WorldWideScience

Sample records for fr29mr10r regulations governing

  1. Regulating Corporate Governance in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    In the context of the financial and economic crisis, corporate governance and regulatory supervision failures are at the centre of public debates. Who controls the modern corporation, and why, has become one of the defining social power relations in contemporary capitalism. Regulation Corporate...

  2. Some laws and regulations governing aquatic resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some laws and regulations governing aquatic resources exploitation and conservation in Nigeria. Ben O Ezenabor. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.40(2) 2004: 167-170. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. Performance, corporate governance and new regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Garcia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available After the adoption of the Corporate Governance Code (Code in Mexico, many companies increased financial performance and the leveraged during the following five years; we investigated the effect of how those firms improved the corporate governance practices and how was translated into better risk return company. We analyzed how and where better corporate governance practices affects performance and what was the relationship with Transparency, New Regulation and Governance Practices. Also we explored the gaps between transparency and information disclosure of Mexican Firms listed in U.S stock exchange and non U.S listed firms our findings were related to the potential growth of the Mexico Financial Market, Law and Finance.

  4. Opening Innovation in Regulation Inside Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Rasmus Koss; Hienerth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    , however, has been critiqued for resulting in high levels of compliance costs throughout public sector organizations. Concurrently, we show that it has also generally been dominated by a closed and regulator-centered model of innovative development. In this paper, we develop first a concept of user......A marked increase in regulation inside government has been a defining feature of public management reform in throughout the Western world over the past thirty years, making regulatory innovation one of the most important forms of innovation in the public sector. The process of regulatory innovation...... of regulation and typology of four forms of user involvement based on the available public management literature. Second, we develop a model of the costs of regulation. We then analyze scenarios of how these four forms can contribute to reducing regulatory costs. We find that user innovation can contribute both...

  5. 33 CFR 209.200 - Regulations governing navigable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations governing navigable waters. 209.200 Section 209.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.200 Regulations governing navigable waters...

  6. Balancing government-regulated participation with community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to explore the nature and extent of community participation and support for the Taung Skull World Heritage Site (TSWHS) scheme. Utilising the social exchange theory, the paper's central argument suggests meaningful community involvement in government-sponsored participation as a prerequisite to ...

  7. Bank governance, regulation, and risk taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, L.; Levine, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper conducts the first empirical assessment of theories concerning risk taking by banks, their ownership structures, and national bank regulations. We focus on conflicts between bank managers and owners over risk, and we show that bank risk taking varies positively with the comparative power

  8. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-06-11

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  9. Corporate Governance in Crisis? The Politics of EU Corporate Governance Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    on the transformation of company law and corporate governance in the last decade. Here, the article illustrates how company law has become increasingly focused on the rights of shareholders, while worker rights have been relegated to the area of social policies and labour law. The study also traces the shift from......This article emphasises the essentially political nature of corporate governance regulation and argues that the transformation of corporate governance regulation is part of a broader political project of economic restructuring and market-making in the EU. The first part of the analysis focuses...

  10. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE REGULATION IN EMERGING COUNTRIES. CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu George BOCEAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the literature on corporate governance emphasizes that firms should be run in the interests of shareholders. This is a suitable objective function when markets are perfect and complete. In many emerging economies this is not the case: markets are imperfect and incomplete. Corporate governance issues are especially important in emerging countries, since these countries do not have the long-established financial institution infrastructure to deal with corporate governance issues. This paper discusses how emerging countries are dealing with corporate governance issues and the extra obstacles they have to overcome due to a lack of regulations. Romanian case study is examined.

  11. Grim fairy tale of government regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Efforts to guarantee public safety may actually thwart the use of benefits afforded us by technology. Some of the lessons to be learned from the regulatory experience of the nuclear power industry can apply to the aircraft and other industries if Congress passes the enabling legislation. What they show is that increased regulation can destroy the aircraft industry as fast as it has the nuclear industry by establishing unrealistic safety, emergency, licensing, and other requirements that threaten its viability. The US will feel the impact of rejecting nuclear power when it can no longer compete with the countries which elected to use nuclear power because they could not afford to do otherwise. The author outlines steps the Congress and American Public must take to revive the nuclear industry

  12. 77 FR 75362 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1612 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations CFR Correction 0 In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 900 to 1899, revised as of July 1, 2012, on page 266, in Sec. 1612.6 (b) the words ``2401 E Street NW., Washington, DC, 20506...

  13. Corporate Governance Convergence : Evidence from Takeover Regulation Reforms in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to the research on corporate governance by predicting the effects of European takeover regulation.In particular, we investigate whether the recent reforms of takeover regulation in Europe are leading to a harmonization of the national legislations.With the help of 150

  14. Science Based Governance? EU Food Regulation Submitted to Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Anna Szajkowska and Bernd van der Meulen analyse in their contribution, Science Based Governance? EU Food Regulation Submitted to Risk Analysis, the scope of application of risk analysis and the precautionary principle in EU food safety regulation. To what extent does this technocratic,

  15. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.K.; Iwankow, C.

    1996-01-01

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada's perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs

  16. Multilayered Governance in International Financial Regulation and Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf H. Weber

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, financial markets have become increasingly international in scope, while the focus of financial regulation and supervision has largely remained limited to the domain of national jurisdictions. This article applies the doctrine of multilayered governance to financial markets, thereby addressing the discrepancy between international financial activities and nationally oriented financial regulation and supervision. It identifies core values that are widely shared within the in...

  17. Colorado Rules and Regulations Governing Operation of School Transportation Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Office of Field Services.

    This document contains the text of the rules and regulations, adopted in 1972 and later amended, governing the operation of student transportation vehicles in the state of Colorado. They define the kinds of vehicles that qualify as school transportation vehicles, outline the requirements for vehicle operator's examination, describe the types of…

  18. Government regulation of business in a changing institutional barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova I.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the domestic experience in government regulation of business in a changing institutional barrier.Compared the degree of economic freedom in Ukraine. The emphasis is on the need to develop a national strategy of institutional development of domestic entrepreneurship.

  19. Adapting Governance and Regulation of the Marine Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic is currently undergoing change at a pace many would not have considered possible just a decade or so ago. It is therefore reasonable to argue that while the international law and policy regime for the governance and regulation of the marine Arctic may have been adequate for an

  20. Data-driven Regulation and Governance in Smart Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchordás, Sofia; Klop, Abram; Mak, Vanessa; Berlee, Anna; Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the concept of data-driven regulation and governance in the context of smart cities by describing how these urban centres harness these technologies to collect and process information about citizens, traffic, urban planning or waste production. It describes how several smart

  1. Protecting Filipino Transnational Domestic Workers: Government Regulations and their Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Battistella, Graziano; Park, Jung Soo; Asis, Maruja M.B.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a study which sought to examine the impact of Philippine government regulations on the status of Filipino domestic workers. The Migrants Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 or RA 8042 and its amendments (RA 9422 in 2006 and RA 10022 in 2010) were aimed at enhancing the protection of migrant women, especially those in domestic work. Part I of the report discusses the regulatory framework set in place by the Philippine government for the purpose of pr...

  2. Risk regulation and deliberation in EU administrative governance: GMO regulation and its reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the problems of EU risk regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not

  3. The role of government and regulation in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Otis W

    2017-08-01

    The world population is ageing and increasing in size. As a result, the numbers of people diagnosed with and dying of cancer are increasing. Cancer is also a growing problem in developing countries. Government, be it local, state, provincial, national, or even a union of nations, has clear roles in the control of cancer. It is widely appreciated that much of the research that has defined the causes and treatment of cancer was, and is, government funded. Less appreciated, the body of work about how to control cancer shows the importance of an environment that encourages individuals to adopt healthy behaviours, and government has a vitally important role. Through regulation, education, and support programmes, governments can create an environment in which tobacco use is reduced and citizens maintain good levels of physical activity, healthy bodyweight, and good nutrition. Cancer prevention and the creation of a culture of health is an essential mission of government, beyond that of the traditional health-focused departments such as health ministries; it is in the domain of governmental agencies involved in environmental protection, occupational safety, and transportation. Cancer prevention and health promotion are also in the realm of the zoning board, the board of education, and the board of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tightening the focus: moral panic, moral regulation and liberal government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier, Sean P

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to tighten the focus of moral panic studies by clarifying and elaborating on an analytical framework that conceptualizes moral panic as a form of moral regulation. The first part of the article explains why moral panic should be conceptualized as a form of moral regulation. The second part presents a rejoinder to Critcher's (2009) critique of the widening focus of moral panic studies. The third part elaborates on the conceptual relationship between the sociologies of moral panic and moral regulation by offering fresh insights into the sociological and political importance of moral panic as a technique of liberal government. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  5. Should states and local governments regulate dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ranjani

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulation of dietary supplements in the United States is governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. The law has been criticized as weak and ineffective. Alarming research has emerged demonstrating that supplements may be mislabelled, contaminated, adulterated with dangerous or unknown compounds, or sold at toxic doses. As a result, the health community has raised concerns about the safety and quality of dietary supplements. Increased federal oversight is an important avenue for improving supplement safety; however, states and local governments may also pursue strategies to strengthen the overall regulatory control of dietary supplements. States and local governments have substantial experience in regulating other products that pose a risk to public health, such as tobacco. Additionally, much has been learned about the tactics the tobacco industry has employed to protect its interests. Lessons learned may be applied to new regulatory efforts aimed at improving the safety of dietary supplements at the state and local levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of Government Regulation on the Evolution of Sports Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rick; Kalman, Douglas

    The sports nutrition segment of the dietary supplement industry enjoyed nearly a decade of unfettered growth under federal legislation passed in 1994. A series of breakthroughs in the dietary supplement field led to the development and marketing of innovative products designed to enhance performance, build muscle, or lose excess fat. As the popularity of these products soared and evolved into a multi-billion dollar industry, the sports nutrition supplement market drew the attention of federal and state regulatory bodies and sports antidoping authorities. Growing concerns over potential health risks and unfair athletic advantages have spurred government regulators and legislators to heighten the scrutiny of this market, leading to recent legislative amendments and increased government enforcement action.

  7. Telecommunications in South Africa: Governance of who is actually regulating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L-F Pau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Republic of South Africa telecommunications market is a maturing one with a large customer base to serve, it has been repeatedly been observed over the past few years that many good intentions were formulated in the regulatory sphere with sometimes poor outcomes and unclear governance. A number of surprising observations have been made on the outcomes, the delays or other process related events linked to regulatory measures. The paper thus researches first, from a governance point of view, who is actually regulating the telecommunications industry; it identifies next opportunities and bottlenecks whereby a change might happen to reach the expected outcomes. A political economy methodology is taken, backed up by extensive field work over 2010 and 2011, leading to a web of conjectures providing answers to the first question, based on an extensive analysis of key stakeholders goals, positions and interactions. Finally, a number of measures are proposed to improve the governance, regulatory impact and efficiency, and evolve the South African telecommunications eco-system.

  8. 25 CFR 1000.220 - What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to self-governance... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000...

  9. Ethical regulation or regulating ethics? The need for both internal and external governance of human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomossy, George F

    2002-10-01

    Research regulation is a timely topic for discussions in bioethics and public health policy. This response to articles in the previous special issue of the Monash Bioethics Review emphasises the importance of having both internal and external controls on human experimentation. Unless both elements are incorporated into research ethics governance frameworks, they will ultimately fail to achieve what should be their primary goal: human subject protection.

  10. How can we characterize nano-specific soft regulation? Lessons from occupational health and safety governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichow, Aline; Dorbeck-Jung, Barbel R.; Konrad, Kornelia; Coenen, Christopher; Dijkstra, Anne; Milburn, Colin; van Lente, Harro

    2013-01-01

    Soft regulation is a widely used instrument in the governance of emerging technologies, especially in the governance of nanotechnologies. So far, evaluations on the effects of nano-specific soft regulation cannot build on a coherent and consistent typology. Characterization of soft regulation is

  11. Analysis of combinatorial regulation: scaling of partnerships between regulators with the number of governed targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Bhardwaj

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Through combinatorial regulation, regulators partner with each other to control common targets and this allows a small number of regulators to govern many targets. One interesting question is that given this combinatorial regulation, how does the number of regulators scale with the number of targets? Here, we address this question by building and analyzing co-regulation (co-transcription and co-phosphorylation networks that describe partnerships between regulators controlling common genes. We carry out analyses across five diverse species: Escherichia coli to human. These reveal many properties of partnership networks, such as the absence of a classical power-law degree distribution despite the existence of nodes with many partners. We also find that the number of co-regulatory partnerships follows an exponential saturation curve in relation to the number of targets. (For E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, only the beginning linear part of this curve is evident due to arrangement of genes into operons. To gain intuition into the saturation process, we relate the biological regulation to more commonplace social contexts where a small number of individuals can form an intricate web of connections on the internet. Indeed, we find that the size of partnership networks saturates even as the complexity of their output increases. We also present a variety of models to account for the saturation phenomenon. In particular, we develop a simple analytical model to show how new partnerships are acquired with an increasing number of target genes; with certain assumptions, it reproduces the observed saturation. Then, we build a more general simulation of network growth and find agreement with a wide range of real networks. Finally, we perform various down-sampling calculations on the observed data to illustrate the robustness of our conclusions.

  12. A Corporate Governance Index : Convergence and Diversity of National Corporate Governance Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of appropriate corporate governance framework has been a focal point of recent reforms in many countries. This study provides a comprehensive comparative analysis of corporate governance regulatory systems and their evolution over the last 15 years in 30 European countries and the US. It

  13. 75 FR 29917 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ...-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX09 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird... governing migratory bird rehabilitation in the United States. Before creation of those regulations.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. George T. Allen, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish...

  14. Concept Model of Ecological Civilization Regulated by Nature, Society and Government

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Jiang-ying; Wu, Bin

    2011-01-01

    We studied theoretic development of ecological civilization, and put forward the concept model of ecological civilization regulated by nature, society and government. In the construction of ecological civilization, the nature, society and government play different roles and have respective functions. Therefore, we should build a self-regulating network of ecological civilization through natural law, social law, as well as scientific outlook on development.

  15. Government Legislation and Regulations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    For centuries, customary or traditional laws have covered the use of biological resources throughout the world. As human population levels increase in all societies, voluntary actions governed by cultural practices are frequently insufficient to protect biodiversity, leading to...

  16. The Regulation and Improvement of Suburban Landless Peasants’ Community in the Charge of the Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Suburban landless peasants’ communities are both the transfiguration in the passive urbanization and transformation in the leading of governments. The specificity of suburban landless peasants community-generated determines the specificity in governing. The deficiency of well governance mechanisms, the scarcity of citizen spirit, the low level of self-organization and the deficiency of social capital in suburban landless peasants’ community in the charge of the government bring about a serious of developing dilemma. The regulation and improvement of government should embark on reconstructive governance mechanisms, straighten out organizational system; Cultivating citizen spirit, promoting public participation; Remodeling social capital, tamping autonomy foundation.

  17. The relation between external governance environment and over-investment: Evidence from industry regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejing Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Law and Finance theory, and the regulatory capture theory, external governance environment and industrial regulations can exert a certain influence on corporate over-investment. On the basis of qualitative analysis of the relationship between external governance environment and corporate over-investment under different industrial regulation conditions, this paper, using data of non-financial companies listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in the period 2001-2010, describes the regional distribution characteristics of over-investment of Chinese listed companies, and establishes an OLS regression model of the relationship between external governance environment and over-investment. The study respectively groups data from regulated and non-regulated industries as a sample and empirically tests the OLS regression model. Results show that: from the perspective of economic geography, there exists a local spatial cluster phenomenon in the distribution of over-investment of listed companies in regulated industries, while non-regulated industries conform to no regularity. In regulated industries, external governance environment factors (level of government intervention, rule of law and financial development may exert a significant negative influence on the degree of over-investment of listed companies, but on non-regulated industries, their effect is reversed. Also, government intervention, legal enforcement and financial development are positively correlated to over-investment. Further research indicates that, compared with government intervention and financial development, legal enforcement influences over-investment the most.

  18. 76 FR 18497 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... equipment, shall not be installed or constructed on contractor-owned real property in such fashion as to... approval to remove the Government property from an inventory schedule. (1) Plant clearance officers may... priorities. Plant clearance officers shall initiate reutilization actions for all property not meeting the...

  19. 77 FR 12937 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... revising FAR 45.606-1(a) to require that the property administrator work in coordination with the plant... officers generally rely on the Government property expertise of plant clearance officers, (2) additional... test equipment, or equipment, shall not be installed or constructed on contractor-owned real property...

  20. GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF THE ECONOMY: RISKS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Rjahovskaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of state regulation of the economy by the example of the Russian power industry and utilities, the reasons for the negative results, the validity of the concepts, analyzes the conceptual elements of the reform, the expected and the resulting effect, the reasons for failure and return to the state in the housing sector. Particular attention is given to certain aspects of the functioning of self-regulation institute inRussia. 

  1. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Government Regulation and Enterprise Emission from the Perspective of Environmental Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yazong

    2017-12-01

    In the context of the upcoming implementation of the environmental tax policy, there is a need for a focus on the relationship between government regulation and corporate emissions. To achieve the real effect of environmental tax policy, government need to regulate the illegal emissions of enterprises. Based on the hypothesis of bounded rationality, this paper analyses the strategic set of government regulators and polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy. By using the evolutionary game model, the utility function and payoff matrix of the both sides are constructed, and the evolutionary analysis and strategy adjustment of the environmental governance target and the actual profit of the stakeholders are carried out. Thus, the wrong behaviours could be corrected so that the equilibrium of the evolutionary system can be achieved gradually, which could also get the evolutionary stable strategies of the government and the polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy.

  2. Complying with Government Regulations and Practical Application of Sanitizers

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Ray W.

    2017-01-01

    Describes the regulations controlling the established limits for each type of sanitizer to be used in inspection plants and concentration limits for each sanitizer. Presented at the 1970 Poultry Processors Sanitation Short Course held in Harrisonburg, Virginia on February 23-24.

  3. The government of risk: understanding risk regulation regimes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rothstein, Henry; Baldwin, Robert; Hood, Christopher C

    2001-01-01

    ... variously in public administration, social studies of science, and public law- but our destination was the same and so was our reason for undertaking the journey. We wanted to see risk regulation at work in a number of different domains, and to come back not just with a set of travellers' tales but also with a systematic way of compa...

  4. Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility.

  5. Government Regulation of Advertising in the Eurasian Economic Union: Contradictions of Public Policy and Advertising Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Bykov, Il’ia A.; Cherkashchenko, Tatiana A.; Dorskii, Andrei Y.; Kaverina, Elena A.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of government regulation of advertising industry in the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). The main purpose of the study includes evaluation of attitudes to the moral issues in advertising practice as well as government policy on the problem of unethical advertising. The study applies methodological framework of policy analysis toward the regulation of unethical advertising in the countries of the EAEU. The authors find out that there is n...

  6. Improving government regulations: a guidebook for conservation and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neese, R. J.; Scheer, R. M.; Marasco, A. L.

    1981-04-01

    An integrated view of the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) policy making encompassing both administrative procedures and policy analysis is presented. Chapter One very briefly sketches each step in the development of a significant regulation, noting important requirements and participants. Chapter Two expands upon the Overview, providing the details of the process, the rationale and source of requirements, concurrence procedures, and advice on the timing and synchronization of steps. Chapter Three explains the types of analysis documents that may be required for a program. Regulatory Analyses, Environmental Impact Statements, Urban and Community Impact Analyses, and Regulatory Flexibility Analyses are all discussed. Specific information to be included in the documents and the circumstances under which the documents need to be prepared are explained. Chapter Four is a step-by-step discussion of how to do good analysis. Use of models and data bases is discussed. Policy objectives, alternatives, and decision making are explained. In Chapter five guidance is provided on identifying the public that would most likely be interested in the regulation, involving its constituents in a dialogue with CS, evaluating and handling comments, and engineering the final response. Chapter Six provides direction on planning the evaluation, monitoring the regulation's success once it has been promulgated, and allowing for constructive support or criticism from outside DOE. (MCW)

  7. 77 FR 27174 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ...-2011-0054; FF09M21200-123-FXMB123209EAGL0L2] RIN 1018-AX91 Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; extension of..., proposed rule to revise the regulations for permits for nonpurposeful take of golden eagles (Aquila...

  8. 77 FR 22267 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...-2011-0054: FF09M21200-123-FXMB123209EAGL0L2] RIN 1018-AX91 Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We propose to revise the regulations for permits for nonpurposeful take of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos...

  9. Government regulation as an impetus for innovation: Evidence from energy performance regulation in the Dutch residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerepoot, Milou; Beerepoot, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The recent implementation of energy performance policy as a way to tackle energy consumption in the building sector in Europe draws attention to the effect it has on the development and diffusion of energy-saving innovations. According to innovation system literature, government regulation through norms and standards is one of the factors stimulating innovation. This paper concentrates on the role of stricter government regulation as an incentive to innovation in the Dutch residential building sector. Innovation in this sector is predominantly a process of applying incremental modifications to comply with new and stricter government regulations and standards. Energy performance policy in its current shape will therefore not contribute to the diffusion of really new innovation in energy techniques for residential buildings in the Netherlands. If diffusion of really new innovation is an explicit aim of energy performance policy then the European wide introduction of this scheme needs reconsideration

  10. Normative Regulation of Anti-Corruption in the System of Local Self-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya F. Kupcha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work authors attempt to analyze normative acts aimed at regulating relations in the sphere of counteracting corruption at the level of local self-government. In the conclusion authors summarize that despite criticism, in the Russian Federation, a system of regulatory regulation to counteract corruption (including at the local level is formed. Further improvements of this system should be made in the legal regulation at the local level.

  11. 25 CFR 1000.429 - What statutes and regulations govern resolution of disputes concerning signed AFAs or compacts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.429 What statutes and regulations govern resolution of disputes concerning signed AFAs or... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What statutes and regulations govern resolution of...

  12. The Implementation of Government Regulation No 19/2008 about Sub District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasoloan Nadeak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze the implementation of the policy of districts in the city of Bogor; to determine and analyze the technical and operational guidelines support the tasks assigned to the sub-district and the districts in the city of Bogor; and to determine and analyze the performance of the policy after the implementation of the district and sub-district in each region. Implementation of Government Regulation Number 19 Year 2008 concerning the sub-district is a must, because of government regulation in question is the implementing regulations that apply nationally and mandated by Law No. 32 of 2004 on Regional Government. The approach used to look at the problem in question is descriptive qualitative content analysis or document analysis. Based approach is known that the City Government has implemented PP No. 19 of 2008 in the form of Mayor Regulation No. 54 Year 2010 on Main Duties, Functions, Duties Work Procedures and structural positions within the District and No. 10 of 2010 on Delegation of Authority. The implementation of policy shall include: (1 Common Tasks Government, and (2 Some tasks are delegated by the Mayor of the District Head in terms of regional autonomy.

  13. The regulation of diffuse pollution in the European Union: science, governance and water resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hendry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing diffuse pollution is a perpetuating problem for environmental regulators. This paper will consider novel ways to regulate its impacts on the aquatic environment, with particular reference to rural landuse. It will look at the relationship between science, policy and law, and the contributions of integrated water resources management and governance at regional, national and river basin scales. Regulatory frameworks for water in the European Union will be explored, along with their implementation nationally in Scotland and at catchment scale in the Tweed river basin. It will conclude that regulation has a role to play, but that it is necessary to take a visionary holistic and integrated approach, nesting regulation within a governance framework that involves all stakeholders and takes full account of developing science and socio-economic drivers to meet environmental objectives.

  14. Experimenting with Law and Governance for Decentralized Electricity Systems: Adjusting Regulation to Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Lammers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Moving towards a low-carbon society calls not only for technological innovation, but also for new modes of governance. However, the current legal framework of the electricity sector, and the modes of governance that it establishes, impede innovation in the sector. To overcome this obstacle, in 2015 the Dutch government adopted a Crown decree for experiments with decentralized renewable electricity generation (Experimentation Decree with the aim to generate insights on how to adjust the legal framework. The question remains whether regulation is being adopted to real-life settings, i.e., which lessons can be learned from experimentally acquired results regarding new modes of governance for decentralized electricity systems? To answer this question we apply an interdisciplinary approach: we investigate which modes of governance are established in the Experimentation Decree (legal research and which ones are implemented in nine projects (governance research. Under the Decree, associations have to carry out all tasks in the electricity supply chain and can engage in collective generation, peer-to-peer supply and system operation. Other modes of governance, new actors for emerging activities and consumer involvement are limited. We conclude that the Experimentation Decree is too restricted regarding new modes of governance for a decentralized electricity system in real-life settings.

  15. 76 FR 39367 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Raptor Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...-0020; 91200-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX78 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing... primary responsibility for managing migratory birds. Our authority is based on the Migratory Bird Treaty... take and possession of migratory birds for many purposes. The BGEPA allows bald eagles and golden...

  16. 75 FR 3395 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Falconry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 21 and 22 [FWS-R9-MB-2009-0002; 91200-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AW44 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Falconry Correction In rule document 2010-12 beginning on page 927 in the issue of Thursday, January 7, 2010, make the...

  17. Reconsidering the relevance of social license pressure and government regulation for environmental performance of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Whereas social license pressure is held as a strong motive for the corporate social performance (CSP) of large enterprises, it is argued in literature that it will not sufficiently motivate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this view, government regulation is the most effective way to

  18. The role of the EU in transnational regulation of food safety: extending experimentalist governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.; Vos, E.; Zeitlin, J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter assesses whether and how far the EU adopts an experimentalist approach in transnational regulation of food safety. Both the EU system of import safety, including regulatory cooperation with third countries, and the EU’s embeddedness within global governance institutions, such as the WTO

  19. Understanding complex governance relationships in food safety regulation : The RIT model as a theoretical lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Tetty; Verbruggen, Paul

    In this contribution we discuss the added value of the RIT model for the analysis of complex governance relationships in the regulation of food safety. By exploring regimes of food safety involving the European Union and the Global Food Safety Initiative, we highlight the diverse and complex

  20. Government can regulate food advertising to children because cognitive research shows that it is inherently misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Samantha; Kunkel, Dale; Mermin, Seth E

    2012-02-01

    The childhood obesity crisis has prompted repeated calls for government action to curb the marketing of unhealthy food to children. Food and entertainment industry groups have asserted that the First Amendment prohibits such regulation. However, case law establishes that the First Amendment does not protect "inherently misleading" commercial speech. Cognitive research indicates that young children cannot effectively recognize the persuasive intent of advertising or apply the critical evaluation required to comprehend commercial messages. Given this combination--that government can prohibit "inherently misleading" advertising and that children cannot adequately understand commercial messages--advertising to children younger than age twelve should be considered beyond the scope of constitutional protection.

  1. Do regulators pay attention? An assessment of IT governance implementation in systemically important banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sepahvand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of Information Technology systems in systematically important banks raise the need for creating an IT governance architecture that could make IT strategy aligned with business strategy and delivers value while it effectively identifies and manages IT risk. This study traces the links between IT governance and two more applied risk management frameworks, COSO and BCBS’s principles for managing IT risk. Then it argues due to the magnitude of potential losses caused by any weakness in IT governance in D-SIBs, the assessment of IT governance in these banks should be one of the main concerns of local regulators and supervisors. As a case study, it assesses the relative rank of D-SIBs in Iranian banking system to see where these banks would stand in an ordered list of the banks including both private and public banks in terms of IT governance implementation. The application of the Fuzzy AHP technique shows that IT governance practice in Iranian D-SIBs is not as good as the private banks while it outperforms some state-owned banks.

  2. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-01-01

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  3. TERRITORIAL REGULATION OF THE DUTCH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT IN NEDERLANDS NIEUW GUINEA 1898-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmaida Sinaga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed about the regulation of the Dutch colonial administration for its expansion in Nederlands Nieuw Guinea (NNG between 1898 and 1962.  The arrangement covered the expansion area, uniting and abolition of the government. This process began with the exploration activities, construction of infrastructure facilities and transportation/communication and recruitment of government officials. Construction of transportation and communication made local economy was increase. Government officials who stationed in the region must meet the specific requirements such as familiar with the area and experienced in their duties as well as having a high spirit of devotion. Territorial structuring was based on consideration of geographic/transportation access, culture, economic and political values of such area. Government policy on regional growth aims to shorten the span of colonial government control over territory and population of NNG and government's services that closer to the territory’s population.Key words: Territorial regulation, expansion, NNG  Penelitian ini mengkaji tentang peraturan pemerintahan kolonial Belanda atas segala bentuk ekspansi di Nederlands Nieuw Guinea (NNG pada tahun 1898 dan 1962. Peraturan ini meliputi perluasan wilayah, menyatukan dan penghapusan pemerintah. Proses ini dimulai dengan kegiatan eksplorasi, pembangunan fasilitas infrastruktur dan transportasi / komunikasi dan perekrutan pejabat pemerintah. Pembangunan transportasi dan komunikasi membuat perekonomian lokal meningkat. Pejabat pemerintah yang ditempatkan di wilayah tersebut harus memenuhi persyaratan tertentu seperti akrab dengan daerah dan berpengalaman dalam tugas-tugas mereka serta memiliki semangat  pengabdian tinggi. Penataan wilayah didasarkan pada pertimbangan geografis / akses transportasi, budaya, ekonomi dan nilai-nilai politik daerah tersebut. Kebijakan pemerintah mengenai pertumbuhan regional bertujuan untuk memperpendek

  4. Study of User Acceptance and Satisfaction of a Mandatory Government-Regulated Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Tony

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the user acceptance of a mandatory government-regulated information system. The issue is investigated by using a modified UTAUTframework. From random sample data of 65 respondents, a regression model is established from which the conclusion is drawn. The study concludes that theaspects of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and information system quality affect the user acceptance. The four aspects are equally important.

  5. Algorhythmic governance: Regulating the ‘heartbeat’ of a city using the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Coletta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, research examining the socio-spatial effects of smart city technologies have charted how they are reconfiguring the production of space, spatiality and mobility, and how urban space is governed, but have paid little attention to how the temporality of cities is being reshaped by systems and infrastructure that capture, process and act on real-time data. In this article, we map out the ways in which city-scale Internet of Things infrastructures, and their associated networks of sensors, meters, transponders, actuators and algorithms, are used to measure, monitor and regulate the polymorphic temporal rhythms of urban life. Drawing on Lefebvre, and subsequent research, we employ rhythmanalysis in conjunction with Miyazaki’s notion of ‘algorhythm’ and nascent work on algorithmic governance, to develop a concept of ‘algorhythmic governance’. We then use this framing to make sense of two empirical case studies: a traffic management system and sound monitoring and modelling. Our analysis reveals: (1 how smart city technologies computationally perform rhythmanalysis and undertake rhythm-making that intervenes in space-time processes; (2 distinct forms of algorhythmic governance, varying on the basis of adaptiveness, immediacy of action, and whether humans are in-, on-, or, off-the-loop; (3 and a number of factors that shape how algorhythmic governance works in practice.

  6. Transparency and Accountability of Government Regulations as an Integral Part of Social Responsibility Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Frolova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author's view on the role of government in promoting social responsibility of business and the individual is described. The main features of the socio-economic situation in Russia today are presented (horizontal and vertical mobility of the population, a small number of organizations and the extra-centralized public authorities, the predominance of personal relations between economic agents. The necessity of increasing the role of individuals and businesses in the social system is substantiated and the basic directions of activity are suggested (prosocial preferences, interpersonal trust, redistribution of social responsibility. Transparency and accountability of public authorities are very powerful tool to improve the quality of governance and it is one of the important conditions for the social responsibility, as well as to economic performance in modern Russia. The legitimacy of government is a multidimensional issue. And if we take into account the Russian features it is necessary to point out public control and enforcement, quality of formal institutions, and effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms. Also governance is important to enhance quality of regulation.

  7. The Government Incentive Regulation Model and Pricing Mechanism in Power Transmission and Distribution Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The power transmission and distribution (T&D market’s natural monopoly and individual information have been the impediment to improving the energy efficiency in the whole T&D market. In order to improve the whole social welfare, T&D market should be controlled by government. An incentive regulation model with the target of maximizing social welfare has been studied. A list of contracts with transferring payment and quantity of T&D are given to motivate the corporation to reveal the true technical parameter and input the optimal investment. The corporate revenue, optimal investment, and effort are proved to depend on its own technical parameter. The part of incentive regulation model ends with the optimal pricing mechanism of T&D market. At the end of this paper, we give a numerical example to explain our research and confirm its function graphically.

  8. From Hippocrates to Commodities: three models of NHS governance: NHS governance, regulation, Mid Staffordshire inquiry, health care as a commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newdick, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    A series of inquiries and reports suggest considerable failings in the care provided to some patients in the NHS. Although the Bristol Inquiry report of 2001 led to the creation of many new regulatory bodies to supervise the NHS, they have never enjoyed consistent support from government and the Mid Staffordshire Inquiry in 2013 suggests they made little difference. Why do some parts of the NHS disregard patients' interests and how we should we respond to the challenge? The following discusses the evolution of approaches to NHS governance through the Hippocratic, Managerial and Commercial models, and assesses their risks and benefits. Apart from the ethical imperative, the need for effective governance is driven both by the growth in information available to the public and the resources wasted by ineffective systems of care. Appropriate solutions depend on an understanding of the perverse incentives inherent in each model and the need for greater sensitivity to the voices of patients and the public. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals. permissions@oup.com.

  9. Driving biofuels in Europe. A research on the interaction between external regulation and value chain governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aantjes, J.C.

    2007-05-01

    To explain the unforeseen ascendancy of biofuels in the transport sector, a thorough understanding of the biofuel industry (i.e. the value chain) is crucial. Next to the industry structure, it seems that the regulatory framework surrounding the chain also contributes to the formation and structure of the biofuel industry in Europe. This assumption rests on the 2003 European Union (EU) biofuel directives for the promotion of biofuels in EU member states. With tax exemptions and reference values, the European Commission (EC) achieves to raise the amount of biofuels in transportation. The hypothesis in this thesis is that the European biofuel industry reflects a correlation between external regulation and value chain structure. More specifically, it is expected to be a mutual relation. The proposition is that value chain actors not only anticipate to the regulatory environment, they are also likely to influence decision-making on regulations in their advantage. Simply stated, value chain actors are concerned with the regulatory framework in order to enhance their position in the chain. From an empirical and theoretical point of view, this is an interesting proposition since the interaction between regulations and value chain governance receive little attention in theory. For the food industry, this approach contributes to understand the development in biofuel regulations and the European biofuel industry. Chapter Two reports the theoretical foundation of this study. The research framework rests on two rather independent streams of literature. The first part discusses 'value chain theory' and enables to examine how the biofuel value chains in Europe looks like. Among the analytical instruments of this research tradition, the role of powerful actors in controlling the value chain is elaborated in depth. The second stream is rooted in political theory and is characterized as 'political decision-making theory'. Its focus is on the formulation of governmental regulation. A

  10. Governance and regulation of the tourism industry: An internet marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebambo, M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative study is to establish governance and regulation issues pertaining to Internet marketing approaches within the South African tourism sector. The study focuses on the norms and practices of Internet marketing among small-scale lodging establishments in Bushbuckridge – a small tourist town in northeast South Africa. In-depth interviews were collected from eight participating bed and breakfast (B&B owners. Findings revealed that, while Internet awareness was quite high, only a few B&Bs utilised the Internet for marketing. Participants cited lack of clear industry guidelines on Internet marketing approaches as well as limited Internet experience, among others, as barriers to adoption. Implications and recommendations of the study are presented within the ambit of the existing literature

  11. [Regulations governing the training of diagnostic imaging residents: the residents' statute and the medical specialties law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Santos, A; del Cura Rodríguez, J L; Vieito Fuentes, X

    2010-01-01

    The current system for training medical specialists in Spain originated in 1963, and diagnostic radiology was one of the first specialties recognized. There are currently three types of regulations that govern the training of specialists: a) professional, The Health Professions Law; b) labor: The Residents' Statute; and c) educational, The New Medical Specialties Law and the Diagnostic Imaging Program This system consists of an exclusive contract with the training organization, a unified system of access, and a training program in accredited units that includes tutoring, evaluation, and progressive assignment of responsibilities. Residents have a right to be trained and evaluated, to participate in the teaching unit, and to their labor rights. In exchange, they must complete the tasks assigned in the program and abide by the institution's rules. Residents must be supervised directly in the first year and thereafter they should be given progressively more responsibility. Copyright 2009 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. The Regulation of Acid Mine Drainage in South Africa: Law and Governance Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Feris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is arguably one of the most serious environmental concerns in South Africa. AMD is a legacy left behind by abandoned, derelict and defunct mines, and is a continuing by-product of existing mining activities. In addition to its environmental impacts, AMD will also impact on all the parameters of sustainability, including ecological, social and economic concerns. In particular, AMD is set to affect infrastructure, displace people and affect their livelihoods, influence economic activity, impact on the resource extraction industry, and affect South Africa's policies and actions in relation to climate change and its efforts to move towards a low carbon economy; and it will test the efficiency of regulatory interventions emanating from both the private and the public sector to the extreme. Given these pervasive challenges, in this article we provide a survey of the AMD problem in South Africa through the law and governance lens. We commence by highlighting the various issues and challenges that result from AMD in the environmental context on the one hand, and the law and governance context on the other hand. We then describe the many provisions of the regulatory framework that we believe would be instrumental in responding to the threat. We conclude the article with brief remarks on what we believe are important considerations in the future regulation of AMD.

  13. The role of government in a competitive power market : strategic behaviors and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, N.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Restructuring in the Korean power industry has fundamentally changed the role of government. The role of government in a new environment may include : (1) promoting competition (2) prohibiting collusion or unfair trade practices (3) securing uninterrupted power supply (4) providing universal services to consumers (5) implementing appropriate price regulation. Focusing on the first two issues, this report has analyzed anti-competitive strategic behaviors and an impact of market power and tried to provide regulatory guidelines. This report surveyed three types of theoretical models analyzing a bidding behavior in an electric power market. The Cournot model is applied to the Korean electricity market. The following policy implications are derived. (1) The Cournot-Nash equilibrium price can be regarded as a threshold in market surveillance. (2) Had the fossil stations been divided among six instead of five companies, then market power would have been weakened in a reasonable degree. This finding also renders some implications with respect to business permission, divestiture, and merger. Among those, it is argued that a large new entrant rather than small IPPs contributes to increasing competition and lowering market power. (3) Increase in responsiveness of final demand to wholesale price fluctuation is an important factor to lower the Cournot equilibrium price and so market power. Therefore, appropriate regulatory system should be arranged to make power demand more elastic. (4) Activating contract markets such as CfD and introducing the capacity credit market can greatly help to lower market power. (author). 36 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. 77 FR 30998 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ..., Government Property, DFARS section 211.274, Reporting of Government-Furnished Equipment in the DoD Item... surplus Government property. Under paragraph (b), a contractor may be directed by the plant clearance... plant clearance officer to purchase or retain Government property at less than cost if the plant...

  15. Oil on the water: Government regulation of a carcinogen in the twentieth-century Lancashire cotton spinning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David; Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In the Lancashire cotton textile industry, mule spinners were prone to a chronic and sometimes fatal skin cancer (often affecting the groin). The disease had reached epidemic proportions by the 1920s, which necessitated action by the government, employers, and trade unions. In contrast to previous accounts, this article focuses on the government's reaction to mule spinners' cancer. Using official records in the National Archives, the slow introduction of health and safety measures by the government is explored in detail. Although obstructionism by the employers played a key role, one of the reasons for government inaction was the ambiguity of scientific research on engineering oils. On the other hand, prolonged scientific research suited a government policy that was framed around self regulation - a policy that had proved largely ineffective by the 1950s.

  16. Private governance, public purpose? Assessing transparency and accountability in self-regulation of food advertising to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Belinda

    2013-06-01

    Reducing non-core food advertising to children is an important priority in strategies to address childhood obesity. Public health researchers argue for government intervention on the basis that food industry self-regulation is ineffective; however, the industry contends that the existing voluntary scheme adequately addresses community concerns. This paper examines the operation of two self-regulatory initiatives governing food advertising to children in Australia, in order to determine whether these regulatory processes foster transparent and accountable self-regulation. The paper concludes that while both codes appear to establish transparency and accountability mechanisms, they do not provide for meaningful stakeholder participation in the self-regulatory scheme. Accordingly, food industry self-regulation is unlikely to reflect public health concerns or to be perceived as a legitimate form of governance by external stakeholders. If industry regulation is to remain a feasible alternative to statutory regulation, there is a strong argument for strengthening government oversight and implementing a co-regulatory scheme.

  17. 77 FR 51026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., special test equipment, and agency-peculiar property. Government property includes both Government... to the Plant Clearance Officer. (l) FAR 52.245-9(d) requires a contractor to identify the property...; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services...

  18. Preliminary study for understanding the moderating role of government regulations in telecom sector of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Beenish; Mat, Nik Kamariah Nik

    2017-10-01

    Telecommunication sector of Pakistan is a significant contributor toward the economic development of Pakistan. However, telecommunication sector of Pakistan underwent a lot of changes from regulatory and marketing perspective in 2015, resulting in decreased cellular penetration, dropped down the cellular subscribers and decreased telecommunication revenue. Hence, this research paper is designed to validate the constructs used in addressing the moderating role of government regulations based on Oliver's four-stage loyalty model in telecom sector of Pakistan. This preliminary study has mainly employed the quantitative method (i.e. survey questionnaire), consisting of a total of 72 items related to eight constructs under study and used 7 points Likert scale. The main analysis method used is the reliability test of the constructs. The results reveal that the Cronbach alpha readings were between 0.756 and 0.932, indicating internally consistent and reliable measures of the constructs used. This result enables the constructs to be included in the actual data collection without change.

  19. LEGISLATIVE STUDY ON THE GOVERNMENT REGULATION ON SOME ECONOMIC RECOVERY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSTAN Ionel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the most significant elements related to the direct enactment by the executive authority – following the most difficult moments of the financial crisis (2009-2010 – of some key measures in determining the economic recovery/growth. Special attention is given to the problem of growth strengthening and sustainable competitiveness of small and medium enterprises, as well as to the issue of stimulating the set up and development of micro enterprises by junior entrepreneurs. Considering things from the legal perspective, we also stop upon the legislative measures taken by the Government to support SME access to financial guarantees and credits. Obviously, in the context following the peak of the financial crisis, we took into consideration the regulation on stimulating the development of new jobs and the regime of state aids, as well. This latter issue includes, we believe, the most important references to State aid schemes on stimulating the investments with a major impact in the economy, the ‘de minimis’ aid for the investments made by small and medium-sized enterprises, and also to the issues arising from the implementation of a State aid scheme to support the investments which promote the regional development by creating jobs.

  20. 7 CFR 301.32-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... domestic plant quarantines and regulations must also be met. (a) With a certificate or limited permit... enclosed vehicle or is completely enclosed by a covering adequate to prevent access by fruit flies (such as...

  1. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a child's disability determination is... child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. (a) In order to receive an annuity based upon disability, a child of a deceased employee must be...

  2. Bringing central regulation and local governance interaction together : The case of the Markermeer-IJmeer Natura 2000 area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterhout, B.; Louw, E.; Zonneveld, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws attention to a case in which Natura 2000 regulation, problematic ecological conditions, governance congestion and the aim to develop large urban projects are to go hand in hand in the soft space of the Markermeer-IJmeer area, a 30 by 25 km lake in the centre of the Netherlands. The

  3. 36 CFR 251.14 - Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... precautions to prevent pollution of the air, soil, and water, in operation hereunder. (12) All activities by... perform currently as weather and soil conditions permit, the following erosion control work on portions of... regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to the United States. 251.14 Section...

  4. Fifty Educational Markets: A Playbook of State Laws and Regulations Governing Private Schools. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    There is a widespread misperception that private schools avoid government oversight or are "unregulated." In fact, private schools are subject to a wide variety of laws and regulations that run the gamut from reasonable rules to ensure health and safety to unreasonable rules that interfere with school curricula, preventing schools from pursuing…

  5. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and... through E and H of part 107, and §§ 171.15 and 171.16, as applicable to either interstate or intrastate...

  6. Health and social care regulation in Wales: an integrated system of political, corporate and professional governance for improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Tony; Wilkinson, Jane

    2008-11-01

    Wales is developing a unique integrated system of governance to improve public health, which is diverging from some recent developments in the rest of the UK but shares many common features. There is a focus on strengthening collaborative working and co-ordination between bodies inspecting, regulating and auditing health and social care. Systems are being developed that are proportionate to the level of risk, eliminate unnecessary burdens of external review and support the improvement of services for patients, service users and carers. This is consistent with the Assembly Government's aim to improve the way that public services are delivered in Wales, including strengthening input from the public in the planning, delivery and reporting of regulation and inspection work. The test in the future will be how far we can demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the added value from our uniquely Welsh approach, built as it is on devolution and the aspirations for small-country governance.

  7. Public attitudes to government intervention to regulate food advertising, especially to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Carter, Patricia; Nolan, Rebecca; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Booth, Sue

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization has called on governments to implement recommendations on the marketing of foods and beverages to children. This study describes high public support for government intervention in marketing of unhealthy food to children and suggests more effort is needed to harness public opinion to influence policy development.

  8. 76 FR 64885 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Reporting of Government-Furnished Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... authoritative source for condition coding. The respondent asked if this information could be found on Government... and describes tangible Government personal property. The IUID Registry is-- (i) The authoritative... property; and (iii) An authoritative source for establishing the acquisition cost of end-item equipment...

  9. The Role of the EU in Transnational Regulation of Food Safety: Extending Experimentalist Governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, E.; Weimer, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how far experimentalist features of the EU’s internal food safety governance regime are being extended to the Union’s external governance of food safety. Hence, it analyses whether and how far the Union’s engagement with both third countries and global institutions displays

  10. 76 FR 71823 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Responsibility and Liability for Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... little sense for the Government to both finance the contract and self-insure against property loss. There... insurance (see GAO-04-261SP, Principles of Appropriations Law, Volume I, section 10a, ``The Self-Insurance... costs passed on to the Government. Response: Paragraph (d) of the cost principle at FAR 31.205-19...

  11. Governing through Prevent? Regulation and Contested Practice in State-Muslim Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Therese; Meer, Nasar; DeHanas, Daniel Nilsson; Jones, Stephen H; Modood, Tariq

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we consider the implications of the 'Prevent' strand of the government's counter-terrorism strategy for the UK state's engagement with Muslims. We argue that the logics of Prevent have been highly problematic for state-Muslim engagement. Nevertheless, we suggest that the characterisation of state approaches to engaging Muslims as a form of discipline is incomplete without an analysis of: first, differences in practices, habits and perspectives across governance domains; second, variations in approach and implementation between levels of governance; and third, the agency of Muslims who engage with the state. Through this approach we show how attention to the situated practices of governance reveals the contested nature of governing through Prevent.

  12. Synthetic biology regulation and governance: Lessons from TAPIC for the United States, European Union, and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Benjamin D

    2017-11-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technology with potential benefits to various fields, yet also contains potential risks to human and environmental health. The field remains in an emerging state with limited quantitative guidance and a small but growing population of international researchers that conduct work within this field. Given the uncertain nature of this technology, an adaptive and anticipatory governance framework may be necessary to balance the potential benefits that may accrue from the technology's continued research alongside a desire to reduce or eliminate potential risks that may arise. However, such developments must account for the unique political and institutional factors that form a government's risk culture - something that can facilitate or impede the development of adaptive synthetic biology governance moving forward. The TAPIC framework helps illustrate those factors that are essential to develop good governance for emerging technologies like synthetic biology. Specifically, an application of TAPIC to synthetic biology governance indicates that the factors of accountability, participation, and integrity must be bolstered to improve technology governance in governments like with the United States, European Union, and Singapore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. CSR: a new governance approach for regulating professional sport? The case of French professional sports clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Aurélien

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the CSR practices and their implementation in the context of French professional sports clubs. In doing so, it analyses the link between the governance of sports clubs and CSR, which is viewed as a component of governance expanded to stakeholders and contributing to the creation of shared value. Drawing on interview data with key stakeholders of four professional sport clubs (football and basketball and secondary material, the study sheds light on the determinants, the implementation as well as the impact of CSR on the governance of the professional clubs under examination.

  14. Review of the bases for regulations governing the transport of fissile and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Thomas, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    The outstanding record of transport of radioactive materials prompted this brief review of the history of the regulations. IAEA as well as DOT regulations are discussed, as are all classes of shipments and materials (Class I, II, III)

  15. 77 FR 7930 - Improving Government Regulations; Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... goals of the E-Government Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107- 347). The benefit of this rule to small business is... (RFID). The rule was revised to reflect comments received. A final regulatory flexibility analysis has...

  16. 76 FR 12666 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... presentation per company or organization; (4) Last four digits of social security number for each person.../dars/government_furnished_property.html and submit the following information: (1) Company or...

  17. Governing through Prevent? Regulation and Contested Practice in State–Muslim Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Toole, Therese; Meer, Nasar; DeHanas, Daniel Nilsson; Jones, Stephen H; Modood, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we consider the implications of the ‘Prevent’ strand of the government’s counter-terrorism strategy for the UK state’s engagement with Muslims. We argue that the logics of Prevent have been highly problematic for state–Muslim engagement. Nevertheless, we suggest that the characterisation of state approaches to engaging Muslims as a form of discipline is incomplete without an analysis of: first, differences in practices, habits and perspectives across governance domains; second, variations in approach and implementation between levels of governance; and third, the agency of Muslims who engage with the state. Through this approach we show how attention to the situated practices of governance reveals the contested nature of governing through Prevent. PMID:26877558

  18. Romanian accounting policies between international accounting convergence and corporate governance regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dobre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to look at accounting impact on the systems of Romanian corporate governance. The purpose is aligned to discover research leads at the intersection of corporate governance and financial accounting. The hypothesis is that the corporate governance is influenced by accounting policies monitored by internal control. The empirical study focus on several points: (i concepts and specific Terms; (ii elements to be considered in establishing accounting policies; (iii change and remodelling of accounting policies; (iv the influence of enterprise accounting policies on indicators level. We present the role of accounting policies to generate futures economic benefices and the intricacy of accounting valuation. We conclude about the process configuration and modelling accounting policies in terms of business engineering

  19. State government regulation of forestry practices applied to nonfederal forests: extent and intensity of agency involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, 276 state governmental agencies regulated forestry practices applied to nonfederal forests. Fifty-four percent of these agencies were moderately to extensively involved in such regulation, and 68% engaged in moderate to extensive regulatory coordination with a state's lead forestry agency. The agencies employed an estimates 1,047 full-time equivalents (...

  20. 75 FR 927 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Falconry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Regulations is to turn the regulation of falconry over to the States. States do monitor non-game wildlife and..., video, or other medium promoting its organization * * *. We respectfully request this be clarified to... treaties. This would still block use of a falconry bird to photograph for education, such as illustrating a...

  1. Internet governance and global self regulation: theoretical and empirical building blocks for a general theory of self regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vey Mestdagh, C.; Rijgersberg, R.

    2010-01-01

    The following exposition sets out to identify the basic theoretical and empirical building blocks for a general theory of self-regulation. It uses the Internet as an empirical basis since its global reach and technical characteristics create interdependencies between actors that transcend national

  2. 75 FR 38675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-011, Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... equipment,'' ``Government property,'' ``Real property,'' ``Plant equipment,'' and ``Property records.'' The... definition ``Plant equipment''; 0 d. Adding the definition ``Property records''; and 0 e. Revising the... property'' in its place; 0 v. Removing the definition ``Plant equipment''; 0 vi. Adding, in alphabetical...

  3. Governing Education through Data in England: From Regulation to Self-Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between changing forms of the governance of education and the growth and uses of data in the context of England--a context that can be described as the most "advanced" in Europe in terms of data production and use. The paper links the shifting relations between the central department of education…

  4. 76 FR 6003 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Marking of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... security assistance community will derive the same tagging, labeling, and marking benefits of this rule... accountability and control of DoD assets. The tagging, labeling, and marking requirements are consistent with DoD...-7000, Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property, in solicitations and contracts when...

  5. Changing power: innovating electricity legislation upon regulated governance experimentation for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diestelmeier, L.; Lammers, Imke

    2016-01-01

    Smart grids are a promising innovation in the energy sector, however, the current legal framework is tailored for the conventional electricity system and does not facilitate the deployment of smart grids. In order to find new governance forms which alleviate this problem, recent efforts in the

  6. 75 FR 75444 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Property (DFARS Case 2009-D008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... inspection of property at the contractor's plant if requested by a prospective transferee, in such a manner...) Knowledge or tests of the market; (B) Current published prices for the property; (C) The nature, condition... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  7. CSR as value attunement within governance processes : stakeholder dialogue, corporate principles and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2016-01-01

    I argue that a governance perspective on corporate social responsibility (CSR) makes it possible to explain why the concept will always be under-defined, is normative and thus political by nature, and is and should be difficult to measure. The perspective also makes it possible to understand the

  8. Regulando o regulador: a proposta do governo e a Anatel Regulating the regulator: the government's proposal and Anatel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Costa Alves de Mattos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a proposta do governo Lula para a reformulação do marco regulatório no Brasil e em particular o caso da Anatel. A proposta é detalhada e analisada com relação aos seus prováveis efeitos sobre o processo regulatório. Estes efeitos são analisados à luz de um modelo espacial que ressalta o papel do risco regulatório e custo de credibilidade. Dado este modelo, o trabalho analisa quais preferências, percepções e motivações por parte do novo governo seriam compatíveis com a proposta apresentada. A análise enfatiza o papel central das instituições políticas na compreensão das escolhas de políticas econômicas e sua performance.This paper analyzes the proposal of the new Lula government for changing the Brazilian regulatory system and the case of Anatel in particular. The proposal is described and analyzed regarding its probable effects on the functioning of the regulatory process. These effects are analyzed using a spatial model that focuses on regulatory risk and credibility costs. Taking the model as given, the paper then analyzes which preferences, perceptions and motivations by the government are compatible with the proposal. The analysis emphasizes the importance of considering political institutions when assessing policy choices and their performance.

  9. Royalty rules : Alberta producers are now beholden to formal regulations for reporting royalty payments to government levy collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Regulation was established by the Alberta Department of Energy in July 2005 in order to clarify the rules governing conventional crude oil royalties. The regulation provides an incentive for industry to comply with the long-existing oil royalty reporting requirements through the addition of non-compliance penalties. An initial shadow billing system has been implemented to give industry the opportunity to understand their responsibilities and implement procedures to correct reporting and delivery inaccuracies. Battery operators in Alberta must now submit a royalty report to the Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission on a monthly basis. The regulation provides provisions for interest charges on outstanding invoiced amounts, and formalizes existing eligibility requirements for the reimbursement of trucking costs associated with transporting the Crown's share. Penalties will be incurred if royalty reports contain erroneous information, or if the actual deliveries made are less than the prescribed royalty quantity. All penalties levied by the commission will now be sent to the battery operator in a monthly statement. Battery operators who wish to appeal their penalties may do so within 2 months after the date of the monthly statement. It was concluded that industry is not expected to experience any significant problems when the regulation comes into effect, as the 6 month shadow billing period will allow companies to make a smooth transition to the requirements of the new regulation. Details of information sessions for the new regulation were provided, as well as details of various non-compliance penalties. 1 fig

  10. Proposed regulations to govern private business use of tax-exempt bond financed facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieble, M T

    1995-06-01

    For the most part, owners of tax-exempt hospitals and other health care facilities should welcome the issuance of the proposed regulations because they generally clarify and liberalize former law. As pointed out, however, in certain instances the proposed regulations do impose additional requirements not found in current law. Accordingly, in those instances in which exempt facility owners may elect to apply the proposed regulations prior to their finalization, a careful analysis needs to be made of whether the old or new regime would be most beneficial.

  11. Political constraints on government cartelization: the case of oil production regulation in Texas and Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Libecap; James L. Smith

    2001-01-01

    We examine government cartelization efforts in crude oil production. Texas and Saudi Arabia are alleged to act as swing producers to maintain the interstate (1933-1972) and OPEC (1973 on) oil cartels respectively. We analyze the political constraints that affected the ability of Texas and Saudi Arabia to act as residual producers within their respective cartels. In the case of Texas, political factors molded individual firm production quotas, advantaging high-cost producers and hence, reducin...

  12. Birthrate, Sovereignty and Development: The Restrictive Regulations to Family Planning in the Third Peronist Government (Argentina, 1973-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Alejandra Felitti

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensive growth of the world population during the second postwar period expanded the fear of an imminent depletion of natural resources and the destabilization of the capitalist system. Meanwhile the “population bomb” became a threat in the Cold War context, in Argentina the situation was the opposite, with a persistent birth rate decline. The third Peronist government (1973-1976 included the problem of the demographic fall among its priorities and the originality of its plan of action was that, for the first time in this country, coercive regulations prevented the free access to contraception. In this article we propose to analyze these policies, the contradictions inside the government regarding the best way to proceed, its repercussions and the resistance they produced.

  13. Estimation of avoidable skin cancers and cost-savings to government associated with regulation of the solarium industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Nicholas; Gordon, Louisa; Gies, Peter; Green, Adèle C

    2009-03-01

    In Australia there is growing concern about the expanding solarium industry, and the additive effect of persons seeking exposure to artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR) against already intense background levels of solar UVR. We estimated the numbers of potential skin cancers prevented through regulation of solaria and the associated cost-savings to the Federal Government. A lifetime decision-analytic model was created using relative risk estimates based on a meta-analysis of the literature assessing the link between skin cancer risk and solarium use. The costs were limited to those incurred by Medicare Australia, for the medical care of individuals treated for skin cancer. With stricter regulations, we estimated between 18 and 31 melanomas, 200-251 squamous cell carcinomas and associated costs of $AU 256,054 would be avoided per 100,000 persons. Our base findings were sensitive to estimates for prevalence of use, skin cancer risk and discounting rates. Continued growth in the Australian solarium industry is likely to inflate the already substantial skin cancer burden. Subject to some limitations, our study indicates that by successfully enforcing solarium regulations to prohibit use by minors and by those with fair skin colour, the Federal Government could expect favourable cost and health benefits.

  14. 'No, the government doesn't need to, it's already self-regulated': a qualitative study among vape shop operators on perceptions of electronic vapor product regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Pratibha; Barker, Dianne C; Huang, Jidong; Kemp, Catherine B; Wagener, Theodore L; Chaloupka, Frank

    2018-03-26

    While the market share of electronic vapor products (EVPs), sold primarily through vape shops and other outlets, has increased rapidly, these products remained largely unregulated until 2016. This study, conducted prior to announcement of the deeming regulations, provides insights into vape shop operator attitudes toward potential government regulations of EVPs. In 2015, we conducted 37 in-person interviews of vape shop operators across nine US cities. Shops were identified through extensive web-searches. We used QSR International's NVivo 11 qualitative data analysis software to analyze the transcripts. Many vape shop operators viewed regulations requiring safe production of e-liquids, child-resistant bottles and listing e-juice ingredients as acceptable. They disagreed with the elimination of free samples and bans on flavored e-liquid sales, which generate significant revenue for their stores. Many held negative perceptions of pre-market review of new product lines and EVP-specific taxes. All agreed that EVPs should not be sold to minors, but most felt that owners should not be fined if minors visited vape shops. Findings from this study offer insights into the acceptability of proposed regulations, as well as barriers to effective regulation implementation.

  15. The ways to improve state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and municipal property in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Serdyuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After comprehensive scientific exploration the ways of improvement of state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and state municipal property in Ukraine have been identified. Also it was proposed and justified the conceptual bases of strategy in development of state regulation. As a result of scientific exploration the directions of improvement of organizational mechanism have been formed also and wich a viev to improve legal mechanism of state regulation of land turnover it was suggested the modern approach of it. The main problem that constrains mechanical development of state regulation is non-compliance with legal principles, corruption and low motivation of officials. Approach to improvement is necessity of strategic development by the way of compliance law principles, realization of identified steps in development, using the practice of international regulation in land turnover. Strategic goals are in improvement of procedure of land turnover in public property by the way of advance mechanisms of state regulation; in a finding of effective approaches to improvement components of the legal mechanism; to produce and to offer propositions about development of components legal mechanism; to create clear and understandable procedure of land turnover for all participants in relationships in accordance with European legal traditions etc.Scenario of development that was elected is strategic and directed to solve the problems, perfection of economic, organizational and legal mechanisms of land turnover and also system development. But there are some risks that can interfere realization of strategic priorities. They are in outside threat, political instability, the economic downturn and corruption. We have chosen the next evaluation criteria: the level of investment attractiveness; the level of perception corruption in the society; the level of rating and satisfying quality of in land turnover process by the market participants with

  16. A Network of Local and Redundant Gene Regulation Governs Arabidopsis Seed Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Alexandra; Valon, Christiane; Savino, Gil; Guilleminot, Jocelyne; Devic, Martine; Giraudat, Jérôme; Parcy, François

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, four major regulators (ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 [ABI3], FUSCA3 [FUS3], LEAFY COTYLEDON1 [LEC1], and LEC2) control most aspects of seed maturation, such as accumulation of storage compounds, cotyledon identity, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and dormancy. The molecular basis for complex genetic interactions among these regulators is poorly understood. By analyzing ABI3 and FUS3 expression in various single, double, and triple maturation mutants, we have identified multiple regulatory links among all four genes. We found that one of the major roles of LEC2 was to upregulate FUS3 and ABI3. The lec2 mutation is responsible for a dramatic decrease in ABI3 and FUS3 expression, and most lec2 phenotypes can be rescued by ABI3 or FUS3 constitutive expression. In addition, ABI3 and FUS3 positively regulate themselves and each other, thereby forming feedback loops essential for their sustained and uniform expression in the embryo. Finally, LEC1 also positively regulates ABI3 and FUS3 in the cotyledons. Most of the genetic controls discovered were found to be local and redundant, explaining why they had previously been overlooked. This works establishes a genetic framework for seed maturation, organizing the key regulators of this process into a hierarchical network. In addition, it offers a molecular explanation for the puzzling variable features of lec2 mutant embryos. PMID:16731585

  17. Nutrient supply to organic agriculture as governed by EU regulations and standards in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne Kristin; Bünemann, E.K.; Cooper, J.

    2017-01-01

    Organic farming systems need to replace nutrients exported via farm products, especially phosphorus (P) which may otherwise become depleted in soil in the long term. In Europe, EU regulations for organic production are shaping the farming systems with respect to inputs of nutrients. Permitted off......-farm P sources include conventional animal manure, composted or anaerobically digested organic residues, rock phosphate, and some animal residues such as meat and bone meal. The recent proposed revision of EU regulations for organic production (2014) puts less emphasis on closing nutrient cycles...

  18. 75 FR 21773 - Improving Government Regulations; Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... process. This agenda updates the report published on December 7, 2009, and includes regulations expected..., Administrative Law Division (Code 13), Washington Navy Yard, 1322 Patterson Avenue SE., Suite 3000, Washington... regulatory status reports in this agenda will contain five sections: (1) Prerule stage; (2) proposed rule...

  19. 75 FR 35684 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ownership or Control by a Foreign Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence. Additionally, subparagraph (a)(4) of DFARS 252.209-7002, Disclosure... 5 U.S.C. 604. B. Regulatory Flexibility Act DoD does not expect this interim rule to have a... from small entities concerning the existing regulations in subparts affected by this rule in accordance...

  20. 76 FR 40038 - Improving Government Regulations; Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ...; Reimbursement of 0720-AB41 Sole Community Hospitals. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD) Defense Acquisition Regulations... current and future military operations for construction, installation, repair, maintenance, or operation...; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals Legal Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301; 10 U.S.C. ch 55 Abstract: This proposed...

  1. 75 FR 51713 - Regulations Governing Practice Before the Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...). These regulations authorize the Director of the Office of Professional Responsibility (OPR) to act upon... returns under Sec. 10.34(a) and the definitions under Sec. 10.34(e) because of the amendments to section... comprehensive set of recommendations to ensure uniform and high ethical standards of conduct for all tax return...

  2. Local governments' binding regulations and their role in the framework of port activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreiblathens A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance and the great potential for improvements for Latvian ports are directly linked to its geographic position, being located between Europe and Asia. Due to the essential role it plays in maritime, Latvian ports cannot be excluded from the international law of the Sea. A prerequisite for maritime safety insurance in ports is the development of maritime security and port legal acts in accordance with the modern international law and regulations. Operations of the major ports in Latvia as well as the maritime safety in ports are controlled and regulated by binding rules issued by municipalities. This study focuses on examining the norms included in the port regulations as well as to what extent ports are capable of ensuring navigation safety in ports according to the legal framework. The study also compares and analyzes the differences in legal frameworks in the major Latvian ports, their solution in improving the regulations and suggests a possible way how the port rulemaking body should be structured.

  3. What can prudent public regulators learn from the united kingdom government's nanotechnical regulatory activities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorbeck-Jung, Barbel R.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution discusses the United Kingdom (UK) government’s regulatory activities related to nanotechnological development. The central question is what other prudent public regulation can learn from the UK government’s regulatory strategy, its regulatory attitude and its large variety of

  4. 78 FR 73704 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... intention to move ahead in the near future with the additional rulemaking that we initiated through the ANPR. That rulemaking will provide an opportunity to revisit all aspects of the 2009 regulations, as well as... definition of ``low risk'' to eagles. We will revisit the provisions of this rule during our review of the...

  5. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  6. Older smokers could be the strongest supporters for U.S. government regulation of tobacco: a focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeting of marginalized groups with aggressive tobacco marketing has been identified as exacerbating health disparities. However, interpretation of such targeting by groups varies, from surprise and outrage to regarding such marketing as evidence of social legitimacy. We sought to learn how an often-overlooked marginalized group, older adults, would respond to industry documents offering evidence of tobacco company target marketing. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups in California cities with older (≥50 years) smokers and former smokers. A set of previously-undisclosed tobacco industry documents related to target marketing was shown to the group in sequence. Audiotaped discussions were transcribed and data analyzed using qualitative approaches. Results Responses to evidence of tobacco industry targeting varied, with some regarding it as exploitive and others as normal business practice. However, in most groups, discussions turned to government’s failure to protect the public—even though government action /inaction was not prompted nor addressed in the discussion documents. Conclusion Given the Food and Drug Administration’s new authority to regulate tobacco products, these findings suggest that some of the tobacco industry’s “best customers” (older, established smokers and ex-smokers) may be strong supporters of government regulation of tobacco. PMID:23958397

  7. 78 FR 21861 - Tribal Consultation on the Draft Regulations Governing the Tribal Transportation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Welcome and Introductions. 9:15 a.m.-9:30 a.m Brief history of 25 CFR part 170 and process for updating... Time May 14, 2013 Anchorage, AK 9 a.m.-4:30 p.m. May 16, 2013 Phoenix, AZ 9 a.m.-4:30 p.m. May 21, 2013... amended as a result of the enactment of SAFETEA-LU but the regulation was not revised at that time. MAP-21...

  8. Factors Influencing SME Compliance with Government Regulation on Use of IT: The Case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kyobe

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the factors influencing SME compliance with regulation on use of IT in South Africa. The researcher argues that these consist of a combination of business, industry, economic, technological, sociological, and psychological factors. The results show that cost of compliance was the main influencing factor and that both rural and urban SMEs make limited effort to develop policies and demonstrate compliance. Furthermore, a discriminant function analysis revealed that rural...

  9. Signaling, transcriptional regulation, and asynchronous pattern formation governing plant xylem development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    In plants, vascular stem cells continue to give rise to all xylem and phloem cells, which constitute the plant vascular system. During plant vascular development, the peptide, tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor (TDIF), regulates vascular stem cell fate in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. TDIF promotes vascular stem cell proliferation through up-regulating the transcription factor gene WUS-related HOMEOBOX4, and it suppresses xylem differentiation from vascular stem cells through the activation of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 proteins. VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN6 and 7 (VND6 and 7) are master transcription factors, and ectopic expression of VND6 and VND7 in various plants induces differentiation of different types of cells into metaxylem and protoxylem tracheary elements, respectively. These genes up-regulate genes involved in both patterned secondary cell wall formation and programmed cell death to form tracheary elements. Secondary wall patterns are formed by localized deposition of cellulose microfibrils, which is guided by cortical microtubules. Local activation of the small G-protein, Rho-type 11 determines distribution of cortical microtubules.

  10. Liberalising Dutch Energy Markets. Champions and governance, rules and regulations. The 1995-2005 stories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.

    2006-09-01

    Liberalisation of Dutch energy markets was not a sudden change of policy direction, but rather the result of policy evaluations and discussions which had already been going on for quite some time when the Minister of Economic Affairs issued an Energy White Paper in early 1996, and the EU Directives for the electricity market (1996) and the gas market (1998) were introduced. The Dutch followed a two-way track, aiming at a phased market liberalisation for gas and electricity with full legal electricity network unbundling and a merger of the four large power generators into a national champion. For gas, the Dutch position as a major natural gas producer led to the proposition of a structure that was much more careful, following the EU Directive to the millimetre. Some ten years since the White Paper was issued, Dutch decision-making, legislation and regulation of the energy market has gone through a fascinating, burdensome and complex, and sometimes chaotic and frustrating process. This study highlights the importance of market dynamics and the almost unbearable and unsolvable balance between policy, legislation and regulation. Further attention is given to the role of Dte ( Office of Energy Regulation) and its evolution into a full merger with the NMa (Netherlands Competition Authority), and ownership and privatisation discussions against the backdrop of the developments in the wider European energy markets. Overall, the study concludes that it appears to be too early to tell whether energy market policies of the last decade have delivered the expected results in either quantitative or monetary terms. What the process did deliver, however, was a lot of turbulence and dynamics, a boost for innovation in marketing and technology drives, and increased awareness about consumer power in which the threat to switch in itself produces results of improved service, more transparency and increased accountability

  11. Identification of nuclear protein targets for six leukemogenic tyrosine kinases governed by post-translational regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pierce

    Full Text Available Mutated tyrosine kinases are associated with a number of different haematological malignancies including myeloproliferative disorders, lymphoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. The potential commonalities in the action of six of these leukemogenic proteins on nuclear proteins were investigated using systematic proteomic analysis. The effects on over 3600 nuclear proteins and 1500 phosphopeptide sites were relatively quantified in seven isogenic cell lines. The effects of the kinases were diverse although some commonalities were found. Comparison of the nuclear proteomic data with transcriptome data and cytoplasmic proteomic data indicated that the major changes are due to post-translational mechanisms rather than changes in mRNA or protein distribution. Analysis of the promoter regions of genes whose protein levels changed in response to the kinases showed the most common binding site found was that for NFκB whilst other sites such as those for the glucocorticoid receptor were also found. Glucocorticoid receptor levels and phosphorylation were decreased by all 6 PTKs. Whilst Glucocorticoid receptor action can potentiate NFκB action those proteins where genes have NFκB binding sites were in often regulated post-translationally. However all 6 PTKs showed evidence of NFkB pathway modulation via activation via altered IkB and NFKB levels. Validation of a common change was also undertaken with PMS2, a DNA mismatch repair protein. PMS2 nuclear levels were decreased in response to the expression of all 6 kinases, with no concomitant change in mRNA level or cytosolic protein level. Response to thioguanine, that requires the mismatch repair pathway, was modulated by all 6 oncogenic kinases. In summary common targets for 6 oncogenic PTKs have been found that are regulated by post-translational mechanisms. They represent potential new avenues for therapies but also demonstrate the post-translational regulation is a key target of leukaemogenic kinases.

  12. ADAMTS9-Regulated Pericellular Matrix Dynamics Governs Focal Adhesion-Dependent Smooth Muscle Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Mead

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Focal adhesions anchor cells to extracellular matrix (ECM and direct assembly of a pre-stressed actin cytoskeleton. They act as a cellular sensor and regulator, linking ECM to the nucleus. Here, we identify proteolytic turnover of the anti-adhesive proteoglycan versican as a requirement for maintenance of smooth muscle cell (SMC focal adhesions. Using conditional deletion in mice, we show that ADAMTS9, a secreted metalloprotease, is required for myometrial activation during late gestation and for parturition. Through knockdown of ADAMTS9 in uterine SMC, and manipulation of pericellular versican via knockdown or proteolysis, we demonstrate that regulated pericellular matrix dynamics is essential for focal adhesion maintenance. By influencing focal adhesion formation, pericellular versican acts upstream of cytoskeletal assembly and SMC differentiation. Thus, pericellular versican proteolysis by ADAMTS9 balances pro- and anti-adhesive forces to maintain an SMC phenotype, providing a concrete example of the dynamic reciprocity of cells and their ECM. : Mead et al. identify a proteolytic mechanism that actively maintains a pericellular microenvironment conducive to uterine smooth muscle activation prior to parturition. They show that pericellular matrix proteolysis by the secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS9 is crucial for maintenance of focal adhesions in uterine smooth muscle cells, and its absence impairs parturition. Keywords: metalloprotease, extracellular matrix, smooth muscle, proteoglycan, myometrium, parturition, uterus, focal adhesion, proteolysis, interference reflection microscopy

  13. A situational analysis of current antimicrobial governance, regulation, and utilization in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Schellack

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance calls for the use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health to be optimized, in tandem with a strengthening of the knowledge and evidence base through surveillance and research. However, there is a paucity of consumption data for African countries such as South Africa. Determining antimicrobial consumption data in low-resource settings remains a challenge. This article describes alternative mechanisms of assessing antimicrobial consumption data, such as the use of Intercontinental Marketing Services (IMS data and contract data arising from tenders (an open Request for Proposal, RFP, as opposed to the international norms of daily defined doses per 100 patient-days or per 1000 population. Despite their limitations, these serve as indicators of antimicrobial exposure at the population level and represent an alternative method for ascertaining antimicrobial consumption in human health. Furthermore, South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment programme globally and carries a high burden of tuberculosis. This prompted the inclusion of antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis antibiotic consumption data. Knowledge of antimicrobial utilization is imperative for meaningful future interventions. Baseline antimicrobial utilization data could guide future research initiatives that could provide a better understanding of the different measures of antibiotic use and the level of antibiotic resistance. Keywords: Antimicrobial governance, DOTS, Antibiotic consumption, Developing country, Antimicrobial exposure

  14. An analysis of potential barriers and enablers to regulating the television marketing of unhealthy foods to children at the state government level in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Alexandra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Method Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22 were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. Conclusions The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of

  15. An analysis of potential barriers and enablers to regulating the television marketing of unhealthy foods to children at the state government level in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Alexandra; Shill, Jane; Swinburn, Boyd; Mavoa, Helen; Lawrence, Mark; Loff, Bebe; Crammond, Bradley; Sacks, Gary; Allender, Steven; Peeters, Anna

    2012-12-28

    In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22) were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of unhealthy food to children should ideally occur under the direction

  16. Bifurcation Regulations Governed by Delay Self-Control Feedback in a Stochastic Birhythmic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhidan; Ning, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    We aim to investigate bifurcation behaviors in a stochastic birhythmic van der Pol (BVDP) system subjected to delay self-control feedback. First, the harmonic approximation is adopted to drive the delay self-control feedback to state variables without delay. Then, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation and stationary probability density function (SPDF) for amplitude are obtained by applying stochastic averaging method. Finally, dynamical scenarios of the change of delay self-control feedback as well as noise that markedly influence bifurcation performance are observed. It is found that: the big feedback strength and delay will suppress the large amplitude limit cycle (LC) while the relatively big noise strength facilitates the large amplitude LC, which imply the proposed regulation strategies are feasible. Interestingly enough, the inner LC is never destroyed due to noise. Furthermore, the validity of analytical results was verified by Monte Carlo simulation of the dynamics.

  17. The importance of disclosure in corporate governance self-regulation across Europe: A review of the Winter Report and the EU Action Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Maassen (Gregory); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAlthough self-regulation has proven to be effective for the development of voluntary corporate-governance codes, the results of this study indicate that leading European companies are not yet too concerned about compliance with these codes. While self-regulation appears to be ineffective

  18. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  19. Slovak Government Regulation No. 340/2006 Coll. of 17 May 2006 on the protection of human health against adverse effects of ionizing radiation in medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Government Regulation establishes requirements for the implementation of activities leading to exposure and provides the basic requirements of radiation protection for persons using sources of ionizing radiation in medical exposure. This Government Regulation shall apply to medical exposure: (a) patients in determining their diagnosis or treatment; (b) individuals in connection with monitoring the health of employees; (c) individuals in connection with preventive health programs; (d) healthy individuals or patients voluntarily participating in medical, biomedical, diagnostic or therapeutic research programs (hereinafter referred to as 'volunteers'); (e) individuals in connection with examinations for the purpose of establishing a medical opinion. This Government Regulation shall also apply to the exposure of individuals outside the scope of their employment voluntarily and knowingly assisting persons undergoing medical exposure (hereinafter referred to as accompanying persons). This Regulation came into force on June 1, 2006.

  20. Glycolysis Is Governed by Growth Regime and Simple Enzyme Regulation in Adherent MDCK Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, Markus; Ritter, Joachim B.; Reichl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Due to its vital importance in the supply of cellular pathways with energy and precursors, glycolysis has been studied for several decades regarding its capacity and regulation. For a systems-level understanding of the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell metabolism, we couple a segregated cell growth model published earlier with a structured model of glycolysis, which is based on relatively simple kinetics for enzymatic reactions of glycolysis, to explain the pathway dynamics under various cultivation conditions. The structured model takes into account in vitro enzyme activities, and links glycolysis with pentose phosphate pathway and glycogenesis. Using a single parameterization, metabolite pool dynamics during cell cultivation, glucose limitation and glucose pulse experiments can be consistently reproduced by considering the cultivation history of the cells. Growth phase-dependent glucose uptake together with cell-specific volume changes generate high intracellular metabolite pools and flux rates to satisfy the cellular demand during growth. Under glucose limitation, the coordinated control of glycolytic enzymes re-adjusts the glycolytic flux to prevent the depletion of glycolytic intermediates. Finally, the model's predictive power supports the design of more efficient bioprocesses. PMID:25329309

  1. Quality, quantity and distribution of medical education and care: regulation by the private sector or mandate by government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlyan, W G

    1975-05-01

    The public, the federal government and most state governments have become increasingly concerned with the lack of access to primary care as well as the specialty and geographic maldistribution problems. Currently, there is a race in progress between the private sector and the federal government to devise solutions to these problems. In the federal sector, varying pieces of legislation are under active consideration to mandate the correction of specialty and geographic maldistribution; proposals include: 1) setting up federal machinery to regulate the numbers and types of residencies; 2) make obligatory the creation of Departments of Family Practice in each medical school; 3) withdraw current education support from medical schools causing tuition levels to increase substantially--federal student loans would then provide the necessary leverage to obligate the borrower to two years of service in an under-served area in exchange for loan forgiveness. In the private sector, for the first time in the history of the United States, the five major organizations involved in medical care have organized to form the Coordinating Council on Medical Education (CCME) and the Liaison Committee on Graduate Medical Education (LCGME). One of the initial major endeavors of the CCME has been to address itself to the problem of specialty maldistribution. The LCGME has been tooling up to become the accrediting group for residency training thus providing an overview of the quality and quantity of specialty training. It will be the intent of this presentation to bring the membership of the Southern Surgical Association an up-to-date report on these parallel efforts. The author's personal hope is that the private sector can move sufficiently rapidly to set up its own regulatory mechanisms and avert another federally controlled bureaucracy that will forever change the character of the medical profession in the United States.

  2. Legitimidade e governabilidade na regulação do sistema financeiro Legitimacy and governability in financial regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Antonio Pereira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre direito e economia pode resultar numa oposição entre governabilidade e legitimidade legal-racional, uma vez que se baseiam em diferentes racionalidades. A revisão judicial da regulação do sistema financeiro evidencia esse conflito, observado neste trabalho sob a perspectiva da jurisprudência constitucional do Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF. O objetivo deste trabalho resume-se então em identificar o conflito entre governabilidade e a exigência de legitimidade legal das decisões analisadas pela corte no que concerne à regulação financeira. O estudo de casos evidencia que o STF tem rejeitado argumentos econômicos, entretanto, tem preservado a lógica da governabilidade com decisões contraditórias e incoerentes pautadas em argumentos formais. Dessa forma, possível identificar o papel institucional conferido pelo STF à Constituição Federal de 1988, considerando o contexto das crises econômicas vividas pelo Brasil a partir da metade da década de 1980 e sua nova conformação a partir da Emenda Constitucional n. 40.The relation between law and economics might result in an opposition between governability and legal-rational legitimacy, since they are based in different rationalities. Judicial review of financial regulation shows that coflict, which is here analysed from the viewpoint of the constitutional jurisprudence of the Brazilian Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal - STF. In brief, the purpose of this article is to identify the oppostion between governability and the need for legal-legitimacy in the cases analysed by the court concerning financial regulation. The case studies show that the judicial review by STF has rejected economic aspects of the case, however it has preserved governability rationality with incoherent and contradictory decisions based on formal arguments. Thereby, it is possible to identify the institutional role granted by stf to the Brazilian Constitution dated from 1988, considering

  3. Government regulation and associated innovations in building energy-efficiency supervisory systems for large-scale public buildings in a market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xuezhi; Wu Yong; Di Yanqiang; Li Qiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    The supervision of energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings is the main embodiment for government implementation of Public Administration in the fields of resource saving and environmental protection. Aimed at improving the current situation of lack of government administration in building energy efficiency, this paper proposes the concept of 'change and redesign of governmental supervision in building energy efficiency', repositioning the role of government supervision. Based on this theory and other related theories in regulation economic and modern management, this paper analyzes and researches the action and function of all level governments in execution of the supervisory system of building energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings. This paper also defines the importance of government supervision in energy-efficiency system. Finally, this paper analyzes and researches the interaction mechanism between government and owners of different type buildings, government and energy-efficiency service institution with gambling as main features. This paper also presents some measurements to achieve a common benefit community in implementation of building energy-efficiency supervisory system.

  4. Government Regulatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katie

    Government regulation of food products, food processing, and food preparation is imperative in bringing an unadulterated, nonmisleading, and safe food product to market and is relevant to all areas of food science, including engineering, processing, chemistry, and microbiology. The liability associated with providing consumers with an adulterated or substandard product cannot only tarnish a company's name and reputation, but also impose substantial financial repercussions on the company and those individuals who play an active role in the violation. In order for a company to fully comply with the relevant food laws (both federal and state), an intimate knowledge of food science is required. Individuals knowledgeable in food science play an integral role not only in implementing and counseling food companies/processors to ensure compliance with government regulations, but these individuals are also necessary to the state and federal governments that make and enforce the relevant laws and regulators.

  5. Government regulation of forestry practices on private forest land in the United States: an assessment of state government responsibilities and program performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, a comprehensive assessment of state government, forest practice regulatory programs in the United States was undertaken. Involved was an extensive review of the literature and information gathering h m program administration in all 50 states. The assessment determined that regulatory programs focus on a wide range of forestry practices applied to private...

  6. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  7. Government and governance strategies in medical tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even

  8. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beetle; and (C) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles so as to lose its... regulated articles from quarantined areas. 301.51-4 Section 301.51-4 Agriculture Regulations of the... of regulated articles from quarantined areas. (a) Any regulated article may be moved interstate from...

  9. 7 CFR 301.53-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... infestation by emerald ash borer; and (iv) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles... regulated articles from quarantined areas. 301.53-4 Section 301.53-4 Agriculture Regulations of the... regulated articles from quarantined areas. Regulated articles may be moved interstate from a quarantined...

  10. 7 CFR 301.86-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or unloaded in the quarantined area; and (D) The article has not been combined or commingled with... regulated articles from quarantined areas. 301.86-4 Section 301.86-4 Agriculture Regulations of the... regulated articles from quarantined areas. (a) Any regulated article may be moved interstate from a...

  11. Healthy and sustainable diets: Community concern about the effect of the future food environments and support for government regulating sustainable food supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M

    2018-02-03

    To determine the level of community concern about future food supplies and perception of the importance placed on government regulation over the supply of environmentally friendly food and identify dietary and other factors associated with these beliefs in Western Australia. Data from the 2009 and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series computer-assisted telephone interviews were pooled. Level of concern about the effect of the environment on future food supplies and importance of government regulating the supply of environmentally friendly food were measured. Multivariate regression analysed potential associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary health consciousness, weight status and self-reported intake of eight foods consistent with a sustainable diet. Western Australia. Community-dwelling adults aged 18-64 years (n = 2832). Seventy nine per cent of Western Australians were 'quite' or 'very' concerned about the effect of the environment on future food supplies. Respondents who paid less attention to the health aspects of their diet were less likely than those who were health conscious ('quite' or 'very' concerned) (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.35, 0.8] and 0.38 [0.17, 0.81] respectively). The majority of respondents (85.3%) thought it was 'quite' or 'very' important that government had regulatory control over an environmentally friendly food supply. Females were more likely than males to rate regulatory control as 'quite' or 'very' important' (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.09, 2.44], p = .02). Multiple regression modeling found that no other factors predicted concern or importance. There is a high level of community concern about the impact of the environment on future food supplies and most people believe it is important that the government regulates the issue. These attitudes dominate regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, weight status or sustainable dietary behaviours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tough but True: School Board Neglect of Bus Safety Led to Government's Overblown, Under-Researched Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School Board Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The apparent lack of concern school boards evidenced in the past over school bus safety has precipitated the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration regulations that have angered board members and bus manufacturers alike. It is argued that the new regulations are not based on research. (Author/IRT)

  13. Government regulation versus market orientation in social housing management : Limitations and opportunities of European and Australian landlords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, N.; Gruis, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    In the past ten to twenty years, governments in various countries have introduced or reinforced market principles in their housing systems. As a consequence, social landlords have increased opportunities to adopt a more market-oriented approach towards the management of their housing stock.

  14. Regulation to create environments conducive to physical activity: understanding the barriers and facilitators at the Australian state government level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Jane; Mavoa, Helen; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe; Peeters, Anna; Lawrence, Mark; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2012-01-01

    Policy and regulatory interventions aimed at creating environments more conducive to physical activity (PA) are an important component of strategies to improve population levels of PA. However, many potentially effective policies are not being broadly implemented. This study sought to identify potential policy/regulatory interventions targeting PA environments, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state/territory government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n = 40) to examine participants': 1) suggestions for regulatory interventions to create environments more conducive to PA; 2) support for preselected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Thematic and constant comparative analyses were conducted. POLICY INTERVENTIONS MOST COMMONLY SUGGESTED BY PARTICIPANTS FELL INTO TWO AREAS: 1) urban planning and provision of infrastructure to promote active travel; 2) discouraging the use of private motorised vehicles. Of the eleven preselected interventions presented to participants, interventions relating to walkability/cycling and PA facilities received greatest support. Interventions involving subsidisation (of public transport, PA-equipment) and the provision of more public transport infrastructure received least support. These were perceived as not economically viable or unlikely to increase PA levels. Dominant barriers were: the powerful 'road lobby', weaknesses in the planning system and the cost of potential interventions. Facilitators were: the provision of evidence, collaboration across sectors, and synergies with climate change/environment agendas. This study points to how difficult it will be to achieve policy change when there is a powerful 'road lobby' and government investment prioritises road infrastructure over PA-promoting infrastructure. It highlights the pivotal role of the

  15. Epigenetic regulation of miR-184 by MBD1 governs neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changmei; Teng, Zhao-Qian; Santistevan, Nicholas J; Szulwach, Keith E; Guo, Weixiang; Jin, Peng; Zhao, Xinyu

    2010-05-07

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 1 (MBD1) regulates gene expression via a DNA methylation-mediated epigenetic mechanism. We have previously demonstrated that MBD1 deficiency impairs adult neural stem/progenitor cell (aNSC) differentiation and neurogenesis, but the underlying mechanism was unclear. Here, we show that MBD1 regulates the expression of several microRNAs in aNSCs and, specifically, that miR-184 is directly repressed by MBD1. High levels of miR-184 promoted proliferation but inhibited differentiation of aNSCs, whereas inhibition of miR-184 rescued the phenotypes associated with MBD1 deficiency. We further found that miR-184 regulates the expression of Numblike (Numbl), a known regulator of brain development, by binding to the 3'-UTR of Numbl mRNA and affecting its translation. Expression of exogenous Numbl could rescue the aNSC defects that result from either miR-184 overexpression or MBD1 deficiency. Therefore, MBD1, miR-184, and Numbl form a regulatory network that helps control the balance between proliferation and differentiation of aNSCs.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 603 - Applicable Federal Statutes, Executive Orders, and Government-wide Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 603, App. A Appendix A to Part 603—Applicable Federal... origin. 2. If the RD&D involves human subjects or animals, it is subject to the requirements codified by... 745 and rules on animal acquisition, transport, care, handling and use in 9 CFR parts 1 through 4...

  17. Legal provisions governing technical installations, especially regulations of the Building Law, Trade-and-Industry Law, and Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    The author first shows the various legal regulation patterns of the German law system with regard to technical installations and in this context discusses the comprehensive clause method which refers to scientific-technical standards. This method is said to be an adequate means of achieving suitable results in the relationship between law and technology. However, three weak points can be seen: (1) The law system uses many different standards. (2) Due to uncertainty about the real meaning and content of these standards, it is not clear how these standards are defined. (3) This in practice puts up the question to what extent statutory works of technology are a suitable tool of making legal regulations more concrete, and whether they are to be given binding force. (HSCH) [de

  18. The Government's role in regulating, coordinating, and standardizing the response to Alzheimer's disease: Anticipated international cooperation in the area of intractable and rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Song, Peipei; Xu, Lingzhong

    2016-11-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized that aging of the population is inextricably linked to many other global public health issues, such as universal health coverage, non-communicable diseases, and disability. However, Alzheimer's Disease International (ADI) estimates that 46.8 million elderly people worldwide were living with dementia in 2015. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is the main cause of cognitive impairment. AD will affect 5-7 out of every 100 older adults who are age 60 years or over. In response to the serious challenge posed by AD, governments are expected to play an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of AD. As specific examples, i ) the Japanese Government has instituted and supported regulations to encourage the development of AD drugs in order to accelerate research and development of innovative drugs; ii ) the United States Government has cooperated with multiple partners such as non-governmental organizations in the response to AD; iii ) Chinese governmental measures have standardized clinical diagnosis and treatment as part of the response to AD, including eligible patients, diagnostic criteria, therapeutic schedules, drug selection, and required inspections; iv ) with political support from member governments, the European Union has issued guidelines and conducted clinical studies on medicines for the treatment of AD in order to ascertain the various stages of the disease and the relevance of biomarkers. AD is an intractable disease, so different countries need to share clinic trial information and cooperate in the conduct of those trials. International cooperation will play a key role in the response to other intractable and rare diseases.

  19. Influential Factors of Evidence-Based Energy Policy-making: Government Regulation on Targeting Renewable Energy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati Hermawati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on research identifying lessons and approaches in making energy policy and scrutinizes whether empirical evidence–based energy policy exists in Indonesia. Empirical evidence–based energy policy has the potential to reduce poverty as well as have a greater impact on the economic performance of individuals, communities and the government. In this study, we used document analysis and key informant interviews to explore empirical evidence input in energy policy-making. The results of the analysis revealed the following three points. First, there are a range of limitations in the process of energy policy-making as well as in getting an evidence inputs from concerned institutions such as universities, R&D institutions, and industries. Second, the process in making energy policy went through several stages and was not always in sequences, starting from problem identification, needs identification, advocacy, information gathering, policy drafting, and approval obtainment from the institutions concerned. Third, the most influential factor in the formulation of this energy policy is the factor of power and authority instead of knowledge and evidence. The limitations have demonstrated insufficient evidence in the policy-making. Finally, the paper suggests that a working group for data and information gathering should be created.

  20. Rac1 governs exercise‐stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through regulation of GLUT4 translocation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ida L.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Møller, Lisbeth L. V.; Ploug, Thorkil; Schjerling, Peter; Bilan, Philip J.; Klip, Amira; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.

    2016-01-01

    Key point Exercise increases skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood.The GTPase Rac1 can be activated by muscle contraction and has been found to be necessary for insulin‐stimulated glucose uptake, although its role in exercise‐stimulated glucose uptake is unknown.We show that Rac1 regulates the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle during exercise.We find that Rac1 knockout mice display significantly reduced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle during exercise. Abstract Exercise increases skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood. Despite extensive efforts, the signalling mechanisms vital for glucose uptake during exercise are not yet fully understood, although the GTPase Rac1 is a candidate molecule. The present study investigated the role of Rac1 in muscle glucose uptake and substrate utilization during treadmill exercise in mice in vivo. Exercise‐induced uptake of radiolabelled 2‐deoxyglucose at 65% of maximum running capacity was blocked in soleus muscle and decreased by 80% and 60% in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles, respectively, in muscle‐specific inducible Rac1 knockout (mKO) mice compared to wild‐type littermates. By developing an assay to quantify endogenous GLUT4 translocation, we observed that GLUT4 content at the sarcolemma in response to exercise was reduced in Rac1 mKO muscle. Our findings implicate Rac1 as a regulatory element critical for controlling glucose uptake during exercise via regulation of GLUT4 translocation. PMID:27061726

  1. Social Democratic Constitutionalism, New Economic Theory, and the Dangers of Neoliberalism’s Attacks on Rational Government Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Nagan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the foundations of economic neoliberalism and underlines the implications of the foundations of this economic theory in its reliance on economic value as ownership, property, and commodity which misdirects economic inquiry from the real value of human capital as the proper foundation of a viable economic system. It focuses on the role of a selective emphasis on rules of international law for the protection of private property. These rules indirectly influence economic theory in general in the sense that commodity is made to be near absolute, and to be insulated from regulation. The paper explores these ideas in the context of major neoliberal theorists and stresses flaws of the theory of ownership as well as the flaws in the myth of the market as a form of economic activity immune to rational regulation. The paper goes on to stress the emphasis of the destruction of the so called “deep state.” The attack on the deep state is reinforced by an academic interest group loosely styled “The Law and Economics Movement.” The paper emphasizes the politico economic costs of the the demolition of the so called deep state, which is essentially a social democratic state. One of the consequences of this form of economic advocacy is the possibility of rule by plutocracy. This will mean the destruction of the constitutional foundations of the state. The paper also underlines an important aspect of the jurisprudence of neoliberalism which is rooted in the theory that law must be done from the point of view of the bad man and be completely separated from basic morality and values. This is applied to economic theory and makes for a sharp chasm and basic human rights values. There is clearly a need for more effective forms of interest representation representing the vital importance of human capital.

  2. Formation of a Snf1-Mec1-Atg1 Module on Mitochondria Governs Energy Deprivation-Induced Autophagy by Regulating Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Cong; Tong, Jingjing; Lu, Puzhong; Wang, Yizheng; Zhang, Jinxie; Sun, Chen; Yuan, Kangning; Xue, Renyu; Zou, Bing; Li, Nianzhong; Xiao, Shuhua; Dai, Chong; Huang, Yuwei; Xu, Liling; Li, Lin; Chen, She; Miao, Di; Deng, Haiteng; Li, Hongliang; Yu, Li

    2017-04-10

    Autophagy is essential for maintaining glucose homeostasis, but the mechanism by which energy deprivation activates autophagy is not fully understood. We show that Mec1/ATR, a member of the DNA damage response pathway, is essential for glucose starvation-induced autophagy. Mec1, Atg13, Atg1, and the energy-sensing kinase Snf1 are recruited to mitochondria shortly after glucose starvation. Mec1 is recruited through the adaptor protein Ggc1. Snf1 phosphorylates Mec1 on the mitochondrial surface, leading to recruitment of Atg1 to mitochondria. Furthermore, the Snf1-mediated Mec1 phosphorylation and mitochondrial recruitment of Atg1 are essential for maintaining mitochondrial respiration during glucose starvation, and active mitochondrial respiration is required for energy deprivation-activated autophagy. Thus, formation of a Snf1-Mec1-Atg1 module on mitochondria governs energy deprivation-induced autophagy by regulating mitochondrial respiration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of nickel and cobalt allergy among female patients with dermatitis before and after Danish government regulation: a 23-year retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina

    2009-01-01

    with isolated cobalt allergy than among patients with nickel allergy (P exposures was available. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel allergy decreased among young female patients with dermatitis between 1985 and 2007 whereas it increased among older patients, probably......BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of nickel allergy prompted the Danish government to prohibit excessive nickel release (ie, >0.5 microg nickel/cm(2)/wk) from consumer products in 1990. Concomitant allergy to nickel and cobalt is often observed among patients with dermatitis, probably as a result...... of cosensitization. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the development of nickel and cobalt allergy among Danish female patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007. This was done to examine whether Danish nickel regulation has reduced the prevalence of nickel allergy and to examine whether the prevalence...

  4. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    , but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...... explore some of the more fundamental questions about governance theory. For example, although governance is talked about a great deal political science has done relatively little about how to measure this concept. Likewise, the term multi-level governance has become widely used but its important...... to understand that idea more fully and see how it functions in the context of interactive forms of governance. The authors also link governance to some very fundamental questions in political science and the social sciences more broadly. How is power exercised in interactive governance? How democratic...

  5. Representation and misrepresentation of scientific evidence in contemporary tobacco regulation: a review of tobacco industry submissions to the UK Government consultation on standardised packaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Ulucanlar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardised packaging (SP of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for 'more evidence', but four months later a second 'independent review' was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP.We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, 'mimicked scientific critique' was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in 'evidential landscaping', promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach.The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely without foundation. The tools of Better

  6. The case for OFSMOKE: how tobacco price regulation is needed to promote the health of markets, government revenue and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Branston, J Robert; Sweanor, David

    2010-10-01

    Mainstream economic theory outlines four main causes of market failure and it is already well established that two of these (information failure and externalities) exist in a tobacco market. A third cause of market failure, market power, is also a serious problem in many tobacco markets. Market power--combined with unintended and often overlooked consequences of tobacco tax policies, notably that gradual increases in specific taxes may allow the industry to disguise significant price increases--has, at least in high income countries, given cigarette manufacturers considerable pricing power and profits. This paper examines ways this market failure could be addressed and proposes as a solution a system of price cap regulation wherein a cap is placed on the pre-tax cigarette manufacturers' price but not on the retail price that consumers face. Well established in the utilities industry, price cap regulation would set a maximum price that cigarette companies can charge for their product based on an assessment of the genuine costs each firm faces in its operations and an assumption about the efficiency savings it would be expected to make. Such a system would achieve three main benefits. First, it would address the problem of market failure and excess profits while simultaneously allowing current tobacco control policies, including tax and price increases, to expand--thus tax increases would remain a central tenet of tobacco control policies and retail prices could continue to increase. Second, it would increase government revenue by transferring the excess profits from the industry to the government purse. Third, it would bring numerous public health benefits. In addition to addressing market power, while simultaneously allowing tobacco control policies to expand, it could offer a means of preventing down-trading to cheaper products and controlling unwanted industry practices such as cigarette smuggling, price fixing and marketing to the young. The paper outlines in

  7. An overview of herb and dietary supplement efficacy, safety and government regulations in the United States with suggested improvements. Part 1 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    This is the first of five review articles investigating dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) that now exceed over 50,000 in the Office of Dietary Supplement's "Dietary Supplement Label Database." Four review articles follow summarizing published medical case reports of DS related to liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, heart toxicity, and cancer. The most popular DS were vitamin or mineral supplements (43%) followed by specialty supplements (20%), botanicals (20%; herbs), and sports supplements (16%). The 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers revealed 1692 fatalities due to drugs, and zero deaths due to DS. Less than 1 percent of Americans experience adverse events related to DS, and the majority was classified as minor, with many of these related to caffeine, yohimbe, or other stimulant ingredients. The number one adulterant in DS is drugs, followed by New Dietary Ingredients (NDI) not submitted to the FDA - both are illegal and not DS, but rather "tainted products marketed as dietary supplements." The three main categories of DS prone to medical problems are those for sexual enhancement, weight loss, and sports performance/body building. DS are regulated in the U.S. by several federal agencies with overlapping jurisdiction - the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC); enforced by the State Attorneys General Offices (AGO) and Department of Justice (DOJ); and monitored (not regulated) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The FDA can remove a DS from the market for phase IV post-marketing surveillance adverse event reports, adulteration (drugs, NDI, synthetic substances), contamination, misidentification, mislabeling or false claims, and not meeting good manufacturing practices (GMP). The FTC and state AGO can also enforce laws against deceptive marketing practices. Suggested improvements to current regulatory requirements are included along with online DS Toxic Tables in the

  8. The Role of Hong Kong’s Financial Regulations in Improving Corporate Governance Standards in China: Lessons from the Panama Papers for Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Bryane; Goo, Say-Hak

    2016-01-01

    Hong Kong contributes to poor corporate governance on the Mainland. Could regulatory reform in Hong Kong help improve corporate governance standards/practices (and thus firm value) on the Mainland? In this paper, we discuss ways to incentivize Mainland firms to improve their corporate governance by adopting numerous market-value increasing reforms in Hong Kong. These include the limited extra-territorial application of corporate governance provisions, changes to the Listing Rules to ‘contract...

  9. Governing education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Bronneman-Helmers

    2011-01-01

    Governing education. Trends in Dutch education policy 1990-2010 The Dutch government is responsible for e a cohesive and properly functioning education system. This report discusses the way in which the government fulfilled that responsibility in the period 1990-2010.  The study is

  10. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an updated assessment of Egypt's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Egypt. In recent years there have been a number of major reforms, mostly...

  11. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  12. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  13. Representation and Misrepresentation of Scientific Evidence in Contemporary Tobacco Regulation: A Review of Tobacco Industry Submissions to the UK Government Consultation on Standardised Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J.; Hatchard, Jenny L.; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for ‘more evidence’, but four months later a second ‘independent review’ was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP. Methods and Findings We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, ‘mimicked scientific critique’ was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific) model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in ‘evidential landscaping’, promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach. Conclusions The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely

  14. Governance and Institutional Autonomy: Governing and Governance in Portuguese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at looking at governance instruments beyond managerial technicality. It intends to do so by analysing the impact of governance reforms on the universities autonomy assumed as a regulation instrument to politically steer systems and institutions. The regulation efforts undertaken at the European and national levels reflect a trend…

  15. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  16. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    , legal and cultural, on a global scale. Against this background, this special issue sets out to explore the multifaceted meaning, potential and impact as well as the social praxis of regulatory governance. Under the notions rules, resistance and responsibility the special issue pins out three overall......Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...

  17. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    This entry is concerned with demonstrating the increasingly important interface between government organization and communication. Government organization can be approached in terms of state centrism, where the emphasis is on government organization understood as state authority and power......, with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... between power, communication, and organizational forms, and suggest the usefulness of viewing government organization in terms of polycentrism, highlighting communication and organizing processes in a wider perspective. The entry focuses particularly on two major strands of literature: deliberative...

  18. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory, and the ......This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  19. Factors Which Influenced the Success of the Implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs Number 59 of 2007 in North Sumatera Provincial Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Rinanda Lubis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test empirically and analyze the influence of regulation, commitment, human resources and supporting devices to the successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No.59 Year 2007. Population in this study is SKPD Officer of North Sumatra Province (108 people which was sampled for 93 people. Simultaneous F test and partial t test were used to studies effects of regulation, commitment, human resources and supporting facilities to the successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 59, year 2007. These results prove that the regulation, commitment, human resources and supporting devices simultaneously influenced the successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 59 Year 2007. In partial, regulation, commitment and human resources affected successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 59 Year 2007, while the supporting facilities did not have an effect. These results showed that 48% variations of successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No.59 Year 2007, depended on variable of regulation, commitment, human resources and supporting facilities and the remaining 52% depended on other uninvestigated variables.

  20. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation...... to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...

  1. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...... rather than on organizational affiliation; and a transition from formal to informal as well as from professional to private collaboration....

  2. Governing the co-existence of GM crops : ex-ante regulation and ex-post liability under uncertainty and irreversibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, V.; Soregaroli, C.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2006-01-01

    The future institutional environment for the co-existence of genetically modified (GM) crops, conventional crops and organic crops in Europe combines measures of ex-ante regulation and ex-post liability rules. Against this background we ask the following two questions: How does ex-ante regulation

  3. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  4. Bank Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ard; Alexander Berg

    2010-01-01

    Principles of good governance have been a major component of international financial standards and are seen as essential to the stability and integrity of financial systems. Over the past 10 years much energy and attention have gone to improving the ability of company boards, managers, and owners to prudently navigate rapidly changing and volatile market conditions. So, how to explain the ...

  5. Governing principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrew

    2003-12-01

    BUPA HOSPITALS LIMITED took an early stand at a corporate level by championing the value of clinical governance for independent hospitals. The challenge this presented was never underestimated but was seen as a means to improve quality, patient outcomes and accountability, and ultimately to create a firm platform for the delivery of business objectives.

  6. Gobernanza Versus Gobierno Governance Versus Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany-Robert Dufour

    2009-06-01

    over industrial capitalism, which is nothing more than, on the one hand, to lean towards the maximum profitability for the shareholders, to raise the value of everything on the market without moral considerations, to, force the actors to look for permanent risk and to adapt more flexible hierarchical relations in the administration of the company; and on the other, the marginalization of the working class. Governance has reached the political matters turning itself into the model of public management par excellence, it means that the government, diminished to it’s basic form guides a civil society, which acquires an important role in the creation and follow-up of the different policies, that is to say, that the government acquires a flexible form of regulation, it is there where political governance leads us, to the alleged self-regulation of private interests that added-together are able to shape the general interest. Indeed it is a question of a new form of domination marked by a political failing, where the civil society plays in opposition to the State. Governance is leaning towards a fearsome trap to the democracy, insofar as it is presented as an extension of democracy embodied in a better participation of civil society, destroying the public person formed by the union of all others and the becoming representative of particular interests.

  7. Corporate Governance Quality in Selected Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Djokic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Important questions that concern the notion of good corporate governance focus on what good corporate governance is, who benefits from good corporate governance, and how corporate governance quality can be measured. The aim of our study was to broaden our understanding of the role of standards and codes of good corporate governance in improving governance practices.We found that not only formal regulations, standards, and governance codes, but also corporate governance indices-which make the assessment of companies’ governance practices possible-are important in measuring and improving governance quality. The results of the research based on the SEECGAN Index methodology indicated that mandatory requirements and voluntary recommendations of high governance standards had a positive impact on the corporate governance practice in Slovenia.

  8. Hypothesis: Low frequency heart rate variability (LF-HRV) is an input for undisclosed yet biological adaptive control, governing the cardiovascular regulations to assure optimal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Uri; Bobrovsky, Ben Zion

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular regulation is considered today as having three levels: autoregulations, neural regulations and hormonal regulations. We hypothesize that the cardiovascular regulation has an additional (fourth) control level which is outer, hierarchical (adaptive) loop where LF-HRV amplitude serves as a reference input which the neural cardiovascular center detects and responses in order to maintain LF-HRV around some prescribed level. Supporting evidences: LF-HRV absence during artificial cardiac pacing may be associated with "pacemaker syndrome" which had not been sufficiently understood regardless of apparently unimpaired cardiovascular performance. The hypothesis may provide an essential basis for understanding several cardiovascular morbidities and insight toward diagnostic measures and treatments (including but not limited to adding variability to the pulse generator of artificial pacemakers to eliminate "pace maker syndrome"). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Governance by algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are increasingly often cited as one of the fundamental shaping devices of our daily, immersed-in-information existence. Their importance is acknowledged, their performance scrutinised in numerous contexts. Yet, a lot of what constitutes 'algorithms' beyond their broad definition as “encoded procedures for transforming input data into a desired output, based on specified calculations” (Gillespie, 2013 is often taken for granted. This article seeks to contribute to the discussion about 'what algorithms do' and in which ways they are artefacts of governance, providing two examples drawing from the internet and ICT realm: search engine queries and e-commerce websites’ recommendations to customers. The question of the relationship between algorithms and rules is likely to occupy an increasingly central role in the study and the practice of internet governance, in terms of both institutions’ regulation of algorithms, and algorithms’ regulation of our society.

  10. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  11. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...

  12. Exploring the Context and Implementation of Public Health Regulations Governing Sex Work: A Qualitative Study with Migrant Sex Workers in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Silverman, Jay G; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2017-10-01

    Public health regulations practices surrounding sex work and their enforcement can have unintended consequences for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and care among sex workers. This analysis was based on qualitative in-depth (n = 33) and focus groups interviews (n = 20) conducted with migrant female sex workers in Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, and explored the implementation of sex work regulations and related consequences for HIV prevention and care among migrant sex workers. Sex work regulations were found to have health-related benefits (e.g., access to HIV/STI testing) as well as negative impacts, such as abuse by police and harassment, detention/deportation of migrant sex workers. Whereas public health regulations may improve access to HIV/STI testing, their implementation may inadvertently jeopardize sex workers' health through unintended negative consequences. Non-coercive, evidence-based public health and sex work policies and programs are needed to expand access to HIV/STI prevention and care among migrant sex workers, while protecting their dignity and human rights.

  13. MicroRNA-302/367 Cluster Governs hESC Self-Renewal by Dually Regulating Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghui Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available miR-302/367 is the most abundant miRNA cluster in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and can promote somatic cell reprogramming. However, its role in hESCs remains poorly understood. Here, we studied functional roles of the endogenous miR-302/367 cluster in hESCs by employing specific TALE-based transcriptional repressors. We revealed that miR-302/367 cluster dually regulates hESC cell cycle and apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. Gene profiling and functional studies identified key targets of the miR-302/367 cluster in regulating hESC self-renewal and apoptosis. We demonstrate that in addition to its role in cell cycle regulation, miR-302/367 cluster conquers apoptosis by downregulating BNIP3L/Nix (a BH3-only proapoptotic factor and upregulating BCL-xL expression. Furthermore, we show that butyrate, a natural compound, upregulates miR-302/367 cluster expression and alleviates hESCs from apoptosis induced by knockdown of miR-302/367 cluster. In summary, our findings provide new insights in molecular mechanisms of how miR-302/367 cluster regulates hESCs.

  14. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  15. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  16. 48 CFR 53.245 - Government property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government property. 53...) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.245 Government property. The following forms are prescribed, as specified in this section, for use in reporting, reutilization, and disposal of Government...

  17. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses, certifies...

  18. m-government legal and regulatory framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen Mulugeta

    and researchers. CURRENT E-GOVERNMENT. REGULATORY ELEMENTS. In an attempt to regulate the e-Government and. ICT related initiatives the Ethiopian government has been engaged in producing some regulatory and legal documents. These legal document include: e-Signature law, e-Commerce law, data.

  19. 48 CFR 301.607-77 - Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Governance. 301.607-77 Section 301.607-77 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS... Governance. The Departmental ACM, in ASFR/OGAPA/DA, serves as the Departmental FAC-P/PM Program Manager and...

  20. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government supervision. 836.572 Section 836.572 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL... supervision. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-78, Government supervision, in...

  1. Dangerous Liaisons? Governments, companies and Internet governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Private actors in the information technology sector are currently playing an increasingly important role in content mediation, as well as in regulation of online forms of expression, with implications for both internet rights and economic freedom. The “privatisation of internet governance” (DeNardis, 2010, is not a new dynamic; however, in a scenario in which users are taking advantage of increasingly sophisticated technology, the centralisation and concentration characterising today’s most widespread internet services are contributing to the accentuation of this tendency. The 'inherently political' qualities of search engine algorithm development, video content removals, blocking of domain names – actions that originate and rest with the private sector’s handling of the internet’s infrastructure – should not be neglected in our assessment of the field of internet governance today.

  2. Innate signals overcome acquired TCR signaling pathway regulation and govern the fate of human CD161(hi) CD8α⁺ semi-invariant T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, Cameron J; Delrow, Jeff; Joslyn, Rochelle C; Swanson, Hillary M; Basom, Ryan; Tabellini, Laura; Delaney, Colleen; Heimfeld, Shelly; Hansen, John A; Riddell, Stanley R

    2011-09-08

    Type 17 programmed CD161(hi)CD8α(+) T cells contribute to mucosal immunity to bacteria and yeast. In early life, microbial colonization induces proliferation of CD161(hi) cells that is dependent on their expression of a semi-invariant Vα7.2(+) TCR. Although prevalent in adults, CD161(hi)CD8α(+) cells exhibit weak proliferative and cytokine responses to TCR ligation. The mechanisms responsible for the dichotomous response of neonatal and adult CD161(hi) cells, and the signals that enable their effector function, have not been established. We describe acquired regulation of TCR signaling in adult memory CD161(hi)CD8α(+) T cells that is absent in cord CD161(hi) cells and adult CD161(lo) cells. Regulated TCR signaling in CD161(hi) cells was due to profound alterations in TCR signaling pathway gene expression and could be overcome by costimulation through CD28 or innate cytokine receptors, which dictated the fate of their progeny. Costimulation with IL-1β during TCR ligation markedly increased proinflammatory IL-17 production, while IL-12-induced Tc1-like function and restored the response to TCR ligation without costimulation. CD161(hi) cells from umbilical cord blood and granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mobilized leukaphereses differed in frequency and function, suggesting future evaluation of the contribution of CD161(hi) cells in hematopoietic stem cell grafts to transplant outcomes is warranted.

  3. Some considerations on the legal regulation of the process for public licitation, contracts and agreements on the establishment of educational partnerships between the government and the private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Dragone Silveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently the joint between the public administration and the private sector assumes new contours in function of the of the Brazilian State reform, configuring itself as a trend that if it has accented in the educational area, in the São Paulo’s cities, from the municipalization (municipal ownership of elementary school education, with the consolidation of partnerships and agreements involving the purchase of educational private system’s for municipal education net’s, the vacant subvention in private entities and the hiring of private institutions, aiming at the elaboration of educational politics for the management municipal. (ADRIÃO, BORGHI, 2008. Thus being, this article to look for introduce and to analyze, from the national legislation, the procedures for the establishment of these different partnership’s modalities between the municipal government and private institutions, physical or corporation body, discussing the rules for the licitation process for the services and works hiring, property and consumer goods acquisition, for the contracts celebration and the accords establishment with social organizations to transfer it of public resources, to look for understand the legal possibilities for the introduction of the privatizations mechanisms in the education.

  4. Fission Yeast SCYL1/2 Homologue Ppk32: A Novel Regulator of TOR Signalling That Governs Survival during Brefeldin A Induced Stress to Protein Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Katarzyna M; Petersen, Janni

    2016-05-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling allows eukaryotic cells to adjust cell growth in response to changes in their nutritional and environmental context. The two distinct TOR complexes (TORC1/2) localise to the cell's internal membrane compartments; the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus and lysosomes/vacuoles. Here, we show that Ppk32, a SCYL family pseudo-kinase, is a novel regulator of TOR signalling. The absence of ppk32 expression confers resistance to TOR inhibition. Ppk32 inhibition of TORC1 is critical for cell survival following Brefeldin A (BFA) induced stress. Treatment of wild type cells with either the TORC1 specific inhibitor rapamycin or the general TOR inhibitor Torin1 confirmed that a reduction in TORC1 activity promoted recovery from BFA induced stress. Phosphorylation of Ppk32 on two residues that are conserved within the SCYL pseudo-kinase family are required for this TOR inhibition. Phosphorylation on these sites controls Ppk32 protein levels and sensitivity to BFA. BFA induced ER stress does not account for the response to BFA that we report here, however BFA is also known to induce Golgi stress and impair traffic to lysosomes. In summary, Ppk32 reduce TOR signalling in response to BFA induced stress to support cell survival.

  5. Governance and regulation in the Venezuelan petroleum industry: an analysis of the evolution of the relations between the State and the oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhassine, A.A.

    2008-12-01

    Oil is an extremely desired strategic resource which is in the center of the cooperation, the tensions and the conflicts between the producing States and the consumers, between the owners of deposits and oil companies and also between oil companies and consumers. The preoccupation of the political economy is exactly to report the interweaving of the economic and political factors in the formation and in the evolution of the structures of the national petroleum industries. Any change concerning the access to the oil resource and to its rent engenders a redefining of the behaviour, the strategies and the objectives of the main actors. So, by analyzing the process of structuralization of the industry of hydrocarbons in Venezuela, the author attempts to explain the evolution of his mode of organization according to his strategy of regulation. The functional relation which stands out from it becomes identified as a balance of power enters the Venezuelan State, the leaders of the national oil company PDVSA, the international oil companies, the consumers and the international organizations. The thesis reconstitutes the interaction between the maximization of the profits pursued by the oil companies and the forms of appropriation of the rents by the State. The control of the mechanisms of creation and appropriation of the rents allows then the main actors of the oil system to direct the oil Venezuelan policy according to their own interests. (author)

  6. Governing cryptocurrencies through forward guidance?

    OpenAIRE

    Goldmann, Matthias; Pustovit, Grygoriy

    2018-01-01

    While the debate about the needs and merits of cryptocurrency regulation is ongoing, the unprecedented price hikes of cryptocurrencies towards the end of 2017 triggered a somewhat unexpected sort of regulation in the form of public statements by governments and financial supervisors. It kicked in rather quickly and turned out to be much more effective than imagined. These interventions can be identified as one of the main factors that drove asset prices down, thereby preventing destabilizing ...

  7. 48 CFR 1815.207-71 - Appointing non-Government evaluators as special Government employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... evaluators as special Government employees. 1815.207-71 Section 1815.207-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations... BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 1815.207-71 Appointing non-Government evaluators as special Government employees. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  8. Do Kids Need Government Censors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Rhoda

    2002-01-01

    Fashioning public policies restricting children's access to entertainment glamorizing violence, sex, drugs, and vulgarity is a complex task. The recently introduced Media Marketing Accountability Act would empower the federal government to regulate advertising of entertainment products to youth. Suggests that this power is undesirable compared to…

  9. Climatic change and world governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the problems of international agreements about the greenhouse effect gases control. Even if the prejudice covers the whole world, the implementing of pollution regulations generate conflicts of interest. Solidarity, equity and not historical responsibilities have to govern the discussions. This involves to take into account the place of the developing countries. (A.L.B.)

  10. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND STAKEHOLDERS’ ACCOUNTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CHIȚIMUȘ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is the system through which companies are directed and controlled but until today academic environment, regulators, corporations couldn’t reach a unanimous definition. Corporate governance provisions suffered changes after several largely covered financial scandals. Entities incur costs when complying with new regulations but not complying impacts the reputation and investors might think twice before bringing their money into the company. Accountability for business decisions, risk management, control that set the economic path of the company is mandatory for proving that the company is run in a fairly and smart way. This study aims to investigate how corporate governance relates to accountability of all parties involved in the current business of companies as any conflict of interest is detrimental to the company and affects in a negative way its performance.

  11. 48 CFR 27.305-2 - Administration by the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government. 27.305-2 Section 27.305-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305-2 Administration by the Government. (a) Agencies should establish and maintain appropriate follow...

  12. 48 CFR 852.236-78 - Government supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government supervision. 852.236-78 Section 852.236-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Government supervision. As prescribed in 836.572, insert the following clause: Government Supervision (APR...

  13. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this

  14. 48 CFR 32.503-14 - Protection of Government title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of Government... of Government title. (a) Since the Progress Payments clause gives the Government title to all of the... ensure that the Government title to these inventories is not compromised by other encumbrances...

  15. 48 CFR 252.241-7001 - Government access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government access. 252.241... Clauses 252.241-7001 Government access. As prescribed in 241.501-70(b), use the following clause: Government Access (DEC 1991) Authorized representatives of the Government may have access to the Contractor's...

  16. 48 CFR 225.7402-3 - Government support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government support. 225... States 225.7402-3 Government support. (a) Government support that may be authorized or required for... coordination with the combatant commander that— (1) Such Government support is available and is needed to...

  17. 48 CFR 552.246-71 - Source Inspection by Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government. 552.246-71 Section 552.246-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....246-71 Source Inspection by Government. As prescribed in 546.302-71, insert the following clause: Source Inspection by Government (JUNE 1, 2009) (a) Inspection by Government personnel. (1) Supplies to be...

  18. 48 CFR 227.7203-5 - Government rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government rights. 227... Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-5 Government rights. The standard license rights in computer software that a licensor grants to the Government are unlimited rights, government purpose rights...

  19. 48 CFR 42.1304 - Government delay of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government delay of work... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1304 Government delay of work. (a) The clause at 52.242-17, Government Delay of...

  20. 31 CFR 596.310 - Terrorism List Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.310 Terrorism List Government. The term Terrorism List Government... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism List Government. 596.310...

  1. Governance, decentralisation and deforestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwarno, Aritta; Hein, Lars; Sumarga, Elham

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the decentralisation policies in Indonesia, which started in 2000, has fundamentally changed the country's forest governance framework. This study investigates how decentralisation has influenced forest governance, and links the forest governance to deforestation rates at

  2. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  3. E-Government Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Rosiyadi, Didi; Suryana, Nana; Cahyana, Ade; Nuryani, Nuryani

    2007-01-01

    Makalah ini mengemukakan E-Government Dimension yang merupakan salah satu hasil TahapanPengumpulan Data, dimana tahapan ini adalah bagian dari penelitian kompetitif di Lembaga Ilmu PengetahuanIndonesia 2007 yang sekarang sedang dilakukan. Data E-Government Dimension ini didapatkan dari berbagaisumber yang meliputi E-Government beberapa Negara di dunia, E-Government yang dibangun oleh beberapapenyedia aplikasi E-Government. E-Government Dimension terdiri dari tiga dimensi yaitu DemocraticDimen...

  4. VT Certified Local Governments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont established its Certified Local Government (CLG) program in 1985 to better help local governments integrate historic preservation concerns with planning and...

  5. 78 FR 44459 - Tribal Self-Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service 42 CFR Part 137 Tribal Self-Governance CFR Correction In Title 42 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 399, revised as of October 1, 2012, on page 932, in...

  6. 10 CFR 603.220 - Government participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use of Technology Investment Agreements § 603.220 Government participation. A TIA is used to carry out cooperative relationships between the Federal Government and the recipient(s) which require substantial involvement of the...

  7. Business Climate and Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besmira Manaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of three factors, namely: Good Governance, Business Climate and Corruption. How they affect the development product of Albania, not only as a concept, and a principle but mostly as a sensitive aspect in the integration process. There are some interpretations of this concept, but I intend to analyze the key factors and actors, their cooperation and concrete production in society. Improving governance is necessary to have an integrated long term strategy based upon a continuous cooperation between institutions and citizens. But in developing countries like Albania there are some important questions such as: How can we measure the improvement of Good Governance through policies? Has Good Governance indicated an effective way for the sustainable development? (Meisel, 2008, 6. These question give us the orientation to reflect about the process of development, social economic political behavior and how this multidimensional is transformed in product of good governance. The business cycle is strongly connected with many aspects of political-, social-, juridical aspects and good governance. Despite attempts to draft law regulations, the level of corruption and informality in Albania continues to be a major obstacle. The credibility level in the implementation of law is an indicator that affects democratization and institutional integration. At present, different reports of international institutions, define Albania as the country with the highest level of Corruption in the Balkans, which is a key factor influencing business. The ways with

  8. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  9. Public management and governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bovaird, A. G; Löffler, Elke

    2009-01-01

    ... how the process of governing needs to be fundamentally altered if a government is to retain public trust and make better use of society's resources. Key themes covered include: ■ ■ ■ ■ the challenges and pressures which governments experience in an international context; the changing functions of modern government in the global economy; the 'mixed ec...

  10. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Brown, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on corporate social responsibility (CSR)? Government CSR policies have been explained either as a means of substituting or supporting (mirroring) domestic political-economic institutions and policies, or as a means for government...... that government goals in this regard are not necessarily pre-defined....

  11. Transforming government service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    The Danish government has defined an ambitious e-government strategy aiming to increase both citizen centricity and the efficiency of government service production and delivery. This research uses dynamic capability theory to compare a highly successful and a less successful e-government program...

  12. Institutionalizing interactive governance for democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Interactive governance arenas such as networks and partnerships are increasingly seen as legitimate and valuable contributions to the production of effective public governance. This effectiveness is not least seen as a result of the self-constituting and self-regulating character of such arenas...... in ensuring democratic inclusion, deliberation and accountability in relation to interactive governance arenas and considers how they can be used to enhance the democratic quality of such arenas through metagovernance.......-institutional theory points out, however, the considerable regulatory impact of ‘soft’ forms of institutionalization such as incentives structures, sedimented normative codes, logics of appropriateness and routinized practices. The article explores the role that soft forms of institutionalization might play...

  13. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai; Hebenton, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  14. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  15. Financial Reporting of Government Property in the Custody of Contractors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ... of the Military Departments and Defense agencies. We also assessed management controls affecting the financial reporting of Government property, and we assessed compliance with applicable laws and regulations...

  16. China’s Insurance Regulatory Reform, Corporate Governance Behavior and Insurers’ Governance Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Qiu, Aichao

    2017-01-01

    External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China’s insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010–2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China’s shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China’s insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China’s insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector. PMID:29039781

  17. China’s Insurance Regulatory Reform, Corporate Governance Behavior and Insurers’ Governance Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huicong Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China’s insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010–2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China’s shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China’s insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China’s insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector.

  18. China's Insurance Regulatory Reform, Corporate Governance Behavior and Insurers' Governance Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huicong; Zhang, Hongliang; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Qiu, Aichao

    2017-10-17

    External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China's insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010-2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China's shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China's insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China's insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector.

  19. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the risk-based mode required by the new auditing standards has significantly enhanced the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance. Since the change in audit mode, the Big Ten have demonstrated a significantly better grasp of governance risk and allocated their audit effort accordingly, relative to smaller firms. The empirical evidence indicates that auditors have adjusted their audit strategy to meet the regulations, risk-based auditing is being achieved to a degree, reasonable and effective corporate governance helps to optimize audit resource allocation, and smaller auditing firms in particular should urgently strengthen their risk-based auditing capability. Overall, our findings imply that the mandatory switch to risk-based auditing has optimized audit effort in China.

  20. Maritime governance speed, flow, form process

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an original analysis of the problems facing global governance and in particular that of one of the most globalised of all industries – shipping. Central to all global trade and its dramatic growth, shipping faces difficulties of governance stemming from its every globalised nature. The current characteristics of global governance – nation-state fixation, anachronistic institutions, inadequate stakeholder involvement and an over-domination of owner interests are dwarfed by the problems of stasis and fixation which means that policies to address problems of safety, the environment and security are inadequate. This book provides a full and wide ranging discussion of how governance can be animated in a global context so that the dynamism of the maritime industry and its problems can be prevented, regulated and understood. Its unique approach to governance makes it essential reading for all maritime policy-makers and those analysing maritime issues, alongside those with an interest in govern...

  1. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  2. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...

  3. Government and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies.......There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies....

  4. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  5. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge...

  6. Project governance: selected South African government experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the “governance” structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision- making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept “project governance”, and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.

  7. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  8. Government failure : four types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.

    Economists tend to see the market as a default option for social order and a role for government only when markets fail. Developing a convincing analysis of the role of government in economic processes, however, needs to start by considering government failure in its own terms. Drawing on insights

  9. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Falkner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and

  10. 48 CFR 2845.105 - Records of Government property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... property. 2845.105 Section 2845.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Contract Management GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 2845.105 Records of Government property. If departmental elements maintain the Government's official property management records, the contract records may be kept as a...

  11. 48 CFR 25.301-2 - Government support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government support. 25.301... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-2 Government..., determines that— (1) Such Government support is available and is needed to ensure continuation of essential...

  12. 48 CFR 252.239-7013 - Obligation of the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government. 252.239-7013 Section 252.239-7013 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7013 Obligation of the Government. As prescribed in 239.7411(c), use the following clause: Obligation of the Government (JUL 2006) (a) This basic agreement is not a...

  13. 48 CFR 49.402-1 - The Government's right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Government's right. 49... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 49.402-1 The Government's right. Under contracts containing the Default clause at 52.249-8, the Government has the right, subject to the notice requirements...

  14. 48 CFR 49.109-3 - Government property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government property. 49... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-3 Government property. Before execution of a settlement agreement, the TCO shall determine the accuracy of the Government property account for the...

  15. 48 CFR 52.242-17 - Government Delay of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government Delay of Work....242-17 Government Delay of Work. As prescribed in 42.1305(c), insert the following clause in... services, or for supplies that are commercial or modified-commercial items. Government Delay of Work (APR...

  16. 32 CFR 2400.38 - Protection of foreign government information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Foreign Government Information § 2400.38 Protection of foreign government... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of foreign government information...

  17. 32 CFR 776.30 - Successive Government and private employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Successive Government and private employment... JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.30 Successive Government and private employment. (a) Successive Government and private employment: (1) Except as the law or regulations may...

  18. Research governance: panacea or problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ash; Samanta, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Clinical research must meet contemporary professional, legal and ethical standards. Research governance aims to improve quality whilst safeguarding the interests of the public. Research on humans is covered by several internationally recognised ethical codes designed to protect persons from the hazards of experimental treatment. However, to date there is no overarching statutory framework that regulates health and social care research, which is governed by common law principles. The recent European Union Clinical Trials Directive aims to harmonise regulation of clinical trials and protect the interest of study participants. Approval by the new Central Office for Research Ethics Committees (COREC) is now a mandatory requirement for research projects in the UK to ensure stringent ethical standards. Research that involves NHS patients, staff, resources or premises is subject to a framework for research governance that monitors performance and adverse incidents and delineates lines of responsibility and accountability. Researchers at all levels must be fully aware of these new initiatives and of their responsibilities. NHS organisations should acknowledge and commit to clinical research as an intrinsic component of high quality health service delivery.

  19. Governance and organizational theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Quintero Castellanos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to propose a way to link the theoretical body that has been weaved around governance and organizational theory. For this, a critical exposition is done about what is the theoretical core of governance, the opportunity areas are identified for the link of this theory with organizational theory. The essay concludes with a proposal for the organizational analysis of administrations in governance. The essay addresses with five sections. The first one is the introduction. In the second one, I present a synthesis of the governance in its current use. In the next one are presented the work lines of the good governance. In the fourth part, I show the organizational and managerial limits in the governance theory. The last part develops the harmonization proposal for the governance and organizational theories.

  20. A public governance look at CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2014-01-01

    interesting potential for public regulators to steer private/public-private resource exploitation towards increased contributions to public sustainability and welfare state objectives. The significance of CSR policies and practices as private governance modalities towards risk management and as competition......Natural resource exploitation in the Arctic generally does not encounter the problems associated with weak public governance that have marred several resource-rich countries elsewhere in the world and led to calls for CSR as private governance. This paper posits that in Arctic states CSR offers......, this paper discusses the potential which CSR may hold as a governance modality for public regulators to encourage contributions of extractives industry operators towards sustainable Arctic development....

  1. Governance or Governing – the Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Maria Crăciun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Governance and governing are two distinct concepts, but they intertwine. “Good governing” exercises good influence on development. “Good governance” supposes first a relationship of power focused on a series of reforms structured at three levels: the political – administrative level, the economic level, and the level of civil society. As this dimension is difficult to measure, the qualitative evaluation of the governing act raised the interest of the World Bank researchers, who elaborated and monitored the dynamics of a set of indicators, which includes six major dimensions of the governing. A retrospective concerning the image of governing in Romania during the period from 1996 to 2005 suggests a modest increase of the score: from -0.138 (1996 to 0.008 (2002; that was partially achieved based on the voice and responsibility index and on the political stability index, not on those that measure more directly the administrative performance or the integrity of the governing act. For a comparative study, we chose seven countries for the purposes of analysis (two new European Union member states: Romania and Bulgaria; two older member countries of the European Union: Slovenia and Latvia; three non-member states: Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia, which reveal the quality of the governing from a comparative perspective. Corruption control completes the image created by the analyzed indicators. The mere formal accomplishment of commitments made in the pre-accession activity, doubled by recent internal evolutions, bring doubts about the credibility of the anticorruption reforms, as Romania continues to be considered the country with the highest CPI in the European Union. The pessimism of public opinion and the fact that only 34% of the Romanian people consider that the level of corruption will decrease in the following three years constitutes an alarm signal addressed to the governance, in view of the real reformation of the administration system

  2. Regulating the nursing associate profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasper, Alan

    2017-11-23

    Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, University of Southampton, discusses the Government's consultation on changes to the Nursing and Midwifery Order 2001 and the legislation to regulate nursing associates.

  3. The Governance of Money Laundering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    What are the drivers behind the anti-money laundering (AML) governance framework? Who are the actors and institutions, and what is the policy content? This chapter provides an overview of the processes and mechanisms of AML policy-making. AML is often presented as a financial problem, and something......, moreover, that is key to debates about international political economy (IPE) since it goes to the heart of the integrity of the financial system and also, at least in principle, aims to impose controls on the movement of money. Yet, as a policy concern, thinking about money laundering was developed away...... from traditional settings for the regulation of global finance. Instead, AML policies were driven by and linked to the public policy objectives of law and order. As a result, the governance of money laundering encompasses a broad set of goals, techniques and professional knowledge. It brings together...

  4. Spheres of SA Government, responsibilities and delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available are required to function as a single system of cooperative government for the country as a whole, while responsibility for refuse removal, refuse dumps and solid waste disposal are assigned to local government (Metropolitan, District and Local municipalities... (Section 26(h) and 26 (i)) to make regulations on waste disposal and treatment to protect the water resource (RSA, 1998). Other National Departments with waste-related responsibilities are the Department of Mineral Resources being responsible for mining...

  5. The role of law in the governance of the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    The Internet epitomizes globalisation. There are not many international treaties on Internet issues so far. For the time being, governance of the Internet by law will thus basically have to be governance by national law. Most cyber scholars are therefore in the business of exploring alternative governance tools. The typical approach is hybrid, combining state with non-state inputs, and using soft forms of governance, not command and control regulation. Against this background, this papers mak...

  6. Political authorities of local government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messing, M.

    1977-01-01

    Historically the responsibility for planning, siting, constructing, and operating the generating, transmission, and distribution systems for electric utility service (as well as the end-use systems) developed within the electric utility industry itself, subject to state and local regulation. This responsibility was later sanctioned as a functional authority as both private and publicly-owned utility franchises were negotiated with states and brought under the regulatory purview of Public Service Commissions and Public Utility Commissions around the turn of the century. Since 1970 this historic framework has been substantially altered by the enactment of powerplant siting laws in approximately 23 states and by the assertion of state interests in not only the corporate regulation, but the long range planning of electric powerplants and the consideration of alternative energy systems. Thus it is instructive to consider the authorities for powerplant siting in the following context: (1) historically the reponsibility and the authority for powerplant siting has redounded to franchised utility companies; (2) since 1970 the states have begun to exercise their constitutional authority over the development of power plant siting and energy systems; (3) both local governments and electric utility companies exist as subdivisions of the state, subject to state regulation and the delegation of state authorities. However, the assertion of state authorities in this area has come at a time when changes in the technology an the institutional structure of the electric utility industry have extended the functional service areas beyond the geographic boundaries and political jurisdictions of either local or state government, thereby creating a jurisdictional hiatus between the serivce areas of electric utilities and the jurisdictional authorities of state and local government

  7. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  8. Internet Governance: An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur J. Cordell; Prabir K. Neogi

    2007-01-01

    Internet Governance: An Introduction offers a complete guide to the “ins and outs” of Internet governance. Drawing on a range of international authors Internet Governance is best suited for those seeking an overview of the range of issues involved as the Internet becomes increasingly important to bu siness and to society in general, affecting the daily lives of millions of people around the world.

  9. Energy Efficiency Governance: Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This handbook has been written to assist EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish effective EE governance structures for their country. The handbook provides readers with relevant information in an accessible format that will help develop comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. For each of the specific topics dealt with (see Figure 1 in the Handbook), the IEA offers guidelines for addressing issues, or directs readers to examples of how such issues have been dealt with by specific countries.

  10. Exploring Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

    Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how...... deployment of governance mechanisms influences knowledge processes: sharing, retaining, and creating knowledge. We survey the papers in this volume of the special issue, and discuss the remaining research challenges....

  11. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...... development in Scandinavia, the paper focuses on the unintended effects of the new international standards. The Bologna process was reframed and recontextualized in ways that undermined the very system it was set out to transform and govern....

  12. Mechanisms of private meta-governance: an analysis of global private governance for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbergen, P.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of global governance for sustainable development is its fragmentation. Next to public regulations, there are often many private regulations in force on the same issue, which are induced by collaborations between businesses and NGOs. Traditionally, it is assumed that

  13. E-Government Partnerships Across Levels of Government

    OpenAIRE

    Charbit, Claire; Michalun, Varinia

    2009-01-01

    E-government Partnerships across Levels of Government, is an overview of the challenges and approaches to creating a collaborative and cooperative partnership across levels of government for e-government development and implementation.

  14. Local Government Strategy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview for policy makers and program implementers of greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategies that local governments can use to achieve economic, environmental, social, and human health benefits.

  15. Does corporate governance matter after all? governance scores and the value of Canadian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Perez-de Toledo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the determinants of governance in the case of Canadian firms and examines the relationship between governance and firm value after the 2008 financial crisis. We estimate the effect of governance on stock return by using different econometric approaches. Our results show that large firms and firms with higher market-to-book value adopt better standards of governance. However, the results show a negative impact of governance on stock return. Therefore, providing important insights to policy makers that have recently proposed changes to the Canadian regulatory system. Our results show a lack of market enforcement, therefore, self-regulation is unlikely to be an effective mechanism for implementation of best practices of governance

  16. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  17. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  18. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (NSF) (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2008-01-15

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  19. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  20. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    project in Copenhagen, Barcelona and Rotterdam. The book provides major new insights on how structures, networks and leadership in city governments shape the social innovation capacity of cities. It provides ground-breaking analyses of how governance structures and local socio-economic challenges...

  1. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  2. Negotiating Collaborative Governance Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation.......This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation....

  3. Governance and growth revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldadyo, H.; de Haan, J.; Pandu Nugroho, E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies yield diverging outcomes on the governance-growth relationship. In this paper we construct a new index of governance using a latent variable approach and test whether this index is related to growth with varying samples of countries and different conditioning variables. The results

  4. Making Government Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Millo, Yuval; Tuck, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    The financialised character of contemporary rationalities of public governance has been the subject of increased attention within a range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary fields. With this paper we propose a particular analytical framework, focused on the notion of 'governance devices', for ...

  5. Educational Governance in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  6. Community College Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community Coll. Commission, Cheyenne.

    This report presents the findings of the state legislature's Management Audit Committee's review of the structure and governance of community colleges in Wyoming, as requested by the Legislature's Management Council in September 1998. In trying to answer questions about the structure of community college governance, the tensions present in the…

  7. Using IT Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  8. The school governance study

    OpenAIRE

    Balarin, Maria; Brammer, Stephen; James, Chris; Mccormack, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the English school system has changed substantially and the work of schools is now more complicated and demanding. These changes have important implications for school governing and are likely to further complicate the management of schools in the future. A study of school governing is therefore timely and appropriate.

  9. Partnerships and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark.......Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark....

  10. The governance of adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Dave; Adger, William Neil; Berkhout, Frans; Massey, Eric; Mazmanian, Daniel; Munaretto, Stefania; Plummer, Ryan; Termeer, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The governance of climate adaptation involves the collective efforts of multiple societal actors to address problems, or to reap the benefits, associated with impacts of climate change. Governing involves the creation of institutions, rules and organizations, and the selection of normative

  11. Regulatory activities of government: analysis of determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Pevcin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available International comparisons show that large cross-country differences exist in the overall macro extent of regulation of the economy. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to investigate, why such differences exist by identifying and empirically verifying the effect of various factors that could potentially shape those differences. Empirical analysis based on the sample of 32 developed and democratic countries revealed that almost 70 % of variation in the macro extent of regulation could be explained with 7 statistically significant explanatory variables. The econometric analysis revealed that the macro extent of regulation decreases with income inequality in society, with the level of economic development, with the sizeof economy, with the share of transfer spending in GDP and with the share of government employment in labour force. On the other hand, the extent of regulation is positively related to government ownership of enterprises and to presidential political regime

  12. Delegation of Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Tapas; Nilssen, Tore

    2017-01-01

    We develop a model to discuss a government’s incentives to delegate to bureaucrats the regulation of an industry. The industry consists of a polluting firm with private information about its production technology. Implementing a transfer-based regulation policy requires the government to make use of a bureaucracy; this has a bureaucratic cost, as the bureaucracy diverts a fraction of the transfer. The government faces a trade-off in its delegation decision: bureaucrats have knowledge of the f...

  13. Implementation of corporate governance principles in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to conduct a study regarding the manner in which corporate governance principles are applied in Romania, in both public and private sector. In the first part of the paper, the corporate governance principles are presented as they are defined in Romania, in comparison with the main international sources of interest in the domain (OECD corporate governance principles, UE legal framework. The corporate governance (CG principles refer to issues regarding board composition, transparency of scope, objectives and policies; they define the relations between directors and managers, shareholders and stakeholders. The research methodology is based on both fundamental research and empirical study on the implementation of corporate governance principles in companies from Romania. The main instrument of research is a corporate governance index, calculated based on a framework proposed by the author. The corporate governance principles are transposed in criteria that compose the framework for the CG index. The results of the study consist of scores for each CG principles and calculation of CG index for seven companies selected from the public and private sector in Romania. The results are analyzed and discussed in order to formulate general and particular recommendations. The main conclusion of this study is that that a legal framework in the area of corporate governance regulation is needed in Romania. I consider that the main CG principles should be enforced by developing a mandatory legal framework.

  14. Obesity and government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Scott; Zvenyach, Tracy

    2016-10-01

    Despite much effort, obesity prevalence and disease severity continues to worsen. The purpose of this review is to describe the leading government supported food and nutrition interventions and policies to prevent and address obesity in the USA. The review also summarizes obesity interventions and policies that the government plays a role in, but further development is warranted. The government's role in obesity has largely focused on interventions and policies such as national surveillance, obesity education and awareness, grant-based food subsidy programs, zoning for food access, school-based nutrition programs, dietary guidelines, nutrition labeling, and food marketing and pricing policies. The government has played a lesser role in obesity interventions and policies that provide access to evidence-based obesity care to people affected by the disease. Given the magnitude of the obesity epidemic, the government should explore multiple evidence-based interventions and policies across prevention and clinical care.

  15. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus...... the understanding of relations and the coherence of processes of influence/power/governance, the article introduces a communications model of decision-making processes as processes of influence....

  16. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  17. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...... between institutions and social capital, since the same governance institutions have a different impact on the tax haven propensity for countries with different social capital....

  18. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  19. A new corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate governance has become increasingly important as globalisation has begun to accelerate and the economic and financial turmoil have intensified. Post-crisis context has imposed the need to expand the prospects for analysis over governance and companies, as well as the need to identify new ways of administration and resource management. From this perspective, the author aims to highlight the conditions, factors and events that have generated profound changes within the business environment, while the analysis is focusing on contemporary changes in the systems of corporate governance and economic mutations, especially in terms of the companies. The establishment of new governance rules is demanding a theoretical approach based on new methodological requirements which are needed to reform theoretical foundations and to promote creative and effective shapes and governance systems.

  20. 'Governance' sebagai Pengelolaan Konflik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Noer Arfani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the notion of understanding governance as part of conflict management, or vice versa, of undustanding conflict management aspects as benefiting from governance concepts and practices. Governance, with its much broader meaning than government, suggests diverse relevant and significant clues, hints and ideas in the context of conflict management endeavors. one of which is the idea to involve larger audiences and stakeholders –beyond the conventional institutions such as governmental bodies– in policy making processes and public discourses. Such comprehension and appreciation of governance concepts and practices is certainly parallel with the conflict management philosophies, concepis and practices which based on and oriented toward integrative, non-formal and non-litigative mechanisms.

  1. Governance of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    as the child’s best teacher”. The program involves parents as facilitators modifying the child’s behavior instead of working directly on the child, thereby widening the target of intervention. PMTO exemplifies an arrangement that engages the private sphere in the conduct of public governance aiming at creating......In my presentation I will explore the concept, ‘technology of the future’, in public governance. Public governance within social services aims at changing the existing conditions for the marginalized citizens including children with special needs. I pose the question: what happens if public...... governance seek to chance the possible future conditions and targets the marginalized child’s relatives? Parent Management Training (PMTO) is studied as a technology of the future that expands and transforms governance. PMTO targets parents with aggressive and asocial children and aims to “create the parent...

  2. Physics and Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, Nancy H.

    1999-08-24

    In defining the powers and duties of the three branches of government, the U.S. Constitution never explicitly referred to Science, except in the patent clause. But many technical responsibilities are implied in references to weights and measures, the census, and the like. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and in particular Benjamin Franklin, were highly literate in science, but it was their disciple, President John Quincy Adams who promoted as a matter of policy a direct role of the government in science--in particular with respect to astronomy, land surveys and navigation--all physical sciences. Some agencies of government--notably the National Bureau of Standards and the Department of Agriculture were founded in the early days of the Republic with scientific and technical missions. Since then the involvement of the government with science has waxed and waned but the major expansion of the interaction between physics and government occurred after World War II when physicists demonstrated the power of their craft during mobilization of science in support of the war effort. In discussing the interaction of physics with government we should distinguish ''science in government''--scientific input into policy making--from ''government in science,'' which is the support and management of that part of the overall scientific endeavor for which the government has responsibility. Let me turn first to the subject of physics in government. An overwhelming fraction of governmental decisions today have scientific and technical components; decisions ignoring these components are wasteful at best and can imperil the nation. For this reason governmental bodies at all levels solicit scientific advice--or at least give lip service to the need for such advice. When such advice was deliberately avoided, as President Reagan did before announcing his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983, the technically unattainable goal ''to make

  3. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  4. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Karkošková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is unclear how to achieve them. Cloud computing governance helps to create business value through obtain benefits from use of cloud computing services while optimizing investment and risk. Challenge, which organizations are facing in relation to governing of cloud services, is how to design and implement cloud computing governance to gain expected benefits. This paper aims to provide guidance on implementation activities of proposed Cloud computing governance lifecycle from cloud consumer perspective. Proposed model is based on SOA Governance Framework and consists of lifecycle for implementation and continuous improvement of cloud computing governance model.

  5. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE OF BANKS : A SURVEY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Jakob; Vlahu, Razvan

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on the corporate governance of banks. We start by highlighting the main differences between banks and nonfinancial firms and focus on three characteristics that make banks special: (i) regulation, (ii) the capital structure of banks, and (iii) the

  6. School governing body election deficiencies – deliberative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undemocratic features in the election process results in the election of unsuitable or incompetent candidates which has a detrimental effect on the governance of public schools. It is therefore recommended that a new set of nationally uniform SGB election regulations, which allows for transparent deliberation between ...

  7. Evolution of relationship between government and companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchuruk, S.

    1995-01-01

    The president of the Total petroleum company , during a meeting of Petroleum institute at London, exposed the relations and their evolution in energy area, between national government and petroleum industry. The nationalization or the privatization, the taxation, the differences made between different kind of energy are so many factors which are used to regulate energy policy

  8. Delistings and the Costs of Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Vinten, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in delistings from stock exchanges in the US and Europe, and this trend has been partly attributed to increasing administrative costs in listed companies. Has corporate governance regulation gone too far? We examine delistings from European stock...

  9. Urgency of Community Supervision Organization by Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Wibowo Budi Santoso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urgency Surveillance Study of Social Organization aims to describe the reality of the problems in the a real of Social Organization; describe the implementation of the role of government (including local government in controlling the Social Organization; and provider recommendations on matters that need to be regulated in the draft regulations on the supervision of organizations. This study used a qualitative approach, with the aim that can be obtained in-depth and complete information about matters relating to the existence and dynamics in regional organizations. The study results presented can be: that on the one hand the existence of organizations that do not contribute little in development, but on the other hand there are many community organizations that act an archaic and disturbing in society; for the entire operational provisions for the implementation of Social Organization must be available; things that need to be arranged substantially in the surveillance by the government.

  10. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai [Department of Regional Studies in Humanity and Social Sciences, National Hsin-Chu University of Education, No. 521 Nan-Da Road, Hsin-Chu 300 (China); Hebenton, Bill [School of Law, University of Manchester, M13 9PP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  11. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN INDIA: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Thapar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a process, relation and mechanism set up for the corporations and firms based on certain guidelines and principles by which a company is controlled and directed. The principles provided in the system ensure that the company is governed in a way that it is able to set and achieve its goals and objectives in the context of the social, regulatory and market environment, and is able to maximize profits and also benefit those whose interest is involved in it, in the long run. The division and distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, creditors, auditors, regulators, and other stakeholders and inclusion of the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs are identified with the help of Corporate Governance mechanism and guidelines. The need to make corporate governance in India transparent was felt after the high profile corporate governance failure scams like the stock market scam, the UTI scam, Ketan Parikh scam, Satyam scam, which were severely criticized by the shareholders. Thus, Corporate Governance is not just company administration but more than that and includes monitoring the actions, policies, practices, and decisions of corporations, their agents, and affected stakeholders thereby ensuring fair, efficient and transparent functioning of the corporate management system. By this paper, the authors intend to examine the concept of corporate governance in India with regard to the provisions of corporate governance under the Companies Act 2013. The paper will highlight the importance and need of corporate governance in India. We will also discuss the important case laws which contributed immensely in the emergence of corporate governance in India.

  12. Tourism and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses tourism education for sustainability with a particular focus on the challenges and opportunities associated with preparing students to work within complex tourism governance settings. It takes the position that the development of tourism within a sustainability framework re...... and contemporary knowledge and understandings of governance; competencies for tourism governance for sustainability; and ethical action-oriented practice.......This chapter discusses tourism education for sustainability with a particular focus on the challenges and opportunities associated with preparing students to work within complex tourism governance settings. It takes the position that the development of tourism within a sustainability framework...... requires that tourism professionals effectively engage in dynamic social discourses where difficult trade-offs are made between competing demands. The challenge for tourism education is therefore to prepare graduates to work in these complex, value-laden, socio-political environments where they can...

  13. Measuring government activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollitt, Christopher; Bouckaert, Geert; Dooren, Wouter van

    2009-01-01

    .... The goods and services government provides, its redistributive and regulatory powers, and how those are exercised affect the way business is conducted and people live their lives in every country...

  14. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity...

  15. Government Actions and Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, John B.

    2009-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that government actions and interventions prolonged and worsened the financial crisis, because they were based on faulty diagnosis of the problem and did not follow clear predictable principles.

  16. Enacting Governance through Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandtner, Christof; Höllerer, Markus A.; Meyer, Renate E.

    2017-01-01

    of strategy documents in city administration addresses these challenges. Our central claim is that strategy documents can be understood as a distinct discursive device through which local governments enact aspired governance configurations. We illustrate our argument empirically using two prominent examples...... that, while showing similar features and characteristics, are anchored in different administrative traditions and institutional frameworks: the city administrations of Sydney, Australia, and Vienna, Austria. The contribution of the paper is to show how strategy documents enact governance configurations...... along four core dimensions: the setting in space and time, the definition of the public, the framing of the res publica and legitimacy issues. Moreover, our comparative analysis of Sydney and Vienna gives evidence of differences in governance configurations enacted through strategy documents....

  17. Lean Government Methods Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  18. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  19. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  20. Managing e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Persson, John Stouby; Heeager, Lise Tordrup

    2015-01-01

    Public sector managers take much of the responsibility for selecting, commissioning, implementing and realising benefits from information technology (IT) projects. However, e-Government initiatives often suffer from complexity, vision failure, lack of goal clarity and insufficient commitment...... in the public administration literature. Four value positions relevant to e-Government together with their IT assumptions are identified; they reflect the ideals of professionalism, efficiency, service and engagement. A qualitative investigation of Danish local authority managers displays both value congruence...

  1. Open Government and (Linked (Open (Government (Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Philipp Geiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the opening and the free usage of stored public sector data, supplied by state. In the age of Open Government and Open Data it’s not enough just to put data online. It should be rather weighed out whether, how and which supplied public sector data can be published. Open Data are defined as stored data which could be made accessible in a public interest without any restrictions for usage and distribution. These Open Data can possibly be statistics, geo data, maps, plans, environmental data and weather data in addition to materials of the parliaments, ministries and authorities. The preparation and the free access to existing data permit varied approaches to the reuse of data, discussed in the article. In addition, impulses can be given for Open Government – the opening of state and administration, to more transparency, participation and collaboration as well as to innovation and business development. The Open Data movement tries to get to the bottom of current publication processes in the public sector which could be formed even more friendly to citizens and enterprises.

  2. Local government and utility firms’ debts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has affected the Croatian local public sector. In such circumstances, local government units’ debts and borrowing should be approached with caution. The highly interwoven financial operations of local government units and their utilities indicate the need for analysis of consolidated financial statements of local governments and utility companies in order to gain an insight into the real financial “health” of local units. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the size and the structure of the consolidated (local government and utility companies local public debt in Croatia. Accordingly, the paper presents the financial position of local government units supplemented with information on the financial operations of utility companies, with particular emphasis on the size and structure of their liabilities and gross and net debt. Although the current Budget Law does not require formal preparation of consolidated financial statements by local governments and their utility firms, consolidation is stipulated by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. The application of IPSAS regulations would be helpful in determining overall direct and indirect exposure of local government units arising from the financial operations of their utilities.

  3. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  4. 31 CFR 596.504 - Certain financial transactions with Terrorism List Governments authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Terrorism List Governments authorized. 596.504 Section 596.504 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 596.504 Certain financial transactions with Terrorism List Governments authorized. (a) United States...

  5. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility....... Finally, we argue that, in Asia, governments act as a structuration mechanism which challenges the current understanding of CSR....

  6. 48 CFR 445.407 - Non-Government use of plant equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plant equipment. 445.407 Section 445.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Contractor Use and Rental of Government Property 445.407 Non-Government use of plant equipment. Requests for non-Government use of plant equipment as...

  7. Delistings in Europe and the Cost of Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinten, Frederik; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    We analyze delistings from European stock exchanges 1995-2005 as a function of market conditions, firm effects and governance regulation. We find that investor protection and corporate governance quality reduce the likelihood of going private, bankrupt or liquidated, but increase the likelihood...... is most consistent with efficient regulation: better protection of minority investors and higher corporate governance quality stimulates the market for corporate control (M&A) and reduces the incentive to go private. However, going private transactions have increased significantly while governance...... to go private. It seems likely that increasing investor protection will at some point add more costs than benefits to companies and investors. Governments should therefore consider both costs and benefits of further regulation.Key words: Delisting, public listing, mergers, acquisitions, bankruptcy...

  8. How nations govern growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-02

    Officials in China admit that the killing or abondoning of baby girls stems from a government policy limiting couples to 1 child combined with an ancient preference for sons. At the same time leaders maintain that population growth is an national emergency and must be checked. And the 1-child policy remains. To enforce the policy, sterilization is compulsory for 1 parent in a 2-child family. Other reports claim that pregnant women face severe government and social pressure to have an abortion. Comunist governments are not alone in taking a forceful role in population control. In 1975 thousands of people in India were pressured to undergo "voluntary" sterilization. In many places, police and tax collectors, money in hand, "convinced" people to get sterilized. Critics recognize a horribla abuse of government powers in these population control efforts. Recognizing that the populations of the poorest nations will double in 20-30 years, 59 countries responded with some kind of population policy by 1980. These countries are spending an average of US$4.60 on population programs for each US$1 they received in UN aid. In many places, the effort is beginning to show results. A 1982 survey found that 35 countries -- with 88% of the 3rd world population -- had cut the growth of their birthrates by 5-34%. Generally, governments have chosen any of 3 ways to attack the problem: cash payments for sterilization or contraceptive use; penalties for big families; and "delayed incentives." At least 20 governments use money to convince people to have fewer babies. Some programs pay for sterilization,other for contraceptive use. All payments are low. Some governments personalize those who exceed a recommended family size. Other nations have adopted variations of the idea. Some governments, instead of paying up front cash, offer pension plans or bank accounts to limit family size. Almost all population experts believe that the mot successful programs are those which are not imposed from

  9. Climate change governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knieling, Joerg [HafenCity Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Urban Planning and Regional Development; Leal Filho, Walter (eds.) [HAW Hamburg (Germany). Research and Transfer Centre Applications of Life Science

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is a cause for concern both globally and locally. In order for it to be tackled holistically, its governance is an important topic needing scientific and practical consideration. Climate change governance is an emerging area, and one which is closely related to state and public administrative systems and the behaviour of private actors, including the business sector, as well as the civil society and non-governmental organisations. Questions of climate change governance deal both with mitigation and adaptation whilst at the same time trying to devise effective ways of managing the consequences of these measures across the different sectors. Many books have been produced on general matters related to climate change, such as climate modelling, temperature variations, sea level rise, but, to date, very few publications have addressed the political, economic and social elements of climate change and their links with governance. This book will address this gap. Furthermore, a particular feature of this book is that it not only presents different perspectives on climate change governance, but it also introduces theoretical approaches and brings these together with practical examples which show how main principles may be implemented in practice.

  10. Weighted Components of i-Government Enterprise Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiardjo, E. K.; Firmansyah, G.; Hasibuan, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    Lack of government performance, among others due to the lack of coordination and communication among government agencies. Whilst, Enterprise Architecture (EA) in the government can be use as a strategic planning tool to improve productivity, efficiency, and effectivity. However, the existence components of Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA) do not show level of importance, that cause difficulty in implementing good e-government for good governance. This study is to explore the weight of GEA components using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order to discovered an inherent structure of e-government. The results show that IT governance component of GEA play a major role in the GEA. The rest of components that consist of e-government system, e-government regulation, e-government management, and application key operational, contributed more or less the same. Beside that GEA from other countries analyzes using comparative base on comon enterprise architecture component. These weighted components use to construct i-Government enterprise architecture. and show the relative importance of component in order to established priorities in developing e-government.

  11. Governance in Transformation: Alberta School Board Chairs’ Perspectives on Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Gibbons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available School boards are typically removed from nonprofit sector analyses because they are part of the “MUSH” set of organizations (municipalities, universities, schools, and hospitals that both stand outside of the more typical nonprofit sector and tend to be closely affiliated with government. Nevertheless, school boards offer a unique opportunity to examine the governance of a large system of regulated activity that affects millions of citizens. How such systems should be governed has been a matter of concern for nearly 40 years. This study presents data from Alberta school board chairs regarding their perception of governance transformation being brought about by legislative changes. Five dimensions of governance are proposed as defining the current and anticipated governance domain within which school boards operate. Tensions within and between these dimensions signify symbolic boundary constructions that need to be scrutinized in anticipation of the governance transformation and boundary spanning activities of school boards required by the new legislation. / Les conseils scolaires sont généralement retirés des analyses du secteur communautaire parce qu’ils font partie de l’ensemble d’organisations « MUSH » (les municipalités, les universités, les écoles et les hôpitaux; ces organisations se distinguent du secteur communautaire typique et ont tendance à être étroitement associées au gouvernement. Néanmoins, les conseils scolaires offrent une occasion unique d’observer la gouvernance d’un vaste système d’activités réglementées qui affecte des millions de citoyens. La façon dont de tels systèmes devraient être gérés fait l’objet de préoccupations depuis presque 40 ans. Cette étude présente les perceptions de présidents de conseils scolaires de l’Alberta en ce qui a trait à la transformation de la gouvernance apportée par des modifications à la loi. Cinq dimensions de la gouvernance sont propos

  12. Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Woltjer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    I. Theoretical Reflections on Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society 1. Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society in Indonesia Ronald Holzhacker, Rafael Wittek and Johan Woltjer 2. Good Governance Contested: Exploring Human Rights and Sustainability as Normative Goals

  13. Measuring Innovation in Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahroum, S.

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been growing interest in supporting innovation in the public sector as a means of increasing the efficiency and quality of government services. Generally speaking, innovation in government could be defined as “The creation and implementation of new processes, products, services and methods of delivery which result in significant improvements in outcome efficiency, effectiveness or quality’’ [3]. A ‘Process Innovation’ is an activity oriented mainly towards enhancing ‘efficiency’. A ‘Product or Service Innovation’ is an activity oriented mainly towards enhancing the ‘effectiveness’ of government. A ‘Policy Innovation’ is mainly oriented at enhancing outcomes. These categorisations are important for identifying and selecting the metrics of measurement and to make distinctions between inputs, outputs, and outcomes. (Author)

  14. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)? What is the rationale and purpose of these policies? Scholars from various disciplines including Political Science, International Relations and Management Studies have offered explanations for th...... initiatives on CSR are neither consistent across countries or within them. Instead, CSR policies are utilized to address multiple issues crossing various areas of governance, including domestic social policy, global competitiveness policies and foreign policy....... for this phenomenon. Research has tended either to rely on cross-country comparisons that generalize tendencies within given countries; or to over-generalize global trends. The current paper analyzes particular CSR policies in two countries – Denmark and the United Kingdom. We find that the rationales for government...

  15. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...... information asymmetries between insiders and outsiders. Outsiders, being liquidity providers, therefore do not trade in stocks for which they have no information. Therefore, firms with poor governance mechanisms usually experience higher decline in liquidity during periods of market-wide uncertainty....

  16. Whole of Government Accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Chow, Danny; Day, Ronald

    In our comparative study, we surveyed an emerging literature on the use of consolidation in government accounting and develop a research agenda. We find heterogeneous approaches to the development of consolidation models across the five countries (Australia, New Zealand, UK, Canada and Sweden......) are influenced by constitutional or jurisdictional notions of consolidation boundaries. The localization of globalized or generic concepts of consolidation is driven largely by government priorities or preoccupations rather than necessarily user demand. We propose that we need to better understand the relevance...... of financial reporting (GAAP)-based reforms when compared with budget-centric systems of accounting, which dominate government decision-making. At a trans-national level, there is a need to examine the embedded or implicit contests or ‘trials of strength’ between nations and/or institutions jockeying...

  17. Mediatization and Government Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo; Valentini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Social actors see exposure in the news media as attractive for publicity purposes and are under pressure to adapt their press work to a “media logic” to be attractive sources for journalists and editors. This article investigates the European Parliament’s press officers’ professional practices...... in the light of mediatization and government communication theories. Without one pan-European public sphere, the European Parliament, like the other European Union (EU) institutions, competes with national actors for the news media’s attention in the EU’s twenty-eight national public spheres, where EU affairs......” in their communication efforts, and that they face a daily professional challenge as they attempt to promote the European Parliament and its activities to the news media in a way that will not compromise their credibility as government sources. The study provides new insights into communicative aspects of EU governance...

  18. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching, Germany (near Munich) on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in...

  19. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...... Compact is often characterized as a promising way to address global governance gaps, it remains largely unclear why this is the case. To address this problem, we discuss to what extent the initiative represents an institutional solution to exercise global governance. We suggest that new governance modes......, which have arisen in the context of globalization, often adopt a multiactor, multilevel, and network-based approach. We then analyze how far the Global Compact's institutional design reflects this multiactor, multilevel, and network-based steering mode. Drawing on this discussion, we offer suggestions...

  20. Act No. 25 of 31 January 1983 amending Act No. 1103 of 4 August 1965 and Decree No. 680 of 6 March 1968 on regulations governing the activities of technicians in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Act amends Act No. 1103 of 4 August 1965 and Decree No. 680 of 6 March 1968 of the President of the Republic regulating the activities of auxiliary personnel engaged in medical radiology. It establishes new conditions for training and qualifications of such technicians in respect of radiodiagnosis, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. (NEA) [fr

  1. Regulación de la dispensación de medicamentos y su efecto en el consumo de antibióticos en Venezuela Regulations governing the dispensing of medications and their effect on antibiotic consumption in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phenélope Rivas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar las variaciones en la tendencia de consumo de los antibióticos regulados y no regulados en Venezuela, entre el período antes (2005 y después (2006-2008 de introducir la regulación de su venta por receta. MÉTODOS: Se obtuvo información sobre consumo de antibióticos en Venezuela de los datos aportados por International Marketing Services. El consumo se expresó en dosis diarias definidas por 1 000 habitantes por día. Se realizaron análisis de varianzas (ANOVA con un intervalo de confianza de 95% para conocer las diferencias entre los períodos estudiados. RESULTADOS: Los antibióticos regulados de mayor consumo fueron ciprofloxacina y azitromicina. Las clases de antibióticos no regulados de mayor consumo fueron penicilinas y cefalosporinas de primera generación, aminoglucósidos, diaminopiridinas-sulfamidas y tetraciclinas. El consumo total de las categorías de antibióticos de libre dispensación fue el doble del de las categorías de venta regulada, tanto antes como después de haberse aplicado la regulación. CONCLUSIONES: No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el consumo de antibióticos, ya fueran regulados o de libre dispensación, ni antes ni después de aplicarse la medida regulatoria de dispensación de antibióticos.OBJECTIVE: Determine the variations in consumption trends for regulated and unregulated antibiotics in Venezuela in the period before (2005 and after (2006-2008 the regulation of prescription sales was introduced. METHODS: Information on antibiotic consumption in Venezuela was obtained from the data provided by International Marketing Services. Consumption was expressed in daily doses per 1 000 inhabitants. Analyses of variance (ANOVA were performed, with a 95% confidence interval, to identify the differences between the periods studied. RESULTS: The regulated antibiotics with the highest consumption were ciprofloxacin and azithromycin. The classes of unregulated

  2. Managing in the Regulatory Thicket : Regulation Legitimacy and Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirkhanyan, Anna A.; Meier, Kenneth J.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    Although the influence of government regulation on organizations is undeniable, empirical research in this field is scarce. This article investigates how the understanding of and attitudes toward government regulation among public, nonprofit, and for-profit managers affect organizational

  3. Informal Governance in Urban Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polese, Abel; Rekhviashvili, Lela; Morris, Jeremy Bryan

    2017-01-01

    , by mapping the various sources and expressions of power, informality is shown and conceptualized as a space where formal institutions and citizens (or informal institutions) compete for power, where certain aspects and mechanisms that regulate public life in a given area are played out. The importance......Drawing on evidence from the competition for public spaces between street vendors and the authorities in Georgia our contribution through this article is two-fold. First, we provide empirical evidence showing the diverse role of informality in a series of settings, and its capacity to influence...... decision and policy making. Second, we explore the relationship between informality and power (and in particular the policy-making process) to go beyond a legality-illegality binary. Our goal is to show the influence that informality has on governance at the local but also national level. In particular...

  4. Social media adoption : toward a representative, responsive or interactive government?

    OpenAIRE

    Mergel, Ines

    2014-01-01

    Social media adoption is oftentimes seen as technologically determined by third parties outside of government, with government's role limited to reactively jump on the bandwagon and respond to citizen preferences. However, social media interactions are emergent and challenging existing bureaucratic norms and regulations. This paper provides empirical evidence for the institutionalization stages government agencies' move through when they are adopting new technologies. Adoption occurs at varyi...

  5. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes. They are ......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes......, supranational nor totally denationalised. It is neither arbitrary nor accidental that we present our inquiries into this phenomenon in the series of International Studies on Private Law Theory....

  6. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  7. Governing IT outsourcing relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlmann, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung The dynamics of the relationship between service recipient and service provider in IS outsourcing relationships recently gained increased attention as relationships are believed to have a considerable influence on IS outsourcing success. This study adds to this growing field of interest by developing an IS outsourcing relationship framework in the form of a process model. Three rather disjointed areas of research, namely contractual governance, relational norms, and control, have been set in a common context by interrelating them as the three main governance modes

  8. Governing economies in areas of limited statehood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Varming, Kirstine Strøh

    of a number of key debates within the field. The literature review and discussion is organised on the basis of six major themes that shed light on this research question: 1) embeddedness and economic transformations, 2) property governance, 3) informal and popular economies, 4) debt and money, 5) borders...... and cross-border trade, and 6) authority, governance and economic regulation. These themes are supported by case examples from the Somali territories in the East and Horn of Africa. Through the reviewed literature, the paper critically engages common categories, such as formal/informal, state...

  9. The Applicability of Governance at King Saud University in Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentab, Mohammad Y.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of the study revolves around the application of the requirements of governance at King Saud University. The study aims to identify the extent of governance requirements at King Saud University as seen by faculty members through transparency, accountability, organizational structure, laws, regulations, and justice. To achieve the…

  10. 31 CFR 800.214 - Foreign government-controlled transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign government-controlled transaction. 800.214 Section 800.214 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... control of a U.S. business by a foreign government or a person controlled by or acting on behalf of a...

  11. Fiscal Policy and Local Government Administration in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opinions have varied on the utility of local government administration in promoting sustainable grassroots development. Scholars are apprehensive of the prevalence of high degree of corruption and systemic inefficiency at the local government. This paper evaluates the system of financial regulations put in place to curtail ...

  12. Corporate governance : What’s special about banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, L.

    2013-01-01

    This review surveys the literature on the corporate governance of banks. Traditional corporate governance mechanisms, such as concentrated ownership and takeover threats, in principle, also apply to banks. However, banks have special traits and are heavily regulated, preventing natural forms of

  13. 48 CFR 47.104-5 - Citation of Government rate tenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citation of Government rate tenders. 47.104-5 Section 47.104-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.104-5 Citation of Government rate tenders. When 49 U...

  14. 77 FR 18258 - Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NRNHL-0212-9515; 2280-665] Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. SUMMARY: The National Park Service announces two telephonic government- to-government consultation meetings with Indian...

  15. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agencies in assessing the capacity and ability of the Federal acquisition workforce to develop, manage, and... projects found cost overruns of 26 percent, totaling $295 billion over the life of the projects. Improved... serve the Federal Government's needs and to manage the risk associated with the goods and services being...

  16. Governing Logistics Information Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.; Aldewereld, H.M.; Knol, A.; Tan, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Extended Single Window (ESW) project aims to support goods flows by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Specifically, the project takes the concept of Single Windows (often used in the sense that governments offer a single portal or interface to which businesses can submit

  17. Ethics in Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…

  18. Getting Port Governance Right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Langen, Peter; Saragiotis, Periklis

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relevance of ports for economic development and next identifies port governance as a critical determinant of a well-functioning port industry. While in the past decades privately owned terminal operating companies have emerged and contributed to more efficient supply ch...

  19. Tactics of the governed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2017-01-01

    Abandonment has become a performative idiom in Andean Peru, where it retains its purchase despite the investments of the state. Local development is tied to the desire to be governed. In spite of prolonged state presence, the villages’ relationship to authorities is continuously and persistently...

  20. Leadership and Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arthur

    1998-01-01

    Discusses leadership and governance issues in implementing curricular reform at eight medical schools participating in a large-scale medical curriculum development project. Attention is given to the definition of leadership, characteristics of successful leaders, management of resistance to change, the role of curriculum committees, the use of…

  1. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen WAGENER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there are sufficiently differentiated success stories to test the hypothesis: it was good governance that is responsible for success and bad governance for failure. The empirical results support the “Lorenzetti hypothesis”: where freedom, security and trust prevail, the economy flourishes, where they are lacking, the costs of long-term investment are too high. The initial conditions of transition countries seem to be quite similar, nevertheless, even there one can discern good and bad governance. The extent of socialist lawfulness, planning security, cronyism and corruption differed widely between East Berlin and Tashkent. And a good deal of such variations can be found in the pre-socialist history of these countries. However, the main conclusion is that the co-evolution hypothesis states that both, welfare and good governance, go together.

  2. Corporate Media Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, Petrus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The media can make or break a reputation. This being said, it seems to be essential for companies, governments and institutions to pay specific attention to corporate media management in their daily operations. However, this thesis shows that they often neglect to pay adequate attention to corporate

  3. Contractual Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Companies have the choice to deviate from their national corporate governance standards by opting into another system. They can do so via contractual devices – such as cross-border mergers and acquisitions, (re)incorporations, and cross-listings – which enable firms to choose their preferred level

  4. Data Quality Assurance Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Gonzalez; Stephanie Suhr

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable describes the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE Quality Management Strategy, addressing EXCELERATE Ethics requirement no. 5 on Data Quality Assurance Governance. The strategy describes the essential procedures and practices within ELIXIR-EXCELERATE concerning planning of quality management, performing quality assurance and controlling quality. It also depicts the overall organisation of ELIXIR with emphasis on authority and specific responsibilities related to quality assurance.

  5. Government support of innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Studt, T

    2003-01-01

    "One of the Federal government's few formal interagency enterprises, the Networking and Information Technology R&D (NITRD) program, is the collaborative framework of numerous federal agencies that conduct fundamental R&D in advanced networks, computing systems, software, and information management technologies" (1/2 page).

  6. Ambidextrous IT Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Svejvig, Per; Tordrup Heeager, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Through a case study at a global technology company, we investigate how organizations can adapt their IT governance approach to the information system at hand. This is done by considering the degree of information system integration and whether the system is related to supporting operational effi...

  7. Constructing Private Governance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While the economic implications of tobacco control for government revenue and employment in manufacturing are now well understood, industry claims .... for the tobacco-control community and health ministries to play a supportive role to ministries of agriculture, the environment, labor, finance and rural development.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1995-05-02

    May 2, 1995 ... Mr. Ossa has written on exchange rate policies, export diversification, industrial development and external debt of developing countries. ...... I think most people would agree that the World Bank, for example, should not only finance governments but should directly finance the private sector in developing ...

  9. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  10. Making Migrants Governable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    2012-01-01

    by biometric technology will produce increased objectivity and depolitization in numbers of irregular migrants which could not be obtained in the field of estimation. The level of truth reflects the level of control and surveillance fixed as a strategy of government of mobility in the biometric technology....

  11. Values and Governance Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, P.H.M.; van den Brink, J.R.; Semenov, R.

    1999-01-01

    Cooperative behavior as well as other cultural rules and values are made explicit in organizational units that procure and provide a common service. The common service is procured by a club, which consists of a user-value function, a representation governance, and a budget-allocation function. The

  12. Operationalizing Anticipatory Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    cause among ourselves. This has a potentially Operationalizing Anticipatory Governance Leon Fuerth is the Founder and Director of the Project on...and so forth, plus the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review initiated by the Secretary of State). These reports are asynchronous, syncopated ...Review initiated by the Secretary of State). These reports are asynchronous, syncopated , and disjointed from one another. Instead, these strategy

  13. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f......, and entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research....

  14. Governing the water user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, Edwin; Wester, Flip

    2017-01-01

    This article traces a policy shift that makes the ‘water user’ the main subject of water governance. From a Foucauldian perspective on governmentality these new subjectivities accompany neo-liberal governmental technologies to devolve autonomy from state institutions to an active user base, whilst

  15. Towards sustainable water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Wietske; Adamowski, Jan; Orr, Christopher J.; Wals, Arjen; Milot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on multi-loop social learning processes required to move towards more sustainable water governance. Multi-loop social learning is recognized as a crucial element to decision-making involving a process of managing change where the central methodological concern is with

  16. Which type of government revenue leads government expenditure?

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Zeinab; Masih, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    This Malaysia is a developing Islamic state that faced government budget deficit since 1998. It is undeniable that a budget deficit or inability to cover government spending is not positively seen by external parties. The optimum level of government budget is the state where government spending is totally offset by government revenue and that can be achieved through an increase in tax revenue or decrease in spending. The paper aims to discover the existence of a theoretical relationship betwe...

  17. Model Penguatan Kapasitas Pemerintah Desa dalam Menjalankan Fungsi Pemerintahan Berbasis Electronic Government (E-Government menuju Pembangunan Desa Berdaya Saing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulismadi Sulismadi

    2017-06-01

    program APBDes budgeted in fiscal year 2017. Step next phase is the research team conducting FGD Phase II to design e-government as a means of governance villages effective and efficient, to disseminate the e-government, and publishes scientific articles on the model of governance based rural e-government in the Journal of Politics and Government Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta. Our advice as a researcher is a village government should make regulations governing Internet-based mechanism of public services (e-government. The regulation is to encourage villagers Landungsari to get used to using services based on the Internet, the district government of Malang should provide support to the village government to make innovations in governance, and the central government should support the village government to strengthen rural government institutions such as the addition of the village

  18. Economic Efficiency of Selected Financial System Institutions of Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Rabiej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Functioning of local government units, as for as the economic sphere is concerned, is based on the financial law regulations. Those regulations aim at solving economic and social problems. The analysis of economic efficiency concerning implemented regulations is of particular importance for changing the EU’s attitude towards the influence, which EU has on functioning of the local governments. Implementing the local budgets, based on regulations which economic efficiency hasn’t been evaluated on the stage of legislation, may have a negative impact on local community and the economic situation of the country. Frequent changes of financial law cause actions, which financial effects cannot be predicted. What is more, those unstable regulations make it impossible to plan essential parts of a budget in a right way. That has a great importance in terms of correctness of long-term financial perspectives of the local government units.

  19. Evaluating e-Government and Good Governance Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardi Suhardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the achievement of Indonesian government institutions in implementing e-government has been conducted since around a decade ago. Several national assessments are available with almost the same ranking results. There is an agreement that the ultimate goal of e-government implementation is to achieve good government governance (GGG, while success stories of e-government require good governance practices. This study explored the correlation between e-government achievement and GGG achievement in Indonesia. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to characterize the relationship strength between e-government assessment results and good governance assessment results. The data were collected from institutions that participated in e-government and good governance assessments. The results showed that the correlation between these two entities is not very strong. Most cases showed that e-government implementation and the achievement of good governance have only a moderate positive correlation and none of the studied cases indicated a significant connection. This result can be attributed to the lack of emphasis on goals achievement in the assessments. Thus, it is recommended that future Indonesian e-government assessments should involve impact indicators.

  20. THE EVOLUTION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND SELF-GOVERNMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yashchuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 34The article highlights the main stages in the development of local government and self-gov-ernment in Russia. It shows the specifics of each stage. The formation of the Russian state was accompanied by the synthesis of the princely power and the community self-government. The genesis autocracy was accompanied by a struggle with the self-government institutions. The creation of rural and urban self-government in the second half of the XIX century was accom-panied by a debate on the social and public origin of these institutions.The Soviet state was based on the unity of the Soviet system. It concluded the discrete de-velopment of local self-government in Russia. There is no historical strong tradition of local government in this system.Objective of the article is to identify and characterize the main stages of development of local government and self-government in Russia. Show the discrete nature of the develop-ment of local self-government in Russia.The formation of the Russian state was accompanied by the synthesis of princely power and community self-government. Genesis autocracy was accompanied by a struggle with self-government institutions. The absence of territorial self-government in Russia was offset by the presence of social class municipality for a long time. Caste traditions tradition had a negative impact after the establishment of rural and urban self-government in the second half of the XIX century.During the preparation of the reforms and their implementation were discussions of the rela-tionship between the state and the community began in management. As a result, there is the inclusion of local authorities in the sphere of active state regulation. The desire of the county public to the political activity was suppressed by autocracy. The Provisional Government at-tempt to rely on the local self-government to create new authorities ended in failure.The Soviet state was based on a single management system. Certain powers

  1. Government turnover in parliamentary democracies

    OpenAIRE

    Diermeier, Daniel; Merlo, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we consider a dynamic model of government formation and termination in parliamentary democracies. Our analysis accounts for the following observed phenomena: (1) Cabinet reshuffles; (2) Cabinet replacements; (3) Early elections; (4) Surplus governments; (5) Minority governments; (6) The relative instability of minority governments.

  2. Local Government Challenges’ to Implement Public Private Partnership Projects in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondang S. Erwin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims is to analyze several challenges’ those faced by local governments in Indonesia, including its provinces, districts and cities, in implementing the Public Private Partnership (PPP scheme. The analysis is focused on 3 challenges, as follows: 1 budget; 2 regulations (Act Number 23 of 2014 concerning Regional Government, Government Regulation Number 27 of 2014 concerning Government Asset Management and Presidential Regulation Number 38 of 2015 concerning Public and Private Partnership for Provision of Infrastructure, and 3 the party that involve on PPP projects. Therefore, some of the developed recommendations are expected to be solution for the local government in addressing these challenges.

  3. A RELATIONAL ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the realities brought forward by the financial crisis is that the corporate Governance, based until now mainly on self-regulation, has not been as effective as possible. A better management of organizations is important not only in order to reduce the possibility of occurrence of a new crisis in the future, but also for organizations to be more competitive. Currently we do not have a definition of corporate governance that is unanimously accepted. At global level, there are a variety of definitions for this term, depending on national, cultural or legislative characteristics. In this article we present the concept of corporate governance as being a complex process occurring at the level of the management of the organization, which integrates control, risk management and internal audit in a formula that is meant to determine the level of performance for the organizational achievements.

  4. Information security governance simplified from the boardroom to the keyboard

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Security practitioners must be able to build cost-effective security programs while also complying with government regulations. Information Security Governance Simplified: From the Boardroom to the Keyboard lays out these regulations in simple terms and explains how to use control frameworks to build an air-tight information security (IS) program and governance structure. Defining the leadership skills required by IS officers, the book examines the pros and cons of different reporting structures and highlights the various control frameworks available. It details the functions of the security d

  5. Government action on diabetes prevention: time to try something new.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldor, Jenny C; Magnusson, Roger S; Colagiuri, Stephen

    2015-06-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus, driven by overweight and obesity linked to unhealthy diets, is the fastest-growing non-communicable disease in Australia. Halting the rise of diabetes will require a paradigm shift from personal to shared responsibility, with greater accountability from Australian governments and the food industry. It will also require governments to try something different to the prevailing approaches emphasising education and the provision of information. We propose four priority areas where government regulation could strengthen Australia's response. Those areas relate to mandatory front-of-pack food labelling, regulating junk food advertising, better oversight of food reformulation and taxing sugar-sweetened beverages.

  6. Knowledge Governance for Sustainable Development: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrae van Kerkhoff

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a knowledge intensive process, but plagued by persistent concerns over our apparent inability to connect what we know with more sustainable practices and outcomes. While considerable attention has been given to ways we may better understand and enhance the knowledge-based processes that support the governance of social-­ecological systems, relatively few have examined the governance of knowledge itself. The institutions—rules and norms—that govern knowledge may shed light on the persistence of 'gaps' between knowledge and action. In this review I seek to answer the question: can interdisciplinary knowledge governance literature contribute to understanding and analysing the institutional knowledge-based dimensions of sustainable development? I present and analyse the concept of knowledge governance as it is emerging in a range of disciplines and practice areas, including private sector management literature and public regulation theory and practice. I then integrate the findings from this review into a model of sustainable development proposed by Nilsson et al. [1]. I show that knowledge governance (as a scale above knowledge management can inform Nilsson et al.'s three "nested" dimensions of sustainability: human wellbeing (through access to knowledge and freedom to exercise informed choice; resource-base management (though enhancing regulation and innovation and transitions from exclusive to inclusive knowledge systems; and global public goods (by balancing public and private interests and fostering global innovation systems. This review concludes by presenting a framework that places sustainable development in the context of broader socio-political struggles towards more open, inclusive knowledge systems.

  7. Whole of Government Accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Chow, Danny; Day, Ronald

    In our comparative study, we surveyed an emerging literature on the use of consolidation in government accounting and develop a research agenda. We find heterogeneous approaches to the development of consolidation models across the five countries (Australia, New Zealand, UK, Canada and Sweden...... of financial reporting (GAAP)-based reforms when compared with budget-centric systems of accounting, which dominate government decision-making. At a trans-national level, there is a need to examine the embedded or implicit contests or ‘trials of strength’ between nations and/or institutions jockeying...... for influence. We highlight three arenas where such contests are being played out: 1. Statistical versus GAAP notions of accounting value, which features in all accounting debates over the merits and costs of ex-ante versus ex-post notions of value (i.e., the relevance versus reliability debate); 2. Private...

  8. Auditing IT Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Mihai ILIESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective IT governance helps ensure that IT supports business goals, optimizes business investment in IT, and appropriately manages IT-related risks and opportunities. Organizations that realize the IT is no longer a support process and embeds value and risks need a structured approach for better managing Information Technology, enable its capability to deliver added value enterprise wide and for setting up a risk management program to address new risks arising for usage of IT in business processes. In order to assess if IT Governance is in line with industry practices, IT Auditors need a good understanding of processes and applicable standards, particular audit work programs and experience in assessing potential problem indicators.

  9. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f......This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives...... on the firm. While there has been little direct discussion between the main proponents of these perspectives, both claim that they are reaching for a "strategic theory of the firm". Such a theory would not only shed light on the classical questions considered in the theory of the firm (e.g. why firms exist......, and entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research....

  10. Urban Governance of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E. Fischer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth, urbanization, and the growing challenges faced by the urban poor require redefining the paradigm for public health interventions in the 21st century, creating new approaches that take urban determinants of health into consideration. The widening disparity between the urban poor and the urban rich further exacerbates health inequities. Existing tools for global governance of urban health risks fall short, particularly in the lack of formal mechanisms to strengthen collaboration and communication among national and municipal agencies and between their local and international non-governmental partners. There is also a clear disconnect between governance strategies crafted at the international level and implementation on the ground. The challenge is to find common ground for global goods and municipal needs, and to craft innovative and dynamic policy solutions that can benefit some of the poorest citizens of the global urban network.

  11. The roles of government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigrain, P.

    1988-01-01

    The author chooses to address his talk to governments as a broad category, not differentiating the more centralized, socialized, federal, or for that matter the role of smaller governmental entities within countries, and the role they can have in impacting science. He chooses to try to say what governments should do, and with a few exceptions, what they should avoid doing, in order to support the development of physics, and for that matter other sciences within their countries. The major role is in education, where governments can prepare people for work in these disciplines, and also present the disciplines in an interesting manner so that the best minds can be attracted to these areas. The second major role is in the support of basic research in high technology areas. Some of this involves very large resource investments, but not all areas are equally expensive to support. There is a particular pitfall when governments become the consumer for basic research, for example in the case of national defense concerns, when the consumer can have a profound effect on the research effort in a country, not always for the betterment of science or society. Fiscal matters are equally important, not only in the support of the individual worker, support of the basic research, support of education, but also in the general attititude to supporting physics high tech work in the private sector within countries. Governmantal fiscal policies can have profound influences on the way private capital flows into such initiatives. Finally he touches on the need for those in basic research and high tech work to have contacts, all kinds of contacts, which foster the exchange of information and ideas, and the development of new approaches to old and new problems

  12. Determinants of Government Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    David Hauner; Annette J Kyobe

    2008-01-01

    We compile the first large cross-country panel dataset of public sector performance and efficiency, encompassing 114 countries on all income levels from 1980 to 2006, with about 1,800 country-year observations for the education sector and about 900 observations for health. We regress these indicators on potential economic, institutional, demographic, and geographic determinants. Our most resounding conclusion is that higher government expenditure relative to GDP tends to be associated with lo...

  13. Growth & Governance in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    means of pursuing domestic social goals, as the Malaysian government has done, for instance, in promoting bumiputera companies). The challenge for...In 1998, the population of Malaysia was 22.2 million. Of that, 57.8 percent is comprised of those regarded as bumiputera (“sons and daughters of the...soil”), or indigenous to the country. Most of these are Malays, at 49 percent of the total population. Non-Malay bumiputera , such as the Orang Asli

  14. Corporate governance in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Rajesh; Megginson, William L.; Yadav, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the Indian corporate governance system and examines how the system has both supported and held back India's ascent to the top ranks of the world's economies. While on paper the country's legal system provides some of the best investor protection in the world, enforcement is a major problem with slow, over-burdened courts and significant corruption. Ownership remains concentrated and family business groups continue to be the dominant business model. There is significant py...

  15. Government Favouritism in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Muhittin, Acar (PhD); David-Barrett, Elizabeth (PhD); Dimulescu, Valentina; Doroftei, Madalina (PhD); Emek, Uğur (PhD); Fazekas, Mihály (PhD); Karaboev, Stefan; András Lukács, Péter; Martínez Barranco Kukutschka, Roberto; Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina (PhD); Podumljak, Munir; Sberna, Salvatore (PhD); Stefanov, Ruslan; János Tóth, István (PhD); Vannucci, Alberto (PhD)

    2015-01-01

    This volume on Government Favouritism in Europe reunites the fieldwork of 2014-2015 in the ANTICORRP project. It is entirely based on objective indicators and offers both quantitative and qualitative assessments of the linkage between political corruption and organised crime using statistics on spending, procurement contract data and judicial data. The methodology used in the analysis of particularism of public resource distribution is applicable to any other country where procurement data ca...

  16. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  17. Corporate Governance Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Gnecchi

    2006-01-01

    The recognised critical importance of corporate governance, and the attention that it is paid today, can be ascribed to several factors: sensational financial scandals (and the repercussions they have had for securities and financial markets), the exponential development of stock option policies, the information asymmetry that can be noted in practically every company. The different requests for information of the various categories of stakeholders, combine to strengthen the decision to adopt...

  18. Urban Governance of Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Katz; Sangeeta Mookherji; Morgan Kaminski; Vibhuti Haté; Julie E. Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Rapid population growth, urbanization, and the growing challenges faced by the urban poor require redefining the paradigm for public health interventions in the 21st century, creating new approaches that take urban determinants of health into consideration. The widening disparity between the urban poor and the urban rich further exacerbates health inequities. Existing tools for global governance of urban health risks fall short, particularly in the lack of formal mechanisms to strengthen coll...

  19. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Karkošková; George Feuerlicht

    2016-01-01

    Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is uncle...

  20. Progressive governance and globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Pisani-Ferry

    2008-01-01

    Jean Pisani-Ferry discusses the development of globalisation during the last decade and the challenges ahead. The speed and magnitude of the transformation affecting the world economy are larger than initially envisaged, while domestic policy reforms and redistribution have often been insufficient to cope with this adjustment challenge. Against this background, the definition of a renewed agenda that builds on the success of the initial one should be a priority for progressive governments. Th...

  1. Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    What role should governments play in protecting the environment and controlling the environmental impacts of industry? Do regulations benefit the environment, and how do they affect industrial innovation?

  2. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching (near Munich), Germany on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in Chile. The Director-General receiv...

  3. Doing internet governance: practices, controversies, infrastructures, and institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Epstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue makes an argument for, and illustrates, the applicability of a science and technology studies (STS informed approach to internet governance research. The conceptual framework put forward in this editorial and the articles composing this issue add to the mainstream internet governance scholarship by unpacking macro questions of politics and power. They do so through the analysis of the mundane and taken-for-granted practices and discourses that constitute the design, regulation, maintenance, and use of both technical and institutional arrangements of internet governance. Together, this body of work calls to rethink how we conceptualise both internet and governance.

  4. Corporate governance in banks: Problems and remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Marcinkowska

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Weak and ineffective corporate governance mechanisms in banks are pointed out as the main factors contributing to the recent financial crisis. Deep changes in this area are necessary to reinforce the financial sector stability. The paper presents key aspects requiring reforms: the role, constitution and accountability of board, risk management, management remuneration, transparency. New regulations and guidance are presented, creating the foundations for a new order of the financial market. The paper also points out the banks’ stakeholders’ accountability.

  5. Bureaucracy Communication and Government Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Romli, Khomsahrial

    2013-01-01

    In general the function ofcommunication is toachieve thesense one to another, to build trust, to coordinateactions, to planstrategies, to perform division of labor, to perform a groupactivity, and to share the same sense. As thecommunication of government bureaucracy tasks are to serve, to regulate, to supervise, and to gain the relationshipbetween the governmentand thesociety, just imaginewhen thegovernment bureaucracydoes notinterpretthe importance ofcommunication, of course,the service pro...

  6. The dynamics of urban ecosystem governance in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzeskaki, Niki; Tilie, Nico

    2014-05-01

    We explore whether Rotterdam city has the governance capacity in terms of processes at place, and the attention in terms of vision and strategy to take up an integrated approach toward urban resilience. We adopt an interpretative policy analysis approach to assess the dynamics of urban ecosystem governance considering interviews, gray literature, and facilitated dialogues with policy practitioners. We show the inner workings of local government across strategic, operational, tactical, and reflective governance processes about the way urban ecosystems are regulated. Despite the existing capacity to steer such processes, a number of underlying challenges exist: need for coordination between planning departments; need to ease the integration of new policy objectives into established adaptive policy cycles; and need to assess the lessons learnt from pilots and emerging green initiatives. Regulating and provisioning ecosystem services receive heightened policy attention. Focus on regulating services is maintained by a policy renewal cycle that limits and delays consideration of other ecosystem services in policy and planning.

  7. A critical review of corporate governance reforms in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Hiyari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the East-Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the corporate accounting scandals, the shareholder’s confidence in the audited financial statements was adversely affected and regulators started to think seriously reforming the existing corporate governance practices. As a result, numerous initiatives were implemented to accelerate improvement of corporate governance practices. One of these initiatives was the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (MCCG. The code was derived from the approach applied by the British Hampel Committee, which attempt to mitigate the agency problem between corporate managers and outside owners. This study suggests that the British approach is unsuitable to Malaysian business environment. Particularly, the MCCG that had been lunched since 2011 ignore the uniqueness of Malaysia’s capital market, regulation environment and ownership structure. Therefore, the study recommends that policy makers and other regulators should consider the local business environment when establishing future code on corporate governance.

  8. “Europa 2020”, nuovo governo economico e ri-regolamentazione finanziaria:incentivi o vincoli alla crescita?(“Europe 2010”, a new economic governance and financial re-regulation: incentives or constraints to growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the launch of a new strategy for growth in Europe (the Europe 2020 strategy and the ongoing efforts to design a new international financial architecture, prospects for an economic recovery of Europe remain dim. Public deficits and debts will have to be reduced at a faster pace, with contractionary effects unless a strong recovery of private expenditure will materialize. Financial re-regulation is projected to further depress the economy by imposing higher capital ratios, lower leverage, a late (though welcome discipline of liquidity. The compound effect of the two policy trends pose a serious threat on the social sustainability of the European social market economy.   JEL: H6, F3, O52

  9. GOVERNING BOARD OF THE PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its one hundred and twelfth and one hundred and thirteenth meetings on 5 November and 3 December 2002 respectively. At the first of these meetings, the Governing Board firstly took note of the favourable stance adopted by TREF with respect to a pension adjustment of 0.6% for 2003. TREF had also examined the proposed technical amendments to the Pension Fund's Rules and Regulations, as reported in Weekly Bulletin N° 44/2002, relating to a) clarification of the roles of the Governing Board and the Administrator, b) the procedure for appointing the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen and Administrator of the Fund, c) the Governing Board's voting rules and d) the role and composition of the Investment Committee. These amendments were to be submitted to the CERN Council for approval at its December meeting*. The Governing Board then considered a request submitted by the CERN Pensioners' Association (GAC) for an extraordinary adjustment of pensions. The request entailed making an ...

  10. 15 CFR 2008.12 - Foreign government information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign government information. 2008.12 Section 2008.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED...

  11. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?......The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  12. Governance matters: an ecological association between governance and child mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Governance of a country may have widespread effects on the health of its population, yet little is known about the effect of governance on child mortality in a country that is undergoing urbanization, economic development, and disease control. Methods We obtained indicators of six dimensions of governance (perceptions of voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption) and na...

  13. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    on the firm. While there has been little direct discussion between the main proponents of these perspectives, both claim that they are reaching for a "strategic theory of the firm". Such a theory would not only shed light on the classical questions considered in the theory of the firm (e.g. why firms exist......This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives...

  14. Four logics of governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke

    For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...... combined with state funding through a taximeter scheme (pay per student). Secondly, party governance system involving labor market partners at both national and local level formalized through a national Council for Vocational Training and 50 local trade committees as well as local education committees...

  15. World governance for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerebel, C.; Keppler, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    As energy is a strategic stake for industrial societies through supply security, economical competitiveness and environmental performance, it is well-founded and useful to consider the way that energy production and consumption are organized. This document introduces the notion of energy governance and its different interpretations, then analyses its stakes and challenges (petroleum, natural gas, investment needs), and discusses some of the debates already in progress, such as the UNO's negotiations on greenhouse gas emission reduction or the impact of the WTO talks on energy exchanges

  16. Global Internet Governance: Russian Approach and International Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the processes of Internet governance at the international level in the context of the position and interests of Russia in this area. The theory of global governance was used as a theoretical and methodological framework of the study. Initially, Internet governance was carried out on the state level, with coordination carried out in the interests of the United States created the Internet. At the present stage states and other actors in world politics has to be integrated into the existing system of Internet governance, resulting in development of multi-level or multi-directional diplomacy, formation of the so-called "hybrid" organizations and new models of cooperation. There are new formats of regulation of international relations formed under the influence of scientific and technological progress. Russia's position on Internet governance is based on the goal to ensure equal consideration of interests of all states in the governance of the Internet.

  17. E-Government for Good Governance in Developing Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... E-Government for Good Governance in Developing Countries provides practical supporting material on information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D), specifically, e-government implementation. In this book, Kettani and Moulin develop their findings and methods from the eFez ...

  18. Smart governance for smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiara, Dewi; Yuniarti, Siti; Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Some of the local government in Indonesia claimed they already created a smart city. Mostly the claim based of IT utilization for their governance. In general, a smart city definition is to describe a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. For public services, the law guarantees good governance by setting the standard for e-government implicitly including for local government or a city. Based on the arguments, this research tries to test the condition of e-government of the Indonesian city in 34 provinces. The purpose is to map e-government condition by measuring indicators of smart government, which are: transparent governance and open data for the public. This research is departing from public information disclosure law and to correspond with the existence law. By examining government transparency, the output of the research can be used to measure the effectiveness of public information disclosure law and to determine the condition of e-government in local government in which as part of a smart city.

  19. Measuring governance at health facility level: developing and validation of simple governance tool in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-08-09

    Governance has been cited as a key determinant of economic growth, social advancement and overall development. Achievement of millennium development goals is partly dependant on governance practices. In 2007, Health Systems 20/20 conducted an Internet-based survey on the practice of good governance. The survey posed a set of good practices related to health governance and asked respondents to indicate whether their experience confirmed or disconfirmed those practices. We applied the 17 governance statements in rural health facilities of Zambia. The aim was to establish whether the statements were reliable and valid for assessing governance practices at primary care level. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. We first applied the governance statements developed by the health system 20/20 and then conducted focus group discussion and In-depth interviews to explore some elements of governance including accountability and community participation. The target respondents were the health facility management team and community members. The sample size include 42 health facilities. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17 and Nvivo version 9. The 95% one-sided confidence interval for Cronbach's alpha was between 0.69 and 0.74 for the 16 items.The mean score for most of the items was above 3. Factor analysis yielded five principle components: Transparency, community participation, Intelligence & vision, Accountability and Regulation & oversight. Most of the items (6) clustered around the transparency latent factor. Chongwe district performed poorly in overall mean governance score and across the five domains of governance. The overall scores in Chongwe ranged between 51 and 94% with the mean of 80%. Kafue and Luangwa districts had similar overall mean governance scores (88%). Community participation was generally low. Generally, it was noted that community members lacked capacity to hold health workers accountable for drugs and medical supplies. The study

  20. Collaborative Tax Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article shows a new form of regulation within a tax administration where tax administrators abate tax evasion by nudging and motivating consumers to only purchase services from tax compliant businesses. This indirectly closes or forces tax evading businesses to change their practices, because...... their customer bases decline to commercially non-viable levels. The analysis is framed by public governance literature and argues that the regulation is an example of collaborative or interactive governance, because the tax administrators do not regulate non-compliance directly, but activate external...... stakeholders, i.e. the consumers, in the regulatory craft. The study is based on a qualitative methodology and draws on a unique case of regulation in the cleaning sector. This sector is at high risk of tax evasion and human exploitation of vulnerable workers operating in the informal economy. The article has...

  1. PPARa governs glycerol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patsouris, D.A.; Mandard, S.J.; Voshol, P.J.; Escher, P.; Tan, N.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Koenig, W.; März, W.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Glycerol, a product of adipose tissue lipolysis, is an important substrate for hepatic glucose synthesis. However, little is known about the regulation of hepatic glycerol metabolism. Here we show that several genes involved in the hepatic metabolism of glycerol, i.e., cytosolic and mitochondrial

  2. Governing agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Carro-Ripalda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Although GM crops are seen by their advocates as a key component of the future of world agriculture and as part of the solution for world poverty and hunger, their uptake has not been smooth nor universal: they have been marred by controversy and all too commonly their regulation has been

  3. Steuern und Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Müller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: Taxation, in the modern state, has long been a mass phenomenon with an interdisciplinary outlook. On the macro level of the state, a new generation of administrative reforms has crystallized under the label “good public governance”. These reforms seek to resolve regulatory interdependence of state and non - state actors by way of cooperation and interaction. In parallel, on the micro level of businesses, “corporate governance” – voluntary compliance with legal and ethical standards – has become an increasingly important issue. With a view to tax law and tax collection, these developments open up new possibilities to raise tax compliance by means of consensual and cooperative instruments and, accordingly, address taxation as a mass phenomenon. DEUTSCH: Besteuerung ist im modernen Staat ein Massenphänomen und längst interdisziplinär ausgerichtet. Auf der Makro-Ebene des Staates hat sich unter dem Begriff Good Public Governance eine neue Generation von Staats- und Verwaltungsreformen herausgebildet, die Regelungsbeziehungen von staatlichen und nichtstaatlichen Akteuren durch Kooperationen und Interaktionen zu lösen versucht. Parallel dazu hat auf der Mikro-Ebene der Unternehmen mit dem Thema Corporate Governance die freiwillige Einhaltung von rechtlichen und ethischen Regeln an Bedeutung gewonnen. Für das Steuerrecht und den Steuervollzug resultieren aus diesen Entwicklungen neue Möglichkeiten, durch Nutzung konsens- und kooperationsorientierter Instrumente die Tax Compliance zu erhöhen und so dem Massenphänomen Besteuerung gerecht zu werden.

  4. Governance Quality and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Kong

    2011-01-01

    Among both academics and the wider development community there seems to be a general acceptance of the value of good governance and its role in promoting economic growth. However, beyond this general statement, there is a lack of deeper theoretical understanding as to why good governance is expected to foster economic growth and how such effects may take place. We de.ne governance quality as the capacity of a government to internalize externality. A theoretical model is developed to formally ...

  5. Governance, Growth and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq H. Khan

    2009-01-01

    Poverty reduction is a function of economic growth, income distribution and distribution changes. Governance can impact both growth and income distribution. The dominant market-enhancing governance paradigm seeks to enhance the efficiency of markets through ‘good governance’ reforms, ostensibly to trigger or sustain growth. ‘Pro-poor’ good governance reforms purport to enhance the scale and efficiency of service delivery to the poor. The good governance approach to enhancing growth is dispute...

  6. City Governments Need Deliberative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot; Lewis, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Innovation in the public sector has become an important focus for governments, which are facing a growing inability to address difficult policy challenges. In the context of city governments, innovation capacity is boosted by the involvement of ‘outsiders’......Innovation in the public sector has become an important focus for governments, which are facing a growing inability to address difficult policy challenges. In the context of city governments, innovation capacity is boosted by the involvement of ‘outsiders’...

  7. Handbook on Theories of Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of governing. As a result, the notion of governance is now one of the most frequently used social science concepts in the world. No single theory encompasses this diverse body of work, but rather multiple theories with different aims and perspectives. The Handbook on Theories of Governance collects...

  8. REFORMING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ETHIOPIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    milkii

    Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) Ministry of Justice is revising the Commercial .... 15 Malla Praveen Bhasa, Global Corporate Governance: Debates and Challenges, Corporate. Governance: The .... 38 Steve Letza et al, Corporate Governance Theorizing: Limits, Critics And Alternatives. International Journal ...

  9. Corporate Governance, CSR og menneskerettigheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer om der findes en forbindelse mellem Corporate Governance og Corporate Social Responsibility i forhold til menneskerettigheder. Det konkluderes, at en sådan forbindelse findes, i hvert fald i forhold til arbejdstagerrettigheder og dele af forholdet til eksterne stakeholdere....... Menneskeretsaspekter i Good (Public) Governance fungerer som udgangspunkt for identifikation af menneskerettighedselementer i Corporate Governance...

  10. Characterizing Government Social Media Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    As research on government social media continues to grow in quantity and scope, this area calls for mapping and systematization, in order to stimulate better-informed studies in the future. This paper draws on a comprehensive review of government social media literature in the e...... a four-point research agenda for future government social media research....

  11. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  12. Government presents 1979 nuclear budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The principal items of the nuclear budget for the fiscal year 1979 are 165,700 Million for the Science and Technology Agency for the promotion of nuclear energy development, and for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 3,360 Million from the general account for nuclear items, 57,500 Million from the special account for power source development and 99,900 Million for fiscal investments and loans. In the Science and Technology Agency, compared with the last fiscal year, the appropriations have been especially increased for the research and development of nuclear fusion in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In the Ministry of ITI, the distinctive budgetary features are those for streamlining the safety regulation administration, uranium extraction from sea water, and thermal effluent management. The 1979 government nuclear budget is described as follows: in the STA, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency, and National Institute of Radiological Sciences; in the MITI, general account, special account, and fiscal investments and loans; the items in other ministries. (J.P.N.)

  13. Governance in urban development crisis situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Rober

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban shrinking processes are increasingly recognized as a phenomenon for research in urban politics, encompassing entire cities or parts of it as well as metropolitan areas that are experiencing a fundamental decline in both their economic and social bases.Cities are facing complex social problems like aging processes within the resident population and simultaneously running shrinking processes. Observable side effects of these transformation processes are higher vacancy rates and under-utilization of infrastructure facilities. Therefore cities are no longer able to cope alone with this growing complexity, hence a demand for cooperation evolves. The ongoing reforms of internal structure of local government connected with the devolution of resources and competences, as well as the changing external relationships between the business community, local public bodies, individual bureaucrats and local politicians, increase institutional fragmentation. Thus internal and external reform processes generate an extended network of policy actors involved in local decision making. Schools of thought in urban politics accentuate the changing role of local governments in decision making processes. Regime theory, corporatism, regulation theory or civic governance concepts differ in their emphasis on the importance of specific actors participating in local decision making. The paper reviews the competing theoretical assumptions for the importance of specific actors in local decision making. This addresses the question to what extent specific governance modes adopted in reaction to shrinking processes are an expression of a changing relationship between local governments and civil society or business actors in an international comparative context. Is there a trend to more convergence with respect to the adopted governance modes?

  14. Website Quality in Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørum, Hanne; Andersen, Kim Normann; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of this paper is to investigate how webmasters within government bodies explain quality of websites. Despite the central position for advancing the communication, bridging usability tests and design, there are surprisingly few studies on how webmasters perceive, experience...... and explain website quality or design issues. Design/methodology/approach – The authors' unit of analysis is webmasters from Norwegian web-award-winning organizations. Eight webmasters from four types of websites were interviewed. The websites were purposefully sampled, using the strategy of maximal variation...... of website quality. Repeated keywords of website quality are mainly related to user-friendliness, effective website usage, content-related issues and accessibility (WAI-principles). Research limitations/implications – This study includes webmasters from award-winning websites. In upcoming research...

  15. 'Joined Up' Local Governments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnå, Hilde; Casale, Donatella; Hajnal, Gyorgy

    . forthc. 2015, Lægreid et al. 2014, Pollitt 2003). A growing body of research analyses JUG initiatives in several countries, but often in the form of single-case studies with central government focus (see e.g. Talbot 2011 or Lægreid et al. 2014). On municipal level, however, there is only a scarce number...... of such studies and comparative studies are lacking. With this, we ask how can local JUG initiatives be explained and what lessons can be drawn from a comparative perspective? Drawing on some components from the framework by Pollitt and Bouckaert (2011) for public management reforms, we analyse JUG reforms in six...... countries from different administrative traditions (Norway, Italy, Ireland, Hungary, Germany and Austria). First results suggest that in the same way as NPM has claimed to be an “umbrella term for a collection of trends” (Van de Walle/Hammerschmid 2011: 191), also JUG reforms take multiple nuances and foci...

  16. Between Democracy and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    collective capacities for representation, participation and deliberation crucial to keeping democratic government responsive, effective and accountable to the common will. On this view, all new forms of connective action are ipso facto rejected as the spawn of neoliberalism: They appear as individualistic....... By contrast, these new actors insist that it is more important to problematize how policy risks and problems are handled by a network of globally interconnected policy elites from the public, private and even voluntary domains. The challenge for democratic political analysis today is to avoid placing...... politicization before problematization or vice versa. This requires a new model which does not identify politics with inputs and thereby relegates outputs to the domain of technical, non-political administration and management. Connective action, I argue, manifests a new model for problematizing how policies...

  17. Pension Fund governing board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    On 16 March and 7 May, the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held its fourth and fifth meetings The first of these meetings was primarily dedicated to the examination of the strategic asset allocation. The PFGB reaffirmed the main goal of the new strategic asset allocation: to improve the Pension Fund’s position with regard to risk by lowering overall portfolio volatility through suitable investments in less volatile asset classes such as real estate and absolute return strategies, where the return does not depend on market trends and negative growth is extremely unlikely. The finalised document will be presented to the Finance Committee and the Council at their June meetings for approval, in accordance with the provisions of the Levaux report. The PFGB also took note of the Internal Audit’s report on Pension Fund operations and decided to refer it to Working Group I as a working document for establishing a control and internal monitoring system for Pension Fund oper...

  18. Governing Social Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallinikos, Jannis; Hasselbladh, Hans; Marton, Attila

    2013-01-01

    the last two decades, the operations of memory institutions increasingly mingle with those of information aggregators and search engines. These developments reframe longstanding professional practices of memory organizations and, in this process, challenge their institutional mandate.......In this article, we extend the concept of technology beyond the conventional understanding of systems and artifacts as embodiments of particular functionalities that are variously enacted in local settings. Technological artifacts or systems epitomize operational couplings that extend beyond...... relationships and, in this quality, complement and occasionally compete with institutional modes of governance. We explore these ideas in the empirical context of cultural memory organizations (e.g., libraries, archives, museums). As the outcome of the technological developments that have marked the field over...

  19. Knowledge and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    , a spate of work in management research and new institutional economics has highlighted dimensions such as complementarity, complexity, tacitness, and so on of knowledge assets and shown how knowledge assets, thus dimensionalized, has explanatory value with respect to economic organization. However......Assumptions about the knowledge held by economic agents have been an integral part of the theory of economic organization since its inception. However, recent work—here called “knowledge governance”—has more explicitly highlighted knowledge as both an independent and dependent variable. Thus......, knowledge may also be seen as being caused by governance mechanisms and structures; specifically, incentives, allocations of decision rights, organizational structure and so on influence the search for knowledge, and the creation, sharing and integration of knowledge. More philosophically, the concern...

  20. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal org...... to Anna Grandori for numerous excellent comments on anearlier draft. The standard disclaimer applies.Keywords: Knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, governance, organizationaleconomics, organizational behavior.......An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...... organizational practices in order to foster knowledge sharing andcreation. Theoretically, we unfold this argument by relying on key ideas oforganizational economics and organizational behaviour studies. We put forwarda number of refutable propositions derived from this reasoning.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful...

  1. Government by standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, all Danish hospitals have been subjected to a comprehensive, mandatory accreditation system, the so-called Danish Quality Model (DDKM), in order to assure the quality of hospital services. So far there is no evidence of DDKM’s positive effects on clinical outcome and it may even be co......, it is argued that the accreditation system is hard to refuse because it promises to increase the quality of hospital services and, more importantly, because the procedural standards espoused by DDKM work through the structured and accountable freedom of medical staff....... be contributing to accountability overload. This article seeks to provide an explanation for why hospital staff seems to accept, albeit grudgingly and partially, the imposition of a new, comprehensive accountability system with questionable clinical merits. Inspired by Michel Foucault’s analytics of government...

  2. Nanomedicine: Governing uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisolino, Antonella

    Nanomedicine is a promising and revolutionary field to improve medical diagnoses and therapies leading to a higher quality of life for everybody. Huge benefits are expected from nanomedicine applications such as in diagnostic and therapeutic field. However, nanomedicine poses several issues on risks to the human health. This thesis aims to defense a perspective of risk governance that sustains scientific knowledge process by developing guidelines and providing the minimum safety standards acceptable to protect the human health. Although nanomedicine is in an early stage of its discovery, some cautious measures are required to provide regulatory mechanisms able to response to the unique set of challenges associated to nanomedicine. Nanotechnology offers an unique opportunity to intensify a major interplay between different disciplines such as science and law. This multidisciplinary approach can positively contributes to find reliable regulatory choices and responsive normative tools in dealing with challenges of novel technologies.

  3. Local Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PROFIROIU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of the level of corruption level and on its impact on the growing rate of the GDP (Mauro [1995]1, Abed and Davoodi2, Krueger [1974]3, on the impact upon some of the national economical sectors (Tanzi [1998]4, Shang-Jin Wei [2001]5, or on the decentralization processes (Shah [2006]6.

  4. Privatization Of Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Biersteker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Biersteker graduated from Chicago University (BF in Political Science and MIT (MA in Political Science and got PhD in Political Science in MIT as well. Later professor Biersteker lectured in Yale University (1976-1985, South Carolina University (1985-1992 and Brown University (1992-2006. He could be described as a constructivist focusing his research on global governance, international organizations and transnational policy networks, construction of sovereignty and regimes of targeted sanctions. Professor Birsteker kindly agreed to give an interview to the “MGIMO Review of International Relations” during a seminar within the research project - Grant of RFBR No. 16-23-41004. The seminar was also attended by M.M. Lebedeva, Yu.A. Nikitin, A.I. Nikitin, I.A. Istomin.

  5. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  6. Spillover of Corporate Governance Standards in Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    In cross-border acquisitions, the differences between the bidder and target corporate governance have an important impact on the takeover returns. Our country-level corporate governance indices capture the changes in the quality of the national corporate governance regulations over the past 15

  7. 31 CFR 596.404 - Financial transactions transferred through a bank of a Terrorism List Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... through a bank of a Terrorism List Government. 596.404 Section 596.404 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 596.404 Financial transactions transferred through a bank of a Terrorism List Government. For the purposes of this part only, a financial...

  8. 48 CFR 1845.407 - Non-Government use of plant equipment. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Use and Rental of Government Property 1845.407 Non-Government use of plant equipment. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)). For NASA, the coverage in FAR 45.407, applies to all equipment, not just plant... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Non-Government use of plant...

  9. 48 CFR 52.227-7 - Patents-Notice of Government Licensee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents-Notice of... Clauses 52.227-7 Patents—Notice of Government Licensee. As prescribed at 27.202-5(b), insert the following provision: Patents—Notice of Government Licensee (APR 1984) The Government is obligated to pay a royalty...

  10. Local Government System in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Redko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of the activities of the local government of Japan. Particular attention is drawn to the legal framework and the material basis for the functioning of local self-government bodies. The system of local self-government is considered as a special form of self-government with a specific functional and meaning; system of municipal management and delegation of authority, as well as features of interaction between civil and imperious levels. The allocation of the city with a special status, as well as the financial structure of the local government of Japan, is considered in detail.

  11. Government-to-Government E-Government: A Case Study of a Federal Financial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faokunla, Olumide Adegboyega

    2012-01-01

    The problem with the study of the concept of electronic government (e-Gov) is that scholars in the field have not adequately explored various dimensions of the concept. Literature on e-Gov is replete with works on the form of government to consumer e-Gov. Much less work had been done on the government to government (G2G) e-Gov. This qualitative…

  12. The development of regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slokan Dusic, D.; Levstek, M.F.; Stritar, A.

    2003-01-01

    In October 2002, The Act on Protection Against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety which regulates all aspects of protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety entered into force in Slovenia. The Slovenian government and its responsible ministries shall issue several governmental and ministerial regulations to support the above - mentioned act. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) which acts within the Ministry of the Environment, Spatial Planing and Energy takes an active part in drafting the regulations which are defined in the act. Due to a very comprehensive and pretentious task, that is to be completed in a relatively short period of time, taking into consideration the involvement of stakeholders and all competent ministries, the SNSA within the Quality Management System developed a special procedure that insures the systematic approach to the preparation of regulations. The article will briefly represent the process that: defines the preparation, development, harmonisation, review, approval and issue of regulations and uniforms the format of developed regulations. (author)

  13. Local Government Internal Audit Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local government councils (LGC rely on a number of funding sources including state and federal governments as well as their community constituents to enable them to provide a range of public services. Given the constraints on these funding sources councils need to have in place a range of strategies and policies capable of providing good governance and must appropriately discharge their financial accountabilities. To assist LGC with meeting their governance and accountability obligations they often seek guidance from their key stakeholders. For example, in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW, the Office of Local Government has developed a set of guidelines, the Internal Audit Guidelines. In 2010 the NSW Office of Local Government issued revised guidelines emphasising that an internal audit committee is an essential component of good governance. In addition, the guidelines explained that to improve the governance and accountability of the councils, these committees should be composed of a majority of independent members. To maintain committee independence the guidelines indicated that the Mayor should not be a member of the committee. However these are only guidelines, not legislated requirements and as such compliance with the guidelines, before they were revised, has been demonstrated to be quite low (Jones & Bowrey 2013. This study, based on a review of NSW Local Government Councils’ 2012/2013 reports, including Annual Reportsrelation to internal audit committees, to determine if the guidelines are effective in improving local government council governance.

  14. Petra Governance Handbook - WP7 – Governance structures & business models : D7.3: Governance Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, W.; Hirschhorn, F.; Klievink, A.J.; Steenhuisen, B.M.; van der Voort, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    This document represents the governance handbook on mobility data platforms for the PETRA project. The governance handbook provides metropolitan authorities contemplating the implementation of a mobility data platform in line with the PETRA project about governance issues and design.
    The

  15. Governing the Nexus for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Sina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes the challenges of and requirements for effective governance of the water, energy and food nexus. With global dynamics such as climate change, urbanization and changing consumption patterns, governing resources in a coherent manner becomes both more complex and more relevant for sustainable development. Governance challenges include nexus economics (costs and benefits of different approaches to resource management, institutional design (like questions of how decision-making should be best distributed and good governance (how to make sure that nexus governance adheres to certain agreed upon principles and values. In terms of economics, a balance between sector specific actions and nexus governance is required. For effective decision-making it is important that power among different institutions is both distributed and coordinated. Good nexus governance requires targets that can be monitored to make sure that basic principles are followed and to examine whether progress toward sustainable development is being made.

  16. GOVERNING BOARD OF THE PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 8 October the Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its 119th meeting, at which the members continued discussing the requests of ESO. It was noted that the Governing Board's working group as well as CERN's Legal Service and the Administration of the Pension Fund had already spent much time and effort examining the various possible options. In that context, given the considerable legal and financial consequences the requests could have for the Fund, especially regarding amendments to the Rules and Regulations, the investment costs and even administrative overheads associated with the currency overlay, the Governing Board decided that it was appropriate to invite the ESO Director of Administration to come and present ESO's position. At the same meeting, the Governing Board decided to recommend the Director-General to propose to the CERN Council a pension indexation of 0.7%, which was equivalent to the cost-of-living in Geneva up to August 2003 and would ensure purchasing power was maintained. In its reco...

  17. 48 CFR 46.408 - Single-agency assignments of Government contract quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Government contract quality assurance. 46.408 Section 46.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality...) For drugs, biologics, and other medical supplies—the Food and Drug Administration; (2) For food...

  18. 48 CFR 46.402 - Government contract quality assurance at source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quality assurance at source. 46.402 Section 46.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 46.402 Government contract quality assurance at source. Agencies shall perform contract quality assurance, including...

  19. 48 CFR 37.112 - Government use of private sector temporaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government use of private... REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 37.112 Government use of private sector temporaries. Contracting officers may enter into contracts with temporary help...

  20. Alignment between business process governance and IT governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles; Hvam, Lars

    2014-01-01

    frameworks to enable business-IT strategic alignment, efficient process and IT requirements specification, and IT-enabled business value realization. We examine the actuality of this alignment in practice through a case study conducted in a relatively mature multinational corporation. The findings indicate......The importance of business processes and the increasing centrality of IT to an organization's performance have called for a specific focus on business process governance and IT governance in contemporary enterprises. Despite the wide scope of business process management, which covers both business...... and IT domains, and the profound impact of IT on process innovations, the association between business process governance and IT governance remains under-explored. Analyzing the constituting elements of the two governance concepts, we propose the necessity of alignment between business process and IT governance...

  1. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    This introduction to the Special Issue creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains...... liability and (3) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, an d hierarchy – which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous...... international tax laws to highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This article highlights how Global Wealth Cha ins intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies...

  2. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains (GWCs) are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in International Political Economy and Economic Geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance...... capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of GWC governance – Market, Modular, Relational, Captive, and Hierarchy – which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws to highly complex and flexible...... innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This article highlights how GWCs intersect with value chains, and provides brief case examples of wealth chains and how they interact....

  3. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    This working paper creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance......) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, and hierarchy - which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws...... to highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This paper highlights how Global Wealth Chains intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies, family property trusts...

  4. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    ) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, and hierarchy - which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws......This working paper creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance...... and law in institutional economics, and work from economic sociology on network dynamics within markets. This scholarship assists us in highlighting three variables in how Global Wealth Chains are articulated and change according to: (1) the complexity of transactions, (2) regulatory liability and (3...

  5. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  6. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  7. Access to justice within the sustainable self-governance model

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Tully

    2004-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the development and operation of non-state models of global governance and the extent to which they conform to principles of good governance. Focusing primarily on issues of access to justice and secondarily on the independence of such bodies from the industries which they purport to regulate, this paper argues that adjudicative mechanisms established by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and firms may not produce outcomes which are considered 'just' by t...

  8. Privatizations in Developing Countries and the Government's Budget Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Auriol, Emmanuelle; Picard, Pierre M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the impact of government's budget constraint on the optimal industrial policy in industries with increasing returns to scale. We show that privatization is preferred to regulation for intermediate values of the shadow cost of public funds (i.e., the Lagrange multiplier of the government's budget constraint). However, the advantage of privatization is likely to disappear once the product market allows the entry of more than one firm.In this paper, we study the impact of...

  9. Project governance: "Schools of thought"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Christiaan Bekker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The terminology, definition and context of project governance have become a focal subject for research and discussions in project management literature. This article reviews literature on the subject of project governance and categorise the arguments into three schools of thought namely the single-firm school, multi-firm school and large capital school. The single-firm school is concerned with governance principles related to internal organisational projects and practice these principles at a technical level. The multi-firm school address the governance principles concerned with two of more organisations participating on a contractual basis on the same project and focus their governance efforts at the technical and strategic level. The large capital school consider projects as temporary organisations, forming their own entity and establishing governance principles at an institutional level. From these schools of thought it can be concluded that the definition of project governance is dependent on the type of project and hierarchical positioning in the organisation. It is also evident that further research is required to incorporate other governance variables and mechanisms such as transaction theory, social networks and agency theory. The development of project governance frameworks should also consider the complexity of projects spanning across international companies, across country borders and incorporating different value systems, legal systems, corporate governance guidelines, religions and business practices.

  10. Democracy over governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Correa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of institutional economics are available to evaluate varieties of capitalism. These methodologies dig behind preferences and technology to arrive at the ground on which agents make choices. The individual is at the foundation of these edifices, neoclassical and otherwise. Consequently, the denouement of all these models is that the market knows best in the absence of effective counterfactuals. A natural corollary is that the task of the government is to set effective mechanisms in place in order to approach the best outcomes. In contrast, we propose a framework which contends with the modern economy as an aggregate that evolves in historical time. Problems like effective demand failures are endemic to capitalist economies. Therefore, systematic State intervention is essential to their functioning. In particular, political economy teaches us that intervention must be in the interest of wage earners. In contrast to the earlier model, the fabric of norms and conventions that facilitate the growth and development of economies must emerge from the consciousness and practices of the working class.

  11. Happiness, Sadness and Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duncan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policy-making that re-presents – as objects of concern and by means of statistics – the suffering or depression and the happiness of populations indicates an evolving form of governance that examines and reshapes subjectivity itself. Never before have states of subjectivity been acted upon, through surveys, statistical and policy analysis, and scientific disciplines, to the extent seen today. This article: Documents changing epistemic co-ordinates, especially in psychology and economics, that first occluded happiness in the interests of objectivity, but, in recent decades, marked out a renewed ‘science’ of happiness.Examines changes in the discursive formulation of depression, as a counterpart to happiness.Argues that, seen in terms of bio-power, contemporary concerns for happiness and depression are consistent – rather than incompatible – with one another. How can so many claim to be happy when so many, we are told, are depressed, anxious or suffering emotional pain? There is no underlying contradiction here, for two reasons: Happiness and depression are manifestations of the same political discourse (or aspects of a political subjectivity characterized by dis-inhibition, consumer self-indulgence and performance anxiety. And, just as we needed madness in order to understand ‘sanity,’ or the prison in order to view ourselves as ‘free,’ so we rely upon concerns about depression in order to understand and act upon ourselves as subjects capable of unlimited happiness.

  12. The dynamics of the transnational food chain regulatory governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The need for food safety and food quality standards is acknowledged by public regulators, private actors, and the society. The purpose of this paper is to identify the types of actors in the multilevel transnational food chain regulatory governance and how their interlinking affects...... regulatory outcomes over time. Design/methodology/approach – Food chain regulatory standards emerge within a complex process beyond the state. Based on interdisciplinary theoretical perspectives, namely regulatory governance and political economy, this paper provides a integrative framework of analysis...... by identifying the types of actors and their interactions in the food chain regulatory governance. Findings – Food chain regulatory standards setting have been mainly studied either from the public regulator or the firm self-regulating point of view. This paper demonstrates how the political and economics...

  13. AUDIT REPORTING AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: LINKS AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Silviu CORDOȘ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial scandals of the last decade have had a negative effect upon the trust and perception of investors regarding auditor responsibility and their part in fraud and error detection. As a result of legal conditions and regulations, audit firms in some jurisdictions have recently started to compile transparency reports, which contain information regarding corporate governance compliance of audit firms. This study aims to investigate if corporate governance has a significant effect on audit reporting and audit quality. Thus, our starting point is the definition of corporate governance, with an emphasis on the transparency principle for efficient corporate governance. We aim to analyse how this principle influences the quality level of the audit report, through a qualitative study. Keeping in mind that corporate governance in audit firms is considered to have a noteworthy effect on audit quality, we expect to find that regulatory bodies expect more transparency from these firms, therefore increasing competitiveness among audit firms concerning audit quality.

  14. Village Government Corruption in-Post Decentralization: Democracy, Ethnic Diversity and Budget Authority

    OpenAIRE

    batubara, rumayya

    2016-01-01

    The village (desa) is the lowest level of government administration in Indonesia. In the pre-decentralization, although by law a village should held a regular election to select their leader, in practice the election is highly influenced and intervened by higher level of government. The new decentralization law has provided rural village governance with free election of village head and autonomy to design and decide budget and regulation without approval from the district government. The main...

  15. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  16. Government governance, executive networks and enterprise R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly competitive market environment makes independent innovation the core of the enterprise’s and evens the country’s competitiveness. In order to solve the problem of its own limited R&D resources, firms need to find access to outside resources. Since the government mainly provides policy and financial support, the information diffusion and learning effects of executive networks can effectively compensate for the shortage of formal institutional arrangements. In view of this, we manually collect data on R&D expenditures and executive networks having common management members in China A-share listed companies from 2007 to 2010. Combined with corporate governance and government governance data, this paper empirically tests the influence of government governance and executive networks on enterprise innovation. The empirical results reveal that the governance efficiency of the government where the enterprise is located determines the efficiency of resource allocation firms are faced with, which provides institutional constraints on corporate R&D intensity, and that the establishment and scale of executive networks do contribute to R&D decisions. Further testing shows that compared with non-state-owned enterprises, state-owned enterprises are faced with relatively weaker restraints and pressures in terms of policy, finance, technology and competition. Thus, they show no obvious reliance on government governance quality and the information diffusion of executive networks. The findings of this study help us to understand the role of informal systems in social economics, such as relationship networks and social capital, in the context of China’s economic development, and provide relevant evidence and enrich macro and micro studies of “government and market” and “market and enterprise” relationships.

  17. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-05

    government workers receive very low salaries. The anti- corruption and governmental performance aspect of U.S. policy is to be enhanced as a result of the... governmental corruption worldwide, ranked Afghanistan in 2008 as 176th out of 180 countries ranked in terms of government corruption . Because of the...the Afghan government , including its efforts to curb official corruption , although the Administration and many in Congress appear reluctant to tie

  18. Banking crises and government intervention

    OpenAIRE

    García-Palacios, Jaime H.; Hasman, Augusto; Samartín, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Intervention has taken different forms in different countries and periods of time. Moreover, recent episodes showed that in front of an imminent crisis, the promise of no interventions made by governments is barely credible. In this paper we address the problem of resolving banking crises from the government perspective, taking into account the fact that preventing banking crises is crucial for the government. In addition, we introduce the moral hazard problem, inherent in the banking system,...

  19. Corporate governance of the environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Purvis, B.

    2005-01-01

    The global pursuit of a more sustainable future cannot be achieved without the active engagement of the business community. The challenge for business has been to strategically engage with and embed environmental responsibility within their wider corporate governance to create effective corporate governance of the environment. The assumption would appear to be, that we have already witnessed the construction of such governance, delivered through the attainment of a paradigmatic shift in corpo...

  20. Natalidad, soberanía y desarrollo: las medidas restrictivas a la planificación familiar en el tercer gobierno peronista (Argentina, 1973-1976 Birthrate, sovereignty and development: the restrictive regulations to family planning in the third peronist government (Argentina, 1973-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Alejandra Felitti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El acelerado crecimiento de la población mundial durante la segunda posguerra expandió el temor de un inminente agotamiento de los recursos naturales y la desestabilización del sistema capitalista. Mientras la "explosión demográfica" se convertía en una seria amenaza en tiempos de Guerra Fría, en Argentina se presentaba el problema inverso, una tasa de natalidad en permanente descenso. El tercer gobierno peronista (1973-1976 incluyó este tema entre sus prioridades y la originalidad de su plan de acción fue la implementación, por primera vez en el país, de medidas coercitivas sobre el libre acceso a la anticoncepción. En este artículo nos proponemos analizar estas políticas, las contradicciones al interior del gobierno respecto a las medidas a seguir, sus repercusiones y las resistencias que generaron.The intensive growth of the world population during the second postwar period expanded the fear of an imminent depletion of natural resources and the destabilization of the capitalist system. Meanwhile the "population bomb" became a threat in the Cold War context, in Argentina the situation was the opposite, with a persistent birth rate decline. The third Peronist government (1973-1976 included the problem of the demographic fall among its priorities and the originality of its plan of action was that, for the first time in this country, coercive regulations prevented the free access to contraception. In this article we propose to analyze these policies, the contradictions inside the government regarding the best way to proceed, its repercussions and the resistance they produced.

  1. Governing Global Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    How do professions affect the configuration of political economies worldwide? This study addresses the question through interviews with members of a new transnational profession - wealth management - whose innovations are reshaping the balance of power in global finance. Wealth managers specialize...... in helping elites avoid taxes and other forms of regulation. The study documents how the means through which they achieve this objective - shifting billions in private capital wealth between Asia, Africa, India and Europe - and how this affects the balance of regional economic power. Drawing from...... and international policy-making bodies to advance the interests of the profession and its wealthy clients; and 3) by writing the fiscal legislation of some jurisdictions. Through these mechanisms, the profession has reconfigured political and economic power trans-nationally, shifting the world’s financial center...

  2. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akramov, Kamiljon T

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, the study explores how different categories of aid affect economic growth, whether the quality of governance is significant in explaining differences in economic growth, and whether...

  3. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    .... However, ethnic disputes remain confined largely to political debate and competition, enabling President Karzai to focus on improving governance, reversing security deterioration, and his re-election...

  4. Government influence on patient organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Bovenkamp, Hester M; Trappenburg, Margo J

    2011-12-01

    Patient organizations increasingly play an important role in health care decision-making in Western countries. The Netherlands is one of the countries where this trend has gone furthest. In the literature some problems are identified, such as instrumental use of patient organizations by care providers, health insurers and the pharmaceutical industry. To strengthen the position of patient organizations government funding is often recommended as a solution. In this paper we analyze the ties between Dutch government and Dutch patient organizations to learn more about the effects of such a relationship between government and this part of civil society. Our study is based on official government documents and existing empirical research on patient organizations. We found that government influence on patient organizations has become quite substantial with government influencing the organizational structure of patient organizations, the activities these organizations perform and even their ideology. Financing patient organizations offers the government an important means to hold them accountable. Although the ties between patient organizations and the government enable the former to play a role that can be valued as positive by both parties, we argue that they raise problems as well which warrant a discussion on how much government influence on civil society is acceptable.

  5. Managing stakeholders in transformational government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinwald, Anja Kaldahl; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    ). This paper contributes to this literature by reporting the findings from a case study in a Danish local government who has reached the stage of transformational government. Using a grounded theory approach, information about the local government was initially collected and further analyzed within...... a stakeholder perspective. The paper reports how they succeeded in involving the most important stakeholders in the process of reaching transformational government. Finally the paper offers six lessons learned, based on the case study, about how to manage the involved stakeholders to reach transformational...

  6. Dawn of e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Helle Zinner; Damsgaard, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Most countries have defined strategies for e-government. The objectives for implementing e-government are often defined but the means for fuelling the adoption and diffusion of e-government are typically less well clear in the policy statements. The present study assesses the impact of latest...... internally and externally. The e-Day initiative represents a drastic change in the former policy statements concerning IT adoption and diffusion in Danish government. The policy statements had previously been based on voluntary adoption focusing on visions and pedagogical intervention in governmental...

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea Corina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a key element of today’s economic reality being more and more present in many countries around the world. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to offer more insight into the concept of corporate governance by a thorough literature review and by presenting and analyzing a framework of corporate governance. The second objective of this paper is to investigate the corporate governance situation in three developing economies (Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development published a series of reports on corporate governance. The present study uses data from these reports in order to illustrate how these developing economies are dealing with corporate governance. Based on ROSC Reports a corporate governance score was calculated. As this score shows, there is room for improvement for all three developing economies. This study is important because it shows the differences in corporate governance among developing economies and the need to study these nations at the individual country level. Corporate governance has many benefits for developing economies. It helps developing economies to register sustainable growth rates, to increases investors’ confidence in the national economy, and to increase the ability of capital markets to mobilize savings.

  8. The Social Construction of Transnational Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Patrick; Rasche, Andreas

    This paper examines the social construction of transnational governance schemes (TGSs hereafter), inter-organizational networks comprising public and/or private actors that jointly regulate global public policy issues, such as the protection of global ecosystems. We focus on the UN Global Compact...... (UNGC), one of the largest and most prominent TGSs. We create a data set of publically available documents on the UNGC, analyze how UNGC advocates and UNGC critics publically conceptualize and (de-)legitimize the UNGC, and examine how this process develops over time. By now, we have compiled a data base...

  9. Government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Several facets of government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry are examined by reviewing the general historical evolution of intervention since the Second World War and by a more detailed analysis of three case studies. The case studies are the public sector - private sector content of the initial CANDU reactor program in the 1950's, the regulation of the health and safety of uranium miners in the late 1960's and early 1970's, and the Ontario Hydro decision in 1978 to enter into longer-term (40 year) contracts for uranium for its power reactors. (auth)

  10. Governing Nanotechnology: Social, Ethical and Human Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William

    This chapter is a human-centered survey of nanotechnology's broader implications, reporting on the early phase of work by social scientists, philosophers, and other scholars. It begins with the social science agenda developed by governments, and the heritage of research on technology and organizations that social science brings to this mission. It then outlines current thinking about nanotechnology's economic impacts, health or environmental impacts, and social contributions. It discusses how technology can be regulated by a combination of informal ethics and formal law, then concludes by considering the shape of popular nanotechnology culture, as reflected in science fiction, public perceptions, and education.

  11. Legal requirements governing proxy voting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The requirements in Danish company law concerning proxy voting in companies whose shares have been accepted for listing on a regulated market have been successively tightened in recent years, and corporate governance principles have also led to the introduction of several requirements concerning...... proxy holders. A thorough knowledge of these requirements is important not only for the listed companies but also for their advisers and investors in Denmark and abroad. This article considers these requirements as well as the additional requirements which will derive from Directive 2007...

  12. Governance of Higher Education--Implementation of Project Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheridis, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on coordination between governance actors in higher education. The object of the study is a department at a public university, seen as a multi-project environment. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and analyze project governance as a tool that allows departmental management to coordinate with the authorities, the…

  13. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danson, Mike; Todeva, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion of the role of regional government and regional Triple Helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. The impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional Triple Helix constellations, and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional…

  14. Good government and good governance: record keeping in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the challenges that arise when record keeping systems are advocated as a necessary under-pinning for good government and good governance. The relationship between record keeping and accountability is analysed and contextualised in relation to transparency and Freedom of Information ...

  15. Adopting service governance governing portfolio value for sound corporate citzenship

    CERN Document Server

    AXELOS, AXELOS

    2015-01-01

    Adopting Service Governance provides a useful umbrella for a number of frameworks including ITIL®, TOGAF®, COBIT®, ITSM, BSM, Business Analysis, Programme Management, Management of Value, Management of Portfolios and Management of Risk by establishing the top-down governance of an organisation through services.

  16. Governance: Government, governing, management or a new term »vladovanje«?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bačlija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a short contextualisation of use of the term governance at the international level and its uptake in Slovenian political and communication sciences. The authors then focus upon the lack of a clear consensus regarding the translation and definition of the term in Slovenian literature. They provide an analysis of Gigafida, the main corpus of the Slovenian language, concerning how the term governance is translated and used in the Slovenian language. The authors critically juxtapose the concepts of governance with the main current translations: government, governing and public administration and management. Finally, the authors propose that governance should be conceptualised as part of a newly coined term “vladovanje” (Splichal 2008 since the absence of such a completely new term reduces the accuracy of Slovenian terminology.

  17. Transnational Governance Arrangements: Legitimate Alternatives to Regulating Nanotechnologies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Bowman, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the development and the use of engineered nanomaterials have generated many debates on whether these materials should be part of the new or existing regulatory frameworks. The uncertainty, lack of scientific knowledge and rapid expansion of products containing nanomaterials have

  18. Media meet the citizen. Beyond market mechanisms and government regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardoel, J.L.H.; d'Haenens, L.S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Structural changes in the media world, including an increase in competition and commercialization, mean that the topicality and urgency of the notion of social responsibility in the media are increasing. Analogously, the discussion of the social responsibility of companies and organizations becomes

  19. Mechanisms Governing DDK Regulation of the Initiation of DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larasati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK complex—comprised of cell division cycle (Cdc7 kinase and its regulatory subunit dumbbell former 4 (Dbf4—is required to trigger the initiation of DNA replication through the phosphorylation of multiple minichromosome maintenance complex subunits 2-7 (Mcm2-7. DDK is also a target of the radiation sensitive 53 (Rad53 checkpoint kinase in response to replication stress. Numerous investigations have determined mechanistic details, including the regions of Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 phosphorylated by DDK, and a number of DDK docking sites. Similarly, the way in which the Rad53 forkhead-associated 1 (FHA1 domain binds to DDK—involving both canonical and non-canonical interactions—has been elucidated. Recent work has revealed mutual promotion of DDK and synthetic lethal with dpb11-1 3 (Sld3 roles. While DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2-7 subunits facilitates their interaction with Sld3 at origins, Sld3 in turn stimulates DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. Details of a mutually antagonistic relationship between DDK and Rap1-interacting factor 1 (Rif1 have also recently come to light. While Rif1 is able to reverse DDK-mediated Mcm2-7 complex phosphorylation by targeting the protein phosphatase glycogen 7 (Glc7 to origins, there is evidence to suggest that DDK can counteract this activity by binding to and phosphorylating Rif1.

  20. 75 FR 79455 - OPEN GOVERNMENT AND EVIDENCE-BASED REGULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... obtain school loans and so to attend college; protecting consumers and investors against manipulation... increasing energy security; combating childhood obesity; and creating a ``race to the top'' in education. A..., or identify new and creative alternatives. Consider the rulemaking process itself. A large advantage...