Jarvis, Phillip S.
Career planning is the most critical ingredient in developing a nation's primary resource, its workers. A 1988 Gallup Poll showed that 62 percent of U.S. workers had no career goal when they began their first job, and more than 50 percent felt they were in the wrong job. The same results probably could be applied to Canada. Career planning skills…
Walton, Jessica; Priest, Naomi; Kowal, Emma; White, Fiona; Fox, Brandi; Paradies, Yin
The study examines how white teachers talked to children about national identity and cultural diversity by drawing on qualitative research with eight- to 12-year-old students and their teachers from four Australian primary schools with different racial, ethnic and cultural demographics. Despite a range of explicit and implicit approaches that…
Ali, Hairuddin Mohd
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nine-point strategic leadership characteristics of Malaysian Quality National Primary School Leaders (QNPSL) and to indicate the implications of these findings for the current educational management and leadership practices in their quest for Malaysian quality education.…
Keli Regina DAL PRÁ
Full Text Available This article presents a report on the experience of healthcare professionals in Florianópolis, who took the course La Atención Primaria de Salud y la Medicina Familiar en Cuba [Primary Healthcare and Family Medicine in Cuba], in 2014. The purpose of the study is to characterize the healthcare units and services provided by the Cuban National Healthcare System (SNS and to reflect on this experience/immersion, particularly on Cuba’s Primary Healthcare Service. The results found that in comparison with Brazil’s Single Healthcare System (SUS Cuba’s SNS Family Healthcare (SF service is the central organizing element of the Primary Healthcare Service. The number of SF teams per inhabitant is different than in Brazil; the programs given priority in the APS are similar to those in Brazil and the intersectorial nature and scope of the services prove to be effective in the resolution of healthcare problems.
Annese, C.E.; Watkins, E.F.; Greenspan, E.; Miller, W.F.
Minimum cost design concepts of the primary shield for the National Ignition laser fusion experimental Facility (NIF) are searched with the help of the optimization code SWAN. The computational method developed for this search involves incorporating the time dependence of the delayed photon field within effective delayed photon production cross sections. This method enables one to address the time-dependent problem using relatively simple, time-independent transport calculations, thus significantly simplifying the design process. A novel approach was used for the identification of the optimal combination of constituents that will minimize the shield cost; it involves the generation, with SWAN, of effectiveness functions for replacing materials on an equal cost basis. The minimum cost shield design concept was found to consist of a mixture of polyethylene and low cost, low activation materials such as SiC, with boron added near the shield boundaries
This anthology of primary sources is a collection of 121 documents in English translation portraying the role of physics, both perceived and actual, in the Nazi state. These texts were written predominantly by influential German scientists, particularly physicists, both inside and outside Germany in the period from 1933 to 1945. The semipopular articles, private correspondence, and official memoranda selected for the volume reflect the contemporary developments in science as well as the change in political climate and working conditions after the National Socialists' rise to power. The extensive annotation is clearly distinguished from the original text, and the appendix provides an aid to the reader with biographical information on the more important figures and brief outlines of frequently mentioned institutions, journals and companies. The introduction surveys the latest results in the secondary literature. ------ (…) the envisaged audience includes not only scholars and students of science, hist...
Vaughan, J P; Walt, G
While there is a great deal of agreement about the principles underlying Primary Health Care (PHC), there exist many problems, political, planning and management, involved in putting the approach into effect. Some of these difficulties are discussed. It is clear that the PHC approach is essentially political; the way it is implemented in each country will reflect the political priorities and systems of that country. Moreover, ministries of health are not known for their strong position in the ministerial pecking order. Finance and planning ministeries would have to be won over to the importance of the concept of PHC to try to eexpand the health budget and to change the emphasis of existing resource allocation patterns. Costs incurred by a PHC approach ( e.g., expensive transport and communication systems), and resources needed to finance it may be available; however, they may not be channelled to the politically less articulate groups in rural areas. Political implications are not limited to national levels; considerable conflict may exist between different status groups and classes at the village level, thus sabotaging PHC plans. Professional politics will also be played at all levels. It is equally essential to recognize the historical context in which PHC is being introduced. Many countries have inherited colonial infrastructures. Changing the values, perceptions, expectations, administration and organization that accompany such systems is extremely hard, and to put PHC into effect demands radical changes. The planning difficulties which beset PHC are related to the still large private provision of social services like health, and to a flourishing traditional private sector in many developing countries. These may limit the implementation of a national health policy and PHC may thus result in a very patchy service throughout the country. The level of centralized planning will also affect resource allocation and therefore the policy, planning and implementation
Synnott, H.; Fennell, S.; Pollard, D.; Colgan, P.A.; Hanley, O.; O'Colmain, M.; Maloney, L.
This report presents the results of a survey of radon concentrations in schools in the Republic of Ireland. The survey was carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) on behalf of the Department of Education and Science. A workplace Reference Level of 400 Bq/m3 is set down in national legislation. However, in the case of schools the RPII has recommended that, wherever possible, radon concentrations should be reduced to below 200 Bq/m3. The objective of the survey was to assess the distribution of radon in Irish schools and to identify those requiring remedial work to reduce radon exposure to children and staff. The survey was carried out on a phased basis from 1998 to 2002. All schools in the Free Education System were invited to participate. Indoor radon concentrations were measured using passive alpha track-etch detectors with a measurement period of one academic year from September to the following June. Measurements were completed in the ground floor classrooms and offices of 3444 schools, representing over 85% of the approximate 4000 primary and post-primary schools in Ireland. Of these, 898 had radon concentrations greater than 200 Bq/m3 and 307 had radon concentrations in excess of the national Reference Level for workplaces of 400 Bq/m3 in one or more ground floor rooms. The average radon concentration in the schools surveyed was 93 Bq/m3. Different remediation strategies have been adopted for schools with maximum radon concentrations between 200 and 400 Bq/m3 and for schools with radon concentrations in excess of 400 Bq/m3. In schools with radon concentrations below 400 Bq/m3, passive remediation through increased background ventilation is, where practicable, being used to reduce the radon concentrations. Where the initial radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m3, a remediation consultant assessed the school and remedial measures specific to each school have been designed. In the majority of these cases active remediation in the
... Illness CWS--Community Water System DBP--Disinfection Byproduct DWC--Drinking Water Committee EA--Economic... 141 and 142 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Final...-9684-8] RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule...
... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Primary Lead Smelting to address the results of the...
Susilana, Rudi; Asra
The purpose of national education is to develop skills and build dignified national character and civilization in educating nation life (Act No. 20, 2003). The paper describes a system of quality assurance in culture and character education in primary education. This study employs the six sigma model which consists of the formula DMAIC (Define,…
Rolff, Hans Christian; Simonsen, Louise Rolighed; Rosenberg, Jacob
This study describes unsedated transnasal oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (UT-OGD) in the office setting. Evaluation of national guidelines regarding primary endoscopy for the investigation of upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms was also a focus of this study....
National emission standards for each new or existing potline, paste production operation, and anode bake furnace associated with a primary aluminum reduction plant. Includes rule history, implementation information and additional resources.
Ligorio, Maria Beatrice; van Veen, Klaas
Virtual environments are more and more used in primary schools. One of the most interesting potentialities of these environments is to foster cross-national applications. Yet, this specific feature is not fully exploited. This paper presents a successful virtual learning environment for primary
The paper examines the recent national programme of English language instruction in the Mexican public primary schools, called the "Programa Nacional de Inglés en Educación Básica" (PNIEB). The programme, initiated in 2009 by the Ministry of Education as part of the national curriculum, represents the largest expansion of English…
Gallachóir, Brian P O; O'Leary, Fergal; Bazilian, Morgan; Howley, Martin; McKeogh, Eamon J
The current conventional approach to determining the primary energy associated with non-combustible renewable energy (RE) sources such as wind energy and hydro power is to equate the electricity generated from these sources with the primary energy supply. This paper compares this with an approach that was formerly used by the IEA, in which the primary energy equivalent attributed to renewable energy was equated with the fossil fuel energy it displaces. Difficulties with implementing this approach in a meaningful way for international comparisons lead to most international organisations abandoning the primary energy equivalent methodology. It has recently re-emerged in prominence however, as efforts grow to develop baseline procedures for quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided by renewable energy within the context of the Kyoto Protocol credit trading mechanisms. This paper discusses the primary energy equivalent approach and in particular the distinctions between displacing fossil fuel energy in existing plant or in new plant. The approach is then extended provide insight into future primary energy displacement by renewable energy and to quantify the amount of CO2 emissions avoided by renewable energy. The usefulness of this approach in quantifying the benefits of renewable energy is also discussed in an energy policy context, with regard to increasing security of energy supply as well as reducing energy-related GHG (and other) emissions. The approach is applied in a national context and Ireland is case study country selected for this research. The choice of Ireland is interesting in two respects. The first relates to the high proportion of electricity only fossil fuel plants in Ireland resulting in a significant variation between primary energy and primary energy equivalent. The second concerns Ireland's poor performance to date in limiting GHG emissions in line with its Kyoto target and points to the need for techniques to quantify the potential
New Zealand Council for Educational Research, 2014
The New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) primary and intermediate schools national survey was carried out in July-August 2013. NZCER questioned principals, teachers and trustees at a representative sample of schools, and sought the views of a random sample of 1 in 4 parents in 36 of these schools. In all, the survey gathered data…
Irwin, Michael Ray
This article reports on the understandings and practices of primary teachers in implementing the arts curriculum since the 2010 introduction of National Standards in Numeracy and Literacy within the New Zealand Education system. The ever-mounting pressure on schools to perform to these standards has resulted in a reduction of emphasis and time…
Welch, G. F.; Himonides, E.; Papageorgi, I.; Saunders, J.; Rinta, T.; Stewart, C.; Preti, C.; Lani, J.; Vraka, M.; Hill, J.
The "Sing Up" National Singing Programme for primary schools in England was launched in November 2007 under the UK government's "Music Manifesto". "Sing Up" is a four-year programme whose overall aim is to raise the status of singing and increase opportunities for children throughout the country to enjoy singing as…
... Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO[bdi2]) Primary National Ambient Air Quality... air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the 2010 primary Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The EPA is issuing this rule to identify areas...
... the data handling procedures for the reported data). 2.3Comparisons with the Primary and Secondary... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY...
Szlązak, Jan; Szlązak, Rafał A.
National energy security is of fundamental importance for economic development of a country. To ensure such safety energy raw material, also called primary energy sources, are necessary. Currently in Poland primary energy sources include mainly fossil fuels, such as hard coal, brown coal, natural gas and crude oil. Other sources, e.g. renewable energy sources account for c. 15% in the energy mix. Primary energy sources are used to produce mainly electricity, which is considered as the cleanest form of energy. Poland does not have, unfortunately, sufficient energy sources and is forced to import some of them, mainly natural gas and crude oil. The article presents an insightful analysis of energy raw material reserves possessed by Poland and their structure taking account of the requirements applicable in the European Union, in particular, those related to environmental protection. The article also describes demand for electricity now and in the perspective of 2030. Primary energy sources necessary for its production have also been given. The article also includes the possibilities for the use of renewable energy sources in Poland, however, climatic conditions there are not are not particularly favourable to it. All the issues addressed in the article are summed up and ended with conclusions.
Ahmad Hashim; Mohd. Sani Madon; Nur Haziyanti Mohd Khalid; Nelfianty binti Mohd Rashid; Sadzali bin Hassan; Yusop bin Ahmad
This study aims to analyze the level of physical fitness in the development of the National Standards of Physical Education. The study was conducted on 279 primary school boys age 10 years (n = 79), 11 years (n = 94) and 12 years (n = 106) in five randomly selected schools in the state of Perak. FITNESSGRAM was used to test the level of physical fitness among subjects. This includes trunk lift, 90 degree push-ups, modified pull-up, back saver sit and reach and PACER. ANOVA analysis showed a s...
Karuza, Jurgis; Gillespie, Suzanne M; Olsan, Tobie; Cai, Xeuya; Dang, Stuti; Intrator, Orna; Li, Jiejin; Gao, Shan; Kinosian, Bruce; Edes, Thomas
To describe the current structural and practice characteristics of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Home-Based Primary Care (HBPC) program. We designed a national survey and surveyed HBPC program directors on-line using REDCap. We received 236 surveys from 394 identified HBPC sites (60% response rate). HBPC site characteristics were quantified using closed-ended formats. HBPC program directors were most often registered nurses, and HBPC programs primarily served veterans with complex chronic illnesses that were at high risk of hospitalization and nursing home care. Primary care was delivered using interdisciplinary teams, with nurses, social workers, and registered dietitians as team members in more than 90% of the sites. Most often, nurse practitioners were the principal primary care providers (PCPs), typically working with nurse case managers. Nearly 60% of the sites reported dual PCPs involving VA and community-based physicians. Nearly all sites provided access to a core set of comprehensive services and programs (e.g., case management, supportive home health care). At the same time, there were variations according to site (e.g., size, location (urban, rural), use of non-VA hospitals, primary care models used). HBPC sites reflected the rationale and mission of HBPC by focusing on complex chronic illness of home-based veterans and providing comprehensive primary care using interdisciplinary teams. Our next series of studies will examine how HBPC site structural characteristics and care models are related to the processes and outcomes of care to determine whether there are best practice standards that define an optimal HBPC structure and care model or whether multiple approaches to HBPC better serve the needs of veterans. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Suellen R. Mendes
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the procedures of primary dental health care performed by oral health teams (OHTs adhering to the second cycle of the ‘National Programme for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care’ (PMAQ-AB in Brazil. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was performed, across 23 dental procedures comprising preventive, restorative/prosthetic, surgical, endodontic and oral cancer monitoring. Descriptive analysis shows that most of the oral health teams carry out basic dental procedures. However, most of the time, they do not keep adequate records of suspected cases of oral cancer, diagnosis tests or follow-ups, and do not perform dental prosthetic procedures. Data also showed disparities in the average number of procedures performed in each Brazilian geographical region in 2013–2014, ranging from 13.9 in the northern to 16.5 in the southern and south-eastern regions, reinforcing the great social disparities between them. Brazilian regions with the highest volume of dental need deliver the lowest number of dental procedures. The need to tackle inequalities and further shape the supply of appropriate primary health care (PHC is evident.
Wilkinson, Joanne E.; Saper, Robert B.; Rosen, Amy K.; Welles, Seth L.; Culpepper, Larry
Background and Objectives Prayer for health (PFH) is common; in 2002, 35% of US adults prayed for their health. We examined the relationship of PFH and primary care visits, with a special focus on African American women, using data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Methods We used chi-square analyses to compare the demographic (age group, gender, race, region, marital status, educational level, ethnicity) and health-related covariates (alcohol use, smoking status, and selected medical conditions) between individuals who did and did not pray for their health in the past year. Univariate associations between PFH and visit to primary care provider (PCP), with Mantel-Haenszel adjustment for confounding, were determined. Multivariate regression was used to determine independent factors associated with PFH and PCP visit, with SUDAAN to adjust for the clustered survey design. Results Subjects who prayed were more likely to be female, older than 58, Black, Southern, separated, divorced or widowed, and nondrinkers. Subjects who prayed were also more likely to have seen a PCP within the past year. Black women who prayed were also more likely to see a PCP. Conclusions These findings suggest that people who pray for their health do so in addition to, not instead of, seeking primary care. This finding is maintained but with a smaller effect size, in Black women. PMID:18830839
Stolberg, Charlotte Røn; Hepp, Nicola; Juhl, Anna Julie Aavild; B C, Deepti; Juhl, Claus B
Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity. It results in significant and sustained weight loss and reduces obesity-related co-morbidities. Despite an increasing prevalence of severe obesity, the number of bariatric operations performed in Denmark has decreased during the past years. This is only partly explained by changes in the national guidelines for bariatric surgery. The purpose of the cross-sectional study is to investigate referral patterns and possible reservations regarding bariatric surgery among Danish primary care physicians (PCPs). Primary care physicians in Denmark METHODS: A total of 300 Danish PCPs were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey regarding experiences with bariatric surgery, reservations about bariatric surgery, attitudes to specific patient cases, and the future treatment of severe obesity. Most questions required a response on a 5-point Likert scale (strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree nor disagree, agree, and strongly agree) and frequency distributions were calculated. 133 completed questionnaires (44%) were returned. Most physicians found that they had good knowledge about the national referral criteria for bariatric surgery. With respect to the specific patient cases, a remarkably smaller part of physicians would refer patients on their own initiative, compared with the patient's initiative. Fear of postoperative surgical complications and medical complications both influenced markedly the decision to refer patients for surgery. Only 9% of the respondents indicated that bariatric surgery should be the primary treatment option for severe obesity in the future. Danish PCPs express severe concerns about surgical and medical complications following bariatric surgery. This might, in part, result in a low rate of referral to bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section 50.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL...
Bello, Aminu K; Ronksley, Paul E; Tangri, Navdeep; Singer, Alexander; Grill, Allan; Nitsch, Dorothea; Queenan, John A; Lindeman, Cliff; Soos, Boglarka; Freiheit, Elizabeth; Tuot, Delphine; Mangin, Dee; Drummond, Neil
Effective chronic disease care is dependent on well-organised quality improvement (QI) strategies that monitor processes of care and outcomes for optimal care delivery. Although healthcare is provincially/territorially structured in Canada, there are national networks such as the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) as important facilitators for national QI-based studies to improve chronic disease care. The goal of our study is to improve the understanding of how patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are managed in primary care and the variation across practices and provinces and territories to drive improvements in care delivery. The CPCSSN database contains anonymised health information from the electronic medical records for patients of participating primary care practices (PCPs) across Canada (n=1200). The dataset includes information on patient sociodemographics, medications, laboratory results and comorbidities. Leveraging validated algorithms, case definitions and guidelines will help define CKD and the related processes of care, and these enable us to: (1) determine prevalent CKD burden; (2) ascertain the current practice pattern on risk identification and management of CKD and (3) study variation in care indicators (eg, achievement of blood pressure and proteinuria targets) and referral pattern for specialist kidney care. The process of care outcomes will be stratified across patients' demographics as well as provider and regional (provincial/territorial) characteristics. The prevalence of CKD stages 3-5 will be presented as age-sex standardised prevalence estimates stratified by province and as weighted averages for population rates with 95% CIs using census data. For each PCP, age-sex standardised prevalence will be calculated and compared with expected standardised prevalence estimates. The process-based outcomes will be defined using established methods. The CPCSSN is committed to high ethical standards when dealing with
Swann, Ruth; McPhail, Sean; Witt, Jana; Shand, Brian; Abel, Gary A; Hiom, Sara; Rashbass, Jem; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Rubin, Greg
Background Continual improvements in diagnostic processes are needed to minimise the proportion of patients with cancer who experience diagnostic delays. Clinical audit is a means of achieving this. Aim To characterise key aspects of the diagnostic process for cancer and to generate baseline measures for future re-audit. Design and setting Clinical audit of cancer diagnosis in general practices in England. Method Information on patient and tumour characteristics held in the English National Cancer Registry was supplemented by information from GPs in participating practices. Data items included diagnostic timepoints, patient characteristics, and clinical management. Results Data were collected on 17 042 patients with a new diagnosis of cancer during 2014 from 439 practices. Participating practices were similar to non-participating ones, particularly regarding population age, urban/rural location, and practice-based patient experience measures. The median diagnostic interval for all patients was 40 days (interquartile range [IQR] 15–86 days). Most patients were referred promptly (median primary care interval 5 days [IQR 0–27 days]). Where GPs deemed diagnostic delays to have occurred (22% of cases), patient, clinician, or system factors were responsible in 26%, 28%, and 34% of instances, respectively. Safety netting was recorded for 44% of patients. At least one primary care-led investigation was carried out for 45% of patients. Most patients (76%) had at least one existing comorbid condition; 21% had three or more. Conclusion The findings identify avenues for quality improvement activity and provide a baseline for future audit of the impact of 2015 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance on management and referral of suspected cancer. PMID:29255111
Swann, Ruth; McPhail, Sean; Witt, Jana; Shand, Brian; Abel, Gary A; Hiom, Sara; Rashbass, Jem; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Rubin, Greg
Continual improvements in diagnostic processes are needed to minimise the proportion of patients with cancer who experience diagnostic delays. Clinical audit is a means of achieving this. To characterise key aspects of the diagnostic process for cancer and to generate baseline measures for future re-audit. Clinical audit of cancer diagnosis in general practices in England. Information on patient and tumour characteristics held in the English National Cancer Registry was supplemented by information from GPs in participating practices. Data items included diagnostic timepoints, patient characteristics, and clinical management. Data were collected on 17 042 patients with a new diagnosis of cancer during 2014 from 439 practices. Participating practices were similar to non-participating ones, particularly regarding population age, urban/rural location, and practice-based patient experience measures. The median diagnostic interval for all patients was 40 days (interquartile range [IQR] 15-86 days). Most patients were referred promptly (median primary care interval 5 days [IQR 0-27 days]). Where GPs deemed diagnostic delays to have occurred (22% of cases), patient, clinician, or system factors were responsible in 26%, 28%, and 34% of instances, respectively. Safety netting was recorded for 44% of patients. At least one primary care-led investigation was carried out for 45% of patients. Most patients (76%) had at least one existing comorbid condition; 21% had three or more. The findings identify avenues for quality improvement activity and provide a baseline for future audit of the impact of 2015 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance on management and referral of suspected cancer. © British Journal of General Practice 2018.
Mall, Nathan A; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Azar, Frederick M; Traina, Steve M; Allen, Answorth A; Parker, Richard; Cole, Brian J
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are common in athletes. Techniques and methods of treatment for these injuries continue to vary among surgeons. Thirty National Basketball Association (NBA) team physicians were surveyed during the NBA Pre-Draft Combine. Survey questions involved current and previous practice methods of primary and revision ACL reconstruction, including technique, graft choice, rehabilitation, and treatment of combined ACL and medial collateral ligament injuries. Descriptive parametric statistics, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used, and significance was set at α = 0.05. All 30 team physicians completed the survey. Eighty-seven percent indicated they use autograft (81% bone-patellar tendon-bone) for primary ACL reconstruction in NBA athletes, and 43% indicated they use autograft for revision cases. Fourteen surgeons (47%) indicated they use an anteromedial portal (AMP) for femoral tunnel drilling, whereas 5 years earlier only 4 (13%) used this technique. There was a significant (P = .009) positive correlation between fewer years in practice and AMP use. NBA team physicians' use of an AMP for femoral tunnel drilling has increased over the past 5 years.
Wazir, Mohammad Salim; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Ahmed, Ashfaq
The National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare was launched in 1994. It is one of the largest community based programs in the world, providing primary healthcare services to about 80 million people, most of which is rural poor. The program has been instrumental in improving health related indicators of maternal and child health in the last two decades. SWOT analysis was used by making recourse to the structure and dynamics of the program as well as searching the literature. Strengths of the program include: comprehensive design of planning, implementation and supervision mechanisms aided by an MIS, selection and recruitments processes and evidence created through improving health impact indicators. Weaknesses identified are slow progress, poor integration of the program with health services at local levels including MIS, and de-motivational factors such as job insecurity and non-payment of salaries in time. Opportunities include further widening the coverage of services, its potential contribution to health system research, and its use in areas other than health like women empowerment and poverty alleviation. Threats the program may face are: political interference, lack of funds, social threats and implications for professional malpractices. Strengthening of the program will necessitate a strong political commitment, sustained funding and a just remuneration to this bare foot doctor of Pakistan, the Lady Health Worker.
Bruna Camilo Turi
Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: One of the big challenges facing governments worldwide is the financing of healthcare systems. Thus, it is necessary to understand the factors and key components associated with healthcare expenditure. The aim here was to identify demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with direct healthcare expenditure within primary care, among adults attended through the Brazilian National Health System in the city of Bauru. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in five primary care units in Bauru (SP, Brazil. METHODS: Healthcare expenditure over the last 12 months was assessed through medical records of adults aged 50 years or more. Annual healthcare expenditure was assessed in terms of medication, laboratory tests, medical consultations and the total. Body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, age, sex, physical activity and smoking were assessed through face-to-face interviews. RESULTS: The total healthcare expenditure for 963 participants of this survey was US$ 112,849.74 (46.9% consultations, 35.2% medication and 17.9% laboratory tests. Expenditure on medication was associated with overweight (odds ratio, OR = 1.80; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.07-3.01, hypertension (OR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.91-4.82 and moderate physical activity (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.38-0.81. Expenditure on consultations was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.12-2.47 and female sex (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.14-2.55. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that overweight, lower levels of physical activity and hypertension were independent risk factors associated with higher healthcare expenditure within primary care.
Traffic related air pollution is a major health concern in many countries. The potential costs and benefits of different abatement policies are usually estimated by either models, case studies or previously implemented intervention measures. Such estimations have, however, limited ability to predict the effect of a reduction in primary pollutants' emissions on secondary pollutants such as ozone, because of the nonlinear nature of the photochemical reactions. This study examines the short term effects of a drastic change in emissions on a national scale during the Jewish holiday of Day of Atonement (DA) in Israel. During the holiday nearly all anthropogenic emission sources are ceased for a period of 25 h, including all vehicles, commercial, industrial and recreational activities. DAs during the 15 years period of 1998-2012 are analyzed at three sites with respect to primary and secondary air pollutants, and in greater details for 2001. A dramatic decrease in primary pollutants emissions (83-98% in NO) causes an 8 ppbv increase in ozone at the urban core. Downwind (27 km), ozone decreases by only 5 ppbv. Nighttime O3 is shown to increase to 20 ppbv at the urban sites and 30 ppbv downwind. In spite of the striking reduction in emissions, changes in ozone are not greater than what is reported in the literature about less significant events like the ozone weekend effect. Changes in ambient pollution levels observed during DA provide some indication to the possible outcomes of a major change in anthropogenic emissions. These may be considered as the best case scenario for emissions reduction intervention measures and thus aid policy makers in evaluating potential benefits of such measures.
Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh
Previous empirical and managerial studies have ignored the effectiveness of integrated health networks. It has been argued that the varying definitions and strategic imperatives of integrated organizations may have complicated the assessment of the outcomes/performance of varying models, particularly when their market structures and contexts differed. This study aimed to empirically verify a theoretical perspective on the coordination infrastructure designs and the effectiveness of the primary community care networks (PCCNs) formed and funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance since March 2003. The PCCNs present a model to replace the traditional fragmented providers in Taiwan's health care. The study used a cross-sectional mailed survey designed to ascertain partnership coordination infrastructure and integration of governance, clinical care, bonding, finances, and information. The outcome indicators were PCCNs' perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. Structural equation modeling examined the causal relationships, controlling for organizational and environmental factors. Primary data collection occurred from February through December 2005, via structured questionnaires sent to 172 PCCNs. Using the individual PCCN as the unit of analysis, the results found that a network's efforts regarding coordination infrastructures were positively related to the PCCN's perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. In addition, PCCNs practicing in rural areas and in areas with higher density of medical resources had better perceived effectiveness and willingness to cooperate in the network.Practical Implication: The lack of both an operational definition and an information about system-wide integration may have obstructed understanding of integrated health networks' organizational dynamics. This study empirically examined individual PCCNs and offers new insights on how to improve networks' organizational design and
Holt, Kelsey; Janiak, Elizabeth; McCormick, Marie C; Lieberman, Ellice; Dehlendorf, Christine; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Caglia, Jacquelyn M; Langer, Ana
Primary care physicians (PCPs) can play a critical role in addressing unintended pregnancy through high-quality options counseling and referrals. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 3,000 PCPs in general, family, and internal medicine on practices and opinions related to options counseling for unintended pregnancy. We assessed predictors of physician practices using multivariable logistic regression weighted for sampling design and differential non-response. Response rate was 29%. Seventy-one percent believed residency training in options counseling should be required, and 69% believed PCPs have an obligation to provide abortion referrals even in the presence of a personal objection to abortion. However, only 26% reported routine options counseling when caring for women with unintended pregnancy compared to 60% who routinely discuss prenatal care. Among physicians who see women seeking abortion, 62% routinely provide referrals, while 14% routinely attempt to dissuade women. Family physicians were more likely to provide routine options counseling when seeing patients with unintended pregnancy than internal medicine physicians (32% vs 21%, P=0.002). In multivariable analyses, factors associated with higher odds of routine abortion referrals were more years in practice (OR=1.03 for each additional year, 95% CI: 1.00-1.05), identifying as a woman vs a man (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.31-3.40), practicing in a hospital vs private primary care/multispecialty setting (OR=3.17, 95% CI: 1.10-9.15), and no religious affiliation of practice vs religious affiliation (OR for Catholic affiliation=0.27, 95% CI: 0.11-0.66; OR for other religious affiliation=0.36, 95% CI: 0.15-0.83). Personal Christian religious affiliation among physicians who regularly attend religious services vs no religious affiliation was associated with lower odds of counseling (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.26-0.90) and referrals (OR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.62), and higher odds of abortion dissuasion (OR=4.03, 95
Singh, Betsy; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Hardy, Mary; Singh, Vijay; Shepard, Neil; Gandhi, Sonal; Khorsan, Raheleh
This survey intended to clarify physicians' understanding of the issues surrounding women, menopause, alternative medicine, and drug therapy for the treatment of menopause. This study was designed as a national probability sample survey of primary care physicians and gynecologists nationwide. Its focus was to identify major concerns and issues identified by patients about menopause and perceived communication with effectiveness how to communicate with their patients. Physicians were also asked to rate their comfort level in recommending the use of herbal remedies and which herbal remedy they felt comfortable recommending to interested patients. Data indicated that a patient's complaint about menopausal symptoms was the most common factor leading to discussion of menopausal issues with physicians (91%) and that the primary concern to the patient was management of menopausal symptoms. Other factors were controversies about hormone replacement therapy, long-term health implications of menopause, and hormone replacement therapy. Eighty percent of the physician found confusing messages with regard to menopause to be the most challenging aspect in patient communication. The second most challenging issue is "inconclusive data about hormone replacement therapy" (56%). Seventy-six percent of the physicians found "showing sympathy" to be the most important factor for the physicians to communicate effectively with patients, whereas "being honest and open" was the most important patient attitude cited for the same purpose. When it comes to herbal therapy for menopause symptom control, only 4% of the physicians indicated that none of their patients take any remedies. Only 18% were not very comfortable in discussing or recommending herbal therapies, whereas the rest ranged from fairly comfortable to completely comfortable. This study has provided data with regard to physician understanding of menopause treatment options and their primary interaction with patients on this issue
Full Text Available BackgroundTeachers experience high levels of stress as a result of their professional duties and research has shown a growing interest in this phenomenon during the recent years. Aim of this study was to explore the associations of stress sources and manifestations with individual and job-related characteristics in educators of all levels. MethodsIn a cross–sectional design, following an informative e-campaign on the study aims through the official and the main teachers’ portals in Greece, respondents completed online the Teachers Stress Inventory (TSI and the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14. 974 male and 2473 female pre-primary, primary and secondary educators with a mean age of 41.2 years responded. ResultsWomen and younger teachers reported significantly higher levels of stress, mainly due to lack of time and other work-related stressors, and also more emotional and gastronomic manifestations. Increased age and working experience were associated with lower levels of several stress sources. Teachers of administrative positions had increased time management stressors, but less professional distress, professional investment and discipline and motivation stressors. Additionally, working and residing far from family increased teachers’ stress levels associated to control, motivation and investment. Teachers of pre-primary education had reduced professional investment and motivation stress factors while vocational lyceum teachers of secondary education reported less work-related stressors and manifestations and more discipline and motivation related ones. Having students supported or in need of support from special educators and students with difficulties in speaking or comprehension was associated with most of the teachers' stress sources and manifestations (i.e. TSI subscales. Finally, colleagues’ and mainly supervisors' support seemed to provide a strong and consistent protection against both stress sources and manifestations
Henderson, E J; Ells, L J; Rubin, G P; Hunter, D J
This study reviewed the use in primary care of national surveillance data for children to determine the data's potential utility to inform policy and practice decisions on how to prevent and treat childhood obesity. We reviewed the 28 countries identified by the World Obesity Federation as having high-quality comparable body mass index data for children. Literature published from any period up to December 2013 was included. Peer review literature was searched using Web of Science (Core Collection, MEDLINE). Grey literature was searched using the Internet by country name, programme name and national health and government websites. We included studies that (i) use national surveillance obesity data in primary care, or (ii) explore practitioner or parent perspectives about the use of such data. The main uses of national surveillance data in primary care were to identify and recruit obese children and their parents to participate in school and general practice-based research and/or interventions, and to inform families of children's measurements. Findings indicate a need for school staff and practitioners to receive additional training and support to sensitively communicate with families. Translation of these findings into policy and practice could help to improve current uses of national child obesity surveillance data in primary care. © 2015 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.
Cotruvo, J.A.; Regelski, M.
The promulgation of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR) follows specific steps. First, the Advance Notice of Proposed Rule Making (ANPRM) is published. Second, the EPA, as mandated by the SDWA Amendments, proposes maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), (enforceable standards) and maximum contaminant level goals (MCLGs) simultaneously. The Office of Drinking Water developed a six-phase schedule that has attempted to parallel the SDWA-specified deadlines: Phase I - Voltile organic chemicals - July 8, 1987; Phase II - Synthetic organic chemicals and inorganic chemicals - June 1989, microbials and surface water treatment - June 1989, and Lead/copper - December 1988; Phase III - Radionuclides - December 1988; Phase IV - Disinfectants and disinfection by-products - June 1989; Phase V - Other inorganic chemicals, synthetic organic chemicals, and pesticides - June 1989; and Phase VI - 25 additional chemicals - January 199. In selecting contaminants for regulation, the most relevant criteria are (1) potential health risk; (2) ability to detect a contaminant in the drinking water; and (3) occurrence or potential occurrence in drinking water. The EPA uses a three category approach for setting maximum contaminant level goals for carcinogens: Category I, strong evidence of carcinogenicity-zero; Category II, equivocal evidence - reference dose (RfD) approach or 0.00001 to 0.000001 cancer risk range; and Category III, inadequate or no evidence from animal studies - RfD approach. 10 refs., 5 tabs
Full Text Available The mission of this study is to compare Net Primary Productivity (NPP estimates using (i forest inventory data and (ii spatio-temporally continuous MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data for Austria. While forest inventories assess the change in forest growth based on repeated individual tree measurements (DBH, height etc., the MODIS NPP estimates are based on ecophysiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and carbon allocation. We obtained repeated national forest inventory data from Austria, calculated a “ground-based” NPP estimate and compared the results with “space-based” MODIS NPP estimates using different daily climate data. The MODIS NPP estimates using local Austrian climate data exhibited better compliance with the forest inventory driven NPP estimates than the MODIS NPP predictions using global climate data sets. Stand density plays a key role in addressing the differences between MODIS driven NPP estimates versus terrestrial driven inventory NPP estimates. After addressing stand density, both results are comparable across different scales. As forest management changes stand density, these findings suggest that management issues are important in understanding the observed discrepancies between MODIS and terrestrial NPP.
Hughes, Christine M; Kramer, Erich; Colamonico, Jennifer; Duszak, Richard
To understand perceptions of primary care physicians (PCPs) about the value of advanced medical imaging. A national quantitative survey of 500 PCPs was conducted using an online self-administered questionnaire. Questions focused on advanced medical imaging (CT, MRI, and PET) and its perceived impact on the delivery of patient care. Responses were stratified by physician demographics. Large majorities of the PCPs indicated that advanced imaging increases their diagnostic confidence (441; 88%); provides data not otherwise available (451; 90%); permits better clinical decision making (440; 88%); increases confidence in treatment choices (438; 88%), and shortens time to definitive diagnosis (430; 86%]). Most (424; 85%) believe that patient care would be negatively affected without access to advanced imaging. PCPs whose clinical careers predated the proliferation of advanced imaging modalities (>20 years of practice) assigned higher value to advanced imaging on several dimensions compared with younger physicians whose training overlapped widespread technology availability. By a variety of metrics, large majorities of PCPs believe that advanced medical imaging provides considerable value to patient care. Those whose careers predated the widespread availability of advanced imaging tended to associate it with even higher value. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The article examines aesthetic education of primary school pupils as an integral part of the national system of continuous art education in Japan. One of the most important traditional means of aesthetic education in Japan, according to L. Tsaryova is considered nature. Analysis of the scientific literature by domestic and foreign scientists…
Terkelsen, Christian J; Jensen, Lisette O; Hansen, Hans-Henrik Tilsted
In Denmark, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) was chosen as a national reperfusion strategy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in 2003. This study describes the temporal implementation of PPCI in Western Denmark, the gradual introduction of field triage...
Ramírez Romero, José Luis; Sayer, Peter; Pamplón Irigoyen, Elva Nora
Over the past 15?years, many state governments in Mexico have initiated local programs to introduce English at the primary school level. In 2009, the Mexican Ministry of Education formalized the "Programa Nacional de Inglés en Educación Básica" (PNIEB) as part of the national curriculum, based on the argument that increasing the number…
Haldorsen, Ingfrid S; Kråkenes, Jostein; Goplen, Anne K; Dunlop, Oona; Mella, Olav; Espeland, Ansgar
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a frequent complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of this survey was to investigate incidence, clinical features, radiological findings, histologic diagnosis, treatment and outcome for all patients with histologically verified AIDS-related PCNSL diagnosed in Norway in 1989–2003. We identified the patients by chart review of all cases recorded as PCNSL in The Norwegian Cancer Registry (by law recording all cases of cancer in Norway) and all cases recorded as AIDS-related PCNSL in the autopsy registry at a hospital having 67% autopsy rate and treating 59% of AIDS patients in Norway, from 1989 to 2003. Histologic material and radiological images were reviewed. We used person-time techniques to calculate incidence rates of PCNSL among AIDS patients based on recordings on AIDS at the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (by law recording all cases of AIDS in Norway). Twenty-nine patients had histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed AIDS-related PCNSL in Norway from 1989–2003. Only 2 patients had this diagnosis established while alive. AIDS patients had 5.5% lifetime risk of PCNSL. Their absolute incidence rate of PCNSL per 100 person-years was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.1–2.4) and decreased during the consecutive 5-year periods from 3.6, to 2.5, and to 0.4 (p < 0.001). Median survival from initial symptom of PCNSL was 2.3 months, but one patient was still alive 4 years after completed radiotherapy. This is the first national survey to confirm decreasing incidence of AIDS-related PCNSL. Despite dismal survival in most patients, the possibility of long term survival should prompt more aggressive diagnostics in suspected PCNSL
Brauer, Simon G; Yoon, John D; Curlin, Farr A
Previous research has found that physicians are divided on whether they are obligated to provide a treatment to which they object and whether they should refer patients in such cases. The present study compares several possible scenarios in which a physician objects to a treatment that a patient requests, in order to better characterise physicians' beliefs about what responses are appropriate. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 1504 US primary care physicians using an experimentally manipulated vignette in which a patient requests a clinical intervention to which the patient's physician objects. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine how vignette and respondent characteristics affected respondent's judgements. Among eligible respondents, the response rate was 63% (896/1427). When faced with an objection to providing treatment, referring the patient was the action judged most appropriate (57% indicated it was appropriate), while few physicians thought it appropriate to provide treatment despite one's objection (15%). The most religious physicians were more likely than the least religious physicians to support refusing to accommodate the patient's request (38% vs 22%, OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.86). This study indicates that US physicians believe it is inappropriate to provide an intervention that violates one's personal or professional standards. Referring seems to be physicians' preferred way of responding to requests for interventions to which physicians object. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Pan, Jian-ping; Wang, Fei; Li, Min; Chen, Jing-qi; Zhang, Hui-ying; Wang, Gui-xiang; Gu, Gui-xiong; Guo, Wei-wei; Peng, Yu-lin; Shi, Shu-hua; Chen, Guang-hu; Yi, Hua-ni; Fu, Ping; Xia, Li; Yu, Hong; Lu, Biao; Duan, Zhi-xian; Wang, Ying-xiong; Zhong, Zhao-hui; Li, Jian; Wang, Lin; Cao, Chun-hong; Luo, Sha-sha; Zhang, Song-jie; Zhang, Hua
To develop the national neglect norms for urban primary school students in China. According to multi-stage stratified cluster sampling principle, 24 cities of 13 provinces (municipalities) in China were selected during December 1 to 31, 2008. A total of 1491 students in grade 1 - 3 and 2236 students in grade 4 - 6 were selected. Questionnaire was designed by authors and the final norms were determined through several statistical analysis methods, such as item analysis method, factor analysis method, reliability analysis method. The reliability analysis and validity analysis were used to test the stability and reliability of the norms. The evaluation criteria of the scale was determined by the percentile method, then the initial development of the norm was completed. The two questionnaires of grade 1 - 3 and grade 4 - 6 students consisted of 55 and 57 items, respectively, whose item loadings were ranged from 0.301 to 0.687 and 0.321 to 0.730, which met the statistical requirements. For grade 1 - 3 students, the scale's total Cronbach α coefficients was 0.914, the total split-half reliability coefficients was 0.896, the Cronbach α coefficients of four level was above 0.737 except medical and social neglect, split-half reliability was ranged from 0.461 to 0.757; for grade 4-6 students, the scale's total Cronbach α coefficients was 0.916, split-half reliability was 0.883, except social neglect, the Cronbach α coefficients of other level was ranged 0.457 to 0.856, split-half reliability was ranged from 0.500 to 0.798. The total neglect cut-off score of the two scales grade 1-3 and 4-6 were 125 and 155, respectively. The structure of two norms was reasonable. The scales have good stability and reliability.
Full Text Available Universal access to Primary Eye Care (PEC is a key global initiative to reduce and prevent avoidable causes of visual impairment (VI. PEC can address minor eye conditions, simple forms of uncorrected refractive error (URE and create a referral pathway for specialist eye care, thus offering a potential solution to a lack of eye health specialists in low-income countries. However, there is little information on the population need for PEC, including prevalence of URE in all ages in Sub-Saharan Africa.A national survey was conducted of people aged 7 and over in Rwanda in September-December 2016. Participants were selected through two-stage probability proportional to size sampling and compact segment sampling. VI (visual acuity<6/12 was assessed using Portable Eye Examination Kit (PEEK; URE was detected using a pinhole and presbyopia using local near vision test. We also used validated questionnaires to collect socio-demographic and minor eye symptoms information. Prevalence estimates for VI, URE and need for PEC (URE, presbyopia with good distance vision, need for referrals and minor eye conditions were age and sex standardized to the Rwandan population. Associations between age, sex, socio-economic status and the key outcomes were examined using logistic regression.4618 participants were examined and interviewed out of 5361 enumerated (86% response rate. The adjusted population prevalence of VI was 3.7% (95%CI = 3.0-4.5%, URE was 2.2% (95%CI = 1.7-2.8% and overall need for PEC was 34.0% (95%CI = 31.8-36.4%. Women and older people were more likely to need PEC and require a referral.Nearly a third of the population in Rwanda has the potential to benefit from PEC, with greater need identified in older people and women. Universal access to PEC can address unmet eye health needs and public health planning needs to ensure equitable access to older people and women.
Luize Barbosa Antunes
Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the evaluation of the user with respiratory symptoms of tuberculosis in Primary Health Care services according to the norms of the National Program for Tuberculosis Control. Methods: cross-sectional study with application of a form to 99 people with pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: a total of 87.9% participants reported cough as the symptom that motivated the search for Primary Care; from these, 27.3% sought Primary Care units, 96.3% received care in this service, of which 46.2% reported that sputum smear was requested by professionals in the units. Conclusion: more than half of participants sought secondary or tertiary services due to the symptoms of tuberculosis, and also less than half of patients assisted in Primary Care had diagnostic tests requested by professionals of that service.
Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Wildish, Janet; Gichuru, Mary
This study examined the impact of a primary-school HIV education initiative on the knowledge, self-efficacy and sexual and condom use activities of upper primary-school pupils in Kenya. A quasi-experimental mixed qualitative-quantitative pre- and 18-month post-design using 40 intervention and 40 matched control schools demonstrated significant…
Peggy E. Moore; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Julie L. Yee; Mitchel P. McClaran; David N. Cole; Neil K. McDougald; Matthew L. Brooks
Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate....
This report presents data summary tables and maps used to define and illustrate the approximate lateral extent of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data tables and maps address the primary (i.e., most widespread and mobile) organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in the groundwater. The sampling locations, calculated contaminant concentrations, plume boundary values, and paired map format used to define, quantify, delineate, and illustrate the approximate extent of the primary organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater at Y-12 are described.
Altamimi, Samar; Alshoshan, Feda; Al Shaman, Ghada; Tawfeeq, Nasser; Alasmary, May; Ahmed, Anwar E
In recent years, several research studies have investigated health promotion practices in Saudi healthcare organizations, yet no published literature exists on health promotion practices of primary healthcare professionals working for the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNG-HA). A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of 206 primary healthcare professionals at the MNG-HA. A self-reporting questionnaire was used to investigate the attitudes, awareness, satisfaction, and methods regarding health promotion practices of primary healthcare professionals. Of the 206 primary healthcare professionals surveyed, 58.1% reported awareness of health promotion programs conducted in the hospitals and 64.6% reported that the health promotion system in the hospitals needs to be improved. Language barriers and cultural beliefs were viewed as obstacles to carrying out effective health promotion by 65% and 64.6% of primary healthcare professionals, respectively. The majority (79.9%) of the primary healthcare professionals perceived themselves as having the necessary skills to promote health and 80.6% believed that printed educational materials are the most prevalent method of health promotion/education, whereas 55.8% reported that counseling was the most preferred method of health promotion. The awareness level of health promotion policies, strategies, and programs conducted in the hospitals was not found to be satisfactory. Therefore, widespread training programs are recommended to improve the health promotion system in the hospitals. These programs include facilitating behavioral change, introducing health promotion policies and strategies in hospitals, mandatory workshops, and systematic reminders.
Wilson, Nick; Baker, Michael; Crampton, Peter; Mansoor, Osman
Abstract Background Another influenza pandemic is all but inevitable. We estimated its potential impact on the primary care medical workforce in New Zealand, so that planning could mitigate the disruption from the pandemic and similar challenges. Methods The model in the "FluAid" software (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta) was applied to the New Zealand primary care medical workforce (i.e., general practitioners). Results At its peak (week 4) the pandemic would lead to...
Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti Toassi
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the role of teaching at primary healthcare services within the Brazilian National Health System (SUS in dentists' training, at a public university in the south of Brazil. A qualitative methodological approach (case study was used. Interviews were conducted with 12 dentistry students, six dentists who were preceptors working in public primary healthcare services and three teachers connected with this curricular training. Our findings showed that the curricular training in SUS primary healthcare services had an impact on the dentists' education through establishment of bonds, autonomy in problem-solving and multiprofessional teamwork. It was seen that they learned about how healthcare services function, about healthcare and about development of cultural competence. There is a need to maintain constant questioning regarding these practices, and to ensure the presence of infrastructure and qualified professionals for teaching at these services.
Healy, Mark A; Pradarelli, Jason C; Krell, Robert W; Regenbogen, Scott E; Suwanabol, Pasithorn A
Treatment of metastatic colon cancer may be driven as much by practice patterns as by features of disease. To optimize management, there is a need to better understand what is determining primary site resection use. We evaluated all patients with stage IV cancers in the National Cancer Data Base from 2002 to 2012 (50,791 patients, 1,230 hospitals). We first identified patient characteristics associated with primary tumor resection. Then, we assessed nationwide variation in hospital resection rates. Overall, 27,387 (53.9%) patients underwent primary site resection. Factors associated with resection included younger age, having less than 2 major comorbidities, and white race (P primary tumor resection rates ranged from 26.0% to 87.8% with broad differences across geographical areas and hospital accreditation types. There is statistically significant variation in hospital rates of primary site resection. This demonstrates inconsistent adherence to guidelines in the presence of conflicting evidence regarding resection benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Fagerlin, Angela; Klamerus, Mandi L; Bernstein, Steven J; Kerr, Eve A
While some research has examined general attitudes about efforts to reduce overutilization of services, such as the Choosing Wisely ® (CW) initiative, little data exists regarding primary care providers' attitudes regarding individual recommendations. We sought to identify whether particular CW recommendations were perceived by primary care providers as difficult to follow, difficult for patients to accept, or both. Two national surveys, one by mail to a random sample of 2000 U.S. primary care physicians in November 2013, and the second electronically to a random sample of 2500 VA primary care providers (PCPs) in October-December 2014. A total of 603 U.S. primary care physicians and 1173 VA primary care providers. Response rates were 34 and 48 %, respectively. PCP ratings of whether 12 CW recommendations for screening, testing and treatments applicable to adult primary care were difficult to follow and difficult for patients to accept; and ratings of potential barriers to reducing overutilization. For four recommendations regarding not screening or testing in asymptomatic patients, less than 20 % of PCPs found the CW recommendations difficult to accept (range 7.2-16.6 %) or difficult for patients to follow (12.2-19.3 %). For five recommendations regarding testing or treatment for symptomatic conditions, however, there was both variation in reported difficulty to follow (9.8-32 %) and a high level of reported difficulty for patients to accept (35.7-87.1 %). The most frequently reported barriers to reducing overuse included malpractice concern, patient requests for services, lack of time for shared decision making, and the number of tests recommended by specialists. While PCPs found many CW recommendations easy to follow, they felt that some, especially those for symptomatic conditions, would be difficult for patients to accept. Overcoming PCPs' perceptions of patient acceptability will require approaches beyond routine physician education, feedback and
... Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene...). The rule is applicable to facilities with affected sources associated with the production of aluminum... are subject to the requirements of this NESHAP: 14 primary aluminum production plants and one carbon...
Soo Ying How
Full Text Available Multilingualism is embedded in the Malaysian Education Blueprint (2015-2025 as a stated goal towards nation building. The education system provides opportunity to learn Malay which is the national language, the mother tongue (Mandarin or Tamil and the English language as part of formal schooling. In fact, Malaysian primary schools are classified into two major divisions. Students can opt to study in national schools in which the medium of instruction is Malay with the provision for the learning of English and a mother tongue. The other option allows students to enrol in national-type schools of which the medium of instruction is either Mandarin or Tamil, with English and Malay taught as academic subjects. At secondary level, the medium of instruction in national schools is Malay and students are provided the opportunity to learn their mother tongue and English. Other than in school, other social milieus also allow the use and practice of these languages. Given this linguistic environment, there exists a myriad of language experiences within and outside formal learning which together would influence the totality of language vitality. This paper investigates language vitality featured in this multilingual environment. It focuses on the vitality of the English language among students that appears to co-exist with the learning and use of other languages as they progress through the primary and secondary levels. The vitality is measured by the following indicators: language preference, choice, dominance, use, attitude and motivation and proficiency which were used to develop a questionnaire to obtain data on strength evaluation of these languages. The methodology encompasses random and convenient sampling to obtain representative responses from students with different levels of education and language experiences. The study reveals relative vitalities of languages used and highlights values attached to languages at different points of language
Full Text Available The measurement of the absolute neutron yield produced in inertial confinement fusion target experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF is essential in benchmarking progress towards the goal of achieving ignition on this facility. This paper describes three independent diagnostic techniques that have been developed to make accurate and precise DT neutron yield measurements on the NIF.
Sousa, Islandia Maria Carvalho de; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale
This study aimed to analyze the inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and its integration with primary healthcare (PHC). A qualitative study drew on institutional data, indexed articles, and case studies in selected Brazilian cities: Campinas (São Paulo State), Florianópolis (Santa Catarina State), Recife (Pernambuco State), Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. The analysis adopted the perspective of inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the healthcare network and its integration with primary healthcare, based on the following dimensions: presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine on the municipal agenda; position in the services; mode of access to Traditional and Complementary Medicine; Traditional and Complementary Medicine practitioners; types of practices; demand profile; and potential for expansion in the SUS. The authors identified and characterized four types of inclusion and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, whether in association or not: Type 1 - in primary healthcare via professionals from the family health teams - Integrated; Type 2 - in primary healthcare via professionals with full-time employment - Juxtaposed; Type 3 - in primary healthcare via matrix-organized teams - Matrix Organization; Type 4 - in specialized services - Without Integration. The combination of types 1 and 3 was considered a potential guideline for the expansion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS and can orient the growth and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine with primary healthcare. The growing presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS requires conceiving its strategic expansion, while existing experiences should not be wasted.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthening primary health care is critical to reducing health inequity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The Audit and Best practice for Chronic Disease Extension (ABCDE project has facilitated the implementation of modern Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI approaches in Indigenous community health care centres across Australia. The project demonstrated improvements in health centre systems, delivery of primary care services and in patient intermediate outcomes. It has also highlighted substantial variation in quality of care. Through a partnership between academic researchers, service providers and policy makers, we are now implementing a study which aims to 1 explore the factors associated with variation in clinical performance; 2 examine specific strategies that have been effective in improving primary care clinical performance; and 3 work with health service staff, management and policy makers to enhance the effective implementation of successful strategies. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in Indigenous community health centres from at least six States/Territories (Northern Territory, Western Australia, New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland and Victoria over a five year period. A research hub will be established in each region to support collection and reporting of quantitative and qualitative clinical and health centre system performance data, to investigate factors affecting variation in quality of care and to facilitate effective translation of research evidence into policy and practice. The project is supported by a web-based information system, providing automated analysis and reporting of clinical care performance to health centre staff and management. Discussion By linking researchers directly to users of research (service providers, managers and policy makers, the partnership is well placed to generate new knowledge on effective strategies for improving the quality of primary
Gonzalez, D.; Ruso, L.; Ettlin, A.
This work is about the clinical case of a 29 year old patient who consulted for right lank pain, where a tumor was identified. Ultrasound confirmed the existence of a cystic process, and complete surgical abscission/exeresis was performed next to an area in the in the abdominal wall. Anatomopathological report confirmed a primary retroperitoneal cistoadenocarcinoma. No adjuvant treatment was applied, evolution was good 11 months after surgery, no evidence of the disease
Guo, Zhigang; Guan, Xiaodong; Shi, Luwen
In 2009, China implemented the National Essential Medicines Policies (NEMPs) as part of a new round of medical system reforms. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the NEMPs on primary healthcare institutions and discuss the roles of the policies in the new healthcare reforms of China. The study selected a total of six representative provinces of China, generating a sample of 261 primary healthcare institutions from August to December in 2010. A questionnaire survey developed by the study team was distributed to all of the primary healthcare institutions. Nine indicators from three dimensions as the outcome variables were used and calculated to evaluate the impacts of implementation of policies. All of the outcome variables were tested using independent-samples T test between the treatment group (with the NEMPs implemented) and the control group (without the NEMPs implemented). The ratio of drug sales and institution revenues at primary healthcare institutions was 42.99% in the treatment group, which was significantly lower than the control group (53.90%, p financial subsidies of the treatment group was shown to be higher (30.78% VS 20.82%, p institutions, the improvement of the mechanisms for government investment, and the healthcare pricing system. Meanwhile, the gaps between urban and rural areas need to be addressed. In conclusion, the NEMPs of China are instrumental to the aim of providing basic healthcare services to every citizen.
Rorie, Conrad; Monk, Kevin; Roberts, Zach; Brandt, Summer
This presentation provides an overview of the primary results from the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project's second Terminal Operations human-in-the-loop simulation. This talk covers the background of this follow-on experiment, which includes an overview of the first Terminal Operations HITL performed by the project. The primary results include a look at the number and durations of detect and avoid (DAA) alerts issued by the two DAA systems under test. It also includes response time metrics and metrics on the ability of the pilot-in-command (PIC) to maintain sufficient separation. Additional interoperability metrics are included to illustrate how pilots interact with the tower controller. Implications and conclusions are covered at the end.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients contact their general practitioner (GP following presentation to an Emergency Department (ED after a self-harm incident, and strategies to help GPs manage these patients include efficient communication between services. The aim of this study was to assess the standard of documentation and communication to primary care from secondary care as recommended by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines on the short-term management of people who self-harm. Methods An audit of medical records (ED and Psychiatric on people aged 16 years and over who had presented to the ED following self-harm, benchmarked according to government guidelines, was performed. Data were collected over a 4-week period at a general teaching hospital. Results We collected data on 93 consecutive episodes of self-harm; 62% of episodes were communicated to primary care, 58% of these communications were within 24 h and most within 3 days. Patient identifying details and follow-up arrangements were specified in most cases. Communication via psychiatric staff was most detailed. ED clinicians provided few communications and were of limited content. Communication with the patient's GP was not made in half of those cases seen by a mental health specialist. Conclusion Government guidelines are only partially being met. Reliance on communication by ED staff would leave a substantial proportion of patients discharged from the ED with no or minimal communication to primary care. Psychiatric services need to improve the rate of communication to the patient's GP following assessment A national sample of National Health Service (NHS trusts would establish if this is a problem elsewhere.
In 1992 a joint venture between the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) resulted in the formation of a Working Party (WP) to consider dental radiology. Although individual doses to patients are low, WP identified considerable scope for reducing the collective dose to patients and for improving the diagnostic quality of radiographs. The report published in the Documents of the NRPB series presents the WP conclusions in the form of guidelines that deal with all aspects of dental radiology in primary dental care. (Author)
Bulow, S.; Jensen, L.H.; Altaf, R.
OBJECTIVE: Preoperative radiotherapy has been shown to enable a fixed rectal cancer to become resectable which in turn may result in long-time survival. In this study, we analysed the outcome of long-course preoperative radiotherapy in fixed rectal cancer in a national cohort including all Danish...... patients registered with primary inoperable rectal cancer and treated in the period May 2001 to December 2005. METHOD: The study was based on surgical and demographic data from a continuously updated and validated national database. In addition, retrospective data were retrieved from all departments...... of radiotherapy concerning technique of radiotherapy, dose and fractionation and use of concomitant chemotherapy. Outcome was determined by actuarial analysis of local control, disease-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 258 patients with fixed rectal cancer received long-course radiotherapy...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Surveys in various countries suggest 17% to 80% of doctors prescribe 'placebos' in routine practice, but prevalence of placebo use in UK primary care is unknown. METHODS: We administered a web-based questionnaire to a representative sample of UK general practitioners. Following surveys conducted in other countries we divided placebos into 'pure' and 'impure'. 'Impure' placebos are interventions with clear efficacy for certain conditions but are prescribed for ailments where their efficacy is unknown, such as antibiotics for suspected viral infections. 'Pure' placebos are interventions such as sugar pills or saline injections without direct pharmacologically active ingredients for the condition being treated. We initiated the survey in April 2012. Two reminders were sent and electronic data collection closed after 4 weeks. RESULTS: We surveyed 1715 general practitioners and 783 (46% completed our questionnaire. Our respondents were similar to those of all registered UK doctors suggesting our results are generalizable. 12% (95% CI 10 to 15 of respondents used pure placebos while 97% (95% CI 96 to 98 used impure placebos at least once in their career. 1% of respondents used pure placebos, and 77% (95% CI 74 to 79 used impure placebos at least once per week. Most (66% for pure, 84% for impure respondents stated placebos were ethical in some circumstances. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Placebo use is common in primary care but questions remain about their benefits, harms, costs, and whether they can be delivered ethically. Further research is required to investigate ethically acceptable and cost-effective placebo interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Another influenza pandemic is all but inevitable. We estimated its potential impact on the primary care medical workforce in New Zealand, so that planning could mitigate the disruption from the pandemic and similar challenges. Methods The model in the "FluAid" software (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta was applied to the New Zealand primary care medical workforce (i.e., general practitioners. Results At its peak (week 4 the pandemic would lead to 1.2% to 2.7% loss of medical work time, using conservative baseline assumptions. Most workdays (88% would be lost due to illness, followed by hospitalisation (8%, and then premature death (4%. Inputs for a "more severe" scenario included greater health effects and time spent caring for sick relatives. For this scenario, 9% of medical workdays would be lost in the peak week, and 3% over a more compressed six-week period of the first pandemic wave. As with the base case, most (64% of lost workdays would be due to illness, followed by caring for others (31%, hospitalisation (4%, and then premature death (1%. Conclusion Preparedness planning for future influenza pandemics must consider the impact on this medical workforce and incorporate strategies to minimise this impact, including infection control measures, well-designed protocols, and improved health sector surge capacity.
Wilson, Nick; Baker, Michael; Crampton, Peter; Mansoor, Osman
Another influenza pandemic is all but inevitable. We estimated its potential impact on the primary care medical workforce in New Zealand, so that planning could mitigate the disruption from the pandemic and similar challenges. The model in the "FluAid" software (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta) was applied to the New Zealand primary care medical workforce (i.e., general practitioners). At its peak (week 4) the pandemic would lead to 1.2% to 2.7% loss of medical work time, using conservative baseline assumptions. Most workdays (88%) would be lost due to illness, followed by hospitalisation (8%), and then premature death (4%). Inputs for a "more severe" scenario included greater health effects and time spent caring for sick relatives. For this scenario, 9% of medical workdays would be lost in the peak week, and 3% over a more compressed six-week period of the first pandemic wave. As with the base case, most (64%) of lost workdays would be due to illness, followed by caring for others (31%), hospitalisation (4%), and then premature death (1%). Preparedness planning for future influenza pandemics must consider the impact on this medical workforce and incorporate strategies to minimise this impact, including infection control measures, well-designed protocols, and improved health sector surge capacity.
Baker, Richard; Willars, Janet; McNicol, Sarah; Dixon-Woods, Mary; McKee, Lorna
Although the predominant model of general practice in the UK National Health Service (NHS) remains the small partnership owned and run by general practitioners (GPs), new types of provider are emerging. We sought to characterize the quality and safety systems and processes used in one large, privately owned company providing primary care through a chain of over 50 general practices in England. Senior staff with responsibility for policy on quality and safety were interviewed. We also undertook ethnographic observation in non-clinical areas and interviews with staff in three practices. A small senior executive team set policy and strategy on quality and safety, including a systematic incident reporting and investigation system and processes for disseminating learning with a strong emphasis on customer focus. Standardization of systems was possible because of the large number of practices. Policies appeared generally well implemented at practice level. However, there was some evidence of high staff turnover, particularly of GPs. This caused problems for continuity of care and challenges in inducting new GPs in the company's systems and procedures. A model of primary care delivery based on a corporate chain may be useful in standardizing policies and procedures, facilitating implementation of systems, and relieving clinical staff of administrative duties. However, the model also poses some risks, including those relating to stability. Provider forms that retain the long term, personal commitment of staff to their practices, such as federations or networks, should also be investigated; they may offer the benefits of a corporate chain combined with the greater continuity and stability of the more traditional general practice.
Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Roland, Martin; Reeves, David
The 2007/8 GP Access Survey in England measured experience with five dimensions of access: getting through on the phone to a practice, getting an early appointment, getting an advance appointment, making an appointment with a particular doctor, and surgery opening hours. Our aim was to identify predictors of patient satisfaction and experience with access to English primary care. 8,307 English general practices were included in the survey (of 8,403 identified). 4,922,080 patients were randomly selected and contacted by post and 1,999,523 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 40.6%. We used multi-level logistic regressions to identify patient, practice and regional predictors of patient satisfaction and experience. After controlling for all other factors, younger people, and people of Asian ethnicity, working full time, or with long commuting times to work, reported the lowest levels of satisfaction and experience of access. For people in work, the ability to take time off work to visit the GP effectively eliminated the disadvantage in access. The ethnic mix of the local area had an impact on a patient's reported satisfaction and experience over and above the patient's own ethnic identity. However, area deprivation had only low associations with patient ratings. Responses from patients in small practices were more positive for all aspects of access with the exception of satisfaction with practice opening hours. Positive reports of access to care were associated with higher scores on the Quality and Outcomes Framework and with slightly lower rates of emergency admission. Respondents in London were the least satisfied and had the worst experiences on almost all dimensions of access. This study identifies a number of patient groups with lower satisfaction, and poorer experience, of gaining access to primary care. The finding that access is better in small practices is important given the increasing tendency for small practices to combine into larger
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2007/8 GP Access Survey in England measured experience with five dimensions of access: getting through on the phone to a practice, getting an early appointment, getting an advance appointment, making an appointment with a particular doctor, and surgery opening hours. Our aim was to identify predictors of patient satisfaction and experience with access to English primary care. Methods 8,307 English general practices were included in the survey (of 8,403 identified. 4,922,080 patients were randomly selected and contacted by post and 1,999,523 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 40.6%. We used multi-level logistic regressions to identify patient, practice and regional predictors of patient satisfaction and experience. Results After controlling for all other factors, younger people, and people of Asian ethnicity, working full time, or with long commuting times to work, reported the lowest levels of satisfaction and experience of access. For people in work, the ability to take time off work to visit the GP effectively eliminated the disadvantage in access. The ethnic mix of the local area had an impact on a patient's reported satisfaction and experience over and above the patient's own ethnic identity. However, area deprivation had only low associations with patient ratings. Responses from patients in small practices were more positive for all aspects of access with the exception of satisfaction with practice opening hours. Positive reports of access to care were associated with higher scores on the Quality and Outcomes Framework and with slightly lower rates of emergency admission. Respondents in London were the least satisfied and had the worst experiences on almost all dimensions of access. Conclusions This study identifies a number of patient groups with lower satisfaction, and poorer experience, of gaining access to primary care. The finding that access is better in small practices is important given
Whitford, David L
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity with potential for improved care and prevention through general practice. A national survey was undertaken to determine current resources and needs for optimal stroke prevention and care. METHODS: Postal survey of random sample of general practitioners undertaken (N = 204; 46% response). Topics included practice organisation, primary prevention, acute management, secondary prevention, long-term care and rehabilitation. RESULTS: Service organisation for both primary and secondary prevention was poor. Home management of acute stroke patients was used at some stage by 50% of responders, accounting for 7.3% of all stroke patients. Being in a structured cardiovascular management scheme, a training practice, a larger practice, or a practice employing a practice nurse were associated with structures and processes likely to support stroke prevention and care. CONCLUSION: General practices were not fulfilling their potential to provide stroke prevention and long-term management. Systems of structured stroke management in general practice are essential to comprehensive national programmes of stroke care.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity with potential for improved care and prevention through general practice. A national survey was undertaken to determine current resources and needs for optimal stroke prevention and care. Methods Postal survey of random sample of general practitioners undertaken (N = 204; 46% response. Topics included practice organisation, primary prevention, acute management, secondary prevention, long-term care and rehabilitation. Results Service organisation for both primary and secondary prevention was poor. Home management of acute stroke patients was used at some stage by 50% of responders, accounting for 7.3% of all stroke patients. Being in a structured cardiovascular management scheme, a training practice, a larger practice, or a practice employing a practice nurse were associated with structures and processes likely to support stroke prevention and care. Conclusion General practices were not fulfilling their potential to provide stroke prevention and long-term management. Systems of structured stroke management in general practice are essential to comprehensive national programmes of stroke care.
Kurlander, David E; Martires, Kathryn J; Chen, Yanwen; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bordeaux, Jeremy S
Patients frequently live many years after diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). We sought to determine the risk of subsequent primary malignancy (SPM) after DFSP diagnosis. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-2008) for 3734 patients with DFSP, we compared the risk of developing 14 SPMs (12 most prevalent cancers in the United States plus other nonepithelial and soft tissue) relative to risk in the general population of same sex, race, and age and year of diagnosis. Patients given the diagnosis of DFSP had an overall increased risk of SPM (observed:expected [O:E], 1.20; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.04-1.39), with much of the overall increased risk attributable to increased risk of nonepithelial skin cancer (O:E, 9.94; 95% CI, 3.38-22.30). Specifically, female patients with DFSP were at increased risk of other nonepithelial skin cancer (O:E, 14.50; 95% CI, 3.46-38.98), melanoma (O:E, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.02-5.35), and breast cancer (O:E, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.00-2.00). Male patients were not at increased overall risk (O:E, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.96-1.44) of SPM or at increased risk of any specific malignancy (P > .05) adjusted for multiplicity of t tests. Surveillance bias may have led to increased rates and earlier detection of primary malignances in patients with DFSP compared with the general population. Individual data that may reveal shared environmental causes of DFSP and SPM were unavailable. Patients with DFSP are at increased risk of a number of SPMs. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Deborah J.; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Gordon, Leah; Marino, Miguel; Ono, Sarah; Solberg, Leif I.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Stange, Kurt C.; Davis, Melinda; Miller, William L.; Damschroder, Laura J.; McConnell, K. John; Creswell, John
Background The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) launched the EvidenceNOW Initiative to rapidly disseminate and implement evidence-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) preventive care in smaller primary care practices. AHRQ funded eight grantees (seven regional Cooperatives and one independent national evaluation) to participate in EvidenceNOW. The national evaluation examines quality improvement efforts and outcomes for more than 1500 small primary care practices (restricted to...
Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of patient care, while at the same time keeping up with the pace of increased needs of the population for healthcare services that directly impacts on the cost of care delivery processes, the Republic of Croatia, under the leadership of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, has formed a strategy and campaign for national public healthcare system reform. The strategy is very comprehensive and addresses all niches of care delivery processes; it is founded on the enterprise information systems that will aim to support end-to-end business processes in the healthcare domain. Two major requirements are in focus: (1 to provide efficient healthcare-related data management in support of decision-making processes; (2 to support a continuous process of healthcare resource spending optimisation. The first project is the Integrated Healthcare Information System (IHCIS on the primary care level; this encompasses the integration of all primary point-of-care facilities and subjects with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and Croatian National Institute of Public Health. In years to come, IHCIS will serve as the main integration platform for connecting all other stakeholders and levels of health care (that is, hospitals, pharmacies, laboratories into a single enterprise healthcare network. This article gives an overview of Croatian public healthcare system strategy aims and goals, and focuses on properties and characteristics of the primary care project implementation that started in 2003; it achieved a major milestone in early 2007 - the official grand opening of the project with 350 GPs already fully connected to the integrated healthcare information infrastructure based on the IHCIS solution.
Andersen, John Sahl; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Krasnik, Allan
. The data is easy accessible from the Danish National Board of Health. Conclusion: The register's strengths include completeness, size and long follow-up period. It is useful for research purposes especially when linked with other registers. However, grave reservations must be made regarding the validity...... of the register as no studies of this point have been made. Knowledge of the working conditions in general practice is necessary in order to use the NHSR for research purposes.......Aim: To describe NHSR in relation to research. Content: The data in the register from general practice is generated through the GPs’ electronic invoices to the Regional Health Administration. Data from 1990 onwards is available covering more than 600 million patient contacts. For each service...
Ruff, Ryan Richard
Education in Sub-Saharan Africa is increasingly viewed as a means of emancipation and a transformative project for social mobility. Developing nations have pursued policies such as universal or free primary education to increase access to education and improve student outcomes. In this study, direct and indirect precursors to primary school…
Robinson, Andrew Ken Lacey
This article describes the first government social franchise initiative in the world to deliver a 'brand' of quality primary healthcare (PHC) clinic services. Quality and standards of care are not uniformly and reliably delivered across government PHC clinics in North West Province, South Africa, despite government support, numerous policies, guidelines and in-service training sessions provided to staff. Currently the strongest predictor of good-quality service is the skill and dedication of the facility manager. A project utilising the social franchising business model, harvesting best practices, has been implemented with the aim of developing a system to ensure reliably excellent healthcare service provision in every facility in North West. The services of social franchising consultants have been procured to develop the business model to drive this initiative. Best practices have been benchmarked, and policies, guidelines and clinic support systems have been reviewed, evaluated and assessed, and incorporated into the business plan. A pilot clinic has been selected to refine and develop a working social franchise model. This will then be replicated in one clinic to confirm proof of concept before further scale-up. The social franchise business model can provide solutions to a reliable and recognisable 'brand' of quality universal coverage of healthcare services.
Full Text Available The general pattern of service provision provides specialist and maternity hospitals at the tertiary care level, general hospitals as secondary level care, while the PUSKESMAS, PUSKESTU, POSYANDU and Village Delivery Units (POLINDES make up the primary care facilities. A PUSKESMAS is staffed by a medical doctor (general physician, a dental surgeon, nurses, midwives, assistant pharmacist and sanitarians, alongside the necessary administrative staff. Usually the facilities of a PUSKESMAS will include a minor operations surgery, a delivery room, a dental surgery and a small inpatient ward. The PUSKESMAS may also have minor laboratory facilities, such as the capacity to diagnose malaria, helminth infection or tuberculosis. The PUSKESTU has nurses only. The Village Delivery Unit is used by both the Village Midwife (Bidem Desa, usually a newly qualified midwife, and the traditional midwife (Dukun who may or may not be trained. Facilities are open Monday to Friday during normal office hours, with emergency cover only outside these times. Care is generally provided on a fee-for-service basis.
Balestrieri, Matteo; Isola, Miriam; Quartaroli, Mauro; Roncolato, Maurizio; Bellantuono, Cesario
Prevalence and risk factors associated with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MAD) have yet to be established. Using MINI 5.0.1 and HADS, a two-week survey involving 21,644 primary care patients was carried out. We found 1.8% of subjects with MAD and 20% of subjects with a co-morbid anxiety and depression (CAD) disorder. MAD patients without a past history of anxiety/affective episodes were defined as "pure MAD" (pMAD: 0.9% of the sample). While MAD patients showed a number of differences vs. the other groups of patients in the socio-demographic statistics, pMAD patients were not different, apart from a higher proportion of males vs. CAD patients. Nearly in all the comparisons, MAD and pMAD patients showed lower association with life events and with a familial predisposition than the other patients. On HADS assessment, MAD showed a higher risk of anxiety and depressive symptoms than anxiety diagnoses, a lower risk of depressive symptoms than depressive diagnoses and a lower risk of both anxiety and depressive symptoms than CAD. Since more than a half of MAD patients were classified as pMAD, the hypothesis that MAD should be viewed as a partial remission of a major depression is not entirely confirmed in our study. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meillón-García, Luis Antonio; García-Chávez, Jaime; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Gutiérrez-Espíndola, Guillermo R; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos
In order to identify the clinical approach of a sample of Mexican hematologists for primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adults in Mexico, we applied an electronic survey via the internet to identify common practices for the diagnosis and treatment of ITP and draw a comparison between the information from these hematologists with international guidelines or the international literature. The results were analyzed using measures of central tendency. The sample was 21 medical hematologists, predominantly from Mexico City (average age: 51.4 years). A total of 66.7% of the surveyed physicians use international guidelines to make therapeutic decisions, and 43% defined ITP including the numerical concept (< 100 x 10(9)/l). We found some differences between requested clinical exams and tests indicated by the guidelines. In first-line treatment (except emergency), 91% of the participants start with prednisone and 24% use dexamethasone. Danazol is used in persistent ITP by most (41%) of the specialists. In second-line treatment, 67% would indicate splenectomy. Some differences were found between clinical practice of the hematologists in Mexico versus guidelines recommendations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain. Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®. Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain.
Kruske, Sue; Kildea, Sue; Jenkinson, Bec; Pilcher, Jennifer; Robin, Sarah; Rolfe, Margaret; Kornelsen, Jude; Barclay, Lesley
Primary Maternity Units (PMUs) offer less expensive and potentially more sustainable maternity care, with comparable or better perinatal outcomes for normal pregnancy and birth than higherlevel units. However, little is known about how these maternity services operate in rural and remote Australia, in regards to location, models of care, service structure, support mechanisms or sustainability. This study aimed to confirm and describe how they operate. a descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken, utilising a 35-item survey to explore current provision of maternity care in rural and remote PMUs across Australia. Data were subjected to simple descriptive statistics and thematic analysis for free text answers. Only 17 PMUs were identified in rural and remote areas of Australia. All 17 completed the survey. the PMUs were, on average, 56km or 49minutes from their referral service and provided care to an average of 59 birthing women per year. Periodic closures or downgrading of services was common. Low-risk eligibility criteria were universally used, but with some variability. Medically-led care was the most widely available model of care. In most PMUs midwives worked shift work involving both nursing and midwifery duties, with minimal uptake of recent midwifery workforce innovations. Perceived enablers of, and threats to, sustainability were reported. a small number of PMUs operate in rural Australia, and none in remote areas. Continuing overreliance on local medical support, and under-utilisation of the midwifery workforce constrain the restoration of maternity services to rural and remote Australia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman
The present study aimed at exploring the concepts of the security education in the textbooks of the national and civic education of the higher primary stage in Jordan. It adopted the descriptive analytical method. The study sample consisted of the textbooks of the national and civic education for the basic eighth, ninth and tenth grades. To…
... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data.... Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone. 2.1 Data Reporting and Handling Conventions... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of...
Pontes, Halley M.; Macur, Mirna; Griffiths, Mark D.
Background and aims Since the inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a tentative disorder, a few psychometric screening instruments have been developed to assess IGD, including the 9-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) – a short, valid, and reliable instrument. Methods Due to the lack of research on IGD in Slovenia, this study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in addition to investigating the prevalence rates of IGD in a nationally representative sample of eighth graders from Slovenia (N = 1,071). Results The IGDS9-SF underwent rigorous psychometric scrutiny in terms of validity and reliability. Construct validation was investigated with confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factorial structure of the IGDS9-SF and a unidimensional structure appeared to fit the data well. Concurrent and criterion validation were also investigated by examining the association between IGD and relevant psychosocial and game-related measures, which warranted these forms of validity. In terms of reliability, the Slovenian version IGDS9-SF obtained excellent results regarding its internal consistency at different levels, and the test appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess IGD among Slovenian youth. Finally, the prevalence rates of IGD were found to be around 2.5% in the whole sample and 3.1% among gamers. Discussion and conclusion Taken together, these results illustrate the suitability of the IGDS9-SF and warrants further research on IGD in Slovenia. PMID:27363464
Alameddine, Mohamad; Saleh, Shadi; El-Jardali, Fadi; Dimassi, Hani; Mourad, Yara
Critical shortages of health human resources (HHR), associated with high turnover rates, have been a concern in many countries around the globe. Of particular interest is the effect of such a trend on the primary healthcare (PHC) sector; considered a cornerstone in any effective healthcare system. This study is a rare attempt to investigate PHC HHR work characteristics, level of burnout and likelihood to quit as well as the factors significantly associated with staff retention at PHC centers in Lebanon. A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey all health providers at 81 PHC centers dispersed in all districts of Lebanon. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: socio-demographic/ professional background, organizational/institutional characteristics, likelihood to quit and level of professional burnout (using the Maslach-Burnout Inventory). A total of 755 providers completed the questionnaire (60.5% response rate). Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with likelihood to quit. Two out of five respondents indicated likelihood to quit their jobs within the next 1-3 years and an additional 13.4% were not sure about quitting. The top three reasons behind likelihood to quit were poor salary (54.4%), better job opportunities outside the country (35.1%) and lack of professional development (33.7%). A U-shaped relationship was observed between age and likelihood to quit. Regression analysis revealed that high levels of burnout, lower level of education and low tenure were all associated with increased likelihood to quit. The study findings reflect an unstable workforce and are not conducive to supporting an expanded role for PHC in the Lebanese healthcare system. While strategies aiming at improving staff retention would be important to develop and implement for all PHC HHR; targeted retention initiatives should focus on the young-new recruits and allied health professionals. Particular attention should
Full Text Available Abstract Background Critical shortages of health human resources (HHR, associated with high turnover rates, have been a concern in many countries around the globe. Of particular interest is the effect of such a trend on the primary healthcare (PHC sector; considered a cornerstone in any effective healthcare system. This study is a rare attempt to investigate PHC HHR work characteristics, level of burnout and likelihood to quit as well as the factors significantly associated with staff retention at PHC centers in Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional design was utilized to survey all health providers at 81 PHC centers dispersed in all districts of Lebanon. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: socio-demographic/ professional background, organizational/institutional characteristics, likelihood to quit and level of professional burnout (using the Maslach-Burnout Inventory. A total of 755 providers completed the questionnaire (60.5% response rate. Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with likelihood to quit. Results Two out of five respondents indicated likelihood to quit their jobs within the next 1–3 years and an additional 13.4% were not sure about quitting. The top three reasons behind likelihood to quit were poor salary (54.4%, better job opportunities outside the country (35.1% and lack of professional development (33.7%. A U-shaped relationship was observed between age and likelihood to quit. Regression analysis revealed that high levels of burnout, lower level of education and low tenure were all associated with increased likelihood to quit. Conclusions The study findings reflect an unstable workforce and are not conducive to supporting an expanded role for PHC in the Lebanese healthcare system. While strategies aiming at improving staff retention would be important to develop and implement for all PHC HHR; targeted retention initiatives should focus on the young-new recruits
Hansen, P. J. K.
How to use The National Gallery as a cross curricular approach to weather and climate studies at primary level. Pål J. Kirkeby Hansen Faculty of Education and International Studies, Oslo University College (PalKirkeby.Hansen@lui.hio.no) Weather and climate are topics in natural science and geography in primary and secondary education in most countries. The pupils are often doing own weather observations and measurements and are presenting the results oral, by posters or with digital aids. They also use the Internet with all its relevant resources in their studies to develop vocabulary, practical and conceptual knowledge. Knowledge about weather and climate is parts of liberal education and could be projected to other topics in science and to topics in other subjects, for instance: history, social geography, literature and arts. This article reports from a case study in grade 3 classes (age 9 year) during their Weather Week. Their science teacher was, quite untypical, also educated in art history. She arranged a visited to The National Gallery with the double agenda: 1. To introduce the pupils to Norwegian canon paintings from the national romantic period, our so-called "golden age”. 2. To look for and discuss weather elements in this paintings. For one hour the museum curator guided the pupils around the water cycle by using the paintings. While the pupils' own observations of weather, clouds and wind and measurements of temperature and precipitation during the Weather Week only are point checks, the guided tour in The National Gallery gave literally "the whole picture” of the Norwegian weather and climate and of the water cycle. During the tour, the curator constantly invited the pupils to tell about and discuss what weather and water elements they were looking at when standing in front of a painting. The pupils were responsive and interested all the time. Back at school, they demonstrated that they had learned much about both weather elements, the water
Oparanya Wamukoya Windrick
Full Text Available ABSTARCT This study is designed to establish the factors influencing academic of standard eight girls in public primary schools in National exams in Matungu division. The researcher aimed at finding out why there is increased low performance of girls in public schools despite the fact that they are assessed through periodic performance tests do continuous assessment tests CATS midterm carry out tuition and the provision of free primary education which is aimed at improving academic performance. This study adapted a descriptive survey design as a major method of research where data was collected by the researcher members of a population under study. The target population comprised of Head teachers teachers pupils parents and parent schools representatives. Purposive sampling and simple random technique were used. Data was collected by use of questionnaires and interview guides. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics constituting frequencies and percentages.The study established that girls were exposed to harsh school environmental conditions they walked long distances to school schools lacked facilities like toilets libraries and were exposed to male pest teachers. There were also teacher factors like training teacher shortage and motivation that affected girls performance.The study came up with recommendations for improvement of girls academic performance. More public schools should be build to reduce on distance and also overpopulation. The ministry of Education should monitor and evaluate the academic performance of girls in rural areas. The government should put up strict rules on pest teachers. The ministry should hire more teachers.
Atun, Rifat; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Hone, Thomas; Pell, Lisa; Stokes, Jonathan; Habicht, Triin; Lukka, Kaija; Raaper, Elin; Habicht, Jarno
Following independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Estonia introduced a national insurance system, consolidated the number of health care providers, and introduced family medicine centred primary health care (PHC) to strengthen the health system. Using routinely collected health billing records for 2005-2012, we examine health system utilisation for seven ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], depression, Type 2 diabetes, heart failure, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease [IHD]), and by patient characteristics (gender, age, and number of co-morbidities). The data set contained 552 822 individuals. We use patient level data to test the significance of trends, and employ multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the probability of inpatient admission while controlling for patient characteristics, health system supply-side variables, and PHC use. Over the study period, utilisation of PHC increased, whilst inpatient admissions fell. Service mix in PHC changed with increases in phone, email, nurse, and follow-up (vs initial) consultations. Healthcare utilisation for diabetes, depression, IHD and hypertension shifted to PHC, whilst for COPD, heart failure and asthma utilisation in outpatient and inpatient settings increased. Multivariate regression indicates higher probability of inpatient admission for males, older patient and especially those with multimorbidity, but protective effect for PHC, with significantly lower hospital admission for those utilising PHC services. Our findings suggest health system reforms in Estonia have influenced the shift of ACSCs from secondary to primary care, with PHC having a protective effect in reducing hospital admissions.
Gill, James M; Klinkman, Michael S; Chen, Ying Xia
Because comorbid depression can complicate medical conditions (eg, diabetes), physicians may treat depression more aggressively in patients who have these conditions. This study examined whether primary care physicians prescribe antidepressant medications more often and in higher doses for persons with medical comorbidities. This secondary data analysis of electronic health record data was conducted in the Centricity Health Care User Research Network (CHURN), a national network of ambulatory practices that use a common outpatient electronic health record. Participants included 209 family medicine and general internal medicine providers in 40 primary care CHURN offices in 17 US states. Patients included adults with a new episode of depression that had been diagnosed during the period October 2006 through July 2007 (n = 1513). Prescription of antidepressant medication and doses of antidepressant medication were compared for patients with and without 6 comorbid conditions: diabetes, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. 20.7% of patients had at least one medical comorbidity whereas 5.8% had multiple comorbidities. Overall, 77% of depressed patients were prescribed antidepressant medication. After controlling for age and sex, patients with multiple comorbidities were less likely to be prescribed medication (adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.96), but there was no significant difference by individual comorbidities. Patients with cerebrovascular disease were less likely to be prescribed a full dose of medication (adjusted odds ratio, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.88), but there were no differences for other comorbidities or for multiple comorbidities, and there was no difference for any comorbidities in the prescription of minimally effective doses. Patients with new episodes of depression who present to a primary care practice are not treated more aggressively if they have medical
Cowling, Thomas E; Harris, Matthew; Watt, Hilary; Soljak, Michael; Richards, Emma; Gunning, Elinor; Bottle, Alex; Macinko, James; Majeed, Azeem
The UK government is pursuing policies to improve primary care access, as many patients visit accident and emergency (A and E) departments after being unable to get suitable general practice appointments. Direct admission to hospital via a general practitioner (GP) averts A and E use, and may reduce total hospital costs. It could also enhance the continuity of information between GPs and hospital doctors, possibly improving healthcare outcomes. To determine whether primary care access is associated with the route of emergency admission-via a GP versus via an A and E department. Retrospective analysis of national administrative data from English hospitals for 2011-2012. Adults admitted in an emergency (unscheduled) for ≥1 night via a GP or an A and E department formed the study population. The measure of primary care access-the percentage of patients able to get a general practice appointment on their last attempt-was derived from a large, nationally representative patient survey. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations, adjusting for patient and admission characteristics. The analysis included 2 322 112 emergency admissions (81.9% via an A and E department). With a 5 unit increase in the percentage of patients able to get a general practice appointment on their last attempt, the adjusted odds of GP admission (vs A and E admission) was estimated to increase by 15% (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.17). The probability of GP admission if ≥95% of appointment attempts were successful in each general practice was estimated to be 19.6%. This probability reduced to 13.6% when <80% of appointment attempts were successful. This equates to 139 673 fewer GP admissions (456 232 vs 316 559) assuming no change in the total number of admissions. Associations were consistent in direction across geographical regions of England. Among hospital inpatients admitted as an emergency, patients registered to more accessible general practices were more
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is pressing need to diagnose lung cancer earlier in the United Kingdom (UK and it is likely that research using computerised general practice records will help this process. Linkage of these records to area-level geo-demographic classifications may also facilitate case ascertainment for public health programmes, however, there have as yet been no extensive studies of data validity for such purposes. Methods To first address the need for validation, we assessed the completeness and representativeness of lung cancer data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN national primary care database by comparing incidence and survival between 2000 and 2009 with the UK National Cancer Registry and the National Lung Cancer Audit Database. Secondly, we explored the potential of a geo-demographic social marketing tool to facilitate disease ascertainment by using Experian's Mosaic Public Sector ™ classification, to identify detailed profiles of the sectors of society where lung cancer incidence was highest. Results Overall incidence of lung cancer (41.4/100, 000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 40.6-42.1 and median survival (232 days were similar to other national data; The incidence rate in THIN from 2003-2006 was found to be just over 93% of the national cancer registry rate. Incidence increased considerably with area-level deprivation measured by the Townsend Index and was highest in the North-West of England (65.1/100, 000 person-years. Wider variations in incidence were however identified using Mosaic classifications with the highest incidence in Mosaic Public Sector ™types 'Cared-for pensioners, ' 'Old people in flats' and 'Dignified dependency' (191.7, 174.2 and 117.1 per 100, 000 person-years respectively. Conclusions Routine electronic data in THIN are a valid source of lung cancer information. Mosaic ™ identified greater incidence differentials than standard area-level measures and as such could be used as a tool
Elijah J. Talamas
Full Text Available A photographic catalog of primary types of Platygastroidea housed in the National Insect Collection, National Museum of Natural History, is here made available online at the image database at The Ohio State University (specimage.osu.edu. Following examination of this collection we enact the following taxonomic changes: Leptacis piniella MacGown syn. n. is treated as a junior synonym of Leptacis pinicola MacGown; Sacespalus indicus Mani is transferred to Platygaster Latreille; Platygaster indica Mukerjee is given the replacement name Platygaster chaos Talamas, n. n.; Synopeas rugiceps (Ashmead, comb. n. is transferred from Leptacis Förster; Axea atriclava (Kieffer, comb. n. is transferred from Psilanteris Kieffer; Chakra pachmarhica (Sharma, comb. n. is transferred from Paridris Kieffer; Paridris dubeyi Sharma, syn. n. is treated as a junior synonym of Chakra pachmarhica; Holoteleia indica (Mani is transferred to Opisthacantha Ashmead and given a replacement name, Opisthacantha nomados Talamas, n. n.; Psilanteris nigriclavata (Ashmead, comb. n. is transferred from Anteris Förster; Probaryconus grenadensis (Ashmead, comb. n. is transferred from Monoteleia Kieffer; Monoteleia syn.n. is treated as a junior synonym of Probaryconus Kieffer; Paridris karnatakensis Sharma, syn. n is treated as a junior synonym of Probaryconus cauverycus Saraswat; Probaryconus punctatus (Ashmead, comb. n. is transferred from Oxyteleia Kieffer; Triteleia bengalensis (Saraswat, comb. n. is transferred from Alloteleia Kieffer; Trimorus varius Fouts, syn. n. and Trimorus pulchricornis Fouts, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Trimorus annulicornis (Ashmead; Neotypes are designated for Gryon leptocorisae (Howard, Idris seminiger (Ashmead, Telenomus graptae Howard, Telenomus persimilis Ashmead, and Telenomus rileyi Howard; lectotypes are designated for Cremastobaeus bicolor Ashmead, Oethecoctonus insularis (Ashmead, Oethecoctonus laticinctus (Ashmead and Probaryconus
Smith, Samuel G; Foy, Robbie; McGowan, Jennifer A; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; DeCensi, Andrea; Brown, Karen; Side, Lucy; Cuzick, Jack
The cancer strategy for England (2015-2020) recommends GPs prescribe tamoxifen for breast cancer primary prevention among women at increased risk. To investigate GPs' attitudes towards prescribing tamoxifen. In an online survey, GPs in England, Northern Ireland, and Wales ( n = 928) were randomised using a 2 × 2 between-subjects design to read one of four vignettes describing a healthy patient seeking a tamoxifen prescription. In the vignette, the hypothetical patient's breast cancer risk (moderate versus high) and the clinician initiating the prescription (GP prescriber versus secondary care clinician [SCC] prescriber) were manipulated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Outcomes were willingness to prescribe, comfort discussing harms and benefits, comfort managing the patient, factors affecting the prescribing decision, and awareness of tamoxifen and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline CG164. Half (51.7%) of the GPs knew tamoxifen can reduce breast cancer risk, and one-quarter (24.1%) were aware of NICE guideline CG164. Responders asked to initiate prescribing (GP prescriber) were less willing to prescribe tamoxifen than those continuing a prescription initiated in secondary care (SCC prescriber) (68.9% versus 84.6%, P preventive therapy in secondary care before asking GPs to continue the patient's care may overcome some prescribing barriers. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...
Rodriguez, Myriam; Grajales, Marco; Londono, Sonia; Ortiz, Natascha
Primary non- Hodgkin's lymphomas of the breast (PNHLB) are an infrequent malignancy. In a review of the literature, in which six Latin American journals are included, approximately 450 cases have been reported during the past two decades. in this paper we present the experience of the national cancer institute of Colombia during the last 23 years. Objective: to carry out a retrospective analysis of the characteristics, natural history, prognostic factors, and outcome of patients with PNHLB at the NCI of Colombia. Methods: the medical histories of patients diagnosed with PNHLB between 1980 and 2003 were reviewed; likewise, the clinical characteristics, treatment protocols, and final outcomes were analyzed. Results: 25 patients were identified as PNHLB. The average follow-up was 57 months. The medium age was 58, ranging from 26 to 83. 84% had diffused large cell lymphoma. The Karnofsky index was over 80 in 92% of the patients. 72% received chop chemotherapy. Two patients received a combination without doxorubicin. 68% received combined chemo- and radiation therapy. Two patients refused therapy. Two patients died before receiving any type of treatment. CNS compromise was observed in 20% of patients during the evolution of their disease. The youngest patient, whose case deserves special comment, obtained a second complete remission with simple mastectomy, after having relapsed after conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and autologous bone marrow transplant. No significant prognostic variables were found using the univariate analysis. Conclusions: a high rate of complete remission can be achieved by using combined treatment in patients with PNHLB. The medium overall survival was not reached after 71 months of follow-up. The most frequent relapse site was the CNS
... Neoplasia Type 1 Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy Primary Hyperparathyroidism Prolactinoma National Hormone and Pituitary Program (NHPP): Information for ... qualified health care provider nearby. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition Eating, diet, and nutrition have not been shown ...
Availability of herbal medicines and medicinal plants in the primary health facilities of the state of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil: results from the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care.
Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo Gullaci Guimarães; Bertoni, Bianca Waléria; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi
This study aims to describe the availability of herbal medicines and medicinal plants in the primary care facilities in the state of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil, from the results of the first cycle of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care (PMAQ). The PMAQ uses a national cross-sectional multicenter design, with data from 4,249 health facilities distributed among 645 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. Of these facilities, 467 (11%) had herbal medicines and/or medicinal plants. Among the 645 municipalities, 104 (16.1%) had at least one health facility that provided these drugs. We observed that the availability of herbal medicines is greater in larger cities with better social and economic conditions. Furthermore, we found that use of industrialized herbal medicines prevailed over that of vegetal drugs or compounded herbal medicines.
Rubin, G P; Saunders, C L; Abel, G A; McPhail, S; Lyratzopoulos, G; Neal, R D
For patients with symptoms of possible cancer who do not fulfil the criteria for urgent referral, initial investigation in primary care has been advocated in the United Kingdom and supported by additional resources. The consequence of this strategy for the timeliness of diagnosis is unknown. We analysed data from the English National Audit of Cancer Diagnosis in Primary Care on patients with lung (1494), colorectal (2111), stomach (246), oesophagus (513), pancreas (327), and ovarian (345) cancer relating to the ordering of investigations by the General Practitioner and their nature. Presenting symptoms were categorised according to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance on referral for suspected cancer. We used linear regression to estimate the mean difference in primary-care interval by cancer, after adjustment for age, gender, and the symptomatic presentation category. Primary-care investigations were undertaken in 3198/5036 (64%) of cases. The median primary-care interval was 16 days (IQR 5-45) for patients undergoing investigation and 0 days (IQR 0-10) for those not investigated. Among patients whose symptoms mandated urgent referral to secondary care according to NICE guidelines, between 37% (oesophagus) and 75% (pancreas) were first investigated in primary care. In multivariable linear regression analyses stratified by cancer site, adjustment for age, sex, and NICE referral category explained little of the observed prolongation associated with investigation. For six specified cancers, investigation in primary care was associated with later referral for specialist assessment. This effect was independent of the nature of symptoms. Some patients for whom urgent referral is mandated by NICE guidance are nevertheless investigated before referral. Reducing the intervals between test order, test performance, and reporting can help reduce the prolongation of primary-care intervals associated with investigation use. Alternative models of
Park, Elyse R; Gareen, Ilana F; Japuntich, Sandra; Lennes, Inga; Hyland, Kelly; DeMello, Sarah; Sicks, JoRean D; Rigotti, Nancy A
The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) found a reduction in lung cancer mortality among participants screened with low-dose computed tomography vs chest radiography. In February 2015, Medicare announced its decision to cover annual lung screening for patients with a significant smoking history. These guidelines promote smoking cessation treatment as an adjunct to screening, but the frequency and effectiveness of clinician-delivered smoking cessation interventions delivered after lung screening are unknown. To determine the association between the reported clinician-delivered 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist [talk about quitting or recommend stop-smoking medications or recommend counseling], and arrange follow-up) after lung screening and smoking behavior changes. A matched case-control study (cases were quitters and controls were continued smokers) of 3336 NLST participants who were smokers at enrollment examined participants' rates and patterns of 5A delivery after a lung screen and reported smoking cessation behaviors. Prevalence of the clinician-delivered 5As and associated smoking cessation after lung screening. Delivery of the 5As 1 year after screening were as follows: ask, 77.2%; advise, 75.6%; assess, 63.4%; assist, 56.4%; and arrange follow-up, 10.4%. Receipt of ask, advise, and assess was not significantly associated with quitting in multivariate models that adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, screening results, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit. Assist was associated with a 40% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.21-1.63), and arrange was associated with a 46% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.19-1.79). Assist and arrange follow-up delivered by primary care providers to smokers who were participating in the NLST were associated with increased quitting; less intensive interventions (ask, advise, and assess) were not. However, rates of assist and arrange
Full Text Available Large-scale disturbances under the conditions of Slovakia, caused especially by storm and bark beetle, bring dramatic decline in carbon budget of the country, besides other negative consequences. The largest disturbance in modern history of the Slovak forestry was the storm damage that occurred in November 2004. The Tatra National Park (TNP was one of the most affected regions. Thus, in this territory, two transects (T1 – the Danielov dom site and T2 – near the Horný Smokovec village were established to survey basic dendrometric properties of trees in young stands established after the disaster. The standing stock of aboveground biomass in tree cover for the spring and autumn 2014 was calculated using the recorded variables, i.e. tree height and diameter measured at the stem base, together with the region-specific allometric relations. Then, the Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP in tree cover was estimated with respect to its components (stem, branches and foliage. ANPP was 315 g m−2 per year (Transect T1, and 391 g m−2 per year (Transect T2. The differences in the structure of ANPP, i.e. contribution of tree components, were found between transects T1 and T2. They were caused by the contrasting tree species composition, specifically the ratios between Norway spruce and broadleaved species. Broadleaves allocated more biomass production to foliage than spruce. This phenomenon together with higher turnover (once a year of foliage caused that broadleaves manifest higher share of fast-cycling carbon in comparison to the amount of carbon sequestrated in woody parts (stem and branches. High variability of ANPP was found within the transects, i.e. among the plots (microsites. As for the representative estimation of the standing stock of aboveground part of tree cover as well as ANPP at the post-disturbance area in the TNP territory, the survey should be performed on a net of research plots. Only this approach enables reliable estimates
Asri, Yessy; Fitriani, Yessy
Great nation is a nation that respects the the sacrifice of the heroes and the history of his people. This young generation is the root of a nation who need to know and respect the values of which has been laid the founding fathers. The history continues to be written by people, in all civilizations and in all times,History in writing or documentation becomes an important tool in studying the progress and setbacks of a nation that is contained in various events in the past. Indonesia is a pluralistic nation consisting of various tribes, culture and history are scattered throughout the country. Interactive flash flip book application built to pack the local stories and history of the nation which is widespread in the thirty-three provinces to to elementary school children through teachers, especially elementary school teachers Islam Bani Saleh 5 and SDN Setiadarma 04 Bekasi in the subjects of Citizenship Education (PKn). The main problem in this research is "Whether a flash flip book can give effect to increase the spirit of nationalism elementary school students ? ". The method used is the One group pretest posttest design. Population in this research is class student V SD Islam Bani Saleh and SDN Setiadarma 04 Bekasi. Results of this study was to measure the influence of media flash flip book to foster a sense of nationalism graders V SD in the subjects of Citizenship Education (PKn) in SD Islam Bani Saleh 5 and SDN Setiadarma 04 Bekasi Bekasi.
... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2 NAAQS...
Taruscio, Domenica; Arriola, Larraitz; Baldi, Francesca; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Calzolari, Elisa; Carbone, Pietro; Curran, Rhonda; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Latos-Bieleńska, Anna; Khoshnood, Babak; Irgens, Lorentz; Mantovani, Alberto; Martínez-Frías, Maria Luisa; Neville, Amanda; Rißmann, Anke; Ruggeri, Stefania; Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen
Congenital anomalies (CA) are the paradigm example of rare diseases liable to primary prevention actions due to the multifactorial etiology of many of them, involving a number of environmental factors together with genetic predispositions. Yet despite the preventive potential, lack of attention to an integrated preventive strategy has led to the prevalence of CA remaining relatively stable in recent decades. The 2 European projects, EUROCAT and EUROPLAN, have joined efforts to provide the first science-based and comprehensive set of recommendations for the primary prevention of CA in the European Union. The resulting EUROCAT-EUROPLAN 'Recommendations on Policies to Be Considered for the Primary Prevention of Congenital Anomalies in National Plans and Strategies on Rare Diseases' were issued in 2012 and endorsed by EUCERD (European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases) in 2013. The recommendations exploit interdisciplinary expertise encompassing drugs, diet, lifestyles, maternal health status, and the environment. The recommendations include evidence-based actions aimed at reducing risk factors and at increasing protective factors and behaviors at both individual and population level. Moreover, consideration is given to topics specifically related to CA (e.g. folate status, teratogens) as well as of broad public health impact (e.g. obesity, smoking) which call for specific attention to their relevance in the pre- and periconceptional period. The recommendations, reported entirely in this paper, are a comprehensive tool to implement primary prevention into national policies on rare diseases in Europe. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Cohen, Deborah J; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Gordon, Leah; Marino, Miguel; Ono, Sarah; Solberg, Leif I; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Stange, Kurt C; Davis, Melinda; Miller, William L; Damschroder, Laura J; McConnell, K John; Creswell, John
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) launched the EvidenceNOW Initiative to rapidly disseminate and implement evidence-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) preventive care in smaller primary care practices. AHRQ funded eight grantees (seven regional Cooperatives and one independent national evaluation) to participate in EvidenceNOW. The national evaluation examines quality improvement efforts and outcomes for more than 1500 small primary care practices (restricted to those with fewer than ten physicians per clinic). Examples of external support include practice facilitation, expert consultation, performance feedback, and educational materials and activities. This paper describes the study protocol for the EvidenceNOW national evaluation, which is called Evaluating System Change to Advance Learning and Take Evidence to Scale (ESCALATES). This prospective observational study will examine the portfolio of EvidenceNOW Cooperatives using both qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data include: online implementation diaries, observation and interviews at Cooperatives and practices, and systematic assessment of context from the perspective of Cooperative team members. Quantitative data include: practice-level performance on clinical quality measures (aspirin prescribing, blood pressure and cholesterol control, and smoking cessation; ABCS) collected by Cooperatives from electronic health records (EHRs); practice and practice member surveys to assess practice capacity and other organizational and structural characteristics; and systematic tracking of intervention delivery. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods analyses will be conducted to examine how Cooperatives organize to provide external support to practices, to compare effectiveness of the dissemination and implementation approaches they implement, and to examine how regional variations and other organization and contextual factors influence implementation and effectiveness. ESCALATES is
Liu, Zhixin; Moorin, Rachael; Worthington, John; Tofler, Geoffrey; Bartlett, Mark; Khan, Rabia; Zuo, Yeqin
The National Prescribing Service (NPS) MedicineWise Stroke Prevention Program, which was implemented nationally in 2009-2010 in Australia, sought to improve antithrombotic prescribing in stroke prevention using dedicated interventions that target general practitioners. This study evaluated the impact of the NPS MedicineWise Stroke Prevention Program on antithrombotic prescribing and primary stroke hospitalizations. This population-based time series study used administrative health data linked to 45 and Up Study participants with a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to assess the possible impact of the NPS MedicineWise program on first-time aspirin prescriptions and primary stroke-related hospitalizations. Time series analysis showed that the NPS MedicineWise program was significantly associated with increased first-time prescribing of aspirin (P=0.03) and decreased hospitalizations for primary ischemic stroke (P=0.03) in the at-risk study population (n=90 023). First-time aspirin prescription was correlated with a reduction in the rate of hospitalization for primary stroke (P=0.02). Following intervention, the number of first-time aspirin prescriptions increased by 19.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.6-38.0), while the number of first-time stroke hospitalizations decreased by 17.3% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-30.0). Consistent with NPS MedicineWise program messages for the high-risk CVD population, the NPS MedicineWise Stroke Prevention Program (2009) was associated with increased initiation of aspirin and a reduced rate of hospitalization for primary stroke. The findings suggest that the provision of evidence-based multifaceted large-scale educational programs in primary care can be effective in changing prescriber behavior and positively impacting patient health outcomes. © 2016 The Authors and NPS MedicineWise. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Dhalwani, Nafeesa N; Tata, Laila J; Coleman, Tim; Fiaschi, Linda; Szatkowski, Lisa
We aimed to assess the potential usefulness of primary care data in the UK for estimating smoking prevalence in pregnancy by comparing the primary care data estimates with those obtained from other data sources. In The Health Improvement Network (THIN) primary care database, we identified pregnant smokers using smoking information recorded during pregnancy. Where this information was missing, we used smoking information recorded prior to pregnancy. We compared annual smoking prevalence from 2000 to 2012 in THIN with measures from the Infant Feeding Survey (IFS), Smoking At Time of Delivery (SATOD), Child Health Systems Programme (CHSP) and Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR). Smoking estimates from THIN data converged with estimates from other sources after 2004, though still do not agree completely. For example, in 2012 smoking prevalence at booking was 11.6% in THIN using data recorded only during pregnancy, compared with 19.6% in SMR data. However, the use of smoking data recorded up to 27 months before conception increased the THIN prevalence to 20.3%, improving the comparability. Under-recording of smoking status during pregnancy results in unreliable prevalence estimates from primary care data and needs improvement. However, in the absence of gestational smoking data, the inclusion of pre-conception smoking records may increase the utility of primary care data. One strategy to improve gestational smoking status recording in primary care could be the inclusion of pregnancy in the Quality and Outcome's Framework as a condition for which smoking status and smoking cessation advice must be recorded electronically in patient records. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Full Text Available Universal health coverage (UHC can play an important role in achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 10, which addresses reducing inequalities, but little supporting evidence is available from low- and middle-income countries. Brazil's Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF (family health strategy is a community-based primary healthcare (PHC programme that has been expanding since the 1990s and is the main platform for delivering UHC in the country. We evaluated whether expansion of the ESF was associated with differential reductions in mortality amenable to PHC between racial groups.Municipality-level longitudinal fixed-effects panel regressions were used to examine associations between ESF coverage and mortality from ambulatory-care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs in black/pardo (mixed race and white individuals over the period 2000-2013. Models were adjusted for socio-economic development and wider health system variables. Over the period 2000-2013, there were 281,877 and 318,030 ACSC deaths (after age standardisation in the black/pardo and white groups, respectively, in the 1,622 municipalities studied. Age-standardised ACSC mortality fell from 93.3 to 57.9 per 100,000 population in the black/pardo group and from 75.7 to 49.2 per 100,000 population in the white group. ESF expansion (from 0% to 100% was associated with a 15.4% (rate ratio [RR]: 0.846; 95% CI: 0.796-0.899 reduction in ACSC mortality in the black/pardo group compared with a 6.8% (RR: 0.932; 95% CI: 0.892-0.974 reduction in the white group (coefficients significantly different, p = 0.012. These differential benefits were driven by greater reductions in mortality from infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies and anaemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the black/pardo group. Although the analysis is ecological, sensitivity analyses suggest that over 30% of black/pardo deaths would have to be incorrectly coded for the results to be invalid. This study is limited by
Engida, Alemayehu Erkihun
This study examined the challenges facing the teaching as well as the implementation of Awgni as a mother tongue language in primary schools of Awi administrative zone. The need to teach through mother tongue in Ethiopia was widely discussed following the change of the politics in 1991. To this end, the government issued new education and training…
This paper reports the findings of a study on pre-service teachers' background and confidence in music and visual arts education. The study involved 939 non-specialist pre-service primary teachers from five countries. Initially the paper identifies the students' perceptions of their background and confidence in relation to music and visual arts…
Barnes, Emily R; Theeke, Laurie A; Mallow, Jennifer
Obesity is significantly underdiagnosed and undertreated in primary care settings. The purpose of this clinical practice change project was to increase provider adherence to national clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of obesity in adults. Based upon the National Institutes of Health guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of obesity, a clinical change project was implemented. Guided by the theory of planned behaviour, the Provider and Healthcare team Adherence to Treatment Guidelines (PHAT-G) intervention includes education sessions, additional provider resources for patient education, a provider reminder system and provider feedback. Primary care providers did not significantly increase on documentation of diagnosis and planned management of obesity for patients with body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30. Medical assistants increased recording of height, weight and BMI in the patient record by 13%, which was significant. Documentation of accurate BMI should lead to diagnosis of appropriate weight category and subsequent care planning. Future studies will examine barriers to adherence to clinical practice guidelines for obesity. Interventions are needed that include inter-professional team members and may be more successful if delivered separately from routine primary care visits. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
In 2010, the renewed national curriculum was legislated in Estonia. Major changes include a new list of cross-curricular topics, increased importance of integration and specification of the components of the art learning process. In this situation, the question arises--how to fully implement the challenges of the renewed curriculum in primary…
Goldman, L; Coxson, P; Hunink, MGM; Goldman, PA; Tosteson, ANA; Mittleman, M; Williams, L; Weinstein, MC
OBJECTIVES This study was undertaken to project the population-wide effect of full implementation of the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) II guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). BACKGROUND The ATP II has proposed guidelines for cholesterol reduction, but the long-term
Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Akazili, James; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.
Background: Despite improvements in a number of health outcome indicators partly due to the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), Ghana is unlikely to attain all its health-related millennium development goals before the end of 2015. Inefficient use of available limited resources has been cited
Campbell, John; Smith, Patten; Nissen, Sonja; Bower, Peter; Elliott, Marc; Roland, Martin
The UK National GP Patient Survey is one of the largest ever survey programmes of patients registered to receive primary health care, inviting five million respondents to report their experience of NHS primary healthcare. The third such annual survey (2008/9) involved the development of a new survey instrument. We describe the process of that development, and the findings of an extensive pilot survey in UK primary healthcare. The survey was developed following recognised guidelines and involved expert and stakeholder advice, cognitive testing of early versions of the survey instrument, and piloting of the questionnaire in a cross sectional pilot survey of 1,500 randomly selected individuals from the UK electoral register with two reminders to non-respondents. The questionnaire comprises 66 items addressing a range of aspects of UK primary healthcare. A response rate of 590/1500 (39.3%) was obtained. Non response to individual items ranged from 0.8% to 15.3% (median 5.2%). Participants did not always follow internal branching instructions in the questionnaire although electronic controls allow for correction of this problem in analysis. There was marked skew in the distribution of responses to a number of items indicating an overall favourable impression of care. Principal components analysis of 23 items offering evaluation of various aspects of primary care identified three components (relating to doctor or nurse care, or addressing access to care) accounting for 68.3% of the variance in the sample. The GP Patient Survey has been carefully developed and pilot-tested. Survey findings, aggregated at practice level, will be used to inform the distribution of pound sterling 65 million ($107 million) of UK NHS resource in 2008/9 and this offers the opportunity for NHS service planners and providers to take account of users' experiences of health care in planning and delivering primary healthcare in the UK.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK National GP Patient Survey is one of the largest ever survey programmes of patients registered to receive primary health care, inviting five million respondents to report their experience of NHS primary healthcare. The third such annual survey (2008/9 involved the development of a new survey instrument. We describe the process of that development, and the findings of an extensive pilot survey in UK primary healthcare. Methods The survey was developed following recognised guidelines and involved expert and stakeholder advice, cognitive testing of early versions of the survey instrument, and piloting of the questionnaire in a cross sectional pilot survey of 1,500 randomly selected individuals from the UK electoral register with two reminders to non-respondents. Results The questionnaire comprises 66 items addressing a range of aspects of UK primary healthcare. A response rate of 590/1500 (39.3% was obtained. Non response to individual items ranged from 0.8% to 15.3% (median 5.2%. Participants did not always follow internal branching instructions in the questionnaire although electronic controls allow for correction of this problem in analysis. There was marked skew in the distribution of responses to a number of items indicating an overall favourable impression of care. Principal components analysis of 23 items offering evaluation of various aspects of primary care identified three components (relating to doctor or nurse care, or addressing access to care accounting for 68.3% of the variance in the sample. Conclusion The GP Patient Survey has been carefully developed and pilot-tested. Survey findings, aggregated at practice level, will be used to inform the distribution of £65 million ($107 million of UK NHS resource in 2008/9 and this offers the opportunity for NHS service planners and providers to take account of users' experiences of health care in planning and delivering primary healthcare in the UK.
Nash, Rebecca; Ward, Kevin C; Jemal, Ahmedin; Sandberg, David E; Tangpricha, Vin; Goodman, Michael
Transgender people and persons with disorders of sex development (DSD) are two separate categories of gender minorities, each characterized by unique cancer risk factors. Although cancer registry data typically include only two categories of sex, registrars have the option of indicating that a patient is transgender or has a DSD. Data for primary cancer cases in 46 states and the District of Columbia were obtained from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) database for the period 1995-2013. The distributions of primary sites and categories of cancers with shared risk factors were examined separately for transgender and DSD patients and compared to the corresponding distributions in male and female cancer patients. Proportional incidence ratios were calculated by dividing the number of observed cases by the number of expected cases. Expected cases were calculated based on the age- and year of diagnosis-specific proportions of cases in each cancer category observed among male and female patients. Transgender patients have significantly elevated proportional incidence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for viral infection induced cancers compared to either males (2.3; 2.0-2.7) or females (3.3; 2.8-3.7). Adult DSD cancer patients have a similar distribution of primary sites compared to male or female patients but DSD children with cancer have ten times more cases of testicular malignancies than expected (95% confidence interval: 4.7-20). The proportions of certain primary sites and categories of malignancies among transgender and DSD cancer patients are different from the proportions observed for male or female patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carlos, Ruth C; Sicks, JoRean D; Chang, George J; Lyss, Alan P; Stewart, Teresa L; Sung, Lillian; Weaver, Kathryn E
Cancer care spans the spectrum from screening and diagnosis through therapy and into survivorship. Delivering appropriate care requires patient transitions across multiple specialties, such as primary care, radiology, and oncology. From the program's inception, the National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) sites were tasked with conducting cancer care delivery research (CCDR) that evaluates structural, organizational, and social factors, including care transitions that determine patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the capacity of the NCORP to conduct multidisciplinary CCDR that includes radiology and primary care practices. The NCORP includes 34 community and 12 minority and underserved community sites. The Landscape Capacity Assessment was conducted in 2015 across these 46 sites, composed of the 401 components and subcomponents designated to conduct CCDR. Each respondent had the opportunity to designate an operational practice group, defined as a group of components and subcomponents with common care practices and resources. The primary outcomes were the proportion of adult oncology practice groups with affiliated radiology and primary care practices. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of those affiliated radiology and primary care groups that participate in research. Eighty-seven percent of components and subcomponents responded to at least some portion of the assessment, representing 230 practice groups. Analyzing the 201 adult oncology practice groups, 85% had affiliated radiologists, 69% of whom participate in research. Seventy-nine percent had affiliated primary care practitioners, 31% of whom participate in research. Institutional size, multidisciplinary group practice, and ownership by large regional or multistate health systems was associated with research participation by affiliated radiology and primary care groups. Research participation by these affiliated specialists was not significantly
Waldorf, Barbara; Gill, Christopher; Crosby, Sondra S
In the United States, 38.5 million people are foreign-born, one in three arriving since 2000. Health issues include high rates of hepatitis B, humanimmunodeficiency virus infection, parasitic infections, and M. tuberculosis. We sought to determine rates of provider adherence to accepted national guidelines for immigrant and refugee health screening and vaccines done at the primary care clinics at Boston Medical Center. Randomized, retrospective chart review of foreign born patients in the primary care clinics. We found low screening and immunization rates that do not conform to CDC/ACIP guidelines. Only 43 % of immigrant patients had tuberculosis screening, 36 % were screened for HIV and hepatitis B, and 33 % received tetanus vaccinations. Organizational changes incorporating multi-disciplinary approaches such as creative use of nursing staff, protocols, standing orders, EMR reminders, and web based educational tools can contribute to better outcomes by identifying patients and improving utilization of guidelines.
Kaiser, Daniel W; Tsai, Vivian; Heidenreich, Paul A; Goldstein, Mary K; Wang, Yongfei; Curtis, Jeptha; Turakhia, Mintu P
Prior studies have reported that more than 20% of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantations in the United States do not adhere to trial-based criteria. We sought to investigate the patient characteristics associated with not meeting the inclusion criteria of the clinical trials that have demonstrated the efficacy of primary prevention ICDs. Using data from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's ICD Registry, we identified patients who received ICDs for primary prevention from January 2006 to December 2008. We determined whether patients met the inclusion criteria of at least 1 of the 4 ICD primary prevention trials: Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT), MADIT-II, Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT), and the Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial (MUSTT). Among 150,264 patients, 86% met criteria for an ICD implantation based on trial data. The proportion of patients who did not meet trial-based criteria increased as age decreased. In multivariate analysis, the significant predictors for not meeting trial criteria included prior cardiac transplantation (odds ratio [OR] 2.1), pediatric electrophysiology operator (OR 2.0), and high-grade atrioventricular conduction disease (OR 1.4). Among National Cardiovascular Data Registry registrants receiving first-time ICDs for primary prevention, the majority met trial-based criteria. Multivariate analyses suggested that many patients who did not meet the trial-based criteria may have had clinical circumstances that warranted ICD implantation. These findings caution against the use of trial-based indications to determine site quality metrics that could penalize sites that care for younger patients. The planned incorporation of appropriate use criteria into the ICD registry may better characterize patient- and site-level quality and performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cross-sectional analysis of association between socioeconomic status and utilization of primary total hip joint replacements 2006–7: Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry
Brennan Sharon L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The utilization of total hip replacement (THR surgery is rapidly increasing, however few data examine whether these procedures are associated with socioeconomic status (SES within Australia. This study examined primary THR across SES for both genders for the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD of Victoria, Australia. Methods Using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry data for 2006–7, primary THR with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA among residents of the BSD was ascertained. The Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage was used to measure SES; determined by matching residential addresses with Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data were categorised into quintiles; quintile 1 indicating the most disadvantaged. Age- and sex-specific rates of primary THR per 1,000 person years were reported for 10-year age bands using the total population at risk. Results Females accounted for 46.9% of the 642 primary THR performed during 2006–7. THR utilization per 1,000 person years was 1.9 for males and 1.5 for females. The highest utilization of primary THR was observed in those aged 70–79 years (males 6.1, and females 5.4 per 1,000 person years. Overall, the U-shaped pattern of THR across SES gave the appearance of bimodality for both males and females, whereby rates were greater for both the most disadvantaged and least disadvantaged groups. Conclusions Further work on a larger scale is required to determine whether relationships between SES and THR utilization for the diagnosis of OA is attributable to lifestyle factors related to SES, or alternatively reflects geographic and health system biases. Identifying contributing factors associated with SES may enhance resource planning and enable more effective and focussed preventive strategies for hip OA.
Cross-sectional analysis of association between socioeconomic status and utilization of primary total hip joint replacements 2006-7: Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.
Brennan, Sharon L; Stanford, Tyman; Wluka, Anita E; Henry, Margaret J; Page, Richard S; Graves, Stephen E; Kotowicz, Mark A; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Pasco, Julie A
The utilization of total hip replacement (THR) surgery is rapidly increasing, however few data examine whether these procedures are associated with socioeconomic status (SES) within Australia. This study examined primary THR across SES for both genders for the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD) of Victoria, Australia. Using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry data for 2006-7, primary THR with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) among residents of the BSD was ascertained. The Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage was used to measure SES; determined by matching residential addresses with Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data were categorised into quintiles; quintile 1 indicating the most disadvantaged. Age- and sex-specific rates of primary THR per 1,000 person years were reported for 10-year age bands using the total population at risk. Females accounted for 46.9% of the 642 primary THR performed during 2006-7. THR utilization per 1,000 person years was 1.9 for males and 1.5 for females. The highest utilization of primary THR was observed in those aged 70-79 years (males 6.1, and females 5.4 per 1,000 person years). Overall, the U-shaped pattern of THR across SES gave the appearance of bimodality for both males and females, whereby rates were greater for both the most disadvantaged and least disadvantaged groups. Further work on a larger scale is required to determine whether relationships between SES and THR utilization for the diagnosis of OA is attributable to lifestyle factors related to SES, or alternatively reflects geographic and health system biases. Identifying contributing factors associated with SES may enhance resource planning and enable more effective and focussed preventive strategies for hip OA.
Longwe, Abiba; Smits, Jeroen
We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows that a decrease in the number of births is associated with an increase in educational participation in the area. The number of births is negatively associated with acceptance, knowledge and actual use of contraceptives in the area. As reversed causality and selection bias seem unlikely, the identified relationship probably is at least partially causal. Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to the region's future economic growth.
Zaki, M; Robaayah, Z; Chan, S P; Vadivale, M; Lim, T O
Abdominal obesity (AO), measured by waist circumference (WC), is a stronger predictor of subsequent development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than generalised obesity, which is measured by body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to measure WC and prevalence of AO in Malaysians visiting primary care physicians. 1893 patients between the ages of 18 and 80 attending primary care clinics in Malaysia were recruited over two days for this multi-centre cross-sectional study. Pregnant women were excluded, their medical history, weight, height and WC were examined. The prevalence of co-morbidities were as follows: (1) CVD-4%, lipid disorder-17%, hypertension-26%, diabetes-14% and any of the clinical characteristics of CVD/lipid disorder/hypertension/diabetes-38%. The mean BMI for men and women was 25.62 +/- 4.73 kg/m2 and 26.63 +/- 5.72 kg/m2, respectively. Based on WHO criteria for BMI (overweight, 25-29.9 kg/m2; obese, > 30 kg/m2), 34.2% were overweight and 20.4% were obese. The mean WC for men and women was 89.03 +/- 13.45 cm and 84.26 +/- 12.78 cm, respectively. Overall, 55.6% had AO and there was higher prevalence among women (based on International Diabetes Federation criteria: WC > or = 90 cm for men and > or = 80 cm for women). AO was present in approximately 71% patients with lipid disorder, in 76% with hypertension and in 75% with diabetes. Patients with AO were also at a higher risk of developing co-morbidities. Malaysia has a high prevalence of AO and associated cardiovascular risk factors. This needs to be addressed by public health programs, which should also include routine measurement of WC.
Tianyi, Frank-Leonel; Tochie, Joel Noutakdie; Agbor, Valirie Ndip; Kadia, Benjamin Momo
HIV testing is an invaluable entry point to prevention, care and treatment services for people living with HIV and AIDS. Poor adherence to recommended protocols and guidelines reduces the performance of rapid diagnostic tests, leading to misdiagnosis and poor estimation of HIV seroprevalence. This study seeks to evaluate the adherence of primary healthcare facilities in Cameroon to recommended HIV counselling and testing (HCT) procedures and the impact this may have on the reliability of HIV test results. This will be an analytical cross-sectional study involving primary healthcare facilities from all the 10 regions of Cameroon, selected by a multistaged random sampling of primary care facilities in each region. The study will last for 9 months. A structured questionnaire will be used to collect general information concerning the health facility, laboratory and other departments involved in the HCT process. The investigators will directly observe at least 10 HIV testing processes in each facility and fill out the checklist accordingly. Clearance has been obtained from the National Ethical Committee to carry out the study. Informed consent will be sought from the patients to observe the HIV testing process. The final study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and the findings presented to health policy-makers and the general public. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Burt, Jenni; Lloyd, Cathy; Campbell, John; Roland, Martin; Abel, Gary
Doctor-patient communication is a key driver of overall satisfaction with primary care. Patients from minority ethnic backgrounds consistently report more negative experiences of doctor-patient communication. However, it is currently unknown whether these ethnic differences are concentrated in one gender or in particular age groups. To determine how reported GP-patient communication varies between patients from different ethnic groups, stratified by age and gender. Analysis of data from the English GP Patient Survey from 2012-2013 and 2013-2014, including 1,599,801 responders. A composite score was created for doctor-patient communication from five survey items concerned with interpersonal aspects of care. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to estimate age- and gender-specific differences between white British patients and patients of the same age and gender from each other ethnic group. There was strong evidence (Pcommunication varied by both age and gender. The difference in scores between white British and other responders on doctor-patient communication items was largest for older, female Pakistani and Bangladeshi responders, and for younger responders who described their ethnicity as 'Any other white'. The identification of groups with particularly marked differences in experience of GP-patient communication--older, female, Asian patients and younger 'Any other white' patients--underlines the need for a renewed focus on quality of care for these groups. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Soeyonggo, Tony; Locke, Jennifer; Giudice, Maria Elizabeth Del; Alibhai, Shabbir; Fleshner, Neil Eric; Warde, Padraig
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a common treatment for prostate cancer with numerous side effects. We assess primary care physicians' (PCPs) knowledge of ADT side effects and their interest in increasing their knowledge in this area. A list of active Canadian PCPs was obtained using the Canadian Medical Directory. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to 600 randomly selected physicians. We collected PCPs' demographic information, experience with ADT management, knowledge regarding ADT side effects and desired sources for obtaining knowledge on ADT management. In total, we received 103 completed questionnaires. Of these, 89% of PCPs had patients on ADT. One-third of respondents prescribed ADT and over half of them administered ADT annually. Thirty-eight percent felt their knowledge of ADT side effects was inadequate and 50% felt uncomfortable counselling patients on ADT. Many PCPs were less familiar with the incidence of functional side effects of ADT (i.e., hot flashes, fatigue and erectile dysfunction) compared to life-threatening side effects (i.e., cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome, fractures). In terms of increasing their knowledge of ADT side effects, 82% of PCPs would use educational resources if they were available (52% and 32% preferred continued medical education [CME] events and educational pamphlets, respectively). PCPs play an important role in managing ADT side effects. There is poor awareness of the prevalence of ADT side effects, and many are uncomfortable in managing these side effects. These areas may be addressed through CME programs and educational pamphlets.
Sung, Haejune; Shin, Hyun Ho; Baek, Yunseng; Kim, Gyu Ah; Koh, Jae Sang; Park, Eun-Cheol; Shin, Jaeyong
Glaucoma is one of the most leading causes of permanent visual impairments in Korea, and social expenses spent for the glaucoma are increasing. This study is to identify association between socioeconomic status and the visual impairments caused by primary glaucoma in Korea. This study is based on a cohort study using stratified representative samples in the National Health Insurance claim data from 2002 to 2013 with 1,025,340 representative subjects. Target subjects were patients who are newly diagnosed with primary glaucoma from 2004 to 2013. We conducted a multiple logistic regression analysis depending on the occurrence of visual impairment and its temporal order compared to the glaucoma diagnosis. Among 1728 patients with primary glaucoma, those with low and middle income shows higher odds ratio (OR) of the visual impairments than those with high income group (low income; OR = 3.42, 95% Confidential Interval (CI):2.06-5.66, middle income; OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.28-3.55), in case of the occurrence of the visual impairments preceded the diagnosis of glaucoma. Glaucoma patients without pre-existing glaucoma history before visual impairment have higher association between socioeconomic status and the occurrence of visual impairments by primary glaucoma. Since glaucoma had not been diagnosed and recognized yet, the differences may have been derived from the disparities of the awareness of the glaucoma. These findings call attention to the correlation between socioeconomic factors and the visual impairments by glaucoma, and raise public health needs over the importance of glaucoma awareness and eye screening for glaucoma, especially for low socioeconomic status.
Full Text Available To understand whether the increased outpatient service provision (OSP brings in enough additional income (excluding income from essential medicine for primary hospitals (INCOME to compensate for reduced costs of medicine.The two outcomes, annual OSP and INCOME for the period of 2008-2012, were collected from 34,506 primary hospitals in 2,675 counties in 31 provinces in China by the national surveillance system. The data had a four-level hierarchical structure; time points were nested within primary hospital, hospitals within county, and counties within province. We fitted bivariate five-level random effects regression models to examine correlations between OSP and INCOME in terms of their mean values and dose-response effects of the essential medicine policy (EMP. We adjusted for the effects of time period and selected hospital resources.The estimated correlation coefficients between the two outcomes' mean values were strongly positive among provinces (r = 0.910, moderately positive among counties (r = 0.380, and none among hospitals (r = 0.002 and time (r = 0.007. The correlation between their policy effects was weakly positive among provinces (r = 0.234, but none at the county and hospital levels. However, there were markedly negative correlation coefficients between the mean and policy effects at -0.328 for OSP and -0.541 for INCOME at the hospital level.There was no evidence to suggest an association between the two outcomes in terms of their mean values and dose-response effects of EMP at the hospital level. This indicated that increased OSP did not bring enough additional INCOME. Sustainable mechanisms to compensate primary hospitals are needed.
Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis; Soriano, Joan B; Calle, Myriam
A recent study evaluated the use of spirometry in primary (PC) and secondary care (SC) in Spain. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the determinants of use of the bronchodilator test (BDT) with a special emphasis in the type of drugs used, waiting times and positive test criteria followed. Cross-sectional trial surveying 605 PC and 200 SC centers in Spain. Regarding the BDT, variables collected were: name of the drugs available for the BDT, name of the drug normally used, number of inhalations, waiting time for the second spirometry, staff involved and criteria used for a positive test. Adherence to actual guidelines according to five quality criteria was evaluated. Although a range of short-acting bronchodilators were used, only 25.9% of centers used a correct dose. The waiting time was correct in 63.7% and 72.8% of PC and SC, respectively (P = 0.023). A threshold higher than 12% and 200 mL to consider a positive test was fulfilled in 55.8% and 52.8% of PC and SC, respectively. Altogether, only 7.6% of PC and 6.0% of SC fulfilled all five quality criteria. Factors identified to be associated with this fulfillment were the number of spirometries per week, not being conducted by a nurse, periodical retraining, training for interpreting and daily calibration. The present study identifies determinants of the performance of the BDT in Spain identifying strengths and weaknesses. Health managers should use this information to improve the quality of spirometries in chronic respiratory patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McLean, Gary; Martin, Julie Langan; Martin, Daniel J; Guthrie, Bruce; Mercer, Stewart W; Smith, Daniel J
Schizophrenia is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction algorithms are widely in the general population, their utility for patients with schizophrenia is unknown. A primary care dataset was used to compare CVD risk scores (Joint British Societies (JBS) score), cardiovascular risk factors, rates of pre-existing CVD and age of first diagnosis of CVD for schizophrenia (n=1997) relative to population controls (n=215,165). Pre-existing rates of CVD and the recording of risk factors for those without CVD were higher in the schizophrenia cohort in the younger age groups, for both genders. Those with schizophrenia were more likely to have a first diagnosis of CVD at a younger age, with nearly half of men with schizophrenia plus CVD diagnosed under the age of 55 (schizophrenia men 46.1% vs. control men 34.8%, pschizophrenia women 28.9% vs. control women 23.8%, prisk factors within the schizophrenia group, only a very small percentage (3.2% of men and 7.5% of women) of those with schizophrenia under age 55 were correctly identified as high risk for CVD according to the JBS risk algorithm. The JBS2 risk score identified only a small proportion of individuals with schizophrenia under the age of 55 as being at high risk of CVD, despite high rates of risk factors and high rates of first diagnosis of CVD within this age group. The validity of CVD risk prediction algorithms for schizophrenia needs further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
David A Ellis, PhD
Full Text Available Summary: Background: Addressing the causes of low engagement in health care is a prerequisite for reducing health inequalities. People who miss multiple appointments are an under-researched group who might have substantial unmet health needs. Individual-level patterns of missed general practice appointments might thus provide a risk marker for vulnerability and poor health outcomes. We sought to ascertain the contributions of patient and practice factors to the likelihood of missing general practice appointments. Methods: For this national retrospective cohort analysis, we extracted UK National Health Service general practice data that were routinely collected across Scotland between Sept 5, 2013, and Sept 5, 2016. We calculated the per-patient number of missed appointments from individual appointments and investigated the risk of missing a general practice appointment using a negative binomial model offset by number of appointments made. We then analysed the effect of patient-level factors (including age, sex, and socioeconomic status and practice-level factors (including appointment availability and geographical location on the risk of missing appointments. Findings: The full dataset included information from 909â073 patients, of whom 550â083 were included in the analysis after processing. We observed that 104â461 (19Â·0% patients missed more than two appointments in the 3 year study period. After controlling for the number of appointments made, patterns of non-attendance could be differentiated, with patients who were aged 16â30 years (relative risk ratio [RRR] 1Â·21, 95% CI 1Â·19â1Â·23 or older than 90 years (2Â·20, 2Â·09â2Â·29, and of low socioeconomic status (Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation decile 1: RRR 2Â·27, 2Â·22â2Â·31 significantly more likely to miss multiple appointments. Men missed fewer appointments overall than women, but were somewhat more likely to miss appointments
Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Hurwitz, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz
Recent studies have demonstrated marked international variations in the prevalence of asthma, but less is known about ethnic variations in asthma epidemiology within individual countries and in particular the impact of migration on risk of developing asthma. Recent within country comparisons have however revealed that despite originating from areas of the world with a low risk for developing asthma, South Asian and Afro-Caribbean people in the UK are significantly (3x and 2x respectively) more likely to be admitted to hospital for asthma related problems than Whites. Using data from the Fourth National Study of Morbidity Statistics in General Practice, a one-percent broadly representative prospective cohort study of consultations in general practice, we investigated ethnic variations in incident asthma consultations (defined as new or first consultations), and compared consultation rates between those born inside and outside the UK (migrant status). Logistic regression models were used to examine the combined effects of ethnicity and migration on asthma incident consultations. Results showed significantly lower new/first asthma consultation rates for Whites than for each of the ethnic minority groups studied (mean age-adjusted consultation rates per 1000 patient-years: Whites 26.4 (95%CI 26.4, 26.4); South Asians 30.4 (95%CI 30.3, 30.5); Afro-Caribbeans 35.1 (95%CI 34.9, 35.3); and Others 27.8 (27.7, 28.0). Within each of these ethnic groups, those born outside of the UK showed consistently lower rates of incident asthma consultations. Modelling the combined effects of ethnic and migrant status revealed that UK-born South Asians and Afro-Caribbeans experienced comparable risks for incident GP consultations for asthma to UK-born Whites. Non-UK born Whites however experienced reduced risks (adjusted OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.69, 0.97) whilst non-UK born South Asians experienced increased risks (adjusted OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.04, 1.70) compared to UK-born Whites. These findings
Harcourt, Sally; Morbey, Roger A; Bates, Chris; Carter, Helen; Ladhani, Shamez N; de Lusignan, Simon; Smith, Gillian E; Elliot, Alex J
In September 2015, the United Kingdom became the first country to introduce the multicomponent group B meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) into a national infant immunisation programme. In early clinical trials 51-61% of infants developed a fever when 4CMenB was administered with other routine vaccines. Whilst administration of prophylactic paracetamol is advised, up to 3% of parents may seek medical advice for fever following vaccination. We used research-level general practitioner consultations to identify any increase in attendances for all-cause fever in vaccine-eligible infants following 4CMenB introduction in England. Consultations for infant all-cause fever in the year following the vaccine introduction were identified from The Phoenix Partnership (TPP) ResearchOne general practice database using Read (CTV3) codes. Average daily consultation rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated for vaccine-eligible age groups and compared to the two years preceding vaccine introduction. The difference between pre- and post-vaccine all-cause fever consultations was estimated. All-cause fever consultations in vaccine-eligible 7-10 week olds were 1.6-fold higher (IRR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.22-2.05) compared to the two previous years and 1.5-fold higher (IRR 1.47; 95% CI, 1.17-1.86) in 15-18 week-olds. There were no significant differences in 0-6 or 11-14 week-olds. Applying the difference between pre- and post-vaccine consultation rates to the 4CMenB vaccine-eligible age groups across England estimated 1825 additional fever consultations in the year following 4CMenB introduction. We found a small but significant difference in all-cause fever consultation rates in vaccine-eligible infants who would have received 4CMenB with other vaccines. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grantzau, Trine; Mellemkjær, Lene; Overgaard, Jens
Background and purpose: To analyze the long-term risk of second primary solid non-breast cancer in a national population-based cohort of 46,176 patients treated for early breast cancer between 1982 and 2007. Patients and methods: All patients studied were treated according to the national guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. The risk of second primary cancers was estimated by Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) among irradiated women compared to non-irradiated. All irradiated patients were treated on linear accelerators. Second cancers were a priori categorized into two groups; radiotherapy-associated- (oesophagus, lung, heart/mediastinum, pleura, bones, and connective tissue) and non-radiotherapy-associated sites (all other cancers). Results: 2358 second cancers had occurred during the follow-up. For the radiotherapy-associated sites the HR among irradiated women was 1.34 (95% CI 1.11–1.61) with significantly increased HRs for the time periods of 10–14 years (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.08–2.24) and ⩾15 years after treatment (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.14–2.81). There was no increased risk for the non-radiotherapy-associated sites (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.94–1.1). The estimated attributable risk related to radiotherapy for the radiotherapy-associated sites translates into one radiation-induced second cancer in every 200 women treated with radiotherapy. Conclusions: Radiotherapy treated breast cancer patients have a small but significantly excess risk of second cancers
Chao, Jianqian; Gu, Jiangyi; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Huanghui; Wu, Zhenchun
Essential medicine policy is a successful global health policy to promote rational drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) on the rational drug use in primary care institutions in Jiangsu Province of China. In this exploratory study, a multistage, stratified, random sampling was used to select 3400 prescriptions from 17 primary care institutions who implemented the NEMP before (Jan 2010) and after the implementation of the NEMP (Jan 2014). The analyses were performed in SPSS 18.0 and SPSS Clementine client. After the implementation of the NEMP, the percentage of prescribed EML (Essential Medicines List) drugs rose significantly, the average number of drugs per prescription and average cost per prescription were declined significantly, while the differences of the prescription proportion of antibiotics and injection were not statistically significant. BP (Back Propagation) neural network analysis showed that the average number of drugs per prescription, the number of using antibiotics and hormone, regional differences, size of institutions, sponsorship, financial income of institutions, doctor degree, outpatient and emergency visits person times were important factors affecting the prescription costs, among these the average number of drugs per prescription has the greatest effect. The NEMP can promote the rational use of drugs in some degree, but its role is limited. We should not focus only on the EML but also make comprehensive NEMP.
Melo, Débora Gusmão; de Paula, Pamela Karen; de Araujo Rodrigues, Stephania; da Silva de Avó, Lucimar Retto; Germano, Carla Maria Ramos; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva
As discoveries regarding the genetic contribution to disease have grown rapidly, health care professionals are expected to incorporate genetic and genomic perspectives into health education and practice. Genetic competencies common to all health professionals have been identified by the US National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics (NCHPEG), which defined the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to achieve these competencies. The aim of this study is to analyze genetic competencies of primary health care professionals in Brazil. It is a descriptive survey study, whereby doctors, nurses, and dentists were invited to participate by answering a questionnaire including 11 issues based on competencies established by the NCHPEG. Data were presented as percentages. Differences between groups of participants were assessed by the Fisher exact test, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. Results showed that concerning knowledge, about 80 % of the participants recognized basic genetics terminology, but practitioners had difficulty in identifying patterns of inheritance. Regarding clinical skills, practitioners were able to recognize facial dysmorphias and identify situations where referral of patients to specialists was necessary. Nevertheless, there were challenges in the process of valuing and gathering information about family history. Regarding attitudes, 68.9 % of the participants thought about the comprehensiveness of care but faced challenges in counselling parents. The results of this study may contribute to developing an ongoing education program for primary health care professionals, leading to a strategy to overcome the challenges of including genetics in the Brazilian Unified Health System.
Waibel, Sina; Vargas, Ingrid; Coderch, Jordi; Vázquez, María-Luisa
In the current context of increasingly fragmented healthcare systems where patients are seen by multiple doctors in different settings, patients' relational continuity with one doctor is regaining relevance; however little is known about relational continuity with specialists. The aim of this study is to explore perceptions of relational continuity with primary care and secondary care doctors, its influencing factors and consequences from the viewpoint of users of the Catalan national health system (Spain). We conducted a descriptive-interpretative qualitative study using a two-stage theoretical sample; (i) contexts: three healthcare areas in the Catalan national health system with differing characteristics; (ii) informants: users 18 years or older attended to at both care levels. Sample size (n = 49) was reached by saturation. Data were collected by individual semi-structured interviews, which were audio recorded and transcribed. A thematic content analysis was carried out segmenting data by study area, and leaving room for new categories to emerge from the data. Patients across the areas studied generally experienced consistency of primary care doctors (PCD), alongside some inconsistency of specialists. Consistency of specialists did not seem to be relevant to some patients when their clinical information was shared and used. Patients who experienced consistency and frequent visits with the same PCD or specialist described and valued having established an ongoing relationship characterised by personal trust and mutual accumulated knowledge. Identified consequences were diverse and included, for example, facilitated diagnosis or improved patient-doctor communication. The ascription to a PCD, a health system-related factor, facilitated relational continuity with the PCD, whereas organizational factors (for instance, the size of the primary care centre) favoured consistency of PCD and specialists. Doctor-related factors (for example, high technical competence or
Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Tindana, Paulina; Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Nartey, Harry; Akazili, James
In 2005, the World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) urged member states to aim at achieving affordable universal coverage and access to key promotive, preventive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative health interventions for all their citizens on the basis of equity and solidarity. Since then, some African countries, including Ghana, have taken steps to introduce national health insurance reforms as one of the key strategies towards achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The aim of this study was to get a better understanding of how Ghana's health insurance institutions interact with stakeholders and other health sector programmes in promoting primary health care (PHC). Specifically, the study identified the key areas of misalignment between the operations of the NHIS and that of PHC. Using qualitative and survey methods, this study involved interviews with various stakeholders in six selected districts in the Upper East region of Ghana. The key stakeholders included the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA), district coordinators of the National Health Insurance Schemes (NHIS), the Ghana Health Service (GHS) and District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) who supervise the district hospitals, health centers/clinics and the Community-based Health and Planning Services (CHPS) compounds as well as other public and private PHC providers. A stakeholders' workshop was organized to validate the preliminary results which provided a platform for stakeholders to deliberate on the key areas of misalignment especially, and to elicit additional information, ideas and responses, comments and recommendations from respondents for the achievement of the goals of UHC and PHC. The key areas of misalignments identified during this pilot study included: delays in reimbursements of claims for services provided by health care providers, which serves as a disincentive for service providers to support the NHIS; inadequate coordination among
Alake-Tuenter, Ester; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Tobi, Hilde; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Oosterheert, Ida; Mulder, Martin
Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils' application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry-based science. Our purpose is to develop a profile of professional competence, required for effective inquiry-based science teaching in primary schools in the Netherlands. This article reviews literature and compares the outcomes to the American National Science Education Standards (NSES). In so doing, it seeks to answer the following research questions: What elements of competencies required by primary school teachers who teach inquiry-based science are mentioned, discussed and researched in recent literature? To what extent are the American NSES (introduced 15 years ago) consistent with elements of competencies found in recent literature? A comprehensive literature review was conducted using Educational Resources Information Centre and Google Scholar databases. Fifty-seven peer-reviewed scientific journal articles from 2004 to 2011 were found using keyword combinations. Analysis of these articles resulted in the identification and classification of 22 elements of competencies. This outcome was compared to the American NSES, revealing gaps in the standards with respect to a lack of focus on how teachers view science teaching and themselves as teachers. We also found that elements of competencies are connected and poor mastery of one may affect a teacher's mastery of another. Therefore, we propose that standards for the Netherlands should be presented in a non-linear, holistic, competence-based model.
Yao, Qiang; Liu, Chaojie; Ferrier, J Adamm; Liu, Zhiyong; Sun, Ju
To assess the impact of the National Essential Medicines Scheme (NEMS) with respect to urban-rural inequalities regarding drug prescriptions in primary care facilities. A stratified two-stage random sampling strategy was used to sample 23,040 prescriptions from 192 primary care facilities from 2009 to 2010. Difference-in-Difference (DID) analyses were performed to test the association between NEMS and urban-rural gaps in prescription patterns. Between-Group Variance and Theil Index were calculated to measure urban-rural absolute and relative disparities in drug prescriptions. The use of the Essential Medicines List (EML) achieved a compliance rate of up to 90% in both urban and rural facilities. An overall reduction of average prescription cost improved economic access to drugs for patients in both areas. However, we observed an increased urban-rural disparity in average expenditure per prescription. The rate of antibiotics and glucocorticoids prescription remained high, despite a reduced disparity between urban and rural facilities. The average incidence of antibiotic prescription increased slightly in urban facilities (62 to 63%) and reduced in rural facilities (67% to 66%). The urban-rural disparity in the use of parenteral administration (injections and infusions) increased, albeit at a high level in both areas (44%-52%). NEMS interventions are effective in reducing the overall average prescription costs. Despite the increased use of the EML, indicator performances with respect to rational drug prescribing and use remain poor and exceed the WHO/INRUD recommended cutoff values and worldwide benchmarks. There is an increased gap between urban and rural areas in the use of parenteral administration and expenditure per prescription.
Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Duku, Stephen Opoku; Janssens, Wendy; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; van Ostenberg, Paul; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Pradhan, Menno; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F
Quality care in health facilities is critical for a sustainable health insurance system because of its influence on clients' decisions to participate in health insurance and utilize health services. Exploration of the different dimensions of healthcare quality and their associations will help determine more effective quality improvement interventions and health insurance sustainability strategies, especially in resource constrained countries in Africa where universal access to good quality care remains a challenge. To examine the differences in perceptions of clients and health staff on quality healthcare and determine if these perceptions are associated with technical quality proxies in health facilities. Implications of the findings for a sustainable National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana are also discussed. This is a cross-sectional study in two southern regions in Ghana involving 64 primary health facilities: 1,903 households and 324 health staff. Data collection lasted from March to June, 2012. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was performed to determine differences in client and health staff perceptions of quality healthcare. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to ascertain associations between perceived and technical quality care proxies in health facilities, and ordered logistic regression employed to predict the determinants of client and staff-perceived quality healthcare. Negative association was found between technical quality and client-perceived quality care (coef. = -0.0991, pquality proxies, suggesting some level of unbalanced commitment to quality improvement and potential information asymmetry between clients and service providers. Overall, the findings suggest that increased efforts towards technical quality care alone will not necessarily translate into better client-perceived quality care and willingness to utilize health services in NHIS-accredited health facilities. There is the need to intensify client education and balanced
Alameddine, Mohamad; Baroud, Maysa; Kharroubi, Samer; Hamadeh, Randa; Ammar, Walid; Shoaib, Hikma; Khodr, Hiba
Low job satisfaction is linked to higher staff turnover and intensified shortages in healthcare providers (HCP). This study investigates the level of, and factors associated with, HCP job satisfaction in the national primary healthcare (PHC) network in Lebanon. The study adopts a cross-sectional design to survey HCP at 99 PHC centres distributed across the country between October 2013 and May 2014. The study questionnaire consisted of four sections: socio-demographics/professional background, employment characteristics, level of job satisfaction (Measure of Job Satisfaction scale) and level of professional burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-HSS scale). A total of 1,000 providers completed the questionnaire (75.8% response rate). Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify factors significantly associated with job satisfaction. Findings of the study highlight an overall mean job satisfaction score of 3.59 (SD 0.54) indicating that HCP are partially satisfied. Upon further examination, HCP were least satisfied with pay, training and job prospects. Gender, age, career plans, salary, exposure to violence, and level of burnout were significantly associated with the overall level of job satisfaction which was also associated with increased likelihood to quit. Overall, the study highlights how compensation, development and protection of PHC HCP can influence their job satisfaction. Recommendations include the necessity of developing a nationally representative committee, led by the Ministry of Public Health, to examine the policies and remuneration scales within the PHC sector and suggest mechanisms to bridge the pay differential with other sectors. The effective engagement of key stakeholders with the development, organisation and evaluation of professional development programmes offered to HCP in the PHC sector remains crucial. Concerned stakeholders should assess and formulate initiatives and programmes that enrich the physical, psychological
Associations between socioeconomic status and primary total knee joint replacements performed for osteoarthritis across Australia 2003-10: data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.
Brennan, Sharon L; Lane, Stephen E; Lorimer, Michelle; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Wluka, Anita E; Page, Richard S; Osborne, Richard H; Pasco, Julie A; Sanders, Kerrie M; Cashman, Kara; Ebeling, Peter R; Graves, Stephen E
Relatively little is known about the social distribution of total knee joint replacement (TKR) uptake in Australia. We examine associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and TKR performed for diagnosed osteoarthritis 2003-10 for all Australian males and females aged ≥ 30 yr. Data of primary TKR (n=213,018, 57.4% female) were ascertained from a comprehensive national joint replacement registry. Residential addresses were matched to Australian Census data to identify area-level social disadvantage, and categorised into deciles. Estimated TKR rates were calculated. Poisson regression was used to model the relative risk (RR) of age-adjusted TKR per 1,000py, stratified by sex and SES. A negative relationship was observed between TKR rates and SES deciles. Females had a greater rate of TKR than males. Surgery utilisation was greatest for all adults aged 70-79 yr. In that age group differences in estimated TKR per 1,000py between deciles were greater for 2010 than 2003 (females: 2010 RR 4.32 and 2003 RR 3.67; males: 2010 RR 2.04 and 2003 RR 1.78). Identifying factors associated with TKR utilisation and SES may enhance resource planning and promote surgery utilisation for end-stage osteoarthritis.
Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of extracting national key performance indicator (nKPI) data for the Online Community Health Reporting Environment for Health Services (OCHREStreams) program using the Pen Computer Systems (Leichhardt, NSW, Australia) Clinical Audit Tool (CAT) from Communicare (Telstra Health Communicare Systems, Perth, WA, Australia), a commonly used patient information management system (PIMS) in Aboriginal primary care. Methods Two Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) were recruited to the present study. A sample of regular clients aged ≥55 years from each ACCHS was selected and a subset of 13 nKPIs was examined. A manual case note audit of the nKPI subset within Communicare was undertaken by a clinician at each participating ACCHS and acted as a 'gold standard' comparator for three query methods: (1) internal Communicare nKPI reports; (2) PenCS CAT nKPI manual filtering (a third-party data-extraction tool); and (3) nKPI data submitted to the Improvement Foundation qiConnect portal. Results No errors were found in nKPI data extraction from Communicare using the CAT and subsequent submission to the qiConnect portal. However, the Communicare internal nKPI report included deceased clients and past patients, and we can be very confident that deceased clients and past patients are also included in the qiConnect portal data. This resulted in inflation of client denominators and an underestimation of health service performance, particularly for nKPIs recording activity in the past 6 months. Several minor errors were also detected in Communicare internal nKPI reports. Conclusions CAT accurately extracts a subset of nKPI data from Communicare. However, given the widespread use of Communicare in ACCHSs, the inclusion of deceased clients and past patients in the OCHREStreams nKPI data program is likely to have resulted in systematic under-reporting of health service performance nationally. What is known
The Role of National Adult Education Centre in Curriculum Development in Somalia in Selected Government Primary Adult Schools of Mogadisho. African Studies in Curriculum Development and Evaluation, No. 109.
Bahar, Ismail F. S.
A study of curriculum development in Somalia focused on the role of the National Adult Education Centre (NAEC) and involvement of teachers and inspectors. The sample consisted of 80 Mogadisho primary adult school teachers. Information sources were related literature, teacher questionnaires, and unstructured interviews with school inspectors,…
Lin Blossom Yen-Ju
Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan's primary community care network (PCCN demonstration project, funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance on March 2003, was established to discourage hospital shopping behavior of people and drive the traditional fragmented health care providers into cooperate care models. Between 2003 and 2005, 268 PCCNs were established. This study profiled the individual members in the PCCNs to study the nature and extent to which their network infrastructures have been integrated among the members (clinics and hospitals within individual PCCNs. Methods The thorough questionnaire items, covering the network working infrastructures – governance, clinical, marketing, financial, and information integration in PCCNs, were developed with validity and reliability confirmed. One thousand five hundred and fifty-seven clinics that had belonged to PCCNs for more than one year, based on the 2003–2005 Taiwan Primary Community Care Network List, were surveyed by mail. Nine hundred and twenty-eight clinic members responded to the surveys giving a 59.6 % response rate. Results Overall, the PCCNs' members had higher involvement in the governance infrastructure, which was usually viewed as the most important for establishment of core values in PCCNs' organization design and management at the early integration stage. In addition, it found that there existed a higher extent of integration of clinical, marketing, and information infrastructures among the hospital-clinic member relationship than those among clinic members within individual PCCNs. The financial infrastructure was shown the least integrated relative to other functional infrastructures at the early stage of PCCN formation. Conclusion There was still room for better integrated partnerships, as evidenced by the great variety of relationships and differences in extent of integration in this study. In addition to provide how the network members have done for their initial work at
Background A recent HTA review concluded that there was a need for RCTs of exercise referral schemes (ERS) for people with a medical diagnosis who might benefit from exercise. Overall, there is still uncertainty as to the cost-effectiveness of ERS. Evaluation of public health interventions places challenges on conventional health economics approaches. This economic evaluation of a national public health intervention addresses this issue of where ERS may be most cost effective through subgroup analysis, particularly important at a time of financial constraint. Method This economic analysis included 798 individuals aged 16 and over (55% of the randomised controlled trial (RCT) sample) with coronary heart disease risk factors and/or mild to moderate anxiety, depression or stress. Individuals were referred by health professionals in a primary care setting to a 16 week national exercise referral scheme (NERS) delivered by qualified exercise professionals in local leisure centres in Wales, UK. Health-related quality of life, health care services use, costs per participant in NERS, and willingness to pay for NERS were measured at 6 and 12 months. Results The base case analysis assumed a participation cost of £385 per person per year, with a mean difference in QALYs between the two groups of 0.027. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £12,111 per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated an 89% probability of NERS being cost-effective at a payer threshold of £30,000 per QALY. When participant payments of £1 and £2 per session were considered, the cost per QALY fell from £12,111 (base case) to £10,926 and £9,741, respectively. Participants with a mental health risk factor alone or in combination with a risk of chronic heart disease generated a lower ICER (£10,276) compared to participants at risk of chronic heart disease only (£13,060). Conclusions Results of cost-effectiveness analyses suggest that NERS is cost saving in fully
Robert Kaba Alhassan
Full Text Available Quality care in health facilities is critical for a sustainable health insurance system because of its influence on clients' decisions to participate in health insurance and utilize health services. Exploration of the different dimensions of healthcare quality and their associations will help determine more effective quality improvement interventions and health insurance sustainability strategies, especially in resource constrained countries in Africa where universal access to good quality care remains a challenge.To examine the differences in perceptions of clients and health staff on quality healthcare and determine if these perceptions are associated with technical quality proxies in health facilities. Implications of the findings for a sustainable National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS in Ghana are also discussed.This is a cross-sectional study in two southern regions in Ghana involving 64 primary health facilities: 1,903 households and 324 health staff. Data collection lasted from March to June, 2012. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was performed to determine differences in client and health staff perceptions of quality healthcare. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to ascertain associations between perceived and technical quality care proxies in health facilities, and ordered logistic regression employed to predict the determinants of client and staff-perceived quality healthcare.Negative association was found between technical quality and client-perceived quality care (coef. = -0.0991, p<0.0001. Significant staff-client perception differences were found in all healthcare quality proxies, suggesting some level of unbalanced commitment to quality improvement and potential information asymmetry between clients and service providers. Overall, the findings suggest that increased efforts towards technical quality care alone will not necessarily translate into better client-perceived quality care and willingness to utilize health services in
Temitope Wunmi Ladi-Akinyemi
Full Text Available Background: Lack of capacity to implement programs effectively and low public education about malaria is some of the factors that Nigeria governments must address to effectively combat malaria. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed the knowledge and implementation of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP among health-care workers in the primary health-care centers in Ogun state. Three hundred and twenty-five respondents were recruited into the study using cluster sampling method. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect necessary information. Analysis and statistical calculation was done using SPSS version 20.0. Relationships between categorical variables were tested using Chi-square test with P value at 0.05. Results: One hundred and twenty-five (38.5% of the respondents were from Ado-odo/Ota local government areas (LGAs, 120 (36.9% of the respondents were from Ijebu-ode LGA and 80 (24.6% were from Ewekoro LGA. About 37.8% of the respondents were within age range of 45–54 years, with mean of 41.7 ± 8.5. Over 90% of the respondents knew the mode of transmission of malaria, <50% of them could identified case definition of simple and complicated malaria. Large percentage of the respondents knew the signs and symptoms of simple malaria. The respondents who were older (P = 0.004 with more than 15-year work experience (P = 0.006 had good knowledge score of the NMCP. Conclusion: Knowledge and implementation of NMCP by health-care workers in some of the LGAs in this study was inadequate. Regular visit to the health facilities, especially those in the remote areas by the staff of malaria control unit were recommended.
Zhang, Juan; Zhai, Yi; Feng, Xiao Qi; Li, Wei Rong; Lyu, Yue Bin; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Zhao, Peng Yu; Shi, Xiao Ming
To in vestigate potential gender differences in the odds of overweight/obese, weight-related perceptions, and behaviors among Chinese school children. Height, weight, and a survey of weight-related perceptions and behaviors were measured in a nationally representative survey of 12,811 children in primary schools in China. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess gender differences, adjusting for confounders. Boys had higher odds of being overweight/obese compared to girls within both urban [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.30, 95% CI 2.00 to 2.65] and rural areas (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.20). Girls reported healthier diets (e.g., daily vegetables OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.85) whereas boys consumed fried food (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.38) and sugar-sweetened drinks more often (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.65). Gender differences included higher odds of boys perceiving themselves as overweight if they had more highly educated mothers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.68), less educated fathers (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.99), and if they frequently consumed carbonated drinks (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.05). Childhood obesity prevention in China should be gender-focused, particularly for boys who reported an unhealthier diet but were less likely to see they were fat, even though more boys were overweight or obese than girls. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available According to guidelines, diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk should receive a statin. Despite this consensus, fibrate monotherapy is commonly used in this population. We assessed the frequency and clinical consequences of the use of fibrates for primary prevention in patients with diabetes and high cardiovascular risk.Retrospective cohort study based on nationwide data from the medical and administrative databases of French national health insurance systems (07/01/08-12/31/09 with a follow-up of up to 30 months.Lipid-lowering drug-naive diabetic patients initiating fibrate or statin monotherapy were identified. Patients at high cardiovascular risk were then selected: patients with a diagnosis of diabetes and hypertension, and > 50 (men or 60 (women, but with no history of cardiovascular events. The composite endpoint comprised myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, or death.Of the 31,652 patients enrolled, 4,058 (12.8% received a fibrate. Age- and gender-adjusted annual event rates were 2.42% (fibrates and 2.21% (statins. The proportionality assumption required for the Cox model was not met for the fibrate/statin variable. A multivariate model including all predictors was therefore calculated by dividing data into two time periods, allowing Hazard Ratios to be calculated before (HR 540 of follow-up. Multivariate analyses showed that fibrates were associated with an increased risk for the endpoint after 540 days: HR 540 = 1.73 (1.28-2.32.Fibrate monotherapy is commonly prescribed in diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk and is associated with poorer outcomes compared to statin therapy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Spanish National Health Service is a universal and free health care system. Non-specific low back pain (LBP is a prevalent disorder, generating large health and social costs. The objectives of this study were to describe its management in primary care, to assess patient characteristics that influence physicians' decisions, and to describe clinical outcome at 2 months. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 648 patients with non-specific low back pain was recruited by 75 physicians (out of 361 – 20.8% working in 40 primary care centers in 10 of the 17 administrative regions in Spain, covering 693,026 out of the 40,499,792 inhabitants. Patients were assessed on the day they were recruited, and prospectively followed-up 14 and 60 days later. The principal patient characteristics that were analyzed were: sex, duration of the episode, history of LBP, working status, severity of LBP, leg pain and disability, and results of straight leg raising test. Descriptors of management were: performance of the straight leg raising test, ordering of diagnostic procedures, prescription of drug treatment, referral to physical therapy, rehabilitation or surgery, and granting of sick leave. Regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between patients' baseline characteristics and physicians' management decisions. Only workers were included in the models on sick leave. Results Mean age (SD of included patients was 46.5 (15.5 years, 367 (56.6% were workers, and 338 (52.5% were females. Median (25th–75th interquartile range duration of pain when entering the study was 4 (2–10 days and only 28 patients (4.3% had chronic low back pain. Diagnostic studies included plain radiographs in 43.1% of patients and CT or MRI scans in 18.8%. Drug medication was prescribed to 91.7% of patients, 19.1% were sent to physical therapy or rehabilitation, and 9.6% were referred to surgery. The main determinants of the clinical management were duration
Treatment with glucocorticoids is the leading cause of drug-induced osteoporosis. National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) 2017 guidelines advise a case-finding strategy for patients at risk. The aims of the audit were to evaluate the implementation of the NOGG 2017 guidelines for patients receiving long-term glucocorticoid therapy in a suburban general practice, to instigate changes to ensure 90% of patients are investigated and treated appropriately, and to evaluate impact at a 6-mo re-audit. Reporting Analysis and Intelligence Delivering Results (RAIDR) is a health-care intelligence tool accessing primary care clinical data. Using RAIDR, data on relevant osteoporotic risk factors were combined to produce FRAX scores for patients who had been prescribed glucocorticoids 3 or more times in the past 12 months. FRAX data were displayed in a NOGG guidance graph for major osteoporotic fracture probability. Patients were assessed as high, intermediate, or low risk. High- and intermediate-risk patients above the NOGG threshold were recommended to start bisphosphonates; these patients were sent a prescription for alendronate and a letter of explanation. There were no intermediate patients below the NOGG threshold. Low-risk patients were recommended to have lifestyle advice; a leaflet was produced and sent to these patients. Initial results showed that only 25% of patients recommended to be on bisphosphonates were taking them. Steps were taken to educate the general practitioners in the FRAX tool and NOGG guidelines; the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease annual template was amended to aid adherence by alerting the nurse to the number of glucocorticoid courses prescribed, with additional boxes for prescribing alendronate and printing the lifestyle leaflet; and 2-monthly RAIDR searches by the practice pharmacist were started. A re-audit 6 mo later showed improvement to 92%. This audit showed that education, reminders, and simple computer prompts can greatly improve
A 3-day conference was convened in Zagreb, Yugoslavia for the purpose of disseminating results of the Council of Europe's Council for Cultural Cooperation's (CDCC) Project 8, Innovation in Primary Education (IPE). Changes in theoretical approaches to and organizational practices of primary education in Yugoslavia were discussed. A total of 61…
Grau, Cai; Johansen, L V; Jakobsen, J
The management of patients with cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary tumours is a major challenge in oncology. This study presents data collected from all five oncology centres in Denmark.......The management of patients with cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary tumours is a major challenge in oncology. This study presents data collected from all five oncology centres in Denmark....
Validity of estimated prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy from primary care electronic health records compared with national survey and registry data in the United Kingdom.
Iwagami, Masao; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Mansfield, Kathryn E; Casula, Anna; Caskey, Fergus J; Aitken, Grant; Fraser, Simon D S; Roderick, Paul J; Nitsch, Dorothea
Anonymous primary care records are an important resource for observational studies. However, their external validity is unknown in identifying the prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy (RRT). We thus compared the prevalence of decreased kidney function and RRT in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) with a nationally representative survey and national registry. Among all people ≥25 years of age registered in the CPRD for ≥1 year on 31 March 2014, we identified patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) primary care data have good external validity for the prevalence of decreased kidney function and RRT. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.
Nyroos, Mikaela; Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity and mathematical performance measured by the national curriculum assessment in third-grade children (n = 40). The national tests concerned six subareas within mathematics. One-way ANOVA, two-tailed Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were…
Zhou, Yin; Abel, Gary; Warren, Fiona; Roland, Martin; Campbell, John; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios
It is believed that some patients are more likely to use out-of-hours primary care services because of difficulties in accessing in-hours care, but substantial evidence about any such association is missing. We analysed data from 567,049 respondents to the 2011/2012 English General Practice Patient Survey who reported at least one in-hours primary care consultation in the preceding 6 months. Of those respondents, 7% also reported using out-of-hours primary care. We used logistic regression to explore associations between use of out-of-hours primary care and five measures of in-hours access (ease of getting through on the telephone, ability to see a preferred general practitioner, ability to get an urgent or routine appointment and convenience of opening hours). We illustrated the potential for reduction in use of out-of-hours primary care in a model where access to in-hours care was made optimal. Worse in-hours access was associated with greater use of out-of-hours primary care for each access factor. In multivariable analysis adjusting for access and patient characteristic variables, worse access was independently associated with increased out-of-hours use for all measures except ease of telephone access. Assuming these associations were causal, we estimated that an 11% relative reduction in use of out-of-hours primary care services in England could be achievable if access to in-hours care were optimal. This secondary quantitative analysis provides evidence for an association between difficulty in accessing in-hours care and use of out-of-hours primary care services. The findings can motivate the development of interventions to improve in-hour access. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
... of periods - primary Images Primary amenorrhea Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...
Taruscio, Domenica; Arriola, Larraitz; Baldi, Francesca
Congenital anomalies (CA) are the paradigm example of rare diseases liable to primary prevention actions due to the multifactorial etiology of many of them, involving a number of environmental factors together with genetic predispositions. Yet despite the preventive potential, lack of attention t...
Bintabara, Deogratius; Mpondo, Bonaventura C T
Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing a rapid rise in the burden of non-communicable diseases in both urban and rural areas. Data on health system preparedness to manage hypertension and other non-communicable diseases remains scarce. This study aimed to assess the preparedness of lower-level health facilities for outpatient primary care of hypertension in Tanzania. This study used data from the 2014-2015 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey. The facility was considered as prepared for the outpatient primary care of hypertension if reported at least half (≥50%) of the items listed from each of the three domains (staff training and guideline, basic diagnostic equipment, and basic medicines) as identified by World Health Organization-Service Availability and Readiness Assessment manual. Data were analyzed using Stata 14. An unadjusted logistic regression model was used to assess the association between outcome and explanatory variables. All variables with a P value facilities involved in the current study, about 68% were public facilities and 73% located in rural settings. Only 28% of the assessed facilities were considered prepared for the outpatient primary care of hypertension. About 9% and 42% of the assessed facilities reported to have at least one trained staff and guidelines for hypertension respectively. In multivariate analysis, private facilities [AOR = 2.7, 95% CI; 1.2-6.1], urban location [AOR = 2.2, 95% CI; 1.2-4.2], health centers [AOR = 5.2, 95% CI; 3.1-8.7] and the performance of routine management meetings [AOR = 2.6, 95% CI; 1.1-5.9] were significantly associated with preparedness for the outpatient primary care of hypertension. The primary healthcare system in Tanzania is not adequately equipped to cope with the increasing burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases. Rural location, public ownership, and absence of routine management meetings were associated with being not prepared. There is a need to strengthen the primary
Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing a rapid rise in the burden of non-communicable diseases in both urban and rural areas. Data on health system preparedness to manage hypertension and other non-communicable diseases remains scarce. This study aimed to assess the preparedness of lower-level health facilities for outpatient primary care of hypertension in Tanzania.This study used data from the 2014-2015 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey. The facility was considered as prepared for the outpatient primary care of hypertension if reported at least half (≥50% of the items listed from each of the three domains (staff training and guideline, basic diagnostic equipment, and basic medicines as identified by World Health Organization-Service Availability and Readiness Assessment manual. Data were analyzed using Stata 14. An unadjusted logistic regression model was used to assess the association between outcome and explanatory variables. All variables with a P value < 0.2 were fitted into the multiple logistic regression models using a 5% significance level.Out of 725 health facilities involved in the current study, about 68% were public facilities and 73% located in rural settings. Only 28% of the assessed facilities were considered prepared for the outpatient primary care of hypertension. About 9% and 42% of the assessed facilities reported to have at least one trained staff and guidelines for hypertension respectively. In multivariate analysis, private facilities [AOR = 2.7, 95% CI; 1.2-6.1], urban location [AOR = 2.2, 95% CI; 1.2-4.2], health centers [AOR = 5.2, 95% CI; 3.1-8.7] and the performance of routine management meetings [AOR = 2.6, 95% CI; 1.1-5.9] were significantly associated with preparedness for the outpatient primary care of hypertension.The primary healthcare system in Tanzania is not adequately equipped to cope with the increasing burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases. Rural location, public ownership
Peng, Huan-Sheng; Chu, Jo-Ying
The eight-year-long period from Japan's initiation of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 to its unconditional surrender in 1945 forced Japan to invest its national economy and industrial and scientific technologies in the war. In addition, in the name of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, Japan initiated its assimilation and Kominka…
Ranning, Anne; Laursen, Thomas; Agerbo, Esben; Thorup, Anne; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Nordentoft, Merete
Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) are causes of severe disability worldwide and parents' severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with childhood adversity, and socio-emotional and cognitive problems in children. Yet, how parental BP and SZ affect educational attainment in offspring is still unclear. We included all children (N = 684.248) born and living in Denmark between 1986 and 1996 and their parents. Our follow-up lasted from 1986 until children's graduation in 2014. The main outcome variable was their school grades following their primary education. School outcomes were divided into four categories: not graduated, low-grade point average (GPA), medium GPA and high GPA. We then performed a multiple logistic regression with medium GPA as the reference category, with the children of parents without SZ or BP as the reference group. Children of parents with SZ faced higher odds than their peers of not graduating primary education (OR 2.6), along with low GPA (odds ratios (OR) 1.6) and lower odds for a high GPA (OR 0.7). Moreover, it was the children of mothers rather than fathers with BP who had higher odds of not graduating primary education (OR 1.6). Lastly, child placement was associated with lower grades and lower graduation rates, and outcomes for children of parents with SMI were favorable compared with other children placed in care. For children, parental SZ is associated with lower grades and lower chances for graduating primary education. In contrast, the children of parents with BP were indistinguishable from the reference group regarding school grades. This signifies that specificity of parental severe mental illness is important in relation to educational achievement of children.
Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Tindana, Paulina; Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Nartey, Harry; Akazili, James
Background In 2005, the World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) urged member states to aim at achieving affordable universal coverage and access to key promotive, preventive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative health interventions for all their citizens on the basis of equity and solidarity. Since then, some African countries, including Ghana, have taken steps to introduce national health insurance reforms as one of the key strategies towards achieving universa...
Full Text Available The Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been widely introduced in the national immunization programs in most of the medium and high income countries following endorsement from national and international advisory bodies. HPV vaccine is unique and its introduction is challenging in many ways - it is the first vaccine developed to prevent any cancer, the vaccine is gender specific, it targets adolescent females who are difficult to reach by any health intervention programs. It is not unusual for such a vaccine to face scepticism and reservations not only from lay public but also from professionals in spite of the clinical trial results convincingly and consistently proving their efficacy and safety. Over the last few years millions of doses of the HPV vaccine have been administered round the world and the efficacy and safety data have started coming from the real life programs. A comprehensive cervical cancer control program involving HPV vaccination of the adolescent girls and screening of the adult women has been proved to be the most cost-effective approach to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. The present article discusses the justification of HPV vaccination in the backdrop of natural history of cervical cancer, the mechanism of action of the vaccines, efficacy and safety data from phase III randomized controlled trials as well as from the national immunization programs of various countries.
Zhang, Juan; Feng, Xiaoqi; Zhai, Yi; Li, Weirong; Lv, Yue-Bin; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Shi, Xiaoming
Few studies have focused on clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among primary school children and potential associations with perceived and actual weight status. An index was constructed from adding up 13 unhealthy behaviours measured by survey responses. Multilevel linear regressions were used to analyse associations between child personal characteristics, perceived and actual weight status with the unhealthy lifestyle index among 11,157 children in primary schools across China. Parental and area factors were also taken into account, including education, weight status, physical activity, urban/rural and area socioeconomic circumstances. The unhealthy lifestyle index normally distributed, with 84.5% of children reporting between 2 and 6 unhealthy behaviours. Boys reported more unhealthy behaviours compared with girls (coefficient 0.32, 95%CI 0.26 to 0.37) and children in urban areas had fewer unhealthy behaviours than their rural counterparts (-0.29, 95%CI -0.56 to -0.03). An interaction revealed stronger 'protective' effects of living in cities for girls than boys, which were not explained by differences in child overweight/obesity. More unhealthy behaviours were characteristic of children in more affluent areas, and of those born to mothers and/or fathers with lower educational attainment. Children who perceived themselves as overweight or underweight both scored higher on the unhealthy lifestyle index. Unhealthy behaviours that could increase the risk of childhood obesity are common among Chinese primary school children, particularly among boys in cities, those in more affluent areas and with parents with lower education. There was no effect of actual weight status on number of unhealthy behaviours. Perceived, but not actual weight status, was also a significant correlate of unhealthy behaviours. Clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behaviours that could increase the risk of childhood obesity are common among Chinese primary school children, particularly
Full Text Available Introduction and aims: The understanding of lactose intolerance (LI is limited in some professional settings. Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva (SEPD and Sociedad Española de Medicina General (SEMG have developed a survey in order to: a Analyze primary care physicians (PCPs knowledge and clinical management; and b to compare results with those of a previous survey of Spanish gastroenterologists (GEs. Material and methods: An online questionnaire was sent to SEMG members with 27 items on various issues: Demographics, occupational characteristics, outlook on LI, diagnostic tests, treatment, and follow-up. Results were compared to those from a survey of GEs. Results: A total of 456 PCPs responded, versus 477 GEs. PCPs had an older mean age and longer professional experience. Level of understanding of LI was similar, albeit a higher proportion of PCPs lacked epidemiological awareness (p 0.001, and LI symptoms as overlapping those of irritable bowel syndrome (93.5 vs. 88.2%; p = 0.005, although symptoms perceived as suspicious of LI were similar in both groups. Dietary recommendations were recognized as the primary therapeutic approach. Conclusion: This study reveals the outlook of PCPs on LI, and allows comparison with that of GEs, as a basis for the development of strategies aimed at improving LI understanding, approach and management in our setting.
Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation represent a relevant and common health issue. However, real-world clinical practice includes patients with constipation who may or may not have other abdominal complaints (pain, bloating, abdominal discomfort with variable frequency. The goal of the present study was to obtain information on the workload entailed by patients with constipation and associated abdominal complaints, predominant clinical behaviors, education needs, and potential daily practice aids both in Primary Care and gastroenterology settings. The clinical behavior of doctors is generally similar at both levels, despite differences in healthcare approach: use of empiric therapies and clinically guided diagnostic tests, with some differences in colonoscopy use (not always directly accessible from Primary Care. Regarding perceptions, general support and osmotic laxatives are most valued by PC doctors, whereas osmotic laxatives, combined laxatives, and linaclotide are most valued by GE specialists. Furthermore, over half of respondents considered differentiating both diagnoses as challenging. Finally, considerable education needs are self-acknowledged at both levels, as is a demand for guidelines and protocols to help in managing this issue in clinical practice. A strength of this study is its providing a joint photograph of the medical approach and the perceptions of constipation with abdominal discomfort from a medical standpoint. Weaknesses include self-declaration (no formal validation and a response rate potentially biased by professional motivation.
Adcock, G B
Corporate-based nurse managed centers are not the national norm. More prevalent is the use of an occupational health or physician-directed medical model of care. The author describes how a 14-year-old primary care center at a North Carolina computer software company is just "business as usual" when viewed in the context of the company's philosophy, goals, and culture. Included are considerations for nurse practitioners interested in the successful transplantation of this primary care model to other settings.
Ashworth, Mark; White, Patrick; Jongsma, Hannah; Schofield, Peter; Armstrong, David
Concerns about adverse effects on patient satisfaction may be an important obstacle to attempts to curtail antibiotic prescribing. To determine the relationship between antibiotic prescribing in general practice and reported patient satisfaction. Retrospective cross-sectional study of general practices in England. Data were obtained from the General Practice Patient Survey (GPPS) in 2012 (2.7 million questionnaires in England; 982 999 responses; response rate 36%); the national Quality and Outcomes Framework dataset for England, 2011-2012 (8164 general practices); and general practice and demographic characteristics. Standardised measures of antibiotic prescribing volumes were obtained for each practice in England during 2012-2013, together with 12 other nationally available prescribing variables. The role of antibiotic prescribing volume was identified as a determinant of GPPS scores and adjusted for demographic and practice factors using multiple linear regression. The final dataset consisted of 7800 (95.5%) practices. A total of 33.7 million antibiotic prescriptions were issued to a registered population of 53.8 million patients. Antibiotic prescribing volume was a significant positive predictor of all 'doctor satisfaction' and 'practice satisfaction' scores in the GPPS, and was the strongest predictor of overall satisfaction out of 13 prescribing variables. A theoretical 25% reduction in antibiotic prescribing volume would be associated with 0.5-1.0% lower patient satisfaction scores, a drop of 3-6 centile points in national satisfaction ranking. Patients were less satisfied in practices with frugal antibiotic prescribing. A cautious approach to antibiotic prescribing may require a trade-off in terms of patient satisfaction. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Terranova, Aaron B; Henning, Jolene M
Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Cross-sectional study. A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. We used separate 3 x 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F(2182) = 7.82, P = .001 ) and Operating Conditions (F(2,182) = 12.01, P < .001). The JSS subscale Nature of Work was the'greatest indicator of intention to leave (β = -0.45). We found a strong negative correlation between various facets of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a major factor in job satisfaction.
R.C. Oliveira Junior; M. Keller; J. F. da F. Ramos; T.P. Beldini; P.M Crill; P.B. de Camargo; J. van Haren
The TapajÃ³s National Forest (FLONA TapajÃ³s) has 600,000 hectares of protected forest, and is situated 50 km south of the city of SantarÃ©m, ParÃ¡, Brazil, a port city of 250,000 inhabitants that is located at the confluence of the TapajÃ³s and Amazon Rivers. There is a lot of farmland in the region, which offers many opportunities to study changes in land use. Selective...
Full Text Available Background: In 2007, the Tanzanian government called for improvements in its primary health care services. Part of this initiative was to accelerate the training rate for nurses qualified to work in rural areas. The aim of this study was to reflect on the issues experienced whilst establishing and implementing a faith-based organisation (FBO nursing school and make recommendations for other similar initiatives. Design: This paper describes an auto-ethnographic case study design to identify the key difficulties involved with establishing and implementing a new nursing school, and which factors helped the project achieve its goals. Results: Six themes emerged from the experiences that shaped the course of the project: 1 Motivation can be sustained if the rationale of the project is in line with its aims. Indeed, the project's primary health care focus was to strengthen the nursing workforce and build a public–private partnership with an FBO. All these were strengths, which helped in the midst of all the uncertainties. 2 Communication was an important and often underrated factor for all types of development projects. 3 Managing the unknown and 4 managing expectations characterised the project inception. Almost all themes had to do with 5 handling conflicts. With so many participants having their own agendas, tensions were unavoidable. A final theme was 6 the need to adjust to ever-changing targets. Conclusions: This retrospective auto-ethnographic manuscript serves as a small-scale case study, to illustrate how issues that can be generalised to other settings can be deconstructed to demonstrate how they influence health development projects in developing countries. From this narrative of experiences, key recommendations include the following: 1 Find the right ratio of stakeholders, participants, and agendas, and do not overload the project; 2 Be alert and communicate as much as possible with staff and do not ignore issues hoping they will solve
In 2007, the Tanzanian government called for improvements in its primary health care services. Part of this initiative was to accelerate the training rate for nurses qualified to work in rural areas. The aim of this study was to reflect on the issues experienced whilst establishing and implementing a faith-based organisation (FBO) nursing school and make recommendations for other similar initiatives. This paper describes an auto-ethnographic case study design to identify the key difficulties involved with establishing and implementing a new nursing school, and which factors helped the project achieve its goals. Six themes emerged from the experiences that shaped the course of the project: 1) Motivation can be sustained if the rationale of the project is in line with its aims. Indeed, the project's primary health care focus was to strengthen the nursing workforce and build a public-private partnership with an FBO. All these were strengths, which helped in the midst of all the uncertainties. 2) Communication was an important and often underrated factor for all types of development projects. 3) Managing the unknown and 4) managing expectations characterised the project inception. Almost all themes had to do with 5) handling conflicts. With so many participants having their own agendas, tensions were unavoidable. A final theme was 6) the need to adjust to ever-changing targets. This retrospective auto-ethnographic manuscript serves as a small-scale case study, to illustrate how issues that can be generalised to other settings can be deconstructed to demonstrate how they influence health development projects in developing countries. From this narrative of experiences, key recommendations include the following: 1) Find the right ratio of stakeholders, participants, and agendas, and do not overload the project; 2) Be alert and communicate as much as possible with staff and do not ignore issues hoping they will solve themselves; 3) Think flexibly and do not stubbornly
Soberón, Jorge; Peterson, A Townsend
Development of effective indicators is indispensable for countries and societies to monitor effects of their actions on biodiversity, as is recognized in decision VI/26 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Good indicators would ideally be scalable, at least for the different scales that characterize biodiversity patterns and process. Existing indicators are mostly global in scope, and often based on secondary information, such as classifications of endangered species, rather than on primary data. We propose a complementary approach, based on the increased availability of raw data about occurrences of species, cutting-edge modeling techniques for estimating distributional areas, and land-use information based on remotely sensed data to allow estimation of rates of range loss for species affected by land-use conversion. This method can be implemented by developing countries, given increasing availability of data and the open and well-documented nature of the techniques required.
Marília Gomes de Sousa Bezerra
Full Text Available Introduction: The Ministry of Health with the aim of improving the service provided by the Unified Health System has been creating work tools to identify which points need to receive more attention to be optimized. Objective: Description of the role of municipal management, infrastructure assessment and perception of users of primary care. Method: Cross-sectional and descriptive study, conducted with Basic Units of Piauí municipality in 2015. The data were represented by tables. Results: 90% of the units reported receiving support for the planning and organization of the work process. Only 14, 81% of the units have equipment and supplies for proper operation. Users recommend the service in 92,62% of the cases. Conclusion: despite the precarious structure of the basic units of the county, the population still recognizes them as the best care.
Kim, Lois G; Cleary, Faye; Wheeler, David C; Caplin, Ben; Nitsch, Dorothea; Hull, Sally A
In the UK, primary care records are electronic and require doctors to ascribe disease codes to direct care plans and facilitate safe prescribing. We investigated factors associated with coding of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with reduced kidney function and the impact this has on patient management. We identified patients meeting biochemical criteria for CKD (two estimated glomerular filtration rates 90 days apart) from 1039 general practitioner (GP) practices in a UK audit. Clustered logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with coding for CKD and improvement in coding as a result of the audit process. We investigated the relationship between coding and five interventions recommended for CKD: achieving blood pressure targets, proteinuria testing, statin prescription and flu and pneumococcal vaccination. Of 256 000 patients with biochemical CKD, 30% did not have a GP CKD code. Males, older patients, those with more severe CKD, diabetes or hypertension or those prescribed statins were more likely to have a CKD code. Among those with continued biochemical CKD following audit, these same characteristics increased the odds of improved coding. Patients without any kidney diagnosis were less likely to receive optimal care than those coded for CKD [e.g. odds ratio for meeting blood pressure target 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.79)]. Older age, male sex, diabetes and hypertension are associated with coding for those with biochemical CKD. CKD coding is associated with receiving key primary care interventions recommended for CKD. Increased efforts to incentivize CKD coding may improve outcomes for CKD patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.
Full Text Available Guidelines indicate eligibility for lipid lowering drugs, but it is not known to what extent GPs' follow guidelines in routine clinical practice or whether additional clinical factors systematically influence their prescribing decisions.A retrospective cohort analysis was undertaken using electronic primary care records from 421 UK general practices. At baseline (May 2008 patients were aged 30 to 74 years, free from cardiovascular disease and not taking lipid lowering drugs. The outcome was prescription of a lipid lowering drug within the next two years. The proportions of eligible and ineligible patients prescribed lipid lowering drugs were reported and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors and prescribing.Of 365,718 patients with complete data, 13.8% (50,558 were prescribed lipid lowering drugs: 28.5% (21,101/74,137 of those eligible and 10.1% (29,457/291,581 of those ineligible. Only 41.7% (21,101/50,558 of those prescribed lipid lowering drugs were eligible. In multivariable analysis prescribing was most strongly associated with increasing age (OR for age ≥ 65 years 4.21; 95% CI 4.05-4.39; diabetes (OR 4.49; 95% CI 4.35-4.64; total cholesterol level ≥ 7 mmol/L (OR 2.20; 95% CI 2.12-2.29; and ≥ 4 blood pressure measurements in the past year (OR 4.24; 95% CI 4.06-4.42. The predictors were similar in eligible and ineligible patients.Most lipid lowering drugs for primary prevention are prescribed to ineligible patients. There is underuse of lipid lowering drugs in eligible patients.
Hinton, W; Liyanage, H; McGovern, A; Liaw, S-T; Kuziemsky, C; Munro, N; de Lusignan, S
Background: The Institute of Medicine framework defines six dimensions of quality for healthcare systems: (1) safety, (2) effectiveness, (3) patient centeredness, (4) timeliness of care, (5) efficiency, and (6) equity. Large health datasets provide an opportunity to assess quality in these areas. Objective: To perform an international comparison of the measurability of the delivery of these aims, in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from large datasets. Method: We conducted a survey to assess healthcare outcomes data quality of existing databases and disseminated this through professional networks. We examined the data sources used to collect the data, frequency of data uploads, and data types used for identifying people with T2DM. We compared data completeness across the six areas of healthcare quality, using selected measures pertinent to T2DM management. Results: We received 14 responses from seven countries (Australia, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey and the UK). Most databases reported frequent data uploads and would be capable of near real time analysis of healthcare quality.The majority of recorded data related to safety (particularly medication adverse events) and treatment efficacy (glycaemic control and microvascular disease). Data potentially measuring equity was less well recorded. Recording levels were lowest for patient-centred care, timeliness of care, and system efficiency, with the majority of databases containing no data in these areas. Databases using primary care sources had higher data quality across all areas measured. Conclusion: Data quality could be improved particularly in the areas of patient-centred care, timeliness, and efficiency. Primary care derived datasets may be most suited to healthcare quality assessment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.
Fenny, Ama Pokuah; Enemark, Ulrika; Asante, Felix A
Ghana has initiated various health sector reforms over the past decades aimed at strengthening institutions, improving the overall health system and increasing access to healthcare services by all groups of people. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) instituted in 2005, is an innovative...... system aimed at making health care more accessible to people who need it. Currently, there is a growing amount of concern about the capacity of the NHIS to make quality health care accessible to its clients. A number of studies have concentrated on the effect of health insurance status on demand...... for health services, but have been quiet on supply side issues. The main aim of this study is to examine the overall satisfaction with health care among the insured and uninsured under the NHIS. The second aim is to explore the relations between overall satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics...
Pucciarelli, S; Zorzi, M; Gennaro, N; Gagliardi, G; Restivo, A; Saugo, M; Barina, A; Rugge, M; Zuin, M; Maretto, I; Nitti, D
The simultaneous assessment of multiple indicators for quality of care is essential for comparisons of performance between hospitals and health care systems. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of in-hospital mortality and 30-day readmission and length of hospital stay (LOS) in patients who underwent surgical procedures for colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2014 in Italy. All patients in the National Italian Hospital Discharge Dataset who underwent a surgical procedure for colorectal cancer during the study period were included. The adjusted odd ratios for risk factors for in-hospital mortality, 30-day readmission, and LOS were calculated using multilevel multivariable logistic regression. Among the 353 941 patients, rates of in-hospital mortality and 30-day readmission were 2.5% and 6%, respectively, and the median LOS was 13 days. High comorbidity, emergent/urgent admission, male gender, creation of a stoma, and an open approach increased the risks of all the outcomes at multivariable analysis. Age, hospital volume, hospital geographic location, and discharge to home/non-home produced different effects depending on the outcome considered. The most frequent causes of readmission were infection (19%) and bowel obstruction (14.6%). We assessed national averages for mortality, LOS and readmission and related trends over a 10-year time. Laparoscopic surgery was the only one that could be modified by improving surgical education. Higher hospital volume was associated with a LOS reduction, but our findings only partially support a policy of centralization for colorectal cancer procedures. Surgical site infection was identified as the most preventable cause of readmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Ranning, Anne; Laursen, Thomas; Agerbo, Esben
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) are causes of severe disability worldwide and parents' severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with childhood adversity, and socio-emotional and cognitive problems in children. Yet, how parental BP and SZ affect educational attainment in ...... education. In contrast, the children of parents with BP were indistinguishable from the reference group regarding school grades. This signifies that specificity of parental severe mental illness is important in relation to educational achievement of children.......BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) are causes of severe disability worldwide and parents' severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with childhood adversity, and socio-emotional and cognitive problems in children. Yet, how parental BP and SZ affect educational attainment...... in offspring is still unclear. METHOD: We included all children (N = 684.248) born and living in Denmark between 1986 and 1996 and their parents. Our follow-up lasted from 1986 until children's graduation in 2014. The main outcome variable was their school grades following their primary education. School...
Simms, Kate T; Hall, Michaela; Smith, Megan A; Lew, Jie-Bin; Hughes, Suzanne; Yuill, Susan; Hammond, Ian; Saville, Marion; Canfell, Karen
Several countries are implementing a transition to HPV testing for cervical screening in response to the introduction of HPV vaccination and evidence indicating that HPV screening is more effective than cytology. In Australia, a 2017 transition from 2-yearly conventional cytology in 18-20 to 69 years to 5-yearly primary HPV screening in 25 to 74 years will involve partial genotyping for HPV 16/18 with direct referral to colposcopy for this higher risk group. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal management of women positive for other high-risk HPV types (not 16/18) ('OHR HPV'). We used a dynamic model of HPV transmission, vaccination, natural history and cervical screening to determine the optimal management of women positive for OHR HPV. We assumed cytology triage testing was used to inform management in this group and that those with high-grade cytology would be referred to colposcopy and those with negative cytology would receive 12-month surveillance. For those with OHR HPV and low-grade cytology (considered to be a single low-grade category in Australia incorporating ASC-US and LSIL), we evaluated (1) the 20-year risk of invasive cervical cancer assuming this group are referred for 12-month follow-up vs. colposcopy, and compared this to the risk in women with low-grade cytology under the current program (i.e. an accepted benchmark risk for 12-month follow-up in Australia); (2) the population-level impact of the whole program, assuming this group are referred to 12-month surveillance vs. colposcopy; and (3) the cost-effectiveness of immediate colposcopy compared to 12-month follow-up. Evaluation was performed both for HPV-unvaccinated cohorts and cohorts offered vaccination (coverage ~72%). The estimated 20-year risk of cervical cancer is ≤1.0% at all ages if this group are referred to colposcopy vs. ≤1.2% if followed-up in 12 months, both of which are lower than the ≤2.6% benchmark risk in women with low-grade cytology in the current
Fernández Castro, Mónica; Andreu, Jose Luis; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Martínez Taboada, Víctor; Olivé, Alejandro; Rosas, José; Sánchez-Alonso, Fernando
To describe the objectives and methods of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) registry (SJOGREN-SER) METHODS: This is a multicenter descriptive transversal study of a cohort of pSS patients fulfilling European/American consensus criteria collected from Rheumatology clinics all over Spain. Patients were included by randomisation from an anonymised list provided by every department. Data were collected by reviewing clinical records and an interviewing the patients. Two hundred and ninety eight variables were investigated: epidemiological, clinical, serological characteristics, treatments and complications. Informed consent was obtained and local ethics committees approved the study. Variables were analysed by descriptive statistical methods, using means, medians, and rates, with their deviations and interquartile ranges (p25-p75). A total of 3 rheumatology departments participated in the registry. A total of 437 patients were included. And 95% of them were women, with a median age of 58. Median age at pSS 's diagnosis was 50 years. Dryness symptoms (95%) were the most frequent complaint and anti-Ro/SS-A were present in 94% of the cases. Only 27% of the patients fulfilled the new 2012 SICCA-ACR classification criteria. SJOGREN-SER has been designed in order to characterize a representative pSS Spanish cohort, in clinical daily practice, to analyze the magnitude and distribution of its manifestations, activity, accumulated damage and therapeutic management of the disease. This will allow broadening the knowledge of this disease and plan strategies of action in pSS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available India is undergoing a rapid transformation in terms of governance, administrative reforms, newer policy develoment, and social movements. India is also considered one of the most vibrant economies in the world. The current discourse in public space is dominated by issues such as economic development, security, corruption free governance, gender equity, and women safety. Healthcare though remains a pressing need of population; seems to have taken a backseat. In the era of decreasing subsidies and cautious investment in social sectors, the 2 nd National Conference on Family Medicine and Primary Care 2015 (FMPC brought a focus on "healthcare" in India. The theme of this conference was "Healthcare is Primary." The conference participants discussed on the theme of why healthcare should be a national priority and why strong primary care should remain at the center of healthcare delivery system. The experts recommended that India needs to strengthen the "general health system" instead of focusing on disease based vertical programs. Public health system should have capacity and skill pool to be able to deliver person centered comprehensive health services to the community. Proactive implementation of policies towards human resource in health is the need of the hour. As the draft National Health Policy 2015 is being debated, "family medicine" (academic primary care, the unfinished agenda of National Health Policy 2002, remains a priority area of implementation.
Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology
The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.
Jacobsen, S; Jensen, L T; Foldager, M
Serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide have previously been reported to be low in some patients with primary fibromyalgia and the aim of this study was to determine if such patients differ clinically from primary fibromyalgia patients with normal levels of procollagen...... type III aminoterminal peptide. Subjective symptoms, tender points and dynamic muscle strength in 45 women with primary fibromyalgia were related to serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide. Patients with low serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide...... concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide of primary fibromyalgia patients are connected to the disease impact....
Fenny, Ama P.; Enemark, Ulrika; Asante, Felix A.; Hansen, Kristian S.
Ghana has initiated various health sector reforms over the past decades aimed at strengthening institutions, improving the overall health system and increasing access to healthcare services by all groups of people. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) instituted in 2005, is an innovative system aimed at making health care more accessible to people who need it. Currently, there is a growing amount of concern about the capacity of the NHIS to make quality health care accessible to its clients. A number of studies have concentrated on the effect of health insurance status on demand for health services, but have been quiet on supply side issues. The main aim of this study is to examine the overall satisfaction with health care among the insured and uninsured under the NHIS. The second aim is to explore the relations between overall satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics, health insurance and the various dimensions of quality of care. This study employs logistic regression using household survey data in three districts in Ghana covering the 3 ecological zones (coastal, forest and savannah). It identifies the service quality factors that are important to patients’ satisfaction and examines their links to their health insurance status. The results indicate that a higher proportion of insured patients are satisfied with the overall quality of care compared to the uninsured. The key predictors of overall satisfaction are waiting time, friendliness of staff and satisfaction of the consultation process. These results highlight the importance of interpersonal care in health care facilities. Feedback from patients’ perception of health services and satisfaction surveys improve the quality of care provided and therefore effort must be made to include these findings in future health policies. PMID:24999137
Fenny, Ama Pokuaa; Enemark, Ulrika; Asante, Felix A; Hansen, Kristian S
Ghana has initiated various health sector reforms over the past decades aimed at strengthening institutions, improving the overall health system and increasing access to healthcare services by all groups of people. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) instituted in 2005, is an innovative system aimed at making health care more accessible to people who need it. Currently, there is a growing amount of concern about the capacity of the NHIS to make quality health care accessible to its clients. A number of studies have concentrated on the effect of health insurance status on demand for health services, but have been quiet on supply side issues. The main aim of this study is to examine the overall satisfaction with health care among the insured and uninsured under the NHIS. The second aim is to explore the relations between overall satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics, health insurance and the various dimensions of quality of care. This study employs logistic regression using household survey data in three districts in Ghana covering the 3 ecological zones (coastal, forest and savannah). It identifies the service quality factors that are important to patients' satisfaction and examines their links to their health insurance status. The results indicate that a higher proportion of insured patients are satisfied with the overall quality of care compared to the uninsured. The key predictors of overall satisfaction are waiting time, friendliness of staff and satisfaction of the consultation process. These results highlight the importance of interpersonal care in health care facilities. Feedback from patients' perception of health services and satisfaction surveys improve the quality of care provided and therefore effort must be made to include these findings in future health policies.
Full Text Available Summary Background Recent studies have demonstrated marked international variations in the prevalence of asthma, but less is known about ethnic variations in asthma epidemiology within individual countries and in particular the impact of migration on risk of developing asthma. Recent within country comparisons have however revealed that despite originating from areas of the world with a low risk for developing asthma, South Asian and Afro-Caribbean people in the UK are significantly (3× and 2× respectively more likely to be admitted to hospital for asthma related problems than Whites. Methods Using data from the Fourth National Study of Morbidity Statistics in General Practice, a one-percent broadly representative prospective cohort study of consultations in general practice, we investigated ethnic variations in incident asthma consultations (defined as new or first consultations, and compared consultation rates between those born inside and outside the UK (migrant status. Logistic regression models were used to examine the combined effects of ethnicity and migration on asthma incident consultations. Results Results showed significantly lower new/first asthma consultation rates for Whites than for each of the ethnic minority groups studied (mean age-adjusted consultation rates per 1000 patient-years: Whites 26.4 (95%CI 26.4, 26.4; South Asians 30.4 (95%CI 30.3, 30.5; Afro-Caribbeans 35.1 (95%CI 34.9, 35.3; and Others 27.8 (27.7, 28.0. Within each of these ethnic groups, those born outside of the UK showed consistently lower rates of incident asthma consultations. Modelling the combined effects of ethnic and migrant status revealed that UK-born South Asians and Afro-Caribbeans experienced comparable risks for incident GP consultations for asthma to UK-born Whites. Non-UK born Whites however experienced reduced risks (adjusted OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.69, 0.97 whilst non-UK born South Asians experienced increased risks (adjusted OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.04, 1
Full Text Available The number of prosthesis brands used for hip replacement has increased rapidly, but there is little evidence on their effectiveness. We compared patient-reported outcomes, revision rates, and mortality for the three most frequently used brands within each prosthesis type: cemented (Exeter V40 Contemporary, Exeter V40 Duration and Exeter V40 Elite Plus Ogee, cementless (Corail Pinnacle, Accolade Trident, and Taperloc Exceed, and hybrid (Exeter V40 Trilogy, Exeter V40 Trilogy, and CPT Trilogy.We used three national databases of patients who had hip replacements between 2008 and 2011 in the English NHS to compare functional outcome (Oxford Hip Score (OHS ranging from 0 (worst to 48 (best in 43,524 patients at six months. We analysed revisions and mortality in 187,201 patients. We used multiple regression to adjust for pre-operative differences. Prosthesis type had an impact on post-operative OHS and revision rates (both p<0.001. Patients with hybrid prostheses had the best functional outcome (mean OHS 39.4, 95%CI 39.1 to 39.7 and those with cemented prostheses the worst (37.7, 37.3 to 38.1. Patients with cemented prostheses had the lowest reported 5-year revision rates (1.3%, 1.2% to 1.4% and those with cementless prostheses the highest (2.2%, 2.1% to 2.4%. Differences in mortality according to prosthesis type were small and not significant (p = 0.06. Functional outcome varied according to brand among cemented (p = 0.05, with Exeter V40 Duration having the best and cementless prostheses (p = 0.01, with Corail Pinnacle having the best. Revision rates varied according to brand among hybrids (p = 0.05, with Exeter V40 Trident having the lowest.Functional outcomes were better with cementless cups and revision rates were lower with cemented stems, which underlies the good overall performance of hybrids. The hybrid Exeter V40 Trident seemed to produce the best overall results. This brand should be considered as a benchmark in randomised trials.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included primary production for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came...
Vedsted, Peter; Kallestrup, Per
International Perspectives on Primary Care Research examines how the evidence base from primary care research can strengthen health care services and delivery, tackle the growing burden of disease, improve quality and safety, and increase a person-centred focus to health care. Demonstrating...... the inter-professional nature of the discipline, the book also features a section on cross-nation organisations and primary care networks supporting research. National perspectives are offered from researchers in 20 countries that form part of the World Organization of Family Doctors, providing case...... histories from research-rich to resource-poor nations that illustrate the range of research development and capacity building. This book argues the importance of primary care research, especially to policy makers, decision makers and funders in informing best practice, training primary health care providers...
Thomsen, Robert Chr.
"Nationalism in Stateless Nations" explores national identities and nationalist movements since 1967, using the examples of Scotland and Newfoundland. Adding to the debate about globalisation and the future of the nation-state, the book argues that ethnically rooted nationalism in modern liberal ...... - intellectuals, political parties and the media - the book combines historical, sociological, political and media studies analyses in an interdisciplinary investigation, providing a comprehensive account of the waxing and waning of nationalism....
Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.
Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...
... attack is higher. Patients also have an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia or primary myelofibrosis . Symptoms of polycythemia vera include headaches and a feeling of fullness below the ribs on the left ...
Part-time teacher of primary English needed for September 2003 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply see http://enpferney.org/staff_vacancies.htm English National Programme, Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire (http://enpferney.org/)
Italy is not a country where Spanish doctors emigrate, as there is an over-supply of health care professionals. The Italian Servizio Sanitario Nazionale has some differences compared to the Spanish National Health System. The Servizio Sanitario Nazionale is financed by national and regional taxes and co-payments. There are taxes earmarked for health, and Primary Care receives 50% of the total funds. Italian citizens and residents in Italy have the right to free health cover. However, there are co-payments for laboratory and imaging tests, pharmaceuticals, specialist ambulatory services, and emergencies. Co-payments vary in the different regions. The provision of services is regional, and thus fragmentation and major inequities are the norm. Doctors in Primary Care are self-employed and from 2000 onwards, there are incentives to work in multidisciplinary teams. Salary is regulated by a national contract and it is the sum of per-capita payments and extra resources for specific activities. Responsibilities are similar to those of Spanish professionals. However, medical care is more personal. Relationships between Primary Care and specialised care depend on the doctors' relationships. Primary Care doctors are gatekeepers for specialised care, except for gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics. Specialised training is compulsory in order to work as general practitioner. The Italian Health Care System is a national health system like the Spanish one. However, health care professionals are self-employed, and there are co-payments. In spite of co-payments, Italians have one of the highest average life expectancy, and they support a universal and publicly funded health-care system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The National Energy Balance - 1985 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1974 to 1984 (E.G.) [pt
The National Energy Balance - 1984 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the productions to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1973 to 1983. (E.G.) [pt
The National Energy Balance - 1987 showns energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1971 to 1986. (E.G.) [pt
Sonnichsen, André; Gad, Ulrik Pram
Is nationality the only way of organizing political community? Given the ubiquity of the national principle, one might think so. But, in practice, the national principle is constantly challenged by what can be termed non-national identities. This article looks at manners in which such deviating...... identities can be conceptualized, how contemporary European states have attempted to deal with them when they arise and to what extent non-national modes of organizing political community can point towards a challenge to the national principle itself. In its capacity as an introduction to the special issue......, this article seeks to frame the subsequent articles within the overarching theme of the tension between national and non-national communities in contemporary Europe....
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...
Braam, R.L.; Pieters, G.F.F.M.; Thien, Th.
Three patients diagnosed with primary hypertension suddenly developed hard-to-treat blood pressure after several years of stable blood pressure. One patient, a man aged 48 years, had developed a renal artery stenosis, which had not been present five years earlier. The other two patients, a man aged
Hyperthyroidism is characterised by high levels of serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, and low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Thyrotoxicosis is the clinical effect of high levels of thyroid hormones, whether or not the thyroid gland is the primary source.The main causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goitre, and toxic adenoma.About 20 times more women than men have hyperthyroidism.
Geographic region, socioeconomic position and the utilisation of primary total joint replacement for hip or knee osteoarthritis across western Victoria: a cross-sectional multilevel study of the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.
Brennan-Olsen, Sharon; Vogrin, Sara; Holloway, Kara L; Page, Richard S; Sajjad, Muhammad A; Kotowicz, Mark A; Livingston, Patricia M; Khasraw, Mustafa; Hakkennes, Sharon; Dunning, Trish L; Brumby, Susan; Pedler, Daryl; Sutherland, Alasdair; Venkatesh, Svetha; Williams, Lana J; Duque, Gustavo; Pasco, Julie A
Compared to urban residents, those in rural/regional areas often experience inequitable healthcare from specialist service providers. Independent of small between-area differences in utilisation, socially advantaged groups had the greatest uptake of joint replacement. These data suggest low correlation between 'need' vs. 'uptake' of surgery in rural/regional areas. Compared to urban residents, those in rural and regional areas often experience inequitable healthcare from specialist service providers, often due to geographical issues. We investigated associations between socioeconomic position (SEP), region of residence and utilisation of primary total knee replacement (TKR) and/or total hip replacement (THR) for osteoarthritis. As part of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury study, we extracted data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (2011-2013) for adults that utilised primary TKR (n = 4179; 56% female) and/or THR (n = 3120; 54% female). Residential addresses were matched with the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2011 census data: region of residence was defined according to local government areas (LGAs), and area-level SEP (quintiles) defined using an ABS-derived composite index. The ABS-determined control population (n = 591,265; 51% female) excluded individuals identified as cases. We performed multilevel logistic regression modelling using a stratified two-stage cluster design. TKR was higher for those aged 70-79 years (AOR 1.4 95%CI 1.3-1.5; referent = 60-69 years) and in the most advantaged SEP quintile (AOR 2.1, 95%CI 1.8-2.3; referent = SEP quintile 3); results were similar for THR (70-79 years = AOR 1.7, 95%CI 1.5-1.8; SEP quintile 5 = AOR 2.5, 95%CI 2.2-2.8). Total variances contributed by the variance in LGAs were 2% (SD random effects ± 0.28) and 3% (SD ± 0.32), respectively. Independent of small between-LGA differences in utilisation, and in contrast to the expected greater
Spanish doctors are still leaving the country to look for quality work. Ireland is not a country with many Spanish professionals but it is interesting to know its particular Health care system. Ireland is one of the countries with a national health care system, although it has a mixture of private health care insurance schemes. People have a right to health care if they have been living in Ireland at least for a year. Access to the primary care health system depends on age and income: free of charge for Category 1 and co-payments for the rest. This division generates great inequalities among the population. Primary Care doctors are self-employed, and they work independently. However, since 2001 they have tended to work in multidisciplinary teams in order to strengthen the Primary Care practice. Salary is gained from a combination of public and private incomes which are not differentiated. The role of the General Practitioner consists in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases, minor surgery, child care, etc. There is no coordination between Primary and Secondary care. Access to specialised medicine is regulated by the price of consultation. Primary Care doctors are not gatekeepers. To be able to work here, doctors must have three years of training after medical school. After that, Continuing Medical Education is compulsory, and the college of general practitioners monitors it annually. The Irish health care system does not fit into the European model. Lack of a clear separation between public and private health care generates great inequalities. The non-existence of coordination between primary and specialised care leads to inefficiencies, which Ireland cannot allow itself after a decade of economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
For January 2003, the A.P.E.G. has an opening for a primary school teacher in the German national language program. The position requires one afternoon of teaching (13:30 till 16:30) every Tuesday at the Collège in Prévessin. The candidate should be a native speaker of German and have some knowledge of French. If you are interested, please send your CV, a copy of your diploma, and a short letter of motivation, until December 9th, to the following address. Madeleine Dittus Présidente A.P.E.G. 5, La vie Destraz 01630 St. Genis-Pouilly (France)
The Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study (PC-VDS) is a naturalistic and prospective cohort study concerning primary care patients with depressive disorders. It forms a collaborative research project between the Department of Mental and Alcohol Research of the National Public Health Institute, and the Primary Health Care Organization of the City of Vantaa. The aim is to obtain a comprehensive view on clinically significant depression in primary care, and to compare depressive patients in prima...
The economic crisis and deterioration of the Portuguese National Health service has forced professionals to leave the country. The Portuguese National Health System was introduced in 1976, but it has been unable to provide citizens with the social and health advantages of an equality of access and free national health system. The Portuguese National Health System is financed by taxes. However, a 35% of its incomes are from private sources. The health minister decides the budget, and it is based on an historical financing plus a per capita system. Portuguese citizens and immigrants are entitled to free health care, but there is a co-payment for care, diagnostic, pharmacy, and emergency care. Health care provision is a mixture of public and private health care at a regional level. It leads to fragmentation of services and greater inequalities. Doctors are civil servants. Salary is regulated and it depends on seniority and on-call shifts. Primary care activities are similar to those of their Spanish counterparts. General practitioners have gatekeeper function, but the system is imperfect, and patients with private insurance get direct access to the specialist. Specialist training is similar to the training system in Spain. Continuing education is not regulated. The Portuguese Health System has been trying to become a national health system since 1979. Political instability, fragmentation of services, lack of clarity between public and private and co-payments are important constraints. Inequalities are an important problem to reconsider while discussing a national health system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Consider the extent to which primary science teaching has evolved since it became a core subject in England with the introduction of the National Curriculum in 1988, and the pace at which theory-driven classroom practice has advanced. It is no wonder that, given the recent economic restructuring and boom in technological development in China,…
Lim, Yvonne Mei Fong; Yusof, Maryati; Sivasampu, Sheamini
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess National Medical Care Survey data quality. Design/methodology/approach Data completeness and representativeness were computed for all observations while other data quality measures were assessed using a 10 per cent sample from the National Medical Care Survey database; i.e., 12,569 primary care records from 189 public and private practices were included in the analysis. Findings Data field completion ranged from 69 to 100 per cent. Error rates for data transfer from paper to web-based application varied between 0.5 and 6.1 per cent. Error rates arising from diagnosis and clinical process coding were higher than medication coding. Data fields that involved free text entry were more prone to errors than those involving selection from menus. The authors found that completeness, accuracy, coding reliability and representativeness were generally good, while data timeliness needs to be improved. Research limitations/implications Only data entered into a web-based application were examined. Data omissions and errors in the original questionnaires were not covered. Practical implications Results from this study provided informative and practicable approaches to improve primary health care data completeness and accuracy especially in developing nations where resources are limited. Originality/value Primary care data quality studies in developing nations are limited. Understanding errors and missing data enables researchers and health service administrators to prevent quality-related problems in primary care data.
Full Text Available El artículo aborda resultados del análisis panorámico de la Atención Primaria en Salud (APS en Uruguay en Uruguay en 2009, en el marco de un estudio multicéntrico con objetivo de identificar posibilidades para reorientar la Atención Primaria en Salud (APS como estrategia para alcanzar sistemas de salud universales, considerando la segmentación del sistema y la fragmentación en la provisión. La metodología incluyó análisis documental, entrevistas con informantes clave y triangulación de fuentes de información. Los resultados se presentan en base al modelo analítico construido en cinco dimensiones: conducción, financiamiento, recursos, integralidad e intersectorialidad de la APS. A nivel macro se observa la reciente reforma sectorial con creación de un Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud (SNIS que favorece el desarrollo de la APS desde una concepción integradora. Se han definido acciones que apuntan a superar la segmentación del sistema y la fragmentación de los cuidados. Sin embargo a nivel operativo la segmentación presente antes del SNIS, así como el bajo nivel de coordinación de los cuidados no se han modificado aún. Esto se relaciona con la capacidad de gestión y factores organizacionales. La falta de recursos humanos adecuados para la implementación de la estrategia de APS, se identifica como factor relevante.The article examines the results of the overview of PHC (Primary Healthcare in Uruguay in 2009, within the context of the multicentric study of PHC with a view to identifying possibilities of redefining PHC as a strategy to achieve universal healthcare systems, taking into account the healthcare system's segmentation and fragmentation. The methodology included document analysis, key informant interviews and triangulation of information sources. The results presented are based on the analytical model structured in five dimensions: delivery, financing, resources, and integrated and intersectoral PHC. At the macro
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...
Ijäs, Jarja; Alanen, Seija; Kaila, Minna
OBJECTIVE: To describe the adoption of the national Hypertension Guideline in primary care and to evaluate the consistency of the views of the health centre senior executives on the guideline's impact on clinical practices in the treatment of hypertension in their health centres. DESIGN: A cross...... Guideline. RESULTS: Data were available from 143 health centres in Finland (49%). The views of head physicians and senior nursing officers on the adoption of the Hypertension Guideline were not consistent. Head physicians more often than senior nursing officers (44% vs. 29%, p ...: Hypertension Guideline recommendations that require joint agreements between professionals are less often adopted than simple, precise recommendations. More emphasis on effective multidisciplinary collaboration is needed....
For the beginning of the school year 2002/2003, the A.P.E.G. has an opening for a primary school teacher in the German national language program. The position requires one afternoon of teaching (13:30 till 16:30) every Tuesday at the Collège in Prévessin. The candidate should be a native speaker of German and have some knowledge of French. If you are interested, please send your CV, a copy of your diploma, and a short letter of motivation, until March 10th, to the following address. Madeleine Dittus - Présidente A.P.E.G. 5, La vie Destraz 01630 St. Genis-Pouilly - France
We often observed domestic mammals such as cattle, cats and dogs in the forest at Ampijoroa. Although the primary forest in Ampijoroa is managed by Madagascar National Parks, local people leave these domestic animals in the forest. Introduced animals may be a threat to endemic animals. Cattle can be transmitters of ...
The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.) [pt
The National Energy Balance - 1981, shows a new metodology and information in level of several economic sectors, as well as a separation of primary and secondary energy sources, its energy fluxes, i.e. production, imports, exports, consumption, etc...(E.G.) [pt
...: Fishing (primary member); Fishing (alternate); and Education (alternate). Florida Keys National Marine... (primary member); Research and Monitoring (alternate); Tourism--Lower Keys (primary member); and Tourism--Lower Keys (alternate). Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Education...
World Concerns and the United Nations: Model Teaching Units for Primary, Secondary, and Teacher Education Based on the Work of Participants in the UN Fellowship Programme for Educators and the UNESCO Associated Schools Project. Second Revised Edition.
Arkin, Linda, Ed.
Today's educators face the daunting challenge of preparing new generations of young people for life in a world undergoing economic, political, and cultural changes on a scale unmatched in history. After five decades, the United Nations remains at the center of the global effort to ensure peace and the equitable enjoyment of the planet's resources.…
Boele Van Hensbroek, Pieter; Afolayan, A.; Falola, T.
Central to the endeavor of nationalist thought is the nineteenth-century idea of the nation as the primary political community, resulting in territorially bounded nation-states becoming the globally dominant model. In this chapter, Boele van Hensbroek identifies the imaginative intellectuals and
Toth, Eva Charlotte; Tegner, Jette; Lauridsen, Sigurd
Background Drug consumption rooms (DCRs) have been implemented worldwide as a harm-reducing strategy. In 2012, Denmark passed legislation allowing establishment of DCRs. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics and gain knowledge of the way service users use the DCRs including bridge...... building to specialized health care. Associations between nationality, opioid substitution treatment (OST), drug intake method, and response to staff advice on harm-reducing education was investigated, as well as service user’s reasons for using the DCRs, and their perceptions of safety and trust...... care took place in the DCR. Conclusions Staff of Danish DCRs educate service users on health related issues and harm-reducing interventions. A subgroup who smoke and a subgroup of nationality other than Danish are underserved and have less likely been in OST. More research on these groups is needed....
Ratner, Helene Gad
, the primary school’s annual national test was changed to better align with PISA’s scale of assessment. With the new test, PISA becomes more than a means for comparison between different (EU) countries as the ‘Danish’ data links up to PISA data. The paper explores how ‘Europeanised’ national test data......EU uses the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to assemble and govern the different member states’ student populations (Nóvoa and Lord, 2002; Grek, 2009). This paper explores how ‘Europe-building’ occurs through PISA-affected Danish governmental data practices. In 2015...... inwards, tracking a temporal movement within each individual. This resonates a shift in EU policy from ‘education’ to ‘learning’ (Ozga et al, 2011). The conception of the population has also changed. A big data analysis concluded that students’ national test results can predict their PISA performance...
Belgium is an attractive country to work in, not just for doctors but for all Spanish workers, due to it having the headquarters of European Union. The health job allure is double; on the one hand, the opportunity to find a decent job, and on the other, because it is possible to develop their professional abilities with patients of the same nationality in a health system with a different way of working. The Belgium health care system is based on security social models. Health care is financed by the government, social security contributions, and voluntary private health insurance. Primary care in Belgium is very different to that in Spain. Citizens may freely choose their doctor (general practitioner or specialist) increasing the lack of coordination between primary and specialized care. This leads to serious patient safety problems and loss of efficiency within the system. Belgium is a European country with room to improve preventive coverage. General practitioners are self-employed professionals with free choice of setting, and their salary is linked to their professional activity. Ambulatory care is subjected to co-payment, and this fact leads to great inequities on access to care. The statistics say that there is universal coverage but, in 2010, 14% of the population did not seek medical contact due to economic problems. It takes 3 years to become a General Practitioner and continuing medical education is compulsory to be revalidated. In general, Belgian and Spaniards living and working in Belgium are happy with the functioning of the health care system. However, as doctors, we should be aware that it is a health care system in which access is constrained for some people, and preventive coverage could be improved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Andreasen, Karen Egedal
Assessment in school represent a technology and materiality with profound impact on the life, activities and interactions in school (eg. Lawn & Grosvenor, 2005). It can be considered as an integrated and in different ways also dominating part of pedagogic practice which influence processes of in...... – in the classroom – as well as at the macro level – the nation.The practice of teachers offering national tests occurs in different forms in primary schools throughout the world (eg. McNess et al. 2015). These practices are often associated with a curriculum and learning objectives that are nationalistic...... in their orientation. In a policy perspective, the underlying motive may be a desire to evaluate and compare students’ academic development and performance as well as schools’ performance and goal attainment at the national level. National testing are based on the assumption that the tested pupils all speak the same...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart...
To assess the availability of essential drugs and the perceptions of clients on drugs situation in the primary health centres of Tafa Local Government Area, north central Nigeria. Checklist consisting ofminimum drugs expected in a generic primary health centre developed by the National Primary Health Care Development ...
Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst
Culinary consciousness raisers, cooking texts often serve as vehicles of national identification. From Pampille (Marthe Allard Daudet) and her cookbook, Les Bons Plats de France, in 1913 to the international culinary competitions of today such as the Bocuse d'or, culinary distinction promotes national interests. In contrast to the strident nationalism of the early twentieth century, culinary nationalism today operates in an increasingly globalized world. National culinary distinction defines the nation and sells its products in a highly competitive international arena. A recent culinary text, the South Korean film Le Grand Chef [Sik Gaek ] (2007), illustrates the phenomenon, subsuming national culinary promotion in a mega culinary competition, all in the service of Korean culinary achievement.
Hunt, Earl; Wittmann, Werner
What is the relation between the cognitive competence of a national population that nation's economic prosperity? Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R. & Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations." Westport, CT: Praeger.] presented data pointing to an exceptionally strong relationship between IQ scores and Gross Domestic Product per…
... which cause different symptoms. Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include these difficulties: Comprehending spoken or written ... word meanings Naming objects Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include: Having difficulty retrieving words Frequently pausing ...
... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...
Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.
Archer, Joanne; Hanlon, Ann M.; Levine, Jennie A.
Primary source research requires students to acquire specialized research skills. This paper presents results from a user study testing the effectiveness of a Web guide designed to convey the concepts behind "primary source literacy". The study also evaluated students' strengths and weaknesses when conducting primary source research. (Contains 3…
This paper examines decentralisation and distribution of access to primary school in Indonesia. Data come from Indonesia National Socio Economic Survey 2014, and statistic reports from Ministry of education, Ministry Of Finance, and General Election Commision. Descriptive statistic is used to describe spatial distribution of decentralization in primary education system and distribution of primary education access. The results show there are districts disparities in decentralization of primary...
Department of Transportation — National Park Service unit boundaries (NTAD). These park boundaries signify legislative boundary definitions and local park names have been consolidated according to...
Evaluation of community provision of a preventive cardiovascular programme - the National Health Service Health Check in reaching the under-served groups by primary care in England: cross sectional observational study.
Woringer, Maria; Cecil, Elizabeth; Watt, Hillary; Chang, Kiara; Hamid, Fozia; Khunti, Kamlesh; Dubois, Elizabeth; Evason, Julie; Majeed, Azeem; Soljak, Michael
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature mortality and a major contributor of health inequalities in England. Compared to more affluent and white counterparts, deprived people and ethnic minorities tend to die younger due to preventable CVD associated with lifestyle. In addition, deprived, ethnic minorities and younger people are less likely to be served by CVD prevention services. This study assessed the effectiveness of community-based outreach providers in delivering England's National Health Services (NHS) Health Check programme, a CVD preventive programme to under-served groups. Between January 2008 and October 2013, community outreach providers delivered a preventive CVD programme to 50,573 individuals, in their local communities, in a single consultation without prescheduled appointments. Community outreach providers operated on evenings and weekends as well as during regular business hours in venues accessible to the general public. After exclusion criteria, we analysed and compared socio-demographic data of 43,177 Health Check attendees with the general population across 38 local authorities (LAs). We assessed variation between local authorities in terms of age, sex, deprivation and ethnicity structures using two sample t-tests and within local authority variation in terms of ethnicity and deprivation using Chi squared tests and two sample t-tests respectively. Using Index of Multiple Deprivation, the mean deprivation score of the population reached by community outreach providers was 6.01 higher (p successful in recruiting ethnic minority groups. The mean proportion of men screened was 11.39% lower (p successful in motivating the under-served groups to improve lifestyle, it may reduce health inequalities therein.
Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common condition that affects 0.3% of the general population. Primary and tertiary care specialists can encounter patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and prompt recognition and treatment can greatly reduce morbidity and mortality from this disease. In this paper we will review the basic physiology of calcium homeostasis and then consider genetic associations as well as common etiologies and presentations of primary hyperparathyroidism. We will consider emerging trends in detection and measurement of parathyroid hormone as well as available imaging modalities for the parathyroid glands. Surgical indications and approach will be reviewed as well as medical management of primary hyperparathyroidism with bisphosphonates and calcimimetics.
Cusano, Natalie E.; Silverberg, Shonni J.; Bilezikian, John P.
Primary hyperparathyroidism, a common endocrine disorder, is traditionally defined by hypercalcemia and elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). A newer presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism has been described over the past decade, in which PTH is elevated but serum calcium is consistently normal, in the absence of secondary causes of hyperparathyroidism, such as renal disease or vitamin D deficiency. Recognition of this phenotype of primary hyperparathyroidism, normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism, supports a biphasic chronological time course in some individuals in which PTH levels are first elevated but serum calcium is normal, followed by the development of frank hypercalcemia. This review focuses on the available literature regarding this newly described phenotype of primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:23374739
Gawaine Powell Davies
Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.
Davies, Gawaine Powell; Perkins, David; McDonald, Julie; Williams, Anna
To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.
... National Institutes of Health (NIH) support and conduct research into many diseases and conditions. View clinical trials that are currently recruiting volunteers . Next: Definition & Facts This content is provided as a service ...
In National Responsibility and Global Justice, David Miller defends the view that a member of a nation can be collectively responsible for an outcome despite the fact that: (i) she did not control it; (ii) she actively opposed those of her nation's policies that produced the outcome; and (iii......) actively opposing the relevant policy was costly for her. I argue that Miller's arguments in favor of this strong externalist view about responsibility and control are insufficient. Specifically, I show that Miller's two models of synchronic collective responsibility*the like-minded group model...
Choi, Eun Kyung; Cho, Moon June; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il; Bang, Young Ju; Kim, Noe Kyung
To know the three questions about multiple primary cancers: 1) what are the characteristics of persons having multiple primary cancer? 2) Dose presence of a single primary concern after the susceptibility to multiple primary cancers? 3) Dose the location of one multiple primary cancer influence the site of others?, we analysed 121 cases of multiple primary malignant neoplasms registered in Seoul National University Hospital during 8years from July 1978 to August 1986. Of 121 cases, double primary malignant neoplasms were 119 cases and triple were 2 cases. The incidence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms was 0.7%. The metachronous tumor(> 6 months) was found in 70 cases and the median time between the first and the second was 32 months. The most commonly associated tumors were stomach and primary liver carcinoma. Cervix and Lung cancer, Stomach and Rectal cancer, Stomach and Esophagus cancer were also commonly associated
Jung, Gyu Sik; Lee, Ouk; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duck
It is rare for one human being to be afflicted with more than one cancer. However with further advances in therapeutic regimens, histopathologic observation, diagnostic modalities, and increased curiosity, there are increasing number of case reports of multiple primary cancer. The present study evaluates 25 histologically confirmed cases of multiple primary cancer from 1974 to 1988 at Kosin Medical Center. The most frequent site of the first primary cancer in male was stomach and in female, uterine cervix. The first primary cancer in female occurred in endocrine-related organs (breast, uterus and thyroid) in 63.6 percent. Synchronous cancers are diagnosed simultaneously or within an interval of about six months and synchronous cancers were 16 out of 25 cases. Metachronous cancers are diagnosed at interval of more than six months. There were 9 metachronous cancers and average interval between the first and second primary cancer was 22.8 months. The incidence of multiple primary cancer was 0.11 percent. The average age was 51.9 years at the time of the first primary cancer (53.1 years in male and 50.3 years in female). CT scan was most helpful in early detection of multiple primary cancers facilitating biopsy and surgery. Multiple primary cancers are beyond the medical curiosity. Early diagnosis of the disease and careful follow-up study, based on an awareness of the possibility of second cancers, will substantially increase the survival of these patients
The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.) [pt
Kristensen, Helen Grundtvig; Stjernø, Henrik
Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen.......Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen....
Description of the rates, trends and surgical burden associated with revision for prosthetic joint infection following primary and revision knee replacements in England and Wales: an analysis of the National Joint Registry for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man.
Lenguerrand, Erik; Whitehouse, Michael R; Beswick, Andrew D; Toms, Andrew D; Porter, Martyn L; Blom, Ashley W
To describe the prevalence rates of revision surgery for the treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) for patients undergoing knee replacement, their time trends, the cumulative incidence function of revision for PJI and estimate the burden of PJI at health service level. We analysed revision knee replacements performed due to a diagnosis of PJI and the linked index procedures recorded in the National Joint Registry from 2003 to 2014 for England and Wales. The cohort analysed consisted of 679 010 index primary knee replacements, 33 920 index revision knee replacements and 8247 revision total knee replacements performed due to a diagnosis of PJI. The prevalence rates, their time trends investigated by time from index surgery to revision for PJI, cumulative incidence functions and the burden of PJI (total procedures) were calculated. Overall linear trends were investigated with log-linear regression. The incidence of revision total knee replacement due to PJI at 2 years was 3.2/1000 following primary and 14.4/1000 following revision knee replacement, respectively. The prevalence of revision due to PJI in the 3 months following primary knee replacement has risen by 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.2 to 5.3) from 2005 to 2013 and 7.5-fold (95% CI 1.0 to 56.1) following revision knee replacement. Over 1000 procedures per year are performed as a consequence of knee PJI, an increase of 2.8 from 2005 to 2013. Overall, 75% of revisions were two-stage with an increase in use of single-stage from 7.9% in 2005 to 18.8% in 2014. Although the risk of revision due to PJI following knee replacement is low, it is rising, and coupled with the established and further predicted increased incidence of both primary and revision knee replacements, this represents an increasing and substantial treatment burden for orthopaedic service delivery in England and Wales. This has implications for future service design and the funding of individual and specialist centres. © Article author
Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)
Some time ago a flyer on "Medics in Primary School" came the author's way. It described a programme for making placements in primary schools available to medical students. The benefits of the program to medical students and participating schools were highlighted, including opportunities to develop communication skills and demystify…
... Management Under FTA's National Research Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), as the primary staff agency to the Federal... transportation service delivery. FTA, under its National Research Program, plans to fund a National Center for...
Brown, Lynsey J; Oliver-Baxter, Jodie
Integrated care has the potential to deliver efficiencies and improvements in patient experiences and health outcomes. Efforts towards integrated care, especially at the primary and community health levels, have increasingly been under focus, both nationally and internationally. In Australia, regional integration is a priority, and integration of care is a task for meso-level organisations such as Primary Health Networks (PHNs). This paper seeks to provide a list of elements and questions for consideration by organisations working across primary healthcare settings, looking to enact and improve the delivery of integrated care. Six elements that consistently emerged during the development of a series of rapid reviews on integrated primary healthcare in Australia are presented in this paper. The elements identified are context, governance and leadership, infrastructure, financing, engagement, and communication. They offer a starting point for reflection in the planning and practices of organisations in their drive for continuous improvements in integrated care.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care - Vol 23, No 1-2 (2011) ... The Nigerian National Health Bill 2011: Delay of Presidential Assent to an Act: ... Knowledge And Practice of Occupational Safety Among Quarry Workers in A ...
Jan 4, 2010 ... are a decreased fibre intake and increased intakes of total protein and animal protein ... has implemented various national nutrition and primary health- .... fish, chicken, dried beans, legumes, peas and soy, 4) the dairy group,.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection maps the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through...
CARE PRIORITIES - A CASE STUDY. OF NATIONAL ... development of comprehensive primary health care (pHC). The routine ..... on injection safety will be sustainable. On the negative side, ... This is mainly at management level, where time ...
Brooks, Audrey J.; Maizes, Victoria; Goldblatt, Elizabeth; Klatt, Maryanna; Koithan, Mary S.; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Lee, Jeannie K.; Lopez, Ana Marie; McClafferty, Hilary; Rhode, Robert; Sandvold, Irene; Saper, Robert; Taren, Douglas; Wells, Eden; Lebensohn, Patricia
In October 2014, the National Center for Integrative Primary Healthcare (NCIPH) was launched as a collaboration between the University of Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine and the Academic Consortium for Integrative Health and Medicine and supported by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration. A primary goal of the NCIPH is to develop a core set of integrative healthcare (IH) competencies and educational programs that will span the interprofessional primary care training and practice spectra and ultimately become a required part of primary care education. This article reports on the first phase of the NCIPH effort, which focused on the development of a shared set of competencies in IH for primary care disciplines. The process of development, refinement, and adoption of 10 “meta-competencies” through a collaborative process involving a diverse interprofessional team is described. Team members represent nursing, the primary care medicine professions, pharmacy, public health, acupuncture, naturopathy, chiropractic, nutrition, and behavioral medicine. Examples of the discipline-specific sub-competencies being developed within each of the participating professions are provided, along with initial results of an assessment of potential barriers and facilitators of adoption within each discipline. The competencies presented here will form the basis of a 45-hour online curriculum produced by the NCIPH for use in primary care training programs that will be piloted in a wide range of programs in early 2016 and then revised for wider use over the following year. PMID:26421232
nrs) in Mbabane circuit, Ingwavuma. ... The findings suggest that teachers' gender, job title, teaching phase, and experience in years and qualifications had an influence on their experiences with the NRS. On the other hand, teachers' age was ...
Trombley, William, Ed.
"National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher…
Trombley, William, Ed.
"National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher…
National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2010
"National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher…
National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2010
National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2011
Satisfaction with Quality of Care Received by Patients without National Health Insurance Attending a Primary Care Clinic in a Resource-Poor Environment of a Tertiary Hospital in Eastern Nigeria in the Era of Scaling up the Nigerian Formal Sector Health Insurance Scheme
Iloh, GUP; Ofoedu, JN; Njoku, PU; Okafor, GOC; Amadi, AN; Godswill-Uko, EU
Background: The increasing importance of the concept of patients’ satisfaction as a valuable tool for assessing quality of care is a current global healthcare concerns as regards consumer-oriented health services. Aim: This study assessed satisfaction with quality of care received by patients without national health insurance (NHI) attending a primary care clinic in a resource-poor environment of a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria. Subject and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 400 non-NHI patients from April 2011 to October 2011 at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria. Adult patients seen within the study period were selected by systematic sampling using every second non-NHI patient that registered to see the physicians and who met the selection criteria. Data were collected using pretested, structured interviewer administered questionnaire designed on a five points Likert scale items with 1 and 5 indicating the lowest and highest levels of satisfaction respectively. Satisfaction was measured from the following domains: patient waiting time, patient–staff communication, patient-staff relationship, and cost of care, hospital bureaucracy and hospital environment. Operationally, patients who scored 3 points and above in the assessed domain were considered satisfied while those who scored less than 3 points were dissatisfied. Results: The overall satisfaction score of the respondents was 3.1. Specifically, the respondents expressed satisfaction with patient–staff relationship (3.9), patient–staff communication (3.8), and hospital environment (3.6) and dissatisfaction with patient waiting time (2.4), hospital bureaucracy (2.5), and cost of care (2.6). Conclusion: The overall non-NHI patient's satisfaction with the services provided was good. The hospital should set targets for quality improvement in the current domains of satisfaction while the cost of care has implications for government
...] Designation of the Primary Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... period for the Designation of the highway Primary Freight Network (PFN) notice, which was published on... the complete National Freight Network (NFN), and to solicit comments on aspects of the NFN. The five...
Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.
This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda,
Kringos, Dionne S.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter P.
This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda,
Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.
This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political
Saúde ambiental e saúde do trabalhador na atenção primária à saúde, no SUS: oportunidades e desafios Environmental and workers' health, within the framework of primary health care in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS: opportunities and challenges
Elizabeth Costa Dias
Full Text Available O texto busca contribuir para a discussão dos entrecruzamentos entre os campos da saúde ambiental e da saúde do trabalhador, referenciada no cenário brasileiro das relações produção/trabalho, ambiente e saúde e nas mudanças na organização do SUS, com destaque para o papel da atenção primária à saúde (APS, e se destina a contribuir para as discussões no processo de preparação da 1ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde Ambiental (1ª CNSA, prevista para ser realizada em dezembro de 2009. São descritos, de modo sintético, aspectos históricos e conceituais desses campos, algumas das características compartilhadas e as ações esperadas do sistema de saúde, com destaque para o papel da APS e a importância do diálogo com o movimento social. Finalizando, são identificados pontos para uma agenda de trabalho comum.This paper has the purpose of contributing to the discussion of the crossing areas between Environmental Health and Workers´ Health, in the Brazilian context of Labor, Production, Environment and Health. This paper emerges in the context of the current organizational changes of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS, with a major focus on Primary Health Care, having in mind, also, the preparation of the 1st National Environmental Health Conference (1ª CNSA to be held in December of 2009. So, historical and conceptual aspects of those fields are described in a summarized manner, as well as some shared features and expected actions of the Health System, with emphasis to the role of Primary Health Care and to the importance of the dialogue with the social movement. Finally, some topics for a common agenda were identified by the authors.
The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…
... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Back ...
Lange, Sofie C; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Waagepetersen, Helle S
During the past few decades of astrocyte research it has become increasingly clear that astrocytes have taken a central position in all central nervous system activities. Much of our new understanding of astrocytes has been derived from studies conducted with primary cultures of astrocytes...... subsequently found in vivo. Nevertheless, primary cultures of astrocytes are an in vitro model that does not fully mimic the complex events occurring in vivo. Here we present an overview of the numerous contributions generated by the use of primary astrocyte cultures to uncover the diverse functions...... of astrocytes. Many of these discoveries would not have been possible to achieve without the use of astrocyte cultures. Additionally, we address and discuss the concerns that have been raised regarding the use of primary cultures of astrocytes as an experimental model system....
Palta, Manisha; Riedel, Richard F.; Vredenburgh, James J.; Cummings, Thomas J.; Green, Scott; Chang, Zheng; Kirkpatrick, John P.
Primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare primary brain malignancy, with scant case reports. While most reports of primary intracranial rhabdomyosarcoma occur in pediatric patients, a handful of cases in adult patients have been reported in the medical literature. We report the case of a 44-year-old male who developed primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma. After developing episodes of right lower extremity weakness, word finding difficulty, and headaches, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a vertex lesion with radiographic appearance of a meningeal-derived tumor. Subtotal surgical resection was performed due to sagittal sinus invasion and initial pathology was interpreted as an anaplastic meningioma. Re-review of pathology demonstrated rhabdomyosarcoma negative for alveolar translocation t(2;13). Staging studies revealed no evidence of disseminated disease. He was treated with stereotactic radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide to be followed by vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) systemic therapy. PMID:21772793
Full Text Available Primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare primary brain malignancy, with scant case reports. While most reports of primary intracranial rhabdomyosarcoma occur in pediatric patients, a handful of cases in adult patients have been reported in the medical literature. We report the case of a 44-year-old male who developed primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma. After developing episodes of right lower extremity weakness, word finding difficulty, and headaches, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated a vertex lesion with radiographic appearance of a meningeal-derived tumor. Subtotal surgical resection was performed due to sagittal sinus invasion and initial pathology was interpreted as an anaplastic meningioma. Re-review of pathology demonstrated rhabdomyosarcoma negative for alveolar translocation t(2;13. Staging studies revealed no evidence of disseminated disease. He was treated with stereotactic radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide to be followed by vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC systemic therapy.
Palta, Manisha; Riedel, Richard F; Vredenburgh, James J; Cummings, Thomas J; Green, Scott; Chang, Zheng; Kirkpatrick, John P
Primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare primary brain malignancy, with scant case reports. While most reports of primary intracranial rhabdomyosarcoma occur in pediatric patients, a handful of cases in adult patients have been reported in the medical literature. We report the case of a 44-year-old male who developed primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma. After developing episodes of right lower extremity weakness, word finding difficulty, and headaches, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a vertex lesion with radiographic appearance of a meningeal-derived tumor. Subtotal surgical resection was performed due to sagittal sinus invasion and initial pathology was interpreted as an anaplastic meningioma. Re-review of pathology demonstrated rhabdomyosarcoma negative for alveolar translocation t(2;13). Staging studies revealed no evidence of disseminated disease. He was treated with stereotactic radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide to be followed by vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) systemic therapy.
Mundinger, Mary O'Neil
Primary nursing means that each patient has an individual nurse who is responsible for assessing his nursing needs and planning and evaluating his nursing care. The article describes the advantages and problems connected with this approach to patient care. (AG)
Dec 5, 2017 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It is not very .... was estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and ... cervical, ovarian, and urinary bladder cancers. Multiple.
Primary infertility is a term used to describe a couple that has never been able to conceive a pregnancy ... to do so through unprotected intercourse. Causes of infertility include a wide range of physical as well ...
Happy Nation er et stykke eksperimentel teknologiformidling, der er udformet som en skønlitterær roman. Værket tager udgangspunkt i et fremtidsscenarie, hvor virtual reality er blevet en hverdagsteknologi, hvis sansedel bliver understøttet af implantater, der kan foretage dyb hjernestimulation...
Danny J. Eapen, MD
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. This article focuses on current guidelines for the primary prevention of CVD and addresses management of key risk factors. Dietary modification, weight loss, exercise, and tobacco use cessation are specific areas where focused efforts can successfully reduce CVD risk on both an individual and a societal level. Specific areas requiring management include dyslipidemia, hypertension, physical activity, diabetes, aspirin use, and alcohol intake. These preventive efforts have major public health implications. As the global population continues to grow, health care expenditures will also rise, with the potential to eventually overwhelm the health care system. Therefore it is imperative to apply our collective efforts on CVD prevention to improve the cardiovascular health of individuals, communities, and nations.
Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Nishizawa, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yokota, Noki; Ohta, Seiji; Uemura, Kenichi; Hinokuma, Kaoru; Inenaga, Chikanori
We report a case of intraorbital meningioma. Operative findings and histopathological examination revealed the tumoc to be meningothelial meningloma and to be located entirely outside the optic dura. This case demonstrates the occurrence of primary intraorbital ectopic meningioma, and the tumor was removed through a modified Dolenc approach. The primary intraorbital ectopic meningioma is discussed and the surgical approach to the orbital apex region is reviewed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171081
Dillip Kumar Muduly
Full Text Available Primary leiomyosarcomas rarely arise from epididymis. But they are the most common histopathological types of sarcoma arising from the epididymis. Primary epididymal leiomyosarcoma occurs usually in older patients. We report a young patient of 35 years presenting with leiomyosarcoma of left epididymis. He did not have any metastasis and underwent left high inguinal orchiectomy. He is on regular follow-up and disease free for last two years.
Rogers, S.C. [Radiation Standards and Dosimetry Laboratory, Redstone Arsenal, AL (United States)
This paper describes the U.S. Army Primary Radiation Standards Complex (PRSC) to be constructed at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The missions of the organizations to be located in the PRSC are described. The health physics review of the facility design is discussed. The radiation sources to be available in the PRSC and the resulting measurement capabilities of the Army Primary Standards Laboratory Nucleonics section are specified. Influence of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accrediation Program (NVLAP) accreditation criteria on facility design and source selection is illustrated.
Full Text Available Objective. To document the structure and functions of primary care (PC in the country of Dominica using the Primary Care Assessment Tools (PCAT, a set of questionnaires that evaluate PC functions. Methods. This cross-sectional study combined data from two surveys. The systems PCAT (S-PCAT survey gathered national-level data from key informants about health system characteristics and PC performance. The provider version (P-PCAT survey collected data on PC performance from health providers (nurses and physicians at all PC facilities in the country. Provider-level data were aggregated to obtain national and district-level results for PC domains scored from 0.00 (worst to 1.00 (best. Results. From the systems perspective, results showed several knowledge gaps in PC policy, financing, and structure. Key informants gave “Good” (adequate ratings for “first-contact” care (0.74, continuity of care (0.77, comprehensive care (0.70, and coordinated care (0.78; middling scores for family-centered care and community-oriented care (0.65; and low scores for access to care (0.57. PC providers assessed access to care (which included “first-contact” care, in the P-PCAT surveys (0.84, continuity of care (0.86, information systems (0.84, family-centered care (0.92, and community-oriented care (0.85 as “Very Good”; comprehensive care as “Good” (0.79; and coordinated care as “Reasonable” (0.68. Overall, the scores for the country's health districts were good, although the ratings varied by specific PC domain. Conclusions. The assessments described here were carried out with relatively little expense and have provided important inputs into strategic planning, strategies for improving PC, and identification of priority areas for further investigation. This two-staged approach could be adapted and used in other countries.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Xinetics has demonstrated the technology required to fabricate a self-compensating highly adaptive silicon carbide primary mirror system having embedded actuators,...
da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Enggaard, Lisbeth
AIM: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate...
Full Text Available The ′Other Primary Headaches′ include eight recognised benign headache disorders. Primary stabbing headache is a generally benign disorder which often co-exists with other primary headache disorders such as migraine and cluster headache. Primary cough headache is headache precipitated by valsalva; secondary cough has been reported particularly in association with posterior fossa pathology. Primary exertional headache can occur with sudden or gradual onset during, or immediately after, exercise. Similarly headache associated with sexual activity can occur with gradual evolution or sudden onset. Secondary headache is more likely with both exertional and sexual headache of sudden onset. Sudden onset headache, with maximum intensity reached within a minute, is termed thunderclap headache. A benign form of thunderclap headache exists. However, isolated primary and secondary thunderclap headache cannot be clinically differentiated. Therefore all headache of thunderclap onset should be investigated. The primary forms of the aforementioned paroxysmal headaches appear to be Indomethacin sensitive disorders. Hypnic headache is a rare disorder which is termed ′alarm clock headache′, exclusively waking patients from sleep. The disorder can be Indomethacin responsive, but can also respond to Lithium and caffeine. New daily persistent headache is a rare and often intractable headache which starts one day and persists daily thereafter for at least 3 months. The clinical syndrome more often has migrainous features or is otherwise has a chronic tension-type headache phenotype. Management is that of the clinical syndrome. Hemicrania continua straddles the disorders of migraine and the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and is not dealt with in this review.
Preti, Andrea; Karligkiotis, Apostolos; Facco, Carla; Ottini, Giorgia; Volpi, Luca; Castelnuovo, Paolo
Craniopharyngiomas are benign but aggressive epithelial tumors usually originating in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland from squamous remnants of an incompletely involuted craniopharingeal duct developing from the Rathke pouch. To the authors' knowledge only 1 patient of a primary isolated ethmoidal craniopharyngioma has been reported in the literature.The authors report the case of a 17-year-old boy with a primary extracranial ethmoidal craniopharyngioma. An endoscopic endonasal approach was employed to resect the tumor. After 2 years of clinical and radiological follow-up no recurrence of disease was observed.Primary ethmoidal craniopharyngiomas are rare entities and biopsy is necessary for diagnosis. However, a preoperative assessment by means of nasal endoscopy, computed tomography scan, and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is mandatory to better evaluate the extension and characteristics of the tumor. The endoscopic endonasal technique is a safe and effective approach for the treatment of these lesions.
Girish D. Bakhshi
Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.
Ajay Kumar Pan
Full Text Available Headache is a widespread clinical problem; the prevalence is high in all age groups, from which children and teenagers are not spared. It has been reported that, as many as 75% of school-age children may experience headache infrequently, among them 10% have recurrent headaches. , The vast majority of headaches are primary and classified as migraine, tension-type headache (TTH, cluster headache, and other trigeminal autonomic cephalgias. The type of primary headaches could usually be diagnosed by a thorough and careful history taking, and physical examination. Once the diagnosis of migraine is established and appropriate reassurance provided, a balanced and individually tailored treatment plan can be instituted. The goal of treatment includes abortive or acute pain treatment, preventive long-term treatment, and biobehavioral therapy. Knowledge of precise impact of primary headaches on child′s quality of life helps to design a proper comprehensive treatment plan.
Bilezikian, John P.; Silverberg, Shonni J.
SUMMARY Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common disorder of mineral metabolism characterized by incompletely regulated, excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone from one or more of the parathyroid glands. The historical view of this disease describes two distinct entities marked by two eras. When primary hyperparathyroidism was first discovered about 80 years ago, it was always symptomatic with kidney stones, bone disease and marked hypercalcemia. With the advent of the multichannel autoanalyzer about 40 years ago, the clinical phenotype changed to a disorder characterized by mild hypercalcemia and the absence of classical other features of the disease. We may now be entering a 3rd era in the history of this disease in which patients are being discovered with normal total and ionized serum calcium concentrations but with parathyroid hormone levels that are consistently elevated. In this article, we describe this new entity, normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism, a forme fruste of the disease. PMID:20485897
The inadequate planning of health professionals in Spain has boosted the way out of doctors overseas. The United Kingdom is one of the countries chosen by Spanish doctors to develop their job. The National Health Service is a health system similar to the Spanish one. Health care services are financing mainly through taxes. The right to health care is linked to the citizen condition. The provision of health care is a mix-up of public and private enterprises. Primary Care is much closed to Spanish Primary Care. Doctors are "self-employed like" professionals. They can set their surgeries in a free area previously designed by the government. They have the right to make their own team and to manage their own budget. Medical salary is linked to professional capability and curriculum vitae. The main role of a General Practitioner is the prevention. Team work and coordination within primary and specialised care is more developed than in Spain. The access to diagnostic tests and to the specialist is controlled through waiting lists. General Practitioners work as gate-keepers. Patients may choose freely their doctor and consultations and hospital care are free at the point of use. Within the United Kingdom there are also health regions with problems due to inequalities to access and to treatment. There is a training path and the access to it is by Curricula. The number of training jobs is regulated by the local needs. Continuing education is compulsory and strictly regulated local and nationally. The National Health Service was the example for the Spanish health reform in 1986. While Spanish Primary health care is of quality, the efficiency of the health system would improve if staff in Primary Care settings were managed in a similar way to the British's. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The uptake of family health teams in Ontario has been tremendous. And the creation of group practices in primary care has taken root in other provinces as well. For many people, being involved with something new is exciting. At the same time, once they are committed, they discover the challenges that can be simultaneously exhilarating and frustrating. This issue of Healthcare Quarterly offers two articles that provide interesting reflections on what has been learned so far from the perspectives of both team leadership and the team members themselves within a transforming primary care system.
Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. People with a weakened immune system are at high risk for primary lymphoma of the brain. ...
Grant, C C; Forrest, C B; Starfield, B
(1) To describe New Zealand's primary care system (2) to compare New Zealand to other Anglo-American members of the OECD with respect to the adequacy of primary care, and (3) to assess the cost-efficiency and effectiveness of New Zealand's system by comparing health spending and health indicators relevant to primary care. A cross-national comparison of primary care, health spending and health indicators in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Main outcome measures were health spending measured in purchasing power parties. Health indicators: mean life expectancy in years, years of potential life lost and infant mortality rates. New Zealand's primary care system ranked below the UK, above the USA and similar to Canada and Australia. Favourable characteristics of New Zealand's primary care system were the use of generalists as the predominant type of practitioner and the low proportion of active physicians who were specialists. Compared to the other countries, New Zealand scored poorly for financial that are necessary for the practise of good primary care. New Zealand and the UK had the lowest spending per capita on health care. New Zealand and the USA scored lowest for all three of the health care indicators. The quality of primary care in New Zealand is limited by barriers to access to care and the intermediate level of practise characteristics essential to primary care. Compared to other AngloAmerican OECD nations, New Zealand has relatively low levels of national health expenditure. In order to improve the quality of primary care, future reform should aim to facilitate access to care, increase the gatekeeping role of primary care physicians, and promote the practise characteristics essential to primary care.
Full Text Available Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to provide the local control of the disease and to secure long-term survival of the patient without reasonable functional and esthetic impairment. The recommended method of biopsy—excisional biopsy, as an initial diagnostic and, to some extent, therapeutic procedure—is performed under local anesthesia as an elliptical incision with visual clear margins of 1–3 mm and with some mm of subcutaneous tissue. The extent of radical excision of the primary tumor (or scar after excisional biopsy is based on the histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor and usually consists of 1–2 cm margins with primary closure. The philosophy behind conducted randomized clinical trials has been to find the most conservative surgical approach that is able to guarantee the same results as more demolitive treatment. This has been the background of the trials designed to define the correct margins of excision around a primary cutaneous melanoma. Much less definition can be dedicated to the surgical management of patients with non-cutaneous melanomas.
Rutkowski, Piotr, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Zdzienicki, Marcin; Nowecki, Zbigniew I. [Soft Tissue/Bone Sarcoma and Melanoma Department, M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw (Poland); Akkooi, Alexander C. J. van [Erasmus University Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to provide the local control of the disease and to secure long-term survival of the patient without reasonable functional and esthetic impairment. The recommended method of biopsy—excisional biopsy, as an initial diagnostic and, to some extent, therapeutic procedure—is performed under local anesthesia as an elliptical incision with visual clear margins of 1–3 mm and with some mm of subcutaneous tissue. The extent of radical excision of the primary tumor (or scar after excisional biopsy) is based on the histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor and usually consists of 1–2 cm margins with primary closure. The philosophy behind conducted randomized clinical trials has been to find the most conservative surgical approach that is able to guarantee the same results as more demolitive treatment. This has been the background of the trials designed to define the correct margins of excision around a primary cutaneous melanoma. Much less definition can be dedicated to the surgical management of patients with non-cutaneous melanomas.
Rutkowski, Piotr; Zdzienicki, Marcin; Nowecki, Zbigniew I.; Akkooi, Alexander C. J. van
Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to provide the local control of the disease and to secure long-term survival of the patient without reasonable functional and esthetic impairment. The recommended method of biopsy—excisional biopsy, as an initial diagnostic and, to some extent, therapeutic procedure—is performed under local anesthesia as an elliptical incision with visual clear margins of 1–3 mm and with some mm of subcutaneous tissue. The extent of radical excision of the primary tumor (or scar after excisional biopsy) is based on the histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor and usually consists of 1–2 cm margins with primary closure. The philosophy behind conducted randomized clinical trials has been to find the most conservative surgical approach that is able to guarantee the same results as more demolitive treatment. This has been the background of the trials designed to define the correct margins of excision around a primary cutaneous melanoma. Much less definition can be dedicated to the surgical management of patients with non-cutaneous melanomas
Suresh, N; Ganesh, R; Sankar, Janani; Sathiyasekaran, Malathi
Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disease of intestinal lymphatics presenting with hypoproteinemia, bilateral lower limb edema, ascites, and protein losing enteropathy. We report a series of 4 children from Chennai, India presenting with anasarca, recurrent diarrhea, hypoproteinemia and confirmatory features of PIL on endoscopy and histopathology.
Feb 7, 2018 ... breast and ascending colon. KEYWORDS: Carcinoid, colorectal cancer, metachronous, synchronous. Multiple Primary Tumors. MA Adeyanju, AA Ilori. Address for correspondence: Dr. MA Adeyanju,. Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Ebute Metta,. Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: mbadeyanju@yahoo.
Orrego P, E.; Heinicke Y, H.; Arbaiza A, D.; Yepez R, V.
A case of primary malignant intramedullary lymphoma, localized in the dorsal part of the spinal cord is presented. The clinical symptoms were associated with motor and sensitive deficit. Clinical investigations excluded the presence of lymphoma in other locations in the central nervous system and the extra neural organs. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy improved relict neurological symptoms. (authors)
Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.
Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)
Iqbal, P.; Javed, R.
A case of primary hyperparathyroidism in a 17 years old female is described. Patient presented with severe abdominal and pelvic pains associate with discomfort. Diagnostic testing revealed multiple upper and lower limb fractures and renal stones. Case was self limiting. Patient's condition resolved on parathyroidectomy for adenoma and partial thyroidectomy. Follow-up showed familial links. (author)
To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.
We discuss the primary cosmic ray flux from the point of view of particle interactions and production of atmospheric neutrinos. The overall normalization of the cosmic ray flux and its time variations and site dependence are major ingredients of the atmospheric neutrino predictions and the basis for the derivation of the neutrino oscillation parameters.
Claire van Deventer
Keywords: child HIV, doctor involvement, primary health care, quality improvement ... expertise increased, PHC facilities are now expected to be able to .... organised patient documentation were revisited. .... Review: what can we learn from quality ... South Pacific: Review of evidence and lessons from an innovative.
While the difficulty of the child to part with its faeces in primary encopresis is linked to the incapability to experience the object as separated and independent from himself, secondary encopresis is a progressed psychical state of development. In this case we have to deal with regression caused by conflict. Two case-studies show clearly the differences.
Lee, Kyung Mi
Considering the importance of explaining how a nation brand is effectively managed and how nation branding aligns the nation's brand with country management so as to gain competitiveness, this research aims to assess the role of nation branding and to create a strategic management tool for nation
Coates, Allan L; Graham, Brian L; McFadden, Robin G; McParland, Colm; Moosa, Dilshad; Provencher, Steeve; Road, Jeremy
Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) clinical guidelines for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) specify that spirometry should be used to diagnose these diseases. Given the burden of asthma and COPD, most people with these diseases will be diagnosed in the primary care setting. The present CTS position statement was developed to provide guidance on key factors affecting the quality of spirometry testing in the primary care setting. The present statement may also be used to inform and guide the accreditation process for spirometry in each province. Although many of the principles discussed are equally applicable to pulmonary function laboratories and interpretation of tests by respirologists, they are held to a higher standard and are outside the scope of the present statement. PMID:23457669
Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Gerke, Oke
210 (38.7%) had a CUP diagnosis confirmed. Within the cohort, 347 patients (64.0%) had a registration in CR matching with the NPR registration. Exposure to diagnostic procedures included biopsy (n = 439, 81.0%) and image modalities (n = 532, 98.2%). Survival was poor with 67 (12.4%) individuals alive...... after 4 years.The validity of a CUP diagnosis in NPR was low when using data from CR as reference. More than half the suspected CUP patients had a previous cancer diagnosis with CUP being the most frequent. Patients were diagnosed in compliance with guidelines indicating high external validity, but less...... than 1 quarter had their primary identified and the 1-year survival was approximately 20%. Research is needed to develop efficacious methods for primary detection....
Yildizhan, R.; Kurdoglu, M.; Kolusari, A.; Erten, R.
Omental pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy and can be seen primarily or secondary to a tubal pregnancy. A 25-yeal-old woman presented with abdominal distention with pain and anemia without vaginal bleeding. After a provisional diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy, laparotomy was performed. On surgical exploration, the bilateral tubes and ovaries were intact, however, an omental pregnancy was detected as the cause of hemoperitoneum. Partial omentectomy was performed. Although most cases are secondary, presented here is an additional case of primary omental pregnancy at 12 weeks according to Studdiford's criteria. Histological evidence of neovascularization into the supporting tissue confirmed our diagnosis. A primary omental pregnancy should always be considered as a possible explanation for severe hemoperitoneum in ectopic pregnancies presenting with acute abdomen and with intact adnexes on surgical exploration. (author)
Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies (PID are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, the etiology are the defects in the development or function of the immune system. The principal PID manifestations are the infections in early age, malignancy and diseases of immune dysregulation as autoimmunity and allergy. PIDs are genetics disorders and most of them are inherited as autosomal recessive, also this group of diseases is more prevalent in males and in childhood. The antibody immunodeficiency is the PID more common in adults. The more frequent disorders are the infections in the respiratory tract, abscesses, candidiasis, diarrhea, BCGosis etc. Initial approach included a complete blood count and quantification of immunoglobulins. The delay in diagnosis could be explained due to a perception that the recurrent infections are normal process or think that they are exclusively of childhood. The early diagnosis of PID by primary care physicians is important to opportune treatment and better prognosis.
The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Pekola, Jukka P.; Holmqvist, Tommy; Meschke, Matthias
We describe the concept and experimental demonstration of primary thermometry based on a four-probe measurement of a single tunnel junction embedded within four arrays of junctions. We show that in this configuration random sample specific and environment-related errors can be avoided. This method relates temperature directly to Boltzmann constant, which will form the basis of the definition of temperature and realization of official temperature scales in the future
Pareja, Juan A; Sjaastad, Ottar
Primary stabbing headache is characterized by transient, cephalic ultrashort stabs of pain. It is a frequent complaint with a prevalence of 35.2%, a female preponderance, and a mean age of onset of 28 years (Vågå study). Attacks are generally characterized by moderate to severe, jabbing or stabbing pain, lasting from a fraction of a second to 3s. Attack frequency is generally low, with one or a few attacks per day. The paroxysms generally occur spontaneously, during daytime. Most patients exhibit a sporadic pattern, with an erratic, unpredictable alternation between symptomatic and non-symptomatic periods. Paroxysms are almost invariably unilateral. Temporal and fronto-ocular areas are most frequently affected. Attacks tend to move from one area to another, in either the same or the opposite hemicranium. Jabs may be accompanied by a shock-like feeling and even by head movement - "jolts" -or vocalization. On rare occasions, conjunctival hemorrhage and monocular vision loss have been described as associated features. Primary stabbing headache may concur, synchronously or independently, with other primary headaches. In contrast to what is the case in adults, in childhood it is not usually associated with other headaches. Treatment is rarely necessary. Indomethacin, 75-150 mg daily, may seem to be of some avail. Celecoxib, nifedipine, melatonin, and gabapentin have been reported to be effective in isolated cases and small series of patients. The drug studies need corroboration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Primary headaches--mainly tension-type headache and migraine--affect a significant portion of the population. Depression is also highly prevalent. The co-existence of a primary headache and depression in the same patient therefore might be a coincidence due to the high prevalence of these conditions, but there might be a causal relationship between them, or headaches and depression might have a common background. This review of the literature summarizes the features of the relationship between primary headaches and depression. Depression is more prevalent in headache patients than in the headache-free population. Prospective epidemiological studies suggest a common genetic, biochemical or environmental background behind primary headaches and depression. This theory is supported by the role of the same neurotransmitter systems (mostly serotonin and dopamine) in headaches as well as in depression. Comorbid depression is associated with female gender, higher age, and higher frequency of headaches. Most depression inventories--questionnaires used to screen for the severity of depressive symptoms--contain transdiagnostic items, therefore their use in their original form is limited in organic diseases: due to the somatic items they might overestimate the severity of depression. When examining a headache patient special attention should be paid to the recognition of comorbid depression. The diagnosis of suspected mood disorder could be supported by using simple screening methods, such as the original or the abbreviated versions of standard depression inventories, but the final diagnosis of major depression needs psychiatric evaluation. Quality of life of the headache patient is affected not only by the characteristics of pain (frequency, duration, severity) but also by the disability caused by headache and the associating mood disorder. Recognizing coexisting mood disorder and disability helps to make the best treatment choice for the acute and preventive treatment of
Full Text Available The Primary Care Informatics Working Group (PCIWG of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA has identified the absence of a national strategy for primary care informatics. Under PCIWG leadership, major national and international societies have come together to create the National Alliance for Primary Care Informatics (NAPCI, to promote a connection between the informatics community and the organisations that support primary care. The PCIWG clinical practice subcommittee has recognised the necessity of a global needs assessment, and proposed work in point-of-care technology, clinical vocabularies, and ambulatory electronic medical record development. Educational needs include a consensus statement on informatics competencies, recommendations for curriculum and teaching methods, and methodologies to evaluate their effectiveness. The research subcommittee seeks to define a primary care informatics research agenda, and to support and disseminate informatics research throughout the primary care community. The AMIA board of directors has enthusiastically endorsed the conceptual basis for this White Paper.
US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...
US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...
US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...
Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.
This report estimates risks to workers and the public associated with treatment processes and their associated waste products that would be mandated under proposed regulations of radium, radon, and uranium in drinking water. Three scenarios were examined: (1) all wastes flushed to the sanitary sewer; (2) all wastes disposed on land; (3) similar to (2) but radon removal by granulated activated carbon rather than packed tower aeration. Risks considered included accidental injury and cancer. Worker risks for both scenarios I and II were estimated to be 0.025 and 0.01 deaths per year of operation for radium-226 and radium-228, respectively. Worker risks for uranium were estimated to be 0.13 deaths/year of operation for scenario I and 0.5 deaths/year of operation for scenario II. Worker risks for radon removal were estimated to be 1.7 deaths/year of operation for scenario I and 2.2 deaths/year of operation for scenario II. Risks to the public for scenarios I and II for radium-226 were 4 x 10 -4 and for radium-228 were 9 x 10 -5 deaths/year of operation. Risks to the public for scenarios I and II for uranium were 7.3 x 10 -2 and 2 x 10 -4 , respectively. Risks to the public for scenario I and II for radon were 24 deaths/year of operation and for scenario III were nil. Public risks were quantified only for people exposed during a year of operation. For example, effects of public exposures in future years via groundwater contamination associated with landfill of treatment waste were not considered
FitzPatrick, Sarah; Twohig, Mairéad; Morgan, Mark
To what needs and purposes should the primary curriculum be chiefly directed in the coming decades? In a first step towards revising the primary curriculum, the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) invited responses to an open online call to "have your say" on priorities for primary education. Respondents were asked to…
This article explores the effects of national policies associated with "Education for All" on a disadvantaged region, the highlands of Lesotho. Since 2000 a programme of "Free Primary Education" has improved the position of the highlands in access to primary schooling; nevertheless, highland primary schools compare poorly with…
Greenhawt, Matthew J; Fleischer, David M
Food allergy is estimated to affect approximately 8% of children in the USA. This is a disease without any known treatment or cure and, for some, a disease that can be quite severe, even life-threatening. While recent advances in potential treatment have made remarkable strides, with two food-targeted immunotherapy products now in phase III trials, perhaps the biggest gains in the field have come in the advent of potential preventative strategies to avoid the development of food allergy in high-risk individuals. There have been multiple, randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) performed in the past 5 years that have demonstrated significant risk reduction from early allergen introduction. These include two trials for early peanut introduction and five trials for early egg introduction in the first year of life. The results indicate that primary prevention of food allergy through early allergen introduction may represent a strategy that could potentially avert tens of thousands of children from becoming food allergic. In support of the data for peanut, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently sponsored an addendum to the 2010 food allergy guidelines, specifically recommending peanut be introduced in both high- and standard-risk infants to reduce the risk of developing peanut allergy. To date, no formal recommendations have been made for egg, however. This review will focus on the latest evidence supporting early introduction as a strategy to prevent food allergy, as well as on practical aspects for its successful implementation.
Mauck, James; Brown, Kim; Carswell, William J.
Orthorectified digital aerial photographs and satellite images of 1-meter (m) pixel resolution or finer make up the orthoimagery component of The National Map. The process of orthorectification removes feature displacements and scale variations caused by terrain relief and sensor geometry. The result is a combination of the image characteristics of an aerial photograph or satellite image and the geometric qualities of a map. These attributes allow users to: *Measure distance *Calculate areas *Determine shapes of features *Calculate directions *Determine accurate coordinates *Determine land cover and use *Perform change detection *Update maps The standard digital orthoimage is a 1-m or finer resolution, natural color or color infra-red product. Most are now produced as GeoTIFFs and accompanied by a Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)-compliant metadata file. The primary source for 1-m data is the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) leaf-on imagery. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilizes NAIP imagery as the image layer on its 'Digital- Map' - a new generation of USGS topographic maps (http://nationalmap.gov/digital_map). However, many Federal, State, and local governments and organizations require finer resolutions to meet a myriad of needs. Most of these images are leaf-off, natural-color products at resolutions of 1-foot (ft) or finer.
Pagny, J.Y.; Chatellier, G.; Raynaud, A.; Plouin, P.F.; Corvol, P.
After diagnosis of primary aldosteronism on the basis of biochemical evidence, the detection of the tumour is of crucial importance in the management of the disease. The efficacy of CT-Scan, Iodo-Cholesterol Scintigraphy, digitalized phlebography, adrenal vein sampling for steroid measurements (AVS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in 160 hypertensive patients with primary aldosteronism was reviewed. Diagnosis of Conn's adenoma (n=96) or Adrenal Hyperplasia (n=40) was confirmed by surgery or at least two concordant tumour localization tests. Scintigraphy gave a correct diagnosis in 53% of the 51 exams, CT-Scan in 82% of the 85 exams, and phlebography in 79% of 61 exams. Plasma Aldosterone/ Cortisol ratio was 5 times higher on the side of adenoma in 55% of the 47 cases but this ratio was also present in 23% of 22 patients with adrenal hyperplasia. Each procedure exhibited few false positive and false negative cases. NMR performed in 15 patients with Conn's adenoma identified all the cases. But tumours displayed a signal close to the liver signal and identical to the normal adrenal. These results and the risk of invasive procedure (failure of catheterization of the right adrenal vein (n=6) and adrenal haematoma (n=2) lead to propose a schema of exploration of patients with primary aldosteronism. The CT-Scan could be performed at the first step once the biological diagnosis confirmed. Phlebography and AVS will be performed only if tumour was less than 1 cm at the CT-Scan despite important biological abnormalities. This schema requires to be validated by a prospective evaluation [fr
Overpopulation is dealt with differently in China, India, Nigeria, and the United States. In China since the last 1970s, policy has emphasized one child per family; the incentives and penalties in wages, housing, and health care were relaxed in 1988 due to international pressure. The one son rule applies now. China policy will be devoted to limiting births for all couples at least until the year 2000. The annual growth rate is 1.5% and population is 1.166 billion, with doubling expected by 2047. India's population stands at 883 million with an annual growth rate of 2.1%; doubling of population is expected by 2028. India was one of the first countries to offer birth control in 1921. Fertility has declined over the past 50 years by about 33%. Family planning policy during the 1970s promoted sterilization, but coercion and targets were stopped in 1977 by rioting. India's 16% of world population is confined to only 2.4% of the world's land resources. Family size desired is still high at 2 sons. The future prospects include a tripling of population, unless political determination is effective in combatting tradition and mistrust of government. Nigeria's population is 93 million with an annual growth rate of 2.9%; doubling is expected by 2018. Nigeria is the most crowded African country and has overpopulation and environmental problems. Family size is high at 5.6 people. The US has a population of 259 million and a growth rate of 1.1%; doubling is expected by 2058. Although the US is the third most populous country and US citizens consume almost six times the world's energy supply per capita, overpopulation seems to be other nations' problem. 30% of growth is due to immigration. Even the US may soon be exceeding its ability to sustain itself. The challenge will be for US citizens to lower consumption and set a world example.
Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.
Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)
Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.
Nguyen, M. Connie; Cleary, Sean F.; Hoppe, Richard T.
Purpose: A retrospective review analyzed the survival and freedom from relapse of patients with stage IE or IIE primary cutaneous lymphoma (non mycosis fungoides) after treatments with radiation therapy alone (XRT), chemotherapy alone (RX) or combined modality therapy (CMT). Methods and Materials: Fifty two patients with stage IE-IIE cutaneous lymphoma treated at Stanford University Hospital were reviewed. The median age was 57, with a range of 26 to 94 and a male to female ratio of 1.21:1. Patients were staged according to the Ann Arbor System. Pathology was classified according to the Working Formulation. Treatment outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves with a Gehan p-value test. Results: The follow up range was 6 months to 22 years (median 7 years.) Twenty one percent of patients had low grade, 63% had intermediate grade and 15% had high grade lymphoma. The most common histologic subtype was diffuse large cell lymphoma Thirty two patients received radiation alone as initial treatment and sixteen patients received combined modality as initial treatment. Four patients received chemotherapy alone. The only significant prognostic factor for survival was the stage at diagnosis. Patients with stage IE disease had a longer actuarial survival (5-yr=79%, 10-yr=71%), as compared to those with stage IIE (5-yr=49%, 10-yr=33%), (p=0.029). The only significant prognostic factor for freedom from relapse was the initial treatment. Initial combined modality treatment lead to a longer freedom from relapse compared to patients treated with radiation alone (p=0.002), (median 5 years vs. 1.2 years). Despite this, the actuarial overall survival in the combined modality group and the radiation alone group are similar (median survival 7.7 and 8 years). The efficacy of either radiation or chemotherapy as salvage treatment after radiation failure was equivalent and both salvage treatments lead to equally long survival and freedom from second relapse. Conclusion
Construction of the reactor building primary containment structure at the Bellefonte Nuclear Plant involved several specialized construction techniques. This two unit plant is one of the nine nuclear units at six different sites now under construction by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The post-Tensioned, cast-in-place interior steel lined containment structure is unique within TVA. Problems during construction were identified at weekly planning meetings, and options were discussed. Close coordination between craft supervisors and on-site engineering personnel drew together ''hands-on''experience and technical background. Details of the construction techniques, problems, and solutions are presented
Rasmussen, Jan; Hougaard, David M; Sandhu, Noreen
Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) causes low levels of carnitine in patients potentially leading to metabolic and cardiac symptoms. Newborn screening for PCD is now routine in many countries by measuring carnitine levels in infants. In this study we report Apgar scores, length and weight...... scores, length and weight compared to controls. Newborns with PCD and newborns born to mothers with PCD had significantly lower levels of free carnitine (fC0) than controls. Screening algorithms focusing only on fC0 had a high rate of detection of newborns with PCD. Sample collection 4-9 days after birth...
Richman, Ilana B; Owens, Douglas K
Aspirin reduces the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke, and the risk of colorectal cancer. Aspirin increases the risk of gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding. The best available evidence supports initiating aspirin in select populations. In 2016, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended initiating aspirin for the primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer among adults ages 50 to 59 who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Adults 60 to 69 who are at increased cardiovascular disease risk may also benefit. There remains considerable uncertainty about whether younger and older patients may benefit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, M Connie; Cleary, Sean F; Hoppe, Richard T
Purpose: A retrospective review analyzed the survival and freedom from relapse of patients with stage IE or IIE primary cutaneous lymphoma (non mycosis fungoides) after treatments with radiation therapy alone (XRT), chemotherapy alone (RX) or combined modality therapy (CMT). Methods and Materials: Fifty two patients with stage IE-IIE cutaneous lymphoma treated at Stanford University Hospital were reviewed. The median age was 57, with a range of 26 to 94 and a male to female ratio of 1.21:1. Patients were staged according to the Ann Arbor System. Pathology was classified according to the Working Formulation. Treatment outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves with a Gehan p-value test. Results: The follow up range was 6 months to 22 years (median 7 years.) Twenty one percent of patients had low grade, 63% had intermediate grade and 15% had high grade lymphoma. The most common histologic subtype was diffuse large cell lymphoma Thirty two patients received radiation alone as initial treatment and sixteen patients received combined modality as initial treatment. Four patients received chemotherapy alone. The only significant prognostic factor for survival was the stage at diagnosis. Patients with stage IE disease had a longer actuarial survival (5-yr=79%, 10-yr=71%), as compared to those with stage IIE (5-yr=49%, 10-yr=33%), (p=0.029). The only significant prognostic factor for freedom from relapse was the initial treatment. Initial combined modality treatment lead to a longer freedom from relapse compared to patients treated with radiation alone (p=0.002), (median 5 years vs. 1.2 years). Despite this, the actuarial overall survival in the combined modality group and the radiation alone group are similar (median survival 7.7 and 8 years). The efficacy of either radiation or chemotherapy as salvage treatment after radiation failure was equivalent and both salvage treatments lead to equally long survival and freedom from second relapse. Conclusion
Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children (First Grade) in ... The control group consisting of 100 age-matched non-enuretic children ... was insignificantly associated with a positive family history, family size or birth rank.
Yeaney, Gabrielle A; Platt, Sean; Singh, Arun D
Intraocular leiomyomas are uncommon and usually occur in the ciliary body. Primary leiomyoma of the iris is both rare and a difficult diagnosis to make, given melanocytic tumors are more common and may be amelanotic. The somewhat controversial diagnosis of iris leiomyoma requires further confirmation by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Herein, we describe a 58-year-old man with a 2-mm round translucent pink lesion of the iris. The tumor was excised by sector iridectomy. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for both smooth muscle actin and desmin and negativity for S-100, HMB45, SOX10, MelanA, CD31, CD34, and h-caldesmon. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor was excluded by chromogenic in situ hybridization-Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. Ultrastructural analysis showed cytoplasmic myofilaments with focal fusiform densities and micropinocytotic vesicles. Our review of previous literature confirmed the unusual nature of this tumor. Primary iris leiomyoma should be considered in the differential of an amelanotic S-100-immunonegative iris tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour with the exception of myeloma. The majority of osteosarcoma cases arise within bone and are called conventional osteosarcoma. Intraosseous variants include telangiectatic, small-cell, low-grade intraosseous and cortical osteosarcoma. Less than 10% of osteosarcomas arise on the surface of bone and are subdivided into periosteal, high-grade surface and parosteal varieties. The imaging features of these subtypes of osteosarcoma are described and the impact on diagnosis highlighted. Using material from over 750 osteosarcomas treated at the author's centre, this article reviews the role of imaging in the management of this condition. Detection still relies principally on the conventional radiograph with bone scintigraphy and MR imaging useful in occult tumours. Establishing the radiological diagnosis depends on careful analysis of the radiographs, with particular attention paid to the nature and extent of bone destruction, periosteal new bone formation and matrix mineralization. The prudent radiologist will be wary of those bone conditions, such as stress fractures and osteomyelitis, which are frequently mistaken for osteosarcoma. Appropriate surgical staging requires MR imaging of the primary tumour to show the bony and soft tissue extent of the lesion and to confirm/exclude skip metastases and local lymph-node involvement. Staging should also include bone scintigraphy to confirm/exclude multiple lesions and chest CT to confirm/exclude pulmonary metastases. Following definitive surgery, imaging is used in the follow-up to monitor potential local recurrence and the development of pulmonary or osseous metastases. (orig.) [de
Spivacow, Francisco R; Sapag Durán, Ana; Zanchetta, María B
This report shows our conclusions on the clinical, biochemical and densitometry characteristics of 35 normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. This condition is defined by a high level of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTHI) with persistently normal serum and ionized calcium in the absence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Our selection consisted of 30 women (90%) and 5 men (10%). The control group of 55 hypercalcemic patients with primary hyperparathyroidism included 51 women (93%) and 4 men (7%). The average age at diagnosis of normocalcemic PHPT was 61.4 ± 11.7 years and 56.4 ± 11.3 years in hypercalcemic PHPT. Besides the expected differences in serum calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus and 24 h urinary calcium, we found no significant changes in other biochemical variables, and no differences in densitometry evaluations such as the presence of osteopenia or osteoporosis and the number of fractures in the two types of PHPT. But there was a significant difference in the presence of renal lithiasis between normocalcemic PHPT (11.4%) and clasic PHPT (49.1%) p < 0.0005, to some extent associated to the presence of hypercalciuria in classic PHPT. Two of the 35 patients with normocalcemic PHPT became classic hypercalcemic PHPT over a 4 year follow-up period. Our findings support the hypothesis that the normocalcemic PHPT could be an early stage of the classic PHPT, both having similar clinical effects to metabolic renal and bone levels.
Silverberg, Shonni J.; Walker, Marcella D.; Bilezikian, John P.
The clinical profile of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) as it is seen in the United States and most Western countries has evolved significantly over the past half century. The introduction of the multichannel serum autoanalyzer in the 1970s led to the recognition of a cohort of individuals with asymptomatic hypercalcemia, in whom evaluation led to the diagnosis of PHPT. The term “asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism” was introduced to describe patients who lack obvious signs and symptoms referable to either excess calcium or parathyroid hormone. Although it was expected that asymptomatic patients would eventually develop classical symptoms of PHPT, observational data suggest that most patients do not evolve over time to become overtly symptomatic. In most parts of the world, the asymptomatic phenotype of PHPT has replaced classical PHPT. This report is a selective review of data on asymptomatic PHPT: its demographic features, presentation and natural history, as well as biochemical, skeletal, neuromuscular, psychological, and cardiovascular manifestations. In addition, we will summarize available information on treatment indications and options for those with asymptomatic disease. PMID:23374736
reflect the quality, and efficiency of primary care. Conclusions A standardized instrument for describing and comparing primary care systems has been developed based on scientific evidence and consensus among an international panel of experts, which will be tested to all configurations of primary care in Europe, intended for producing comparable information. Widespread use of the instrument has the potential to improve the understanding of primary care delivery in different national contexts and thus to create opportunities for better decision making.
Casady, Megan; Faia, Lisa; Nazemzadeh, Maryam; Nussenblatt, Robert; Chan, Chi-Chao; Sen, H Nida
To evaluate fundus autofluorescence (FAF) patterns in patients with primary intraocular (vitreoretinal) lymphoma. Records of all patients with primary intraocular lymphoma who underwent FAF imaging at the National Eye Institute were reviewed. Fundus autofluorescence patterns were evaluated with respect to clinical disease status and the findings on fluorescein angiography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. There were 18 eyes (10 patients) with primary intraocular lymphoma that underwent FAF imaging. Abnormal autofluorescence in the form of granular hyperautofluorescence and hypoautofluorescence was seen in 11 eyes (61%), and blockage by mass lesion was seen in 2 eyes (11%). All eyes with granular pattern on FAF had active primary intraocular lymphoma at the time of imaging, but there were 5 eyes with unremarkable FAF, which were found to have active lymphoma. The most common pattern on fluorescein angiography was hypofluorescent round spots with a "leopard spot" appearance (43%). These hypofluorescent spots on fluorescein angiography correlated with hyperautofluorescent spots on FAF in 5 eyes (36%) (inversion of FAF). Nodular hyperreflective spots at the level of retinal pigment epithelium on optical coherence tomography were noted in 43% of eyes. The hyperautofluorescent spots on FAF correlated with nodular hyperreflective spots on optical coherence tomography in 6 eyes (43%). Granularity on FAF was associated with active lymphoma in majority of the cases. An inversion of FAF (hyperautofluorescent spots on FAF corresponding to hypofluorescent spots on fluorescein angiography) was observed in less than half of the eyes.
This qualitative research aimed to review what primary teachers think about how to teach science in rural school contexts. Three primary schools in Thailand were purposively chosen for this study. Eleven primary science teachers of these schools were the research participants. Questionnaires, interviews, and observations were implemented to reveal the primary school teachers' educational backgrounds, science teaching context, and need for self-driven professional development. Content and discourse analysis indicated that the non-science educational background and the science teaching context implied a need for self-driven professional development. The non-science educational background teachers were generally unfamiliar with the current national science curriculum, and that they would not be comfortable when the researcher observed their science teaching practice. They also believed that experimentation was the only one strategy for teaching science, and that the priority for their teaching support was teaching media rather than their understanding of scientific concepts or teaching strategies. As implication of this research, subsequent developments on science teacher profession in rural context, therefore, need to promote teachers' understandings of nature of science and technological and pedagogical content knowledge. In addition, they should be challenged to practice on critically participatory action research for academic growth and professional learning community.
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. ... Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4400, Osogbo, Osun State. ... weak management and poor adherence to the basic infrastructure e.g. primary, secondary and tertiary.
Rudic, Jelena S; Poropat, Goran; Krstic, Miodrag N
Treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis is complicated. There are studies suggesting that bezafibrate, alone or in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is effective in the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis, but no systematic review has summarised the evidence yet....
Efimov, I.A.; Nikulin, M.P.; Smirnov-Averin, A.P.; Tymosh, B.S.; Shereshkov, V.S.
Results and methodology of steam-water and acid decontamination of the primary coolant circuit SBR-5 reactor in 1971 are discussed. Regeneration process in a cold trap of the primary coolant circuit is discussed
This article reviews the impact of successive experiments in the development of primary care organisations in England and assesses the long-term importance of English primary care groups for the integration of health and community and health and social care and the deinstitutionalisation of hospital care. Governments in a number of Western countries are attempting to improve the efficiency, appropriateness and equity of their health systems. One of the main ways of doing this is to devolve provision and commissioning responsibility from national and regional organisations to more local agencies based in primary care. Such primary care organisations are allocated budgets that span both primary and secondary (hospital) services and also, potentially, social care. This article is based on a systematic review of the literature forthcoming from the UK Government's Department of Health-funded evaluations of successive primary care organisational developments. These include total purchasing pilots, GP commissioning group pilots, personal medical services pilots and primary care groups and trusts. Primary care organisations in England have proved to be a catalyst in facilitating the development of integrated care working between primary and community health services. Conversely, primary care organisations have proved less effective in promoting integration between health and social care agencies where most progress has been made at the strategic commissioning level. The development of primary care trusts in England is heralding an end to traditional community hospitals. The development of primary care groups in England are but an intermediate step of a policy progression towards future primary care-based organisations that will functionally integrate primary and community health services with local authority services under a single management umbrella.
Full Text Available Purpose: This article reviews the impact of successive experiments in the development of primary care organisations in England and assesses the long-term importance of English primary care groups for the integration of health and community and health and social care and the deinstitutionalisation of hospital care. Theory: Governments in a number of Western countries are attempting to improve the efficiency, appropriateness and equity of their health systems. One of the main ways of doing this is to devolve provision and commissioning responsibility from national and regional organisations to more local agencies based in primary care. Such primary care organisations are allocated budgets that span both primary and secondary (hospital services and also, potentially, social care. Method: This article is based on a systematic review of the literature forthcoming from the UK Government's Department of Health-funded evaluations of successive primary care organisational developments. These include total purchasing pilots, GP commissioning group pilots, personal medical services pilots and primary care groups and trusts. Results: Primary care organisations in England have proved to be a catalyst in facilitating the development of integrated care working between primary and community health services. Conversely, primary care organisations have proved less effective in promoting integration between health and social care agencies where most progress has been made at the strategic commissioning level. The development of primary care trusts in England is heralding an end to traditional community hospitals. Conclusions: The development of primary care groups in England are but an intermediate step of a policy progression towards future primary care-based organisations that will functionally integrate primary and community health services with local authority services under a single management umbrella.
Chocron, Mauricio; Iglesias, Alberto M.; Raffo Calderon, Maria C.; Villegas, Marina
World operating experience, in conjunction with basic studies has been modifying chemistry specifications for the primary coolant of water cooled nuclear reactors along with the reactor type and structural materials involved in the design. For the reactor CAREM-25, the following sources of information have been used: 1) Experience gained by the Chemistry Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA, Argentina); 2) Participation of the Chemistry Department (CNEA) in international cooperation projects; 3) Guidelines given by EPRI, Siemens-KWU, AECL, etc. Given the main objectives: materials integrity, low radiation levels and personnel safety, which are in turn a balance between the lowest corrosion and activity transport achievable and considering that the CAREM-25 is a pressurized vessel integrated reactor, a group of guidelines for the chemistry and additives for the primary coolant have been given in the present work. (author)
Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend initiating primary prevention for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with statins based on absolute ASCVD risk assessment. Recently, alternative trial-based and hybrid approaches were suggested for statin treatment eligibility. OBJECTIVES: This study...... the population studied, 42% were eligible for statin therapy according to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) risk assessment and cholesterol treatment guidelines approach, versus 56% with the trial-based approach and 21% with the hybrid approach. Among these statin......-eligible subjects, the ASCVD event rate per 1,000 person-years was 9.8, 6.8, and 11.2, respectively. The ACC/AHA-recommended absolute risk score was well calibrated around the 7.5% 10-year ASCVD risk treatment threshold and discriminated better than the trial-based or hybrid approaches. Compared with the ACC...
Murat, A.; Dupas, B.; Zenatti, M.; Aupetit-Faisant, B.; Tenenbaum, F.; Tabarin, A.; Barrat, J.L.; Gosse, P.; Olivier-Puel, F.; Leprat, F.; Trouette, H.; Laurent, F.; Roger, P.
Adrenal incidentalomas are masses incidentally discovered at X rays, ultrasound or MRI examination of the abdomen. In 100 CT scans, one can expect to find two incidentalomas on average. The article by Murat and Dupas is dealing with the strategy of biological, morphological and scintigraphic examinations to be performed in such patients, to assess whether the tumor is of a benign or a malignant nature. Zenatti et al propose a detailed exploration of the aldosterone pathways, since adrenal carcinoma may be responsible for a specific profile of the serum concentrations of mineralo-steroids, compatible with a blockade of the last step of the aldosterone synthesis. The exploration of primary hyperaldosteronism requires biological and imaging techniques. Tabarin et al summarize the main biological parameters and tests available for the diagnosis of this condition and delineate the indications of imaging techniques, associated to hormonal tests to distinguish between adenoma and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. (author). 104 refs
Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma of the anus and rectum is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that tends to invade locally and metastasize early in the course of the disease. It is often misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids or as one of the other benign anorectal conditions and is thus linked to an overall poor prognosis and a 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. Optimal treatment is still controversial, and current evidence does not show any preferential survival benefit from abdominoperineal resection over wide local excision. Chemotherapy or radiotherapy may be used for advanced disease. We report a 71-year-old female presenting with painful bowel movements and blood in stools. She was eventually found to have a mass arising from the anorectal junction with regional lymph node involvement. The patient underwent an abdominoperineal resection and is currently scheduled for chemotherapy.
Full Text Available A 19-year-old previously healthy male presented with a 4 year history of painless drooping of right upper eyelid.On eversion of the right upper eyelid, a yellowish pink mass was seen in the tarsal region. Rest of the ocular examination was normal in both the eyes. Initial biopsy showed chronic inflammation. Subsequently, the entire mass was excised and histopathological examination showed the presence of amyloid in the subconjunctival stroma. At 3 months follow-up, similar lesion was detected in the right lower, left upper, and lower lid, which were treated with cryotherapy, with partial resolution. Patient has been followed up for more than 2 years without any complaints. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of an isolated primary conjunctival amyloidosis with involvement of both the upper and lower palpebral conjunctiva of either eye. It was treated successfully by excision and cryotherapy.
Seifert, B.; Liedtke, M.P.; Kempf, H.J.; Richter, H.; Alexander, H.; Herter, U.
In 100 patients a total of 171 PG determinations in the menstrual blood was performed under standardized conditions. The primary PGE 1 and PGFsub(2α) were determined by RIA. The evaluation of the analysis of the sexual hormones resulted in a group with a biphasic cycle without dysmenorrhea and a group with a biphasic cycle with dysmenorrhea. Highly significant differences (p < 0.01) were found in the PGFsub(2α) concentration in menstrual blood between a group of healthy women and one of patients with dysmenorrhea. In dysmenorrhea the ratio of the PGs investigated is shifted in favor of PGFsub(2α). Indomethacin can decrease the PGFsub(2α) levels in dysmenorrhea up to 15% (p < 0.01). All treated patients reported that their conditions had improved. Five out of seven women were completely without any complaints. (author)
Prasad K Shetty
Full Text Available Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma (PFTC is rare and accounts for about 0.3% of all gynecologic cancers. Less than 1500 cases have been reported in the literature. It arises in postmenopausal women and typically presents with abdominal pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding and watery discharge. However, a correct diagnosis is rarely achieved preoperative, and in many cases, the diagnosis is made after incidental surgery for unrelated conditions commonly being ovarian carcinoma . Compared with ovarian carcinoma, PFTC more often presents at early stages, but it has a worse prognosis. PFTC is usually managed in the same manner as ovarian cancer. We report a case of Left PFTC that presented as Left ovarian mass, and we briefly review the literature.
Grant, C.S.; Carpenter, P.; van Heerden, J.A.; Hamberger, B.
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features, methods of diagnosis and localization, and results of treatment in 105 patients with primary aldosteronism seen between 1969 and 1981. Coincident with the use of computed tomography (CT), 131 I-6-beta-iodomethyl norcholesterol scans (NP-59), and postural response studies, the study group was temporally divided into pre-1976 and post-1976 groups, and subdivided into groups with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) due to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Our results indicate that aldosterone postural response studies and CT differentiate and localize APA and IHA reliably. Adrenalectomy is a safe and effective treatment for APA, whereas medical treatment alone is preferable for IHA
Graham, Brian Russell
In our times, literary criticism, as well as larger political and cultural developments, is characterized by identity politics, meaning that our discourses are structured around the notion of different socially identifiable populations in society. In relation to literature, this results in our...... viewing the characters in literature in terms of these political identities. Literature is consequently discussed in relation to political causes. Literary criticism is animated by the same causes, and is viewed as having a direct intervention in society in relation to them. In this paper, I will discuss......, in relation to Frye’s works, the idea that the primary identities of characters in literature were and, to a considerable extent, continue to be those of family-member identities. As such, literature should not be appropriated to a political context too readily. Whereas viewing characters in terms of...
Ching, Chin Phoi; Yee, Chin Peng
In Malaysia the training of primary school teachers is solely carried out by teacher training institutes which offer the Bachelor of Teaching with Honors (Primary education) program and was first launched in 2007. This program prepares primary school teachers specializing in various subjects or major and is carried out in 27 teacher training…
Dudden, R F; Coldren, S; Condon, J E; Katsh, S; Reiter, C M; Roth, P L
Primary access libraries serve as the foundation of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) interlibrary loan (ILL) hierarchy, yet few published reports directly address the important role these libraries play in the ILL system. This may reflect the traditional view that small, primary access libraries are largely users of ILL, rather than important contributors to the effectiveness and efficiency of the national ILL system. This study was undertaken to test several commonly held beliefs regarding ILL system use by primary access libraries. Three hypotheses were developed. HI: Colorado and Wyoming primary access libraries comply with the recommended ILL guideline of adhering to a hierarchical structure, emphasizing local borrowing. H2: The closures of two Colorado Council of Medical Librarians (CCML) primary access libraries in 1996 resulted in twenty-three Colorado primary access libraries' borrowing more from their state resource library in 1997. H3: The number of subscriptions held by Colorado and Wyoming primary access libraries is positively correlated with the number of items they loan and negatively correlated with the number of items they borrow. The hypotheses were tested using the 1992 and 1997 DOCLINE and OCLC data of fifty-four health sciences libraries, including fifty primary access libraries, two state resource libraries, and two general academic libraries in Colorado and Wyoming. The ILL data were obtained electronically and analyzed using Microsoft Word 98, Microsoft Excel 98, and JMP 3.2.2. CCML primary access libraries comply with the recommended guideline to emphasize local borrowing by supplying each other with the majority of their ILLs, instead of overburdening libraries located at higher levels in the ILL hierarchy (H1). The closures of two CCML primary access libraries appear to have affected the entire ILL system, resulting in a greater volume of ILL activity for the state resource library and other DOCLINE libraries higher
Laaksonen, Inari; Lorimer, Michelle; Gromov, Kirill
Background and purpose - Trabecular metal (TM) cups have demonstrated favorable results in acetabular revision and their use in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) is increasing. Some evidence show that TM cups might decrease periprosthetic infection (PPI) incidence. We compared the survivorship...... of TM cups with that of other uncemented cups in primary THA, and evaluated whether the use of TM cups is associated with a lower risk of PPI. Patients and methods - 10,113 primary THAs with TM cup and 85,596 THAs with other uncemented cups from 2 high-quality national arthroplasty registries were...
Deodhar, N S
Concurrently with the development of the general health services infrastructure in India, serveral special health programs were instituted at the national level to provide a massive and concentrated assault on the major public health problems of malaria, smallpox, cholera, trachoma, tuberculosis, leprosy, filariasis, and the rapid population growth. These vertical programs were expected to reduce the heavy morbidity and mortality within the shortest possible time to where they were no longer major public health problems. The impact was variable. Major steps toward providing integrated health care were taken during the first 5-year plan. Emphasis was on the provision of a packet of inttegrated health, family planning, and nutrition services to the vulnerable groups, i.e., children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers. To rectify past shortcomings ssuch as the failures of the national health programs, ineffective coordination in the nutrition programs, and slow rate of development as a result of interdependence of different sectors, it was necessary to improve the health infrastructure and to launch a frontal attack on poverty. The Multipurpose Health Workers Scheme was planned to rationalize the organization and use of available manpower to reduce the area and population covered by each of the field staff in order to reduce travel time and to make services more effective and more satisfactory. Each multipurpose health worker was entrusted with the task of providing comprehensive health care to about 5000 people. Communicable diseases were the main public health problems, and many specific control/eradication programs were launched. the immunization programs against common childhood diseases have not taken deep roots and coverage continues to be poor. The adoption of the Western model of medical services has resulted in emphasis on "cure" rather than on "care". Another problem is maldistribution of the facilities. Overemphasis on medical education has resulted in the
Nicolae, Alexandra; Levin, Leo; Wong, Peter D; Dave, Malini G; Taras, Jillian; Mistry, Chetna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth L; Wong, Michele; Schroth, Robert J
Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common chronic disease affecting young children in Canada. ECC may lead to pain and infection, compromised general health, decreased quality of life and increased risk for dental caries in primary and permanent teeth. A multidisciplinary approach to prevent and identify dental disease is recommended by dental and medical national organizations. Young children visit primary care providers at regular intervals from an early age. These encounters provide an ideal opportunity for primary care providers to educate clients about their children's oral health and its importance for general health. We designed an office-based oral health screening guide to help primary care providers identify ECC, a dental referral form to facilitate dental care access and an oral health education resource to raise parental awareness. These resources were reviewed and trialled with a small number of primary care providers.
Richmond, Amy; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Myneni, Ranga B.
We analyze the contribution of ecosystem services to GDP and use this contribution to calculate an empirical price for ecosystem services. Net primary production is used as a proxy for ecosystem services and, along with capital and labor, is used to estimate a Cobb Douglas production function from an international panel. A positive output elasticity for net primary production probably measures both marketed and nonmarketed contributions of ecosystems services. The production function is used to calculate the marginal product of net primary production, which is the shadow price for ecosystem services. The shadow price generally is greatest for developed nations, which have larger technical scalars and use less net primary production per unit output. The rate of technical substitution indicates that the quantity of capital needed to replace a unit of net primary production tends to increase with economic development, and this rate of replacement may ultimately constrain economic growth. (author)
Mangelsdorf, K L; Luna, J; Smith, H L
The health problems of Ecuador are similar to those in other developing countries where the standard of living is low, and housing and sanitation are inadequate. Women, children, and those living in rural areas are those most severely affected. National policy has been to attempt to increase access to health care in rural areas through the construction of new facilities and the appointment of highly paid medical staff. However, little attention was paid to sociocultural factors, which caused the peasantry to reject the medical care system, or to problems of internal efficiency which inhibited utilization. Since the 1970s various national and international organizations have attempted to implement primary health care (PHC) through the use of trained community health workers (CHWs). The primary problems faced by the CHWs were shortages of medicines and supplies, an almost total lack of supervision, and lack of transportation available to take staff to isolated villages. The poor supervision is blamed for the 17% drop out rate among CHWs since 1980. Independent PHC programs have also been established in Ecuador by voluntary organizations. These work best when coordinated with governmental programs, in order to allow monitoring and to avoid the duplication of services. Problems with the establishment of PHC programs in Ecuador will continue, as the government has no clear cut policy, and difficulties financing on a broad national scale. Other problems include the absence of effective supervision and logistical support for even small pilot programs, and inconsistencies in the training and role definition for CHWs. These problems need to be met in the implementation of a national PHC policy.
Kringos, Dionne; Boerma, Wienke; Bourgueil, Yann; Cartier, Thomas; Dedeu, Toni; Hasvold, Toralf; Hutchinson, Allen; Lember, Margus; Oleszczyk, Marek; Rotar Pavlic, Danica; Svab, Igor; Tedeschi, Paolo; Wilm, Stefan; Wilson, Andrew; Windak, Adam; Van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter
A suitable definition of primary care to capture the variety of prevailing international organisation and service-delivery models is lacking. Evaluation of strength of primary care in Europe. International comparative cross-sectional study performed in 2009-2010, involving 27 EU member states, plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey. Outcome measures covered three dimensions of primary care structure: primary care governance, economic conditions of primary care, and primary care workforce development; and four dimensions of primary care service-delivery process: accessibility, comprehensiveness, continuity, and coordination of primary care. The primary care dimensions were operationalised by a total of 77 indicators for which data were collected in 31 countries. Data sources included national and international literature, governmental publications, statistical databases, and experts' consultations. Countries with relatively strong primary care are Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, and the UK. Countries either have many primary care policies and regulations in place, combined with good financial coverage and resources, and adequate primary care workforce conditions, or have consistently only few of these primary care structures in place. There is no correlation between the access, continuity, coordination, and comprehensiveness of primary care of countries. Variation is shown in the strength of primary care across Europe, indicating a discrepancy in the responsibility given to primary care in national and international policy initiatives and the needed investments in primary care to solve, for example, future shortages of workforce. Countries are consistent in their primary care focus on all important structure dimensions. Countries need to improve their primary care information infrastructure to facilitate primary care performance management.
Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are more common in the permanent than in primary dentition. In the primary dentition, the anomaly is most frequently observed in the maxillary lateral incisor region, followed by the maxillary midline where they are termed as mesiodens. Supernumerary teeth in the primary canine region are rare. This paper describes a rare case of nonsyndromic supernumerary primary maxillary canine distributed bilaterally in a 4-year-old boy. Both the supernumeraries resembled size and shape of normal primary canine. The right supplemental canine is high labially placed, whereas the left one is seen normally aligned in the dental arch distal to lateral incisor. One of the most significant sequelae of primary supernumerary teeth is their duplication in the permanent series. Radiographic examination of supernumerary primary canine did not indicate any such anomaly in the permanent dentition. The patient was kept under observation.
Bent, Gert Jan; Bakx, Anouke; den Brok, Perry
In this study teacher educators' beliefs concerning primary geography education have been investigated and compared with primary school teachers' beliefs. In this study 45 teacher educators and 489 primary school teachers completed a questionnaire, and nine teacher educators have been interviewed as well. It has been found that teacher educators…
Bennett, Rohan; Rajabifard, Abbas; Williamson, Ian; Wallace, Jude
Many nations lack a coherent national approach to land administration. Instead, land information and processes are frequently disaggregated across states, provinces, cantons, counties, and municipalities. This is particularly the case in federated countries. The growing body of land administration
Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, This dataset contains imagery of Prince George's County in RGB format. The primary goal was to acquire Countywide Digital Orthoimagery at 6" ground pixel resolution., Published in 2009, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland National Capital Park and Planning Commission.
NSGIC Non-Profit | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2009. This dataset contains imagery of Prince George's County in RGB format. The primary goal...
Rimmelin, A.; Hartheiser, M.; Gangi, A.; Welsch, M.; Jeung, M.Y.; Jaeck, D.; Tongio, J.; Dietemann, J.L.
Pheochromocytomas are uncommon tumors that represent a potentially curable cause of hypertension. They are usually located in the adrenal glands, but 10% arise from extra-adrenal sites, located along the paravertebral sympathetic chains. We report a case of primary hepatic pheochromocytoma responsible for a severe hypertension in a 24-year-old man. Echotomography showed a lightly heterogeneous mass located in the segment 8 of the liver. Iodine 131 -metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy showed a large hepatic concentration of the tracer and no other localization. This tumor appeared highly vascularized on enhanced CT scan and on aortic angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hepatic tumor with a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and with a signal isointense to the liver on T1-weighted images. The hepatic venous sampling contained the highest catecholamine level, whereas the adrenal venous samping was normal. After surgical resection of the hepatic tumor, the tension level and catecholamines plasmatic level normalized. No recurrent symptoms appeared during a 3-year follow-up. (orig.)
Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge (Ingle), Chitra R
Primary idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectasia is an unusual disease featured by the presence of dilated lymphatic channels which are located in the mucosa, submucosa or subserosa leading to protein loosing enteropathy.Most often affected were children and generally diagnosed before third year of life but may be rarely seen in adults too. Bilateral pitting oedema of lower limb is the main clinical manifestation mimicking the systemic disease and posing a real diagnostic dilemma to the clinicians to differentiate it from other common systemic diseases like Congestive cardiac failure, Nephrotic Syndrome, Protein Energy Malnutrition, etc. Diagnosis can be made on capsule endoscopy which can localise the lesion but unable to take biopsy samples. Thus, recently double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy in combination can be used as an effective diagnostic tool to hit the correct diagnosis. Patients respond dramatically to diet constituting low long chain triglycerides and high protein content with supplements of medium chain triglyceride. So early diagnosis is important to prevent untoward complications related to disease or treatment for the sake of accurate pathological diagnosis. PMID:25325063
Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.
Walker, Marcella D; Bilezikian, John P
The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances and changes in the evaluation and management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Although it has long been recognized that asymptomatic PHPT is associated with bone loss, particularly at cortical skeletal sites when evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, new imaging techniques suggest that trabecular skeletal deterioration as well as clinically silent vertebral fractures and nephrolithiasis are common. Nonclassical targets of asymptomatic PHPT as well as the effect of vitamin D deficiency and treatment upon PHPT presentation have been the subject of recent intense investigation. Randomized clinical trials are now available regarding the effect of parathyroidectomy (PTX) upon both classical and nonclassical target organs. They have confirmed results from observational studies with regard to the skeletal benefits of PTX but have not consistently shown improvements in nonclassical symptoms. These findings have led to recommendations for more extensive renal and skeletal evaluation and broader criteria for PTX in PHPT. In addition to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, vertebral and renal imaging is recommended. When available, trabecular imaging techniques may be helpful. PTX criteria now include subclinical kidney stones, vertebral fractures and hypercalciuria, in addition to those based on age, serum calcium, bone densitometry and renal function.
Marina G Silveira
Full Text Available Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, resulting in end-stage liver disease and reduced life expectancy. PSC primarily affects young and middle-aged men, often in association with underlying inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of PSC includes immune-mediated components and elements of undefined nature. A cholestatic picture of liver biochemistries with elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase, nonspecific autoantibodies such as perinuclear antineutrophilic antibody, antinuclear antibodies and smooth muscle antibodies, and diffuse multifocal biliary strictures, resulting in a ‘beaded’ appearance on radiographic studies, are the hallmarks of the disease. No effective medical therapy is currently available, although clinical studies are in progress. Ursodeoxycholic acid at high doses (28 mg/kg/day to 30 mg/kg/day is the most promising agent but is unproven so far. Liver transplantation is currently the only life-extending therapy for patients with end-stage disease, although recurrent disease can be observed in the transplanted liver. The multiple complications of PSC include pruritus, fatigue, vitamin deficiencies, metabolic bone disease, peristomal varices, bacterial cholangitis, dominant biliary strictures, gallbladder stones and polyps, and malignancy, particularly cholangiocarcinoma, which is the most lethal complication of PSC.
Full Text Available Abstract Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown aetiology characterised by inflammation and fibrosis of the biliary tree. The mean age at diagnosis is 40 years and men are affected twice as often as women. There is a reported annual incidence of PSC of 0.9–1.31/100,000 and point prevalence of 8.5–13.6/100,000. The onset of PSC is usually insidious and many patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis or have mild symptoms only such as fatigue, abdominal discomfort and pruritus In late stages, splenomegaly and jaundice may be a feature. In most, the disease progresses to cirrhosis and liver failure. Cholangiocarcinoma develops in 8–30% of patients. PSC is thought to be immune mediated and is often associated with inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis. The disease is diagnosed on typical cholangiographic and histological findings and after exclusion of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Median survival has been estimated to be 12 years from diagnosis in symptomatic patients. Patients who are asymptomatic at diagnosis, the majority of whom will develop progressive disease, have a survival rate greater than 70% at 16 years after diagnosis. Liver transplantation remains the only effective therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver disease from PSC, although high dose ursodeoxycholic acid may have a beneficial effect.
Al-Herz, Waleed; Aldhekri, Hasan; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha; Rezaei, Nima
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders caused by defects in the immune system that predispose patients to infections, autoimmune diseases, lymphoproliferation and malignancies. Most PIDs are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern; therefore, they are more common in areas with high rates of consanguineous marriage. Reports about PIDs from these areas have demonstrated a peculiar prevalence of more severe forms of diseases compared to other regions, and patients born to consanguineous parents have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to other patients. Individuals at high risk of having a child with a PID who wish to have a healthy child have limited options, these include prenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. However, these options require a collaborative team of specialists and may not always be implemented due to geographic, religious, financial or social factors. The recent introduction of newborn-screening programs for a number of T and B lymphocyte deficiencies will facilitate early diagnosis and therapeutic interventions, which may include hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. There is a need for the implementation of strategies to increase public awareness of the health risks associated with consanguineous marriage. It should be stressed that genetic counseling should be an important component of the care of patients with PIDs as well as their families. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Vaezi Michael F
Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder characterized by esophageal aperistalsis and abnormal lower esophageal sphincter (LES relaxation in response to deglutition. It is a rare disease with an annual incidence of approximately 1/100,000 and a prevalence rate of 1/10,000. The disease can occur at any age, with a similar rate in men and women, but is usually diagnosed between 25 and 60 years. It is characterized predominantly by dysphagia to solids and liquids, bland regurgitation, and chest pain. Weight loss (usually between 5 to 10 kg is present in most but not in all patients. Heartburn occurs in 27%–42% of achalasia patients. Etiology is unknown. Some familial cases have been reported, but the rarity of familial occurrence does not support the hypothesis that genetic inheritance is a significant etiologic factor. Association of achalasia with viral infections and auto-antibodies against myenteric plexus has been reported, but the causal relationship remains unclear. The diagnosis is based on history of the disease, radiography (barium esophagogram, and esophageal motility testing (esophageal manometry. Endoscopic examination is important to rule out malignancy as the cause of achalasia. Treatment is strictly palliative. Current medical and surgical therapeutic options (pneumatic dilation, surgical myotomy, and pharmacologic agents aimed at reducing the LES pressure and facilitating esophageal emptying by gravity and hydrostatic pressure of retained food and liquids. Although it cannot be permanently cured, excellent palliation is available in over 90% of patients.
Farrokhi, Farnoosh; Vaezi, Michael F
Idiopathic achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder characterized by esophageal aperistalsis and abnormal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation in response to deglutition. It is a rare disease with an annual incidence of approximately 1/100,000 and a prevalence rate of 1/10,000. The disease can occur at any age, with a similar rate in men and women, but is usually diagnosed between 25 and 60 years. It is characterized predominantly by dysphagia to solids and liquids, bland regurgitation, and chest pain. Weight loss (usually between 5 to 10 kg) is present in most but not in all patients. Heartburn occurs in 27%–42% of achalasia patients. Etiology is unknown. Some familial cases have been reported, but the rarity of familial occurrence does not support the hypothesis that genetic inheritance is a significant etiologic factor. Association of achalasia with viral infections and auto-antibodies against myenteric plexus has been reported, but the causal relationship remains unclear. The diagnosis is based on history of the disease, radiography (barium esophagogram), and esophageal motility testing (esophageal manometry). Endoscopic examination is important to rule out malignancy as the cause of achalasia. Treatment is strictly palliative. Current medical and surgical therapeutic options (pneumatic dilation, surgical myotomy, and pharmacologic agents) aimed at reducing the LES pressure and facilitating esophageal emptying by gravity and hydrostatic pressure of retained food and liquids. Although it cannot be permanently cured, excellent palliation is available in over 90% of patients. PMID:17894899
Rollow, William; Cucchiara, Peter
The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model provides a compelling vision for primary care transformation, but studies of its impact have used insufficiently patient-centered metrics with inconsistent results. We propose a framework for defining patient-centered value and a new model for value-based primary care transformation: the primary care value model (PCVM). We advocate for use of patient-centered value when measuring the impact of primary care transformation, recognition, and performance-based payment; for financial support and research and development to better define primary care value-creating activities and their implementation; and for use of the model to support primary care organizations in transformation. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
There has been the tendency right from independence to view national ... the nation's economic underdevelopment, which has led to social injustice, ... For a nation, security connotes conditions of peace, stability, order ... They are very important for the ... According to Mathew (1989), Global development now suggests.
South Africans vacillate in their national identity and remain largely attached to their racial and ethnic group identities. The aim of this article is to illustrate the manner in which a sense of understanding, familiarity and pride with regard to national symbols and thus to national identity can be attained. The objective is that the ...
Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.
Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS
Ellis, Mark A; Graboyes, Evan M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Neskey, David M; Kaczmar, John M; Schopper, Heather K; Sharma, Anand K; Morgan, Patrick F; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A
Objective The goal of this study is to determine the effect of primary surgery vs radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). In addition, this study attempts to identify factors associated with receiving primary RT. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013). Subjects and Methods Reviewing the NCDB from 2004 to 2013, patients with early stage I to II OCSCC were identified. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, Cox regression analysis, and propensity score matching were used to examine differences in OS between primary surgery and primary RT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with primary RT. Results Of the 20,779 patients included in the study, 95.4% (19,823 patients) underwent primary surgery and 4.6% (956 patients) underwent primary RT. After adjusting for covariates, primary RT was associated with an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.22). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with primary RT included age ≥70 years, black race, Medicaid or Medicare insurance, no insurance, oral cavity subsite other than tongue, clinical stage II disease, low-volume treatment facilities, and earlier treatment year. Conclusion Primary RT for early stage OCSCC is associated with increased mortality. Approximately 5% of patients receive primary RT; however, this percentage is decreasing. Patients at highest risk for receiving primary RT include those who are elderly, black, with public insurance, and treated at low-volume facilities.
Matsumoto, Mikiro; Ohtsuka, Takatsugu; Kuroki, Takao; Shibata, Iekado; Terao, Hideo; Kudo, Motoshige
Nine cases of primary intracranial malignant lymphoma, which accounts for 3.3 % of all intracranial tumors seen in the authors' institution, were studied in terms of diagnostic computed tomographic (CT) features, the tumors' histologic appearance, treatment, post-treatment blood immunologic and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics, and outcome. The patients were seven males and two females aged 42 to 67 years. Their chief signs and symptoms on admission were intracranial hypertension, focal signs, and disturbance of consciousness. CT, which proved the most useful preoperative diagnostic technique, demonstrated multiple lesions in seven cases and, in all cases, regions of isodensity or slight high density that were enhanced by contrast medium. According to the patterns of enhancement, the tumors were classed as diffuse (three cases) or nodular (six cases). The former is considered typical of malignant lymphoma, whereas the latter type was sometimes indistinguishable from metastatic tumor and meningioma. At surgery, one patient underwent radical tumor excision, two partial removal, and six biopsy only. Histologic examination revealed one tumor to be of the diffuse small cell type, three of the medium cell type, and five of the large cell type (Lymphoma Study Group classification). Of seven tumors in which lymphocytes were examined by peroxidase-antiperoxidase staining, four were of the B cell type. Postoperatively, whole brain irradiation with 29 to 46 Gy was followed by local irradiation with 15 to 50 Gy. If the tumor persisted, one of three chemotherapies was administered. In one case, methotrexate was given intrathecally. Seven patients were divided into two groups: long remission (three) and recurrence (four). These two groups were compared in terms of serum immunoglobulin levels, T and B cell ratios, CSF characteristics, CT features, tumor cell type, and treatment. No clear differences were found. (author)
The term cosmic radiation means the charged particle flux that reaches the earth from outside its magnetosphere with energies above the solar wind energy of a few keV. There are two sources of flux. Sporadically the sun produces such particles, generally within the energy range 1--200 MeV, and these solar cosmic rays arrive at the earth for a period ranging from hours to days. There may be a small, rather constant flux from the sun also, but the bulk of the steady flux originates outside the earth's orbit. Although some have conjectured that part of this latter flux may be accelerated in the outer portions of the solar system where the outward flowing interplanetary medium meets the interstellar medium, it is generally thought that most or all of it arises in unique systems such as supernovae, and is distributed throughout the galaxy. These galactic particles range in energy from a few MeV to at least 10 13 MeV and consist primarily of protons with significant numbers of heavier nuclei, positrons and electrons. They are supposed to fill our galaxy, or at least the disc, more or less uniformly. However, the flux with energies below a few GeV that reaches earth's orbit is modulated by the interplanetary medium so that the number at earth varies inversely with solar activity and is always somewhat below the interstellar flux. A discussion is presented of primary galactic radiation at earth, its modulation by solar activity, and its interaction with the geomagnetic field. (U.S.)
There is no doubt that the increasing politicisation of education in an economically rationalist climate is contributing to less equity, access, participation and, therefore, social justice for many Australian primary children. This article initially explores how the development of the impending national Australian curriculum replete with a high…
The new Australian national science curriculum includes chemistry content at the primary level. Chemistry for young students is learning about changes in material stuff (matter) and, by implication, of what stuff is made. Pedagogy in this area needs to be guided by research if stepping stones to later learning of chemical ideas are to facilitate…
This paper attempts to examine the socioeconomic determinants of primary school dropout in Uganda with the aid of a logistic model analysis using the 2004 National Service Delivery Survey data. The Objectives were to establish the household socioeconomic factors that influence dropout of pupils given free education ...
Averill, Robin; Harvey, Roger
Here is the only reference book you will ever need for teaching primary school mathematics and statistics. It is full of exciting and engaging snapshots of excellent classroom practice relevant to "The New Zealand Curriculum" and national mathematics standards. There are many fascinating examples of investigative learning experiences,…
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Greve, Jane
-60 years drawn from the National Health Interview (NHI) survey 2000 and merged to Danish register data, we compare differences in the impact of being overweight and obese relative to being normal weight on the demand for primary physician care. Estimated bodyweight effects vary across latent classes...
Objective: To determine prevalence of thyroid antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies among patients with primary thyroid disorders. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, July 2003 to August 2004. Results: Antimicrosomal antibodies (anti-TPOAbs) were detected in 51.4% ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires a new primary battery capable of providing specific energy exceeding 2000Wh/kg over an operating temperature range of 0oC to 35oC with a shelf life...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The primary objective of the National Pregnancy and Health Survey (NPHS) was to produce national annual estimates of the percentages and numbers of mothers of live...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...
The NCCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's coastal waters and the Great Lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...
This publication presents significant developments at Argonne National Laboratory during 1983-84. Argonne is a multidisciplinary research center with primary focus on nuclear energy, basic research, biomedical-environmental studies and alternate energy research. The laboratory is operated by the University of Chicago for the Department of Energy
.... Poor economic conditions, organized crime, high levels of corruption within the government, and an irresponsible parliament are the primary causes of instability in Ukraine. Resolution of these issues is vital to Ukrainian National Security as well as the continuation of Ukrainian independence.
Input-output modeling of primary energy and greenhouse gas embodiments in goods and services is a useful technique for designing greenhouse gas abatement policies. The present paper describes direct and indirect primary energy and greenhouse gas requirements for a given set of Australian final consumption. It considers sectoral disparities in energy prices, capital formation and international trade flows and it accounts for embodiments in the Gross National Expenditure as well as the Gross Domestic Product. Primary energy and greenhouse gas intensities in terms of MJ/$ and kg CO 2 -e/$ are reported, as well as national balance of primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. (author)
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — National Wildlife Refuges are federal lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The primary source for boundary information is the USFWS Realty...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.Sandia National Laboratories...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — National Health Expenditure Accounts are comprised of the following, National Health Expenditures - Historical and Projected, Age Estimates, State Health...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...
Gressier, Frederic; Mascarenhas, Darren; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Ranchoux, Gilles
In order to achieve a good physico-chemical quality of the primary coolant fluid, the primary water is continuously treated by the Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS). This system is composed of a treatment chain containing filters and ion-exchange resins. In the EDF design, an upstream filter is placed before the resin so as to prevent it from being saturated with insoluble particles. Then, the fluid passes through several resin beds (up to 3 depending on the configuration) and again through a downstream filter that prevents resin fines dissemination into the reactor coolant. Much work has been conducted in the last 5 years on the homogenisation of products and usage on French EDF NPP primary coolant treatment, while taking into account the compromise between source term reduction, liquid and solid waste, and buying and disposal costs. Two national markets have been created, and two operational documents for chemists on site have been published: a filtration guideline and an ion-exchange resin guideline. Both documents give general information about the products used, how are they characterized and selected for national market (technical requirements, standards and tests), how they should be used and what are the change-out criteria. They are also periodically updated based on feedback from sites. The positive impact on resin and filter lifetime (extension of some, limitation of others), homogenisation of products and usage will be presented. Moreover, EDF is constantly in the process of improving the current purification methods, as well as researching the use of existing and novel technologies. In this field, recent experiments on short loading of resin during reactor shutdown has been tested on site with success. In addition, work is done on silica free filters, filter consumption and filter chemical release. An overview of these optimization methods will be given. (authors)
Reid, Steve; Mash, Bob
This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research and focuses on the topic of qualitative interviewing in primary care. In particular it looks at issues of study design, sample size, sampling and interviewing in relation to individual and focus group interviews.There is a particular focus on helping postgraduate students at a Masters level to write their research proposals.
Jensen, D.S.; Pond, R.; Johnson, M.H.
Responding to a spill of national significance (SONS), such as the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, requires an augmenting organization to support the local response organization. The US Coast Guard has developed SONS protocol to be better prepared to respond to these infrequent catastrophic spills. A flag-level Coast Guard officer assumes the role of national incident commander (NIC) and federal on-scene coordinator (OSC), and is supported by a national incident task force (NITF). The major role of the NITF is to develop a national response strategy, acquire response resources and allocate them efficiently, and effectively deal with many peripheral national issues. Unified command concepts have been incorporated into the NITF and its primary organizational elements. In addition, frequent training and exercising is essential to keep the SONS protocol's preparedness at an acceptable level
Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.
This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…
Carlos Augusto Real Martinez
Full Text Available Primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA is a seldom reported disease caused by spontaneous torsion of one or more epiploic appendices. The aim of this study is to describe two cases of PEA reviewing the main aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Case report: Case 1 Male patient, 55 years old, obese, with abdominal right iliac fossa (RIF pain for two days. Abdominal examination showed pain on palpation in the RIF with rebound tenderness. Abdominal computed tomography identified lobulated lesion in the cecum, measuring 4.5 cm in diameter, which was suggestive of PEA or early neoplasm of the colon wall. The lapa- roscopic assessment confirmed the diagnosis of PEA and the appendix was removed. The pa- tient had a satisfactory outcome, being discharged on the second postoperative day. Case 2 Female patient, obese, 47 years old, with abdominal pain for six days, with sudden RIF onset. She had pain at palpation with rebound tenderness. Acute diverticulitis was suspected and patient underwent abdominal CT that identified PEA in the sigmoid colon. After expectant management, the patient showed progressive improvement resuming her activities in seven days. PEA is a rarely recalled condition during the investigation of inflammatory acute abdo- men which can be easily recognized by modern imaging methods of assessment. Resumo: Apendagite epiplóica primária (AEP é uma enfermidade raramente descrita, ocasionada pela torção espontânea de um ou mais apêndices epiplóicos. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever dois casos de AEP revisando os principais aspectos do diagnóstico e tratamento da doença. Relato dos Casos: 1° Homem, 55 anos, obeso com dor abdominal em FID há dois dias. No exame do abdômen apresentava dor à palpação na FID e descompressão brusca presente. A tomografia computadorizada do abdômen identificou lesão expansiva no ceco, lobulada, medindo 4,5 cm de diâmetro, suspeitando-se de AEP ou neoplasia primitiva da parede c
Full Text Available We present a case of primary ectopic frontotemporal extradural craniopharyngioma. Primary ectopic craniopharyngiomas are very rare and have been reported involving the fourth ventricle, infrasellar region, lateral ventricle, temporal area, cerebellopontine angle, clivus, corpus callosum, and prepontine cistern. There was just 1 case of craniopharyngioma previously presented in the literature, with nearly same location as the presenting case.
Giljaca, Vanja; Poropat, Goran; Stimac, Davor
Methotrexate has been used to treat patients with primary biliary cirrhosis as it possesses immunosuppressive properties. The previously prepared version of this review from 2005 showed that methotrexate seemed to significantly increase mortality in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Since...... that last review version, follow-up data of the included trials have been published....
In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…
Prejbisz, A.; Warchol-Celinska, E.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Januszewicz, A.
After the first cases of primary aldosteronism were described and characterized by Conn, a substantial body of experimental and clinical evidence about the long-term effects of excess aldosterone on the cardiovascular system was gathered over the last 5 decades. The prevalence of primary
Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Blomqvist, P
BACKGROUND: Several case reports, but only a few studies, have examined the coexistence of coeliac disease and primary biliary cirrhosis. AIM: To estimate the risk of primary biliary cirrhosis in two national cohorts of patients with coeliac disease in Denmark and Sweden. METHODS: Through record...... linkage all Danish patients hospitalised with coeliac disease were followed for possible occurrence of primary biliary cirrhosis from 1 January 1977 until 31 December 1992. All patients hospitalised with coeliac disease in Sweden from 1987 to 1996 were also followed in a separate analysis. RESULTS......: A total of 896 patients with coeliac disease were identified in Denmark with a median follow up period of 9.1 years for a total of 8040 person-years at risk. Two cases of primary biliary cirrhosis were observed where 0.07 were expected, giving a standardised incidence ratio of 27.6 (95% confidence...
Halim, Nafisa; Yount, Kathryn M; Cunningham, Solveig A; Pande, Rohini P
Using a national district-level dataset of India composed of information on investments in primary schooling (data from the District Information Survey for Education [DISE, 2007/8]) and information on demographic characteristics of elected officials (data from the Election Commission of India [ECI, 2000/04]), we examined the relationship between women's representation in State Legislative Assembly (SLA) seats and district-level investments in primary schooling. We used OLS regressions adjusting for confounders and spatial autocorrelation, and estimated separate models for North and South India. Women's representation in general SLA seats typically was negatively associated with investments in primary-school amenities and teachers; women's representation in SLA seats reserved for under-represented minorities, i.e., scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, typically was positively associated with investments in primary schooling, especially in areas addressing the basic needs of poor children. Women legislators' gender and caste identities may shape their decisions about redistributive educational policies.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a digital map of human appropriation of net...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from measurements of primary productivity. The data are collected to provide information on nutrient levels and nutrient flow in offshore...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) by Country and Product portion of the HANPP Collection contains tabular data on carbon-equivalents of...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a digital map of human appropriation of net...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary Productivity is calculated from NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a and NOAA GOES Imager SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for scientific...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary Productivity is calculated from SeaWiFS Chl a, Pathfinder SST, and SeaWiFS PAR data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for scientific...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary Productivity is calculated from NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for scientific evaluation by professional...
Reports on the procedures, standards, and topics involved in the 1997 National History Day. National History Day is a year-long contest where students research primary sources and prepare papers, projects, performances, and media based on a historical theme. The 1997 theme is "Triumph and Tragedy in History." (MJP)
Trombley, William, Ed.
The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) CUNY [City University of New York] Sheds Reputation as "Tutor U": The Nation's Largest Urban University Raises Standards, and Grapples with Remediation (Jon…
Meyers, Brian D.
This study is the first investigation of the nine-year history of the National Solo and Ensemble Contests, held in the United States in conjunction with the National School Band and Orchestra Contests of the late 1920s and early to mid-1930s. Primary sources used include letters from those involved with the planning of the contests, meeting…
The theme of the "Outline of the National Mid- to Long-Term Plan for Education Reform and Development (2010-2020)" is building a nation rich in human resources, its primary thread is promoting the scientific development of education, and its soul is reform and innovation. The important concepts and policy innovations of the National…
Francis, Paul A.
This study, based on data from a 1997 survey of 54 Nigerian primary schools and their client communities, was commissioned in order to assist the National Primary Education Commission (NPEC) in improving primary education services. Stakeholders consulted included parents, pupils, teachers and head teachers, community leaders, educational…
Ellner, Andrew L; Phillips, Russell S
The United States has the most expensive, technologically advanced, and sub-specialized healthcare system in the world, yet it has worse population health status than any other high-income country. Rising healthcare costs, high rates of waste, the continued trend towards chronic non-communicable disease, and the growth of new market entrants that compete with primary care services have set the stage for fundamental change in all of healthcare, driven by a revolution in primary care. We believe that the coming primary care revolution ought to be guided by the following design principles: 1) Payment must adequately support primary care and reward value, including non-visit-based care. 2) Relationships will serve as the bedrock of value in primary care, and will increasingly be fostered by teams, improved clinical operations, and technology, with patients and non-physicians assuming an ever-increasing role in most aspects of healthcare. 3) Generalist physicians will increasingly focus on high-acuity and high-complexity presentations, and primary care teams will increasingly manage conditions that specialists managed in the past. 4) Primary care will refocus on whole-person care, and address health behaviors as well as vision, hearing, dental, and social services. Design based on these principles should lead to higher-value healthcare, but will require new approaches to workforce training.
Marsh, Courtney A; Grimstad, Frances W
Puberty is a defining time of many adolescents' lives. It is a series of events that includes thelarche, pubarche, and menarche. Primary amenorrhea is the absence of menarche. There are numerous etiologies including outflow tract obstructions, gonadal dysgenesis, and anomalies of the hypothalamic axis. This review's aims are to define primary amenorrhea and describe the various causes, their workups, associated comorbidities, and treatment options. At the end, a generalist should be able to perform an assessment of an adolescent who presents with primary amenorrhea and, if warranted, begin initial treatment.
Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Masel, J.; Diard, F.; Ferrari-Ciboldi, F.; Le Dosseur, P.; Labatut, J.
20 cases of primary benign and malignant bone tumours in children were reported. The most common tumours were Ewing's sarcoma, aneurismal bone cyst, benign osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Some rare primary bone tumours in children (osteochondroma, chondroblastoma 6F, primary lymphoma of bone and neurofibromatosis with unusual cervical spinal changes) were also reported. The authors believe that radiographic findings together with clinical history and clinical examination may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses. Although microscopy is essential in the final diagnosis, the microscopic report should be also accepted with caution.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of published data on primary production, herbivory, and nutrient content of primary producers in pristine communities of...
Ivbijaro, GO; Kolkiewicz, LA; McGee, LSF; Gikunoo, M
Objectives This audit aims to evaluate the effectiveness of delivering an equivalent primary care service to a long-term forensic psychiatric inpatient population, using the UK primary care national Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF).
Hobbs FD Richard
Full Text Available Abstract Background Major international differences in heart failure treatment have been repeatedly described, but the reasons for these differences remain unclear. National guideline recommendations might be a relevant factor. This study, therefore, explored variation of heart failure guideline recommendations in Europe. Methods Treatment recommendations of 14 national guidelines published after 1994 were analyzed in relation to the heart failure treatment guideline of the European Society of Cardiology. To test potential relations between recommendations and prescribing, national prescribing patterns as obtained by a European study in primary care (IMPROVEMENT-HF were related to selected recommendations in those countries. Results Besides the 14 national guidelines used by primary care physicians in the countries contacted, the European guideline was used in four countries, and separate guidelines for specialists and primary care were available in another four countries. Two countries indicated that no guideline was used up to 2000. Comprehensiveness of the guidelines varied with respect to length, literature included and evidence ratings. Relevant differences in treatment recommendations were seen only in drug classes where evidence had changed recently (β-blockers and spironolactone. The relation between recommendation and prescribing for selected recommendations was inconsistent among countries. Conclusion Differences in guideline recommendations are not sufficient to explain variation of prescribing among countries, thus other factors must be considered.
The official national accounts statistics do not show the role of human capital in the national economy. A set of satellite tables supplementing the standard national accounts statistics could serve this data need. In this satellite account, expenditure on education and training are recorded as human capital formation. This includes not only the expenditure on primary, secondary and tertiary education, but also expenditure on training and courses by employers and the earnings foregone by stud...
Mokibelo, Eureka B.
This paper examines the micro planning activities that schools engage in to address learners' needs to make education work in rural primary schools of Botswana. The national language plan prescribes the use of English and Setswana only as languages of instruction at the primary school level. However, this plan is not practical in some regions…
Wilmot, Di; Irwin, Pat
There is a dearth of research on primary school Geography in South Africa. With no Annual National Assessments (ANAs) being done in the subject, little is known about the quality of geographical learning and teaching in South African primary schools. This article begins to address this shortcoming. More specifically, it responds to the need for…
Seddon, Frederick; Biasutti, Michele
Prior research has revealed that non-music specialist trainee primary school teachers lack confidence in teaching music in spite of changes to teacher training and the introduction of music in the National Curriculum in England. The current study investigated the effects on non-music specialist trainee primary teachers' confidence to teach music…
Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Descartes, Christine H.
The present study examined the level of parental influence on academic achievement in primary school students who prepare for the National-level test at standard five (grade 6), Secondary Entrance Examinations in Trinidad. A sample of 128 students studying standard five from primary schools was randomly selected. The data were analysed using SPSS.…
Dubova, M. V.
Primary education in Russia has failed to adapt to the needs of post-Soviet society, and is still based on rote learning and memorization instead of learning through discovery and learning to use and apply what is learned.
Casper Q. Kammeijer
Full Text Available Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a progressive disease, and coincidentally in pregnancy it is rare. It is characterized by progressive inflammation and destruction of bile ducts finally resulting in liver failure. A rare case of primary sclerosing cholangitis in pregnancy is presented. The course of the pregnancy was marked by threatened preterm delivery and exacerbation of cholestasis. She was successfully treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA. Although, primary sclerosing cholangitis has both maternal and fetal effects on pregnancy, the overall outcome is favorable. Only few cases have been reported using high dose ursodeoxycholic acid for primary sclerosing cholangitis in pregnancy, it often improves pruritus but has no protection against stillbirth. Data on the safety to the fetus or neonate and long-term outcome are scarce.
Quarry industry has become a major means of livelihood in Ebonyi state, but insufficient data exists on their operations ... of Dust Mask among Crushers of Selected Quarry (Crushed ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care.
Full Text Available We describe a case of primary central nervous lymphoma (PCNSL that may be confused with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of high grade glioma. Primary central nervous lymphoma is a rare tumour and it account for 0.3-3% of intracranial tumours. A 61 year’s old woman was admitted to our clinic with a severe headache, vomiting, left hemiparesia and transient loss of consciousness. Primary central nervous lymphoma may show various biological and radiological characteristics. We herein emphasized being confused with MRI findings of PCNSL and high grade glioma. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 409-411Key words: Primary central nervous lymphoma, high grade glioma, B-cell, diagnosis
Kempa, J.; Knurenko, S.P.; Malecki, R.
Structures in the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays at the 'knee' region and for energies higher than 1 EeV are obtained through studying extensive air showers (EAS). The main problem of the research is the fact that we work in the ranges of highly fluctuating parameters used to obtain the primary energy spectrum. In this paper the log-normal distribution for the error function has been used in convolution with the power spectrum to explain the Yakutsk experimental data. Similar results have been obtained for the gamma distribution as the error function. Using the power law primary spectrum in the energy region around 10 19 eV we will argue that the primary Yakutsk spectrum is overestimated. In the best case this overestimation is not less than 42%.
3Department of Community and Primary Health Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idiaraba, ... Some of the participants (45.3%) carry out physical exercises such as walking ..... hypertension, continuous effective management of.
2Primary Health Care Department, Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Benin City, ... selected from each of the ten wards in the LGA using multistage sampling technique. ..... Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Insurance Companies in Lagos State.
Client Satisfaction with Antenatal Care Services in Primary Health Care. Centres in Sabon ... important information about how well clinicians and the population of women within child bearing. 8 ..... model. Health and Quality of Life outcomes.
Jeremic, Branislav [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pitz, Susanne (eds.) [University Eye Hospital, Mainz (Germany)
Optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) is a rare tumour. Cases are usually separated into primary ONSM, which arises either intraorbitally or, less commonly, intracanalicularly, and secondary ONSM, which arises intracranially and subsequently invades the optic canal and orbit. This is the first book to cover all important aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of primary ONSM. After a general introduction, individual chapters discuss the clinical presentation, clinical examination and diagnosis, imaging, and histology. Treatment options are then addressed in detail, with special emphasis on external beam radiation therapy, and in particular stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy. The latter has recently produced consistently good results and is now considered the emerging treatment of choice for the vast majority of patients with primary ONSM. This well-illustrated book will prove invaluable to all practitioners who encounter primary ONSM in their clinical work. (orig.)
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on health care facilities includes the name and location of all the hospitals and primary care facilities in Allegheny County. The current listing of...
Family planning is an important preventive measure against maternal and child ... users of the services, desire for more children, fear of side effects and partner's ... It is an essential component of primary development across the regions .
In the past decade, more and more Taiwanese men have married women from Southeast Asian countries and China. Children of cross-national marriages now account for one-tenth of primary school pupils. Previous research on primary and secondary school pupils' performance in different subjects has indicated that the children of cross-national marriages…
Gatselis, Nikolaos K; Dalekos, George N
A reliable liver autoimmune serology for the diagnosis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is of particular importance. Recognition of patients at early stages and prompt treatment initiation may alter the outcome, slow progression, delays liver failure, and improves survival. In this review, we summarize and discuss the published data obtained from literature searches from PubMed and The National Library of Medicine (USA) and our own experience on the current and potential molecular based approaches to the diagnosis of PBC. Expert commentary: Standardization of liver diagnostic serology and clinical governance are two major points as antimitochondrial antibodies are the diagnostic hallmark of the disease and PBC-specific antinuclear antibodies could assist in the diagnosis and estimation of prognosis. New biomarkers such as novel autoantibodies, genetic polymorphisms, metabolomic profiling, micro-RNA and epigenetics may assist to the understanding, diagnosis and management of the disease.
Nghiem, P.; Payet, J.; Tkatchenko, A.
This study concerns the definition of the Sissi primary beam characteristics. The calculations have been carried out in two steps : -a study of primary and secondary order with the help of BETA matrix code -a study of superior orders with the help of ZGOUBI code which is able to take into consideration the measured fields and in which the movement equations are integrated numerically. (O.L.). 9 figs., 3 tabs
Alessi, Cathy; Vitiello, Michael V
Up to 40% of older adults have insomnia, with difficulty getting to sleep, early waking, or feeling unrefreshed on waking. The prevalence of insomnia increases with age. Other risk factors include medical and psychiatric illnesses, psychological factors, stress, daytime napping, and hyperarousal.Primary insomnia is a chronic and relapsing condition that may increase the risks of accidents.Primary insomnia is chronic insomnia without specific underlying medical, psychiatric, or other sleep ...
Feig, Daniel I.; Johnson, Richard J.
Experimental animal models suggest that uric acid might have a pathogenic role in the early development of primary hypertension. We hypothesized that serum uric acid is correlated with blood pressure in children with new-onset, untreated, primary hypertension. We evaluated 125 consecutive children referred to the Baylor Pediatric Renal Program for evaluation of hypertension. None of the subjects had previously been evaluated or treated for hypertension. The children ranged in age from 6 to 18...
Giljaca, Vanja; Poropat, Goran; Stimac, Davor
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic disease of intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ducts, characterised by chronic periductal inflammation and sclerosis of the ducts, which results in segmental stenoses of bile ducts, cholestasis, fibrosis, and ultimately, liver cirrhosis...... sclerosing cholangitis, like ursodeoxycholic acid, glucocorticosteroids, and immunomodulatory agents, but none has been successful in reversing the process of the disease. To date, liver transplantation is the only definite therapeutic solution for patients with advanced primary sclerosing cholangitis...
Crump, R.J.; Naretto, C.J.; Borgen, R.A.; Rockhold, H.C.
The results are presented for an analysis conducted to determine the potential paths through which nonborated water or water with insufficient boron concentration might enter the LOFT primary coolant piping system or reactor vessel to cause dilution of the borated primary coolant water. No attempt was made in the course of this analysis to identify possible design modifications nor to suggest changes in administrative procedures or controls
Nsekela, A J
Cultural policy decisions to alleviate poverty in the Third World are viewed as a moral obligation on the part of industrialized nations to promote an equitable income and service distribution. A review of colonialism on the part of the First toward the Third World concludes that the export of primary products has failed to bring an equal return of industrialization because of the inflated prices of manufactured goods and processes. Policies aimed at eliminating the lack of opportunity in the Third World must attack the three areas of poverty, unemployment, and inequality (racial and sexual). Economic integration of these nations requires a better linkage between natural resources, technology, knowledge, and human resources. More attention is needed to the use of national resources for the manufacture of products that will be used domestically and also exported to international markets. Basic to economic development is the raising of the educational, health, and income levels of the people. A philosophical program is outlined for developing policies that will promote human development. (DCK)
Rigdon, Phillip [Yakama Nation, Toppenish, WA (United States)
It is the intention of the Yakama Nation to make improvements on the Wapato Irrigation Project (WIP) for the benefit of all stakeholders. Water management, water conservation and water allocation on the Wapato Irrigation Project is equally as important as hydropower. Irrigation will always be the primary purpose of this water system, but the irrigation system can also generate energy. The purpose of this project is the purchase and installation of inflow water turbines to generate an additional one megawatt of hydro-electrical power. The project will occur in two phases, Environmental Assessment and Project Implementation. The core objective for this proposal is to meet the Yakama Nation’s goal in hydroelectric power development. This will include the installation of inflow water turbines on the Wapato Irrigation Project. The Yakama Nation will prepare an Environmental Assessment in preparation to purchase and install new water turbines for hydropower generation of 1 Megawatt. This is a valuable economic development strategy for Yakama Nation that will create new jobs, improve and increase rural electrification, and attract private investments. This water system has an untapped low head/low power potential without the need to construct a new dam. The objective of Phase 1 is to complete an environmental assessment and obtain approval to proceed with installation of the hydroelectric power system.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data exchange allows states to submit data to the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). NEI is a national database of air...
... and Irma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) PNAS is one of the world’s most- ... Exchange Evolution Resources Biographical Memoirs National Academy of Sciences About The NAS Mission History Organization Leadership and ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...
... work, in homes and communities, and on the road through leadership, research, education and advocacy. NSC Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter! Like Us on Facebook National Safety Council © National Safety Council. All rights reserved. Contact ...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...
Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Environment Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment National Security User Facilities Science Work with Us Environment Atmospheric and Climate Science Ecological
... Living Tips About WIN NIDDK Information Clearinghouses National Diabetes Education Program Together with more than 200 partners ... type 2 diabetes. Learn more about NDEP . National Diabetes Month You are the center of your diabetes ...
Desai, B.N.; Kunte, P.D.; Bhargava, R.M.S.
Ocean study is inherently interdisciplinary and therefore calls for a controlled and integrated approach for information generation, processing and decision making. In this context, Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre (INODC) of National...
The ebbs and flows, which typically influences not just rhetoric around, but also how we think through nationalism, suggest nationalism is somehow at the core the same ‘thing’. But is it really? What connects the rise of nationalism in Australia in the 1880s, to the nationalism of the First...... surrounding refugees and migrancy in Australia and Europe (since this is what we are invited to do by the organisers), and how the deconstruction of such discourses might lead to more constructive ways of speaking through nation, might offer a way. I think Stan Grant’s book, Talking to My Country, through its...... combination of incisive criticism and insistence on constructive nation-(re)building offers an interesting launching pad. I am hoping to use Grant’s nation-rebuilding project to suggest ways that could open up similar spaces in equally exclusivist, the-nation-is-white-places in Europe. I am aware Grant has...
Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Batteries and Energy Storage Energy Systems Modeling Materials for Energy Nuclear Energy Renewable Energy Smart Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment National
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Unplanned Hospital Visits – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the hospital return days (or excess days in acute care) measures, the...
Kabana, Dana P
.... The National Security Counsel (NSC) should modify its efforts to take full advantage of all sources of power to ensure national security by first establishing the NSC/Deputies Committee as the element mandated to manage the interagency process...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Value of care displays – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the value of care displays associated with an episode of care for heart...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...
Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
National Transportation Statistics presents statistics on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, economic performance, the human and natural environment, and national security. This is a large online documen...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - national data. This data set includes national-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the CMS Patient Safety Indicators, and...
... National Drug IQ Challenge 2017 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 ...
Bickley, C J; Zeqiri, B; Robinson, S P
The number of applications of medical ultrasound utilising frequencies in excess of 20 MHz has shown a consistent increase over recent years. Coupled with the commercial availability of wide-bandwidth hydrophones whose response extends beyond 40 MHz, this has driven a growing need to develop hydrophone calibration techniques at elevated frequencies. The current National Physical Laboratory primary standard method of calibrating hydrophones is based on an optical interferometer. This has been in operation for around 20 years and provides traceability over the frequency range of 0.3 to 20 MHz. More recently, calibrations carried out using the interferometer have been extended to 60 MHz, although the uncertainties associated with these calibrations are poor, being in excess of ±20% at high frequencies. Major contributions to the degraded calibration uncertainties arise from poor signal-to-noise at higher frequencies, the frequency response of the photodiodes used and the noise floor of the instrument. To improve the uncertainty of hydrophone calibrations above 20 MHz, it has been necessary to build and commission a new interferometer. Important features of the new primary standard are its use of a higher power laser to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, along with photodiodes whose greater bandwidth to improve the overall frequency response. This paper describes the design of key aspects of the new interferometer. It also presents some initial results of the performance assessment, including a detailed comparison of calibrations of NPL reference membrane hydrophones, undertaken using old and new interferometers for calibration up to 40 MHz
Ricketts, T C
Rural primary care programs were established in areas where there was thought to be no competition for patients. However, evidence from site visits and surveys of a national sample of subsidized programs revealed a pattern of competitive responses by the clinics. In this study of 193 rural primary care programs, mail and telephone surveys produced uniform data on the organization, operation, finances, and utilization of a representative sample of clinics. The programs were found to compete in terms of: (1) price, (2) service mix, (3) staff availability, (4) structural accessibility, (5) outreach, and (6) targeting a segment of the market. The competitive strategies employed by the clinics had consequences that affected their productivity and financial stability. The strategies were related to the perceived missions of the programs, and depended heavily upon the degree of isolation of the program and the targeting of the services. The competitive strategy chosen by a particular program could not be predicted based on service area population and apparent competitors in the service area. The goals and objectives of the programs had more to do with their competitive responses than with market characteristics. Moreover, the chosen strategies may not meet the demands of those markets.
Sahagia, M.; Stanga, D.; Waetjen, A.C.; Luca, A.; Toro, L.; Varlam, C.; Cassette, P.
The paper presents the concept of a complex system, aimed to assure the traceability of 222 Rn measurements, from the absolute (primary) standardization to the preparation and delivery of secondary standards, gas vials. The system will contain a solid 226 Ra source, a gas radon circuit, connections with a liquid scintillator vial and with glass vials. The absolute standardization of the 222 Rn, in equilibrium with all the short half life daughters, will be performed by the method of the Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The system, and method, will allow our laboratory to take part in future international 222 Rn comparisons. The transfer of activity unit from the primary to the secondary standardization will be performed by the preparation of vials with 222 Rn gas, comparative measurements by LSC and a GeHP gamma-ray spectrometry system, or a well type NaI(Tl) crystal, and their link. The secondary standards will be used for the calibration of measurement instruments, for assurance of controlled radon atmosphere in 'radon chambers', and for the validation of some calculation models for various detectors efficiency. The range of activities for secondary standards is in agreement with the national measurement necessities. (author)
Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.
Kolak, Agnieszka; Kamińska, Marzena; Sygit, Katarzyna; Budny, Agnieszka; Surdyka, Dariusz; Kukiełka-Budny, Bożena; Burdan, Franciszek
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is the second cancer frequently occurring worldwide of newly-diagnosed cancers. There is much evidence showing the influence of life style and environmental factors on the development of mammary gland cancer (high-fat diet, alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise), the elimination of which (primary prevention) may contribute to a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Secondary prevention, comprising diagnostic tests (e.g. mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, breast self-examination, as well as modern and more precise imaging methods) help the early detection of tumours or lesions predisposing to tumours. The aim of this study paper is to review current knowledge and reports regarding primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. It is estimated that nearly 70% of malign tumours are caused by environmental factors, whereas in breast cancer this percentage reaches 90-95%. There are national programmes established in many countries to fight cancer, where both types of prevention are stressed as serving to decrease morbidity and mortality due to cancers. Cancer prevention is currently playing a key role in the fight against the disease. Behaviour modification, as well as greater awareness among women regarding breast cancer, may significantly contribute towards reducing the incidence of this cancer. Another important aspect is the number of women undergoing diagnostic tests, which still remains at an unsatisfactory level.
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US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...
Full Text Available Paolo Mannelli,1 Li-Tzy Wu1–41Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, 3Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, 4Center for Child and Family Policy, Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USARecent reports on prescription opioid misuse and abuse have described unprecedented peaks of a national crisis and the only answer is to expand prevention and treatment, including different levels of care.1 Nonetheless, concerns remain about the ability of busy primary care settings to manage problem opioid users along with other patients. In particular, proposed extensions of buprenorphine treatment, a critically effective intervention for opioid use disorder (OUD, are cautiously considered due to the potential risk of misuse or abuse.2 General practitioners are already facing this burden daily in the treatment of chronic pain, and expert supervision and treatment model adjustment are needed to help improve outcomes. Approximately 20% of patients in primary care have noncancer pain symptoms, with most of them receiving opioid prescriptions by their physicians, and their number is increasing.3 Pain diagnoses are comparable in severity to those of tertiary centers and are complicated by significant psychiatric comorbidity, with a measurable lifetime risk of developing OUD.4,5 Some primary care physicians report frustration about opioid abuse and diversion by their patients; support from pain specialists would improve their competence, the quality f their performance, and the ability to identify patients at risk of opioid misuse.6 Thus, buprenorphine treatment should not be adding to a complex clinical scenario. To this end, the promising models of care emphasize the integration of medical with psychological and pharmacological expertise for the management of OUD.
Kolstø, Pal; Blakkisrud, Helge
Assessing the transformation of Russian nationalist discourse in the 21st century Russian nationalism, previously dominated by ‘imperial’ tendencies – pride in a large, strong and multi-ethnic state able to project its influence abroad – is increasingly focused on ethnic issues. This new ethno-nationalism has come in various guises, like racism and xenophobia, but also in a new intellectual movement of ‘national democracy’ deliberately seeking to emulate conservative West European nationalism...
Semlitsch, Thomas; Abuzahra, Muna; Stigler, Florian; Jeitler, Klaus; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea
Background The strengthening of primary health care is one major goal of the current national health reform in Austria. In this context, a new interdisciplinary concept was developed in 2014 that defines structures and requirements for future primary health care facilities. Objective The aim of this project was the development of quality indicators for the evaluation of the scheduled primary health care facilities in Austria, which are in accordance with the new Austrian concept. Methods We used the RAND/NPCRDC method for the development and selection of the quality indicators. We conducted systematic literature searches for existing measures in international databases for quality indicators as well as in bibliographic databases. All retrieved measures were evaluated and rated by an expert panel in a 2-step process regarding relevance and feasibility. Results Overall, the literature searches yielded 281 potentially relevant quality indicators, which were summarized to 65 different quality measures for primary health care. Out of these, the panel rated and accepted 30 measures as relevant and feasible for use in Austria. Five of these indicators were structure measures, 14 were process measures and the remaining 11 were outcome measures. Based on the Austrian primary health care concept, the ﬁnal set of quality indicators was grouped in the 5 following domains: Access to primary health care (5), quality of care (15), continuity of care (5), coordination of care (4), and safety (1). Conclusion This set of quality measures largely covers the four defined functions of primary health care. It enables standardized evaluation of primary health care facilities in Austria regarding the implementation of the Austrian primary health care concept as well as improvement in healthcare of the population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
... to any State in which the primary election has already been held. (E) National advertising... production of media advertising, whether or not that advertising is used in more than one State, need not be... to any State if the fees are charged for consulting on national campaign strategy. Expenditures for...