding standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) was computed. The R 1 images were derived from a simplified reference tissue model. Correlations between regional and voxelwise R 1 and the corresponding FDG images were calculated. An optimization of time frames of pAV-45 was conducted in terms of correlation to FDG images. The optimal early time frame was validated in a separate cohort. The regional distribution in the R 1 images correlated well (R = 0.91) to that of the FDG within subjects. Consistently high correlation was noted across a long range of time frames. The maximal correlation of pAV-45 to FDG SUVR of R = 0.95 was observed at the time frame of 1-6 min, while the peak correlation of R = 0.99 happened at 0-2 min between pAV-45 and R 1 . A similar result was achieved in the validation cohort. Preliminary results showed that the distribution patterns of R 1 and pAV-45 images are highly correlated with normalized FDG images, and the initial 5-min early time frame of 1-6 min is potentially useful in providing complementary FDG-like information to the amyloid plaque density by late-phase AV-45 images. (orig.)

  7. Språkkartlegging av flerspråklige barn i barnehagen - fra kontrovers til kompromiss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassira Essahli Vik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Språkkartlegging i barnehagen er et konfliktfylt felt som preges av enten/eller tenkning. På den ene siden ser kartleggingstilhengerne ut til å ha en positivistisk tro på at kartlegging kan bidra til løsninger på alt fra enkeltbarns behov for hjelp, til tilrettelegging for livslang læring og sosial utjevning. På den andre siden ser kartleggingsskeptikerne ut til å befinne seg innenfor den nordiske barnehagemodellen, som tradisjonelt bygger på et helhetlig syn på læring og på en sterk vektlegging av barndommens egenverdi. Spenningen kan ha store konsekvenser for praksisfeltet. I denne artikkelen drøfter jeg språkkartleggingsdiskursen i lys av teori om vitenskapelige kontroverser og konkluderer med at det er åpning for kompromisser, men også at det er tendenser i diskursen som snarere kan forsterke enn redusere uenigheten om språkkartlegging av flerspråklige barn i barnehagen. Mapping of language skills in early childhood education and care (ECEC institutions is controversial. On the one hand, there are those who support language mapping based on a belief that mapping and measuring can help language acquisition and facilitate lifelong learning and social integration. On the other hand, there are skeptics who oppose mapping and emphasize the values of childhood. This article discusses the discourses on language mapping in light of theories on scientific controversies. Based on the analysis I find that although there are openings for compromises, it seems that tendencies in the discourse may amplify rather than reduce the controversy on the language mapping of multilingual children in Norwegian ECEC institutions.

  8. Foderstater för ökad konsumtion av vallfoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetta, M.; Lund, Peter; Tahir, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    nedbrytningen från våmmen till tunntarmen. Nedbrytning av stärkelse i tunntarmen leder till högre energieffektivitet i ämnesomsättningen. Stärkelse hos korn (Hordeum Vulgare, L) anses i litteraturen ha en snabb omsättning i våmmen och stärkelse hos majs (Zea Mays, L) anses ha en långsam nedbrytning (Mills et al...

  9. Pedagogiske lederes erfaringer med og forebygging av begynnende mobbeatferd i barnehagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Alfsvåg, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Special education Studiens tema er barns begynnende mobbeatferd, og hvordan dette erfares og forebygges av fire pedagogiske ledere i barnehager. Teoretiske perspektiver som belyser temaets perspektiver og kompleksitet er begrepene vold eller mobbing (Isdal, Andreassen & Thilesen, 2003), mobbing i barnehagen (Falck, 2013 og Størksen, 2013), aggresjonsperspektivet (Roland, 2011 og Olweus, 1993), ulike tiltak som kan iverksettes som tidlig innsats (Tremblay, 2010), verdien ...

  10. A Lightweight AV System for Providing a Faithful and Spatially Manipulable Visual Hand Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Pusch , Andreas; Martin , Olivier; Coquillart , Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Session: Developing new tools and technologies - Abstracts to be published in a regular issue of the journal Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking (indexed in MedLine and PsychInfo): http://online.liebertpub.com/loi/CYBER; International audience; This paper introduces the technical foundations of a system designed to embed a lightweight, faithful and spatially manipulable representation of the user's hand into an otherwise virtual world (aka Augmented Virtuality, AV). A highly intui...

  11. A.V. Usova's Contribution to the Field of Concept Learning in Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavoruk, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    A.V. Usova (1921-2014) has always been one of the leading figures in Russian physics education. Her theory of physics concept formation was formulated during the 1970s and the 1980s and directly influenced the process of physics education in the 20th and the 21st century. Over the years there have been a lot of theories of concept formation. Her…

  12. Kvinners rett til liv og helse : en studie av abortloven i Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Salvesen, Camilla Holst

    2009-01-01

    Sammenhengen mellom internasjonale menneskerettigheter og nasjonal lovgivning er utgangspunktet for denne oppgaven som handler om endringen i Nicaraguas abortlov. Tidligere var det, som i de aller fleste land i verden, tillat å ta såkalt terapeutisk abort- i tilfeller der kvinnens liv og helse står i fare. Mot slutten av 2006 ble denne loven endret. Flere advokater, leger og menneskerettighetsforkjempere hevder lovendringen er i strid med menneskerettighetene, slik som for eksempel rett til l...

  13. Effekten av antioksidanter på aerob kapasitet, lungefunksjon og luftveisinflammasjon hos utrente personer

    OpenAIRE

    Freuchen, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2013 Antioksidanter kan beskytte celler mot alvorlig skade ved å hindre oksidering av cellulære bestanddeler. Likevel er det antydet at store doser antioksidanter kan hemme gunstige treningseffekter. Formålet med studien var å undersøke hvilken effekt antioksidanttilskudd kombinert med 12 ukers utholdenhetstrening har på aerob kapasitet, lungefunksjon og luftveisinflammasjon.

  14. Frihet & struktur : en kvalitativ studie av skolelivskvalitet hos ungdom med Tourette syndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Siverts, Torstein

    2005-01-01

    Sammendrag. Tittel: Skolelivskvalitet hos ungdom med Tourette Syndrom Med bakgrunn i egen erfaring fra arbeid med elever med Tourette Syndrom i grunnskolen, og i studier i spesialpedagogisk teori og empiri, etterstrebes det i denne studien å utvikle økt forståelse for hva slags erfaringer fra og perspektiver på sitt skoleliv elever med denne funksjonshemmende lidelsen har. Med grunnlag i analyser av intervjuer med elever om deres erfaringer og perspektiver, har jeg prøvd å b...

  15. Med sjefen på Facebook: En studie av ledere som er "venner" med sine ansatte

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    MR690 Masteroppgave i organisasjon og ledelse - utdanningsledelse Formålet med studien er å belyse hvordan aktiv bruk av sosiale medier, i dette tilfellet Facebook, påvirker relasjoner mellom mennesker. Hva skjer når en tar i bruk en websjanger som i utgangspunktet er umiddelbar og uformell, til jobbrelatert og mer formell kommunikasjon? Er det sjangeren eller relasjonen som endres? Søkelyset rettes mot ledere som er “venner” med sine medarbeidere, og problemstillingen er...

  16. Balancing Public and Private Interests in ICT Standardisation: The Case of AVS in China

    OpenAIRE

    Su , Junbin; Fomin , Vladislav V.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This research inquires into how the public interest and private interests can be balanced by a new approach beyond the "Fair, Reasonable and Non Discriminatory" (FRAND) term and Royalty Free in the standardisation process. Using the case of Audio Video coding Standard (AVS) in China, we analyse the mechanisms for treating the Intellectual Property Rights associated with technical contributions of stakeholders and establishing a patent pool with low royalty. The lesson ...

  17. Performance comparison of AV1, HEVC, and JVET video codecs on 360 (spherical) video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topiwala, Pankaj; Dai, Wei; Krishnan, Madhu; Abbas, Adeel; Doshi, Sandeep; Newman, David

    2017-09-01

    This paper compares the coding efficiency performance on 360 videos, of three software codecs: (a) AV1 video codec from the Alliance for Open Media (AOM); (b) the HEVC Reference Software HM; and (c) the JVET JEM Reference SW. Note that 360 video is especially challenging content, in that one codes full res globally, but typically looks locally (in a viewport), which magnifies errors. These are tested in two different projection formats ERP and RSP, to check consistency. Performance is tabulated for 1-pass encoding on two fronts: (1) objective performance based on end-to-end (E2E) metrics such as SPSNR-NN, and WS-PSNR, currently developed in the JVET committee; and (2) informal subjective assessment of static viewports. Constant quality encoding is performed with all the three codecs for an unbiased comparison of the core coding tools. Our general conclusion is that under constant quality coding, AV1 underperforms HEVC, which underperforms JVET. We also test with rate control, where AV1 currently underperforms the open source X265 HEVC codec. Objective and visual evidence is provided.

  18. Coding efficiency of AVS 2.0 for CBAC and CABAC engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Choi, Youngkyu; Chae, Soo-Ik

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we compare the coding efficiency of AVS 2.0[1] for engines of the Context-based Binary Arithmetic Coding (CBAC)[2] in the AVS 2.0 and the Context-Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coder (CABAC)[3] in the HEVC[4]. For fair comparison, the CABAC is embedded in the reference code RD10.1 because the CBAC is in the HEVC in our previous work[5]. The rate estimation table is employed only for RDOQ in the RD code. To reduce the computation complexity of the video encoder, therefore we modified the RD code so that the rate estimation table is employed for all RDO decision. Furthermore, we also simplify the complexity of rate estimation table by reducing the bit depth of its fractional part to 2 from 8. The simulation result shows that the CABAC has the BD-rate loss of about 0.7% compared to the CBAC. It seems that the CBAC is a little more efficient than that the CABAC in the AVS 2.0.

  19. Las enfermedades infecciosas y su importancia en el sector avícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Andrés Jaimes Olaya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del contexto de un país cuyas mejores capacidades se encuentran en el sector agropecuario, la industria avícola se ha convertido en uno de los sectores más promisorios y de mayor crecimiento en Colombia. Por esta razón, actualmente se vienen implementando programas para el mejoramiento de la calidad de los productos avícolas, con el objetivo no solo de mantener el crecimiento de la industria,sino de poder expandir las fronteras de exportación. Sin embargo, la avicultura enfrenta un gran reto encuanto a su producción, debido a que las enfermedades infecciosas que afectan a las aves continúan siendo una problemática importante del sector, aun por encima de la alimentación y la genética. En este artículo se presentan elementos de relevancia referentes a la industria avícola, así como en relación con las enfermedades de control oficial y algunas de las enfermedades infecciosas que más la aquejan, enfatizando en la importancia de la intervención en el manejo y control de dichas enfermedades.

  20. "Kven er det som skriv?" Skriveren i romanen Naustet av Jon Fosse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Reinhoff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Når det gjelder romanen Naustet av Jon Fosse er det ikke tvil om at det blant annet – og kanskje hovedsaklig – er „dette noko / skrifta berettar om“. Det er derfor denne romanen også kan kalles for en metaroman. Tematiseringen av skriveren og skriveprosessen i romanen tar ikke bare mye plass på historienivå: Den gjennomsyrer romanen. Nært forbundet med denne tematikken er et fenomen jeg ville kalle for „dobbeltperspektivet i romanen“, og det er dette jeg vil se litt nærmere på her. Selv om romanen Naustet – i god postmoderne tradisjon – i siste – og kanskje allerede i første – instans unndrar seg en fast og entydig tilskrivning av betydning – og slik bevarer sin magi – skal jeg prøve å nærme meg skriveren og dobbeltperspektivet „eit stykke på veg“. Men først et par ord om begrepet skriver.

  1. Förbättring av IKEAs Kvalitetstester och Hantering av Kundklagomål : - Köksluckor och Bänkskivor

    OpenAIRE

    Assbring, Lisa; Halilović, Elma

    2012-01-01

    IKEA grundades 1943 av Ingvar Kamprad och återförsäljs idag i 44 länder runt om i världen. Med den 25-års garanti på kök som IKEA erbjuder har det blivit allt viktigare för dem att bekräfta kvaliteten på kökssortimentet och hur tillfredsställd kunden är. Syftet med detta examensarbete har varit att identifiera de mest kritiska faktorerna för köksfronter och bänkskivor baserat på nuvarande kundklagomål och vilka testmetoder som kan användas för att testa dessa faktorer i produktutvecklingsproc...

  2. "Humankind before the flood" : En kvalitativ studie om användningen av retorik i en dokumentärfilm av och med Leonardo DiCaprio

    OpenAIRE

    Björnberg, Nana; Hansen, Jonna

    2018-01-01

    Följande studie undersökte Before the Flood, en dokumentärfilm av och med Leonardo DiCaprio, utifrån ett retoriskt perspektiv. Studiens syfte var att undersöka om och i så fall på vilket sätt Leonardo DiCaprio, experter och skaparna bakom dokumentärfilmen använde retoriska strategier för att förstärka Before the Flood’s budskap och verka övertygande inför sin publik. Som metod tillämpade studien kvalitativ textanalys och de tre grundläggande appellformerna, visuell retorik samt argumentation ...

  3. Ungdom og fortelling - en narrativ analyse av Gen 37 med et særlig henblikk på forkynnelse av gammeltestamentlige fortellinger til ungdom

    OpenAIRE

    Sæbø, Linn

    2011-01-01

    Det er mange som har skrevet om hvordan en kan forkynne det gamle testamentet, og det er mange som har skrevet om hvordan forkynne for ungdom, men få har satt disse to fagområdene sammen. I denne oppgaven vil jeg prøve å gjøre akkurat det. Jeg vil først gå inn på emnet; ungdom og fortellinger. Der vil jeg se på Plan for trosopplæring og RLE-planen med henblikk på hvor mye av ”pensum” som er fortellingsstoff. Jeg vil også komme inn på temaet; hvem er ungdom, og ungdom og identitet....

  4. Brain uptake of a non-radioactive pseudo-carrier and its effect on the biodistribution of [18 F]AV-133 in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xianying; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Shuxian; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Aifang; Han, Jie; Zhu, Lin; Kung, Hank F.; Qiao, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: 9-[ 18 F]Fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([ 18 F]AV-133) is a new PET imaging agent targeting vesicular monoamine transporter type II (VMAT2). To shorten the preparation of [ 18 F]AV-133 and to make it more widely available, a simple and rapid purification method using solid-phase extraction (SPE) instead of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The SPE method produced doses containing the non-radioactive pseudo-carrier 9-hydroxypropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (AV-149). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the brain uptake of AV-149 by UPLC-MS/MS and its effect on the biodistribution of [ 18 F]AV-133 in the brains of mice. Methods: The mice were injected with a bolus including [ 18 F]AV-133 and different doses of AV-149. Brain tissue and blood samples were harvested. The effect of different amounts of AV-149 on [ 18 F]AV-133 was evaluated by quantifying the brain distribution of radiolabelled tracer [ 18 F]AV-133. The concentrations of AV-149 in the brain and plasma were analyzed using a UPLC-MS/MS method. Results: The concentrations of AV-149 in the brain and plasma exhibited a good linear relationship with the doses. The receptor occupancy curve was fit, and the calculated ED 50 value was 8.165 mg/kg. The brain biodistribution and regional selectivity of [ 18 F]AV-133 had no obvious differences at AV-149 doses lower than 0.1 mg/kg. With increasing doses of AV-149, the brain biodistribution of [ 18 F]AV-133 changed significantly. Conclusion: The results are important to further support that the improved radiolabelling procedure of [ 18 F]AV-133 using an SPE method may be suitable for routine clinical application

  5. Phase 1 Trial of Subcutaneous rAvPAL-PEG in Subjects with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O.; Burton, Barbara K.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M.; Musson, Donald G.; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. A phenylalanine-restricted diet initiated early in life can ameliorate the toxic effects of phenylalanine. However, the diet is onerous and compliance is extremely difficult. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. This Phase 1, multicenter clinical trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of rAvPAL-PEG (recombinant Anabaena variabilis PAL produced in E. coli conjugated with polyethylene glycol [PEG] to reduce immunogenicity) in reducing phenylalanine levels in subjects with phenylketonuria. Methods Single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·01, 0·03, and 0·1 mg/kg) were administered to 25 adults with phenylketonuria recruited from those attending metabolic clinics in North America whose blood phenylalanine concentrations were ≥600 μmol/L. Results The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness. Reactions were self-limited without sequelae. During the trial, two subjects had adverse reactions to intramuscular (IM) medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug containing polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three subjects developed a generalized skin rash at the highest rAvPAL-PEG dose (0·1 mg/kg). Drug levels peaked ∼5 days after the injection. Treatment was effective in reducing blood phenylalanine in all five subjects receiving the highest dose (0·1 mg/kg, mean percent change of -58 from baseline), with a nadir ∼6 days after injection and inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine concentrations returned to near-baseline levels ∼20 days after the single injection. Conclusions

  6. Atorvastatin and fenofibrate increase apolipoprotein AV and decrease triglycerides by up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian-sheng; Zhao, Shui-ping; Bai, Lin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Wang; Zhang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Combining statin and fibrate in clinical practice provides a greater reduction of triglycerides than either drug given alone, but the mechanism for this effect is poorly understood. Apolipoprotein AV (apoAV) has been implicated in triglyceride metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the combination of statin and fibrate on apoAV and the underlying mechanism(s). Experimental approach: Hypertriglyceridaemia was induced in rats by giving them 10% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks. They were then treated with atorvastatin, fenofibrate or the two agents combined for 4 weeks, and plasma triglyceride and apoAV measured. We also tested the effects of these two agents on triglycerides and apoAV in HepG2 cells in culture. Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure apoAV and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) expression. Key results: The combination of atorvastatin and fenofibrate resulted in a greater decrease in plasma triglycerides and a greater increase in plasma and hepatic apoAV than either agent given alone. Hepatic expression of the PPARα was also more extensively up-regulated in rats treated with the combination. A similar, greater increase in apoAV and a greater decrease in triglycerides were observed following treatment of HepG2 cells pre-exposed to fructose), with the combination. Adding an inhibitor of PPARα (MK886) abolished the effects of atorvastatin on HepG2 cells. Conclusions and implications: A combination of atorvastatin and fenofibrate increased apoAV and decreased triglycerides through up-regulation of PPARα. PMID:19694729

  7. The tau positron-emission tomography tracer AV-1451 binds with similar affinities to tau fibrils and monoamine oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeiren, Céline; Motte, Philippe; Viot, Delphine; Mairet-Coello, Georges; Courade, Jean-Philippe; Citron, Martin; Mercier, Joël; Hannestad, Jonas; Gillard, Michel

    2018-02-01

    Lilly/Avid's AV-1451 is one of the most advanced tau PET tracers in the clinic. Although results obtained in Alzheimer's disease patients are compelling, discrimination of tracer uptake in healthy individuals and patients with supranuclear palsy (PSP) is less clear as there is substantial overlap of signal in multiple brain regions. Moreover, accurate quantification of [ 18 F]AV-1451 uptake in Alzheimer's disease may not be possible. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro binding of AV-1451 to understand and identify potential off-target binding that could explain the poor discrimination observed in PSP patients. [ 3 H]AV-1451 and AV-1451 were characterized in in vitro binding assays using recombinant and native proteins/tissues from postmortem samples of controls and Alzheimer's disease and PSP patients. [ 3 H]AV-1451 binds to multiple sites with nanomolar affinities in brain homogenates and to tau fibrils isolated from Alzheimer's disease or PSP patients. [ 3 H]AV-1451 also binds with similarly high affinities in brain homogenates devoid of tau pathology. This unexpected binding was demonstrated to be because of nanomolar affinities of [ 3 H]AV-1451 for monoamine oxidase A and B enzymes. High affinity of AV-1451 for monoamine oxidase proteins may limit its utility as a tau PET tracer in PSP and Alzheimer's disease because of high levels of monoamine oxidase expression in brain regions also affected by tau deposition, especially if monoamine oxidase levels change over time or with a treatment intervention. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Multimodal correlation of dynamic [18F]-AV-1451 perfusion PET and neuronal hypometabolism in [18F]-FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Jochen; Leuwer, Isabel; Bischof, Gérard N; Drzezga, Alexander; van Eimeren, Thilo

    2017-12-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolism measured with [18F]-FDG PET is a well established marker of neuronal dysfunction in neurodegeneration. The tau-protein tracer [18F]-AV-1451 PET is currently under evaluation and shows promising results. Here, we assess the feasibility of early perfusion imaging with AV-1451 as a substite for FDG PET in assessing neuronal injury. Twenty patients with suspected neurodegeneration underwent FDG and early phase AV-1451 PET imaging. Ten one-minute timeframes were acquired after application of 200 MBq AV-1451. FDG images were acquired on a different date according to clinical protocol. Early AV-1451 timeframes were coregistered to individual FDG-scans and spatially normalized. Voxel-wise intermodal correlations were calculated on within-subject level for every possible time window. The window with highest pooled correlation was considered optimal. Z-transformed deviation maps (ZMs) were created from both FDG and early AV-1451 images, comparing against FDG images of healthy controls. Regional patterns and extent of perfusion deficits were highly comparable to metabolic deficits. Best results were observed in a time window from 60 to 360 s (r = 0.86). Correlation strength ranged from r = 0.96 (subcortical gray matter) to 0.83 (frontal lobe) in regional analysis. ZMs of early AV-1451 and FDG images were highly similar. Perfusion imaging with AV-1451 is a valid biomarker for assessment of neuronal dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Radiation exposure and complexity of the diagnostic workup could be reduced significantly by routine acquisition of early AV-1451 images, sparing additional FDG PET.

  9. Multimodal correlation of dynamic [18F]-AV-1451 perfusion PET and neuronal hypometabolism in [18F]-FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammes, Jochen; Leuwer, Isabel; Bischof, Gerard N.; Drzezga, Alexander; Eimeren, Thilo van

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolism measured with [18F]-FDG PET is a well established marker of neuronal dysfunction in neurodegeneration. The tau-protein tracer [18F]-AV-1451 PET is currently under evaluation and shows promising results. Here, we assess the feasibility of early perfusion imaging with AV-1451 as a substite for FDG PET in assessing neuronal injury. Twenty patients with suspected neurodegeneration underwent FDG and early phase AV-1451 PET imaging. Ten one-minute timeframes were acquired after application of 200 MBq AV-1451. FDG images were acquired on a different date according to clinical protocol. Early AV-1451 timeframes were coregistered to individual FDG-scans and spatially normalized. Voxel-wise intermodal correlations were calculated on within-subject level for every possible time window. The window with highest pooled correlation was considered optimal. Z-transformed deviation maps (ZMs) were created from both FDG and early AV-1451 images, comparing against FDG images of healthy controls. Regional patterns and extent of perfusion deficits were highly comparable to metabolic deficits. Best results were observed in a time window from 60 to 360 s (r = 0.86). Correlation strength ranged from r = 0.96 (subcortical gray matter) to 0.83 (frontal lobe) in regional analysis. ZMs of early AV-1451 and FDG images were highly similar. Perfusion imaging with AV-1451 is a valid biomarker for assessment of neuronal dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Radiation exposure and complexity of the diagnostic workup could be reduced significantly by routine acquisition of early AV-1451 images, sparing additional FDG PET. (orig.)

  10. Medicinsk cannabis : En litteraturstudie om användningen av medicinsk cannabis inom cancervården

    OpenAIRE

    Nygård, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Detta examensarbete handlar om användningen av medicinsk cannabis inom cancervården. Syftet med examensarbetet var att undersöka vilken roll cannabis kan ha i cancervården. Frågeställningarna var: Hur upplever patienten användning av medicinsk cannabis? Vilken hjälp kan patienten väntas få av medicinsk cannabis? vilka attityder har vårdpersonal mot medicinsk cannabis? Som utgångsteorier i denna studie användes Ruland och Moors teori om ett fridfullt slut på livet samt Erikssons teori om ...

  11. Kritiska framgångsfaktorer vid implementering av affärssystem : beaktas de i e-handelsföretag?

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Nafiz

    2010-01-01

    Syfte: Analysera och diskutera huruvida teori om kritiska framgångsfaktorer vid implementering av affärssystem för fysiska företag beaktas i e-handelsföretag. Identifiera framgångsfaktorer för implementeringen av affärssystem i e-handelsföretag. Forskningsfråga: Beaktas samma kritiska framgångsfaktorer vid implementering av ett affärssystem i stora fysiska företag som små e-handelsföretag? Metod: En kvalitativ metod antogs vilket innebar att en fallstudie genomförts som omfattat två responden...

  12. Landing Gear Stroke and Load Predictions for the AV-8B Aircraft and Three Ski Jump Ramp Profiles for the Italian Carrier Andrea Doria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imhof, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    .... The effort was funded through a 90-day contract to use the NAVAIR AV-8B simulation to assess the landing gear stroke and load characteristics of the AV-8B aircraft with three potential ski jump...

  13. Automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) test bed to improve transit, bicycle, and pedestrian safety : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Crashes involving transit vehicles, bicyclists, and pedestrians are a concern in Texas, especially in urban areas. This research explored the potential of automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) technology to reduce or eliminate these crashes. The pr...

  14. IceBridge LVIS POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 and 610 POS AV systems flown with the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) over Greenland,...

  15. Införandet av IAS 41 : Hur har kapitalfördelningen mellan intressenter i den norska laxodlingsbranschen utvecklats?

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlén, Jonas; Josefsson, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Införandet av IAS 41 medförde att redovisningsprinciperna för värderingen av ett företags biologiska tillgångar förändrades. Det finns forskning på hur införandet av IAS 41 påverkat olika aktörer inom skogsindustrin men lite är skrivet om dess påverkan på laxodlingsindustrin. Denna uppsats ämnar undersöka hur kapitalfördelningen till intressenter utvecklats sedan införandet av IAS 41. Studien fokuserar på intressenterna ägare och anställda. Vi har tillämpat en kvantitativ metod där vår empiri...

  16. Jämnt Lärande : Ett illustrerat hjälpmedel till normkritisk granskning av läromedel

    OpenAIRE

    Denninger, Johan

    2017-01-01

    I detta examensarbete undersöks normbildande och reproducering av normer i samband med bilder i läromedel som används av modersmålslärare i Eskilstuna Kommun. Arbetet bygger på problematiken att stereotyper och reproducering av normer är vanligt förkommande i läromedlen samt att lärarnas brist på tid och möjlighet att granska läromedlen normkritiskt. Syftet med arbetet är att formge ett gestaltningsförslag till ett illustrerat hjälpmedel för normkritisk granskning av läromed...

  17. En socialpsykologisk analys av samkönat partnervåld ur ett makt- och normativitetsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Thérèse

    2009-01-01

    Uppsatsens syfte var att nå en större teoretisk förståelse av samkönat partnervåld, genom att analysera olika forskningsartiklars narrativa konstruktioner av våldet. De två frågeställningarna var: 1. Hur diskuterar forskningslitteraturen samkönat partnervåld med fokus på temana relationsdynamik, karaktär hos parterna, kön, genus och sexualitet samt betydelsen av social kontext? 2. Hur diskuterar forskningslitteraturen det professionella bemötandet av samkönat partnervåld? De 21 valda primärdo...

  18. Studier av radioaktivt cesium i svenska renar. Oversikt over pågående undersokningar 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available I samband med den forskning och forsöksverksamhet som bedrivits vid renforsöksavdelningen har vi arbetat med metodik och teknik som kan tillämpas vid studier av radioaktivt cesium i renbetesväxter och i renar. På betessidan har vi bl.a. arbetat med kontaminering av tungmetaller från gruvindustrin och nitrat efter kvävegödsling. Omfattande studier har utförts av renens mineralstatus och mineralämnesomsättning. Erfarenheter och kunskaper från dessa områden har utnyttjats for planering och genomförande av de studier som nu pågår beträffande radioaktivt cesium i renbetesväxter och renar.

  19. The relation between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates: implications of feeding behavior and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-05-01

    The present study evaluates the relationship between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in invertebrates with different feeding behavior and ecological preferences. Natural sediments, pore water and surface water, together with benthic and epibenthic invertebrates were sampled at 28 Flemish lowland rivers. Different metals as well as metal binding sediment characteristics including AVS were measured and multiple regression was used to study their relationship with accumulated metals in the invertebrates taxa. Bioaccumulation in the benthic taxa was primarily influenced by total metal concentrations in the sediment. Regarding the epibenthic taxa metal accumulation was mostly explained by the more bioavailable metal fractions in both the sediment and the water. AVS concentrations were generally better correlated with metal accumulation in the epibenthic invertebrates, rather than with the benthic taxa. Our results indicated that the relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intervensjonsstudien "Forebyggelse av lårhalsbrudd". Metode og praktisk gjennomføring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Kvaavik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  Bakgrunn  3 kan forebygge brudd blant sykehjemsbeboere. Her beskrivesmetoden og den praktiske gjennomføringen av studien.Metode  mg vitamin D daglig som 5 ml tran og kontrollgruppa fikk 5 ml tran der vitamin D var fjernet. Endepunktenevar lårhalsbrudd og alle ikke-vertebrale brudd. Et enkelt studieopplegg ble vektlagt. På bakgrunnav styrkeberegningen var målsetningen å inkludere ca. 2000 deltakere.Resultater  Konklusjon  The intervention study”Prevention of hip fractures”. Nor J Epidemiol 2000; 10 (1: 79-85.  Background  3 can prevent suchfractures. Here we present the method and the implementation of the study.Method  mg vitamin D daily in 5 ml cod liver oil for 2 years and the control group received 5 ml cod liver oilwithout vitamin D. The endpoints were hip fractures and all non-vertebral fractures. It was consideredimportant to use a trial that the nursing homes would find easy to implement. According to power calculationthe aim was to include about 2000 participants.Results  Conclusion  : The participation was lower than expected as recruiting nursing homes and nursing homeresidents posed considerable difficulty. However, the great majority of the ward staff at the participatingwards did not find the intervention demanding. A total of 1144 was included in the study.: A total of 1144 residents from 51 nursing homes (of 106 invited in Oslo, Lier and Bergen participated.The participation rate at the individual nursing home varied from 3 to 57%. The participants were85 years old and 3/4 were women. Mean calcium intake from cheese and milk was 450 mg/day, more than40% used a vitamin D supplement while only 3% used a calcium supplement. 1/3 of the participants completedthe 2 years intervention, about 1/3 finished the intervention before 2 years because of death and 1/3finished before 2 years of other causes. The great majority of the wards did not find the interventiondemanding.: A randomised, double

  1. AV-8B Remanufacture Program as Part of the Audit of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process - FY 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    wft*:¥A:ft:i:ft& OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL AV-8B REMANUFACTURE PROGRAM AS PART OF THE AUDIT OF THE DEFENSE ACQUISITION BOARD...Part of the Audit of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process - FY 1994 B. DATE Report Downloaded From the Internet: 03/23/99 C. Report’s Point...NAVY FOR RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ACQUISITION SUBJECT: Audit Report on the AV-8B Remanufacture Program as Part of the Audit of the Defense

  2. Considerations and code for partial volume correcting [18F]-AV-1451 tau PET data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Baker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [18F]-AV-1451 is a leading tracer used with positron emission tomography (PET to quantify tau pathology. However, [18F]-AV-1451 shows “off target” or non-specific binding, which we define as binding of the tracer in unexpected areas unlikely to harbor aggregated tau based on autopsy literature [1]. Along with caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus non-specific binding [2,3], we have found binding in the superior portion of the cerebellar gray matter, leading us to use inferior cerebellar gray as the reference region. We also addressed binding in the posterior portion of the choroid plexus. PET signal unlikely to be associated with tau also occurs in skull, meninges and soft tissue (see e.g. [4]. We refer to [18F]-AV-1451 binding in the skull and meninges as extra-cortical hotspots (ECH and find them near lateral and medial orbitofrontal, lateral occipital, inferior and middle temporal, superior and inferior parietal, and inferior cerebellar gray matter. Lastly, the choroid plexus also shows non-specific binding that bleeds into hippocampus. We are providing the code (http://www.runmycode.org/companion/view/2798 used to create different regions of interest (ROIs that we then used to perform Partial Volume Correction (PVC using the Rousset geometric transfer matrix method (GTM, [5]. This method was used in the companion article, “Comparison of multiple tau-PET measures as biomarkers in aging and Alzheimer's Disease” ([6], DOI 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.05.058.

  3. «Halvdød av frost, men levende og beredt». Speiderbevegelsen som disiplineringsprosjekt

    OpenAIRE

    Schaanning, Espen

    2013-01-01

    I det som gjerne betegnes som speidernes Bibel, Scouting for Boys (1908), løftet speiderbevegelsens grunnlegger, Robert Baden-Powell (1857–1941), fram personer som alle speidergutter burde ha som forbilder. Et slikt forbilde beskrives slik: «Den romerske soldaten fra gamle dager, som ble stående på sin post da Pompeii ble begravd av lava og aske fra vulkanen Vesuv, viste lojalitet mot sin plikt. De har funnet liket hans og kan se hvordan han holdt hånden foran munn og nese for ikke å bli kval...

  4. Triumph and Tragedy of People’s Commissar A.V. Lunacharsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Gryaznukhina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines different stages in the life of A.V. Lunacharsky that allow defining his activity as triumphal, and at the same time, tragic. It demonstrates how his personal qualities, high level of education and encyclopedic knowledge become the basis for his successful activity in the field of Soviet culture. The article analyzes Lunacharsky’s relationship with bourgeois intellectuals, and focuses on contradictions in his world outlook. The article provides arguments in support of the opinion of impossibility to combine ideas of humanism that refuse violence in any form, with Bolshevik ideas that attempt to justify violence.

  5. Internprissättning : En studie av svenska företag

    OpenAIRE

    Körner, John; Davidsson, Niclas

    2009-01-01

    Begreppet ekonomistyrning innefattar många aktiviteter som i grunden handlar om att uppnå ekonomiska mål. Internprissättning är ett av dessa. När ett företag växer i storlek uppkommer ofta en diskussion om hur organisationen ska decentraliseras och vem som ska fatta beslut. Vanligt idag är att företagen decentraliseras och fler och fler beslut fattas lokalt. 1967 gjordes en enkätundersökning som innefattade totalt 235 svenska företag varav bland annat alla börsnoterade. Man ville undersök...

  6. Utholdenhetstrening i fotball: En analyse av smålagsspill brukt som utholdenhetstrening

    OpenAIRE

    Lorvik, Knut

    2013-01-01

    Utholdenhet er en fysisk egenskap som har betydning for fotballprestasjonen. Det viser flere studier. Helgerud (et al. 2001) fant signifikante forbedringer i forhold til flere fysiske mål som ble testet. Impellizzeri (et al. 2008) fant i sin studie at en forbedring i VO2max påvirket kortpasningsferdighetene positivt. I denne oppgaven har jeg fokusert på utholdenhetstrening i fotball og har to problemstillinger. Den første problemstillingen handler om hvilke studier som er gjort av utholde...

  7. Bokföringsbrott : Ett resultat av oaktsamhet i bokföring?

    OpenAIRE

    Abdlwafa, Lezan; Balci, Anita; Safari, Awat

    2013-01-01

    Datum: 29 maj, 2013 Nivå: Kandidatuppsats i företagsekonomi, 15 hp Institution: Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, ESTMälardalens Högskola Författare: Lezan Abdlwafa, Anita Balci & Awat Safari Titel: Bokföringsbrott – Ett resultat av oaktsamhet i bokföring? Handledare: Ulla Pettersson Nyckelord: Bokföringsbrott, oaktsamhet, bokföringsskyldighet, god redovisningssed, Ekobrottsmyndigheten, Skatteverket, konkursförvaltare Frågeställning: På vilket sätt leder näringsidkarens oaktsamhe...

  8. Automatic Vehicle Scheduling (AVS) Programmer’s Instruction Manual for the Burroughs B3500 Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    N E. Of CAPA:;hINTRK) INCAP AV; TNJ73 170 GO t) 3000 A V.; T NI 1 7 3100 NT=I A V’ NI 17 SUBROUTINE AVSlN 74./74 OPTzg ROUND-*/ YRACE FTN N.lj# 4bD ...bSTOP FRR 6 tD ERR 7 SUFRUUTIKE LNCF(ICEVI ENflF 2 INiTLt.Ei% DATL.02.IPARK.REGPI53l.EPAL1501 ENDF 3 ,RLAL ISHFT ENnF 1 ALPHA INAIIEI5C ).0§IG(501

  9. Branding av en reality-tv-serie i Finland : Fallstudie Maajussille morsian

    OpenAIRE

    Rautiainen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Mitt examensarbete handlar om reality-tv serien Maajussille morsian och dess framgång i Finland. Jag undersöker brandingens roll inom medievärlden och mer specifikt de brandingverktygen som används i lokalisering samt fenomenalisering av Maajussille morsian. Jag inleder mitt examensarbete med en teoridel som behandlar branding på en mer allmän nivå varefter jag går djupare in på brandkapitalets betydelse för succé. Förutom branding behandlar jag i teorin också fenomenet reality-tv. Som grund ...

  10. Open Source AV solution supporting In Situ Simulation and Clinical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Pociunas, Gintas; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    2015-01-01

    In situ simulation is simulation done in the actual clinical environment exceeding the simulation immersion compared to that of the embedded simulation centers and facilitating an increased realistic learning experience. Doing this without compromising (all) the educational principals used....... • Rapid or instant playback capability. • Lightweight and compact design. • Non-cabled AV recording. • Simple, reliable set up and operation. Summary of work Commercial products did not meet our requirements why a programmer was hired to design and program the software to meet our expectations...

  11. "rand on klaasist ..." = "strondin er av glasi ..." : [luuletused] / T̤roddur Poulsen ; tlk. Arvo Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poulsen, T̤roddur

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: "rand on klaasist ..." = "strondin er av glasi ..."; "vesi kannab endas ka nukrust ..." = "vatiņ ber eisini sorg ..."; "Nägin unes et olid ..." = "Droymdi at t{250} ..."; "Tulevik kuulub lihale ..." = "Visi̤nin er kjaet ..."; "Ma pole kirjutanud ..." = "Eg har ikki skriva̧ ..."; "Fäärid sinus. Fäärid minus. Fäärid sidrunis. Fäärid ..." = "Faeroyar Í t̆r. Faeroyar Í m̆r. Faeroyar Í citr̤nini. Faeroyar ... "; "Ma ei suuda kirjutada ..." = "Eg kan ikki skriva ..."

  12. Ett omusikaliskt genombrott : Mottagandet av Elvis Presley i svensk press under rockmusikens etableringsfas 1956-58

    OpenAIRE

    Klang, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Kent Klang: Ett omusikaliskt genombrott: Mottagandet av Elvis Presley i svensk press under rockmusikens etableringsfas 1956-1958. Uppsala Universitet: Institutionen för musikvetenskap, uppsats för 60p. 2007 När Elvis Presley gjorde sitt stora genombrott i USA i mitten på 1950-talet kom han att angripas hårt i bland annat amerikansk press. Upprördheten hade sin grund i Elvis sexuellt utmanande kroppsrörelser och rhythm and blues betonade musik. De här artistiska stildragen avslöjade o...

  13. Resultat och berättelser - En analys av sportnyheterna i finsk och svensk television

    OpenAIRE

    Silfverberg, Kalle

    2004-01-01

    Endast sammandrag. Inbundna avhandlingar kan sökas i Helka-databasen (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Elektroniska kopior av avhandlingar finns antingen öppet på nätet eller endast tillgängliga i bibliotekets avhandlingsterminaler. Only abstract. Paper copies of master’s theses are listed in the Helka database (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Electronic copies of master’s theses are either available as open access or only on thesis terminals in the Helsinki University Library. Vain tiivi...

  14. "Snaprevyen" : en studie av NRKs nyhetsformidling på Snapchat under det amerikanske presidentvalget i 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Restad, Julie Stenset

    2017-01-01

    Nyheter er ikke lenger bare forbeholdt massemediene. Norske nyhetsaktører har den siste tiden for alvor begynt å ta i bruk sosiale medier for å formidle nyheter, også Snapchat. I motsetning til tidligere studier som ser på bruksmåter av Snapchat, vil denne studien se på hvilke grep avsender tar i bruk for å formidle nyheter i applikasjonen. Denne masteroppgaven tar for seg hvordan den norske allmennkringkasteren NRK har tatt i bruk den sosiale medie-plattformen Snapchat til å formidle nyheter...

  15. Fiskeren som forsvant? En studie av avfolking, overbefolking og endringsprosesser i norsk fiskerinæring

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Jahn Petter

    2003-01-01

    Hva er en fisker? Dette er det sentrale spørsmålet i denne avhandlinga. Spørsmålet er utgangspunkt for å utforske endringsprosesser i fiskerinæringa, både i fortida og i samtida. På bakgrunn av dette drøfter avhandlinga hvilke oppfatninger, forståelser og beskrivelser som til enhver tid benyttes til å definere hva fiskere er i ulike sammenhenger. Undersøkelsen starter i det som kan kalles rekrutteringsdiskursen i fiske, som nettopp handler om hva fiskere er og hvordan de skapes...

  16. Complete A-V block: incidental or a part of cor triatriatum dexter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Y; Akgun, T; Toprak, C; Guler, A; Esen, A M

    2014-05-01

    Cor triatriatum dexter (CTD) is an extremely rare cardiac anomaly in which the right atrium is divided into two distinct chambers by a membrane. The persistence of the right valve of sinus venosus results in a complete septation of the right atrium. This anomaly is frequently associated with other right-sided cardiac abnormalities. Its clinical manifestation and the need for intervention are determined by the number and the size of the fenestrations on the membrane, associated cardiac anomalies and arrhythmias. We describe a case of CTD in a patient with complete atrioventricular (A-V) block.

  17. Individuell variasjon i utskillelse av 6-sulfatoksymelatonin og døgnrytmetype analysert hos skiftarbeidere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Tynes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI denne studien har vi undersøkt om det finnes noen sammenheng mellom målte verdier av urinmetabolitten6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s tatt ut i porsjoner gjennom døgnet og selvrapportert døgnrytme hos engruppe norske skiftarbeidere. Studien omfatter 19 arbeidstakere ved to produksjonsenheter ved HydroPorsgrunn, magnesiumfabrikken og fullgjødselfabrikk 3. Etter å ha deltatt i en studie der urinprøver blesamlet inn, svarte de involverte senere på et spørreskjema om søvn og døgnrytme. Resultatene indikerer ategenrapporterte B-type mennesker har en tendens til høyere midlere timeutskillelse av aMT6s analysert pådøgnbasis første døgn med nattskift, og en signifikant høyere nattutskillelse (8 timer i et kontrolldøgnhjemme. I fremtidige studier av melatoninsekresjon og utskillelse av metabolitt i urin, kan det være avinteresse samtidig å samle inn spørreskjemabaserte opplysninger om døgnrytmetype og utfyllende opplysningerom søvn og søvnmønster i relasjon til eksponeringer som skiftarbeid og andre arbeidsmiljøfaktorersom kan ha effekt på hormonbalansen.Tynes T, Haugsdal B, Tønnessen A, Kleiven M. Individual variations in excretion of6-sulfatoxymelatonin in morning and evening type Norwegian shift workers.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYThe aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between measured values of the urinemetabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s in samples collected at selected intervals and self-reported diurnalrhythm in a group of Norwegian shift workers. The study included 19 workers at two production unitsat Hydro Porsgrunn, the magnesium factory and fertiliser factory 3. After submitting the urine samplesused for the study, subjects filled in a questionnaire on sleep and diurnal rhythm at a later date. The resultsindicate that self-reported evening type subjects have a tendency towards a higher mean hourly aMT6ssecretionfirst day on night shift, and a significantly higher night

  18. Seguimiento de la construcción de edificio 43 viviendas Av/ Juan XXIII Valencia

    OpenAIRE

    BURGOS ROMERO, LUIS

    2011-01-01

    Convenios con empresa. La obra prevé la construcción de un edificio de 41 viviendas VP + 2 viviendas libres, constando de 2 plantas sótano para uso de aparcamiento y trasteros, planta baja con local comercial, 8 plantas con 5 viviendas por planta y una planta ático con 3 viviendas. La obra está en su fase de estructura, habiéndose realizado las plantas de sótano. Burgos Romero, L. (2011). Seguimiento de la construcción de edificio 43 viviendas Av/ Juan XXIII Valencia. http://hdl.handle.net...

  19. Evaluering av medisinsk behandling: Hva vet vi, og hvordan bør kunnskapen håndteres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Magnus Bjordal

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Kunnskap om effekten av medisinsk behandling fremskaffes i kliniske studier. Godt planlagte og gjennomførte randomiserte, placebokontrollerte studier tillegges størst vekt når data skal vurderes. De datamengdene vi besitter når det gjelder forskjellige behandlinger kan oppsummeres i oversikter eller terapianbefalinger som ofte blir normative for klinisk praksis. Dette stiller store krav til evalueringsprosedyrene. I denne oversiktsartikkelen diskuteres i innledningen noen eksempler på at kunnskapsgrunnlaget er blitt feiltolket. Deretter omtales kvalitetskriterier som legges til grunn i vurderingen av data, og den metodologiske basis for meta-analyser. Usikkerhetsmomenter og potensielle fallgruver ved bruk av meta-analyser omtales. Meta-analysens fortrinn eksemplifiseres ved bruk av data om behandling av korsryggsmerter, hvor det nylig er utarbeidet kliniske retningslinjer som etter vår oppfatning er beheftet med feil eller mangler. Meta-analysen har vesentlige fortrinn fremfor mindre formaliserte metoder for oppsummering av kunnskap om terapi ved sykdom

  20. Development of an Advanced Aidman Vision Screener (AVS) for selective assessment of outer and inner laser induced retinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Michael W.; Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Edsall, Peter R.; Akers, Andre

    2007-02-01

    The need for tools that can assist in evaluating visual function is an essential and a growing requirement as lasers on the modern battlefield mature and proliferate. The requirement for rapid and sensitive vision assessment under field conditions produced the USAMRD Aidman Vision Screener (AVS), designed to be used as a field diagnostic tool for assessing laser induced retinal damage. In this paper, we describe additions to the AVS designed to provide a more sensitive assessment of laser induced retinal dysfunction. The AVS incorporates spectral LogMar Acuity targets without and with neural opponent chromatic backgrounds. Thus, it provides the capability of detecting selective photoreceptor damage and its functional consequences at the level of both the outer and inner retina. Modifications to the original achromatic AVS have been implemented to detect selective cone system dysfunction by providing LogMar acuity Landolt rings associated with the peak spectral absorption regions of the S (short), M (middle), and L (long) wavelength cone photoreceptor systems. Evaluation of inner retinal dysfunction associated with selective outer cone damage employs LogMar spectral acuity charts with backgrounds that are neurally opponent. Thus, the AVS provides the capability to assess the effect of selective cone dysfunction on the normal neural balance at the level of the inner retinal interactions. Test and opponent background spectra have been optimized by using color space metrics. A minimal number of three AVS evaluations will be utilized to provide an estimate of false alarm level.

  1. Seasonal AVS-SEM relationship in sediments and potential bioavailability of metals in industrialized estuary, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizoli, Erico Casare; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson

    2012-04-01

    In anoxic sediments, as those found in estuaries, the mobility of metals can be controlled by the formation of stable sulfide complexes. The potential bioavailability of a metal can then be predicted on the basis of the acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) criterion. Distributions of AVS and SEM (Hg, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni) along the sediment profiles were determined seasonally for three rivers that constitute the Santos-Cubatão estuarine system (SE Brazil), which is located in one of the most industrialized areas of Latin America. AVS and SEM concentrations varied significantly, from 0.04 to 31.9 μmol g(-1) and 0.086-6.659 μmol g(-1), respectively. The highest AVS levels in sediments were detected in the winter, whereas high SEM values predominated in the summer. Considering SEM-AVS molar differences as a parameter to evaluate potential bioavailability, sediments nearest to the industrial area represent higher risk to biota, especially during the summer. It is due to relatively low AVS values and not necessarily high concentrations of metals.

  2. Insamling av geografisk information med UAV över området Stomsjö i Värnamo kommun : En effektiv arbetsmetod för kartering i 2D och 3D samt dokumentation av arbetsgång och kvalitetssäkring av geografisk information

    OpenAIRE

    Bauner, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    I detta examensarbetesprojekt genomfördes en flygkartering över deponiområdet Stomsjö i Värnamo kommun, mha. en drönare, eller den i detta sammanhang mer använda benämningen UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). Värnamo kommuns tekniska avdelning var i behov av beräkning av massor vid deponin, ett område på ca 15 hektar samt modellering av densamma. Den låga kostnaden för inköp av UAV och programvara motiverade kommunen att driva egen verksamhet jämfört med att köpa tjänsterna från konsulter. Projek...

  3. Novel inter and intra prediction tools under consideration for the emerging AV1 video codec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Urvang; Mukherjee, Debargha; Han, Jingning; Chen, Yue; Parker, Sarah; Su, Hui; Chiang, Angie; Xu, Yaowu; Liu, Zoe; Wang, Yunqing; Bankoski, Jim; Wang, Chen; Keyder, Emil

    2017-09-01

    Google started the WebM Project in 2010 to develop open source, royalty- free video codecs designed specifically for media on the Web. The second generation codec released by the WebM project, VP9, is currently served by YouTube, and enjoys billions of views per day. Realizing the need for even greater compression efficiency to cope with the growing demand for video on the web, the WebM team embarked on an ambitious project to develop a next edition codec AV1, in a consortium of major tech companies called the Alliance for Open Media, that achieves at least a generational improvement in coding efficiency over VP9. In this paper, we focus primarily on new tools in AV1 that improve the prediction of pixel blocks before transforms, quantization and entropy coding are invoked. Specifically, we describe tools and coding modes that improve intra, inter and combined inter-intra prediction. Results are presented on standard test sets.

  4. Sammenligning av to blodprøver fra samme person analysert ved to laboratorier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aage Tverdal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  INNLEDNINGEpidemiologiske undersøkelser av lipidnivået hosbefolkningen er helt avhengig av at analysemetodeneholder stabilt nivå over flere år. Dette er lettest å oppnåhvis man hele tiden benytter ett laboratorium, oghjerte-karundersøkelsene til Statens helseundersøkelserhar konsekvent benyttet Klinisk kjemisk avdeling,Ullevål sykehus. Ulike hensyn kan likevel tilsi at andrelaboratorier benyttes. Undersøkelsene til Universiteteti Tromsø som har har vært gjennomført fire ganger iperioden 1973-1995, har vært utført ved Kliniskkjemisk avdeling, Regionsykehuset i Tromsø. Helseundersøkelseni Nord-Trøndelag 1995-1997 harbenyttet Sentrallaboratoriet, Innherred sykehus. I dettearbeidet viser vi hvor store forskjellene blir hvisfeltlagene sender prøver fra samme person til ulikelaboratorier. Vi har undersøkt forskjellene mellomRegionsykehuset i Tromsø og Ullevål sykehus, ogmellom Innherred sykehus og Ullevål sykehus.

  5. Online remote radiological monitoring during operation of Advance Vitrification System (AVS), Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokar, U.V.; Kulkarni, V.V.; Mathew, P.; Khot, A.R.; Singh, K.K.; Kamlesh; Deshpande, M.D.; Kulkarni, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Vitrification System (AVS) is commissioned for vitrification of high level waste (HLW) by using Joule heated ceramic melter first time in India. The HLW is generated in fuel reprocessing plant. For radiological surveillance of plant, Health Physics Unit (HPU) had installed 37 Area Gamma Monitors (AGM), 7 Continuous Air Monitors (CAM) and all types of personal contamination monitors. Exposure control is a major concern in operating plant. Therefore in addition to installed monitors, we have developed online remote radiation monitoring system to minimize exposures to the surveyor and operator. This also helped in volume reduction of secondary waste. The reliability and accuracy of the online monitoring system is confirmed by calibrating the system by comparing TLD and DRD readings and by theoretical analysis. In addition some modifications were carried in HP instruments to make them user friendly. This paper summarizes different kinds of remote radiological monitoring systems installed for online monitoring of Melter off Gas (MOG) filter, Hood filter, three exhaust filter banks, annulus air sampling and over pack monitoring in AVS. Our online remote monitoring system has helped the plant management to plan in advance for replacement of these filters, which resulted in considerable saving of collective dose. (author)

  6. Fruktbarhet hos simler: effekter av ernæring og vekst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J.C. Tyler

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Tyler's article is published in English in Rangifer 7 (2, 1987: Fertility in female reindeer: the effect of nutrition and growth.Sammendrag: Drektighetsprosenten i ungrein varierer sterkt fra individ til individ og fra flokk til flokk. En høy fruktbarhet i reinflokken er selve grunnlaget for en vellykket reindrift. Overraskende er det derfor at man vet lite om hvilke faktorer som bestemmer om rein skal bli drektig eller ikke. I denne artikkelen blir effekten av ernæring på reinsimlenes fruktbarhet diskutert. Undersøkelser indikerer at rein er som andre pattedyr, der fruktbarheten er relatert til kroppsvekten. Forholdet mellom reinens kroppsvekt og fruktbarhet varierer likevel sterkt. Mye tyder på at drektighetsprosenten i ungrein er avhengig av reintettheten. Dette indikerer at ernæringen er en viktig faktor når det gjelder fruktbarhet i ungrein. Vektspesifikk fruktbarhet kan derfor være en brukbar indikator for reinflokkens fortilgang. I prinsippet vil slike fruktbarhetsundersøkelser gi et tidlig varsel om reintallet er for høyt i forhold til beitegrunnlaget før en markert nedgang i slaktevekten observeres. Etter foredraget til Nic. Tyler hadde Terje Skogland et forberedt innlegg som er gjengitt på norsk. Deretter fulgte en lengre diskusjon som også er gjengitt.

  7. Background Conditions for the October 29, 2003 Solar Flare by the AVS-F Apparatus Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Lyapin, A. R.; Troitskaya, E. V.

    The background model for AVS-F apparatus onboard CORONAS-F satellite for the October 29, 2003 X10-class solar flare is discussed in the presented work. This background model developed for AVS-F counts rate in the low- and high-energy spectral ranges in both individual channels and summarized. Count rate were approximated by polynomials of high order taking into account the mean count rate in the geomagnetic equatorial region at the different orbits parts and Kp-index averaged on 5 bins in time interval from -24 to -12 hours before the time of geomagnetic equator passing. The observed averaged counts rate on equator in the region of geomagnetic latitude ±5o and estimated minimum count rate values are in coincidence within statistical errors for all selected orbits parts used for background modeling. This model will used to refine the estimated energy of registered during the solar flare spectral features and detailed analysis of their temporal profiles behavior both in corresponding energy bands and in summarized energy range.

  8. Isolation and Expression of the Lysis Genes of Actinomyces naeslundii Phage Av-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Allan L.; Barcak, Gerard J.; Guo, Ming

    2006-01-01

    Like most gram-positive oral bacteria, Actinomyces naeslundii is resistant to salivary lysozyme and to most other lytic enzymes. We are interested in studying the lysins of phages of this important oral bacterium as potential diagnostic and therapeutic agents. To identify the Actinomyces phage genes encoding these species-specific enzymes in Escherichia coli, we constructed a new cloning vector, pAD330, that can be used to enrich for and isolate phage holin genes, which are located adjacent to the lysin genes in most phage genomes. Cloned holin insert sequences were used to design sequencing primers to identify nearby lysin genes by using whole phage DNA as the template. From partial digestions of A. naeslundii phage Av-1 genomic DNA we were able to clone, in independent experiments, inserts that complemented the defective λ holin in pAD330, as evidenced by extensive lysis after thermal induction. The DNA sequence of the inserts in these plasmids revealed that both contained the complete lysis region of Av-1, which is comprised of two holin-like genes, designated holA and holB, and an endolysin gene, designated lysA. We were able to subclone and express these genes and determine some of the functional properties of their gene products. PMID:16461656

  9. Pittsburgh Compound B and AV-1451 positron emission tomography assessment of molecular pathologies of Alzheimer's disease in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Ahlskog, J Eric; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Senjem, Matthew L; Spychalla, Anthony J; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Lowe, Val J; Josephs, Keith A

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about Alzheimer's disease molecular proteins, beta-amyloid and paired helical filament (PHF) tau, in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Recent techniques have been developed to allow for investigations of these proteins in PSP. We determined the frequency of beta-amyloid deposition in PSP, and whether beta-amyloid deposition in PSP is associated with PHF-tau deposition pattern, or clinical features. Thirty probable PSP participants underwent MRI, [ 18 F]AV-1451 PET and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET. Apolipoprotein (APOE) genotyping was also performed. A global PiB standard-uptake value ratio (SUVR) was calculated. AV-1451 SUVRs were calculated for a set of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related regions and a set of PSP-related regions. Voxel-level analyses were conducted to assess for differences in AV-1451 uptake patterns and MRI atrophy between PiB(+) and PiB(-) cases compared to 60 normal PiB(-) controls. Statistical testing for correlations and associations between variables of interest were also performed. Twelve subjects (40%) showed beta-amyloid deposition. Higher PiB SUVR correlated with older age but not with AV-1451 SUVR in the AD- or PSP-related regions. Higher AV-1451 SUVR in AD-related regions was associated with higher AV-1451 SUVR in PSP-related regions. We found little evidence for beta-amyloid related differences in clinical metrics, proportion of APOE e4 carriers, pattern of AV-1451 uptake, or pattern of atrophy. Beta-amyloid deposition occurs in a relatively high proportion of PSP subjects. Unlike in Alzheimer's disease, however, there is little evidence that beta-amyloid, and PHF-tau, play a significant role in neurodegeneration in PSP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Comparison of echocardiographic findings in AVS patients with and without high IgG, IgM, IgA titers against Chlamydia pneumoniae during 12 months' observation of AVS natural course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierszcz, Jolanta; Dubiel, Jacek S; Krzysiek, Józef; Sztefko, Krystyna; Galicka-Latała, Danuta; Roman, Pfitzner; Podolec, Piotr; Wodniecki, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of echocardiographic findings in AVS patients with and without high IgG, IgM, IgA titers against Chlamydia pneumoniae during 12 months' observation of AVS natural course. 60 AVS patients who did not agree for operational treatment were divided into group A (30 patients with high IgG titer) group B (30 patients with low IgG titer), group C (22 patients with high IgA titer) group D (38 patients with low IgA titer), group E (7 patients with high IgM titer), group F (53 patients with low IgA titer) Antibodies titers and echocardiographic scans were carried out every 12 months. There were more (p AVS deterioration in group A compared to group B. Group A patients had lower left ventricle posteriori wall systolic diameter compared to group B. There were no differences in echocardiographic parameters between group C and D. Mean ejection fraction was lower and mean right atrium diameter was higher in group E compared to group F. The results may suggest link between Chlamydia pneumoniae and deterioration of AVS.

  11. Mineralogical Mapping of the Av-5 Floronia Quadrangle of Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, J.-Ph.; Fulchinioni, M.; McCord, T. B.; Ammannito, E.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Nathues, A.; Capaccioni, F.; Frigeri, A.; Jaumann, R.; Le Corre, L.; Palomba, E.; Preusker, F.; Reddy, V.; Stephan, K.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-04-01

    Asteroid 4 Vesta is currently under investigation by NASA's Dawn orbiter. The Dawn Science Team is conducting mineralogical mapping of Vesta's surface in the form of 15 quadrangle maps, and here we report results from the mapping of Floronia quadrangle Av-5. The maps are based on the data acquired by the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR-MS) and the Framing Camera (FC) (De Sanctis et al., this meeting). This abstract is focused on the analysis of band ratios, as well as the depth and position of the 2-µm absorption band of pyroxenes, but additional information will be presented. Absorption band depth is sensitive to abundance, texture and multiple scattering effects. Absorption band position is controlled by composition, shorter wavelength positions indicate less Calcium (and more Magnesium) in pyroxenes. The inferred composition is compared with that of Howardite, Eucite and Diogenite meteorites (HEDs). Diogenites are Mg-rich with large orthopyroxene crystals suggesting formation in depth; Eucrites are Ca-poor pyroxene, with smaller crystals. Av-5 Floronia Quadrangle is located between ~20-66˚N and 270˚-360˚E. It covers a portion of the heavily-cratered northern hemisphere of Vesta, and part of it is in permanent night, until August 2012. Long shadows make the visualization of albedo variations difficult, because of limited effectiveness of photometric corrections. Most of the variations of the band depth at 2 µm are partly affected by illumination geometry in this area. Only regional tendencies are meaningful at this time of the analysis. The 2-µm absorption band depth seems to be deeper towards the south of the quadrangle, in particular to the south of Floronia crater. It is not possible to interpret the value of the band depth in the floor the craters because of the absence of direct sunlight. However, the illuminated rims seem to have a deeper 2-µm absorption band, as does the ejecta from an unnamed crater located further south, within

  12. Os avós na perspectiva de jovens universitários Grandparents: from a college students` perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria de Souza Brito Dias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a percepção dos jovens adultos acerca dos seus avós. Dela participaram 100 universitários (50 de cada sexo, com média de idade de 21,63 anos, respondendo a um questionário com questões de múltipla escolha. Os principais resultados são: Os significados mais importantes representados pelos avós foram os de "respeito" e "sabedoria e experiência de vida. O(a avô(a preferido pelos netos foi a "avó materna". O motivo da preferência foi a convivência maior. Quanto à contribuição dada pelos avós à família destacaram-se "a educação dada aos pais" e "ajudam na criação dos netos". A diferença entre os pais e os avós, na opinião dos jovens, foi "a diferença de cultura, valores". Em relação às características de um avô(avó ideal, verificou-se que, para os universitários, eles devem ter "amor/carinho" e "abertura/diálogo/comunicação". Conclui-se que os avós se constituem como pessoas importantes na vida dos netos, embora já crescidos.This research aimed to verify the perception young college students have concerning their grandparents. Participated on the survey 100 college students (50 male and 50 female, 21,63 year-old average, answering a questionnaire with of multiple choice questions. The main results are: The most meaningful representation grandparents bring were the ones of "respect" and "wisdom and life experience". The favorite grandparent figure for them was the grandmother from the mother´s side. The reason for the preference was they see each other more often. Regarding the contribution given by the grandparents to the family prevailed "the education given to the parents" and "their help with grandchildren". The difference between the parents and the grandparents, according to the subjects, was a difference of culture and values. For the surveyed college students, the characteristics of an ideal grandparent was, they should have "love and care" and "be open to

  13. The relation between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates: Implications of feeding behavior and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluates the relationship between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in invertebrates with different feeding behavior and ecological preferences. Natural sediments, pore water and surface water, together with benthic and epibenthic invertebrates were sampled at 28 Flemish lowland rivers. Different metals as well as metal binding sediment characteristics including AVS were measured and multiple regression was used to study their relationship with accumulated metals in the invertebrates taxa. Bioaccumulation in the benthic taxa was primarily influenced by total metal concentrations in the sediment. Regarding the epibenthic taxa metal accumulation was mostly explained by the more bioavailable metal fractions in both the sediment and the water. AVS concentrations were generally better correlated with metal accumulation in the epibenthic invertebrates, rather than with the benthic taxa. Our results indicated that the relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology. - The relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology.

  14. Cardiovascular responses to microinjection of L-glutamate into the NTS in AV3V-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre Antonio; Colombari, Eduardo; De Luca, Laurival A; de Almeida Colombari, Débora Simões; Menani, José V

    2004-10-29

    The excitatory amino acid L-glutamate injected into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in unanesthetized rats similar to peripheral chemoreceptor activation increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and reduces heart rate. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute (1 day) and chronic (15 days) electrolytic lesions of the preoptic-periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V region) on the pressor and bradycardic responses induced by injections of L-glutamate into the NTS or peripheral chemoreceptor activation in unanesthetized rats. Male Holtzman rats with sham or electrolytic AV3V lesions and a stainless steel cannula implanted into the NTS were used. Differently from the pressor responses (28+/-3 mm Hg) produced by injections into the NTS of sham-lesioned rats, L-glutamate (5 nmol/100 nl) injected into the NTS reduced MAP (-26+/-8 mm Hg) or produced no effect (2+/-7 mm Hg) in acute and chronic AV3V-lesioned rats, respectively. The bradycardia to l-glutamate into the NTS and the cardiovascular responses to chemoreflex activation with intravenous potassium cyanide or to baroreflex activation with intravenous phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside were not modified by AV3V lesions. The results show that the integrity of the AV3V region is essential for the pressor responses to L-glutamate into the NTS but not for the pressor responses to chemoreflex activation, suggesting dissociation between the central mechanisms involved in these responses.

  15. Väsentlighetsbedömningens påverkan av klientens branschtillhörighet

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Angelina; Rosdahl, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Bakgrund: Bristen på riktlinjer för väsentlighetsbedömning lämnar ett stort utrymme för revisorns professionella omdöme i väsentlighetsbedömningen. Revisorn måste använda sitt professionella omdöme vid väsentlighetsbedömningen, speciellt med hänseende till klientens branschtillhörighet, vilket ger upphov till inkonsekventa väsentlighetsbedömningar. Syfte: Studiens syfte är att förklara hur revisorernas väsentlighetsbedömningar påverkas av klientens branschtillhörighet. Metod: Studien har ett ...

  16. Skattetillägg i internprissättningsprocesser : En studie av begreppet oriktig uppgift

    OpenAIRE

    Baaz, Christoffer; Wahlbeck, Cesar

    2009-01-01

    Av globaliseringen följer en ökad handel mellan stater och inom multinationella koncer-ner där så kallade internprissättning sker. Genom internprissättningen ser företagen en möjlighet att överföra vinster till lågbeskattade länder. För att förhindra detta har regler som ska se till att marknadsmässiga villkor styr prissättningen upprättats. De svenska bestämmelserna för internprissättning utgår från korrigeringsregeln i 14 kap. 19 IL som ger uttryck för armlängdsprincipen. Principen innebär ...

  17. Bør man tillate at norske statsborgere benytter seg av surrogati i India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelin Haukeland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available I Norge er ikke surrogati tillatt, og myndighetene fraråder norske statsborgere å benytte seg av surrogati i utlandet. I denne artikkelen fokuserer vi på kommersiell gestational surrogati og stiller spørsmålet: Bør man tillate at norske statsborgere benytter seg av surrogati i India? De etiske problemstillingene rundt surrogati er mange og sammensatte og blir spesielt utfordrende når tjenesten tilbys i et land med store kulturelle og økonomiske forskjeller både internt og i forhold til Norge. Vi baserer analysen og drøftingen av dette etisk utfordrende spørsmålet på Beauchamps og Childress sin veletablerte metodiske tilnærming innen biomedisinsk etikk. Vi anvender de fire allmennmoralske prinsipper: respekt for autonomi, velgjørenhet, ikke-skade og rettferdighet på sakskomplekset for å synliggjøre spenningene involvert i dette etiske dilemmaet. Med full bevissthet om at det ikke finnes noen lettvinte og omkostningsfrie løsninger på dilemmaer generelt og dette spesielt, konkluderer vi med at interessene til de berørte parter, og spesielt surrogatmødrenes, kan bli bedre ivaretatt om surrogati tillates under omfattende reguleringer. Dersom man velger å gjøre praksisen illegal, vil man også miste mulighetene til å påvirke prosessen og sikre rettighetene til de involverte partene.Nøkkelord: surrogati, Norge–India, utnyttelse, autonomi, regulering av prosessenEnglish summary: Should Norwegian citizens be permitted to use surrogacy in India?Surrogacy is not permitted in Norway, and the government strongly advises against Norwegian citizens travelling abroad to have children through the use of the surrogacy industry. In this article, we focus on commercial gestational surrogacy and debate the question: Should Norwegian citizens be permitted to use surrogacy in India? The ethical concerns regarding surrogacy are complex and are especially challenging when the service is offered in a country with big cultural and economic

  18. Introduction to COFFE: The Next-Generation HPCMP CREATE-AV CFD Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasby, Ryan S.; Erwin, J. Taylor; Stefanski, Douglas L.; Allmaras, Steven R.; Galbraith, Marshall C.; Anderson, W. Kyle; Nichols, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    HPCMP CREATE-AV Conservative Field Finite Element (COFFE) is a modular, extensible, robust numerical solver for the Navier-Stokes equations that invokes modularity and extensibility from its first principles. COFFE implores a flexible, class-based hierarchy that provides a modular approach consisting of discretization, physics, parallelization, and linear algebra components. These components are developed with modern software engineering principles to ensure ease of uptake from a user's or developer's perspective. The Streamwise Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SU/PG) method is utilized to discretize the compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations tightly coupled with a variety of turbulence models. The mathematics and the philosophy of the methodology that makes up COFFE are presented.

  19. Minimering av momentförluster i en hypoidväxel

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med detta projektarbete var att minska energiförlusterna i Getrag All Wheel Drives hypoidväxlar (se kapitel 7.2.3). Uppdraget bestod främst av att minska förlusterna när systemet endast driver på två hjul och de övriga hjulparen endast överför låga kraftmoment, detta förhållande benämns draggmoment. För att kunna utvärdera och peka på förbättringsområden var första steget i arbetet att lokalisera och värdera enskilda komponenter som tillförde förluster. De ingående komponenter som stud...

  20. Magnetic excitations in low-dimensional spin systems: neutron scattering study on AV2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenji

    1997-01-01

    Recent experiments on vanadium oxide bronzes AV 2 O 5 (A=Na, Mg, Li) are reviewed. Experiments are carried out combining two triple-axis spectrometers installed at a thermal beam port and a cold neutron guide at JRR-3M. Spin-wave excitations in single crystals NaV 2 O 5 in the spin-Peierls state shows a steep intra-chain dispersion, which is consistent with estimated exchange interaction from magnetization measurement, and a weak inter-chain dispersion. In the low energy excitation measurement on powder sample of MgV 2 O 5 , we have observed energy gap of 2 meV, which indicates that this material is a ladder system with strong 1D character. Preliminary result on LiV 2 O 5 , which is expected to be a simple 1D antiferromagnet or a zig-zag chain, is also mentioned

  1. Profibus DP : implementering av Profibus DP i en AVR-mikrokontroller

    OpenAIRE

    Junell, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Detta examensarbete handlar om att implementera Profibus DP i en Atmega644P mikrokontroller, och på så sätt få en Profibus DP-slav som kan användas i utbildningssyfte vid Yrkeshögskolan Novia. Detta examensarbete har inneburit att tillverka ett tilläggskort till det befintliga mikrokontrollerkortet för att kunna koppla in det till en fältbuss som använder sig av RS485-kommunikation. Det har även tillverkats en programkod för Profibus DP-kommunikation till själva mikrokontrollern för att den s...

  2. Användning av djur inom arbetsterapi : En systematisk litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Niklasson, Emma; Smålander, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Arbetsterapi ämnar möjliggöra utförande av meningsfulla aktiviteter för klienter. Djur ger positiva effekter på människans fysiska, mentala och sociala funktioner som kan öka dennes aktivitetsförmåga, vilket är en förutsättning för aktivitetsutförande. Syftet var att kartlägga forskning kring djur i relation till arbetsterapi samt betydelsen djuren har på individens aktivitetsliv. Metoden var en systematisk litteratursökning som gjordes med 14 valda sökord i sju databaser som slutligen gav 15...

  3. Flavours – det smakar doft : Upplevelsen av mat och vin i kombination

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Jonas; Lagnetoft, David; Nygren, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Inledning: Den vetenskapliga förankringen om mat och vin i kombination är låg. Upplevelsenav en måltid involverar alla de mänskliga sinnena, vilket således har gjort den svår att mäta.Hur stor roll spelar egentligen grundsmakerna och krävs det ytterligare element för att lyfta enkombination av mat och vin till högre höjder?Bakgrund: Förutom smaklökarna på tungan som bildar den grundläggande uppfattningen avdet vi stoppar i munnen, är det främst munkänsla och flavours som bidrar till helheten ...

  4. Transformering av kunnskap mellom campus og skole i lærerutdanningen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Oda Fosse

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Til tross for lærerutdanningers mangeårige arbeid med å finne innovative løsninger som skaper gode sammenhenger mellom campuskonteksten og skolekonteksten, etterlyser lærerstudentene fortsatt en bedre sammenheng i studiet. Det som kjennetegner metodene i mange lærerutdanninger er at de bygger på ideen om læring for praksis. Dette innebærer i stor grad forventninger om at studentene transformerer kunnskap fra campus til undervisning og refleksjon i skolen. Mye tyder på at lærerstudentene får lite hjelp i denne prosessen. Studier om koherens – eller sammenheng – i lærerutdanningen knyttes sjelden til at lærerutdanning kan innebære et læringsproblem. Hensikten med denne artikkelen er å undersøke de læringsutfordringer studenter har når kunnskap skal transformeres mellom de to kontekstene. Tanken er at en forståelse for lærerstudenters læring på denne måten kan bidra inn i arbeidet med å videreutvikle metoder i lærerutdanningen som kan lette transformeringsprosessene. Artikkelen er tematisk og drøftes i lys av sosiokulturelle perspektiver på læring og utvikling med vekt på begrepene “overføring” og “transformering”. Videre drøftes problemstillingen i lys av studier av lærerstudenters interaktive læringsprosesser. Nøkkelord: lærerutdanning, lærerstudenters læringsprosesser, transformering av læring.AbstractDespite innovative work on bridging the gap between campus activities and classroom activities, student teachers ask for more coherence in their education. What characterizes the different teacher education innovations is that they are mainly based on the idea that students construct knowledge for practice. In these scenarios, teacher education programmes rely on the students’ ability to transform knowledge from activities at campus into teaching and reflection in their practice schools. The student teachers seem to get little or no help in these transformational processes. When studying

  5. Early hemi-diaphragmatic plication following intraoperative phrenic nerve transection during complete AV canal repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Alowayshiq

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral diaphragmatic palsy reduces pulmonary function by about 25% in older children and usually it is well tolerated; however, it causes severe respiratory distress in infants and young children. Diaphragmatic plication performed later than 10 days after cardiac surgery for patients under 1 year of age was associated with higher incidence of pneumonia and mortality. The management of the diaphragmatic paralysis due to phrenic nerve injury aiming mainly to preserve the respiratory function. Until now, the optimal management of diaphragmatic palsy in children who have undergone cardiac surgery remains controversial and consists of prolonged ventilation or diaphragmatic plication. In our case, many factors supported early diaphragmatic plication, the age of the patient, post-operative AV canal repair with severe pulmonary hypertension, and clear transection of the left phrenic nerve diagnosed intraoperatively.

  6. Förvärmning av tilluften med återvunnen värme

    OpenAIRE

    Kader, Aza; Yousif, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Idag är det vanligt för fjärrvärmebolagen att basera sin taxa på effektbehovet för fastigheten. Effekttaxeringsmetod skiljer sig mellan olika fjärrvärmeleverantörer. Dock är toppeffektbehoven för fastigheterna en gemensam nämnare för bolagen när debiteringsunderlag beslutas.I Sverige finns det idag befintlig teknik som sänker effektbehovet genom förvärmning av uteluft, vilket reducerar frostbildning i värmeväxlaren och förbättras dess verkningsgrad. Denna teknik utnyttjar geoenergi som värmek...

  7. Dependence of Coulomb Sum Rule on the Short Range Correlation by Using Av18 Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, M.; Moeini, H.; Moshfegh, H. R.

    The Coulomb sum rule (CSR) and structure factor are calculated for inelastic electron scattering from nuclear matter at zero and finite temperature in the nonrelativistic limit. The effect of short-range correlation (SRC) is presented by using lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method and the Argonne Av18 and Δ-Reid soft-core potentials. The effects of different potentials as well as temperature are investigated. It is found that the nonrelativistic version of Bjorken scaling approximately sets in at the momentum transfer of about 1.1 to 1.2 GeV/c and the increase of temperature makes it to decrease. While different potentials do not significantly change CSR, the SRC improves the Coulomb sum rule and we get reasonably close results to both experimental data and others theoretical predictions.

  8. En teoretisk utdyping av rom og materialitet som pedagogisk ressurs i barnehagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Nordtømme

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article is a theoretical exploration with the aim of discussing an ontological basis for space and materiality as educational resources in kindergarten. Attention is directed on children’s play experiences interacting with space and materiality, and how children use and create space. The metaphors front stage, space in between, and backstage (inspired from Erving Goffman, 1969, which form the study's main findings, are used as the backdrop for the issue and analyzes. The empirical material used in this exploration has been collected with an ethnographic methodological approach in two kindergartens. Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s (1962 focus on bodily experience and presence in space, along with concepts from Latour’s (2005 actor-network theory, is used to explore the data. The article contributes with theoretical tools for professionals in kindergarten teaching, to shed light on the importance of space, materiality and play in children's everyday life in kindergarten.Sammendrag: Denne artikkelen diskuterer et ontologisk grunnlag og er en teoretisk utforskning av rom og materialitet som en pedagogisk ressurs i barnehagen. Oppmerksomheten er rettet mot barns lekeerfaringer i samspill med rom og materialitet, og hvordan barn bruker og skaper rom. Metaforene hovedrom, mellomrom, og bakrom (inspirert fra Erving Goffman, 1969, som danner studiens hovedfunn, blir brukt som et bakteppe for problemstilling og analyser av det empiriske materialet fra to barnehager. Maurice Merleau-Ponty publikasjoner The Phenomenology of Perception (Merleau-Ponty, 1962 med sitt fokus på kroppslig erfaring i levd rom, blir brukt sammen med begreper fra Latours aktør-nettverksteori (Latour 2005 til å utforske hvordan rom og materialitet kan være pedagogiske ressurser. Artikkelens kunnskapsbidrag er å presentere et teoretisk verktøy for barnehageprofesjonen og kunnskaper om lekens betydning i barns hverdag i barnehagen.

  9. A.V. CHAYANOV ON THE WAY TO THE THEORY OF NON-CAPITALIST ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А А Крамар

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Alexander V. Chayanov (1888-1937 is a famous Russian economist, theorist of the organization of economy, a brilliant representative of the generation of the “golden age” of the economic science in Russia. One of the key elements of his scientific legacy is the theory of non-capitalist forms of economy, and one of its aspects - international agrarian studies of the features of the organization of agriculture in different countries. The organizational-production school developed a theory of labor economy and came close to the general theory of non-capitalist forms of economy; however, its studies were inter-rupted by the repressions of the 1920s. The article considers the international studies of A.V. Chayanov to clarify and develop some findings of the today’s scholars (I.A. Kuznetsov, A.M. Nikulin, T.A. Savinova. The author proposes a new interpretation of the organizational-production school as having a dualistic character. The works of Alexander N. Chelintsev (1874-1962, Nicholay P. Makarov (1886-1980 and other colleagues of A.V. Chayanov from the organizational-production school focused on both theoretical issues such as the fundamental laws of functioning and development of agriculture, and practical issues of scientific management of an individual farm and agriculture in general. The author considers the orga-nizational-production school as dualistic: it studies both theory and management of peasant economy at micro- and macro-levels proceeding from the analysis of the individual farm structure to the issues of the optimal production location and optimal management of ‘a mass of peasant farms’. The system approach to the organization of economy, cooperation, zoning and economic policy developed by the organizational-production school is still relevant for the contemporary use.

  10. Diseño de un modelo administrativo contable para la gestión de la industria avícola, Empresa Granja Avícola Gaby

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza Rico, Christian Javier

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo ha sido desarrollado para proponer un sistema AdministrativoContable ordenado y básico para la gestión eficiente y eficaz de la Industria Avícola, en un caso particular la empresa Granja Avícola Gabi ubicada en el cantón Cevallos, provincia del Tungurahua. Esta investigación es de tipo Bibliográfica y de Campo, porque se remitió a muchos libros y folletos dedicados al tema, además de visitas de campo para conocer los procesos y funcionamiento de la empresa antes menci...

  11. Utveckling av bestrykning för papper avsedda för bläckstråleskrivare

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Ylva

    2002-01-01

    Detta examensarbete har utförts på papperstillverkaren Arjo Wiggins’ forskningscenter i Beaconsfield,England. Företaget har planer på att börja tillverka en ny papperskvalitet för bläckstråleskrivare, varförsyftet med arbetet har varit att testa och utvärdera olika sammansättningar av kemikalier som lämparsig för bestrykning av bläckstrålepapper.Ett stort antal bestrykningar har testats med varierande resultat. Det svåraste har visat sig vara attnå en tillräckligt hög grad av vattenhållfasthe...

  12. Strindberg på färöiska : En analys av Ett halvt ark papper

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en insikt i hur den färöiska översättningen av Strindbergs novell Ett halvt ark papper förhåller sig till originalet i fråga om syntax och ordbildning ur ett såväl grammatiskt som semantiskt perspektiv. Metoden som tillämpas är en kvalitativ-komparativ metod som har sitt ursprung i en kombination av kopplingsanalys och komponentanalys. Resultatet av materialet visar att måltextens syntax överlag överensstämmer med syntaxen i källtexten med ett fåtal konsekve...

  13. Stability and activity of lactate dehydrogenase on biofunctional layers deposited by activated vapor silanization (AVS) and immersion silanization (IS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Jorge Nieto-Márquez; Elices, Manuel; Guinea, Gustavo V.; Pérez-Rigueiro, José; Arroyo-Hernández, María

    2017-09-01

    The interaction between surfaces and biological elements, in particular, proteins is critical for the performance of biomaterials and biosensors. This interaction can be controlled by modifying the surface in a process known as biofunctionalization. In this work, the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used to study the stability of the interaction between a functional protein and amine-functionalized surfaces. Two different functionalization procedures were compared: Activated Vapor Silanization (AVS) and Immersion Silanization (IS). Adsorption kinetics is shown to follow the Langmuir model for AVS-functionalized samples, while IS-functionalized samples show a certain instability if immersed in an aqueous medium for several hours. In turn, the enzymatic activity of LDH is preserved for longer times by using glutaraldehyde as crosslinker between the AVS biofunctional surface and the enzyme.

  14. A Comparison of the AVS-9 and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles During Rotorcraft Hover and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Haworth, Loran; Simpson, Carol

    2000-01-01

    A flight test was conducted to assess any differences in pilot-vehicle performance and pilot opinion between the use of a current generation night vision goggle (the AVS-9) and one variant of the prototype panoramic night vision goggle (the PNVGII). The panoramic goggle has more than double the horizontal field-of-view of the AVS-9, but reduced image quality. Overall the panoramic goggles compared well to the AVS-9 goggles. However, pilot comment and data are consistent with the assertion that some of the benefits of additional field-of-view with the panoramic goggles were negated by the reduced image quality of the particular variant of the panoramic goggles tested.

  15. Chemometric formulation of bacterial consortium-AVS for improved decolorization of resonance-stabilized and heteropolyaromatic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Madhava Anil; Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Premkumar, Manickam Periyaraman; Baskaralingam, Palanichamy; Thiruvengadaravi, Kadathur Varathachary; Dhanasekaran, Anuradha; Sivanesan, Subramanian

    2012-11-01

    A bacterial consortium-AVS, consisting of Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112, Kocuria rosea MTCC 1532 and Micrococcus glutamicus NCIM 2168 was formulated chemometrically, using the mixture design matrix based on the design of experiments methodology. The formulated consortium-AVS decolorized acid blue 15 and methylene blue with a higher average decolorization rate, which is more rapid than that of the pure cultures. The UV-vis spectrophotometric, Fourier transform infra red spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic analysis confirm that the decolorization was due to biodegradation by oxido-reductive enzymes, produced by the consortium-AVS. The toxicological assessment of plant growth parameters and the chlorophyll pigment concentrations of Phaseolus mungo and Triticum aestivum seedlings revealed the reduced toxic nature of the biodegraded products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hållbarhetsredovisning : Identifiering och prioritering av hållbarhetsfrågor i en verksamhet som Sweco Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Anna-Karin

    2017-01-01

    I en hållbarhetsredovisning redovisar en organisation information om sin påverkan inom ekonomisk, miljömässig och social hållbar utveckling. Några av de inledande stegen i en redovisningsprocess är att identifiera organisationens hållbarhetsfrågor, och att bestämma frågornas prioriteringsordning för att på så sätt kunna bestämma ett väsentligt innehåll till redovisningen. De här stegen av redovisningsprocessen har varit i fokus under arbetet. En identifiering och prioritering av konsultbolage...

  17. Bland prinsessor och soldater : En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av genus och stereotyper i två Disneyfilmer

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Syfte: Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka hur genus representeras och hur feministisk kritik syns i Disneyfilmerna Mulan och Frost. Arbetet behandlar kopplingen till tidigare Disneyfilmer och stereotypa framställningar av manligt och kvinnligt. Det utgår från ett genusperspektiv som tar hänsyn till könsroller som är resultatet av sociala konstruktioner. Metod: Filmerna har studerats i sin helhet och sedan har specifika scener och sekvenser valts ut för närmare studie. De har analys...

  18. För vilka finns kroppspositivismen? : En diskursanalytisk och semiotisk studie av hur kroppsaktivister på Instagram artikulerar kroppspositivism

    OpenAIRE

    Wallén, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Denna studie har genomförts med syfte att undersöka hur kroppsaktivister artikulerar kropp och kroppspositivitet genom bilder och texter på deras Instagramkonton. Studien syftar även till att undersöka om, och i så fall hur, artikulationerna av kroppspositivitet skiljer sig mellan olika kroppsaktivister. Slutligen syftar studien till att studera hur kroppsaktivisterna artikulerar syftet med rörelsen. Det teoretiska ramverket består av tidigare forskning och etablerade teorier i postmodern fem...

  19. Nordkapp som bærekraftig destinasjon - Et case-studie av aktørers drivere og barrierer

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Marianne; Røkholt, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    Tittelen på oppgaven er “Nordkapp som bærekraftig destinasjon: Et case-studie av aktørers drivere og barrierer”. Vi har utviklet problemstillingen: “Hvilke drivere og barrierer ligger til grunn for utviklingen av et bærekraftig reiseliv blant aktørene på destinasjon Nordkapp?” Temaet vi ønsker å ta for oss er derfor bærekraftig destinasjonsutvikling på naturdestinasjoner. Bærekraft er en tematikk som må tas hensyn til for reiselivets overlevelsesevne. For å undersøke dette har vi brukt et kva...

  20. Löslighet och transport av sällsynta jordartsmetaller i Källfallsfältets gruvsandsmagasin

    OpenAIRE

    de Campos Pereira, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Löslighet och transport av sällsynta jordartsmetaller i Källfallsfältets gruvsandsmagasin Hugo de Campos Pereira Syftet med detta arbete har varit att kartlägga vilka mekanismer som styr lösligheten av sällsynta jordartsmetaller (eng. rare earth elements, REE) i sulfidhaltig anrikningssand vid den föredetta gruvan Källfallsfältet i Västmanland. För syftet har markvatten- och grundvattenprovtagning utförts, tillsammans med laktester och geokemisk modellering med Visual MINTEQ ver. 3.0. Resulta...

  1. En könsstereotyp frivård : Frivårdsinspektörers beskrivningar av kvinnliga klienter

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Josefin

    2014-01-01

    Tidigare forskning tyder på att det finns kunskapsluckor om och stereotypa bilder av kvinnliga klienter inom kriminalvården som dessutom påverkar hur arbetet med kvinnliga klienter ser ut. I denna studie ska därför frivårdsinspektörers beskrivningar av kvinnliga klienters problem, behov och resurser granskas. Det undersöks också huruvida dessa beskrivningar kan betraktas som könsstereotypa. För att ta reda på detta har semistrukturerade intervjuer gjorts med frivårdsinspektörer ...

  2. Miljøvirkninger av effektkjøring: Kunnskapsstatus og råd til forvaltning og industri

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Forseth, Torbjørn; Harby, Atle; Alfredsen, Knut; Arnekleiv, Jo Vegar; Berg, Ole Kristian; Casas-Mulet, Roser; Charmasson, Julie; Greimel, Franz; Halley, Duncan; Hedger, Richard; Larsen, Bjørn Mejdell; Leo, Florian; Melcher, Andreas; Puffer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Bakken, T. H., Forseth, T. & Harby, A. (red.). 2016. Miljøvirkninger av effektkjøring: Kunnskapsstatus og råd til forvaltning og industri. - NINA Temahefte 62. 205 s. Effektkjøring som fenomen (Kapittel 1) Denne boka inneholder en kunnskapsoppsummering av miljøvirkningene i elver med raske og hyppige endringer i vannføring og vannstand, omtalt som effektkjøring. Boka anses også relevant for hendelser som utfall og andre typer planlagt eller ikke-planlagt driftsstans me...

  3. Batman: En musikalisk berättelse : En analys av filmerna Batman: The Movie, Batman och The Dark Knight

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlin, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att analysera hur filmmusiken har använts i Batman: The Movie (1966), Batman (1989) och The Dark Knight (2008). Att se en narrativ användning och beskrivning av Batman samt hur upplevelsen av filmen ändras när man ser den utan musik. Kompositörerna till filmerna är, för Batman: The Movie (1966) Nelson Riddle, till Batman (1989) är det Danny Elfman och till The Dark Knight (2008) är kompositörerna Hans Zimmer och James Newton Howard. Filmerna analyserats från ett mult...

  4. Enhet og Dannelse : En idehistorisk analyse av enhets og dannelses idealet til Bauhaus direktøren Walter Gropius

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Britt Hogstad

    2003-01-01

    Sammendrag Denne avhandlingen presenterer et annet bild av den tyske arkitekten og pedagogen Walter Gropius (1883-1969) enn det som har vært vanlig til nå i Norge. Ofte blir han fremstilt som en av funksjonalismens fremste representanter og en som banet vei for den moderne arkitekturen. I denne sammenheng beskrives han ofte som en som brøt fullstendig med alle tidligere tradisjoner. Denne oppgaven vil derimot forsøke å vise at han ikke brøt med tidligere tradisjoner, men at han i høyeste ...

  5. Left Ventricular Dysfunction Caused by Unrecognized Surgical AV block in a Patient with a Manifest Right Free Wall Accessory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Gopinathannair, MD, MA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old male with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome developed systolic cardiomyopathy and severe heart failure following membranous ventricular septal defect repair and tricuspid valve replacement. Following successful catheter ablation of a right anterolateral accessory pathway (AP, complete AV block with junctional escape rhythm was noted. Patient subsequently underwent implantation of a biventricular ICD. Heart failure symptoms significantly improved soon after and left ventricular systolic function normalized 3 months post-procedure. In this case, surgically acquired AV block likely explains development of postoperative cardiomyopathy by facilitating ventricular activation solely via the AP and thereby increasing the degree of ventricular dyssynchrony.

  6. Bysykler : perspektiver på bysykkelordninger som en del av en bærekraftig bytransport og urban identitet

    OpenAIRE

    Langfeldt, Tuva

    2011-01-01

    SAMMENDRAG - Byutviklingen er de senere årene preget av grønne visjoner og planlegging for levende og bærekraftige byer. Et viktig ledd i denne utviklingen er menneskelig bevegelse og mobilitet, og det ses flere og flere steder med nye øyne på hvordan mobiliteten i byen kan og bør være. Fokus på sykkel som framkomstmiddel har blitt stadig mer populært, i Europa som USA, og som et resultat av behov for en mer syklende og mindre bilkjørende befolkning er det dukket opp bysykkelordninger i bå...

  7. Associations between [18F]AV1451 tau PET and CSF measures of tau pathology in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Joie, Renaud; Bejanin, Alexandre; Fagan, Anne M; Ayakta, Nagehan; Baker, Suzanne L; Bourakova, Viktoriya; Boxer, Adam L; Cha, Jungho; Karydas, Anna; Jerome, Gina; Maass, Anne; Mensing, Ashley; Miller, Zachary A; O'Neil, James P; Pham, Julie; Rosen, Howard J; Tsai, Richard; Visani, Adrienne V; Miller, Bruce L; Jagust, William J; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2018-01-23

    To assess the relationships between fluid and imaging biomarkers of tau pathology and compare their diagnostic utility in a clinically heterogeneous sample. Fifty-three patients (28 with clinical Alzheimer disease [AD] and 25 with non-AD clinical neurodegenerative diagnoses) underwent β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau ([ 18 F]AV1451) PET and lumbar puncture. CSF biomarkers (Aβ 42 , total tau [t-tau], and phosphorylated tau [p-tau]) were measured by multianalyte immunoassay (AlzBio3). Receiver operator characteristic analyses were performed to compare discrimination of Aβ-positive AD from non-AD conditions across biomarkers. Correlations between CSF biomarkers and PET standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) were assessed using skipped Pearson correlation coefficients. Voxelwise analyses were run to assess regional CSF-PET associations. [ 18 F]AV1451-PET cortical SUVR and p-tau showed excellent discrimination between Aβ-positive AD and non-AD conditions (area under the curve 0.92-0.94; ≤0.83 for other CSF measures), and reached 83% classification agreement. In the full sample, cortical [ 18 F]AV1451 was associated with all CSF biomarkers, most strongly with p-tau ( r = 0.75 vs 0.57 for t-tau and -0.49 for Aβ 42 ). When restricted to Aβ-positive patients with AD, [ 18 F]AV1451 SUVR correlated modestly with p-tau and t-tau (both r = 0.46) but not Aβ 42 ( r = 0.02). On voxelwise analysis, [ 18 F]AV1451 correlated with CSF p-tau in temporoparietal cortices and with t-tau in medial prefrontal regions. Within AD, Mini-Mental State Examination scores were associated with [ 18 F]AV1451-PET, but not CSF biomarkers. [ 18 F]AV1451-PET and CSF p-tau had comparable value for differential diagnosis. Correlations were robust in a heterogeneous clinical group but attenuated (although significant) in AD, suggesting that fluid and imaging biomarkers capture different aspects of tau pathology. This study provides Class III evidence that, in a clinical sample of patients with a variety

  8. Desórdenes muscoloesqueléticos en el trabajador avícola – intervenciones en salud

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas, Maryi Lizeth; Aceveo, Sharom Irene

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El trabajador avícola presenta un alto riesgo de sufrir de Desórdenes Musculo esqueléticos, debido a la realización de trabajos manuales repetitivos; posición bípeda prolongada, posturas por fuera de ángulos de confort de miembros superiores Objetivo: Establecer las recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia de las intervenciones en salud para los Desórdenes Musculoesqueléticos (DME) en el trabajador avícola. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura de los estudi...

  9. Elektronová mikroskopie, mikroanalýza a difrakce na ÚMCH AV ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, Miroslav; Pavlova, Ewa; Králová, Daniela; Hromádková, Jiřina; Vlková, Helena; Lapčíková, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, 2a (2010), k46-k49 ISSN 1211-5894. [Struktura 2010. Soláň, 14.06.2010-17.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520704; GA ČR GAP205/10/0348 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : introduction to electron microscopy * electron spectroscopy * electron diffraction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http:// xray .cz/ms/bul2010-2a/slouf.pdf

  10. Lovligheten av utleie på Airbnb - Kan utleie på Airbnb medføre tvangssalg?

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksen, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Emnet for oppgaven er lovligheten av utleie av eierseksjonsleiligheter på Airbnb. Oppgaven skal belyse om utleie gjennom Airbnb kan medføre vesentlig mislighold, og dermed gi grunnlag for tvangssalg. Det fokusere på fire forhold som kan føre til at utleie på Airbnb kan medføre vesentlig mislighold; bruk i strid med vedtekter, bruk i strid med husordensregler, formålsstridig bruk, og bruk til unødvendig eller urimelig ulemper eller skader for naboene.

  11. Måleegenskaper ved den norske versjonen av ADHD Rating Scale IV, Skoleversjon (ADHD-RS-IV Skole)

    OpenAIRE

    Kornør, Hege; Bøe, Tormod

    2011-01-01

    - Beskrivelse. ADHD-RS-IV Skole er et spørreskjema som skal fylles ut av lærere eller førskolelærere for å fange opp ADHD-symptomer hos barn og ungdom. Spørreskjemaet har 18 ledd med fire svaralternativer. Det tar under 20 minutter å fylle ut. Hovedskalaen og de to delskalaene skåres ved å summere enkeltskårer. Kompetansekrav for bruk av ADHD-RS-IV inkluderer generell opplæring i testbruk, samt yrkesstatus som psykolog, lege, annet helsepersonell med utdanning på mastergradsnivå, spesialpe...

  12. Måleegenskaper ved den norske versjonen av ADHD Rating Scale – IV Hjemmeversjon (ADHD-RS-IV Hjemme)

    OpenAIRE

    Kornør, Hege; Bøe, Tormod

    2011-01-01

    - Beskrivelse. ADHD-RS-IV Hjemme er et spørreskjema som skal fylles ut av mor, far, verge eller besteforeldre for å fange opp ADHD-symptomer hos barn og ungdom. Spørreskjemaet har 18 ledd med fire svaralternativer. Det tar under 20 minutter å fylle ut. Hovedskalaen og de to delskalaene skåres ved å summere enkeltskårer. Kompetansekrav for bruk av ADHD-RS-IV inkluderer generell opplæring i testbruk, samt yrkesstatus som psykolog, lege, annet helsepersonell med utdanning på ...

  13. Offshore vindenergianlegg - sjøfugl, havørn, hubro og vadere. En screening av potensielle konfliktområde

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon; Dahl, Espen Lie; Follestad, Arne; Hanssen, Frank Ole; Systad, Geir Helge

    2010-01-01

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., Lorentsen, S.-H., Dahl, E. L., Follestad, A., Hanssen, F. & Systad, G. H. 2010. Offshore vindenergianlegg - sjøfugl, havørn, hubro og vadere. En screening av potensielle konfliktområder - NINA Rapport 557. 100 s. Målet for foreliggende studie var å utarbeide en beslutningsrelevant, storskala screening av områder som kan være aktuelle for etablering av offshore vindenergianlegg med lavest mulig konfliktrisiko i forhold til forekomster av sjøfugl, vader...

  14. Finns det nån här? – Förmedling av paranormala fenomen i TV-serien Chasing the Dead

    OpenAIRE

    Heinänen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Genom denna kvalitativa innehållsanalys av TV-serien Chasing the Dead, undersöks på vilket sätt dokumenterade "bevis" på paranormala audiovisuella fenomen har presenterats av seriemakarna. Materialet analyseras med hjälp av forskningsresultat från, för denna TV-genre relevanta, studier av fenomen som Electronic Voice Phenomenon, Electro Magnetic Field, Orber. Biologiska fenomen som Apophenia och Pareidolia har tagits i beaktande då materialet har analyserats. Syftet med denna underso...

  15. Djur som stöd i demensvården : Hur personer med demenssjukdom påverkas av djur i omvårdnaden

    OpenAIRE

    Olménius, Fanny; Boström, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Bakgrund: Varje år insjuknar uppskattningsvis 25 000 personer i Sverige i någon form av demenssjukdom. Behovet av anpassad vård för denna specifika grupp kräver nya och även utvecklade omvårdnadsmetoder. I nuläget finns ingen botande behandling för de olika demenssjukdomarna, utan fokus ligger vid att mildra besvären av sjukdomsbundna symtom. Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) och Animal-assisted activity (AAA) har blivit allt mer populärt inom olika områden av omvårdnadsarbete. Djur kan inverka p...

  16. Kysttorsk og miljø. Dataserier og verktøy for studier av miljøets betydning for bestandssituasjonen

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerknes, V.; Christie, H.; Hylland, K.; Kristensen, T.; Lunde, T.M.; Pedersen, A.; Rinde, E.; Sandberg, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Årsliste 2005 Bestanden av kysttorsk har gått sammenhengende tilbake fra 1994. Overbeskatning anses som en hovedårsak. Kysttorsk består trolig av en mosaikk av ulike delbestander, og trusselfaktorene kan tenkes å variere mellom ulike områder. Denne rapporten gir en kortfattet oversikt over miljømessige trusselfaktorer for norsk kysttorsk, og peker på noen viktige oppgaver for å kartlegge årsaker, omfang av trusler mot kysttorskens habitat. Lange dataserier fra Kystovervåkingen kan danne gr...

  17. Endring av helsevaner – for helsens skyld eller for å gå ned i vekt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørg Berge Skåra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGDenne tverrsnittsundersøkelsen viste en klar positiv sammenheng mellom forsøk på å endre spise- ogtrimvaner og kroppsmasseindeks. Serumkolesterol viste en svak positiv sammenheng med forsøk på å spisesunnere, men det var ingen konsistent sammenheng for gitt nivå av kroppsmasseindeks. Det var helleringen signifikant sammenheng mellom serumkolesterol og forsøk på endring av mosjonsvaner etterjustering for andre variable. Flere kvinner enn menn oppga at de har forsøkt å endre helsevaner til detbedre både når det gjelder kosthold og fysisk aktivitet. Personer som hadde forsøkt å endre spise- og/ellertrimvaner, oppgav hyppigere at de ikke brukte fett på brød eller brukte lettmargarin enn de som ikke haddegjort slike forsøk. De oppgav også i større grad at de drev hard fysisk aktivitet i fritiden. Denne undersøkelsentyder på at overvekt er en sterkt motiverende faktor for det å forsøke å spise sunnere og trimme mer, ogvelge gunstigere levevaner.Skåra BB, Graff-Iversen S. Changing health habits – to improve health or to loose weight? Reportedefforts of 40-42-years-old in Buskerud county, Norway, to change health habits in 1996.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYBased on data from the cardiovascular screening programme performed by the National Health ScreeningService in Buskerud County 1996, the participants' effort of changing their health habits are described. Thedata show clear associations between effort of changing habits of diet and exercise, and body mass index.Serum cholesterol showed a weak correlation with attempt to change habits of diet, however, there was noconsistent correlation for a given level of body mass index. There was no significant association betweenlevel of serum cholesterol and effort to change habits of exercise after adjusting for other variables. Morewomen than men said they had tried to improve their habits of diet and exercise. Persons who had tried tochange habits of diet and

  18. Observation infrastructure for airborne hazards in the framework of the EUNADICS-AV project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Stammes, Piet; Lihavainen, Heikki; Paatero, Jussi; Hirtl, Marcus; Schlager, Hans; Graf, Kaspar; Hedelt, Pascal; Theys, Nicolas; Coltelli, Mauro; Vargas, Arturo; Clarisse, Lieven; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Apituley, Arnoud; Haefele, Alexander; Delcloo, Andy; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    During the 2010 and 2011 Icelandic volcanic eruptions, the availability of integrated, validated data sets was identified as a major challenge in the effort to gain a rapid situation assessment. These environmental crisis situations may happen again, also from other types ofairborne hazards, like big fires. Currently, the issue is not so much that data and observations do not exist, it is rather the rapid accessibility, the cross-calibration of different sensors, the integration of new platforms and the harmonization of standards and protocols that needs further work and attention. A specific activity is planned within the H-2020 project EUNADICS -AV ("European Natural Disaster Coordination and Information System for Aviation") for addressing this critical issue. In order to achieve the rapid data accessibility, work will be carried out with full consideration of the main European Research Infrastructures, projects and national/international monitoring networks that are able to provide crucial information related to the dispersion of airborne hazards. The integrated data sets are based on satellite and ground-based remote sensing as well as in situ ground-based and aircraft observations. Networks of ground based remote sensing of atmospheric profiles are particularly important, since these will provide the needed height information that cannot be obtained unambiguously from the vast majority of space borne sensors. A new aspect not treated in any project and initiative so far is the integration of special crisis measurements, for example by aircraft or UAV systems. Particularly suited for the purposes of the project are satellite data from operational sensors aboard EUMETSAT and ESA satellites. Improved retrievals are investigated, and the new generation of Sentinel satellites currently being launched under the Copernicus umbrella and their added value are considered. Especially when the ground based and space borne observations are combined, the much needed

  19. Videos for Science Communication and Nature Interpretation: The TIB|AV-Portal as Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Arraiza, Paloma; Plank, Margret; Löwe, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Scientific audiovisual media such as videos of research, interactive displays or computer animations has become an important part of scientific communication and education. Dynamic phenomena can be described better by audiovisual media than by words and pictures. For this reason, scientific videos help us to understand and discuss environmental phenomena more efficiently. Moreover, the creation of scientific videos is easier than ever, thanks to mobile devices and open source editing software. Video-clips, webinars or even the interactive part of a PICO are formats of scientific audiovisual media used in the Geosciences. This type of media translates the location-referenced Science Communication such as environmental interpretation into computed-based Science Communication. A new way of Science Communication is video abstracting. A video abstract is a three- to five-minute video statement that provides background information about a research paper. It also gives authors the opportunity to present their research activities to a wider audience. Since this kind of media have become an important part of scientific communication there is a need for reliable infrastructures which are capable of managing the digital assets researchers generate. Using the reference of the usecase of video abstracts this paper gives an overview over the activities by the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) regarding publishing and linking audiovisual media in a scientifically sound way. The German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) in cooperation with the Hasso Plattner Institute (HPI) developed a web-based portal (av.tib.eu) that optimises access to scientific videos in the fields of science and technology. Videos from the realms of science and technology can easily be uploaded onto the TIB|AV Portal. Within a short period of time the videos are assigned a digital object identifier (DOI). This enables them to be referenced, cited, and linked (e.g. to the

  20. Automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) test bed to improve transit, bicycle, and pedestrian safety : concept of operations plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document presents the Concept of Operations (ConOps) Plan for the Automated and Connected Vehicle (AV/CV) Test Bed to Improve Transit, Bicycle, and Pedestrian Safety. As illustrated in Figure 1, the plan presents the overarching vision and goals...

  1. Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is a potential tributyltin (TBT) bioremediator: phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicates its safe application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Areias, Dário; Duarte, Ana; Correia, António; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-09-01

    Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is an estuarine bacterium highly resistant to tributyltin (TBT). Also, the strain is able to degrade TBT into the less toxic compounds dibutyltin and monobutyltin. Therefore, this bacterium has potential to be employed in bioremediation processes. In this context, defining its biological safety is crucial. With that purpose a number of intrinsic characteristics, usually present/associated with virulent strains, were investigated. Few virulence factors were detected in strain Av27. For instance, a DNase gene is present, but it is not apparently expressed in vitro. Motility, adherence factor and phospholipase activity were also detected. Additionally, cytotoxicity to Vero cells was negative. Resistance to penicillin (10 μg ml(-1)), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (30 μg ml(-1)) and cephalothin (30 μg ml(-1)) and also to the vibriostatic agent O/129 was observed. Five plasmids (4, 7, 10, 100 kb and one greater than 100 kb) were identified. No Class I and II integrons were detected. Study of the optimal growth conditions showed that Av27 easily adapts to different environmental conditions. Overall, the results suggest that A. molluscorum Av27 can be considered safe to use to bioremediate TBT in contaminated environments.

  2. An apolipoprotein A-V gene SNP is associated with marked hypertriglyceridemia among Asian-American patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullinger, Clive R.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Movsesyan, Irina; Durlach, Vincent; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Poon, Annie; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Hattori, Hiroaki; Green, Lauri L.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Havel, Richard J.; Frost, Philip H.; Malloy, Mary J.; Kane, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V) is an important regulator of plasma levels of triglyceride (TG) in mice. In humans, APOA5 genetic variation is associated with TG in several populations. In this study, we determined the effects of the p.185Gly>Cys (c.553G>T; rs2075291) polymorphism on plasma TG levels in

  3. An apolipoprotein A-V gene SNP is associated with marked hypertriglyceridemia among Asian-American patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R. Pullinger (Clive); B.E. Aouizerat (Bradley); I. Movsesyan (Irina); V. Durlach (Vincent); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); K. Nakajima (Katsuyuki); A. Poon (Annie); G.M. Dallinga-Thie (Geesje); H. Hattori (Hiroaki); L.L. Green (Lauri); P.-Y. Kwok (Pui-Yan); R.J. Havel (Richard); P.H. Frost (Philip); M.J. Malloy (Mary); J.P. Kane (John)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractApolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V) is an important regulator of plasma levels of triglyceride (TG) in mice. In humans, APOA5 genetic variation is associated with TG in several populations. In this study, we determined the effects of the p.185Gly>Cys (c.553G>T; rs2075291) polymorphism on plasma

  4. Do acid volatile sulfides (AVS) influence the accumulation of sediment-bound metals to benthic invertebrates under natural field conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Maarten; Dreesen, Freja; De Paepe, Josefina; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2009-06-15

    The present study evaluates the influence of acid volatile sulfides (AVS) on accumulation of sediment-bound metals in benthic invertebrates under natural field conditions. Natural sediments, pore water, surface water, and two species of widespread benthic invertebrates (Chironomus gr. thummi and Tubifex tubifex) were collected from 17 historical polluted Flemish lowland rivers and measured for metal concentrations. Different sediment characteristics were determined (AVS, organic matter, clay content) and multiple regression was used to study their relationship with accumulated metals in the invertebrates. Physical and chemical analysis of the field samples indicated low metal concentrations in the water and pore water, but very high metal concentrations in the sediment and the invertebrates, especially for Pb (5.99 micromol/ g). In general, metal accumulation in chironomids and tubificid worms was most strongly correlated with total metal concentrations in the sediment and sediment metal concentrations normalized for organic matter and clay content. Following the results of the linear regression model, AVS did not turn out to be a significant variable in describing variation in metal accumulation. Our study clearly demonstrates that, in addition to the results gained from experiments under lab conditions, benthic invertebrates can accumulate metals from unspiked field sediments even when there's an excess of AVS.

  5. E-Læring som pedagogisk virkemiddel for innlæring av anatomi, fysiologi og biokjemi i sykepleierutdanningen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Elisabeth Meyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Utgangspunktet for studien er at naturvitenskaplige fag, særlig anatomi, fysiologi og biokjemi (AFB, oppleves som vanskelig for sykepleierstudentene. Hensikten var å undersøke om læringsverktøyet e-læring, i form av nettester, kan være et effektivt virkemiddel til innlæring av og påvirke læringsutbyttet i AFB.Førsteårsstudentene i bachelorutdanningen i sykepleie ved Høgskolen i Akershus fikk et spørreskjema med 23 spørsmål som ble besvart anonymt.Resultatet av studentundersøkelsen viste at nettoppgavene ble mye brukt, og at studentene mente de ga et godt læringsutbytte. Nettoppgaver med umiddelbar feedback gir stor studentaktivitet og «time-on-task». Testene kan tette hullet mellom det studentene forventes å kunne og det de faktisk kan, og egner seg til faktafag som m å pugges og forstås. E-læring kan gi god hjelp til studenters strukturering av tid, læringsstrategier og selvregulering.Læringsutbyttet av nettester diskuteres i lys av nytten av umiddelbar feedback i et pedagogisk perspektiv.AbstractThe starting point of the study is that the natural sciences, particularly anatomy, physiology and biochemistry (collectively known as APB, are often difficult subjects for nursing students. The aim was to investigate whether e-learning tools, in terms of web services, can be an effective educational tool and affect learning outcomes in APB.First year students in the Bachelor's degree program in nursing at Akershus University College of Applied Sciences received a questionnaire with 23 questions, which were answered anonymously.The results of the student survey showed that online tasks were widely used, and that students felt they resulted in good learning outcomes. Online training with immediate feedback shows great student activity and “time-on-task.” These tests can close the gap between what the students are expected to know and what they actually do, and is suitable for factual subjects requiring both memorization and

  6. A microcosm approach to evaluate the degradation of tributyltin (TBT) by Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 in estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Henriques, Isabel; Sousa, Ana C A; Baptista, Inês; Almeida, Adelaide; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Correia, António; Suzuki, Satoru; Anselmo, Ana Maria; Mendo, Sónia

    2014-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a biocide extremely toxic to a wide range of organisms, which has been used for decades in antifouling paints. Despite its global ban in 2008, TBT is still a problem of great concern due to the high levels trapped in sediments. Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is a TBT degrading bacterium that was isolated from an estuarine system. We investigated the ability and the role of this bacterium on TBT degradation in this estuarine system, using a microcosm approach in order to mimic environmental conditions. The experiment was established and followed for 150 days. Simultaneously, changes in the indigenous bacterial community structure were also investigated. The results revealed a maximum TBT degradation rate of 28% accompanied by the detection of the degradation products over time. Additionally, it was observed that TBT degradation was significantly enhanced by the presence of Av27. In addition a significantly higher TBT degradation occurred when the concentration of Av27 was higher. TBT degradation affected the bacterial community composition as revealed by the changes in the prevalence of Proteobacteria subdivisions, namely the increase of Deltaproteobacteria and the onset of Epsilonproteobacteria. However, the addition of Av27 strain did not affect the dominant phylotypes. Total bacterial number, bacterial biomass productivity, 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses also indicated alterations on the bacterial community structure over time, with bacteria non-tolerant to pollutants increasing their representativeness, as, for instance, the increase of the number of Alphaproteobacteria clones from 6% in the beginning to 12% at the end of the experiment. The work herein presented confirms the potential of Av27 strain to be used in the decontamination of TBT-polluted environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Computer modelling of high-temperature superconductors using an A-V formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Alonso, D; Coombs, T; Campbell, A M

    2004-01-01

    Numerical methods for calculating the current and field distribution in high-temperature superconductors under non-uniform time-varying fields are being investigated. The highly non-linear behaviour of superconductors makes them difficult to analyse and computationally expensive. This non-linear behaviour is often accounted for through a non-linear E-J constitutive law. This paper proposes a fast method based on the finite element method to solve 2D and axially symmetric problems that contain superconducting materials. An E-J power law together with an A-V formulation is used to calculate the induction of currents in the superconductor due to time-varying external magnetic fields or forced transport current. Experimental data of a magnet-above-superconductor system is obtained in order to validate the model. In the experimental set-up a magnet is brought towards a superconducting puck at different speed rates and is also vibrated on top of it. The force between the magnet and the superconductor is measured and is found to vary with both time and frequency of excitation

  8. Computer modelling of high-temperature superconductors using an A-V formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Alonso, D; Coombs, T; Campbell, A M [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-01

    Numerical methods for calculating the current and field distribution in high-temperature superconductors under non-uniform time-varying fields are being investigated. The highly non-linear behaviour of superconductors makes them difficult to analyse and computationally expensive. This non-linear behaviour is often accounted for through a non-linear E-J constitutive law. This paper proposes a fast method based on the finite element method to solve 2D and axially symmetric problems that contain superconducting materials. An E-J power law together with an A-V formulation is used to calculate the induction of currents in the superconductor due to time-varying external magnetic fields or forced transport current. Experimental data of a magnet-above-superconductor system is obtained in order to validate the model. In the experimental set-up a magnet is brought towards a superconducting puck at different speed rates and is also vibrated on top of it. The force between the magnet and the superconductor is measured and is found to vary with both time and frequency of excitation.

  9. Influence of apolipoprotein A-V on the metabolic fate of triacylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vineeta; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2013-04-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-V functions to modulate intracellular and extracellular triacylglycerol metabolism. The present review addresses molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. The relevance of apoA-V to human disease conditions is illustrated by the strong correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms in APOA5, elevated plasma triacylglycerol and dyslipidemic disease. Despite undergoing processing for secretion from hepatocytes, a portion of apoA-V escapes this destiny and accumulates as a component of cytosolic lipid droplets. Expression of recombinant apoA-V in hepatocarcinoma cells results in increased lipid droplet size and number at the expense of triacylglycerol secretion.ApoA-V modulates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic apoE null mice. ApoE null/human apoA-V transgenic mice had reduced levels of triacylglycerol and cholesterol in plasma along with decreased aortic lesion size. ApoA-V modulates triacylglycerol metabolic fate. Following its synthesis, apoA-V enters the endoplasmic reticulum and associates with membrane defects created by triacylglycerol accumulation. Association of apoA-V with endoplasmic reticulum membrane defects promotes nascent lipid droplets budding toward the cytosol. Despite its low concentration in plasma (∼150 ng/ml), apoA-V modulates lipoprotein metabolism by binding to glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein binding protein 1. This interaction effectively localizes triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in the vicinity of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein binding protein1's other ligand, lipoprotein lipase.

  10. Å skape et begrep om jam i utforskningen av en deleuziansk metode-ontologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Harstad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Å forske med kunsten innebærer ikke bare valget av visse metoder for bruk i forskningsprosessen, men også om å ha til disposisjon spesifikke måter å tenke om metode. I denne artikkelen vil jeg synliggjøre en tenkemåte fundert i arbeidet med en skjønnlitterær lesesirkel for lærerstudenter, og min egen erfaring som improvisasjonsmusiker. Jazzens begrep om jam blir løftet frem som omdreiningspunkt for tenkemåten, som ellers har sitt teoretiske utspring i den franske filosofen Gilles Deleuze’s forestilling om bliven. Denne vitale forestillingen innebærer at verden produseres kontinuerlig, noe forskeren også bidrar til. Koblingen mellom jam, litteratur og Deleuze synliggjør dessuten en måte å tenke om metode på som understreker at det å forske med kunsten ikke bare betyr å forske på kunsten, men at kunsten på ulike måter kan virke inn på selve forskningen og slik også bidra til å affirmere verden i sin bliven. I tillegg til å tilby en måte å tenke om metode for den som skal forske med kunsten, er hensikten med artikkelen å gjøre forskeren bevisst sin egen tenkning om metode, noe som er viktig siden denne skaper mulighetsbetingelser for metodevalg og -bruk.

  11. Estrategias flexibilizadoras aplicadas por las empresas del sector avícola del estado Zulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Bonomie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivo, analizar las estrategias flexibilizadoras aplicadas en el proceso productivo por las empresas del sector avícola, específicamente las empresas productoras de pollo del estado Zulia. Para tal fin, se describe el proceso productivo de estas empresas y además se identifican las estrategias aplicadas considerando los acontecimientos económicos influenciados por cambios políticos que en los últimos años han incidido en las empresas productoras de pollo. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica para determinar los criterios de clasificación de las estrategias, asumiendo la establecida por Gamboa y col. (2001. Se diseñó un instrumento semiestructurado, el cual fue administrado a los gerentes y trabajadores de las empresas analizadas. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan, que las empresas utilizan las estrategias con la finalidad de reestructurar y modernizar sus procesos productivos, mejorar continuamente sus productos e introducir nueva tecnología. Se concluye que estas empresas logran incrementar la productividad, aumentando la cantidad de productos ante la utilización óptima de los recursos humanos y tecnológicos, optimización que implica una reducción de costos de producción para poder expandirse y ofrecer precios competitivos en el mercado.

  12. Unified transform architecture for AVC, AVS, VC-1 and HEVC high-performance codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tiago; Roma, Nuno; Sousa, Leonel

    2014-12-01

    A unified architecture for fast and efficient computation of the set of two-dimensional (2-D) transforms adopted by the most recent state-of-the-art digital video standards is presented in this paper. Contrasting to other designs with similar functionality, the presented architecture is supported on a scalable, modular and completely configurable processing structure. This flexible structure not only allows to easily reconfigure the architecture to support different transform kernels, but it also permits its resizing to efficiently support transforms of different orders (e.g. order-4, order-8, order-16 and order-32). Consequently, not only is it highly suitable to realize high-performance multi-standard transform cores, but it also offers highly efficient implementations of specialized processing structures addressing only a reduced subset of transforms that are used by a specific video standard. The experimental results that were obtained by prototyping several configurations of this processing structure in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA show the superior performance and hardware efficiency levels provided by the proposed unified architecture for the implementation of transform cores for the Advanced Video Coding (AVC), Audio Video coding Standard (AVS), VC-1 and High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standards. In addition, such results also demonstrate the ability of this processing structure to realize multi-standard transform cores supporting all the standards mentioned above and that are capable of processing the 8k Ultra High Definition Television (UHDTV) video format (7,680 × 4,320 at 30 fps) in real time.

  13. Plasma apoAV levels are markedly elevated in severe hypertriglyceridemia and positively correlated with the APOA5 S19W polymorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, P.; Schaap, F.G.; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Frants, R.R.; Tol, A. van; Hattori, H.; Smelt, A.H.M.; Dijk, K.W. van

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The recently discovered apoAV is hypothesized to affect triglyceride metabolism by stimulating the lipolysis of triglycerides in VLDL and chylomicrons. We set out to determine the association between increased serum TG levels, plasma apoAV levels, and polymorphism of the APOA5 gene, with

  14. Plasma apoAV levels are markedly elevated in severe hypertriglyceridemia and positively correlated with the APOA5 S19W polymorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, Peter; Schaap, Frank G.; Havekes, Louis M.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Frants, Rune R.; van Tol, Arie; Hattori, Hiroaki; Smelt, August H. M.; van Dijk, Ko Willems

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The recently discovered apoAV is hypothesized to affect triglyceride metabolism by stimulating the lipolysis of triglycerides in VLDL and chylomicrons. We set out to determine the association between increased serum TG levels, plasma apoAV levels, and polymorphism of the APOA5 gene, with

  15. Deling av personbilder på Snapchat - med vekt på retten til eget bilde etter åndsverkloven § 45c.

    OpenAIRE

    Heiberg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Avbildedes vern mot offentliggjøring av personbildet og fotografens rettigheter til personbildet belyses i oppgaven. En sentral problemstilling er hva som følger av offentlig-begrepet etter åndsverkloven § 45c. Når er et bilde delt offentlig på Snapchat?

  16. The present-day chemical composition of the SMC from UVES spectra of the sharp-lined, B-type dwarf AV 304

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolleston, WRJ; Venn, K; Tolstoy, E; Dufton, PL

    High-resolution spectroscopic VLT/UVES observations are presented for the B-type main-sequence star, AV 304, in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). These spectra have been analysed using LTE model-atmosphere techniques, to derive stellar atmospheric parameters and chemical compositions. As AV 304 is

  17. AV e attività di eccellenza. Nuove opportunità localizzative nel sistema Roma-Napoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Galderisi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo propone una lettura delle possibili influenze della realizzazione delle reti AV sulla localizzazione/distribuzione di attività di eccellenza, quali attività direzionali, di management, di servizio alle imprese e alla pubblica amministrazione, con specifico riferimento alla tratta AV Roma-Napoli. A partire da una caratterizzazione delle attività di eccellenza, se ne evidenzia anzitutto la spiccata tendenza alla concentrazione urbana, la dipendenza da efficaci connessioni sia immateriali che materiali e la rilevanza assunta dalla variabile temporale nelle scelte localizzative (Sassen, 2001. Quindi, in riferimento ad alcune esperienze europee, si esaminano i principali effetti, in termini di attrazione/concentrazione di tali attività, connessi alla realizzazione delle reti AV (Sands 1993; Vickerman e Ulied, 2006; Gemeente Amsterdam, 2007. Sulla base di tali considerazioni e tenendo conto delle più recenti definizioni e metodi di misura dell’accessibilità (Axhausen et al. 2006; Spiekermann, Wegener, 2005, lo studio propone un indicatore di “accessibilità” finalizzato ad individuare e graduare, in ragione dei livelli di accessibilità, un sistema di luoghi urbani interconnessi mediante reti su ferro (AV e reti metropolitane e regionali dai quali le attività di eccellenza potranno massimizzare il proprio bacino di utenza. L’individuazione di un sistema di luoghi urbani a diverso grado di accessibilità consente di evidenziare le numerose opportunità per la localizzazione di attività di eccellenza che si dischiudono a seguito della riduzione dei tempi di spostamento consentita dalle reti AV. In tal senso, l’indicatore proposto può costituire un utile supporto alle decisioni sia per l’attore pubblico consentendo di governare e orientare i processi di trasformazione conseguenti alla realizzazione della rete AV, estendendone i benefici dalle aree di stazione a più ampie porzioni urbane sia per l’investitore privato

  18. Läckage av koppar från båtbottnar i sötvatten

    OpenAIRE

    Gretzén, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Båtbottenfärger, eller antifoulingfärger, används för att motverka påväxt i form avexempelvis havstulpaner och alger på båtskrov. Färgerna kan antingen ha en kemisk,biologisk, fysikalisk eller mekanisk verkan på de vattenlevande organismerna. De kemisktverkande biocidfärgerna räknas som bekämpningsmedel och måste godkännas av Kemikalieinspektionen innan de får säljas och användas i Sverige. På grund av den lågasalthalten i Mälaren är problemet med påväxt mindre än på exempelvis Västkusten, oc...

  19. Brøset - et blågrønt fellesskap : planlegging av en fremtidsrettet bydel.

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Sissel; Jermstad, Silja Jansdottir

    2011-01-01

    En prosjekteringsoppgave med fokus på bærekraft og fremtidsrettede løsninger. I denne masteroppgaven har vi sett på planleggingen av Brøset, en fremtidsrettet bydel som skal opparbeides fra et jordbruksområde til boligområder. Dette er et pågående prosjekt, igangsatt av Trondheim kommune, som har høye målsetninger om at Brøset ikke bare skal utvikles til en klimanøytral bydel, men også bli et forbilde for andre byutviklingsområder. Som introduksjon og for å gi en forståelse for om...

  20. Brøset - et blågrønt fellesskap : planlegging av en fremtidsrettet bydel.

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Sissel; Jermstad, Silja Jansdottir

    2011-01-01

    I denne masteroppgaven har vi sett på planleggingen av Brøset, en fremtidsrettet bydel som skal opparbeides fra et jordbruksområde til boligområder. Dette er et pågående prosjekt, igangsatt av Trondheim kommune, som har høye målsetninger om at Brøset ikke bare skal utvikles til en klimanøytral bydel, men også bli et forbilde for andre byutviklingsområder. Som introduksjon og for å gi en forståelse for området, starter vi oppgaven med å gjennomgå allerede gjennomførte klima- og landsk...

  1. Arbetsmöbel för ungdomar : Beskrivning av designprocessen i ett samarbete med IKEA

    OpenAIRE

    Leckström, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Rapporten beskriver ett designprojekt, utfört som en del av examensarbetet på 15 HP, jag utfört som avgångsstudent på möbeldesignprogrammet vid Carl Malmsten Centrum för Träteknik & Design. Från Ronnie Runesson, produktutvecklare på IKEA of Sweden, fick jag ett uppdrag, ett reellt projekt att arbeta med. Projektet handlade om att ta fram ett koncept på en ny typ av arbetsmöbel för ungdomar i åldersgruppen 12 – 18 år. Målet med projektet var att, förutom att leverera ett fungerande koncept...

  2. Bilderboken ur ett genusperspektiv : En bilderboksanalys av tre svenska böcker som utmanar stereotypa könsroller

    OpenAIRE

    Malmqvist, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie är att se hur några bilderböcker utmanar de stereotypa könsrollerna. Jag kommer att granska hur pojkar och flickor framställs ur ett genusperspektiv och även titta på hur text och bild kompletterar varandra, med hjälp av Nikolajevas (2000) analysmodell för bilderböcker. Jag har valt att analysera tre stycken böcker och två av dessa har pojkar som huvudkaraktärer och en har en flicka som huvudkaraktär. Med den medvetenhet man har idag kring genus så kan dessa böcker var...

  3. Modularization and Validation of FUN3D as a CREATE-AV Helios Near-Body Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohit; Biedron, Robert T.; Jones, William T.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Under a recent collaborative effort between the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) and NASA Langley, NASA's general unstructured CFD solver, FUN3D, was modularized as a CREATE-AV Helios near-body unstructured grid solver. The strategies adopted in Helios/FUN3D integration effort are described. A validation study of the new capability is performed for rotorcraft cases spanning hover prediction, airloads prediction, coupling with computational structural dynamics, counter-rotating dual-rotor configurations, and free-flight trim. The integration of FUN3D, along with the previously integrated NASA OVERFLOW solver, lays the ground for future interaction opportunities where capabilities of one component could be leveraged with those of others in a relatively seamless fashion within CREATE-AV Helios.

  4. Vem gynnas av föräldraskap? : Ett vinjettexperiment vid Linköpings universitet

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlström, Zara; Askestad, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Tidigare forskning indikerar att föräldraskap är av betydelse för en individs karriärsutveckling. Stöd finns för löneskillnader, i både Sverige och USA, mellan personer som har barn och personer som inte har barn. Mammor har en lägre löneutveckling än kvinnor utan barn, medan det inte är tydligt om pappor får en bättre eller sämre karriärutveckling än män utan barn. Forskning indikerar att det orsakas av individers attityd, uppfattning och beteende gentemot individer med fa...

  5. Lessons learned about [F-18]-AV-1451 off-target binding from an autopsy-confirmed Parkinson's case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquié, Marta; Verwer, Eline E; Meltzer, Avery C; Kim, Sally Ji Who; Agüero, Cinthya; Gonzalez, Jose; Makaretz, Sara J; Siao Tick Chong, Michael; Ramanan, Prianca; Amaral, Ana C; Normandin, Marc D; Vanderburg, Charles R; Gomperts, Stephen N; Johnson, Keith A; Frosch, Matthew P; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2017-10-19

    [F-18]-AV-1451 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer with high affinity to neurofibrillary tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). PET studies have shown increased tracer retention in patients clinically diagnosed with dementia of AD type and mild cognitive impairment in regions that are known to contain tau lesions. In vivo uptake has also consistently been observed in midbrain, basal ganglia and choroid plexus in elderly individuals regardless of their clinical diagnosis, including clinically normal whose brains are not expected to harbor tau pathology in those areas. We and others have shown that [F-18]-AV-1451 exhibits off-target binding to neuromelanin, melanin and blood products on postmortem material; and this is important for the correct interpretation of PET images. In the present study, we further investigated [F-18]-AV-1451 off-target binding in the first autopsy-confirmed Parkinson's disease (PD) subject who underwent antemortem PET imaging. The PET scan showed elevated [F-18]-AV-1451 retention predominantly in inferior temporal cortex, basal ganglia, midbrain and choroid plexus. Neuropathologic examination confirmed the PD diagnosis. Phosphor screen and high resolution autoradiography failed to show detectable [F-18]-AV-1451 binding in multiple brain regions examined with the exception of neuromelanin-containing neurons in the substantia nigra, leptomeningeal melanocytes adjacent to ventricles and midbrain, and microhemorrhages in the occipital cortex (all reflecting off-target binding), in addition to incidental age-related neurofibrillary tangles in the entorhinal cortex. Additional legacy postmortem brain samples containing basal ganglia, choroid plexus, and parenchymal hemorrhages from 20 subjects with various neuropathologic diagnoses were also included in the autoradiography experiments to better understand what [F-18]-AV-1451 in vivo positivity in those regions means. No detectable [F-18]-AV-1451 autoradiographic binding was

  6. Företagens behov av resebyråtjänster : Case: Karleby Resebyrå Ab

    OpenAIRE

    Björkroth, Pinja

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med arbetet är att utreda orsaker till varför resebyråtjänster används samt utreda vilka andra möjliga behov företagen har gällande resebyråtjänster. Undersökningen görs till Karleby Resebyrå. I den teoretiska delen behandlas marknadsmixerna 4P, 4C och 7P, business to business och kundlojaliteten. Som forskningsmetod i arbetet användes en kvantitativ metod med hjälp av en webbenkät. Enkäten består av 21 frågor varav 11 är öppna frågor. Webbenkäten skickades per e-post till 50 föret...

  7. Dubbel ABC-analys av inrednings- och gåvoartiklar för en blombutik

    OpenAIRE

    Ruokolainen, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Kirkkonummen Kukkapiste är en blombutik i Kyrkslätt centrum, som år 2012 utvidgade sitt sortiment av inrednings- och gåvoartiklar. Konkurrensen är hög och en ABC-analys kan hjälpa företagare att identifiera vilka faktorer i ett företag som det lönar sig att lägga tid och resurser på, vilket i sin tur effektiverar verksamheten. Syftet med detta arbete är att med hjälp av en dubbel ABC-analys för Kirkkonummen Kukkapiste ta reda på vilka inrednings- och gåvoartiklar som binder mest kapital och v...

  8. Sociala medier och levnadsvanor : Användning av Facebook och Twitter samt mat-, motions- och sömnvanor

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Bakgrund: Ohälsosamma levnadsvanor bidrar avsevärt till sjukdomsbördan. Allt mer tid spenderas vid skärm och forskning tyder på negativa effekter på mat-, motions- och sömnvanor. Teknikens utveckling har förändrat skärmtiden. Sociala medier har intagit en viktig plats i mångas liv och skärmtid är inte längre automatisk förknippat till faktorer såsom stillasittande samt möjlighet att äta mer. Forskning om levnadsvanor och sociala medier saknas. Syfte: Att undersöka graden av användning av de s...

  9. A Comparison of the AVS-9 and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle During Rotorcraft Hover and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Haworth, Loran; Simpson, Carol; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this flight test was to measure any differences in pilot-vehicle performance and pilot opinion between the use of the current generation AVS-9 Night Vision Goggle and one variant of the prototype Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (the PNV.GII). The PNVGII has more than double the horizontal field-of-view of the AVS-9, but reduced image quality. The flight path of the AH-1S helicopter was used as a measure of pilot-vehicle performance. Also recorded were subjective measures of flying qualities, physical reserves of the pilot, situational awareness, and display usability. Pilot comment and data indicate that the benefits of additional FOV with the PNVGIIs are to some extent negated by the reduced image quality of the PNVGIIs.

  10. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops held in Conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) EGU Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laj, Carlo; Cifelli, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    The Alexander von Humboldt Conference Series of the European Geosciences Union are a series of meetings held outside of Europe, in particular in South America, Africa or Asia, on selected topics of geosciences with a socio-economic impact for regions on these continents, jointly organised with the scientists and their institutes and the institutions of these regions. Given the increasing success of the GIFT workshops held in conjunction with the General Assemblies, since 2010 EGU has also developed a series of GIFT workshops held in conjunction with AvH conferences. Associated GIFT workshops were held in Merida, Yucatan, on the theme of Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Societies (March 2010), then in Penang, Malaysia (June 2011) on the theme of Ocean Acidification, in November 2012 in Cusco (Peru) on the theme of Natural Disasters, Global Change and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites, finally in Istanbul (March 2014) on "High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The next GIFT workshop is already planned for October 2015 in Adis Ababa (Ethiopia) on the theme "Water". In each case, the GIFT workshop was held on the last two days of the AvH conference and reunited 40-45 teachers from the nation where the AvH was held. Keynote speakers from AvH were speakers to the GIFT workshops which also included hands-on activities animated by sciences educators. These GIFT workshops represented the first workshops specifically aimed at teachers held in the country, and therefore represents a significant Earth Sciences contribution to secondary education in non European countries.

  11. La producción familiar en el complejo avícola entrerriano: trayectoria, estrategias y transformaciones

    OpenAIRE

    García , Ana Laura

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo aborda el análisis de las estrategias desplegadas por los productores familiares integrados contractualmente al complejo avícola entrerriano a lo largo de sus cursos de vida. En particular, interesa profundizar tres ejes: los cambios y continuidades en sus estrategias, sus implicancias en términos de la permanencia de la agricultura familiar y su reconfiguración interna.

  12. AV-65, a novel Wnt/β-catenin signal inhibitor, successfully suppresses progression of multiple myeloma in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, H; Ashihara, E; Strovel, J W; Nakagawa, Y; Kuroda, J; Nagao, R; Tanaka, R; Yokota, A; Takeuchi, M; Hayashi, Y; Shimazaki, C; Taniwaki, M; Strand, K; Padia, J; Hirai, H; Kimura, S; Maekawa, T

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells. Although new molecular targeting agents against MM have been developed based on the better understanding of the underlying pathogenesis, MM still remains an incurable disease. We previously demonstrated that β-catenin, a downstream effector in the Wnt pathway, is a potential target in MM using RNA interference in an in vivo experimental mouse model. In this study, we have screened a library of more than 100 000 small-molecule chemical compounds for novel Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitors using a high-throughput transcriptional screening technology. We identified AV-65, which diminished β-catenin protein levels and T-cell factor transcriptional activity. AV-65 then decreased c-myc, cyclin D1 and survivin expression, resulting in the inhibition of MM cell proliferation through the apoptotic pathway. AV-65 treatment prolonged the survival of MM-bearing mice. These findings indicate that this compound represents a novel and attractive therapeutic agent against MM. This study also illustrates the potential of high-throughput transcriptional screening to identify candidates for anticancer drug discovery

  13. Assessment of heavy metals pollution using AVS-SEM and fractionation techniques in Edku Lagoon sediments, Mediterranean Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zokm, Gehan M; Okbah, Mohamed A; Younis, Alaa M

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented to evaluate the fractionation of metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni), acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in Edku lagoon sediments. Thirteen sediment samples were collected from the study area in the period of 2010-2011 to assess the potential bioavailability and toxicity of the selected metals. According to classification of the Interim Sediment Quality Quidelines (ISQG), five stations near the drains exhibited 10% toxic probability. The high AVS and low ∑SEM ranges in Summer were identified as 6-138 and 0.86-3.3 µmol g(-1) dry wet, respectively which are referring to the low mobility of heavy metals in this season and vice versa for winter (2.5-23.9 and 1.16-3.82 µmol g(-1) dry wet, respectively). According to the evaluation of USEPA, all sediment samples showed ∑SEM/AVS heavy metals in Edku lagoon sediments posed a low risk of adverse biological effects due to cadmium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in all evaluated stations.

  14. Industrias Bachoco: estrategias de localización y competitividad ante el nuevo escenario avícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Hernández Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios sustantivos en el sistema agroalimentario mexicano han impulsado a las empresas a aplicar estrategias que les permitan funcionar en un contexto cada vez más competitivo, complejo e incierto. En el ramo avícola, Industrias Bachoco ha logrado posicionarse como líder nacional, a pesar de las presiones de la apertura comercial y de la competencia interna de dos de los mayores consorcios avícolas transnacionales. El presente artículo destaca los resultados obtenidos por esta empresa a partir de su estrategia de desplazamiento por la república mexicana. Desde la perspectiva de la teoría de la localización y de la nueva geografía económica, se plantea la hipótesis de que tal estrategia le ha permitido a Bachoco sumar ventajas comparativas regionales y le ha conferido la capacidad de suministrar una oferta adaptada a las costumbres y tradiciones de cada mercado regional, que no ha sido igualada por ninguna de sus competidoras. Se concluye que la apertura total inminente del mercado avícola mexicano inducirá al consorcio a acelerar su actualización, para estar a tono y competir con las empresas internacionales.

  15. Enhanced Biological Response of AVS-Functionalized Ti-6Al-4V Alloy through Covalent Immobilization of Collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvanian, Parsa; Daza, Rafael; López, Patricia A; Ramos, Milagros; González-Nieto, Daniel; Elices, Manuel; Guinea, Gustavo V; Pérez-Rigueiro, José

    2018-02-20

    This study presents the development of an efficient procedure for covalently immobilizing collagen molecules on AVS-functionalized Ti-6Al-4V samples, and the assessment of the survival and proliferation of cells cultured on these substrates. Activated Vapor Silanization (AVS) is a versatile functionalization technique that allows obtaining a high density of active amine groups on the surface. A procedure is presented to covalently bind collagen to the functional layer using EDC/NHS as cross-linker. The covalently bound collagen proteins are characterized by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy and their stability is tested. The effect of the cross-linker concentration on the process is assessed. The concentration of the cross-linker is optimized and a reliable cleaning protocol is developed for the removal of the excess of carbodiimide from the samples. The results demonstrate that the covalent immobilization of collagen type I on Ti-6Al-4V substrates, using the optimized protocol, increases the number of viable cells present on the material. Consequently, AVS in combination with the carbodiimide chemistry appears as a robust method for the immobilization of proteins and, for the first time, it is shown that it can be used to enhance the biological response to the material.

  16. Coastal surface sediment quality assessment in Leizhou Peninsula (South China Sea) based on SEM-AVS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Lin, Jin-qin; Liang, Yan-yan; Gan, Hua-yang; Zeng, Xiang-yun; Duan, Zhi-peng; Liang, Kai; Liu, Xing; Huo, Zhen-hai; Wu, Chang-hua

    2014-07-15

    Surface sediments from the coastal area of the Leizhou Peninsula in the South China Sea were collected and analyzed and the potential ecological risks in the area were assessed based on acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) model. The AVS levels are between 0.109 and 55.6 μmol g(-1), with the average at 4.45 μmol g(-1). The high AVS-concentration zones include the aquaculture areas of Liusha Bay and the densely populated areas of Zhanjiang Bay. The simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) range from 0.026 μmol g(-1) to 8.61 μmol g(-1), with the average at 0.843 μmol g(-1). Most of high SEM-concentration stations were located in ports or aquaculture zones. Most of the coastal surface sediments of the Leizhou Peninsula (90%) had no adverse biological effects according to the criterion proposed by USEPA (2005); while adverse effects were uncertain in some stations (8%); even in 2 stations (2%) adverse biological effects may be expected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Pattern of Brain Amyloid Load in Posterior Cortical Atrophy Using 18F-AV45: Is Amyloid the Principal Actor in the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Beaufils

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA is characterized by progressive higher-order visuoperceptual dysfunction and praxis declines. This syndrome is related to a number of underlying diseases, including, in most cases, Alzheimer's disease (AD. The aim of this study was to compare the amyloid load with 18F-AV45 positron emission tomography (PET between PCA and AD subjects. Methods: We performed 18F-AV45 PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarker analysis and a neuropsychological assessment in 11 PCA patients and 12 AD patients. Results: The global and regional 18F-AV45 uptake was similar in the PCA and AD groups. No significant correlation was observed between global 18F-AV45 uptake and CSF biomarkers or between regional 18F-AV45 uptake and cognitive and affective symptoms. Conclusion: This 18F-AV45 PET amyloid imaging study showed no specific regional pattern of cortical 18F-AV45 binding in PCA patients. These results confirm that a distinct clinical phenotype in amnestic AD and PCA is not related to amyloid distribution.

  18. A marked proportional rise in IVC aldosterone following cosyntropin administration during AVS is a signal to the presence of adrenal hyperplasia in primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, G A; Pasieka, J L; Harvey, A; So, B; Dias, V C

    2014-05-01

    We hypothesized aldosteronoma responsiveness to cosyntropin may be a characterizing feature that could be determined in addition to standard adrenal vein sampling (AVS) data. We reviewed an AVS database from June 2005 to October 2011 including 65 patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism (PA) who underwent AVS and, if applicable, unilateral adrenalectomy. Patients were divided into confirmed lateralized and non-lateralized groups and subgrouped by histology. Plasma aldosterone in inferior vena cava (IVC) pre- and post-cosyntropin infusion during AVS was measured. Peak aldosterone and proportional change was compared between groups. Baseline and peak IVC aldosterone was higher in lateralized patients but incremental aldosterone rise was much greater in subjects with bilateral hyperplasia. From receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis, the optimized diagnostic cut point of peak IVC aldosterone of >649 pmol l(-1) would have a sensitivity of 94% for surgical disease although specificity of just 59%. A 250% increase in IVC aldosterone following cosyntropin would be specific enough to exclude 87% of surgical/lateralized disease. These diagnostic capabilities are similar to other results with non-AVS tests performed for diagnosis of lateralization. Although not specific enough to replace standard AVS interpretation, a marked IVC aldosterone increase after cosyntropin during AVS is a useful additional test to diagnose non-lateralizing forms of PA. Such a calculation requires no additional expense or tests.

  19. Evaluating the Effects of Metals on Microorganisms in Flooded Paddy Soils Using the SEM/AVS-Based Approach and Measurements of Exchangeable Metal Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunito, Takashi; Toya, Hitomi; Sumi, Hirotaka; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Toda, Hideshige; Nagaoka, Kazunari; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    We examined possible adverse effects of heavy metals on microbial activity, biomass, and community composition using the simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)/acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-based approach and measurements of exchangeable metal concentrations in three paddy soils (wastewater-contaminated soil, mine-contaminated soil, and noncontaminated soil) incubated for 60 days under flooded conditions. Incubation under flooding increased pH and decreased Eh in all samples. AVS increased when Eh decreased to approximately -200 mV for the mine-contaminated and noncontaminated soils, while the wastewater-contaminated soil originally had a high concentration of AVS despite its air-dried condition. Addition of rice straw or alkaline material containing calcium carbonate and gypsum increased AVS levels under flooded conditions. We observed no apparent relationship between soil enzyme activity (β-D-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) and concentrations of SEM, [∑SEM - AVS], and exchangeable metals. Bacterial and fungal community composition, assessed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis targeting rRNA genes, was largely influenced by site of collection and incubation time, but metal contamination did not influence community composition. We observed significant negative correlations between biomass C and [∑SEM - AVS] and between biomass C and ∑SEM, suggesting that [∑SEM - AVS] and ∑SEM might reflect the bioavailability of organic matter to microorganisms in these soils.

  20. The Pattern of Brain Amyloid Load in Posterior Cortical Atrophy Using 18F-AV45: Is Amyloid the Principal Actor in the Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Emilie; Ribeiro, Maria Joao; Vierron, Emilie; Vercouillie, Johnny; Dufour-Rainfray, Diane; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Camus, Vincent; Mondon, Karl; Guilloteau, Denis; Hommet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Background Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is characterized by progressive higher-order visuoperceptual dysfunction and praxis declines. This syndrome is related to a number of underlying diseases, including, in most cases, Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to compare the amyloid load with 18F-AV45 positron emission tomography (PET) between PCA and AD subjects. Methods We performed 18F-AV45 PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker analysis and a neuropsychological assessment in 11 PCA patients and 12 AD patients. Results The global and regional 18F-AV45 uptake was similar in the PCA and AD groups. No significant correlation was observed between global 18F-AV45 uptake and CSF biomarkers or between regional 18F-AV45 uptake and cognitive and affective symptoms. Conclusion This 18F-AV45 PET amyloid imaging study showed no specific regional pattern of cortical 18F-AV45 binding in PCA patients. These results confirm that a distinct clinical phenotype in amnestic AD and PCA is not related to amyloid distribution. PMID:25538727