This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... to abating such tax evasion has been reformed and a new mix-method approach adopted. This approach combines a proactive strategy—Preventing Financial Crime—with a reactive inspection strategy. During one a month of intensive fieldwork in Sweden, I studied the daily work in Preventing Financial Crime. Based...... on this, the paper shows that the Swedish tax officials seek to motivate large construction contractors and municipalities to take preventive measures in relation to their sub-contractors to avoid and abate tax evasion. The paper shows the challenges in engaging and involving these external stakeholders...
Full Text Available Crime, defined as act which is contrary to the law, creates negative influence in the society both economically and spiritually. There are various factors like professional experience as well as biological, psychological and sociological ones that make individuals turn to crime. Edwin Sutherland claim that life experiences and some facts learned from the environment account for occupational crimes in his study on the theory of crime in 1939. White-collar crime, which is perhaps the most important of types of crime in terms of havoc and committed by the superior contrary to common belief, has much more influence than conventional crime. This crime, which inflict significant financial loses and psychological collapse on states, communities, businesses and people, are committed by well-respected professionals in their business. In this study, white collar crimes are examined with conceptual view and detailed. Besides, this study explain this type of crime is so forceful, by giving remarkable examples on economic losses.
Lavigne, Sam; Clifton, Brian; Tseng, Francis
Financial crime is a rampant but hidden threat. In spite of this, predictive policing systems disproportionately target "street crime" rather than white collar crime. This paper presents the White Collar Crime Early Warning System (WCCEWS), a white collar crime predictive model that uses random forest classifiers to identify high risk zones for incidents of financial crime.
...-AB15 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network: Customer Due Diligence Requirements for Financial Institutions; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), Treasury... concerning customer due diligence requirements for financial institutions. DATES: Written comments on the...
Some instances of corporate scandals, occasioned by financial crimes, have put accounting professional bodies into a new perception and paradigm that go beyond statutory audit. This study discusses financial crimes and some basic and common financial crimes in corporate organizations. The review indicates that the ...
Đekić Milica D.
It's well-known that the developing countries such as Republic of Serbia lose many funds through the financial crime. The corruption and bribe, industrial frauds, money laundering, organized crime, insider's threats and much more are some of the examples of well-planned and conducted crimes within the commerce and financial sector. What drags our attention here are socio-economical consequences of those activities. In this paper, we would talk a bit more about how to prevent and effectively r...
Đekić Milica D.
Full Text Available It's well-known that the developing countries such as Republic of Serbia lose many funds through the financial crime. The corruption and bribe, industrial frauds, money laundering, organized crime, insider's threats and much more are some of the examples of well-planned and conducted crimes within the commerce and financial sector. What drags our attention here are socio-economical consequences of those activities. In this paper, we would talk a bit more about how to prevent and effectively resolve such cases. It's quite clear that it's not all about the rising a competitiveness of domestic economy, but rather it's about the saving the already existing resources. Finally, this paper would bring a brief overview of typical commerce crimes as well as the measures of assuring the financial sector.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to address a question of the effectiveness of Financial Service Authority (Otoritas Jasa Keuangan - OJK investigators in eradicating financial service crimes in Indonesia. This question arises because in Law on Financial Service Authority there are OJK’s investigators with an investigatory authority on OJK crimes, including; banking, capital market, insurance, pension fund, financing institutions, and other financial service institution sectors. Meanwhile, there have been other investigators with an authority to investigate, namely, public prosecutor, police, and KPK (Indonesia’s corruption eradicating commission. The theoretical framework of this paper was grounded in the thoughts of Aristotle, who says that the goal of law is to achieve justice, and that of Hans Kelsen’s stuffen theory. The method of writing was juridical-normative, by studying legislations, both contained in laws themselves and in literatures/books of legal science, particularly those related to Financial Service Authority. The result was in a form of juridical aspect and written in a descriptive-analytical form. The conclusion of this paper was as follows: There was an overlapping of authorities between OJK’s investigators and public attorney’s investigators, police, and KPK, be they in the investigation of general crimes and that of special crimes/corruption. As for the effectiveness of OJK’s investigators, it should be proved yet in the future.
Daniela Iuliana Radu
The term "tax haven" is often incorrectly used to describe a country because from this point of view, we should use the term "financial secrecy jurisdiction". A certain degree of financial and banking secrecy is characteristic of all states, almost all states requiring a certain level of protection for banking and commercial information. Banking and financial secrecy jurisdictions refuse, nearly always, to violate its own laws on banking secrecy, even when it could be a serious violation of t...
Oct 27, 2012 ... some basic and common financial crimes have raised issues and find expression in employee theft, payroll frauds, fraudulent billing systems, management theft, corporate frauds, and insurance fraud, among others. All these, no doubt, remain outside the ambit of the statutory auditor to report on except he ...
Oct 27, 2012 ... Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Benin, Benin ... William's (2005) description include bribes cronyism, nepotism, political ... Management thefts. These financial crimes are committed when management over-rides the controls instituted by themselves to prevent the thefts they now ...
The report examines the development of adequate legal tools and practices to combat transnational financial crimes such as money laundering, terrorism financing, corruption, transnational financial fraud, and investigates measures directed at strengthening the overall legal and institutional...... framework in the area of transnational financial crimes at the regional (EU) and domestic levels. The research project involves the legal analysis of the legislation, jurisprudence and best practices of two selected jurisdictions, in particular the United Kingdom and Denmark....
James Simanjuntak; M. Syukri Akub; Muhadar; Andi Sofyan
The criminal act of corruption is more systematic and has been categorized as extraordinary crime and its scope has entered all aspects of community life. The importance of research is conducted to determines law enforcement of corruption crime in the return of State financial loss and the return of corruption asset through money laundering crime instrument. The research was carried out in Papua Province - Indonesia. The results shows that the relation between corruption and money-laundering ...
... Treasury (Treasury), to further its efforts against money laundering and terrorist financing, and is... regulatory authorities detect, investigate, and prosecute money laundering and other financial crimes by... at national and international levels, to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. See...
Monica Lagazio; Nazneen Sherif; Mike Cushman
This paper puts forward a multi-level model, based on system dynamics methodology, to understand the impact of cyber crime on the financial sector. Consistent with recent findings, our results show that strong dynamic relationships, amongst tangible and intangible factors, affect cyber crime cost and occur at different levels of society and value network. Specifically, shifts in financial companies’ strategic priorities, having the protection of customer trust and loyalty as a key objective, ...
Full Text Available The criminal act of corruption is more systematic and has been categorized as extraordinary crime and its scope has entered all aspects of community life. The importance of research is conducted to determines law enforcement of corruption crime in the return of State financial loss and the return of corruption asset through money laundering crime instrument. The research was carried out in Papua Province - Indonesia. The results shows that the relation between corruption and money-laundering is closely related. The corruption is one of the predicate crimes from money laundering. The corruption is an extraordinary crime that has resulted in huge State financial losses which in fact the large of State financial losses as proceeds of corruption is not proportional to the large of the return of the State financial loss because the orientation of law enforcement of corruption is still to perpetrators. Therefore in order to return the State financial loss optimally law enforcement orientation should also be directed against the assets of the criminal act of corruption.
Full Text Available Mobile money has made it possible for the unbanked to access financial service to areas previous not accessibly to traditional banking systems. Africa in particular, has indeed seen a growth in use of such services owing to the high penetration of mobile phones. While traditional banking services have been well regulated and secured, mobile money services are still new and vulnerable. Also, attacks and crimes targeting the internet, new technologies and new methods of payments have become sophisticated. This scenario requires novel proactive, real time techniques and solutions to detect financial crimes in mobile money transactions (MMT. The Financial Action Task Force (FATF 2012 requires mobile money to be subject for monitoring and for compliance. Payment systems have evolved from hard cash, to credit cards, debit cards and now to the M-money, there are several approaches that have been used to detect financial crime in platforms such as credit cards and in the traditional banking system. However, most of these approaches are not suitable for m-money methods. A conceptual framework for detection of mobile money financial crime is proposed. The framework incorporates data mining techniques, big data analytics, Know Your Customers, historical databases and a knowledge base among other things.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial Crimes Enforcement Network N Appendix N to Subpart C of Part 1 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the... individual will be required to provide adequate proof of legal relationship before such person may act on...
Gobrusenko K. I.
Full Text Available the article is about the problem of the participation of professional financial intermediaries in the legalization (laundering of proceeds from crime, and considers legislative measures of regulating the activity of such intermediaries and methods for identifying organizations that laundering money on a professional basis.
Montgomery County of Maryland — Updated daily postings on Montgomery County’s open data website, dataMontgomery, provide the public with direct access to crime statistic databases - including raw...
Sarhad Hamza Khdir
Full Text Available This paper analyses the frauds of employee embezzlement by Gary Foster (Citigroup and insider trading by Raj Rajaratnam (Galleon Group both in 2011. By comparing to the notorious cases of Enron and WorldCom, it is found that the contemporary frauds tend to be committed through a diversified scheme rather than accounting manipulation. Fraudsters tend to take advantage of their positions to override strict rules and regulations. Shareholders and related stakeholders including governments will suffer the financial losses and ineffective macro-economic control, which may even result in the encouragement of other frauds. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that management, educators and regulators should jointly work on the prevention of frauds. Management should be highly aware of importance of fraud prevention and detection, with the assistance of regulators to prosecute criminals. Educators, on the other hand, should normalize the decisions under the challenges of ethical dilemma
Scheidat, Tobias; Merkel, Ronny; Krummel, Volker; Gerlach, Andreas; Weisensee, Michala; Zeihe, Jana; Dittmann, Jana
In daily police practice, forensic investigation of criminal cases is mainly based on manual work and the experience of individual forensic experts, using basic storage and data processing technologies. However, an individual criminal case does not only consist of the actual offence, but also of a variety of different aspects involved. For example, in order to solve a financial criminal case, an investigator has to find interrelations between different case entities as well as to other cases. The required information about these different entities is often stored in various databases and mostly requires to be manually requested and processed by forensic investigators. We propose the application of semantic technologies to the domain of forensic investigations at the example of financial crimes. Such combination allows for modelling specific case entities and their interrelations within and between cases. As a result, an explorative search of connections between case entities in the scope of an investigation as well as an automated derivation of conclusions from an established fact base is enabled. The proposed model is presented in the form of a crime field ontology, based on different types of knowledge obtained from three individual sources: open source intelligence, forensic investigators and captive interviews of detained criminals. The modelled crime field ontology is illustrated at two examples using the well known crime type of explosive attack on ATM and the potentially upcoming crime type data theft by NFC crowd skimming. Of these criminal modi operandi, anonymized fictional are modelled, visualized and exploratively searched. Modelled case entities include modi operandi, events, actors, resources, exploited weaknesses as well as flows of money, data and know how. The potential exploration of interrelations between the different case entities of such examples is illustrated in the scope of a fictitious investigation, highlighting the potential of the
Full Text Available Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23, correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16, and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8. Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents, lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult debt or financial problems.
Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J
Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems.
Full Text Available Financial crime is a large area of political and social enquiry and includes a variety of illicit conducts that need to be isolated and addressed as discrete offences. Financial operations, however, may cause harm even when they do not possess a criminal nature, as events relating to the 2008 bank crisis have shown. This paper is concerned with both typologies, namely with illicit and licit harmful behaviour adopted by financial actors. In the first section, the paper focuses on the measures proposed or adopted in response to the 2008 crisis in the UK. This is followed by the presentation of a number of recent cases proving that, despite recent regulatory efforts, large loopholes are still present which allow forms of financial crime to thrive.
Baracaldo-Lozano, Natalia Andrea; Universidad de la Salle. Universidad Santiago de Chile. ontificia Universidad Javeriana; Daza-Giraldo, Luis Eduardo; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
Recent cases of economic and financial crimes, financial fraud, corruption, and corporate malpractice in the local and international corporate environment have created the need to have professionals trained to face the challenges related to their investigation and analysis, activities carried out by forensic auditing.This article highlights several key aspects to understand why is important to specifically include forensic auditing as a subject in curricula during the studies of public accoun...
Sowunmi, Fatai Abiola; Adesola, Muniru Adekunle; Salako, Mudashiru Abiodun
This article examines how an anti-graft body, the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), has fared in reducing the incidence of corruption in Nigeria, in particular, bank fraud, Internet scam, and bad governance. It first discusses the corruption situation in Nigeria by highlighting public office holders who have been associated with corruption charges. A Likert-type scale is used in designing the questionnaire for data collection. Descriptive and chi-square analyses are used, and results reveal that the performance of the EFCC has been affected by government interference (p .05), bad governance and advance fee fraud have recorded appreciable reduction (p government interference and improve its manpower development, especially in the areas of fraud and Internet scam detection.
Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Zouwen, M.; Vergeer, M.; Jurrius, K.; Asscher, J.J.
Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36
... Money Laundering Concern Against VEF Banka AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (``FinCEN... Institution of Primary Money Laundering Concern of April 26, 2005, issued pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 5318A of the... PATRIOT Act amends the anti-money laundering provisions of the BSA, codified at 12 U.S.C. 1829b, 12 U.S.C...
Full Text Available Today, banks and other financial institutions are one of at the most institutions which are using as an intermediary on black money laundering. Developments in technology have increased some risk factors for financial institutions too. One of these risks is online crime is becoming a more frequent encounters for banks and financial institutions while they are busy with operational processes.The purpose of this study is to identify the points that banks have to prevent the crime of money laundering which results from the misuse of information technologies. Further it was tried to explore the effects of cyber crime and money laundering together.
Herlin Karnell, S.E.M.; Beneyto, J.; Hinojosa Martínez, L.
The purpose of this chapter is to explore the financial crisis through the lens of market construction and thereby investigate the EU’s current strategies to tackle the financial crisis through measures taken to fight irregularities in the market. Before the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty the
Full Text Available Knowledge and learning are important in combating financial crime generallyand white-collar crime in particular. The purpose of this research is to generateinsights into prevention approaches in practice that may reflect on acontingent approach. The five hundred largest business companies in termsof annual turnover were identified in Norway for our empirical study of whitecollarcrime. A paper letter was mailed to the chief financial officer (CFOasking him or her to fill in the questionnaire to be found on a web site usinga password found in the letter. The open-ended question in the questionnaireto CFOs about prevention of white-collar crime was formulated as follows:How can white-collar crime best be prevented in your company? Survey resultsindicate an even distribution of respondents emphasizing control and respondentsemphasizing influence. This empirical research steps back from manybest practice articles and provides insights into preferences of chief financialofficers on how to prevent white-collar crime in the company.
Ryder, N.; Turksen, U.; Tucker, J.
In September 2007, the collapse of the United States (US) sub-prime mortgage market resulted in the global meltdown of the financial markets. This in turn led to the collapse of many international financial institutions including Northern Rock, Bradford and Bingley, American Insurance Group, Freddy Mac, Fannie Mae and Lehman Brothers. The G20 countries responded with a plethora of financial stimulus packages aimed at combating the largest global financial problem since the Wall Street Crash i...
... INFORMATION: Title: FinCEN Currency Transaction Report by Financial Institutions (see 31 CFR 1010.311 and 1021... Report (``CTR'') filings by financial institutions required to file such reports under the Bank Secrecy... Secretary of the Treasury, inter alia, to require financial institutions to keep records and file reports...
... Investments (Holding) SAL, LCB Finance SAL, LCB Estates SAL, LCB Insurance Brokerage House SAL, Dubai- based... financial interest in a number of subsidiaries, including LCB Investments SAL, LCB Finance SAL, LCB Estates SAL, LCB Insurance Brokerage House SAL, Dubai-based Tabadul for Shares and Bonds LLC, Prime Bank...
... preceding 90 calendar days related to Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (``IRGC'') or any of its... organizations chartered under banking laws and supervised by banking supervisors of any State, and banks... banking. FinCEN and Treasury may consider expanding this reporting requirement to other types of financial...
Curtis, Glenn E; Elan, Seth L; Hudson, Rexford A; Kollars, Nina A
.... The report notes the participation of such groups in all major types of crime, including trafficking of human beings and various commodities, financial crimes, extortion, gambling, prostitution, and violent crimes...
Full Text Available Environmental crime is a serious and growing international problem, and one which takes many different forms. It is not limited to criminals polluting the air, water and land and pushing commercially valuable wildlife species closer to extinction; it can also include crimes which speed up climate change, destroy fish stocks, annihilate forests and exhaust essential natural resources. These crimes can have a harmful impact on the economies and security of multiple nations, in some cases they may even threaten the very existence of a country or people. Furthermore, a significant proportion of both wildlife crime and pollution crime cases point to the involvement of organized crime networks. This is evidenced by the detailed planning of operations, substantial financial support, the careful management of international shipments and massive profits. Still, to date, transnational environmental crime has been poorly attended to by the transnational organised crime and transnational policing discourse. National and international institutions have prioritised other forms of organised crime, giving little thought to the nuances of environmental crime and how they should be reflected in policing. Intention of this paper is to point out the importance of international cooperation and to point out the its good examples.
The theme of the bachelor paper is "Attempted Crime." Attempted crime is unfinished criminal offense and the person carrying out an attempted crime threat to the interests protected by the Criminal Law. In the Judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offenses, preparation for a crime. The judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offense, preparation for a crime....
... purpose of evading the reporting requirement shall have a financial interest in any bank, securities, or... for any person with a foreign financial agency.'' For this purpose, foreign financial agency means ``a... required to file the FBAR from avoiding this reporting requirement. A. Sec. 103.24(a)--In General FinCEN...
R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo
White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.
R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo
Full Text Available White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.
Richard B. Felson
Full Text Available I propose a dual conceptualization of violent crime. Since violent crime is both violence and crime, theories of aggression and deviance are required to understand it. I argue that both harm-doing and rule breaking are instrumental behaviors and that a bounded rational choice approach can account for both behaviors. However, while some of the causes of harm-doing and deviance (and violent and nonviolent crime are the same, some are different. Theories of crime and deviance cannot explain why one only observes individual and group differences in violent crime and theories of aggression and violence cannot explain why one observes differences in all types of crimes. Such theories are “barking up the wrong tree.”
Development of information technology is one of the most dynamic parts of today's global society. Along with the coming of new technologies it generates new types of crime, eventually existing types of criminal activities in this area are moving from the real world to cyberspace. This rapid development of cyber crime enforces corresponding changes in the legislation related to cyberspace. In the Czech Republic the most fundamental changes in cyber crime law have been made along with the new C...
Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control.
Virtual crimes are a new specific area in the law system, which is associated with information technologies (mobile, Internet etc.). These are crimes that can be committed in cyberspace or in connection with it. Generally, cyberspace can be defined from different perspectives most often as social, technological and legal environment in which there is mutual interaction of its users. This environment, in particular the Internet, due to its characteristics such as unlimited local, speed, low co...
Herlin Karnell, S.E.M.; Ryder, N.
The paper investigates the European Union’s (EU) fight against crime as partly one of establishing the EU as an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” (AFSJ) and partly one of facilitating the EU internal market. We discuss the EU law on the fight against fraud and money laundering by zooming in on
Raluca Georgiana POPA
Full Text Available Starting from the consideration that fighting cybercrime is a continuous process, the more the types of old crimes are committed today through modern means (computer fraud at distances of thousands of kilometers, international cooperation is vital to combat this phenomenon.In EU countries, still under financial crisis "the phrase", cybercrime has found a "positive environment" taking advantage of poor security management systems of these countries.Factors that led criminal groups to switch "their activities" are related to so-called advantages of the "gains" obtained with relatively low risk.In Romania, more than any of the EU member states criminal activities set as target financial institutions or foreign citizens, weakening confidence in financial systems and the security of communication networks in our country, people's confidence in electronic payment instruments and those available on the Internet.
Waade, Anne Marit
The purpose of this article is to illuminate the significance of locations in TV series, in particular in crime series. The author presents different theoretical approaches on settings and landscapes in TV series and crime stories. By analysing both the Swedish and the British versions...... of the Wallander series, the author examines the various types of location used, focusing especially on their dramaturgic and aesthetic roles and on the various ways in which locations are conceptualized in the two series. The analysis also includes extra materials on the DVDs. Finally, the author discusses some...... theoretical and methodological challenges of analysing the significance and impact of locations in TV productions....
Ivana B. Petrevska; Miroslava B. Petrevska
Criminal activities and organised crime became the main generators of social and state instability in the recent years, much more that the wars. They generate significant illegal money and need to launder this money so that they can be integrated into the legitimate financial system. Economic and financial crimes that called white collar crimes, typically has diffuse costs to society and concentrated benefits for the perpetrators. The social expectations are that th...
South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...
Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine
We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...
Ivana B. Petrevska
Full Text Available Criminal activities and organised crime became the main generators of social and state instability in the recent years, much more that the wars. They generate significant illegal money and need to launder this money so that they can be integrated into the legitimate financial system. Economic and financial crimes that called white collar crimes, typically has diffuse costs to society and concentrated benefits for the perpetrators. The social expectations are that the auditors should play an effective role in reducing, if not eliminating, these crimes.New auditing standards require auditors to take a proactive approach to assessing whether management has in place appropriate systems and controls to manage the risk of fraud.This paper shed light on nature, impacts and types of economic and financial crimes, and then the role of auditing profession in fighting against them.
Erdal KARAKAŞ; Sabri KARADOĞAN; Handan ARSLAN
Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System) in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month,...
Full Text Available Nowadays, Digital Identity Theft has become one of the most lucrative illegitimate business. Also known as “phishing”, it consists in unauthorized access to an individual’s personal financial data aiming to capture information relative to on line banking and on line financial services. At the beginning people were the victims of such scams, currently the attention is directed to computer networks. “Pharming” and “keylogging” are some of the latest and utmost sophisticated data processing techniques used by computer crime fraudsters. Latest entries are the “botnets”, herds of infected machines, usually managed by one sole command centre which can determine serious damages to network systems. Botnets have made large scale identity theft much simpler to realize. Organized crime is becoming more and more involved in this new crime world that can easily assure huge profits. The Italian State Police, in order to respond more effectively to this new rising challenge, has created, with the Postal and Communication Police, an agency highly specialized in combating such new phenomenon
Since it began offering cyber liability coverage in December 2011, the Texas Medical Liability Trust has received more than 150 cyber liability claims, most of which involved breaches of electronic protected health information. TMLT's cyber liability insurance will protect practices financially should a breach occur. The insurance covers a breach notification to customers and business partners, expenses for legal counsel, information security and forensic data services, public relations support, call center and website support, credit monitoring, and identity theft restoration services.
Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine
This paper matches a comprehensive Danish employer-employee data set with individual crime information (timing of offenses, charges, convictions, and prison terms by crime type) to estimate the impact of job displacement on an individual’s propensity to commit crime. We focus on displaced...... no significantly increasing trend prior to displacement; and the crime rate of workers who will be displaced is not significantly higher than the crime rate of workers who will not be displaced. In contrast, displaced workers’ probability to commit any crime increases by 0.52 percentage points in the year of job...
This annotated bibliography of materials concerning white collar crime is directed at undergraduate students and instructors. Materials are organized into eight subject headings: (1) theoretical statements; (2) data sources; (3) financial institutions fraud; (4) environmental crimes; (5) workplace safety; (6) computer crimes; (7) miscellaneous…
passes without a report of some financial crime or the other. Forensic accounting has become an emerging topic for research in recent time as a panacea for financial crimes. This study examines the significance of forensic accounting in the face of increasing fraudulent practices in. Nigeria with a view to advancing some ...
Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit
Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...
Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 447-469 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : crime under transition * deterrence * economic s of crime Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2012
Zar Rokh, Ehsan; Radmanesh, Mansour
The most primeval crimes in all countries are crimes against property such as: Burglary, Larceny, Arson, Embezzlement, False pretenses, Extortion, forgery, fraud, robbery, and etc these crimes engender when ownership existed. Lord can do any possession in his/her property .If anyone trespasses to another one ownership prevailing law punishment him/her. Also we define these crimes in Islamic criminal law; because Islamic rules are strange and prober must study very hard to understand ...
Although juvenile crime rates have not changed significantly in the last five years, the juvenile courts' ability to handle crime has deteriorated. To treat the problem of juvenile crime effectively requires intervention at the earliest sign of delinquency and an assessment of the juvenile courts and school system. (AM)
This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper expl...
Full Text Available This study discovers how unemployment rate explains the changes in the crime rate tendency in Europe by the two-stage-least square regression. The crime rate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU area is found evidently more sensitive to unemployment than the non-EMU countries. The adoption of a common currency also strengthens the connections of the criminal problem among the EMU countries. We found the seriousness of the endogenous bias involved using the OLS methodology, so previous findings on the small effect of unemployment on crime rate obtained by employing the OLS methodology could be unreliable. Empirically, a one-percentage-point increase in unemployment increases the property crime by nearly 9% on average. The large unemployment effect implies that the increase in the unemployment rate that occurred after the financial crisis in 2008, followed by the European sovereign-debt crisis, may account for the trending increasing tendencies of the crime rate in Europe. The high unemployment effect revealed markedly different policy implications than those that have previously been considered in the literature. These findings suggest that the key determinants for governmental authorities in the EMU area successfully mitigating crime would greatly depend on how the governments resolve their economic recession.
Kleemans, Edward R.; Soudijn, Melvin R J; Weenink, Anton W.
This chapter explores the consequences of cross-border crime for situational crime prevention. Many types of organised crime involve international smuggling activities – such as drug trafficking, money laundering, smuggling illegal immigrants, and other transnational illegal activities. Based on
Full Text Available The process of globalization is affecting all areas of social life, and thus no exception crime. Its effect is most evident in the development of new forms of crime that transcends national borders and states receive a supranational character. This primarily refers to the various forms of organized crime, but also in certain of its forms, which are a kind of state violence and the consequences of which are reflected in the systematic violation of human rights. Also, the process of globalization of crime has caused the formation of international organizations aimed at combating of crime which transcends national boundaries. New forms of crime are conditioned by globalization demanded a new approach to their study. Existing criminological theories have proven inadequate in explaining all the causes that lead to crime. It was necessary to create new theories and new doctrines about the causes of crime. In the continuous process of development of criminology, in constant search for new explanations of the causes of crime, within the sociological theories have emerged and globalization theories of criminality, which the authors in their work special attention. The focus of the globalization theory on crime just on its prevention, to reduce the risk of its occurrence. This is certainly a positive step because it shifts the focus of criminologists with immediate causes of crime and focus on the study of their interactions, which is largely socially conditioned, which is especially prominent in the work. The aim of this paper is to point out that globalization theories should not be viewed in isolation from other criminological theories and doctrines, but that one, although relatively new, contribute to the creation of complete systems of criminological doctrines in order to find the optimal social response to crime.
Dağlar, Murat; Argun, Uğur
As essential apparatus in crime analysis, crime mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are being progressively more accepted by police agencies. Development in technology and the accessibility of geographic data sources make it feasible for police departments to use GIS and crime mapping. GIS and crime mapping can be utilized as devices to discover reasons contributing to crime, and hence let law enforcement agencies proactively take action against the crime problems before they b...
Full Text Available Financial resources of the village that are sourced from a country or a Regional Finance Financial based Law Number 6 Year 2014 of The Village is the mandate of the law that must be allocated to the village. The interconnectedness of the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or Region concerned the Financial administrative and territorial relations, and there is no setting directly regarding the finances of the village as part of the financial system of the country or the financial area. In respect of the elements of the crime of corruption deeds against financial irregularities of the village there are still disagreements on the interpretation of the law in trapping the perpetrators of corruption on the village chief that implies not satisfy the principle of legality and legal certainty in the ruling of the matter of financial irregularities. In fact, many of the village chief or Councilor caught the criminal offence of corruption over the use of financial irregularities. This research analyzes How the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or region, as well as whether the financial resources of the village is derived from the state budget or region budget managed in village budget belongs to the category of village finances and whether tort against the financial management of the village can be categorized as a criminal act corruption. How To Cite: Purnomo, H. (2015. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 121-140. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.81
perverse incentive' to under record violent crime, particularly the various forms of assault.6 In effect this has rendered the SAPS statistics for inter-personal. * Gould and Burger are senior researchers in the Crime and Justice Programme of the ISS ...
Duong, Deborah; Turner, Robert; Selke, Karl
Like intergroup violence (Chap. 7) and insurgency (Chap. 8), crime and corruption are nearly inevitable companions of an international intervention. Both contribute to the reasons why the intervention occurs, and both may even grow and fester as side-effects of an intervention. Moreover, crime and corruption frequently serve as obstacles to a successful termination of an intervention.
Describes a project involving students in forensic science and crime prevention to improve their investigative skills using a DNA fingerprinting workshop and designing burglar alarms, investigating blood splatter patterns, investigating vehicle collisions, and researching crime prevention advice on the Internet. (YDS)
Hansen, Kim Toft
In Crime Stories: Criminalistic Fantasy and the Culture of Crisis in Weimar Germany, Todd Herzog – explicitly or implicitly – deals with different established myths about crime fiction, criminality and its cultural presumptions. It is generally quite seldom – as Herzog does – that the three...
Aigbovo & Eidenoje
Sep 8, 1971 ... government in Nigeria should be knowledgeable about crime theories so that they can fashion well ... single theory or definition can be exhaustive on the issue of crime.4 A major objective of criminological ...... parental kidnapping and kidnapping for sexual or slavery purposes). Yang63 adds a fourth ...
Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 447-469 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : crime under transition * deterrence * economic s of crime Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2012
... Customer Due Diligence Requirements for Financial Institutions AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... customer due diligence (CDD) regulation that would codify, clarify, consolidate, and strengthen existing... particular regarding issues related to identification and verification of customers as discussed in Section...
Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi
This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…
Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne; Walsh, Simon J
Guidance exists on how to count matches between samples in a crime sample database but we are unable to locate a definition of how to estimate a match rate. We propose a method that does not proceed from the match counting definition but which has a strong logic.
In recent times, there has been a spate of dramatic increase in Economic and financial crimes across the globe. The developing economies have not been left out, especially Nigeria. No day passes without a report of some financial crime or the other. Forensic accounting has become an emerging topic for research in recent ...
Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.
Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information assets but is less strong on the empirical study of the effectiveness of these techniques. Crime Science studies the effect of crime prevention techniques empi...
Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.
Violations of social norms can be costly to society and they are, in the case of large crimes, followed by prosecution. Minor misbehaviors — small crimes — do not usually result in legal proceedings. Although the economic consequences of a single small crime can be low, such crimes generate
Roberts, Julian V.
Most people assume that criminal offenders have only been convicted of a single crime. However, in reality almost half of offenders stand to be sentenced for more than one crime.The high proportion of multiple crime offenders poses a number of practical and theoretical challenges for the criminal......, and psychology offer their perspectives to the volume. A comprehensive examination of the dynamics involved with sentencing multiple offenders has the potential to be a powerful tool for legal scholars and professionals, particularly given the practical importance of the topic and the relative dearth of research...
Philipson, Tomas J; Posner, Richard A
Economic analysis of infectious diseases emphasizes the self-correcting character of epidemics, as rising risk of infection causes potential victims to take self-protective measures. We apply the analysis to crime, showing how rational potential victims of crime will take increased self-protective measures in response to rising crime rates, causing those rates to moderate. Victim responses to crime can offset public expenditures on crime control; this implies that there may be a "natural" rat...
Poelman, Wim; Junger, Marianne
Aan de Universiteit Twente is in 2009 de onderzoekgroep Crime Science Twente (CST) opgericht, waarin diverse faculteiten samenwerken. Inmiddels zijn verschillende onderzoekprojecten tot stand gebracht en is er een minor ontwikkeld waaraan studenten hebben deelgenomen. Vanuit de faculteit
Lykken, David T.
Discusses psychopathology as portrayed in literature, followed by an examination of some theories of psychopathy and the association of sociopathy and crime. Also discusses using parental licensing as a preventive measure against the development of sociopathology in children. (GR)
Ibraeva B. M.
Full Text Available hackers seem to be the most mysterious people in the contemporary world. Where legal actions are helpless, hackers can intervene. However, not only hackers but state employees commit cyber crimes once they get power. Is it just a coincidence or authorities and hackers have lots of things in common? This article is trying to cast light on the reasons why digital crimes are committed.
Parker, Ingrid A
...). These loose networks have many resources available to affiliates that include financial services, global transportation, and the weapons industry. Criminals, organized crime, and terrorist networks have access to these valuable resources via this affiliation. Organized crime, consequently, may be used as a tool of war.
Full Text Available For the past two decades organized crime has become a transnational phenomenon, and its impact is still far from being fully known and understood by common people. Its forms of manifestation, whether explicit, or subtle, are permanently evolving and adapting. As a result, its interference with the activities from the legal area makes it difficult to identify and counteract. After a long period of time when it was more a peripheral phenomenon, current transnational organized crime tends to become a major danger to the political, social and economic stability of the states. Through its nature and goals, as well as through the complexity of its forms of manifestation, transnational organized crime represents a major challenge for the state and nonstate organizations that deal with national and international security This paper focuses on the phenomenon starting from some of the most influent theories in international relations, presents the current features of transnational organized criminal groups and analyzes the causes and the favoring factors of the phenomenon, as well as the impact of the phenomenon upon national and international security at political, economic-financial and military level. The approach is an interdisciplinary one and also covers the nexus between transnational organized crime and international terrorism.
Ayesha Al Neyadi
Full Text Available Abstract Most people in UAE dont feel safe while they are use the Internet because most internet users have been a victim for cyber crime. Cyber crime threat rate has increased which has targeted on citizen privacy property and governments also the reputation problems. There are many criminal activities such as indecent acts Copyright issues Terrorist Acts State security and Contempt of religion. Cyber crimes due to several reasons such as they have lack of social intelligence they are being greedy and not being content also some of them have financial troubles these reasons usually exploited by criminals. Thus the decree will be a punishment or criminalizes formally on any person who using any kind of information technology and any others private life to blackmail or to threaten others online. In addition at the present time with the most detailed new cybercrime law that can be used to prove found guilty. As well the author discusses that the new cyber-crime law provides protection of personal information including banking information credit cards and electronic payment information.
Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.
as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....
Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.
Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality,
Matcheswalla, Yusuf; De Sousa, Avinash
Psychiatry and crime are linked in certain ways. On one hand, we have criminal offenders with serious psychopathology; and on the other hand, we have psychiatric patients who may commit criminal offences during the influence of a psychiatric disorder. The psychiatrist in practice has to come in contact with the criminal justice system at some point of time in his career. Forensic psychiatry under whose realm these issues reside is a branch yet underdeveloped in India. The present paper reviews the inter-relationship between crime and psychiatry and the factors involved therein. PMID:25838733
Graber, Doris A.
Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)
Draper, Rick; Cadzow, Emma
Applying CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies to schools can significantly contribute to a safer learning environment by influencing the behaviour of students and visitors. CPTED has three overlapping primary concepts that are intended to reduce opportunities for crime as well as fear of crime: access control,…
Full Text Available Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month, day and hour, and related to the land use. As a result, it was determined that there were differences in the distribution and concentration in the crime of theft with respect to the land use inside the city. The methods and findings in this study will provide rapid and accurate analyses for such kinds of studies. In addition, Interrelating the type of the crime with the regions or areas will contribute to preventing crime, and security in urban areas.
..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Institutional and Financial Assistance....) Burglary The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft. For reporting purposes this... of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 668 Education...
Full Text Available The last twenty years, since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, more than 120 violent conflicts waged across the globe and hundreds of thousands of people killed, disappeared, handicapped or left in distress.Violent conflicts involve frequent human rights violations as well as many crimes. These kinds of crimes are usually very serious and tend to involve many victims, and have attracted attention from a variety of disciplines, including social and political scientists and (criminal lawyers. Therefore, the author argues that criminology as an academic discipline has until recently hardly been interested in studying international crimes.In order to understand this, the author is firstly interested in sketching the background of the concept of international crimes and comparing it with the notion of political crimes and also with that of serious human rights violations. Secondly, international crimes will be situated in their political context of transitional justice and its links with organized crime will be explored.
Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.
The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…
Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle
In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829
Hein, Annamae J.
Describes the Crime Lab Project, which takes an economical, hands-on, interdisciplinary approach to studying the career of forensics in the middle or high school classroom. Includes step-by-step student requirements for the investigative procedure, a sample evidence request form, and an assessment rubric. (KHR)
parties, 'the media', and parts of 'civil society') that speak of xenophobic sentiments and tensions therefore become 'peddlers of… rumours and lies who are hell-bent to dent our humanity as a people.'32 The crime discourse, by contrast, does not hold the same ideological and political tinder since 'criminals' are constructed ...
Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu
WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya
Abel, Charles F.
Articulates need, nature, and form of a restitutionary approach to corporate crime. Considers small, in-prison production-oriented programs; residential in-community programs, and nonresidential in-community programs for individual offenders; also considers lump sum and continuous payments for corporations to make restitution. (NRB)
Witham, Shelly Anne; Krockover, Gerald H.; Burgess, Wilella; Bayley, Bill
Forensics can serve as the perfect vehicle for science exploration and learning. As part of a professional development workshop, teachers participated in various forensic activities. This article describes an archaeological dig simulation that provides the catalyst for an inquiry-based activity. In this activity, teachers make crime scene…
Beginning with the last review of gender and crime that appeared in the Annual Review of Sociology (1996), I examine the developments in the more traditional approaches to this subject (the gender ratio problem and the problem of theoretical generalization), life course research, and feminist
Marcotte, Dave E; Markowitz, Sara
In this paper we consider possible links between the diffusion of new pharmaceuticals used for treating mental illness and crime rates. We describe recent trends in crime and review the evidence showing that mental illness is a clear risk factor both for criminal behavior and victimization. We summarize the development of a number of new pharmaceutical therapies for the treatment of mental illness that came into wide use during the “great American crime decline.” We examine limited international data, as well as more detailed American data, to assess the relationship between rates of prescriptions of psychotropic drugs and crime rates, while controlling for other factors that may explain trends in crime rates. Using state-level variation in the rates that various drug therapies disperse within populations to identify impacts on crime rates, we find some evidence that the expansion of psychiatric drugs is associated with decreased violent crime rates, but not property crime rates. We find no robust impacts on homicide rates and no effects on arrest rates. Further, the magnitudes of the estimated effects of expanded drug treatment on violent crime are small. Our estimates imply that about 5 percent of the decline in crime during the period of our study was due to expanded mental health treatment.
Prieto Curiel, Rafael; Bishop, Steven
How secure people feel in a particular region is obviously linked to the actual crime suffered in that region but the exact relationship between crime and its fear is quite subtle. Two regions may have the same crime rate but their local perception of security may differ. Equally, two places may have the same perception of security even though one may have a significantly lower crime rate. Furthermore, a negative perception might persist for many years, even when crime rates drop. Here, we develop a model for the dynamics of the perception of security of a region based on the distribution of crime suffered by the population using concepts similar to those used for opinion dynamics. Simulations under a variety of conditions illustrate different scenarios and help us determine the impact of suffering more, or less, crime. The inhomogeneous concentration of crime together with a memory loss process is incorporated into the model for the perception of security, and results explain why people are often more fearful than actually victimized; why a region is perceived as being insecure despite a low crime rate; and why a decrease in the crime rate might not significantly improve the perception of security.
How secure people feel in a particular region is obviously linked to the actual crime suffered in that region but the exact relationship between crime and its fear is quite subtle. Two regions may have the same crime rate but their local perception of security may differ. Equally, two places may have the same perception of security even though one may have a significantly lower crime rate. Furthermore, a negative perception might persist for many years, even when crime rates drop. Here, we develop a model for the dynamics of the perception of security of a region based on the distribution of crime suffered by the population using concepts similar to those used for opinion dynamics. Simulations under a variety of conditions illustrate different scenarios and help us determine the impact of suffering more, or less, crime. The inhomogeneous concentration of crime together with a memory loss process is incorporated into the model for the perception of security, and results explain why people are often more fearful than actually victimized; why a region is perceived as being insecure despite a low crime rate; and why a decrease in the crime rate might not significantly improve the perception of security. PMID:28804260
Ludwig, Jens; Kling, Jeffrey R.
Understanding whether criminal behavior is %u201Ccontagious%u201D is important for law enforcement and for policies that affect how people are sorted across social settings. We test the hypothesis that criminal behavior is contagious by using data from the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) randomized housing-mobility experiment to examine the extent to which lower local-area crime rates decrease arrest rates among individuals. Our analysis exploits the fact that the effect of treatment group assign...
This paper examines the relationship between gun ownership and crime. Previous research has suffered from a lack of reliable data on gun ownership. I exploit a unique data set to reliably estimate annual gun ownership rates at both the state and the county level during the past two decades. My findings demonstrate that changes in gun ownership are significantly positively related to changes in the homicide rate, with this relationship driven entirely by the impact of gun ownership on murders ...
UĞURLU, Elif Gizem
Information Technology Crimes (IT crimes) are commonly known as Computer Crimes, Cyber Crimes, Internet Technology Crimes, Digital Crimes. The varied proliferation of these colloquialisms indicate that these crimes are becoming more and more common in Daily life. The 1999 Information Technology Crimes report drafted by the United Nations and European Union clearly defines types of crimes. The basis of commiting crimes establishes the differences between crimes. Emotional harassment and intimi...
Cooper, Antony K
Full Text Available for the prevention and management of crime. This paper describes two innovative techniques that were developed by CSIR for analysing crime: "crime clocks" and "target performance maps"....
While the high rate of crime in South Africa has received much international attention, mainly focused on violent crime, the vast majority of offences reported to the South African Police Service concern property and other non-violent offences. The present study explores the relationship between one of the most frequently ...
Marcotte, Dave E.; Markowitz, Sara
In this paper we consider possible links between the diffusion of new pharmaceuticals used for treating mental illness and crime rates. We describe recent trends in crime and review the evidence showing that mental illness is a clear risk factor both for criminal behavior and victimization. We summarize the development of a number of new…
Sofia Amaral; Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay; Samrat Bhattacharyais; Rudra Sensarmais
This article has two goals. First, using district-level panel data we identify key determinants of violent crime, nonviolent crime, and crime against women in India, 1990-2007. Second, using district-level variation in regard to Maoist-driven social conflict, we examine how social conflict affects crime and its determinants. In addition to conventional determinants of crime (e.g., law enforcement and economic variables), we examine how variation in sex ratios affects crime. We also study whet...
Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.
Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary
Surveys ways in which criminal laws are finding their way into cyberspace, the implications of such actions for communicative rights and liabilities, and the media differentials of crime and punishment. Examines crime committed using email and the Internet; computer mediated felonies, misdemeanors, and violations committed in cyberspace; forgery;…
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Sadler, A. E., Ed.
Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explores many aspects of juvenile crime. It is a commonly held view that the number of crimes committed by juveniles is…
Grodal, Torben Kragh
typology of moral systems and how different stages relate to different social systems. Further, a functional description of the various moral emotions is used to characterize crime fictions. The use of moral emotions in crime fiction is exemplified in Oplev’s The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009), angry...
McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…
Connolly, Michael P.; And Others
Although the determinants of experienced and reported crime have been fairly extensively studied, there is relatively little consensus about the predictors of victimization or likelihood of reporting crimes, and research on the elderly Hispanic Americans as victims and reporters is practically nonexistent. In l979-80, a national study used a…
Hansen, Kim Toft
This article considers the postsecular turn in Scandinavian crime fiction. Postsecularism describes a renewed openness towards questions of spirituality, while maintaining the practice of critical scrutiny. Since 2000, we have seen an intensive increase in the number of titles treating religion and....../or spirituality in a way which differs from the genre’s usual approach. Firstly, I will frame the traditional attitude towards religion in crime fiction by Scandinavian welfare modernity, outlining the conspicuous absence of religion in the genre. Secondly, I propose a typology of the treatment of religion...... in crime fiction. My examples are all taken from the vast corpus of contemporary Scandinavian crime fiction, but it would be rather unproblematic to stretch the scope of the theory to an analysis of western crime fiction in general. Within this typology, I will introduce the phenomenon of a religious...
Hansen, Kim Toft
Scandinavian media where religion has become mediatized. Consumers of popular culture no longer endorse confidence in institutionalized religion, but that does not mean that people are losing faith: Faith only seem to adjust itself and tiptoe into popular media and popular fiction. Hence, this paper seeks......In recent Scandinavian crime fiction an ongoing discussion on religion and religiosity is taking place. This undercurrent goes historically a long way back, but the past few decades seem to have left room for an altered view on religion in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has usually been...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...
Hansen, Kim Toft
Scandinavian media where religion has become mediatized. Consumers of popular culture no longer endorse confidence in institutionalized religion, but that does not mean that people are losing faith: Faith only seems to adjust itself and tiptoe into popular media and popular fiction. Hence, this paper seeks......In recent Scandinavian crime fiction an ongoing discussion on religion and religiosity is taking place. This undercurrent goes historically a long way back, but the past few decades seem to have left room for an altered view on religion in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has usually been...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...
Since the publication of Edwin Sutherland's classical study, White Collar Crime, personality has been treated as completely irrelevant as a cause or as a correlating variable in studies of economic crime. This article questions that thesis. In an ongoing Swedish project studying economic crime in the areas of construction, engineering, and the music industry, 128 informants were interviewed regarding the personal character of the economic criminal compared to that of the law-abiding businessperson. Data were collected from five different regions in Sweden using the Big Five model, the personality model most often used within the field of personality research today. This article compares the results from the interviews with the few international studies that exist regarding economic crimes in these areas and common results are emphasized. It also presents nuanced analyses of the significance of personality in economic crime.
Full Text Available Article presents one part of pop culture is crime portrayed as entertainment in television shows. Television has the means of information and entertainment, resulting in the shift of crime shows, initially crime was portrayed in the news but due to the high popularity, it becomes part of the entertainment as well. In terms of information, the most famous of crime drama show is Crime Scene Investigation (CSI, and this show gave effect known as the CSI effect, which is people have more appreciation to scientific evidences and DNA testing in trials. On the other hand, with so many shows involving crime resulting in cultivation impact, which is accumulation and the formation of perception of reality. People who are more exposed to this crime show will form the same perception as the one depicted by television and resulted to changes in their behavior. Several proposals to reduce this negative effects are audience learning, the use of rating system and electronic key in television set.
Turner, John D.
This essay looks at the bidirectional relationship between financial history and financial economics. It begins by giving a brief history of financial economics by outlining the main topics of interest to financial economists. It then documents and explains the increasing influence of financial economics upon financial history, and warns of the dangers of applying financial economics unthinkingly to the study of financial history. The essay proceeds to highlight the many insights that financi...
Sevigny, Eric L.; Zhang, Gary
This study investigates how barriers to school-based crime prevention programming moderate the effects of situational crime prevention (SCP) policies on levels of violent crime in U.S. public high schools. Using data from the 2008 School Survey on Crime and Safety, we estimate a series of negative binomial regression models with interactions to…
McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away, homelessness, criminal history, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse) increase a person's risk for crime victimization? (c) Do lifestyle characteristics mediate the relationship between child abuse/ neglect and crime victimization? (d) Do these relationships vary by a person's sex or race/ethnicity? Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 497) were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children (n = 395), followed up, and interviewed in middle adulthood (approximate age 39.5). Logistic and ordinary least square regressions were conducted to assess risk for crime victimization and test for mediation. Child abuse and/ or neglect increased a person's risk for physical (OR = 2.56, p crime victimization. For the sample overall, running away served as a partial mediator between child abuse and neglect and physical and sexual crime victimization. In addition, results revealed sex and race/ethnicity differences in patterns of mediation. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.
Full Text Available Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI respondents’ attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on their intentions to report crimes to the police. Drawing on a survey of LGBTI individuals sampled from a Gay Pride community event and online LGBTI community forums (N = 329, I use quantitative statistical methods to examine whether LGBTI people’s beliefs in police homophobia are also directly associated with the behavioral intention to report crime. Overall, the results indicate that LGBTI and heterosexual people differ significantly in their intention to report crime to the police, and that a belief in police homophobia strongly influences LGBTI people’s intention to underreport crime to the police.
A study was conducted to address the issue of how organized crime impacts on Canadians and their communities both socially and economically. As far as environmental crime is concerned, three main areas of concern have been identified: (1) illicit trade in ozone depleting substances, (2) illicit hazardous waste treatment, and (3) disposal of illicit trade in endangered species. To gauge the magnitude of organized crime activity, the market value of worldwide illegal trafficking in illicit drugs was estimated to be as high as $100 billion worldwide (between $1.4 to 4 billion in Canada). It is suspected that Canada supplies a substantial portion of the U.S. black market in chlorofluorocarbons with most of the rest being supplied from Mexico. Another area of concern involves the disposal of hazardous wastes. Canada produces approximately 5.9 million tonnes of hazardous waste annually. Of these, 3.2 million tonnes are sent to off-site disposal facilities for specialized treatment and recycling. The treatment of hazardous waste is a very profitable business, hence vulnerable to fraudulent practices engaged in by organized crime groups. Environmental implications of this and other environmental crimes, as well as their economic, commercial, health and safety impact were examined. Other areas of organized crime activity in Canada (drugs, economic crimes, migrant trafficking, counterfeit products, motor vehicle theft, money laundering) were also part of the study.
Cunningham, Cindy C.; Peloquin, Tracy D.
Since late 1996 the Forensic Identification Services Section of the Ontario Provincial Police has been actively involved in state-of-the-art image capture and the processing of video images extracted from crime scene videos. The benefits and problems of this technology for video analysis are discussed. All analysis is being conducted on SUN Microsystems UNIX computers, networked to a digital disk recorder that is used for video capture. The primary advantage of this system over traditional frame grabber technology is reviewed. Examples from actual cases are presented and the successes and limitations of this approach are explored. Suggestions to companies implementing security technology plans for various organizations (banks, stores, restaurants, etc.) will be made. Future directions for this work and new technologies are also discussed.
Full Text Available In the past few years numerous secret transgressions and crimes have been revealed in the media. Whistleblowers reveal clandestine agreements between managers and directors of large companies; criminals (pentiti make deals with criminal justice officials; cyclists and athletes make public confessions about drug use; victims of sexual abuse come forward with their testimonies. In this paper, I try to analyze why attitudes about secrecy have changed in the last couple of decades and how and why so many secrets have been revealed, either by individuals who are complicit (whistleblowers or cyclists, by victims (of child abuse by the Catholic clergy and by outsiders (WikiLeaks activists. In addition, some suggestions on the methods of criminological research in closed and isolated groups which consider such information leaks a form of betrayal are provided.
South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...
Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.
Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…
McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.
This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…
South African Crime Quarterly. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 33 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Peter J. Morgan; Victor Pontines
Developing economies are seeking to promote financial inclusion, i.e., greater access to financial services for low-income households and firms, as part of their overall strategies for economic and financial development. This raises the question of whether financial stability and financial inclusion are, broadly speaking, substitutes or complements. In other words, does the move toward greater financial inclusion tend to increase or decrease financial stability? A number of studies have sugge...
Full Text Available Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas.The economic theory of crime ［1］ demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime.The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.
Edward L. Glaeser; Bruce Sacerdote
Crime rates are much higher in big cities than in either small cities or rural areas, and this situation has been relatively pervasive for several centuries. This paper attempts to explain this connection by using victimization data, evidence from the NLSY on criminal behavior and the Uniform Crime Reports. Higher pecuniary benefits for crime in large cities can explain approximately 27% of the effect for overall crime, though obviously much less of the urban- crime connection for non-pecunia...
Sept 26, 2016. Chris Lukas, the Special Agent in Charge of the Electronic Crimes Division within the OIG's Office of Investigations talks about computer forensics, cybercrime in the EPA and his division's role in criminal investigations.
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...
Grodal, Torben Kragh
The article first discusses how crime fiction centrally activates moral emotions related to feelings of social trust and social conflicts. The article uses psychological theory to analyse audio-visual fiction, and it takes an evolutionary stance in relation to morality; within film studies......, and especially within literary studies, the inspiration from evolutionary studies has been strong in the last decade. Humans are adapted to group living, and emotions linked to fairness have an innate basis. The article then shows how different crime stories activate different stages in Kohlberg’s functional...... typology of moral systems and how different stages relate to different social systems. Further, a functional description of the various moral emotions is used to characterize crime fictions. The use of moral emotions in crime fiction is exemplified in Oplev’s The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009), angry...
Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull
SACQ). We believe that the UCT. Centre of Criminology's commitment to advancing policy-relevant research and analysis on public safety, criminal justice and evolving forms of crime in South Africa, and the global South more broadly, ...
Full Text Available the Second World War offered the opportunity, to the international community, to realize the total lack of international law prohibiting the worst inhumane acts. Particular gravity, the large number of casualties as a result of persecution or extermination of whole groups of people highlights crimes against humanity among offenses punishable by the criminal law, thus requiring additional scientific research and a more elaborate analysis. Effective punishment of crimes against humanity is an important element in the prevention of such crimes, the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, such as to encourage promote international peace and security. Crimes against humanity were first regulated by the rules of international criminal law after the Second World War as a response to the atrocities committed by the Nazi and Japanese fighting forces in the occupied territories, against the local population and in the death camps, of broad categories of people based on national, ethnic or racial.
Shoesmith, Gary L.
This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645
Bugarski Tatjana D.
Full Text Available Environment as the totality of natural and man-made values and their relationships, is a complex problem that is not just a challenge for the law in the sense that it is protected from intrusion, but also for the negative social phenomena such as crime. Dynamic negative social phenomenon, immanent to every society, crime is constantly in the process of 'adaptation' in terms of modification of existing and creation of new forms. One of the contemporary forms of crime is an environmental crime which multiplies its concrete forms of manifestation, which is due to the extraordinary diversity of the environment in which offenders constantly find new enforcement cases. Especially significant issues regarding the environment is waste whose collection, transport, treatment and disposal is one of the priority importance for humanity. However, insufficient awareness of the significance and importance of this issue, as well as the harmful consequences of failure in connection with the waste in an appropriate manner, together with the motive of greed is enough for offenders to deal with illegal activity and exercise in relation to different types of waste. In this type of criminal activity usually occur organized criminal group that this type of criminal activity makes it even more difficult. These problems are extremely important and complex, in this paper, attention is given to the organized environmental crime in connection with smuggling of hazardous waste, as one of the forms of organized environmental crime.
Brax, David; Munthe, Christian
In this introduction to the special symposium on the philosophy of hate crime, we provide an overview of the main philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation. We point out that there are two overarching philosophical issues that span over the literature: the Conceptual Question--concerning what hate crime is--and the Normative Question--concerning the status of hate crimes and the justification of hate crime legislation. We also provide brief summaries of the articles in the special section and point to their relations to the broader themes. © The Author(s) 2014.
Institutional altruism in the form of a public-sector intervention and support for victims and social altruism generated by mutual aid and solidarity among citizens constitute a coming together in a crisis. This coming together and mutual support precipitate a decrease in crime rates during such an event. This paper presents an analysis of daily fluctuations in crime during the prolonged ice storms in Quebec, Canada, in January 1998 that provoked an electrical blackout. Of particular interest are the principal crisis-related influences on daily crime patterns. A first series of analyses examines the impact of altruistic public-sector mobilisation on crime. A significant decline in property crime rates was noticed when cheques were distributed to crisis victims in financial need in Montérégie, and hence they were attributable to public intervention (institutional altruism). Moreover, the rate of social altruism (financial donations), which was more substantial in adjoining rather than distant regions, was inversely proportional to crime rates. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.
Blando, James D; McGreevy, Katharine; O'Hagan, Emily; Worthington, Karen; Valiante, David; Nocera, Maryalice; Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Violence against health care workers is a serious occupational health hazard, especially for emergency department (ED) employees. A significant degree of variability in security programs among hospital EDs is present in part due to the absence of federal legislation requiring baseline security features. Nationally, only voluntary guidelines from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for the protection of health care workers exist. The purpose of this study was to examine ED security programs and employee assault rates among EDs with different financial resources, size, and background community crime rates. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among large and small hospitals located in communities with low or high rates of community crime. Hospital financial data were collected through the state health department, and employee assault data were abstracted from hospital OSHA logs. Comparisons were made using a chi-squared or Wilcoxon test. Small hospitals located in towns with low community crime rates implemented the fewest security program features despite having the second highest rate of assault-related OSHA-recordable injuries among ED employees (0.66 per 100,000 staff hours). Due to the highly stressful workplace characteristics of EDs, the risk of employee assault is universal among all hospital sizes in all types of communities. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cooper, Anthony K
Full Text Available View), spreadsheets (eg: Excel) and data bases (eg: Access). 2. Crime clocks A map of crime clocks displays the distribution of crime in time and space using scaled pie charts to show the relative crime rates for the selected period being analysed. Each... pie chart shows the total aggregated crime for an area (eg: CAS Block or precinct) and is positioned on the centroid of the relevant area. Hence, the size of each pie chart is proportional to the amount of crime that occurred in that area over...
Yonas, Michael A.; Borrebach, Jeffrey D.; Burke, Jessica G.; Brown, Shawn T.; Philp, Katherine D.; Burke, Donald S.; Grefenstette, John J.
An agent-based model was developed to explore the effectiveness of possible interventions to reduce neighborhood crime and violence. Both offenders and non-offenders (or citizens) were modeled as agents living in neighborhoods, with a set of rules controlling changes in behavior based on individual experience. Offenders may become more or less inclined to actively commit criminal offenses, depending on the behavior of the neighborhood residents and other nearby offenders, and on their arrest experience. In turn, citizens may become more or less inclined to report crimes, based on the observed prevalence of criminal activity within their neighborhood. This paper describes the basic design and dynamics of the model, and how such models might be used to investigate practical crime intervention programs.
Brody, Richard G; Kiehl, Kent A
The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of violence with respect to white-collar criminals. The analysis is conceptual, focusing on the historical underpinnings of white-collar crime and reviewing the evolution of white-collar criminals. Findings suggest that white-collar criminals do display violent tendencies and, contrary to popular belief, can become dangerous individuals. The paper represents an extremely useful and practical source for fraud examiners and other white-collar crime investigators. Raising the mvareness of investigators dealing with white-collar criminals may prevent them from becoming victims of a violent act. The paper fulfills a need to highlight a dangerous trend with white-collar criminals in that they may be driven to violence against those involved in investigating their crimes.
Full Text Available committees to work closely with the police, and in some instances involving local employees (such as domestic workers) to act as the ‘eyes on the street’ and report suspicious behaviour.7 The question that arises is, therefore, how to plan against crime... AND LIEBERMANN six policing areas in the Northern Cape and is also being used in KwaZulu-Natal as part of a broader local crime prevention strategy. So far, the evidence suggests that the model has significant potential to enhance local safety. The model...
Khadse, Vivek P.; Akhil, P.; Anto, Christopher; Gnanasigamani, Lydia J.
One of the curses to the society is a crime which has a deep impact on the society. Victims of crimes are the one who is impacted the most. All communities in the world are affected by crime and the criminal justice system, but largely impacted communities are the backward classes. There are many cases reported of crime committed against scheduled tribes from the year 2005 till date. This paper states the analysis of Crimes Committed against Scheduled Tribes in the year 2015 in various states and union territories in India. In this study, Multiple Linear regression techniques have been used to analyze the crimes committed against scheduled tribes’ community in India. This study compares the number of cases reported to the police station and rate of crime committed in different states in India. It also states the future prediction of the crime that would happen. It will also predict the number of cases of crime committed against the scheduled tribe that can be reported in future. The dataset which has been used in this study is taken from official Indian government repository for crimes which include different information of crimes committed against scheduled tribes in different states and union territories measured under the population census of the year 2011. This study will help different Indian states and union territory government to analyze and predict the future crimes that may occur and take appropriate measures against it before the actual crime would occur.
De Vocht, F; Heron, J; Campbell, R; Egan, M; Mooney, J D; Angus, C; Brennan, A; Hickman, M
Excessive alcohol use contributes to public nuisance, antisocial behaviour, and domestic, interpersonal and sexual violence. We test whether licencing policies aimed at restricting its spatial and/or temporal availability, including cumulative impact zones, are associated with reductions in alcohol-related crime. Reported crimes at English lower tier local authority (LTLA) level were used to calculate the rates of reported crimes including alcohol-attributable rates of sexual offences and violence against a person, and public order offences. Financial fraud was included as a control crime not directly associated with alcohol abuse. Each area was classified as to its cumulative licensing policy intensity for 2009-2015 and categorised as 'passive', low, medium or high. Crime rates adjusted for area deprivation, outlet density, alcohol-related hospital admissions and population size at baseline were analysed using hierarchical (log-rate) growth modelling. 284 of 326 LTLAs could be linked and had complete data. From 2009 to 2013 alcohol-related violent and sexual crimes and public order offences rates declined faster in areas with more 'intense' policies (about 1.2, 0.10 and 1.7 per 1000 people compared with 0.6, 0.01 and 1.0 per 1000 people in 'passive' areas, respectively). Post-2013, the recorded rates increased again. No trends were observed for financial fraud. Local areas in England with more intense alcohol licensing policies had a stronger decline in rates of violent crimes, sexual crimes and public order offences in the period up to 2013 of the order of 4-6% greater compared with areas where these policies were not in place, but not thereafter. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...... to understand the concept of augmentet reality. The crime scene is an encoded place due to certain actions and events which have taken place and which have left various traces which in turn may be read and interpreted: blood, nails, hair are all (DNA) codes to be cracked as are traces of gun powder, shot holes...
Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.
Hipp, John R.
This study compares the relationship between official crime rates in census tracts and resident perceptions of crime. Using a unique data set that links household-level data from the American Housing Survey metro samples over 25 years (1976-1999) with official crime rate data for census tracts in selected cities during selected years, this study…
Reichel, Philip L.
Provides information on developing a short college level module on crime and societal reaction in communist society. Presented are techniques for gauging student knowledge of crime in communist states, theories by communist criminologists, and comparative criminology suggestions. (Author/DB)
The statistics for the 2009/10 period show an overall increase in crime at a national level that is driven by increases in five categories of crime: shoplifting, commercial crime, residential and business burglaries, and theft from motor vehicles. While the statistics suggest that violent crime has decreased, there are a number of ...
Full Text Available The focus of another global crisis is banks and their organisational systems. Public opinion has devoted special attention to those who today are defined as the major players of the economic and financial crisis that affected all countries. The banking system is being accused. The system concept is the subject of this article because it is the main theme used for analysing systematic bank behaviours. These behaviours can apply to the definition of “bank criminology”. On the basis of the history of the greatest international bank scandals, and subsequently analysing criminological researches on white-collar crimes, the author will attempt to identify the connections between systems which have led, today as in the past, to a crisis which impacts on the real economy entailing radical changes in the lifestyle of the population of all the nations. The author makes reference to some crimes currently before the Italian courts, namely the crime of bank loan usury, and he also analyses the orientations of the Civil and Penal Court of Cassation. From a criminological point of view, the absence of clearly identifiable accused of such a crime committed inside the bank system is of particular interest. Consequently, it is necessary to reflect on the relationship between bank and clients in both ways and on the role of criminology and victimology. Nucleo centrale dell’ennesima crisi a livello globale sono le banche e il loro sistema di organizzazione. L’opinione pubblica ha posto particolare attenzione, in vari livelli di informazione, su quelli che oggi vengono definiti gli attori principali della crisi economico-finanziaria che ha investito tutti i paesi del mondo; sotto la lente di ingrandimento, e sotto accusa, c’è il sistema organizzativo bancario. Il concetto di sistema è l’oggetto di questa trattazione, tema principe per poter analizzare una serie di comportamenti organizzati sistematicamente dagli istituti bancari e tali da poter essere
Geoffrey H. Donovan; Jeffrey P. Prestemon
The authors estimate the relationship between trees and three crime aggregates (all crime, violent crime, and property crime) and two individual crimes (burglary and vandalism) in Portland, Oregon. During the study period (2005-2007), 431 crimes were reported at the 2,813 single-family homes in our sample. In general, the authors find that trees in the public right of...
... Enforcement Network 31 CFR Chapter X RIN 1506-AB15 Request for Comments: Customer Due Diligence Requirements... Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) on Customer Due Diligence (CDD) Requirements for Financial Institutions...\\ Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, ``Customer Due Diligence Requirements for Financial Institutions,'' 77...
... Exchange Co. as a Financial Institution of Primary Money Laundering Concern AGENCY: Financial Crimes... United States that is of primary money laundering concern. The Director of FinCEN is issuing an order....S.C. 5318A, found Halawi Exchange to be a Financial Institution of Primary Money Laundering Concern...
...; Anti-Money Laundering Programs for Various Financial Institutions AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement... certain insurance companies to develop and implement written anti-money laundering programs reasonably designed to prevent those financial institutions from being used to facilitate money laundering and the...
Ganzini, L; McFarland, B; Bloom, J
Mental health professionals have focused attention on the psychiatric sequelae of criminal victimization. This article compares the experience of white collar and violent crime victims on several parameters including statistical risk of victimization and psychiatric outcome after victimization. Emphasis is given to data obtained from interviewing 77 victims of a fraudulent financial scheme.
Florence Tushabe; Venansius Baryamureeba
There is a general feeling that Internet crime is an advanced type of crime that has not yet infiltrated developing countries like Uganda. The carefree nature of the Internet in which anybody publishes anything at anytime poses a serious security threat for any nation. Unfortunately, there are no formal records about this type of crime for Uganda. Could this mean that it does not exist there? The author conducted an independent research to ascertain whether cyber crimes h...
The minister of police and other prominent politicians have interpreted violence against foreign nationals as 'just crime', implying that it is criminally motivated, and thus denying the presence or relevance of xenophobic motivations. This article deconstructs this claim by showing that the police have in fact reacted strongly ...
Porter, Stephen B; Baker, Alysha T
We describe two merging lines of empirical inquiry: entire false memories for autobiographical events and false confessions. A recent study showed that people can be led to remember, and confess to, perpetrating serious crimes that never occurred when confronted with suggestive interview tactics commonly used in police interrogations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
African Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 4 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Sarhad Hamza Khdir
This paper analyses the frauds of employee embezzlement by Gary Foster (Citigroup) and insider trading by Raj Rajaratnam (Galleon Group) both in 2011. By comparing to the notorious cases of Enron and WorldCom, it is found that the contemporary frauds tend to be committed through a diversified scheme rather than accounting manipulation. Fraudsters tend to take advantage of their positions to override strict rules and regulations. Shareholders and related stakeholders including gove...
Fallesen, Peter; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Imai, Susumu
In this paper, we estimate the effect of workfare policy on crime by exploiting two exogenous welfare policy changes in Denmark. Our results show a strong decline in the crime rate among treated unemployment uninsured men relative to untreated uninsured and unemployment insured men, and part...... and potentially lasting crime reducing effect of workfare policy....
Campus Law Enforcement Journal, 2012
The Campus Crime Prevention Committee has compiled a list of university and college crime prevention agencies and resources, which includes contact information, links to agency crime prevention web pages, and a list of resources they offer (i.e., brochures, guides, PowerPoint programs, videos, etc.) as well as a spreadsheet showing organizations…
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crime control. 742.7 Section 742.7... CONTROLS § 742.7 Crime control. (a) License requirements. In support of U.S. foreign policy to promote the observance of human rights throughout the world, a license is required to export and reexport crime control...
Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine
Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…
This comment presents an overview of criminological theories of crime and examines some contemporary crime problems in Nigeria against the backdrop of relevant theories. It also analyses society's response to each crime problem in the form of government policies and legislation. The paper argues that an appreciable ...
This essay investigates whether students who attend higher-quality schools commit fewer crimes. If so, improving school quality might be worth considering as an approach to reducing juvenile crime. The author finds some evidence that higher-quality schools are associated with lower probabilities of committing some types of crime. (Contains 1…
Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…
Czelusniak, Tanja Erika Andersen
Forced marriage is one of the newest crimes against humanity adjudicated at international criminal tribunals. This thesis shall discuss the evolution of this new crime, asking: Has international jurisprudence come to a point of recognition of forced marriage as a separate crime against humanity and if so, is it viable?
Zimmer, Judith A.
Describes four activities for secondary students which deal with teenagers and crime. States that through these activities students will be able to identify those who are commonly victimized, discuss community services for victims, talk about the causes of crime, and explain how teens can play a role in community crime prevention. (GEA)
Cyber crime is a worldwide problem, with a global reach. Cyber crimes do not respect national boundaries, and so can be sent to and from anywhere in the world. Many reports, mostly by cyber security firms, regularly release information ranking the different nations in terms of top cyber crime output, broken down into varying cyber crime types. However, little has been done to classify nations according to separate cyber crime typologies using any multivariate methods. Instead, reporting is de...
Lynch, Michael; Barrett, Kimberly; Stretesky, Paul; Long, Michael; Jarrell, Melissa; Ozymy, Joshua
Criminologists have advocated understanding ‘crime as pollution’ to argue for market based crime control policy initiatives that mirror pollution control policy initiatives. However, the concept of crime as pollution is misleading, and threatens to give rise to misguided policy initiatives in efforts to control street crime. Crime as pollution risks reproducing and reinforcing race, ethnic, and class-based inequalities that are characteristic of pollution control responses. Alternatively, we ...
Full Text Available The article examines the evidence of endemic financial crime in the global financial crisis (GFC, the legal impunity surrounding these crimes and the popular revolt against these abuses in the financial, political and legal systems. This is set against a consideration of the development since the 1970s of a conservative politics championing de-regulation, unfettered markets, welfare cuts and harsh law and order policies. On the one hand, this led to massively increased inequality and concentrations of wealth and political power in the hands of the super-rich, effectively placing them above the law, as the GFC revealed. On the other, a greatly enlarged, more punitive criminal justice system was directed at poor and minority communities. Explanations in terms of the rise of penal populism are helpful in explaining these developments, but it is argued they adopt a limited and reductionist view of populism, failing to see the prospects for a progressive populist politics to re-direct political attention to issues of inequality and corporate and white collar criminality.
Making the length of a prison sentence conditional upon an individual’s offence history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was approximately 10 times longer than usual. We
Author Guidelines. SACQ is a quarterly journal published by the Crime and Justice Programme of the Institute for Security Studies. The journal is published in hard copy and is available on our website: www.issafrica.org. The journal is widely read nationally and internationally by criminal justice practitioners, researchers ...
Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull
We are very pleased to announce that the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) has partnered with the University of Cape Town (UCT) as co-custodians of the South African Crime Quarterly (SACQ). We believe that the UCT. Centre of Criminology's commitment to advancing policy-relevant research and analysis on public ...
Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.
In this paper we measure perceptions of incorrect behavior or ‘small crime’, based on a questionnaire administered to a large representative sample from the Dutch population. In the questionnaire we ask the respondents to rate the severity or justifiability of a number of small crimes. We present
Mark Shaw is the Director of the Global Initiative against. Transnational Organised Crime in Geneva and Senior Visiting. Fellow at the London School of Economics and Political Science. (LSE) IDEAS International Drug Policy Project. He was until recently. National Research Foundation Professor of Justice and Security.
Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas
This paper studies the effects of legal street prostitution zones on registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where these tippelzones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. Our difference-in-difference analysis of 25 Dutch cities between
Sands, Jack M.
The document is a training bulletin for criminal investigators, explaining the use of probability, logic, lateral thinking, group problem solving, and psychological profiles as methods of solving crimes. One chpater of several pages is devoted to each of the five methods. The use of each method is explained; problems are presented for the user to…
Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.
Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional
Graber, Doris A.
According to one sociological model, news is a product of socially determined notions of who and what is important and the organizational structures that result for routinizing news collection; events that deviate from these notions are ignored. This report describes a study of crime news coverage in the media that used this model to examine the…
1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...
Financial Workbook. External User Guide. Grant Administration Division .... Financial Reporting cycle. The Workbook passes back and forth between the recipient and IDRC throughout the project life cycle. Proposed Budget Preparation. Financial Reporting ... The system will automatically calculate the indirect cost per year.
This Management's Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) provides a narrative discussion of the financial results and operational changes for the financial year ended on. 31 March 2015. This discussion should be read with the. Financial Statements and accompanying notes provided on pages 46-63, which were prepared in ...
Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...
Grodal, Torben Kragh
This article analyzes the psychological and neurological underpinnings of crime fiction and discusses the interrelation between cultural and biological-evolutionary determinants of fictions of detection. It argues that although crime fiction is a product of modern life conditions, it is also...... how crime fiction activates strong salience (in some respects similar to the effect of dopamine-drugs like cocaine, Ritalin, and amphetamine) and discusses the role of social intelligence in crime fiction. It further contrasts the unempathic classical detector fictions with two subtypes of crime...... fiction that blend seeking with other emotions: the hardboiled crime fiction that blends detection with action and hot emotions like anger and bonding, and the moral crime fiction that strongly evokes moral disgust and contempt, often in conjunction with detectors that perform hard to fake signals...
Sayinzoga, Aussi; Bulte, Erwin H.; Lensink, Robert
We organise a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Rwanda to measure the impact of financial literacy training on financial knowledge and behaviour. The training increased financial literacy of participants, changed their savings and borrowing behaviour and had a positive effect on the
Karl H. Stingeder
äventivmaßnahmen ist weder ausreichend noch nachhaltig. What roles does cyber crime play today? What differentiates cyber crime from cyber war? How must cyber security be organized in order to effectively ensure sustainable protection? Cyber crime activities are frequently characterized by the easy accessibility of fraudulent know-how and technical means. Due to the sluggish and inadequate implementation of coordinated countermeasures, cyber crimes are a low-risk and high-reward scenario for cyber criminals. The more organized and specialized a cyber crime network, the greater the potential for damage. In fact, cyber crime is the umbrella term for fraudulent activities via the World Wide Web. These rely on the model of "traditional" offline criminal behavior patterns, which are easy to access thanks to the technological spectrum of the Internet. Nonetheless, it is the technical execution of the crime that represents a crucial distinguishing characteristic between online and offline fraud. Furthermore, from the point of view of organized crime, governments and terror groups, a lower inhibition threshold for a military exploitation of the Internet is a focal point of cyber security. As soon as cyber crime activity is the means by which to achieve political goals, it is called cyber war. Sustainable measures directed against cyber crime and cyber war take place in a highly dynamic environment. Cyber criminals are usually well-equipped in terms of logistics and financial resources. Many are supported by governments. Cyber criminals have wide-ranging technical expertise, which enables them to develop customized malware to accomplish their goals. At present, many companies and public sector entities do not fully realize how imperative defense systems are. Cyber security focus on purely preventive measures is therefore neither sufficient nor sustainable.
Full Text Available White-collar offenders have access to resources that make financial crime convenient. In the rare case of crime suspicion, resources are available in terms of professional attorney work, control over internal investigations, and public relations support. Hiring private investigators at an early stage of potential crime disclosure enables the organization to control the investigation mandate and influence the investigation process and the investigation output. Getting an early start on reconstruction of the past in terms of a fraud examination makes it possible for the suspect and the organization to influence what facts are relevant and how facts might be assessed in terms of possible violations of the penal code. Convenience aspects of private investigations are discussed in this article in terms of five internal investigations, two in the United States (General Motors and Lehman Brothers and three in Norway (Telenor VimpelCom, DNB Bank, and Norwegian Football Association. The aim of this research is to contribute insights into convenience associated with internal private investigations.
Full Text Available The actuality of this article is determined by the need to demonstrate that financial crisis is not just an issue of economic disaster caused by contagion effect of financial cataclysm, expressed in national currency depreciation, depletion of foreign exchange reserves, mass bankruptcy of financial institutions, non-market entities insolvency and impossibility of sovereign debt servicing, but a special investment opportunity with associated characteristics of profitability. Central aims of article is research of financial crisis essence, investment mechanisms linked to existing fundamental laws of its conduct and determination of investment opportunities manifested in various segments of financial market and related sectors. Main research methods were: systemic analysis, statistical analysis, monographic and logic synthesis, etc. Main scientific results obtained in the article, due to research are to identify, analyze and demonstrate investment opportunities of international financial crisis and financial crises in Moldova.
Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne
This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...... who benefit most from being old-for-grade are those with high latent abilities whereas those with low latent ability seem to be unaffected by being old-for-grade in school....
Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles
We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... mechanisms suggests youth interaction in proximate residential context with older adults with drug crime experience as the most plausible source of neighborhood effects....
Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar
Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....
Full Text Available Ecological criminal offences, the most serious forms of harming and threatening of environment or its integral parts, represents a global phenomenon of great social hazard. They are often connected with organized transnational criminality, criminal offences against life and bodily integrity, corruption, tax evasion and discrimination. Disputable nature of the subject these incriminations protect imposes a question: “Who are the victims of ecological criminal offences - individuals, social groups, entire society or environment as value per se?” Perceiving ecological criminal offences as victimless crimes diminishes their importance and the circle of subjects interested to unveil, prove, prevent, suppress and impose punishments for these offences. Therefore, the author discusses the sustainability of the traditional, anthropocentrically defined term of victim in the context of biocentrism and its growing influence on criminal law, criminology and victimology. Attempting to determine whether ecological criminal offences represent victimless crimes, the author analyzes their term, characteristics and significance. Starting from the traditional definition of victim, she analyzes the term of “victimless crimes“ and its (unsustainability in the context of environmental crime, focusing on its most frequent victims and the necessity of their protection.
Néstor Juan Sanabria Landazábal
Full Text Available Theoretically the construction of legitimacy or border crime is admitted as a dynamic cultural result, able to feed off itself and with temporal and geographical boundaries. In this paper it is argued that the problem of criminal policy or design that marks the boundary between legal and illegal cannot circumscribe the penal and criminal procedure code, but requires: understanding crime as an illegitimate market keeping close relations with the legitimate as both exist in the communications space and the social construction of civilization and this is a result of cultural dynamics. Methodologically proceeded with: a theoretical discussion of these issues and statistical modeling and reports from different agencies working in this field in Bogotá, DC management. The contrasting theory and evidence shed light on the problem is complex, the assumptions of economic motivations theories, among others are not met and is not easily solvable in a linear relationship expressed in the trinomial crime - delinquent - penalty. Your solution may be the anthropological and schemes proposed as solution game theory.
Financial Arbitrator The legislative introduction of the institute of Financial Arbitrator as the relevant authority for settling out-of-court disputes into Czech law is a relatively new phenomenon, and is related to the interests of consumer protection within the European Union. In particular, the interests of the European Union in this area are to reinforce consumer confidence in the financial market. Given the fact that the majority of consumer disputes are so-called petty disputes, and re...
Jothi, A Lenin
Financial services, particularly banking and insurance services is the prominent sector for the development of a nation. After the liberalisation of financial sector in India, the scope of getting career opportunities has been widened. It is heartening to note that various universities in India have introduced professional courses on banking and insurance. A new field of applied mathematics has come into prominence under the name of Financial Mathematics. Financial mathematics has attained much importance in the recent years because of the role played by mathematical concepts in decision - m
... crime and property crime, we must also fight white-collar crime and protect its victims, including those... National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation..., emotional, and psychological pain of past offenses. This week, we renew our commitment to supporting crime...
Full Text Available This study provides analyses of data on crime-associated trepidation obtained from surveys administered to college students in South Korea. The survey contained questions about, and the analyses distinguished between, offense-specific fears (fear of burglary and fear of home invasion, perceived risk of victimization (day and night, and crime avoidance behaviors (avoidance of nocturnal activity and avoidance of particular areas. Regression analyses of the data show that victimization was not consistently associated with crime-associated trepidation, while gender significantly impacted all measures of concern about crime. Women were more likely than men to report being fearful, perceiving risk, and crime avoidance behaviors. Building upon prior scholarship (for example, Madriz 1997; Stanko 1989 and considering the social context in which the data were gathered, it is herein suggested that the gendered variation in crime-associated anxiety may reflect patriarchal power relations. The methodological and policy implications of the study are also discussed.
This report provides the findings from the third phase of a three-part study about the influences of neighborhood crimes on travel : mode choice. While previous phases found evidence that high levels of neighborhood crime discourage people from choos...
Full Text Available Laundry wash is a new form of crime that endangers stability, transparency and efficiency of financial systems, the developed countries and developing countries. One of the most widespread and simplest understanding, and according to some authors and simplest definition of the term money laundering is the conversion of "black money in green." The most comprehensive definition of the term money laundering would be the definition accepted by the G-7 and the FATF, as supplemented by the element of avoiding legal consequences. According to this definition the process of money laundering is: - "The process by which the gains for which it is believed to originate from criminal activity are transported, transferred, converted or incorporated into legal funds in order to conceal their origin, source, movement or ownership. The purpose of the process of money laundering through illegal activities to enable these funds to appear as legitimate, and persons involved in criminal activity to escape the legal consequences of such action. " Given that money laundering is an international problem, the national regulations of almost all countries contain provisions that prohibit and penalize any kind of organized crime aimed at acquiring illegal material benefit. The money acquired illegally, criminals need to legalize or black money to resort to legal financial flows in order to conceal their origin, source, movement or ownership.
This paper deals with the effect of gun laws on crime. Several empirical analyses are carried to investigate the relationship between five different crime rates and alternative law variables. The tests are based on cross-section data from US sates. Three different law variables are used in the analysis, together with a set of control variables for income, poverty, unemployment and ethnic background of the population. Empirical analysis does not lend support to the notion that crime laws would...
have concluded their work collecting, preserving and cataloguing various traces like fingerprints, bloodstains and so on. But the analysis will also show similarities between real-life and fictional crime scene investigations: also in real-life practices reconstruction and interpretation of the crime...... scene is conducted by investigators (crime scene coordinators) who's task it is to decide how the investigation should be carried out and which is best described as a narrative practice; a systematic - and expertise based - work of imagination...
Brian Bell; Rui Costa; Stephen Machin
Do compulsory schooling laws reduce crime? Previous evidence for the U.S. from the 1960s and 1970s suggests they do, primarily working through their effect on educational attainment to generate a causal impact on crime. In this paper, we consider whether more recent experience replicates this. There are two key findings. First, there is a strong and consistent negative effect on crime from stricter compulsory schooling laws. Second, there is a weaker and sometimes non-existent link between su...
Full Text Available During the past years, the Internet has evolved into the so-called “Web 2.0”. Nevertheless, the wide use of the offered Internet services has rendered individual users a potential target to cyber criminals. The paper presents a review and analysis of various cyber crimes, based on the cases that were reported to the Cyber Crime and Computer Crime Unit of the Greek Police Force and compares them to similar data of other EU countries.
Liggett, Robin; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki
The implementation of new transit lines is some times dogged by concerns that such lines may increase crime rates in station neighborhoods. Affluent communities have often complained that transit lines transport crime to the suburbs. This study focuses on the Green Line transit system in Los Angeles and examines its effects on crime in the adjacent areas. The Green Line light rail system passes through some high-crime inner city neighborhoods and terminates at its western end in affluent subu...
D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž
Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ernesto Aguayo Téllez
Full Text Available This paper studies the impact that the characteristics of the environment have on crime using neighborhood aggregate data of the Monterrey Metropolitan Area for the year 2010. Data spatial autocorrelation is corroborated, i.e. neighborhoods with high crime rates have a positive impact on the crime rates of its surrounding neighborhoods. Once it was controlled through the bias caused by spatial autocorrelation and data censoring, it is evidenced that the likelihood of being a crime victim and the probability of becoming an offender is positively related to variables such as unemployment, the percentage of young men and the existence of schools, hospitals or markets in the neighborhood.
Merebaknya White Collar Crime (WCC), bagaimanapun juga memerlukan sebuah terapi yang antisipatif dengan upaya yang multidimensi. Berikut ini, secara panjang lebar mengulas tentang politik kriminal terhadap WCC
...) and traditional war crimes as defined by the internationally accepted laws of armed conflict paying special attention to the principles of chivalry, humanity, proportionality, and military necessity...
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This metadata contains information on crime definitions and location obfuscation techniques to protect citizen identification data. Officers responding to incidents...
Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.
Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…
Barlow, Melissa Hickman; And Others
Extends exploration of ideologies of crime in the news by examining reports about the causes of crime and commands of what to do about crime in "Time" magazine. Argues that criminal justice policy and ideology have played an important role in developments within the postwar political economy in the United States. (LKS)
Gottfredson, Denise C.; Soule, David A.
This study examines the timing of juvenile delinquent behavior by crime type. A study of 513 youths participating in after-school programs indicates that crimes against persons are elevated during the after-school hours but not as much as during school. Property crime and drug use are not particularly elevated during the after-school hours.…
Huisman, W.; van Erp, J.
Recently, Situational Crime Prevention Theory (SCPT) has been proposed as an alternative to offender-based theories of white-collar crime. This paper uses the results of a cross-case analysis of 23 criminal investigations of environmental crime in the Netherlands to explore the fruitfulness of SCPT
Khem Raj Bhetuwal Ph. D.
An efficient financial system can effectively mobilize and allocate resources leading to robust economic growth. Financial liberalization improves the functioning of financial system by increasing the availability of funds and allowing risk diversification and increased investment. The indices of financial liberalization and financial development, generated by the principal component analysis, depict a gradual process of financial liberalization and a continuous financial sector development. ...
Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.
In this article, we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…
Bošković Goran N.
Full Text Available Criminal structure spread sphere of influence in all fields of social life and become a threat to national and international security. Namely, criminal profits generated by organized crime in the criminal market and its infiltration into the legal economic flows represent a potential danger for corrupting in legal economic relations and undermine the integrity of financial institutions. In this way, in the end the basic fundamentals of the financial system may be disrupted, and in dangerous are the functioning of state institutions, economic prosperity and national security. Modern criminal organizations are profit-oriented and market-based and operating methods that use are combination of criminal and methods of modern business organizations, which makes them particularly dangerous to society. The great economic power of organized crime used to acquire political power, and it is in turn used to pursue criminal objectives. Thus, the threat of organized crime is not limited to the effects of individual criminal actions, but much more on the ability to influence the decision making processes in the sphere of politics and economics. The great interest of organized crime to influence on state and its functions stems from the fact that with the help of the state authority can provide the easiest way for providing criminal profit and immunity from prosecution. The authors in paper point to areas and dominant negative consequences of the infiltration of organized crime into legitimate economic relations, as well as the implications of these processes in order to gain a better understanding of their importance for defining the model on fighting of organized crime. .
Afriyanto, Muhammad Mukhlis
This study examines the impact of crime incidence on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Indonesian provinces. This study uses panel data covering 31 provinces for the period 2005 to 2015. We involve Total Crime, Property Crime, Violence, Vandalism, Arson, Fraud, Homicides and Kidnapping as variable of crime. The results show that crime variables have significant impact on FDI. We find that for every increase in total crime incidence per 100,000 people by ten percent, FDI is expected to decrea...
Balthazar, Kristin Ross
This paper investigates the relationship between various socioeconomic factors and crime, especially income inequality and poverty. As crime rates have steadily increased over time, ecological theories of crime have been developed to explain the behavior of both property crime and violent crime. Identifying possible predictors of crime is one step into developing social policies that will help lower the vast social costs of criminal activity. The first part of this paper discusses the three m...
Full Text Available Crime is ubiquitous and has been around for millennia. Crime is analogous to a pathogenic infection and police response to it is similar to an immune response. The biological immune system is also engaged in an arms race with pathogens. We propose an immune system inspired theory of crime and violence in human societies, especially in large agglomerations like cities. In this work we suggest that an immune system inspired theory of crime can provide a new perspective on the dynamics of violence in societies. The competitive dynamics between police and criminals has similarities to how the immune system is involved in an arms race with invading pathogens. Cities have properties similar to biological organisms and in this theory the police and military forces would be the immune system that protects against detrimental internal and external forces. Our theory has implications for public policy: ranging from how much financial resource to invest in crime fighting, to optimal policing strategies, pre-placement of police, and number of police to be allocated to different cities. Our work can also be applied to other forms of violence in human societies (like terrorism and violence in other primate societies and eusocial insects. We hope this will be the first step towards a quantitative theory of violence and conflict in human societies. Ultimately we hope that this will help in designing smart and efficient cities that can scale and be sustainable despite population increase.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTInternet has been used in various fields of life, one of which is banking. Banking activities are performed through Internet-banking. Through the internet-banking service, customers can conduct financial transactions without having to come to the bank. In this study addressed two issues namely the forms of cyber crime in the banking and jurisdiction in the law enforcement against cyber crime in banking. This research is a normative legal research. Legal materials collected through library research. In this research, legal materials were analyzed by using the description, interpretation, argumentation, evaluation and systematization.The forms of cyber crime in banking are typo site, keylogger / keystroke recorder, sniffing, brute-force attacking, deface web, email spamming, denial of service and virus, worm, trojan. Jurisdiction in the law enforcement against cyber crime in banking jurisdiction includes legislative, executive and enforcement jurisdiction. Jurisdiction specifically stipulated in Article 2 of Act of Republic of Indonesia Number 11 of 2008 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions. Banks should have an electronic security system to protect the system. The Law enforcement against cyber crime in banking requires cooperation between countries.
Full Text Available This article provides a reflexive account on criminological engagement with crimes of states, with special attention to the case of Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, and Berlin and Germany today. The emergence of a criminology of crimes of states is reviewed, along with arguments for and against criminological engagement with such crime. In particular, a response to Carrier and Park’s (2013 critique of ‘entrepreneurial criminology’ is provided in this context. Distinctions are drawn between monumental and mundane crimes of states, and mislabeled and miscalculated crimes of states, with special attention to mundane and miscalculated crimes. A brief concluding section identifies some issues that might be included in an agenda for a criminology of crimes of states, going forward.
Salm, M.; Vollaard, B.A.
We provide evidence that perceptions of crime risk are severely biased for many years after a move to a new neighborhood. Based on four successive waves of a large crime survey, matched with administrative records on household relocations, we find that the longer an individual lives in a
Crime development measured by means of the changes in police recorded crime statistics (criminal offences per 100.000 inhabitants) shows periodical cycles, which can be described by the capital letter M. Starting from a low rate of criminality, crime rises over 1-3 years followed by an interim decline lasting for about one year. Then crime increases again for approximately 2 years to a second peak. After that, crime strongly declines to the next low point over a period of about two years. The course of this development is not uniform with equal amplitudes, but resembles an M-curve. Since 1950, seven such M-cycles have been observed with the 3rd M-cycle from 1965-1973, the 4th M-cycle from 1973-1984, the 5th M-cycle from 1984-1994, the 6th M-cycle from 1994-2005 and the 7th M-cycle from 2005-2010 being particularly distinct. The M-curve of crime may be explained by the M-form of the business cycle. Since World War II, the M-cycle of crime and the M-cycle of the economy have run approximately parallel. Up to the first large oil crisis, the M-cycle of crime preceded the economic situation by 1-2 years, whereas since 1976 it has followed the economic development with a time lag of one to two years.
Bowen, Gary L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.
This study investigated the association between community violent crime rates and middle school students' (N=857) perceptions of school danger. Findings indicate that community crime rates are associated with male middle school students' reports of school danger but not female students' reports. Discusses community- and school-based prevention…
Part of the problem appears to be that the police do not have sufficient crime intelligence about house robbers. This article focuses on the value of incarcerated offenders of house robberies as an additional source of crime intelligence to the police on the basis of research conducted by the author in Gauteng in 2007.
Ralph, Sue; Capewell, Carmel; Bonnett, Elizabeth
This article briefly discusses the long history of violence towards disabled people which sets the context for an analysis of the modern-day form of violence known as disability hate crime (DHC). People who look or behave differently to others often find themselves victims of violent crimes. The language used to describe disabled people…
Myers, Samuel L., Jr.
Studies of the relationship between employment and crime indicate that the stigma of a criminal record and the lack of preprison employment experience affect Black and White ex-offenders differently. Findings suggest racial discrimination and institutional racism are intervening factors in the failure of crime prevention strategies, particularly…
Snell, Joel C.; Wakefield, William O.
Attempts to analyze crime control program development and relate it to several independent variables which might be associated. Results show that often crime control programs were developed at the Associate degree level and appear to duplicate or approximate the police training academies. (Author)
Phillips, Llad; And Others
Concentrating on eighteen-to-nineteen-year-old white and nonwhite males, this study utilizes a model permitting alternative partitioning of the population, classified by labor-market status, which links individual subsets to property crime. Concludes that economic opportunity is a key factor in generating youthful crime. (RJ)
Elizabeth L. Davison
Full Text Available People often wonder why urban crime rates are higher than those in rural areas or small towns. Davison and Smith look at opportunity and accessibility as factors which make people more likely to be victims in urban areas. Under 'further reading' below you will see that crime patterns are NOT random and can be predicted by urban design.
This study examined crime prevention strategies vis-a-vis perceived residents. feeling of safety in Osogbo Nigeria. The survey was conducted using systematic sampling. Four (4) crime prevention approaches were identified in the study area. Residents. perception of effectiveness of these safety strategies measured ...
van Winden, F.; Ash, E.
This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences’ mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The rational crime model is replaced with a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According to the
Criminal prosecution of those accused of committing international crimes is a fundamental aspect of international justice. Over the past twenty-five years, international law has progressively developed to create a corpus of international criminal law; prosecuting those responsible for committing the most heinous crimes.
This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.
The aim of this article is to discuss the ways in which collaboration and a coordinated approach to dealing with criminal groups involved in environmental crime can be established and bolstered. The article begins by examining the challenges associated with organised criminal networks and transnational crimes for ...
criminal justice system. There have been a number of attempts to create a consensus and an all-encompassing definition of crime. For example, Schafer and. Knudten (1970) see crime as a ... substance abuse is that it involves a loss of self- control. Eyo (2003) defined ... masculinity and femininity. Myers (2002) defined.
Flynn, Edith Elisabeth, Ed.
Entire issue discusses crime control policy in the United States, including such issues as the relation of social and environmental variables to criminal activity, dealing with the career offender, biological correlates of criminal behavior, juvenile delinquency, and white collar crime. (CS)
Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Shah, Azhar Ali
In this paper, we present a method of crime analysis from open source information. We employed un-supervised methods of data mining to explore the facts regarding the crimes of an area of interest. The analysis is based on well known clustering and association techniques. The results show...
Dorsey, James E.; Rudelius-Palmer, Kristi
Reports on the establishment and jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals in recent years. The tribunals, established and supported by the United Nations, investigate atrocities and other crimes committed during wartime. Discusses the tribunals in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the political opposition to the establishment of a permanent court. (MJP)
The number of hate crimes reported to the police is rising sharply, in part because increased awareness has prompted more victims and witnesses to come forward. This article explains how nurses are taking steps to identify such crimes and prevent them happening in the first place. The panel opposite offers some practical advice on how to raise concerns with the police and other authorities.
The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and…
Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.
This article analyzes crime development which is one of the largest threats in today's world, frequently referred to as the war on crime. The criminal commits crimes in his free time (when not in jail) according to a non-stationary Poisson process which accounts for fluctuations. Expected values and variances for crime development are determined. The deterrent effect of imprisonment follows from the amount of time in imprisonment. Each criminal maximizes expected utility defined as expected benefit (from crime) minus expected cost (imprisonment). A first-order differential equation of the criminal's utility-maximizing response to the given punishment policy is then developed. The analysis shows that if imprisonment is absent, criminal activity grows substantially. All else being equal, any equilibrium is unstable (labile), implying growth of criminal activity, unless imprisonment increases sufficiently as a function of criminal activity. This dynamic approach or perspective is quite interesting and has to our knowledge not been presented earlier. The empirical data material for crime intensity and imprisonment for Norway, England and Wales, and the US supports the model. Future crime development is shown to depend strongly on the societally chosen imprisonment policy. The model is intended as a valuable tool for policy makers who can envision arbitrarily sophisticated imprisonment functions and foresee the impact they have on crime development.
Nelen, Hans; Siegel, Dina
This is the third publication (after Siegel et al. (eds.) (2003) Global Organized Crime. Trends and Developments; and Siegel and Nelen (eds.) (2008). Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies) in which the most relevant papers that were presented during seminars of the Centre for Information
May-Chahal, Corinne; Humphreys, Leslie; Clifton, Alison; Francis, Brian; Reith, Gerda
Incarcerated populations across the world have been found to be consistently and significantly more vulnerable to problem gambling than general populations in the same countries. In an effort to gain a more specific understanding of this vulnerability the present study applied latent class analysis and criminal career theory to gambling data collected from a sample of English and Scottish, male and female prisoners (N = 1057). Theoretical links between gambling and crime were tested through three hypotheses: (1) that prisoners in the UK would have higher rates of problem gambling behaviour than the national population; (2) that if the link between gambling and crime is coincidental, gambling behaviour would be highly prevalent in an offending population, and (3) if connections between gambling behaviour and offending are co-symptomatic a mediating factor would show a strong association. The first of these was supported, the second was not supported and the third was partially supported. Latent class analysis found six gambling behaviour clusters measured by responses to the Problem Gambling Severity Index, primarily distinguished by loss chasing behaviour. Longitudinal offending data drawn from the Police National Computer database found four criminal career types, distinguished by frequency and persistence over time. A significant association was found between higher level loss chasing and high rate offending in criminal careers suggesting that impulse control may be a mediating factor for both gambling harm and criminal careers.
Grodal, Torben Kragh
centrally fueled in the minds of viewers and readers by the mammalian dopamine seeking/wanting system developed for seeking out resources by foraging and hunting and important for focused mental and physical goal-directed activities. The article describes the way the working of the seeking system explains...... how crime fiction activates strong salience (in some respects similar to the effect of dopamine-drugs like cocaine, Ritalin, and amphetamine) and discusses the role of social intelligence in crime fiction. It further contrasts the unempathic classical detector fictions with two subtypes of crime...... fiction that blend seeking with other emotions: the hardboiled crime fiction that blends detection with action and hot emotions like anger and bonding, and the moral crime fiction that strongly evokes moral disgust and contempt, often in conjunction with detectors that perform hard to fake signals...
Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing modern society is the rising tide of cyber crimes. These crimes, since they rarely fit the model of conventional crimes, are difficult to investigate, hard to analyze, and difficult to prosecute. Collecting data in a unified framework is a mandatory step that will assist the investigator in sorting through the mountains of data. In this paper, we explore designing a dimensional model for a data warehouse that can be used in analyzing cyber crime data. We also present some interesting queries and the types of cyber crime analyses that can be performed based on the data warehouse. We discuss several ways of utilizing the data warehouse using OLAP and data mining technologies. We finally discuss legal issues and data population issues for the data warehouse.
US Ecology is a full service waste management company. The company operates two of the nation's three existing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities and has prepared and submitted license applications for two new LLRW disposal facilities in California and Nebraska. The issue of financial assurances is an important aspect of site development and operation. Proper financial assurances help to insure that uninterrupted operation, closure and monitoring of a facility will be maintained throughout the project's life. Unfortunately, this aspect of licensing is not like others where you can gauge acceptance by examining approved computer codes, site performance standards or applying specific technical formulas. There is not a standard financial assurance plan. Each site should develop its requirements based upon the conditions of the site, type of design, existing state or federal controls, and realistic assessments of future financial needs. Financial assurances at U.S. Ecology's existing sites in Richland, Washington, and Beatty, Nevada, have been in place for several years and are accomplished in a variety of ways by the use of corporate guarantees, corporate capital funds, third party liability insurance, and post closure/long-term care funds. In addressing financial assurances, one can divide the issue into three areas: Site development/operations, third party damages, and long-term care/cleanup
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo descreve duas situações complexas e duplamente preocupantes em termos de saúde pública, seja, por sua alta prevalência e/ou por suas conseqüências. Trata-se dos transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e a criminalidade. Será relatada a forma como diversos pesquisadores as associam, bem como a situação das perícias de usuários e dependentes de álcool e drogas. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão das publicações sobre o tema, utilizando-se, como bancos de dados, o Medline e o Lilacs, cobrindo o período de 1986 a 2006. Os descritores usados foram: "alcoholism", "drug dependence", "drug abuse" e "crime". Resumos de congressos, artigos e livros relevantes sobre o tema, publicados por diferentes autoridades no assunto, em diversas fases de pesquisa, foram consultados e incluídos. CONCLUSÃO: As diversas pesquisas coincidem na afirmação de uma associação entre transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e criminalidade. O que é possível constatar é a alta proporção de atos violentos quando o álcool ou as drogas ilícitas estão presentes entre agressores, suas vítimas ou em ambos. Quando se realiza um exame pericial em autores que alegam alguma relação do ato praticado com consumo de álcool/drogas, esta perícia deve levar em consideração a substância em uso, o quadro clínico por ela causado, bem como verificar a presença de um diagnóstico, a existência de nexo causal e possíveis alterações na capacidade de entendimento e/ou determinação do agente.OBJECTIVE: This article describes two complex and doubly preoccupying situations in terms of public health, either, for its high prevalence and/or its consequences. These problems are the psychoactive substance use disorder and crime. The form will be told as diverse researchers associate them, as well as the situation of the exam of users and alcohol dependents and drugs. METHOD: A revision of publications was become fulfilled on the
This is the accepted, refereed and final manuscript to the article. The activity of private investigations by fraud examiners is a business of lawyers, auditors and other professionals who investigate suspicions of financial crime by white-collar criminals. This article presents results from an empirical study of investigation reports. The available sample consists of 28 reports written mostly by auditing firms such as Deloitte, Ernst & Young and PwC. The blame game can occurs at two s...
Grinshteyn, Erin G; Xu, Haiyong; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Ettner, Susan L
The effects of witnessing and experiencing crime have seldom been disaggregated. Little research has assessed the effect of multiple exposures to crime. We assess independent contributions of self-reported crime and area-level crime to adolescent behavioral health outcomes. Cross sectional data on 5519 adolescents from the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and their Families Program was linked to FBI crime rate data to assess associations of mutually exclusive categories of self-reported crime exposure and area-level crime rates with mental health and substance abuse. Self-reported crime exposure was significantly associated with poorer behavioral health. Violent victimization had the largest association with all outcomes except internalizing scores. All self-reported crime variables were significantly associated with three of the outcomes. Area-level crime rates were associated with one mental health outcome. Providers should assess direct and indirect crime exposure rather than only focusing on violent victimization.
Full Text Available Legal systems are put in jeopardy and social stability wherever there are organized criminal activities. In the Balkans, organized crime is the main obstacle to the European integration of the region. The permanent influence of organized crime in the state structures, the cooperation between different criminal organizations and especially their collaboration with some extremist group’s impacts political stability in an extremely negative way. The states in the Balkans have recognized the dangers for their peoples constituted by organized crime and have already taken a number of required legal, institutional and political measures in order to be able to successfully combat organized crime. However, organized crime still constitutes the main risk in the new democratic states in the Balkans in spite of these measures. For that reason, combating organized crime may not be treated just as the task or responsibility of one single state but it needs to be understood as an obligation and responsibility of all the states in the entire region as well as of the European Union. Therefore, cooperation and coordination of joint activities for combating organized crime have to be based on modern international standards. Besides, a continual perspective is required according to the interest of the people of the region to live together in peace and mutual harmony and to establish a society where human rights are not threatened by criminal violence but protected just like in the European Union.
Bastos-Filho, Carmelo; Menezes, Ronaldo
Crime is a major threat to society’s well-being but lacks a statistical characterization that could lead to uncovering some of its underlying mechanisms. Evidence of nonlinear scaling of urban indicators in cities, such as wages and serious crime, has motivated the understanding of cities as complex systems—a perspective that offers insights into resources limits and sustainability, but that usually neglects details of the indicators themselves. Notably, since the nineteenth century, criminal activities have been known to occur unevenly within a city; crime concentrates in such way that most of the offenses take place in few regions of the city. Though confirmed by different studies, this concentration lacks broad analyses on its characteristics, which hinders not only the comprehension of crime dynamics but also the proposal of sounding counter-measures. Here, we developed a framework to characterize crime concentration which divides cities into regions with the same population size. We used disaggregated criminal data from 25 locations in the U.S. and the U.K., spanning from 2 to 15 years of longitudinal data. Our results confirmed that crime concentrates regardless of city and revealed that the level of concentration does not scale with city size. We found that the distribution of crime in a city can be approximated by a power-law distribution with exponent α that depends on the type of crime. In particular, our results showed that thefts tend to concentrate more than robberies, and robberies more than burglaries. Though criminal activities present regularities of concentration, we found that criminal ranks have the tendency to change continuously over time—features that support the perspective of crime as a complex system and demand analyses and evolving urban policies covering the city as a whole. PMID:28800604
Theories of victimization developed independently of theories of offending, in spite of consistent findings of similarities between offenders and victims of crime. This study examines whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime, typically used to predict offending, also has relevance in understanding juvenile victimization. The data for this project are drawn from a sample of over 1,200 middle and high school students. Using structural equation models, the findings suggest that higher self-control does directly decrease victimization and that self-control also affects victimization indirectly though opportunities (peer deviance). Implications for the studies of victimization as well as the general theory of crime are discussed.
Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis
-structured in-depth interviews. The interview consists of respondents from various age, gender and race. The results revealed universal similarities to other cultures on fear of crime in urban green spaces. This study has highlighted eight themes on the attributes which evoke fear among the residents of Kuala...... behaviour towards crime in urban parks but this was only observed among the women. This paper has also highlighted the implications on park planning and management from the comments given by the respondents. Though the aspect of fear towards crime in urban green spaces is not a major focus in Malaysia...
Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K; Griffin, Timothy
This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of crime control theater, a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially socially constructed "solutions" to socially constructed crime "problems." The analysis will apply the principles of crime control theater to safe haven laws. Specifically, the term crime control theater applies to laws that are reactionary responses to perceived criminal threats and are often widely supported as a way to address the crime in question. Such laws are attractive because they appeal to mythic narratives (i.e., saving an innocent child from a predator); however they are likely ineffective due to the complexity of the crime. These laws can have deleterious effects when policymakers make false claims of success and stunt public discourse (e.g., drawing attention away from more frequent and preventable crimes). This analysis applies these criteria to safe haven laws to determine whether such laws can be classified as crime control theater. Many qualities inherent to crime control theater are present in safe haven laws. For example, the laws are highly publicized, their intentions lack moral ambiguity, rare cases of success legitimize law enforcement and other agencies, and they appeal to the public sense of responsibility in preventing crime. Yet the goal of saving infant lives may be unattainable. These qualities make the effectiveness of the laws questionable and suggest they may be counterproductive. This analysis determined that safe haven laws are socially constructed solutions to the socially constructed problem of child abandonment. Safe haven laws are appropriately classified as crime control theater. It is imperative that further research be conducted to examine the effectiveness and collateral effects of safe haven laws
Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J
Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.
Full Text Available Abstract This research reviews the legal framework of human rights crime as an extraordinary crime as an approach in the settlement of criminal cases. The outcomes of the research indicate that modern human rights law developed out of customs and theories that established the rights of the individual in relation to the state. Disagreements regarding human rights violations which can only be done by the state and its agents or can also be done by non-government units still exist at the moment. As it turns out in practice however it has certain weaknesses particularly in legislation concerning serious crimes of human rights both as ius constituendum and ius constitutum still needs to be improved especially in the implementation of human rights on judiciary system. Therefore serious crimes against human rights are included as an extraordinary crime. The handling of the cases was incredible and special has become a logical consequence to be included as an extraordinary crime.
Daud Vicary Abdullah
Full Text Available In recent years, economic and financial crimes have been increasing at a fast pace. No country, society, culture or community has been immune from its ravages, yet the international community has failed to cooperate in finding a solution. The main reason for failure may be the lack of a clearly articulated moral foundation. A universal moral principle that could serve as the foundation must be concerned with “harm” and its prevention, and attract universal “consent.” We argue that the Golden Rule satisfies these requirements. The golden rule of “no harm” buttressed by the specificity of the four categories of “generic rights” and “basic good,” i.e. human dignity, trust, contract, and property, could emerge as a consensual global moral principle and allow the development of legislations, laws, standards, codes and conventions that would be accepted and respected by the entire international community in the fight against economic crimes.
systems not supporting strategic objectives and ...... Management maintains books of accounts, information systems, and financial and management controls that are designed to provide ..... Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into Canadian dollars at the exchange rate in effect.
The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) was established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 to bring together into a single agency the major energy research and development programs of the Federal Government. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 1977, Congress provided ERDA with $7355 million to carry out its programs. This was comprised of $6332 million in current appropriations, $740 million in reimbursements resulting primarily from the sale of enriched uranium, and $283 million in previously provided but unused appropriations. ERDA employed approximately 9536 scientific, technical, and support personnel and also relied heavily on the private sector to staff and operate Government-owned facilities. Contractors from industry, educational, and other non-profit organizations numbered approximately 128,141. ERDA's financial management system included an integrated accounting and budgeting system involving both Government and major contractor operations. This accrual based accounting system met all the requirements of Government fund accounting and provided management with necessary data. ERDA was abolished and its assets and liabilities were transferred to the Department of Energy on October 1, 1977. This final unclassified Financial Report of the Energy Research and Development Administration contains the financial statements presenting the financial position of ERDA at September 30, 1977, and the results of operations for the period beginning October 1, 1976, and ending September 30, 1977.
Chihiro Muroi; Robert Baumann
Although theory suggests the relationship between crime and wealth is ambiguous, most empirical analyses estimate a monotonic relationship and find that wealth has negative effect on crime. Using two proxies for wealth (median income and poverty rate) and two types of crime (property and violent), we find a quadratic relationship is the best fit for our four crime-wealth groups. In general, the expected negative effect of wealth on crime only applies to wealthier counties. In poorer counties,...
Struse, Simon Planells; Montolio, Daniel
Given the actual debate, in many European countries, about the need for public administrations to raise their revenues through taxing the crime externalities generated by some private leisure activities, this article analyzes the effect of football matches on crime focusing both on property crimes and interpersonal violent crimes. Our aim is to determine up to what extent a private leisure activity, such as football matches, induces negative crime externalities to the whole society. Using dat...
Objectives: The widespread use of camera surveillance in public places offers criminologists the opportunity to systematically and unobtrusively observe crime, their main subject matter. The purpose of this essay is to inform the reader of current developments in research on crimes caught on camera. Methods: We address the importance of direct observation of behavior and review criminological studies that used observational methods, with and without cameras, including the ones published in this issue. We also discuss the uses of camera recordings in other social sciences and in biology. Results: We formulate six key insights that emerge from the literature and make recommendations for future research. Conclusions: Camera recordings of real-life crime are likely to become part of the criminological tool kit that will help us better understand the situational and interactional elements of crime. Like any source, it has limitations that are best addressed by triangulation with other sources. PMID:29472728
Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Bernasco, Wim
Objectives: The widespread use of camera surveillance in public places offers criminologists the opportunity to systematically and unobtrusively observe crime, their main subject matter. The purpose of this essay is to inform the reader of current developments in research on crimes caught on camera....... Methods: We address the importance of direct observation of behavior and review criminological studies that used observational methods, with and without cameras, including the ones published in this issue. We also discuss the uses of camera recordings in other social sciences and in biology. Results: We...... formulate six key insights that emerge from the literature and make recommendations for future research. Conclusions: Camera recordings of real-life crime are likely to become part of the criminological tool kit that will help us better understand the situational and interactional elements of crime. Like...
Altynbaeva L. M.
Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of age sanity of a crime committer taking into consideration the intellectual and strong-willed development of the person who committed a socially dangerous act.
Berry, LaVerle; Curtis, Glenn E; Gibbs, John N; Hudson, Rex A; Karacan, Tara; Kollars, Nina; Miro, Ramon
.... Although the focus of the report is on transnational activity, domestic criminal activity is recognized as a key foundation for transnational crime, especially as the forces of globalization intensify...
The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...
12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Wildlife crime, computation, conservation, criminology , conservation biology, risk, poaching REPORT...Action items? Conference on “Conservation, Computation, Criminology ” C^3? Technology Transfer
” and the “political”. In the second part, I will discuss how the social sciences emerged in the late 19th century as a reflection on the nature of crime in the transition to modernity. The importance of some almost forgotten “classical traditions” will be stressed. In the third part I will briefly indicate how...... the most celebrated political revolutions within the European tradition, including the French and the Russian Revolutions, are critically tied to the emergence of new forms of political crime originating in crowd behavior. The framework elaborated throughout the article relies on contributions of classical......This article is intended as a reflection piece on the question: what could be an anthropological contribution to the question of political crimes? The reflection will consist of three interrelated parts. In the first part, I wish to address the meaning of the words we use when bespeaking “crime...
"Dip me in Chocolate and Thow me to the Lesbians": Homophobic hate crimes, the state and civil society · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K Williams, 39-46 ...
.... Only two other ICTY indicted individuals are still at large, including Gen. Ratko Mladic, who along with Karadzic is under indictment for genocide and crimes against humanity occurring during the 1992- 1995 Bosnian war...
In December 2005, top Croatian indicted war crimes fugitive Gen. Ante Gotovina was arrested in Spain and transferred to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague...
stained neighborhoods are experiencing a dramatic escalation in homicidal violence. The surge in murder, property crime and assault began less than six months ago and appears to be accelerating. There are genuine fears ...
Hastings, Justine S; Madrian, Brigitte C; Skimmyhorn, William L
In this article we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature, and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the extent to which a competitive market provides incentives for firms to educate consumers or offer products that facilitate informed choice. We review the literature on alternative policies to improve financial outcomes, and compare the evidence to evidence on the efficacy and cost of financial education. Finally, we discuss directions for future research.
Guillaumont, Patrick; Puech, Frédéric
This paper adds to the literature on the economic determinants of crime by examining the impact of macro-economic instability. Instability increases the frustration level of individuals and incites them to smooth their income by using illegal earnings. Results from a panel of developed and developing countries for the period 1980-97 suggests that macro-economic instability had a significant impact on crime, both homicide and robbery. However, homicide and robbery do not react to instability i...
Carine Øien-Ødegaard; Torbjørn Skardhamar
Age-graded social control theory suggests that parenthood can have a preventive effect on crime among adults, but it is unclear whether and how this applies to teenagers, as teenage parenthood and affiliation with crime can have mutual confounding causes. Using individual-level Norwegian administrative register data on the total population of fifteen to nineteen year olds, we assess the relationship between teenage parenthood and criminal activity. We find that teenage parents have an elevate...
Fanton, L; Miras, A; Tilhet-Coartet, S; Achache, P; Malicier, D
The primum movens of a forensic autopsy is to track down the crime. The perfect crime can be defined as one which will never be suspected and/or one for which the criminal will never be arrested. We have reported several cases that have been adjudicated or are being adjudicated, and we show how actual homicides could have been taken for accidental deaths, suicides, or even natural deaths.
Physics is playing a significant role, particularly in Europe and North America, both as an aid to detect and prevent crime and also to assist in the provision of more precise information about crimes committed. Advances have resulted from fundamental studies in several fields. Among methods described are those of neutron activation analysis and proton microbeam X-ray production which show promise in the field of forensic science where the detection of minute quantities of trace elements may be of significance. (author)
Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth
Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.
Full Text Available The criminal research has confirmed that there are clear patterns of crime, with concentrations in specific places at specific times. That is to say, incidence of crime are not distributed randomly; rather, there are certain areas in cities that are relatively small, but where crimes occur much more frequently than elsewhere (the so-called “hotspots”, making them highly vulnerable and predictable. Urban design and environment may play a part in the decision of whether or not to commit a crime; for example, the lack of natural vigilance, poor lighting and other variables mean that a small area may easily be transformed into a potential crime hotspot. The relationship between specific aspects of urban design and the formation of “hotspots” is present in the theory of “Crime Prevention through Environmental Design” (CPTED. This paper examines the relationship between the “hotspots” and the characteristics of the environment, in accordance with CPTED Index, in one city from the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Amadora. The results highlight the need to reassess specific elements of urban design. This fact has drawn attention to the study of localities and urban design.
Woś, Jarosław; Florkowski, Antoni; Zboralski, Krzysztof
Crimes in the military, as well as criminal behaviors in the civilian community are determined by multiple factors. However, in case of military crimes committed by soldiers on active duty, an important part of forensic psychiatric opinion, is to assess whether occurring mental disorder resulted in inability to perform military duties. was to investigate the psychopathological and psychosocial determinants of criminal behavior in soldiers who committed military crime. The study included 122 soldiers who committed military crime. Material for this study consisted of forensic psychiatric opinions formed on the order of military prosecutor and the military judicial authorities. The results indicate that military crimes are determined by multiple factors. In most cases, the criminal behavior was associated with personality disorder (70%), alcohol problems (43%) and psychoactive substance use (30%). Psychosocial factors analysis revealed more frequent behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence (51%), history of parental alcohol problem (31%) and previous criminal record (29%). Forensic psychiatric examinations revealed that military crimes are more frequent in soldiers on compulsory military service, and in those with personality disorder or/and alcohol problems.
Full Text Available The recent financial crises has revealed the need to improve and ensure the stability of the financial sector to reduce negative externalities, to ensure fair and substantial contribution of the financial sector to the public finances and the need to consolidate public finance. All those needs represent substantial arguments for the discussion about the introduction of financial sector taxation. There are discussed in the paper two possible schemes of financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax. The aim of the paper is to research the possibility of the introduction of financial sector taxation, to discuss the pros and cons of two major candidates on financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax and to suggest the possible candidate suitable for the implementation on the EU level. Financial transaction tax represents the tool suitable mainly on global level, for only in that case enables generate sufficient financial resources. From EU point of view is considered as less suitable, for it bears the risk of reallocation. Therefore the introduction of financial activities tax on EU level is considered as a better solution for the financial sector taxation in the EU, for financial sector is exempted from value added tax. With respect to the fact, that the implementation would represent the innovative approach to the financial sector taxation, there are no empirical proves and therefore this could be the subject of further research.
Young people are overrepresented as both victims and perpetrators of violence. Indeed, some commentators have suggested that recent cohorts of youth have been composed of "superpredators" who have little regard for human life. The evidence, however, suggests that other factors are responsible for recent increases in youth gun violence. This article analyzes the extent and causes of youth violence in the United States, paying particular attention to the late 1980s and early 1990s, when rates of homicide and robbery committed by youth rose to extremely high levels. Examination of trends for these crimes shows that: The increase in violence in the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s was due primarily to an increase in violent acts committed by people under age 20. Similarly, dramatic declines in homicide and robbery in recent years are attributable primarily to a decline in youth violence. The increase in youth homicide was predominantly due to a significant increase in the use of handguns, which converted ordinary teenage fights and other violent encounters into homicides. Several other interrelated factors also fueled the rise in youth violence, including the rise of illegal drug markets, particularly for crack cocaine, the recruitment of youth into those markets, and an increase in gun carrying among young people. The author points out that youth violence diminished as the crack markets shrank, law enforcement increased efforts to control youth access to guns, youth gun carrying declined, and the robust economy provided legitimate jobs for young people.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the most important documents of the United Nations, Council of Europe and the European Union relating to rights to damage compensation (restitution from offender and state compensation. The analysis shows that there is a gradual move from the concept of exercising the rights of victims in favor of a solidaristic model that takes less into account the rights of victims, and more the need to satisfy their legitimate interests. The economic crisis that is undermining the foundations of the welfare state could jeopardize the realization of this concept, especially in those European countries where the criminal justice system focuses solely on the offender, as is the case in Serbia. In such circumstances, regulation which protects the right to compensation, other rights and interests of victims, shall apply only to the extent that serves crime prevention. So it happens that in spite of a suitable normative framework and developments regarding the protection of victims of domestic violence and trafficking, the right to compensation and other rights of the victims do not actually get actualized in practice. In order to overcome this, a systemic reform to the criminal justice system should be undertaken with the aim to redirect the system towards the victim of the offense. Within these reforms a public fund for compensation of the victims of violence should be established and the process of mediation between the victim and the offender with the goal to make a settlement should be regulated, because these mechanisms do not exist in Serbia.
Today's Internet-based crime reporting systems make timely and anonymous crime reporting possible. However, these reports also result in a rapidly growing set of unstructured text files. Complicating the problem is that the information has not been filtered or guided in a detective-led interview resulting in much irrelevant information. To…
Moon, Byongook; McCluskey, John D; McCluskey, Cynthia P; Lee, Sangwon
Regarding the gender gap in computer crime, studies consistently indicate that boys are more likely than girls to engage in various types of computer crime; however, few studies have examined the extent to which traditional criminology theories account for gender differences in computer crime and the applicability of these theories in explaining computer crime across gender. Using a panel of 2,751 Korean youths, the current study tests the applicability of the general theory of crime in explaining the gender gap in computer crime and assesses the theory's utility in explaining computer crime across gender. Analyses show that self-control theory performs well in predicting illegal use of others' resident registration number (RRN) online for both boys and girls, as predicted by the theory. However, low self-control, a dominant criminogenic factor in the theory, fails to mediate the relationship between gender and computer crime and is inadequate in explaining illegal downloading of software in both boy and girl models. Theoretical implication of the findings and the directions for future research are discussed.
Kleemans, E.R.; Kruisbergen, E.W.; Kouwenberg, R.F.
This paper analyzes the role of women in various types of transnational organized crime and tests the ‘gendered markets’ hypothesis by Zhang et al. (Criminology 45(3):699–733 2007) for a wide cross-section of 150 cases from the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor. The main information sources for the
Arai, Takashi; Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio
This study explores determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention on the Internet, including how it was influenced by personal conversations with others. An analysis of a web survey of mothers (N = 1,040) of 3-12 years old children in Japan indicated that many mothers briefly saw basic information about crime on the Internet, while only a few mothers sought further details. Structural equation modeling indicated the following results. Overall, an increased frequency of conversations about children's safety with family and friends made mothers realize their own responsibility for crime prevention. It also encouraged mothers to seek more information about crime prevention by increasing their willingness to cooperate with neighbors. However, when individuals' realization of responsibility for crime prevention strengthened their attitudes toward the responsibility of the police and government for crime problems, then these attitudes decreased mothers' information-seeking. Finally, while a heightened frequency of conversations about news contents directly increased information-seeking about crime, such conversations could indirectly weaken mothers' information-seeking when mothers emphasized the responsibility of the police and government.
Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C
This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to "conventional" property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11-18 years old in 1976-77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36-44) in 2002-2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002-2003 (total age range 11-88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes.
Wolff, Markus; Asche, Hartmut
This paper presents a set of methods and techniques for analysis and multidimensional visualisation of crime scenes in a German city. As a first step the approach implies spatio-temporal analysis of crime scenes. Against this background a GIS-based application is developed that facilitates discovering initial trends in spatio-temporal crime scene distributions even for a GIS untrained user. Based on these results further spatio-temporal analysis is conducted to detect variations of certain hotspots in space and time. In a next step these findings of crime scene analysis are integrated into a geovirtual environment. Behind this background the concept of the space-time cube is adopted to allow for visual analysis of repeat burglary victimisation. Since these procedures require incorporating temporal elements into virtual 3D environments, basic methods for 4D crime scene visualisation are outlined in this paper.
Carter, Sherry Plaster; Carter, Stanley L; Dannenberg, Andrew L
Sarasota, Fla, used Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles to guide revitalization efforts in its crime-ridden North Trail area. A team of city planners, police officers, and architects examined land use and crime data and sought input from local businesses, residents, and community leaders. Beginning in 1990, interventions included increased police patrols to reduce prostitution and the creation of a new zoning district to encourage area redevelopment based on CPTED principles. Compared with the rest of Sarasota, from 1990 to 1998 the North Trail Corridor experienced decreases in calls for police service (P crimes against persons and property (P = not significant), and prostitution (P design may be a useful tool for decreasing crime and improving community health.
Depuis l’éclatement de la bulle spéculative des valeurs technologiques, le système bancaire et financier allemand traverse une situation tendue et se restructure. Ses entreprises et institutions sont contraintes de réduire leurs coûts (suppression de quelque 50 000 emplois pour les seules grandes banques, réduction du réseau de filiales) et de rechercher de nouvelles stratégies (vente de participations industrielles, coopérations et fusions, réorganisation interne, internationalisation, etc.)...
This article focuses on analyzing of a consolidated financial statements of a hypothetically SME. The interpretation of the financial position and performances is based on the more than 40 financial key ratios computed by using financial data from consolidated income statement, consolidated financial position and cash flow. However additional data from notes to financial statements are provided.
Quentin S Hanley
Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.
Kizza, J.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Chattanooga, TN (United States)
Computer crimes are a new kind of crime less than twenty years old, but in these twenty years or so the computer crime rate has risen alarmingly, costing society billions of dollars annually. In software alone this figure is in billions; software piracy in USA resulted in a loss of 2.9 billion dollars in 1989 and 2.4 billion dollars in 1990. The problem is growing rapidly with a steadily increasing use of computers by the public. The number of people using computers in the USA in the last 10 years either at work or at home has jumped from almost zero to about 40 per cent of the population. In the next decade this number may approach 80 percent. With such widespread use of computers at work and home together with the ever increasing number of local, national, and international networks, computer crimes are expected to sky rocket, and if no adequate means are devised to combat these crimes now, the future promises to be no less frightening than the present.
Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen
Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.
Angelita Rangel Ferreira
Full Text Available Esse artigo objetiva identificar, a partir das vozes e visões daqueles que a protagonizam - homens e mulheres privados de liberdade no Centro de Remanejamento do Sistema Prisional (Ceresp de Ipatinga (MG -, os fatores sociais, políticos, econômicos, históricos e culturais que os impelem a reproduzir o percurso crime-prisão-liberdade-crime, num círculo vicioso sem fim. O que importa é realizar tal análise sem, contudo, se eximir de responsabilidade analítica, teórica e política.This article aims to identify, from the voices and visions of those who are protagonists - men and women deprived of liberty in the Relocation Center of Prisons (Ceresp Ipatinga/MG - the social, political, economic, historical and cultural factors that impel them to reproduce the route crime-jail-free (liberty-crime, in an endless vicious circle. What matters is to perform the analysis, without, exempt (shunning an analytical, theoretical and political responsibility.
Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe
Violent crime poses important challenges for quotidian concerns over security and safety by ordinary citizens in several Africa states. This is especially so in contexts where state security agents are perceived as highly corrupt and/or where African states seem unable to “protect” their citizens...... from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...... justice in Cameroon, this article argues that the political contextualisation of sovereignty must pay attention not only to the sovereign’s right to kill and let live, but also its responsibility to guarantee safety for those citizens it chooses to let live. The paper demonstrates that in Cameroon mob...
Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Adiatma; Kasim Aidid, M.
Act of criminality in Indonesia increased both variety and quantity every year. As murder, rape, assault, vandalism, theft, fraud, fencing, and other cases that make people feel unsafe. Risk of society exposed to crime is the number of reported cases in the police institution. The higher of the number of reporter to the police institution then the number of crime in the region is increasing. In this research, modeling criminality in South Sulawesi, Indonesia with the dependent variable used is the society exposed to the risk of crime. Modelling done by area approach is the using Spatial Autoregressive (SAR) and Spatial Error Model (SEM) methods. The independent variable used is the population density, the number of poor population, GDP per capita, unemployment and the human development index (HDI). Based on the analysis using spatial regression can be shown that there are no dependencies spatial both lag or errors in South Sulawesi.
Ramirez, Jacobo; Gómez, Sergio Manuel Madero; Muñiz, Carlos
This research aims to investigate the various direct and indirect impacts of organized violence and crime on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as well as entrepreneurs’ responses to violent acts. A mixed-method design based on a quantitative content analysis of 204 news stories found...... operating in complex institutional contexts. The findings highlight the emerging process of social change in Mexican society among members of the middle class, and various attempts to fight back against organized violence and crime in a non-violent manner. SMEs are important in Mexico and Latin America....... However, the understanding of the direct and indirect impacts of organized crime and violence on SMEs is limited. This research identifies and analyzes the emerging responses of entrepreneurs to these institutional constraints....
Collins, L M; Cliff, N; Cudeck, R A; McCormik, D J; Zatkin, J L
Most attempts at developing typologies of criminal behavior have not involved empirical research. This paper describes an exploratory empirical approach to identifying patterns in criminal behavior. Two data-reduction techniques, factor analysis and cluster analysis, are applied to the official arrest records of a Danish birth cohort of 28,879 men. Four factors emerged from the factor analysis: GENERAL CRIME, TRAFFIC OFFENSES, WHITE-COLLAR CRIME, and SEX OFFENSES. The cluster analysis revealed GENERAL CRIME and TRAFFIC OFFENSES clusters. A substantial number of offenses are shown by both analyses to be independent of any pattern. The results show good split-sample cross-validation and for the most part are robust across the two analytic approaches.
problems in another area. As such, externalities and unexpected spillover effects impact the costs and benefits of public spending to society and may have large and meaningful implications on how to most effectively allocate resources across a multitude of outcomes. For example, an increase in education...... towards immigrants can impact their employment prospects which, in turn, impacts their decision to further pursue education. Identifying how these individual level factors have an impact on society is key to informing and designing effective public policy. This Ph.D. thesis, entitled “Essays in Education......, Crime, and Job Displacement”, analyzes the determinants and social implications of these three factors. While independent, each essay within this thesis examines the impact of factors such as education, in terms of reduced crime, job loss, in terms of increased crime, and discrimination, in terms of its...
Abdul Salam Siku
Full Text Available The setting of the responsibility criminal against corporations in Indonesia starting from the inception of the emergency law number 7 of 1955 on Economic Crime, then followed by some of the last act is Act No. 8 of 2010 on prevention and eradication of the crime of money laundering. In the framework of the renewal of national criminal law and the draft law on The Criminal law (Criminal Code systematically have set the criminal liability of corporations, whether incorporated corporation law and Corporation who is not a legal entity. Although there have been laws governing corporate crime responsibility about but are still have problems in its application. It can be seen from the lack of a corporate criminal sentenced by the Court.
Agribotix GCS 077
502-. 529. Williams, S., Seed J. & Mwau, A. (1998): The Oxfam gender training manual. Oxfam UK and. Ireland. Wyant, B. R. (2008): Multilevel impacts of perceived incivilities and perceptions of crime risk on fear of crime: Isolating endogenous ...
Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben
people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....
I first replicate Donohue and Levitt's results for violent and property crime arrest rates. I apply their data and specification to an analysis of age-specific homicide rates and murder arrest rates. The coefficients on the abortion rate have the wrong sign for two of the four measures of crime and none is statistically significant at conventional levels. I then use the legalization of abortion in 1973 to exploit two sources of variation: between-state changes in abortion rates before and aft...
Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel
Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...
Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Christian Daniel
Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...
Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel
Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders. For this group, property crime is reduced, and our results indicate that the effect is unlikely to be the result of incapacitation only. We find...... no effect of military service on violent crime, on educational attainment, or on employment and earnings, either in the short run or in the long run. These results suggest that military service does not upgrade productive human capital directly, but rather affects criminal activity through other channels (e...
Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard
We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
cartels and Chinese organized crime in the importation of contra- band goods, including in the port of Veracruz , previously controlled by Los Zetas...as well as various Pacific coast ports. at the time this study was written, most of the retail sales of CHInESE orGAnIzED CrIME In lAtIn AMErICA...mines in the region and its sale to China.57 Chinese criminal groups are similarly reported to be engaged in illegal min- ing in the remote province
Andrea Díaz Rozas
Full Text Available Book review. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Hb 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Pb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (eBook 76.99€.Reseña. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Td 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Tb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (e-Libro 76.99€.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3092188
This paper presents the results of research into vulnerability to crime in two economic sectors in Belgium. Vulnerability to crime is an integration of diverse temporal factors. We address pre-crime and post-crime aspects of vulnerability, arising before and after the criminal event in an economic context. Based on interviews with professionals, security staff, law enforcement agents and with criminals in the transport sector and the hotel and catering industry, a study of police files, and i...
Full Text Available The new Criminal Code of Romania regulates in Title XI of its Special Part the crimes against the combat capability of the military forces. Under this title, Chapter I is dedicated to the crimes committed by the military and defines the crime of unjustified absence. In this study, the author analysed the specific elements of this crime, including: the specific legal object - military discipline, the field of the active subject and the essential requirements imposed by its objective side.
Dora Inés Munevar
The aim of this article is to discuss femicide as a gender-specific crime. It affords a feminist analysis on the conceptual dimensions of the crime; it includes the main arguments explored in Latin America, examines different aspects defended by feminists and women movement activists, discusses some reactions to the crime and considers the general structure of this crime in six countries: Costa Rica (special law, 2007), Guatemala (special law, 2008), Mexico (general law, 2007), El Salvador (s...
Lars H. Andersen; Anne Sofie Tegner Anker; Signe Hald Andersen
Background: Over the recent decades and across most developed democracies, youth crime has been in steady decline, and declining youth crime now constitutes an important contemporary demographic change. Yet underneath this change lingers the question of how we should best grasp declining youth crime. Objective: To decompose declining youth crime in Denmark into its extensive and intensive margins, and show results from birth cohort analyses. Methods: We apply Das Gupta's (1993) method f...
Metin Yaman; Sibel Arslan
The purpose of this study is to be able to make it clear that recreation serves as a buffer in preventing crime; recreational sports having a special place for young people in juvenile delinuency have an important place; and recreational activities that will be practised in the regions committing intense crime reduce the rate of crimes; but most importantly, sports recreation serves as a buffer for children and young people particularly in preventing the individuals from crime even before the...
Researchers will examine the links between youth violence, organized crime and insecurity with a focus on urban and suburban contexts; examine gender violence in the context of youth violence, organized crime and public insecurity; and compare efforts to deal with youth violence, organized crime, violent conflict and ...
Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison
This article investigates the relationship between crime and quality of life in Saskatoon, Canada. The city has one of the highest crime rates in the country and has been referred to as the "Crime Capital of Canada", a label that comes as a surprise to many residents and causes considerable concern among others. The aim of this research…
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crime prevention and safety... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.220 Crime... enforcement measures and activities appropriate to protect residents of affordable housing from crime...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice...
Sizemore, O. J.
Undergraduate volunteers (n = 134) were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 design that manipulated type of crime (rape vs. robbery) and perpetrator motivation (anger vs. desire). After reading one of the crime scenarios, participants responded to a series of attitude items regarding responsibility for the crime, assigned blame to agents mentioned in the…
Murray, Rebecca K.; Swatt, Marc L.
Although an extensive literature exists on crime in schools, surprisingly few studies have examined crime within the vicinity of schools. Schools, like other urban facilities, can generate crime by providing youth opportunities to congregate with little supervision, particularly before and after school hours. Some noteworthy studies have…
Kahl, Jessica E.; Koenig, Anne; Smith, Ramon
This study investigated participant's reactions to hate crime versus nonbiased crime incident reports that included more or less detail about the crime using a 2 (victim race: African American, unstated) × 2 (amount of information: vague, detailed) between-subjects factorial design. We hypothesized that participants would be more sympathetic,…
Vinkers, David J.; De Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rinne, Thomas; Hoek, Hans W.
Background Previous studies of relationships between mental disorder and crime have tended to group the mental disorders, the crimes or both, leaving uncertainty about a more specific mental disorder: crime relationships. Objective To examine the relationship between types of mental disorder and
Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit
of Swedish town Ystad as location in Henning Mankell's crime novels and as film locations in remediating the novels into movies is turning the actual town into a virtual crime scene for visiting tourists. In the computer game Dollar the adaptation of Liza Marklund's crime universe remediates Stockholm...
Lofstrand, Cecilia Hansen
Within the crime victim movement and discourse on victimization, a novel victim category has been introduced: the young crime victim. This article analyses the professional discourse formed around the new notion, focusing on the needs of the young crime victim along with the practices, tools, and techniques used to deal with resistance at a…
The question of crime and punishment has been a subject of great controversy among moral philosophers and jurists. The fundamental questions here are: What is crime? What is punishment? What is the justification for punishment? How do we determine the appropriate penalty or punishment for crime(s)?” Is punishment ...
Full Text Available This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relatively better than its financial depth, especially for financial markets, in which Indonesia ranks in the lower average group. From literature reviews, it can be inferred that the main factor driving the poor financial depth in Indonesia is non-competitiveness of the institutions; whereas the driving force of poor financial access in Indonesia are geographical constraints, poverty, a high income gap, and a less than effective national financial development policy.
Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.
Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation
Júlio Pimentel Pinto
Full Text Available RESUMO Nas entrevistas ou nos pronunciamentos parlamentares que realizou - assim como em sua ficção - o escritor siciliano Leonardo Sciascia denunciou incessantemente a máfia. Para ele, a hegemonia do crime organizado e suas articulações na política institucional impediam o acesso à verdade e à justiça. Coerentemente, suas peculiares narrativas policiais apresentam crimes sem solução, detetives derrotados, silêncios e omissões. Associando os crimes do texto e os crimes verdadeiros, Sciascia desenha, assim, o perfil da Sicília e, de forma mais ampla, da Itália.
Ribaux, Olivier; Baylon, Amélie; Lock, Eric; Delémont, Olivier; Roux, Claude; Zingg, Christian; Margot, Pierre
A better integration of the information conveyed by traces within intelligence-led framework would allow forensic science to participate more intensively to security assessments through forensic intelligence (part I). In this view, the collection of data by examining crime scenes is an entire part of intelligence processes. This conception frames our proposal for a model that promotes to better use knowledge available in the organisation for driving and supporting crime scene examination. The suggested model also clarifies the uncomfortable situation of crime scene examiners who must simultaneously comply with justice needs and expectations, and serve organisations that are mostly driven by broader security objectives. It also opens new perspective for forensic science and crime scene investigation, by the proposal to follow other directions than the traditional path suggested by dominant movements in these fields. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartel, Pieter H.
Situational crime prevention (SCP) is a criminological theory, proposed by Ronald Clarke in the 1980s and developed over the last 30 years, that focuses on the crime event rather than the criminal. A number of highly effective crime prevention techniques in the physical world have been developed
Naqvi, 'Amnesty for war crimes: Defining the Limits of International Recognition', 85 International Review of the Red ... the government of that country in an attempt to end a protracted and bloody civil war. ..... comprehensive amnesties or the absence of any accountability for past atrocities, is immoral, injurious to victims,.
Demant, Jakob Johan; Dilkes-Frayne, Ella
In this chapter we present a brief introduction to SCP and ANT, followed by ANT analyses of two crime prevention strategies: Passive Alert Detection (PAD) dogs at music festivals (Case I) and “doorwork” (Case II) at licensed venues. The first case examines the use of PAD, or sniffer, dogs to assi...
the Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South. Africa and convener of ... risk for developing a variety of mental health problems including ..... organisation has expressed an interest in support- ing South Africa by providing experts for related training.57. Regardless of whether hate crime legislation is adopted in South ...
Schmitz, Peter MU
Full Text Available the accused. The billing records of the relevant telephones are obtained through a search warrant and for each call made before, during and after the commissioning of crimes, the approximate locations of the two telephones are plotted on a map....
This article adds to the literature on the subject by arguing that the elusiveness of PMCs' individual or corporate responsibility for war crimes presents one of the greatest challenges for international humanitarian law (IHL). This presents a dilemma for IHL, which seeks to address individual offences. The situation becomes ...
Community Based Crime Prevention in Guatemala. Guatemala is one of the most violent countries in the world. Guatemalans of every age, class and ethnicity confront violence daily in every part of the national territory. According to statistics kept by the police and the human rights ombudsman, Guatemala registered 3 366 ...
Full Text Available Crime, as a form of violation of law (A. Giddens, is one of the social risks. One of the negative consequences of the development of a modern, global society is the globalization of criminality (M. Kostić & F. Mirić. Criminality can only be discussed with the development and elaboration of the legal system in the modern sense of the word (including criminal law, but in societies there have always been certain types of norms and beliefs that have influenced human behavior and against which (in correctness (M. Ivanović. Unlike a positive right that cannot fully follow the dynamics of change in society that influence the definition of a crime, sociology should constantly seek new elements that extend this notion (new, unpredictable, unlimited. The paper analyzes the causes of criminality, its distribution, types (violent, property, etc., relation to other notions (deviance, delinquency and crime and its consequences in contemporary society, in order to look at the risk of crime, to seek an adequate social response to This negative phenomenon, and provides an analysis of the penal policy and the role of a prison institution for the offender's conversion (M. Foucault.
Brendtro, Larry K.; Ness, Arlin E.
Examines the current reversion to a punitive public mentality that is being promoted as a purportedly conservative agenda for fighting crime and delinquency. Suggests that while punitive measures and rehabilitation appear to be opposite solutions, each is reactive and rooted in pessimism and blame. (JPS)
Peterson, Joseph L.; And Others
A three-year research effort was conducted to design a crime laboratory proficiency testing program encompassing the United States. The objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility of preparation and distribution of different classes of physical evidence; (2) assess the accuracy of criminalistics laboratories in the processing of selected…
Lopes Filho, Antônio; Ferreira Neto, Nelito Lima
O presente trabalho visa a compreender a aplicação da tentativa nos crimes unissubsistentes, a partir de um estudo sistemático da teoria geral da tentativa, buscando explicar nuanças como a sua tipicidade, as teorias que a cercam, a delimitação do iter criminis e, principalmente, sobre a possibilidade daquela nos delitos unissubsistentes.
Sierra Leone, Executive Outcomes carried out air strikes ensuing huge collateral damage.48 These and many more instances point to the fact that international law is notoriously difficult to enforce49 and in most instances, has been scrupulously observed.50. In reality, all serious violations of IHL are war crimes subject to ...
DiMascio, William M.
Five million people in the United States are under the supervision of the criminal justice system, 1.5 million in prisons or jails, the rest on probation or parole, and the inmate population continues to grow. Taxpayers spend billions of dollars each year on prisons and jails, yet the solution to crime problems remains elusive. To assist in…
Sterzik, V; Bohnert, M
Whenever blunt or sharp forces are used in a crime, analysis of bloodstain pattern distribution may provide important information for the reconstruction of happenings. Thereby, attention should be paid to both the crime scene and the clothes of everyone involved in the crime. On dark textiles, though, it is difficult or even impossible for the human eye to detect bloodstains because of the low contrast to the background. However, in the near infrared wavelength range, contrast is considerably higher. Many textiles reflect light beyond a wavelength of 830 nm and thus appear light-colored, whereas blood absorbs the light and appears dark. In our studies, a D7000 NIKON reflex camera modified for infrared photography produced high-resolution photographs visualizing even very small spatter stains on dark textiles. The equipment can be used at any crime scene or lab and provides immediately available and interpretable images. Thus, important findings can be obtained at an early stage of police investigations, as two examples (homicide and attempted homicide) illustrate.
Ahlf, E H
Up to now, victimology has only dealt with partial aspects of the situation of the elderly as victims of violent crime. Nevertheless, the Police Crime Statistics enable us to make the following three basic statements: In general, old people are less likely to become victims of violent crime (than young people). The acts of violence committed against the elderly are mainly ones in which there was a relationship between offender and victim before the offense. Elderly women are disproportionately more often victims of purse snatching. The increasing social isolation of old people constitutes not only a specific form of victimization, it probably also increases their susceptibility to become victims. The theory that old people have "a particularly pronounced fear of crime" cannot be generally proven. This question must be considered from differing points of view and depends largely on the individual vulnerability of the old people. In Germany, there has hardly been any empirical study of violence towards the elderly in institutions and in family households (so-called domestic violence). It is believed that more violence takes place in both than in generally assumed.
de Vries, L.A.
Evidence-based interventions are crucial for preventing that at-risk youth will develop a persistent criminal carreer. This dissertation includes a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of youth crime prevention, and an evaluation of the Dutch youth intervention ‘New Perspectives’ (NP). At-risk youth
Ribaux, O.; Baylon, A.; Lock, E.; Delémont, O.; Roux, C.; Zingg, C.; Margot, P.
A better integration of the information conveyed by traces within intelligence-led framework would allow forensic science to participate more intensively to security assessments through forensic intelligence (part I). In this view, the collection of data by examining crime scenes is an entire part of intelligence processes. This conception frames our proposal for a model that promotes to better use knowledge available in the organisation for driving and supporting crime scene examinatio...
Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne
This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...... to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes...
Bender, C.F.; Cox, L.A. Jr.; Chappell, G.A.
The initial goal was to evaluate the capabilities of current pattern recognition techniques when applied to existing computerized crime data. Performance was to be evaluated both in terms of the system's capability to predict crimes and to optimize police manpower allocation. A relation was sought to predict the crime's susceptibility to solution, based on knowledge of the crime type, location, time, etc. The preliminary results of this work are discussed. They indicate that automatic crime analysis involving pattern recognition techniques is feasible, and that efforts to determine optimum variables and techniques are warranted. 47 figures (RWR)
James N Mitchell
Full Text Available This article examines the growing infuence of transnational organised crime on the nations of South East Asia. Human trafficking, maritime piracy, terrorism and wildlife trafficking are major transnational crimes that cause significant harm to both individuals and national economies. This article examines the continuing domestic and international legislative, law enforcement and policy efforts of South East Asian nations to address transnational organised crime. it is concluded that to effectively counter transnational organised crime there is a need to employ international cooperation that is focused on addressing the unique factors of each crime.
Full Text Available In the nineties of the last century it was noticed in the U.S.A. that suddenly the number of crimes with violence in the inter-racial and inter-ethnical conflicts rose. Also the phenomenon of ignition of churches, religious and sacral objects, especially in the south of the U.S.A., objects which were used by black people, was recorded. Directly in relation to that - the term „hate crimes“ then arose in science and became outspread very quickly, primarily in criminology. Several events, and above all the murder of a young homosexual in Wyoming influenced for both the violence and the crimes commited towards the homosexuals and all due to the prejudices towards this sexual minority to be included in this term. Today, this term is used not only in the U.S.A. and not only in a criminological sense, but also in a purely legal sense to denote the crimes which were carried out under the influence of hate towards a correspondent racial, ethnical or sexual minority. This term is linked also to the terminology and thus the problems which are related to the „hate speech“. The author of this paper writes about how this term arose in the first place and which problems emerge related to hate crimes and primarily in relation to the issues of expansion of democracy and tolerance, and also education, primarily among the police force and the young population. The author also ascertains that only with the law, no great effects in the battle against this phenomenon can be achieved and that before the criminal-legal intervention some other measures have to be approached, like the creation of an atmosphere of tolerance and the education of the citizens about the phenomenon of hate crimes.
Full Text Available УДК 343(2+7The main provisions of the theory of qualification of crimes were developed in the Soviet times. Some of them, notably relating to the content of criminal law assessment, have become obsolete. Therefore, the article aims to interpret a new vision of the content of qualification. The methods used in the research include analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, interview and statistical method. The authors note that in practice, in fact, general and specific signs of the crimes appearing in the criminal law are used in the qualification of crime.The authors question the use of "corpus delicti" in enforcement during the criminal legal evaluation. Corpus delicti was created in science to the full understanding and disclosure of the crime and its possible structures. It is impossible to carry out qualification and to resolve issues of criminal responsibility or exemption from it on the basis of scientific statements, which are not enshrined in law.Without knowledge of corpus delicti it is possible to hold a formal qualification of the offences and the imposition of criminal liability. This is due to the fact that all penal signs, sufficient for criminal liability provided for in the existing criminal law of the Russian Federation.The authors make the conclusion that qualification is carried out not in terms of corpus delicti, which is a scientific category, but on the basis of general features of crime – guilt, social danger, unlawfulness, liability to punishment, since it is them that are consolidated on the legislative level.
Kreager, Derek A.; Lyons, Christopher J.; Hays, Zachary R.
This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle’s downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990’s, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980’s showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990’s showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed. PMID:25505350
Kreager, Derek A; Lyons, Christopher J; Hays, Zachary R
This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20 th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle's downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990's, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980's showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990's showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed.
Robinson, Alyssa I; Carnes, Fei; Oreskovic, Nicolas M
Adolescents do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Crime is believed to be a barrier to physical activity among youth, but findings are inconsistent. This study compares the spatial distribution of crime incidences and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2012, and examines the correlation between crime and MVPA. Eighty adolescents provided objective physical activity (accelerometer) and location (Global Positioning Systems) data. Crime report data were obtained from the city police department. Data were mapped using geographic information systems, and crime and MVPA densities were calculated using kernel density estimations. Spearman's correlation tested for associations between crime and MVPA. Overall, 1694 reported crimes and 16,702min of MVPA were included in analyses. A strong positive correlation was present between crime and adolescent MVPA (ρ=0.72, pCrime remained positively associated with MVPA in locations falling within the lowest quartile (ρ=0.43, pcrime density. This study found a strong positive association between crime and adolescent MVPA, despite research suggesting the opposite relationship. This counterintuitive finding may be explained by the logic of a common destination: neighborhood spaces which are desirable destinations and promote physical activity may likewise attract crime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of congregants. In particular, religion has been found to foster generalized trust, which should engender lower levels of distrust or misanthropy, including that which is directed towards a general fear of crime. OLS regression was performed using data from the West Georgia Area Survey (n = 380. Controlling for demographic, community involvement, and political ideology variables, frequency of religious attendance was significantly and negatively associated with fear of property crime. This relationship remained even after a perceived neighborhood safety variable was introduced to the model. However, religious attendance was not significantly related to fear of violent crime, and religious orientation was unrelated to fear of property and violent crime. These results suggest that religious involvement conditionally reduces fear of crime, and the authors recommend that future research explore relationships between religion and fear of crime.
Matthew D. Phillips
Full Text Available 'Cooperation and imitation among crime and terror groups in recent years has given rise to a crime-terror nexus. A linear conceptualisation of a crime-terror spectrum, suggests that complete convergence of crime and terror in a failed state can give rise to a ‘black hole.’ Theoretical models of the crime-terror nexus, however, do not specify the means by which a crime-terror group enters this black hole state, yet others do not. Using the Taliban movement as a case study, this article presents a theoretical extension of black hole theory, using organisation-level characteristics to merge black hole theory with the crime-terror continuum.'
Benda, Brent B; Rodell, Daniel E; Rodell, Luci
This was a study of crime among 188 homeless persons who were in a Veterans' Affairs Medical Center program for substance abusers. The purpose of the study was to find out: (a) what proportion committed crimes, and (b) what other problems, relational factors, and personal attributes predict crime. Data indicate 27% of these homeless veterans committed nuisance offenses, and 41% have committed crimes in the past year. Logistic regression procedures indicated that alcohol and other drug abuse, less education, lack of employment, psychiatric problems, and living with a substance abuser increased the odds of committing crimes. This study also finds that physical and sexual abuse before 18 years of age increases the odds of committing crimes, whereas self-efficacy, ego integrity, and resilience decrease these odds. These latter factors have received scant attention in the literature on homeless substance abusers, and yet they are among the strongest predictors of crime. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation are discussed.
L. V. Kurmaeva
Forms and methods of external and internal financial control are discussed. The system of the state and municipal financial control in Russia is described. Changes to organization of internal financial control and audit are proposed.
This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...
This article reviewed the history of Zhong He Shanxi Uranium Enrichment Company, summarizing an efficient and systematical financial management method during both construction period and operational period of the company. It related to fundamental financial management structure building, integrated budgeting, fund management, cost management, asset management, tax planning and HR management. of financial staffs. (author)
The study examines the impact of the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on the quality of financial reporting in Nigeria. The study utilises a period based approach to analyse changes in the degree of financial reporting quality (FRQ) that hinges on three proxies: Value Relevance, Earnings ...
This paper investigates how financial globalization and financial development affect income inequality within a country. We demonstrate that when a country is financially closed to the world market, the Gini coefficient is monotonically decreasing with respect to the degree of financial development, whereas when a country becomes so small due to financial globalization that financial development in the country does not affect the world interest rate, the Gini coefficient is monotonically i...
Kepple, Nancy J; Freisthler, Bridget
Routine activities theory purports that crime occurs in places with a suitable target, motivated offender, and lack of guardianship. Medical marijuana dispensaries may be places that satisfy these conditions, but this has not yet been studied. The current study examined whether the density of medical marijuana dispensaries is associated with crime. An ecological, cross-sectional design was used to explore the spatial relationship between density of medical marijuana dispensaries and two types of crime rates (violent crime and property crime) in 95 census tracts in Sacramento, CA, during 2009. Spatial error regression methods were used to determine associations between crime rates and density of medical marijuana dispensaries, controlling for neighborhood characteristics associated with routine activities. Violent and property crime rates were positively associated with percentage of commercially zoned areas, percentage of one-person households, and unemployment rate. Higher violent crime rates were associated with concentrated disadvantage. Property crime rates were positively associated with the percentage of population 15-24 years of age. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries was not associated with violent or property crime rates. Consistent with previous work, variables measuring routine activities at the ecological level were related to crime. There were no observed cross-sectional associations between the density of medical marijuana dispensaries and either violent or property crime rates in this study. These results suggest that the density of medical marijuana dispensaries may not be associated with crime rates or that other factors, such as measures dispensaries take to reduce crime (i.e., doormen, video cameras), may increase guardianship such that it deters possible motivated offenders.
Full Text Available Mobile information systems agendas are increasingly becoming an essential part of human life and they play an important role in several daily activities. These have been developed for different contexts such as public facilities in smart cities, health care, traffic congestions, e-commerce, financial security, user-generated content, and crowdsourcing. In GIScience, problems related to routing systems have been deeply explored by using several techniques, but they are not focused on security or crime rates. In this paper, an approach to provide estimations defined by crime rates for generating safe routes in mobile devices is proposed. It consists of integrating crowd-sensed and official crime data with a mobile application. Thus, data are semantically processed by an ontology and classified by the Bayes algorithm. A geospatial repository was used to store tweets related to crime events of Mexico City and official reports that were geocoded for obtaining safe routes. A forecast related to crime events that can occur in a certain place with the collected information was performed. The novelty is a hybrid approach based on semantic processing to retrieve relevant data from unstructured data sources and a classifier algorithm to collect relevant crime data from official government reports with a mobile application.
This paper analyses the socioeconomic determinants of property crime and violent crime in Ireland between 2003 and 2012. The aim of the study is to determine whether individuals respond to incentives when deciding to engage in crime and whether this decision is dependent on the type of crime an individual engages in. The results of the paper support the economic theory of crime which indicates that criminals respond to incentives, particularly for property crimes. Higher rates of crime detect...
Full Text Available The process of economic transition in Serbia has highlighted the problem of socially responsible behavior of corporations and especially the growing phenomenon of corporate crime. The consequences of corporate wrongdoing are almost everywhere and cannot be overseen. The most tremendous ones are those related to human casualties, environmental disasters, long-term negative health effects and great material budget losses on local and state levels. The fact that corporations are profiting from criminal activity which causes enormous damage to society and individuals makes public policy makers face the ultimate choice - either to devise new effective measures for reducing and controlling this phenomenon or to retain the standard model of crime control, in accordance with the principles of classical criminal law. The first choice would require one of the pillars of criminal law - the principle of individual and subjective guilt of physical persons as the exclusive grounds for imposing criminal liability - to be either modified and widened in order to be used as a base for imposing corporate criminal liability or partially changed by new criminal law categories which would introduce different grounds for imposing criminal liability on an organization. The second choice would require the decision-makers to refuse to change old and well-established principles. The criminal reality, however, has made most legislatures in Europe and around the world choose the first option and introduce different forms of corporate criminal liability. Serbian criminal legislation has been headed in the same direction since 2008, when it was changed in order to enable the imposing of liability for criminal acts on corporations. However, although corporate criminal liability is becoming the European legislative standard, one question remains - Is this the only measure of criminal politics which can be used as a means of reducing and preventing corporate crime? The authors
Full Text Available We study financial literacy in France using the PATER survey and following the Lusardi and Mitchell (2011c approach. We find that some subpopulations are less financially literate than others: women, young and old people as well as less-educated people are more likely to face difficulties when dealing with fundamental financial concepts such as risk diversification and inflation and interest compounding. We also find some differences in financial knowledge depending on the political opinion of the respondents. Finally we show that these differences in financial knowledge are correlated with differences in the propensity to plan: people who score higher on the financial literacy questions are more likely to be engaged in the preparation of a clearly defined financial plan.
Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the temporal relationship between illness onset and the possible beginning of a criminal career among people with schizophrenia, even though criminality, especially violent criminality, has been shown to be more common among people with schizophrenia than among...... people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia....
Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben
people in general. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the temporal relationship between registered crime and contact to the psychiatric hospital system. METHOD: This is a register-based study merging data on the psychiatric career with criminal records. RESULTS: Among the males with schizophrenia......, 37% started a criminal career and 13% had committed first violent crime before first contact with the psychiatric hospital system. CONCLUSION: The criminality committed before first contact to the psychiatric hospital system is substantial, especially among males with schizophrenia.......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the temporal relationship between illness onset and the possible beginning of a criminal career among people with schizophrenia, even though criminality, especially violent criminality, has been shown to be more common among people with schizophrenia than among...
Grodal, Torben Kragh
centrally fueled in the minds of viewers and readers by the mammalian dopamine seeking/wanting system developed for seeking out resources by foraging and hunting and important for focused mental and physical goal-directed activities. The article describes the way the working of the seeking system explains...... of moral commitment that make them role models for modern work ethics. The article is part of bio-cultural research that describes how biology and culture interact as argued in Grodal’s Embodied Visions. K......This article analyzes the psychological and neurological underpinnings of crime fiction and discusses the interrelation between cultural and biological-evolutionary determinants of fictions of detection. It argues that although crime fiction is a product of modern life conditions, it is also...
de Zoete, Jacob; Sjerps, Marjan; Lagnado, David; Fenton, Norman
When two or more crimes show specific similarities, such as a very distinct modus operandi, the probability that they were committed by the same offender becomes of interest. This probability depends on the degree of similarity and distinctiveness. We show how Bayesian networks can be used to model different evidential structures that can occur when linking crimes, and how they assist in understanding the complex underlying dependencies. That is, how evidence that is obtained in one case can be used in another and vice versa. The flip side of this is that the intuitive decision to "unlink" a case in which exculpatory evidence is obtained leads to serious overestimation of the strength of the remaining cases. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
MIRCEA CONSTANTIN SINESCU
Full Text Available Throughout this paper, the author tries to configure the concept of electoral crime, by presenting the legal, philosophical and historical opinions emerged centuries ago and also by drawing a line between political criminality and ordinary criminality. Furthermore, the study aims also to synthetically highlight the important moments of the legislative evolution in the specified area of interest, starting from the early nineteenth century, during the monarchical regime and ending with the totalitarian government of Romania until the Revolution in 1990. Taking into consideration the new incrimination of electoral frauds in the New Criminal Code adopted in 2009, examining the historical - teleological conditions of the former regulations of these crimes appears as a necessary intercession, in order to ponder upon the new Criminal policy of the legislator.
Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo
Full Text Available After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.
Pisarić Milana M.
Full Text Available Detection and identification of ecological crimes requires specific, specialized knowledge of the competent authorities and the work of the police in detecting and proving involves cooperation with the competent inspection services and other organs. Of particular significance in detecting offenses of ecological criminal is timely and properly taking fisrt operation, in particular crime scene investigation and situational and reconstructive expertise. In order to find answers to the gold forensics issues when conducting investigation, and to identify, fix and secure traces and objects of the offense, it is necessary to engage experts in the appropriate field. In order found traces and objects to may be used in the criminal proceedings, they need to be processed in accordance with all the rules of criminalistics. Therefore, timely consultation between the police, the public prosecutor and the forensics are essential for the successful investigation and prosecution.
This paper presents a prospective longitudinal study that attempts to predict juvenile delinquency measured by first contact with the police (arrest, pre-trial detention or charges of crimes) taking a complete cohort of all children born in Denmark in 1984 (N=54,458). The children are followed from......,591 person-years available. More than twenty risk factors were significantly predicting first-time contact with the police. Predictions were substantially more accurate than chance. Results also showed that the proportion of ‘false-positives’ were about 77 % of estimated high-risk subjects when observing...... birth to early adulthood in 2006. The predictors represent the major crime reduction paradigms, such as family circumstance and individual skills. A discrete-time Cox model is used to allow for changing covariates over time. The population had 6,075 first time contacts with the police over the 300...
Full Text Available Without certain adjustments to specifics of computer crime, as to a phenomenon of global proportions, detection, investigation and prosecution of this type of crime is almost impossible. Therefore, the need for setting up a legal framework for combating cyber crime has been identified, in order to define which activities related to information systems are considered computer crime; to determine the specific procedural rules, which would enable the access to data, computer and networks during investigating and prosecuting computer crime and to provide continuous training of members of the institutions responsible for countering this form of crime. This legal framework should consist of substantive and procedural rules adapted to this type of crime due its aim is the improvement of international cooperation in the framework of global and regional approach to combating cyber crime. In this this paper the current situation of strategic and legal framework of countering cyber crime is presented (at the level of the Council of Europe and of the European Union as well as trends in the development of systematic approach towards countering the mentioned abuses within these regional organizations. At the European level, the legal framework to combat cyber crime is set in the Council of Europe Convention on cyber crime and the Council of EU Framework Decision on attacks against information systems. In a series of documents organs of EU confirmed the strategic support of COE Convention and the encouragement of Member States to ratify the Convention. In addition, the Convention represent the base of the said Framework Decision. These two legal instruments have the same goal - removing the differences between national legislation, the introduction of new powers in the discovery and evidence of computer crime and improvement of the international cooperation in combating cyber crime. Although their legal nature and scope vary, its objectives will be achieved
Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.
The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.
resource and human potential, Nigeria also has a history of corrupt government that tarnishes its reputation worldwide. Corruption hit its high point...necessary to bypass corrupt officials by directly talking to the people. It would be interesting to compare victim-reported crimes with government -reported...police are the most proximate face of the government in most communities. If they are failing, the federal government is failing. Counter Corruption
Marceau, Nicolas; Mongrain, Steeve
This paper studies competition in of crime deterrence between jurisdictions. It considers a world such that criminals can chose the jurisdiction in which they operate. To protect its allocation, every jurisdiction invests in deterrence to reduce benefits of criminal benefits on its territory and to incite criminals to locate in another jurisdiction. We characterize the different equilibria, symetric and asymetric, which can appear in such a world. We demonstrate that when there is no cooperat...
Shollenberger, Tracey Lynn
This dissertation consists of three essays on schools, crime, and punishment. The first essay — stemming from collaborative work with Christopher Jencks, Anthony Braga, and David Deming — uses longitudinal school and arrest records to examine the long-term effects of winning the lottery to attend one's first-choice high school on students' arrest outcomes in the Boston Public Schools. The second essay uses quasi-experimental regression and matching techniques to examine the effect of out-of-...
F. (1979). Implications for the ecological study of crime: A research note. In W. H. Parsonage, (Ed.). (1979). Perspectives on victimology . (pp. 21...elsewhere, 1974-1981. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 7 (1), 3-17. 28 Parsonage, W. H. (Ed.). (1979). Perspectives on victimology . Beverly Hills: Sage...on victimology . (pp. 48-57). Beverly Hills: Sage. Schneider, A. L. (1976). Victimization surveys and criminal justice system evaluation. In W. G
Kuznetsova I. A.
Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the changes contributed by the lawmaker to the RF Criminal Code. Here are distinguished contradictory and collision norms, the problems of their qualification. Some scientific points of view are quoted. The authors offer the ways of solving problematic issues connected with strengthening of the responsibility for crimes of sexual character committed in relation to non-adults
Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio
We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...
Durnal, Evan W
A mysterious green ooze is injected into a brightly illuminated and humming machine; 10s later, a printout containing a complete biography of the substance is at the fingertips of an attractive young investigator who exclaims "we found it!" We have all seen this event occur countless times on any and all of the three CSI dramas, Cold Cases, Crossing Jordans, and many more. With this new style of "infotainment" (Surette, 2007), comes an increasingly blurred line between the hard facts of reality and the soft, quick solutions of entertainment. With these advances in technology, how can crime rates be anything but plummeting as would-be criminals cringe at the idea of leaving the smallest speck of themselves at a crime scene? Surely there are very few serious crimes that go unpunished in today's world of high-tech, fast-paced gadgetry. Science and technology have come a great distance since Sir Arthur Conan Doyle first described the first famous forensic scientist (Sherlock Holmes), but still have light-years to go. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Ćopić Sanja M.
Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.
Catalin-Florinel Stanescu; Laurentiu Mircea Simion
Concerns about the financial risk is increasing. In this climate, companies of all types and sizes want a robust framework for financial risk management to meet compliance requirements, contribute to better decision making and increase performance. Financial risk management professionals working with financial institutions and other corporate clients to achieve these objectives.
Full Text Available In this paper are analyzed the genocide, the crimes against humanity and war crimes from the perspective of humanitarian law, in order to highlight the relevant aspects regarding the non-applicability of statutory limitations to these crimes.To obtain some efficient legal instruments of protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms, and preventing genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, United Nations has established in the international law the "principle of non-applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanity". A brief analysis is made on legislative acts adopted at European level which regulate the institution of the imprescriptibility of the aforementioned crimes, such as The Convention on the Non-applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity, which was ratified by Romania by Decree no. 547/1969 (B. Of. No. 83 of 30 July 1969. The Convention contains references regarding the statute of limitations for criminal liability and enforcement of sentences. The analysis of the Convention is intended to highlight the importance of this European legislative act, since it was the first legal instrument of the international community, through which it was possible to ensure the protection of rights and fundamental freedoms beyond the sovereignty of states, thus representing a success and an innovation in international law.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled... and Related Grounds-Conviction of Certain Crimes § 40.21 Crimes involving moral turpitude and controlled substance violators. (a) Crimes involving moral turpitude—(1) Acts must constitute a crime under...
Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Carmichael, Stephanie; Piquero, Alex R.
Controversy surrounds the ranking of crime seriousness of white-collar crimes relative to street crimes, with early research suggesting the general public is indifferent to crimes of the elite, whereas more recent research indicates that the public thinks certain types of white-collar crime are serious. Building on prior research limitations and…
van der Wilt, H.
In order to qualify as a war crime, an offence must have a nexus with an armed conflict. This contextual element serves to distinguish war crimes from both ordinary crimes and other international crimes such as crimes against humanity and genocide. The case law of the international criminal
Daniela Zapodeanu; Mihail-Ioan Cociuba
Following the financial-economic crisis the financial systems worldwide have been subjected to enormous pressure, which called into question the need for financial system stability in general and in particular the one of the banking system. We overview the most important indicators in financial stability and we analyze the evolution of the main indicators of financial health for the Romanian banking system as a whole and for two banks, respectively BRD and Transylvania Bank . We find that ban...
Full Text Available The author emphasizes the most significant difficulties and disagreements in determining the notion of organized crime, which, on one hand, come as a result of a complexity and dynamism of a contemporary organized crime, and on the other hand, may lead to passing the inadequate legislation and/or the failure of actions against the organized crime. Pointing out to the differences between contemporary organized crime and theoretical definitions of it from the first decades of the 20th century, the author concludes that the answer to the organized crime should be systematic, and need to include the rule of law and the principles of division and control of state power. The author suggests that the changes are necessary within the present criminal legislature of Serbia. In these changes the emphasis need to be on the protection of victims rather than on special legal solutions and special court, prosecution and police units for suppression of organized crime.
ANGLICKÝ ABSTRAKT Development and structure of juvenile crime in the Czech Republic The purpose of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive analysis of juvenile crime, especially in view of its causes, specific features, development and structure. I am convinced that knowledge about current situation of juvenile crime helps to deal with the most important issues of this dangerous social phenomenon. The thesis is composed of five chapters, each of them divided into parts. At first, there is an ...
Jens Chr. Andvig; Odd-Helge Fjeldstad
Crime and the fear of being hit by crime and small-scale violence are key economic and social problems in most developing countries, not least felt strongly by the poor. Extensive corruption in the police, experienced or perceived, contributes seriously to the problem. A key question raised in the paper is: How is police corruption linked to the wider processes of development – including crime, violence and poverty? The paper examines (i) how and why corruption may arise in the daily routines...
This paper provides a high-level evaluation of organised crime and the threats arising from online organised crime, within a multi-disciplinary perspective. It draws on a range of academic, industry and other materials to distinguish the key characteristics of online organised crime and to identify some of the multi-disciplinary resources which are available to counter it. Real-life case studies and other examples, together with the Tables in the Appendices, are used to demonstrate how contem...
have concluded their work collecting, preserving and cataloguing various traces like fingerprints, bloodstains and so on. But the analysis will also show similarities between real-life and fictional crime scene investigations: also in real-life practices reconstruction and interpretation of the crime...... scene is conducted by investigators (crime scene coordinators) who's task it is to decide how the investigation should be carried out and which is best described as a narrative practice; a systematic - and expertise based - work of imagination....
This study, using data from the British Crime Survey (BCS), examines the microrelationship between immigration and victimization. We first find that, although immigrants are more likely to suffer property crimes than natives, this is well explained by the fact that immigrants exhibit demographic characteristics associated with higher victimization. Contrary to the above, immigrants are of lower risk of violent victimization. As violence is an expressive type of crime, where interactions betwe...
This study is concerned with understanding of the factors of aggregate, nonviolent and violent crime categories in Turkey for the period 1965-2009. The determinants of all crime categories are related to selected socio-economic factors. Bounds testing approach to cointegration is employed to test the existence of long-run relationship amongst the variables. Cointegration analysis yields the major contributors of crime are income and unemployment. The direction of causalities between the vari...
Loureiro, Paulo Roberto Amorim; Mendonça, Mário Jorge Cardoso de; Moreira, Tito Belchior Silva; Sachsida, Adolfo
This paper tests whether factors referring to socio-economic aspects, family heritage, social interaction, habits and customs explain differences among violent and non-violent prisoners. Some of the results of the probit estimation show that economic issues are the main factors that stimulate the practice of nonviolent crime. On the other hand, violent crimes results suggest that factors related to family heritage reduce this kind of crime. In relation to variables of social inter...
Molero, Yasmina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Zetterqvist, Johan; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Fazel, Seena
Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed, associations with violence are uncertain. From Swedish national registers we extracted information on 856,493 individuals who were prescribed SSRIs, and subsequent violent crimes during 2006 through 2009. We used stratified Cox regression analyses to compare the rate of violent crime while individuals were prescribed these medications with the rate in the same individuals while not receiving medication. Adjustments were made for other psychotropic medications. Information on all medications was extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, with complete national data on all dispensed medications. Information on violent crime convictions was extracted from the Swedish national crime register. Using within-individual models, there was an overall association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.32, p crime convictions for individuals aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.19-1.73, p crime arrests with preliminary investigations (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.16-1.41, p non-violent crime convictions (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.34, p non-violent crime arrests (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.20, p crime convictions for males aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.13-1.73, p = 0.002) and females aged 15 to 24 y (HR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.08-2.84, p = 0.023). However, there were no significant associations in those aged 25 y or older. One important limitation is that we were unable to fully account for time-varying factors. The association between SSRIs and violent crime convictions and violent crime arrests varied by age group. The increased risk we found in young people needs validation in other studies.
The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences Annual Conference 2018 Violent crime is a frequent occurrence in the UK, predominantly due to knives, with both urban and rural areas significantly impacted. Personal casework experience of the author has involved the forensic laboratory examination of bladed weapons from including murder, sexual offences, armed robberies, aggravated burglaries, wildlife crime, cold case reviews and terrorism offences. The September 2017 Crime Survey of England...
Rossy, Q.; Ioset, S.; Dessimoz, D.; Ribaux, O.
Since 2008, Intelligence units of six states of the western part of Switzerland have been sharing a common database for the analysis of high volume crimes. On a daily basis, events reported to the police are analysed, filtered and classified to detect crime repetitions and interpret the crime environment. Several forensic outcomes are integrated in the system such as matches of traces with persons, and links between scenes detected by the comparison of forensic case data. Systematic procedure...
Kreager, Derek A.; Lyons, Christopher J.; Hays, Zachary R.
This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent a...
This paper examines the potential incapacitation effect on various categories of crime committed by youth offenders. I exploit exogenous variation generated by the increase in school-leaving age and compulsory education or work requirement in the state of New South Wales, Australia from 15 to 17. Using incidents of crime committed by offender of different age-group incorporates incapacitation effect on crimes that do not necessarily lead to arrests. Comparative Interrupted Time-Series analysi...
Full Text Available The financial market is one of the elements of the market-oriented economy. The financial analysis is a fundamental element of the financial controlling business. The purpose of this article is to inform briefly about horizontal and vertical financial statements analysis as the source of competitive advantage of the firm. The article is divided into two parts. First describes financial analysis and financial statements generally. Second, it presents a practical contribution of the horizontal and vertical financial statements analysis at the controlled businesses as financial management tools, which identify the financial position, market behaviour, correlations between the net profit and the prohibitively cost and operating profit, the financial activities profit, the income tax etc.Business, which the analysed firm operates in asks a provable claim on the high value of fixed assets. The capital composition of the firm is call to typify for the state-owned enterprise that was transformed to private joint-stock companies. Analysis is specially pleading for the needs considering the price of the borrowed capital in the capital structure rating. Fault factor ø value talks about needs for the cost regulation. Stair-step conception used for counting of the net profit in the accountant period indicates the financial profit, alternatively loss, as the distinguished pre-tax profit element. Picture about firms financial results can be completed with the information about the income tax value. Form of financial analyses presented in the article entablature the accents on the necessity to compare several accounting period and on the necessity of complex understanding of statements accounting slide en bloc.Financial analyse makes the decision makers possible to screen potential partners before the cooperation starts. On the other side, it makes a possibility to influence the production process, sales and financial management during the accounting
This study is intended to analyse the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyse the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...
The proliferation of gated residential communities in the United States has generated social criticism, but research to assess the expected crime prevention effect of the perimeter security systems...
Research that investigate the extent of labor market prospects on crime rates focus on conditions in a region and crime rate in that region. However, this approach neglects criminal mobility. It is also possible that an improvement in the labor market in a region may attract non-residents, either professional criminals who travel only to commit crime or individuals who migrate hoping to find a job and failing to do so may inclined to commit crime. Indeed, using regional data from Turkey shows...
Full Text Available of the crime, the facilitator of the crime, or the target of the crime” . The intense increase in cyber space crime is due to severe shortcomings of both local and international legislation, and the innovative ideas that criminals have with regard... countries made an attempt to minimize or control cyber crime . Very few legal systems presently consider the digital world. Current criminal and penal laws need to be modified, edited or amended to fit the requirements of the cyber world...
Leticia G. Patino
Full Text Available Abstract Across the world highly populated urban areas are widely regarded as generators of various crimes. From petty crimes to organized crime activities cities and other urban areas provide some form of haven for criminal activities and their proponents. In this paper we look at two highly-urbanized areas New York City and Seoul South Korea. We look to compare the crime trends and activities in these two areas and see if there are points of comparison by which these two are similar or if they are separated by some factors..
Yaseen Ahmed Meenai
Full Text Available With the continuous rise in crimes in some big cities of the world like Karachi and the increasing complexity of these crimes, the difficulties the law enforcing agencies are facing in tracking down and taking out culprits have increased manifold. To help cut back the crime rate, a Crime Forecasting System (CFS can be used which uses historical information maintained by the local Police to help them predict crime patterns with the support of a huge and self-updating database. This system operates to prevent crime, helps in apprehending criminals, and to reduce disorder. This system is also vital in helping the law enforcers in forming a proactive approach by helping them in identifying early warning signs, take timely and necessary actions, and eventually help stop crime before it actually happens. It will also be beneficial in maintaining an up to date database of criminal suspects includes information on arrest records, communication with police department, associations with other known suspects, and membership in gangs/activist groups. After exploratory analysis of the online data acquired from the victims of these crimes, a broad picture of the scenario can be analyzed. The degree of vulnerability of an area at some particular moment can be highlighted by different colors aided by Google Maps. Some statistical diagrams have also been incorporated. The future of CFS can be seen as an information engine for the analysis, study and prediction of crimes.
Full Text Available Two alternative hypotheses – referred to as opportunity- and stigma-based behavior – suggest that the magnitude of the link between unemployment and crime also depends on preexisting local crime levels. In order to analyze conjectured nonlinearities between both variables, we use quantile regressions applied to German district panel data. While both conventional OLS and quantile regressions confirm the positive link between unemployment and crime for property crimes, results for assault differ with respect to the method of estimation. Whereas conventional mean regressions do not show any significant effect (which would confirm the usual result found for violent crimes in the literature, quantile regression reveals that size and importance of the relationship are conditional on the crime rate. The partial effect is significantly positive for moderately low and median quantiles of local assault rates.
Sina, Peter Garlans
The purpose of this research was to examine the gender difference in financial efficacy and financial satisfaction, and influence of financial efficacy to financial satisfaction. Based on the result is found that three hypothesis are accepted. These means, there are difference between woman and man in financialefficacy and financial satisfaction. Other result that financial efficacy gave significant impact to financial satisfaction.
Practical C++ Financial Programming is a hands-on book for programmers wanting to apply C++ to programming problems in the financial industry. The book explains those aspects of the language that are more frequently used in writing financial software, including the STL, templates, and various numerical libraries. The book also describes many of the important problems in financial engineering that are part of the day-to-day work of financial programmers in large investment banks and hedge funds. The author has extensive experience in the New York City financial industry that is now distilled in
Resnikoff, Tatiana; Ribaux, Olivier; Baylon, Amélie; Jendly, Manon; Rossy, Quentin
A growing body of scientific literature recurrently indicates that crime and forensic intelligence influence how crime scene investigators make decisions in their practices. This study scrutinises further this intelligence-led crime scene examination view. It analyses results obtained from two questionnaires. Data have been collected from nine chiefs of Intelligence Units (IUs) and 73 Crime Scene Examiners (CSEs) working in forensic science units (FSUs) in the French speaking part of Switzerland (six cantonal police agencies). Four salient elements emerged: (1) the actual existence of communication channels between IUs and FSUs across the police agencies under consideration; (2) most CSEs take into account crime intelligence disseminated; (3) a differentiated, but significant use by CSEs in their daily practice of this kind of intelligence; (4) a probable deep influence of this kind of intelligence on the most concerned CSEs, specially in the selection of the type of material/trace to detect, collect, analyse and exploit. These results contribute to decipher the subtle dialectic articulating crime intelligence and crime scene investigation, and to express further the polymorph role of CSEs, beyond their most recognised input to the justice system. Indeed, they appear to be central, but implicit, stakeholders in intelligence-led style of policing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kramer, Marc M.
We find that people with higher confidence in their own financial literacy are less likely to seek financial advice, but no relation between objective measures of literacy and advice seeking. The negative association between confidence and advice seeking is more pronounced among wealthy households.
This incumbent of this position is responsible for the preparation of all internal and external financial reports. ... compliance with established budget guidelines, compliance with policies and reasonableness of budget requests; coordinate the work of financial analysts;; Consolidate all outstanding budget issues and items on ...
Dinas, E.; van Spanje, J.
Some scholars have found that mass immigration fuels the success of anti-immigration parties, whereas others have found that it does not. In this paper, we propose a reason for these contradictory results. We advance a set of hypotheses that revolves around a commonly ignored factor, crime. To test
Agribotix GCS 077
Study sites and research methodology. This paper is part of a broader study exploring the nexus between urban crime and poverty in four major cities in Ghana: Accra, Takoradi, Kumasi, and Tamale. These cities reflect the different ecological zones (coastal, forest, and savannah) in the country. Both secondary and primary ...
Although the debate about the link between poverty and the incidence of urban crime in developing countries is complex, nowhere is the link more persuasive than in the urban low-income communities of these countries. Based on official police data, key informant interviews (KIIs), and focus group discussions (FGDs) from ...
Eric P. Baumer
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present research evaluates the possibility of spatial heterogeneity in the effects on neighborhood crime rates of both traditional demographic indicators - immigrant concentration, racial composition, socioeconomic disadvantage, and residential instability - and a contemporary aspect of housing transition - foreclosure - that has garnered significant attention in recent scholarship. OBJECTIVE This research advances previous research by explicitly assessing the merits of the typical "global" or "one size fits all" approach that has been applied in most neighborhood studies of demographic context and neighborhood crime rates by juxtaposing it against an alternative strategy - geographically weighted regression (GWR - that highlights the potentially significant "local" variability in model parameters. We assess the local variation of these relationships for census tracts within the city of Chicago. METHODS This paper utilizes GWR to test for spatial heterogeneity in the effects of demographic context and other predictors on neighborhood crime rates. We map local parameter estimates and t-values generated from the GWR models to highlight some of the patterns of demographic context observed in our analysis. CONCLUSIONS GWR results indicate significant variation across Chicago census tracts in the estimates of logged percent black, immigrant concentration, and foreclosure for both robbery and burglary rates. The observed effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on robbery rates and residential stability on burglary rates also are found to vary across local neighborhood clusters in Chicago. Visual inspection of these effects illuminates the importance of supplementing current approaches by "thinking locally" when developing theoretical explanations and empirical models of how demographic context shapes crime rates.
João Trajano Sento-Sé
Full Text Available O artigo estabelece um diálogo entre a criminologia positivista e algumas correntes contemporâneas da prevenção ao crime inspiradas em teorias sociológicas. Através desse exercício, busca-se evidenciar que algumas das formulações focadas no campo da prevenção já aparecem, em estado embrionário, na agenda teórica positivista. Do mesmo modo, torna-se possível explicitar que alguns postulados empíricos e práticos do positivismo são menos estranhos às teorias contemporâneas de prevenção ao crime do que se costuma reconhecer.The article establishes a dialogue between positivist criminology and some contemporary currents on crime prevention inspired in sociological theories. Through this exercise, we seek to highlight that some of the formulations focused in the preventions field appear, in embryonic state, in the positivist theoretical agenda. Likewise, it is possible to explicit that some empirical and practical tenets of positivism are less foreign to contemporary theories of crime prevention than is usually recognized.
Full Text Available In this article the author speaks about the ways of connection between the state and the organized crime. Corruption is the common way of that connection, but here the author pays special attention to another way of that connection, when the state, its secret police and intelligence organizations use some individuals and groups from the world of the organized crime to commit some covered actions that are very important for the country and its safety. On the other hand, the secret police and intelligence services can not be totally transparent, as a matter of fact they can not give the permission to everybody in the Parliament to know everything about their actions and their budget. That means that some part of their finances always has to remain secret for those who are not directly involved in the work of those intelligence organizations, i.e. it means that the intelligence services must have some secret funds which are usually filled up with the money earned on the business with drug trafficking and some other illegal business. In this article the author gives some short historical presentation of the facts of the use and abuse of mafia by the state and its secret police. He also pays special attention to the CIA's secret, covered actions that sometimes were the other name for the collaboration with mafia in the fight against the communism in Vietnam and Latin America. The author thinks that all of that can be very useful and comparable with the situation in our country and our fight against the organized crime.
Sweet, Frederick; Csapó-Sweet, Rita M
Scientific journals are ethically bound to cite Professor Dr. Carl Clauberg's Nazi medical crimes against humanity whenever the eponym Clauberg is used. Modern articles still publish the eponym citing only the rabbit bioassy used in developing progesterone agonists or antagonists for birth control. Clauberg's Nazi career is traced to his having subjected thousands of Jewish women at the Ravensbruck and Auschwitz-Birkenau death camps to cruel, murderous sterilization experiments that are enthusiastically described by incriminating letters (reproduced here) between him and the notorious Nazi Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. The experiments were carried out in women's block 10 in Auschwitz-Birkenau where Clauberg's colleague Dr. Josef Mengele worked alongside. After Germany lost World War II in 1945 Mengele fled to South America, where he lived to an old age. Clauberg was caught by Russian soldiers, put on trial in the Soviet Union for his crimes against humanity, and imprisoned in 1948. In 1955 he was repatriated to Germany, once again imprisoned for his crimes, and belatedly expelled from the German Medical Association. To estimate the contemporary usage of the names Mengele and Clauberg, Internet hits were recorded for Clauberg C or Mengele J (with and without adding the term Auschwitz) with the Google and Scirus search engines. The ratios of hits for combinations of these terms reveal that relative to Mengele, Clauberg's name is barely known. We propose that journals and books printing the eponym Clauberg cite its derivation and reference to the convicted Nazi criminal. The present article can serve for such citations.
: Incidence of crime in India has been mounting at a fast pace , especially during the last decade. Moreover, crime on body seems to be increasing in comparison to crime on property. Economics and Sociology literature on crime attributes labour market as a transmitting institution for crime. This paper is an attempt to understand the issue of crime in India as a socio-economic problem with particular reference to the Indian labour market. I argue that the poor labour market conditions in the ...
Mohammad Rasmi; Ahmad Al Qerem
Nowadays, cyber crimes are increasing and have affected large organizations with highly sensitive information. Consequently, the affected organizations spent more resources analyzing the cyber crimes rather than detecting and preventing these crimes. Network forensics plays an important role in investigating cyber crimes; it helps organizations resolve cyber crimes as soon as possible without incurring a significant loss. This paper proposes a new approach to analyze cyber crime evidence. The...
In urban areas, fear of crime constitutes as much a problem as crime itself. Fear of crime is often associated with fear for one's personal safety, particularly, safety from violent crimes and physical or sexual harassment in public areas. The fear of crime and feelings of insecurity keeps people off the public places where crime or anti-social behaviour are likely to occur and also limits people's behaviour to access to opportunities and facilities in their public environment. In other words...
A necessidade de tutela eficiente do Mercado de Capitais é, atualmente, indiscutível. O advento de novas tecnologias e o tráfego internacional de capital cada vez maior; tornam o Mercado de Capitais, contemporaneamente, sujeito a amplos riscos e danos. Nesse contexto, o legislador tem respondido com a incriminação de condutas ofensivas ao mercado, contudo a formulação de tipos penais nem sempre se mostra adequada. Dessa forma, questiona-se qual o bem juridicamente tutelado pelos crimes contra...
Crime, as a form of violation of law (A. Giddens), is one of the social risks. One of the negative consequences of the development of a modern, global society is the globalization of criminality (M. Kostić & F. Mirić). Criminality can only be discussed with the development and elaboration of the legal system in the modern sense of the word (including criminal law), but in societies there have always been certain types of norms and beliefs that have influenced human behavior and against which ...
Falk, Armin; Zweimüller, Josef
Right-wing extremism is a serious problem in many societies. A prominent hypothesis states that unemployment plays a crucial role for the occurrence of right-wing extremist crime. In this paper we empirically test this hypothesis. We use a previously not used data set which includes all officially recorded right-wing criminal acts in Germany. These data are recorded by the German Federal Criminal Police Office on a monthly and state level basis. Our main finding is that there is in fact a sig...
de Vries, L.A.
Evidence-based interventions are crucial for preventing that at-risk youth will develop a persistent criminal carreer. This dissertation includes a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of youth crime prevention, and an evaluation of the Dutch youth intervention ‘New Perspectives’ (NP). At-risk youth (N = 101) aged 12 to 19 years were randomly assigned to NP and care as usual (CAU). New Perspectives proved not to be more effective than other existing youth care services. However, the time to re-...
Patricia Manente Melhem
Full Text Available Through literature review and qualitative analysis the work deals with the category "stand society" in Faoro, relating to the Ideology of Social Defense, treated in the marxist context presented by Baratta as the dominant discourse on crime in capitalism and has among its postulates the claim that the conduct is considered criminal because of social interest, and the law is the expression of the general will. It seeks to demonstrate that the law does not actually represent the interests of society but of the influential groups in the legislative process, here called: “stands”.
Laouar, Dounia; Mazouz, Said; van Nes, A.
The study investigates the relationship between space and crime by using space syntax. The aim is to describe the spatial characteristics of the built environment and the spatial distribution of crime pattern. The space syntax variables are connected to the statistical data on street crime data registered in Annaba.This inquiry seeks to identify the spatial features of the crime locations to understand the relationship between the spatial configuration and crime behaviour. Most studies on spa...
City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data compiles standard financial integrity benchmarks that allow the City to measure its financial standing. It measure the City's debt ratio and bond ratings....
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This section contains the annual CMS financial statements as required under the Chief Financial Officers (CFO) Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-576). The CFO Act marked a major...
T. V. Teplova
Full Text Available In this paper as the main feature of innovation in the financial health of a company analyst view the shift to two circuits of key interests of owners of capital (financial stakeholders. Justifi ed by differences key financial systems within the contour ownership interest and the lender three projections: liquidity, the current economic efficiency and growth. In the paper as the main feature of the innovation in the analysis of the financial health of a company is considered a transition to the two circuits of the interests of the key owners of financial capital (financial stakeholders. Justifi ed differences of key financial indicator systems in the framework of the outline of the interests of the owner and the lender by three projections: liquidity, efficiency and the quality of growth. The examples of Russian companies have different interpretations of financial targets and indicators with a choice of activities.
This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.
This dissertation explores how financial reporting enforcement differs in Europe and how these differences influence the materiality assessment and disclosure decisions made by the preparers of the financial statement. Furthermore, it analyses how financial reporting enforcement influences...... al. 2013, Brown et al. 2014). This heterogeneous enforcement has created a particular need to understand how enforcement influences financial reporting if the primary users must be able to use it as a reliable source of information. This issue is investigated in the following three papers...
Valdes, José Manuel Delgado; Eisenstein, Jacob; De Choudhury, Munmun
Exposure to frequent crime incidents has been found to have a negative bearing on the well-being of city residents, even if they are not themselves a direct victim. We pursue the research question of whether naturalistic data shared on Twitter may provide a "lens" to understand changes in psychological attributes of urban communities (1) immediately following crime incidents, as well as (2) due to long-term exposure to crime. We analyze half a million Twitter posts from the City of Atlanta in 2014, where the rate of violent crime is three times of the national average. In a first study, we develop a statistical method to detect changes in social media psychological attributes in the immediate aftermath of a crime event. Second, we develop a regression model that uses historical (yearlong) crime to predict Twitter negative emotion, anxiety, anger, and sadness. We do not find significant changes in social media affect immediately following crime in Atlanta. However we do observe significant ability of historical crime to account for heightened negative emotion and anger in the future. Our findings have implications in gauging the utility of social media to infer longitudinal and population-scale patterns of urban well-being.
Zubairu Abubakar Ghani
Full Text Available Urbanization has created numerous social problems, among which is crime that became a common phenomenon to all urban areas in both developed and developing nations. Recent unimaginable levels of the world urbanization coincides with rise in urban crimes in many parts of the world, as the rate of unemployment had been on the increase and coupled with increased poverty among the urban poor. Nature of crime is not uniform but varies from one geographical region to another. In some areas, property crime is more common while in others, crime on person (violent is prevalent. Crime is not being plagued by a singular factor anywhere it occurred, there are variant factors that influence criminal activities. However, key factors that persuade criminal behaviours of potential offenders includes: unemployment, poverty, bad governance and weaknesses in law enforcement or crime-control agencies. These four key factors were discussed in this paper with hope of bringing out nature of urban crimes that bedevilled properties and people safety for taking management and prevention measures.
Kruger, Daniel J.; Hutchison, Peter; Monroe, Matthew G.; Reischl, Thomas; Morrel-Samuels, Susan
This study develops an explanatory framework for fear of neighborhood crime based on respondents' social context and local rates of assault injuries. Rates of assault injuries within zip codes are based on hospital discharge records. We find that only four variables have a significant unique contribution to fear of crime: respondent's sex,…
van Dijk, Jan
The author argues that statistics of police-recorded crimes have limited utility for cross-country analyses of crime, due to varying legal definitions, reporting patterns and recording practices. In his view stand alone national victimisation surveys, with their varying methodologies and
Ianni, Francis A. J.; Reuss-Ianni, Elizabeth
Recent research is beginning to shed some light on the nature and extent of violence and crime in American schools, the role that schools themselves play in producing, aggravating, or reducing school crime, and how changes in the schools can remedy social control problems. Data from these studies indicate that: (1) despite public opinion, school…
van Dijk, Jan; van Soomeren, Paul; de Waard, Jaap; Winterdyk, john
The international decline of crime prevention in so many countries begs the question which factors have propelled the sudden rise of crime prevention as a new policy concept in the 80s and 90s over the last century, and which factors have been instrumental in its subsequent stagnation or decline
Oh, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Sangmoon
This study attempts to examine the reciprocal effects between fear of crime and neighborhood attachment because aging is a critical factor in both discussions of fear of crime and neighborhood attachment (friendship, neighboring, social cohesion and trust, informal social control, and participation in neighborhood watch program). Using data from…
Ali, Abdiweli M.; Peek, Willam
This paper is an empirical analysis of the determinants of crime in Virginia. Over a dozen explanatory variables that current literature suggests as important determinants of crime are collected. The data is from 1970 to 2000. These include economic, fiscal, demographic, political, and social variables. The regression results indicate that crime…
This paper discusses the relationship between education and crime from an economic perspective, developing a human capital-based model that sheds light on key ways in which early childhood programs and policies that encourage schooling may affect both juvenile and adult crime. The paper first discusses evidence on the effects of educational…
Kerstholt, J.H.; Eikelboom, A.R.
Purpose - To investigate the effects of prior case knowledge on the judgement of crime analysts. Design/methodology/approach - Explains that crime analysts assist when an investigation team has converged/agreed on a probable scenario, attributes this convergence to group-think, but points out this
Cima-Knijff, M.J.; van Oorsouw, K.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of psychopathy predicted claims of crime-related amnesia. Different characteristics of psychopathy were based on the factor structure of the self-report questionnaire Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). Crime-related amnesia claims
The main focus of this research is to established, through an objective empirical process, the spatial pattern and trend with regards to the crime geography of Calabar Urban. Six, of the Police posts in the town, two from each of the three zones into which the town has been sub-divided became the sample points. The crime ...
Heinrichs, R. Walter; Sam, Eleanor P.
The schizophrenia-crime relationship was studied in 151 research participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and with histories positive or negative for criminal charges, convictions and offences involving violence. These crime-related variables were regressed on a block of nine predictors reflecting…
... and in conclusion, it puts forward amongst other recommendations that the provisions of Article 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court should be enlarged to provide for xenophobia as a crime against humanity. Keywords: Xenophobia, Duty of State, Crime against Humanity, Migrants, Rights, Aliens ...
Stahlkopf, Christina; Males, Mike; Macallair, Daniel
Under incapacitation theory, higher incarceration rates are expected to correlate with accelerated reductions in crime. California's contemporary incarceration patterns offer an opportunity to analyze the validity of this theory, particularly as it applies to young people. This study focuses on California's juvenile incarceration and crime trends…
Korovin E. P.
Full Text Available The article raises a set of problems traditionally arising in the classification of acts aimed to involve minors in the commission of a crime. The analysis conducted enables the authors to offer their own solutions in the form of specific recommendations on the legal assessment of the crime under study
instance, the city of Barcelona (Spain) has a low and declining crime rate, but fear of crime in Barcelona remains high, indicating a mismatch between actual ..... Macedo, Democracy at risk: how political choices undermine citizen participation, and what we can do about it, Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2005; ...
Collier, B.J.; Smith, Willy Demarcell
This study of the interactive effects of race and sex on crime reaffirms previous conclusions that Black males are disproportionately and adversely affected by crime and the administration of criminal law. Interpretations of statistical data on victimization and imprisonment rates are presented. (JCD)
... on the nature of the (crime) problem. On the basis of our analysis, we propose three design principles to be followed if we, South Africans are to establish crime prevention as a central focus of our security governance. These design principles articulate what might be thought of as 'best thinking' rather than 'best practice'.
Parker, Donn B.
This advanced training and reference manual is designed to aid investigators and prosecutors in dealing with white collar computer crime. The first five sections follow the typical order of events for prosecutors handling a criminal case: classifying the crime, computer abuse methods and detection, experts and suspects using information systems,…
A key issue that has attracted the attention of criminologists and others in the field of crime studies is the extent to which crime influence poverty and vis-à-vis. While this debate has extensively engaged the attention of criminologists and other social scientists in the developed world, little academic attention has been given to ...
Full Text Available Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between "criminals", "inspectors", and "ordinary people" as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stable mixture of criminals and inspectors or one of these two strategies alone. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to different final states are possible, indicating that successful strategies to contain crime can be very much counter-intuitive and complex. Our results demonstrate that spatial interactions are crucial for the evolutionary outcome of the inspection game, and they also reveal why criminal behavior is likely to be recurrent rather than evolving towards an equilibrium with monotonous parameter dependencies.
Pryor, Douglas W.; McGarrell, Edmund F.
Reports results of a survey administered to the general public in a large midwestern city on public perceptions of youth gang crime. The 306 residents (aged 14 years and over) of Indianapolis (Indiana) surveyed generally feel that youth gang crime is more serious in areas other than their own. (SLD)
Kennedy, Leslie W.; Silverman, Robert A.
Examined demographic, environmental, behavioral, and social psychological factors that affect fear of crime among the elderly (N=1,439). Results showed elderly women were more fearful than other groups. Social isolation, type of housing, length of residence, and area of the city were all related to fear of crime. (JAC)
Crime fiction is an established and popular literary genre in South Africa that has gained international recognition and acclaim. The genre continues to expand and develop in terms of thematic concerns and experiments in form. One such notable development is the farm crime novel, which extends the tradition of the South ...
Why do 'crime bosses' settle in one place and not another? It is an intriguing and under-researched question, and not much has been written about it. In South Africa a cluster of individuals associated with organised crime moved into, or were associated with, a particular suburb: Bedfordview, south-east of Johannesburg.
Abstract. There are various definitions of crime from the perspectives of moralists, libertarians, positivists, etc. This research covers Criminal Code, Penal Code as well as Shariah Penal Code. The doctrinal method of research was adopted to analytically study the concept of crime. It was found that the moralist sees.
The first chapter deals with keystroke dynamics, the study of human typing behavior, as a means to prevent crime. The remaining chapters focus on so-called small crimes (e.g., taking a bundle of printing paper from the office for private use, littering in a public place, or fare dodging). More
Agger, Gunhild; Jacobsen, Michael Hviid
Contemporary Scandinavian crime fiction feeding on history makes use of a variety of genres and approaches, some of them launching advanced aesthetic strategies. In this article I will discuss two of these strategies. The first will be represented by the historical crime novel mixing historical...
Bennell, C.; Snook, B.; MacDonald, S.; House, J. C.; Taylor, Paul J
Computerized crime linkage systems are meant to assist the police in determining whether crimes have been committed by the same offender. In this article, the authors assess these systems critically and identify four assumptions that affect the effectiveness of these systems. These assumptions are
Rushton, J. Philippe; Templer, Donald I.
National differences in murder, rape, and serious assault were examined in 113 countries in relation to national IQ, income, skin color, birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Data were collated from the 1993-1996 International Crime Statistics published by INTERPOL. Violent crime was found to be lower in countries with…
Waardenburg, L.; Sergeeva, A.; Huysman, Marleen
This research focuses on the consequences of the shift to data-driven work for daily police work. Our ongoing ethnographic field study of a team of police officers shows that predictive policing algorithms inscribe a different crime theory-in-use – i.e., the understanding of why crime occurs and how
Feb 24, 2017 ... greatly improved problem oriented policing capabilities, optimal resource allocation, reduced crime rates, and the prevention of ... at every level of policing. Kaduna metropolis is located between .... land uses are theoretically predictive of crime levels in the neighborhood surrounding them. In the case of ...
From a practical point of view, however, a difficulty may arise when the ICC wants to exercise jurisdiction and bring perpetrators of international crimes to justice while an amnesty law has been passed in the country where the crimes were committed and the prevailing political situation in that country is that any foreign ...
... violence and organized crime, and how they lead to violent political mobilization with the potential to undermine democratic governance. In light of the burgeoning role played by women in organized crime and violence, researchers will endeavor to characterize the motivation, extent and mechanisms of their involvement.
of alcohol and smoking marijuana; conventional crimes such as vandalising school property, theft and less serious learner-on-learner attacks; abuse of the dignity ..... largest percentage of drug users are not necessarily involved in other forms of crime. .... Learners use alcohol (beer, wine and strong drink). Learners wilfully ...
Different Reactions, Victimology 3: 285.296. Clark, A., and M.J. Lewis 1982 Fear of Crime Among the Elderly: An Exploratory Study, British Journal of...J. 1984 A Multivariate Analysis of Perceived Likelihood of Victimization and Degree of Worry About Crime Among Older People, Victimology : An
The truism that crimes of mass atrocity are by definition collective may be one of the greater banes of criminal law lawyers attempting to solve the problem of liability. Collective crimes are familiar to all domestic criminal law systems, however the context in which mass atrocity takes place is
Jun 10, 2015 ... Infographic offers advice to policymakers for reducing crime and violence. Why do cities with similar conditions of social exclusion experience different levels of violence? View moreInfographic offers advice to policymakers for reducing crime and violence ...
television, radio, video players, internet and most recently, computer games. Violent crimes have also increased to be part of the media content in all aspects of still and motion viewings. It is therefore the position of this paper that the rise in violent crimes is not unrelated to the consumption of violent but sometimes fictional ...
Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Gertz, Marc; Bratton, Jake
"Get tough" approaches for responding to sex crimes have proliferated during the past decade. Child pornography in particular has garnered attention in recent years. Policy makers increasingly have emphasized incarceration as a response to such crime, including accessing child pornography. Juxtaposed against such efforts is a dearth of knowledge…
Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.; Winchester, Danielle D.
Using a cost-benefit framework for financial planning services and proprietary data collected in the summer of 2008, the client characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of paying for professional financial advice, as well as the type of financial services purchased, are identified. Results indicate that respondents who pay for…
World Bank; International Monetary Fund
A joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank mission visited Rabat and Casablanca in 2015, to assess the soundness and resilience of the banking system, the state of play in financial inclusion and infrastructure, the oversight frameworks for banking, capital markets and financial market infrastructures, crisis preparedness, and update the findings of the Financial Sector Assessme...