WorldWideScience

Sample records for fr27au10n pesticide product

  1. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  2. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  3. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Us More Resources Browse Pesticides Category Pesticides activator algaecide ants ants & roaches ants, roaches aphids ... snakes sow bugs spiders termites termites, carpenter ants/bees ticks tomatoes total vegetation control tree trees trees, ...

  4. 75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... Applications EPA received applications as follows to register pesticide products containing active ingredients...

  5. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  6. Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many products (e.g., cutting boards, kitchen sponges, cat litter, toothbrushes and juvenile toys) are being treated with antimicrobial pesticides. Learn about requirements that apply to such products.

  7. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products: Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... comments by the comment period deadline identified. II. Registration Applications EPA received applications...

  8. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an... hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must...

  9. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be...

  10. 76 FR 63298 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...] Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not... receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  11. 75 FR 23759 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be...

  12. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be received on or before December 27, 2010...

  13. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be...

  14. 75 FR 8939 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an... hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must...

  15. 76 FR 17645 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received an application to register a pesticide product containing the... on this application. DATES: Comments must be received on or before April 29, 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit...

  16. 75 FR 26754 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not... receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  17. 75 FR 6656 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of an application to register a new use for a pesticide... the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing...

  18. 75 FR 56105 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide... notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of FIFRA. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  19. 75 FR 76463 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide... Notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of FIFRA. ] DATES: Comments must be received on...

  20. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  1. Test Guideline Methods for Bed Bug Pesticide Products Now Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s final test guidelines, 810.3900 - Laboratory Product Performance Testing Methods for Bed Bug Pesticide Products, provides recommendations for the design and execution of laboratory studies to evaluate the performance of pesticide products.

  2. 75 FR 62387 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...., to conditionally register the pesticide products Paladin Technical, Paladin, and Paladin EC... provisions of section 3(c)(7)(C) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA),...

  3. Avoid Counterfeit Pesticide Products for Dogs and Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is aware of counterfeit pet pesticides designed to look like legitimately registered pesticide products. The information on this page is intended to help consumers avoid unregistered pet products.

  4. Pesticide productivity, host-plant resistance and productivity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Widawsky, David; Rozelle, Scott; Jin, Songqing; Huang, Jikun

    1998-01-01

    Pesticides are used as the primary method of pest control in Asian rice production. Conditions in China have led to demand for high and increasing rice yields, resulting in intensive cultivation and adoption of fertilizer responsive varieties. The consequence has been widespread pest infestations. Many studies have estimated pesticide productivity, but few have estimated the productivity of alternative methods of pest control, namely host-plant resistance. None have estimated the substitutabi...

  5. 77 FR 16544 - Pesticide Product Registration Approvals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... MBI-203 EP Bioinsecticide (EPA Reg. No. 84059-10) for use on agricultural and greenhouse crops... for Submission: For MBI-203 EP Bioinsecticide (EPA Reg. No. 84059-10), EPA is requiring submission of... Biologicals, Inc. submitted applications to amend three pesticide products: TAE-001 Technical Bioinsecticide...

  6. Do farmers internalise environmental spillovers of pesticides in production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Stefanou, S.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from pests and diseases, with indiscriminate pesticide use having several adverse effects on the environment and human health. An important question is whether the environmental spillovers of pesticides also affect the farmers’ production environme

  7. 75 FR 35805 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approvals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... applications from Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63167, to register pesticide... announced that Monsanto Company had submitted applications to register pesticide products containing the new... comment opposed granting Monsanto Company rights to produce, sell, or manufacture pesticide...

  8. Do farmers internalise environmental spillovers of pesticides in production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Stefanou, S.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from pests and diseases, with indiscriminate pesticide use having several adverse effects on the environment and human health. An important question is whether the environmental spillovers of pesticides also affect the farmers’ production

  9. PESTICIDES EFFICIENCY IN WHEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    It is suggested that the Karate Zeon insecticide is highly effective in wheat protection against pests. The profitability of soft spring wheat production with the above preparation used is about 176%. The economic effect of Karate Zeon is the same as that of Krezatsin, Mival and TMTD Plus preparations that are used for wheat seeds treatment against plant diseases

  10. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  11. 77 FR 59610 - Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... applications to add new food uses on previously registered pesticide products containing the insecticide... registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamid, N-(cyanomethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3... AGENCY Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products...

  12. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical;...

  13. Pesticide use in Vietnamese vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, P.V.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, Peter; Brink, van den P.J.; Huong, P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam has had varying success over the past decade with its pesticides policy. Some of the most toxic pesticides have been banned from the market. But while many countries have successfully decreased agricultural pesticide use per hectare, this has not (yet) happened in Vietnam. Due to

  14. Toxic combustion products from pesticide fires. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag, M.; Bartelds, H.; Weger, D. de

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable data on the generation of toxic combustion products and to get more insight into the risks of fires in pesticide warehouses TNO performed the research project 'Toxic combustion products from pesticide fires'. The following research activities have been performed during th

  15. Estimation of pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Inventory data for the use of pesticides in agricultural or forestry product systems are typically based on the applied dose and the contents of different ingredients in the commercial pesticide product. Normally in LCA, the field is considered as part of the technosphere, and then the emissions...

  16. Toxic combustion products from pesticide fires. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag, M.; Bartelds, H.; Weger, D. de

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable data on the generation of toxic combustion products and to get more insight into the risks of fires in pesticide warehouses TNO performed the research project 'Toxic combustion products from pesticide fires'. The following research activities have been performed during

  17. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  19. Do Farmers Internalise External Impacts of Pesticides in Production?

    OpenAIRE

    Skevas, Theodoros; Spiro E. Stefanou; Alfons G J M Oude Lansink

    2010-01-01

    In modern agriculture, pesticides feature so prominently in growers’ arsenal to reduce crop damage caused by various pests and diseases. But their indiscriminate use can harm human health and the environment and, eventually, impact agricultural productivity negatively. In an era of an increasing public awareness on the external effects of pesticides, the EU is trying to update its pesticide policy by establishing tax and levy schemes. An important question is whether the external impacts of p...

  20. 75 FR 20842 - Pirimicarb; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... products containing the pesticide pirimicarb, pursuant to section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide... AGENCY Pirimicarb; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY: Environmental... Odiott, Registration Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency,...

  1. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1) Sections...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  4. Estimating pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2000-01-01

    Emission data for pesticides from agricultural product systems may be based on national and international pesticide usage statistics, but these only provide information on the applied dose. When the field is considered as part of the technosphere, the emissions from the system are those quantitie...

  5. 76 FR 4686 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Companies, Inc. to withdraw its cancellation request for product 9444-170. Accordingly, EPA hereby issues in this notice a cancellation order granting the requested cancellations. Any distribution, sale, or use...; pesticide users; and members of the public interested in the sale, distribution, or use of pesticides....

  6. Pesticides Residue in Milk and Milk Products: Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Akhtar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock is an important sub-sector of agriculture that plays a key role in economy of a country by contributing to GDP (Gross Domestic Product and in total export. Pakistan is the 5th largest milk producer in the world with a total milk production of about 46.44 billion liters per anum. Almost 68% milk is produced by buffalo and 27% by cow. Pesticides used in agriculture sector may transfer to animal bodies through feed and fodder. A pesticide found in water is another source of residues in milk through drinking water. External control of parasites on animal body, insect control in cattle yard and sheds are direct sources of pesticides exposure for dairy animals. Due to its nutritional and supplementary value, milk is being consumed by people of different age groups therefore, issue of pesticide residues attain the immediate attention of researcher. Pesticide residues levels in raw dairy milk are discussed here in few selected developing and developed countries. It is concluded that human health is associated with exposure to organo phosphorus (OPPs, organo chlorine (OCPs, pyrethroids and carbamate (CB pesticides via milk or milk products and this issue deserve more attention. Different classes of pesticides OPPs, OCPs, pyrethroids and CBs etc. were reported in raw dairy milk in different countries and also in Pakistan. The results of this review demonstrate the need to establish pesticide residue monitoring programs for milk analysis for human consumption to improve food safety and decrease exposure risks to consumers.

  7. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment... Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements... product chemistry data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. Notes that apply to...

  8. 75 FR 16111 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... farm animals; first food use to control viruses, bacteria, fungi, and algae in poultry and swine... AGENCY Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new...

  9. Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases ...

  10. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their

  11. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their

  12. Input dynamics of pesticide transformation products into surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Susanne; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Schwarzenbach, René P.; Fenner, Kathrin

    2010-05-01

    Some pesticide transformation products have been observed to occur in higher concentrations and more frequently than the parent active pesticide in surface water and groundwater. These products are often more mobile and sometimes more stable than the parent pesticide. If they also represent the major product into which the parent substance is transformed, these transformation products may dominate observed pesticide occurrences in surface water and groundwater. Their potential contribution to the overall risk to the aquatic environment caused by the use of the parent pesticide should therefore not be neglected in chemical risk and water quality assessments. The same is true for transformation products of other compound classes that might reach the soil environment, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals. However, the fate and input pathways of transformation products of soil-applied chemicals into surface water are not yet well understood, which largely prevents their appropriate inclusion into chemical risk and water quality assessments. Here, we studied whether prioritization methods based on available environmental fate data from pesticide registration dossiers in combination with basic fate models could help identify transformation products which can be found in relevant concentrations in surface and groundwater and which should therefore be included into monitoring programs. A three-box steady state model containing air, soil, and surface water compartments was used to predict relative inputs of pesticide transformation products into surface waters based on their physico-chemical and environmental fate properties. The model predictions were compared to monitoring data from a small Swiss river located in an intensely agricultural catchment (90 km2) which was flow-proportionally sampled from May to October 2008 and screened for 74 pesticides as well as 50 corresponding transformation products. Sampling mainly occurred during high discharge, but additional samples

  13. Pesticide Production in the First Half of 2007 and Prospect of the Second Half

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China Crop Protection Industry Association

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1. Pesticide Production According to the data released by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the production output of pesticide products in the first half 2007 is shown in the following table 1.

  14. 75 FR 61750 - Chloroneb; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... containing the pesticide chloroneb, pursuant to section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and... AGENCY Chloroneb; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY: Environmental... certain chloroneb time-limited registrations. These are not the last products containing this...

  15. Acute Toxicity of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity of phoxim,acephate,isofenphos-methyl and isocarbophos on male SD rats of clean grade was carried out by gastric lavage method at room temperature of 18℃. These rats are 4 to 5 months old with body weight of 180 to 220 kg. The results indicate that the orders of the toxicity of these four pesticides on SD rats are isofenphos-methyl,isocarbophos,acephate,phoxim. We found that the median lethal concentration of phoxim in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 3. 892 g /kg,3. 051 g /kg,2. 618 g /kg and 2. 458 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isofenphos-methyl in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 015 g /kg,0. 013g /kg,0. 012g /kg and 0. 011 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isocarbophos in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 049 g /kg,0. 046 g /kg,0. 043 g /kg,0. 041 g /kg respectively; and the median lethal concentration of acephate in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 137 g /kg,0. 113 g /kg,0. 100 g /kg,0. 085 g /kg respectively. Finally,we evaluated the characteristics of toxicity effect and safe concentration of these pesticides to SD rats.

  16. 75 FR 53691 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical Sedaxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical Sedaxane AGENCY... pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,...

  17. Active Pesticide Production Points, Region 9, 2013, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents Active Pesticide Producing Establishments in USEPA Region 9 (AZ, CA, HI and NV) that reported production for the year 2013. Pesticide...

  18. Consumer Specialty Products Association Letter and EPA Response re: Minimum Risk Pesticide Exemption Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Consumer Specialty Products Association petitioned EPA to exclude from the minimum risk pesticide exemption pesticides claiming to control “pests of significant public health importance” and require registration. View the petition and EPA's response.

  19. Productivity effect and overuse of pesticide in crop production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao[1; Guanming Shi[2; SHEN Jian[1; HU Rui-fa[1

    2015-01-01

    Chinese farmers are often accused of overusing pesticides that play a crucial role in enhancing crop yield by reducing losses to crop pests. Pesticide overuse has caused a series of negative health and environmental externalities. This paper quantifies the productivity effect and the optimal amount of pesticides in rice, cotton and maize production in China from the economic perspective. Using survey data collected in 2012 and 2013, both Cobb-Douglas and Weibull damage control specifications are used to estimate the production function. Results show that pesticides have statistically significant pro- ductivity effect on crop yield. On the condition of Weibull damage control specifications, the marginal products of 1 kg of the active ingredients of pesticides for rice, cotton and maize are 71.06, 22.73 and 98.45 kg, respectively. However, 57, 64 and 17% of the actual amount of pesticides are overused for rice, cotton and maize, respectively. Moreover, the productivity effect of pesticides would be overestimated using Cobb-Douglas specification without incorporating a damage control agent.

  20. 75 FR 31785 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... vegetables (including potato) wheat, and triticale. 3. File Symbol: 7969-GNT Product name: BAS 700 02 F..., sunflower, wheat, and triticale seed. 4. File Symbol: 7969-GNI. Product name: BAS 700 03 F. Active..., and triticale seed. 5. File Symbol: 7969-GNO. Product name: BAS 700 04 F. Active...

  1. 77 FR 14362 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... material necessary for its production (via elements of vector pSYN12274) in 5307 Corn (SYN- 53 7-1) at 0... and the genetic material necessary for its production (via elements of vector pSYN12274) in 5307 Corn.... Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111)....

  2. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different kinds of pesticides include insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides, to name a few. Top of Page How ... in Forensic Toxicology 2017 Forensic Course Abstracts Faculty Bios 2015 ACMT Seminars In Forensic Toxicology 2015 Forensic ...

  3. 75 FR 11884 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production..., fludioxinil, mefenoxam. Proposed Use: Corn seed-treatment use. Contact: Bryant Crowe, (703) 305-0025, crowe... corn, cereals, sweet corn. Contact: Tawanda Maignan, (703) 308- 8050, maignan.tawanda@epa.gov ....

  4. 76 FR 5805 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ..., building materials, adhesives and sealants, ink, textiles, paper coating, functional chemicals, household.... Applicant: Marrone Bio Innovations, Inc., 2121 Second St., Suite B-107, Davis, CA 95618. Product Name: MBI... Innovations, 2121 Second Street, Suite B-107, Davis, CA 95618. Product name: MBI-206 TGAI. Active ingredient...

  5. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  6. 77 FR 12295 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Control, Exirel Insect Control, Verimark Insect Control, Dermacor Z-103 Insecticide Seed Treatment, Dermacor Z-151 Insecticide Seed Treatment, HGW86 Fly Control Bait, HGW86 SC Insect Control, HGW86 T & O..., Inc., 21 Finance Dr., Danbury, CT 06810. Product name: Bedoukian Pear Ester Technical. Active...

  7. Natural Products as Sources for New Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    A number of bio - chemical herbicides have been registered with the EPA since 1997. Horticultural vinegar, which consists of diluted aqueous solutions...However, this has not been the case for herbicides . Only one class of natural product-derived herbicide has been registered since 1997, namely, the...triketone herbicides . The discovery and development of these herbicides followed a fairly convoluted path that began in 1977 when Reed Gray at

  8. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outdoors on rainy or windy days. DO NOT water your garden after using a pesticide. Check the manufacturer's instructions ... home: DO NOT place food scraps in the garden for birds, raccoons, ... puddles of water as soon as possible, change birdbath water at ...

  9. 40 CFR 152.8 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.8 Products that are not pesticides because they are not for use against pests. A...

  10. 78 FR 21945 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    .... Product Type: Fungicide. Proposed Uses: Ginseng; Basil; Succulent Bean, Small Fruit Vine, subgroup 13-07B... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses AGENCY... register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients pursuant to the...

  11. Reducing pesticide use while preserving crop productivity and profitability on arable farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechenet, Martin; Dessaint, Fabrice; Py, Guillaume; Makowski, David; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    Achieving sustainable crop production while feeding an increasing world population is one of the most ambitious challenges of this century(1). Meeting this challenge will necessarily imply a drastic reduction of adverse environmental effects arising from agricultural activities(2). The reduction of pesticide use is one of the critical drivers to preserve the environment and human health. Pesticide use could be reduced through the adoption of new production strategies(3-5); however, whether substantial reductions of pesticide use are possible without impacting crop productivity and profitability is debatable(6-17). Here, we demonstrated that low pesticide use rarely decreases productivity and profitability in arable farms. We analysed the potential conflicts between pesticide use and productivity or profitability with data from 946 non-organic arable commercial farms showing contrasting levels of pesticide use and covering a wide range of production situations in France. We failed to detect any conflict between low pesticide use and both high productivity and high profitability in 77% of the farms. We estimated that total pesticide use could be reduced by 42% without any negative effects on both productivity and profitability in 59% of farms from our national network. This corresponded to an average reduction of 37, 47 and 60% of herbicide, fungicide and insecticide use, respectively. The potential for reducing pesticide use appeared higher in farms with currently high pesticide use than in farms with low pesticide use. Our results demonstrate that pesticide reduction is already accessible to farmers in most production situations. This would imply profound changes in market organization and trade balance.

  12. Testosterone production and spermatogenic damage induced by organophosphorate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, H R; Paredes, V; Urquieta, B; Del Valle, L; Bustos-Obregón, E

    2006-12-01

    Parathion is an organophosphorate pesticide amply used in agriculture. Many alterations induced by organophosphorate pesticides have been described, such as: cytogenetic alterations in germinal cells, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia in the mouse. The effect of Parathion, both pure (PP) and commercial (PC), on mouse interstitial cell testosterone production was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Male mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 1/3 LD50 of Parathion, both PP and PC. The animals were sacrificed at 1, 8 and 40 days post injection to evaluate the impact of disrupting testosterone production on spermatogonia, spermatocytes and elongated spermatids. The plasma testosterone was assayed by standard radioimmunoanalysis. The same method was used to assay testosterone in the culture medium of interstitial cells obtained from the control and Parathion treated animals at the same time intervals. Sperm count, sperm teratozoospermia and tubular blockage were analyzed for an appraisal of spermatogenesis. Increase in the teratozoospermia and tubular blockage was detected in the PP and PC group at 8 and 40 days post injection. Plasma testosterone levels drop significantly at 8 days and recovered slowly at 40 days only in PP animals as detected in vivo, implying interference of testicular steroidogenesis due to the toxicant. Recuperation of normality occurs at long time intervals. In conclusion, Parathion disturbs the synthesis of testosterone in mice affecting qualitatively the spermatogenesis

  13. 76 FR 54230 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... 5126, Vadosta, GA 31603-5126. CA020006 Pan American Seed Co., P.O. Box 506, Lompoc, CA 93438. ID060002.... Peter Caulkins, Acting Director, Pesticide Re-evaluation Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. BILLING...

  14. 78 FR 9389 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses AGENCY... register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as...

  15. 75 FR 30829 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are... ingredient: Nanosilver. Proposed Use(s): Antimicrobial and preservative additive used to treat...

  16. 77 FR 4810 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide... 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing..., trifoliate orange, uniq fruit, azarole, medlar, pear, Asian quince, quince, Chinese quince, Japanese tejocote...

  17. Non-parametric production analysis of pesticides use in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Silva, E.

    2004-01-01

    Many previous empirical studies on the productivity of pesticides suggest that pesticides are under-utilized in agriculture despite the general held believe that these inputs are substantially over-utilized. This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to calculate non-parametric measures of the

  18. Review on Sources and Handling Method of Pesticide Residues in Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies and literature search showed that some pesticide residues either organochlorines (OC or organophosphates (OP were detected in animal products (meat and milk . Pesticide residues in meat collected from West Java were detected at the level of 0 .8 ppb lindane and 62 ppb diazinon . While in meat from Lampung was detected at the level of 7 ppb lindane . 2 .7 heptachlor, 0 .8 endosulfan and 0 .5 ppb aldrin . Furthermore, pesticide residues were also detected in the milk collected from West, Central and East Java . The levels of lindane were 2,3 ; 15,9 ; 0,2 ppb ; heptachlor 8 ; 0 .4 and 0,05 ppb; diazinon 8 ; 0 and 1,8 ppb; CPM 0,4 ; 0,8 and 0 ppb ; endosulfan 0,1 ; 0,04 and 0,05 ppb for West, Central and East Java, respectively . The source of pesticide contamination in animal products is generally originated from feed materials, fodders . contaminated soils and water around the farm areas . Minimalization approach of pesticide residues in animal products could be conducted integratedly, such as through chemical process, biodegradation using microorganisms . Organic farming system is recognised as an alternative that may be applied to minimise contamination on agricultural land, eventually reducing pesticide residues in the agricultural products . Feeding with organic agricultural by-products with low pesticide residues appears to reduce pesticide residues in animal products . In order to eliminate pesticide contamination in soil, it has to be conducted progressively by implementing sustainable organic farming .

  19. 76 FR 41178 - Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I RIN 2070-ZA11 Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public Comment; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed policy statement; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: EPA issued...

  20. PRN 94-6: Pesticide Products Registered for Use on Humans to Control Lice (Pediculicides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice alerts pesticide registrants to a rule issued by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) establishing conditions for safe and effective use of pediculicide drug products.

  1. Electrochemical behavior of parent and photodegradation products of some selected pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. P. Vaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical behavior of pesticides is extensively studied, but little attention has been given to the study of their degradation products (by-products by electrochemical methods. However, the degradation products of pesticides can be even more toxic then the parent products and such studies should be encouraged. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the electroactivity of by-products of imazaquin, methylparathion, bentazon and atrazine, generated by UV irradiation and measured using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry and UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry. Results have shown that several by-products exhibit electroactivity, allowing, in some cases, the simultaneous determination of both parent and degradation products.

  2. Pesticide risk production pogramme : feasibility study of the proposed pesticide registration and post-registration processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, J.; Dhuga Chaka, K.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Mammo, B.

    2014-01-01

    Report on developing guidelines and procedures for the pesticide registration in Ethiopia in a scientifically underpinned way and as specific as possible for Ethiopian conditions. It covers the aspects of efficacy assessment, human health risk assessment as well as environmental risk assessment. It

  3. 77 FR 10515 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... preservative additive used to treat fibers. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Chemicals, Pests and... used as an antimicrobial and preservative additive used to treat fibers, plastics, polymers, latex... producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but...

  4. Production of apple-based baby food: changes in pesticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacova, Jana; Kocourek, Vladimir; Kohoutkova, Jana; Lansky, Miroslav; Hajslova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Apples represent the main component of most fruit-based baby food products. Since not only fruit from organic farming, but also conventionally grown fruit is used for baby food production, the occurrence of pesticide residues in the final product is of high concern. To learn more about the fate of these hazardous compounds during processing of contaminated raw material, apples containing altogether 21 pesticide residues were used for preparation of a baby food purée both in the household and at industrial scale (in the baby food production facility). Within both studies, pesticide residues were determined in raw apples as well as in final products. Intermediate product and by-product were also analysed during the industrial process. Determination of residues was performed by a sensitive multi-detection analytical method based on liquid or gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The household procedure involved mainly the cooking of unpeeled apples, and the decrease of residues was not extensive enough for most of the studied pesticides; only residues of captan, dithianon and thiram dropped significantly (processing factors less than 0.04). On the other hand, changes in pesticide levels were substantial for all tested pesticides during apple processing in the industrial baby food production facility. The most important operation affecting the reduction of residues was removal of the by-products after pulping (rest of the peel, stem, pips etc.), while subsequent sterilisation has an insignificant effect. Also in this case, captan, dithianon and thiram were identified as pesticides with the most evident decrease of residues.

  5. Target product profile choices for intra-domiciliary malaria vector control pesticide products: repel or kill?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Sarah J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common pesticide products for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes combine two distinct modes of action: 1 conventional insecticidal activity which kills mosquitoes exposed to the pesticide and 2 deterrence of mosquitoes away from protected humans. While deterrence enhances personal or household protection of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual sprays, it may also attenuate or even reverse communal protection if it diverts mosquitoes to non-users rather than killing them outright. Methods A process-explicit model of malaria transmission is described which captures the sequential interaction between deterrent and toxic actions of vector control pesticides and accounts for the distinctive impacts of toxic activities which kill mosquitoes before or after they have fed upon the occupant of a covered house or sleeping space. Results Increasing deterrency increases personal protection but consistently reduces communal protection because deterrent sub-lethal exposure inevitably reduces the proportion subsequently exposed to higher lethal doses. If the high coverage targets of the World Health Organization are achieved, purely toxic products with no deterrence are predicted to generally provide superior protection to non-users and even users, especially where vectors feed exclusively on humans and a substantial amount of transmission occurs outdoors. Remarkably, this is even the case if that product confers no personal protection and only kills mosquitoes after they have fed. Conclusions Products with purely mosquito-toxic profiles may, therefore, be preferable for programmes with universal coverage targets, rather than those with equivalent toxicity but which also have higher deterrence. However, if purely mosquito-toxic products confer little personal protection because they do not deter mosquitoes and only kill them after they have fed, then they will require aggressive "catch up" campaigns, with

  6. Light Induced Degradation of Eight Commonly Used Pesticides Adsorbed on Atmospheric Particles: Kinetics and Product Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, J.; Durand, A.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.; Quivet, E.

    2014-12-01

    Pesticides are widely used all over the world whether in agricultural production or in non-agricultural settings. They may pose a potential human health effects and environmental risks due to their physico-chemical properties and their extensive use which is growing every year. Pesticides are found in the atmosphere removed from the target area by volatilization or wind erosion, and carried over long distances. These compounds are partitioned between the gaseous and particulate atmospheric phases. The increasingly used pesticides are semi-volatile compounds which are usually adsorbed on the surface of the atmospheric particles. These pesticides may undergo chemical and photo-chemical transformation. New compounds may then be formed that could be more hazardous than the primary pesticides. The atmospheric fate and lifetime of adsorbed pesticides on particles are controlled by the these (photo)chemical processes. However, there is a lack of kinetic data regarding the pesticides in the particle phase. This current work focuses on the photolytic degradation of commonly used pesticides in particulate phase. It aims at estimating the photolytic rates and thus the lifetimes of pesticides adsorbed on silica particles as a proxy of atmospheric particles. The following eight commonly used pesticides, cyprodinil, deltamethrin, difenoconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, permethrin, tetraconazole, were chosen because of their physico-chemical properties. The photolysis rates of tetraconazole and permethrin were extremely slow ≤ 1.2 · 10-6 s-1. The photolysis rates for the other pesticides were determined in the range of: (5.9 ± 0.3) · 10-6 fipronil. Finally, the identification of the surface products upon light irradiation was performed, using GC-(QqQ)-MS/MS and LC-(Q-IMS-ToF)-MS/MS. The potentially formed gas-phase products during these photolysis processes were followed continuously and on-line by PTR-ToF-MS. We hope that the obtained results from this study

  7. 78 FR 11879 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John W. Pates, Jr., Pesticide Re- Evaluation Division (7508P), Office of...; telephone number: (703) 308-8195; email address: pates.john@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. General.... 073327-00011 Green Light Conquest Permethrin Indoor & Outdoor Pest Control. 073327-00012 Green...

  8. 77 FR 63829 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ..., human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members of the.... hydrochloride. 001529-00030 Fungitrol 158 Alkyl* amine Fungicide. hydrochloride *(as in fatty acids of coconut oil), Tributyltin benzoate. 002829-00127 Vinyzene IT-3000 Octhilinone. DIDP. 002829-00139 Vinyzene...

  9. 78 FR 64938 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ..., human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members of the... Rd., Memphis, TN 38109. 9688 Chemsico, A Division of United Industries Corp., P.O. Box 142642, St... Healthcare, LLC, P.O. Box 390, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201- 0390. 40391 Entech Systems Corporation,...

  10. Research Progress on Pesticide Residue Analysis Techniques in Agro-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Ze-ying

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are constant occurrences of acute pesticide poisoning among consumers and pesticide residue violations in agro-products import/export trading. Pesticide residue analysis is the important way to protect the food safety and the interest of import/export enterprises. There has been a rapid development in pesticide residue analysis techniques in recent years. In this review, the research progress in the past five years were discussed in the respects of samples preparation and instrument determination. The application, modification and development of the QuEChERS method in samples preparation and the application of tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry were reviewed. And the implications for the future of the field were discussed.

  11. An investigation of oxidation products and SOA yields from OH + pesticide reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murschell, T.; Friedman, B.; Link, M.; Farmer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Pesticides are used globally in agricultural and residential areas. After application and/or volatilization from a surface, these compounds can be transported over long distances in the atmosphere. However, their chemical fate, including oxidation and gas-particle partitioning in the atmosphere, is not well understood. We present gas and particle measurements of oxidation products from pesticide + OH reactions using a dynamic solution injection system coupled to an Oxidative Flow Reactor. Products were detected with a High Resolution Time of Flight Iodide Chemical Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) and a Size Mobility Particle Scanner (SMPS). The OFR allows pesticides to react with variable OH radical exposures, ranging from the equivalent of one day to a full week of atmospheric oxidative aging. In this work, we explore pesticide oxidation products from reaction with OH and ozone, and compare those products to photolysis reactions. Pesticides of similar chemical structures were explored, including acetochlor / metolachlor and permethrin / cypermethrin, to explore mechanistic differences. We present chemical parameters including average product oxidation state, average oxygen to carbon ratio, and potential secondary organic aerosol formation for each of these compounds.

  12. 76 FR 39396 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications to Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    .... Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... Use: Alfalfa seed. Contact: Tawanda Maignan, (703) 308-8050. maignan.tawanda@epa.gov . 7. Registration...

  13. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued.

  14. Ocular irritation from product of pesticide degradation among workers in a seed warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Itoh, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Four workers at a seed supply warehouse in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, complained of ocular irritation on the job. Pesticide-coated seeds were stored in the warehouse but no significant amount of pesticide was detected in the air inside the warehouse. To identify the cause of the ocular irritation and to determine an appropriate solution to the problem, the authors used thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air of the two warehouses at the site-warehouse A, where the four workers experienced ocular irritation, and warehouse B, where no workers experienced ocular irritation. Comparing the profiles of VOCs in these warehouses indicated that n-butyl isocyanate, a hydrolyzed product of the fungicide benomyl, was the cause of the workers' ocular irritation. n-Butyl isocyanate is known to be a contact irritant and if the benomyl-coated seeds were not properly dried before storage in the warehouse n-butyl isocyanate would have been produced. The results of the study suggest that more attention should be paid both to the pesticide itself and to the products of pesticide degradation. In this study, n-butyl isocyanate was identified as a product of pesticide degradation and a causative chemical affecting occupational health.

  15. Pesticide residues in passifloras crops in regions of high production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Bastidas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most bio-diverse countries in the world, Colombia boasts a wide diversity of highly palatable tropical fruits. Even though Colombian fruit production has primarily targeted the domestic market, several fruit species, such as passion fruit (PassifloraSpp, are steadily gaining ground in the broader international arena.  Production of these crops and respond to raising domestic and international demand, many Colombian small-scale farmers use pesticides for pest and disease control. Inadequate use of pesticides could possibly entail public health risks, environmental contamination and ultimately interfere with international trade. Surveys were carried out to passifloras producers of three spices of passiflora crops, yellow passion fruit, sweet passion fruit and purple passion fruit  from the largest producers municipalities in Colombia with the aim to know the integrate pest control and agricultural practices related with pesticides applied in the crops. Ramdomly sampling was realized and samples were analyzed by multiresidue analysis methodology validated in the laboratory and based on IAEA-QuEChERS method. With the results of survey and laboratory analysis it is showed the presence of pesticide residues that exceed maximum residue limits in some samples and the pesticides identified in the samples correspond to those used by farmers. It was found that the presence of residues is mainly due to the shortcomings in the proper use of agricultural practices related primarily to the implementation of agricultural products no registered for such crops.

  16. MONITORING OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN THE YEARS 2003 AND 2004 IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural Institute of Slovenia was performing national monitoring for pesticide residues in agricultural products according to the Decree on Monitoring of Pesticides in Foodstuffs and in Agricultural Products (Offi cial Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 13/99. Constant measurements are necessary due to intensive agricultural production and use of chemical substances for plant protection. Due to the nutrition characteristic for the Slovenians pesticide residues are monitored each year in the samples of potato, lettuce and apples; the choice of other agricultural products and active substances analysed are adapted to the guidelines indicated in the EU recommendations. In the years 2003 and 2004 we analysed the presence of pesticide residues in 361 samples of agricultural products: caulifl ower, head cabbage, grapes, apples, strawberries, potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, wheat and lettuce from eight different growing areas of Slovenia. All agricultural products were analysed in 2003 for the presence of 51 active substances and in 2004 for the presence of 57 active substances. The maximum residue level (MRL was exceeded by 6.6 % samples inspected. Potato contributed a major share to this, since in 5.0 % of samples exceeded values of dithiocarbamate residues were determined, however, they were the only active substance found in potato. In 39.1 % of analysed samples residues lower than MRL were determined, in 54.3 % of samples residues were not found or they were below the level of detection method. The greatest number of pesticide residues which did not exceed MRLs was found in fruit, f. ex.: eight in apples and six in strawberries. Residues of dithiocarbamates were the most frequently found active substance in agricultural products.

  17. 77 FR 50686 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    .... Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Use: Citrus (crop group 10-09). Contact: Autumn Metzger, (703) 305-5314, email address: metzger.autumn@epa.gov . 7. Registration File Symbol: 524-ANO. Docket Number: EPA... of Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest. Dated: August 14, 2012. Daniel...

  18. Impact of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residues in herbal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nema S. Shaban

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 65%–80% of the world's populations depend on the herbal products as their primary form of health care. This review is conducted to provide a general idea about chemical contaminants such as heavy metals and pesticide residues as major common contaminants of the herbal medicine, which impose serious health risks to human health. Additionally, we aim to provide different analytical methods for analysis of heavy metals and pesticide residues in the herbal medicine.

  19. Effect of pesticide use in fruit production orchards on shallow ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, R M; Carvajal, L G; Novelli, M; de D'Angelo, A M Pechen

    2003-05-01

    As a part of landscape-scale study, ground water samples were collected from 30 wells located in fruit production farms belonging to the valley of Neuquen river during the period 1995-1998 and analyzed for organophosphate pesticides. As a consequence of the leaching process, ground water from the Valley of Neuquen River frequently contained concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides that exceeded acute toxicity risk ratios established to protect aquatic life. It was found that some pesticides, as azinphos methyl, had a high detection frequency, 66% of the samples, with concentrations varying from no detection to 48.9 ppb. Dimethoate, metidathion and phosmet were also detected with frequencies of 14.1, 13.6 and 10.8% and with concentration ranks from no detection to a maximum value of 10.9, 2.0 and 15.5 ppb, respectively. Seasonal variations and temporal trends were found for these compounds in ground water.

  20. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service.

  1. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barraza-Ruiz, D.A.; Jansen, K.; Wendel de Joode, van B.; Wesseling, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economic

  2. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Zadjali, Said [Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, P O Box 321 Muscat 100 (Oman); Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Deadman, Mike, E-mail: mikedeadman59@gmail.com [Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 34, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service. - Highlights: • Recent

  3. Production Risk, Pesticide Use and GM Crop Technology in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Technology involving genetic modification of crops has the potential to make a contribution to rural poverty reduction in many developing countries. Thus far, pesticide-producing `Bt? varieties of cotton have been the main GM crops under cultivation in developing nations. Several studies have evaluated the farm-level performance of Bt varieties in comparison to conventional ones by estimating production technology, and have mostly found Bt technology to be very successful ...

  4. 77 FR 26004 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... stakeholders including environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry... Imazapyr Imazapyr. Technical 98%. 086068-00001 Texcan Glyphosate Glyphosate. Technical. 086068-00002 Texcan 62% Glyphosate- Glyphosate MUP. isopropylammonium. Table 2--Registrations for Products...

  5. Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to: 1....... promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment and other product-oriented environmental tools in companies, 2. support companies and other in using environmental assessment of products and services, 3. ensure that the effort in the LCA area is based on a solid and scientific basis, and 4. maintain the well...... evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cycle thinking in industry will be presented....

  6. 40 CFR 165.43 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or a food additive regulation under section 409 of... one of the following antimicrobial product use categories: food handling/storage establishments... effect on the environment according to the provisions of paragraph (e) of this section. (d)...

  7. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a tolerance under section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or a food additive... use on a site in at least one of the following antimicrobial product use categories: food handling... unreasonable adverse effect on the environment according to the provisions of paragraph (e) of this section....

  8. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a tolerance under section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or a food additive... use on a site in at least one of the following antimicrobial product use categories: food handling... unreasonable adverse effect on the environment according to the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section....

  9. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, TAT AREA FOGGER II, 06 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Kill. Pli •• , Cockroach •• , Pl~a., Sav-'footh.4 Grain B •• tl •• , 'fick., Confu •• 4 Plour B •• tl •• , Ric. ... I~ i. a violation of Fed.ral law to ue thi. product in a ...

  10. Ozone and secondary organic aerosol production by interaction between and organophosphorous pesticide and biogenic VOCs mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, Esther; Ródenas, Mila; Vera, Teresa; Muñoz, Amalia

    2017-04-01

    Pesticides are the chemical compounds most widely used worldwide, and their toxicological characteristics can have harmful effects on human health. The entry into the atmosphere of pesticides occurs during application or subsequent processes. Once they are emitted, they can be distributed in the gas phase or particulate phase. However, most of them are in both phases, since they are semi-volatile compounds. As with other organic compounds, pesticides' removal in the atmosphere can be mainly accomplished by wet or dry deposition, by photolysis or by reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), nitrate radicals (NO3) and ozone (O3) [1]. All these processes give rise to the formation of other products, which could become more harmful than the starting compounds. It is therefore necessary to know all these processes to estimate the impact of pesticides in the atmosphere. In addition, it is important to study how the pesticides interact with organic compounds naturally emitted by crops and their possible impact on the formation of secondary organic aerosols, ozone and other compounds. In this work, the gas phase atmospheric degradation of an organothiophosphate insecticide has been investigated at the large outdoor European Photoreactor (EUPHORE) in the presence of a biogenic compound mixture typical from orange trees emissions. Its photolysis has been studied under sunlight conditions, in the presence of different concentration ratios of chlorpyrifos and biogenic VOCs mixture and in the absence of initial inorganic seeds. Reaction with ozone has also been studied. Gaseous phase compounds were determined by a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS), Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) and NOx, O3 and SO2 monitors. Aerosol mass concentration was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a tapered element oscillating monitor (TEOM). Chemical

  11. Identification and measurement of pesticide contaminants in food products by electron impact GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusa, Florina; Moldovan, Zaharie [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Vlassa, Mircea, E-mail: zaharie.moldovan@itim-cj.r [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes Bolyai University, 11 Arany Janos, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The paper concern is determination of eight pesticides in food products samples. The target compounds are: Lindane, Heptachlor, Aldrin, o,p-DDE, Dieldrin, Endrin, p,p'-DDT, and Methoxychlor. The compounds quantities were performed from chromatographic area obtained in full scan GC/MS mode after baseline separation and by comparation with surrogate internal standard area (Diphenylamine). The samples were concentrated by extraction with organic solvents (acetone) by Solid-Liquid Extraction (SLE) procedures the recovery factors being better than 80% except for Heptachlors. The coefficient of correlation of detector response function was better than 0.913 and LOQ under 0.015 {mu}g/g. The method enables to determine pesticides at low {mu}g/g in food supplements.

  12. Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to:...... evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cycle thinking in industry will be presented....

  13. Identification of pesticides and their transformation products in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Coralie, Soulier; Anne, Togola; Nicole, Baran; Subra, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Nowadays it is increasingly important for public policy to know what compounds are present in groundwater and which of them must be monitored. This implies the need of specific analytical methodology to identify these micropollutants, emerging substances or transformation products present at low concentrations. The high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has gained increasingly in importance for monitoring these organic compounds. Its high resolving power, mass accura...

  14. New Trends in Pesticide Residue Analysis in Cereals, Nutraceuticals, Baby Foods, and Related Processed Consumer Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide residue methods have been developed for a wide variety of food products including cereal-based foods, nutraceuticals and related plant products, and baby foods. These cereal, fruit, vegetable, and plant-based products provide the basis for many processed consumer products. For cereal and nutraceuticals, which are dry sample products, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method has been used with additional steps to allow wetting of the dry sample matrix and subsequent cleanup using dispersive or cartridge format SPE to reduce matrix effects. More processed foods may have lower pesticide concentrations but higher co-extracts that can lead to signal suppression or enhancement with MS detection. For complex matrixes, GC/MS/MS or LC/electrospray ionization (positive or negative ion)-MS/MS is more frequently used. The extraction and cleanup methods vary with different sample types particularly for cereal-based products, and these different approaches are discussed in this review. General instrument considerations are also discussed.

  15. Life- cycle assessment in pesticide product development: methods and case study on two plant-growth regulators from different product generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Georg; Hellweg, Stefanie; Hofstetter, Thomas B; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2005-04-01

    Environmental assessments in pesticide product development are generally restricted to plant uptake and emissions of active ingredients. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) enables a more comprehensive evaluation by additionally assessing the impacts of pesticide production and application (e.g. tractor operations). The use of LCA in the product development of pesticides, in addition to the methods commonly applied, is therefore advisable. In this paper a procedure for conducting LCA in early phases of product development is proposed. In a case study, two plant-growth regulators from different product generations were compared regarding their application in intensive production of winter wheat. The results showed thatthe reduced emissions from active ingredients of the newer pesticide were compensated by higher impacts from the production process. The authors draw the conclusion that it is important to consider environmental objectives in the procurement of precursors, in addition to the classical goals of increasing the efficacy and reducing the nontarget effects of pesticides. Moreover, the case study showed that decisions based on uncertain results in early stages of product development may need to be revised in later stages, e.g. based on investigations of pesticides' effects on crop yield.

  16. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraza, Douglas, E-mail: dbarraza@una.ac.cr [Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances, Universidad Nacional, Heredia (Costa Rica); Technology and Agrarian Development Group, Wageningen University (Netherlands); Jansen, Kees [Technology and Agrarian Development Group, Wageningen University (Netherlands); Wendel de Joode, Berna van; Wesseling, Catharina [Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances, Universidad Nacional, Heredia (Costa Rica)

    2011-07-15

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by

  17. Multifamily determination of pesticide residues in soya-based nutraceutical products by GC/MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páleníková, Agneša; Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Romero-González, Roberto; Hrouzková, Svetlana; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-04-15

    An analytical method based on a modified QuEChERS extraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was evaluated for the determination of 177 pesticides in soya-based nutraceutical products. The QuEChERS method was optimised and different extraction solvents and clean-up approaches were tested, obtaining the most efficient conditions with a mixture of sorbents (PSA, C18, GBC and Zr-Sep(+)). Recoveries were evaluated at 10, 50 and 100 μg/kg and ranged between 70% and 120%. Precision was expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), and it was evaluated for more than 160 pesticides as intra and inter-day precision, with values always below 20% and 25%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.1 to 10 μg/kg, whereas limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.5 to 20 μg/kg. The applicability of the method was proved by analysing soya-based nutraceuticals. Two pesticides were found in these samples, malathion and pyriproxyfen, at 11.1 and 1.5 μg/kg respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring technical efficiency in the presence of pesticide spillovers and production uncertainty: The case of Dutch arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides’ dynamic effects and production uncertainty play an important role in farmers’ production decisions. Pesticides have a current production impact through reducing crop damage in the current period and a future impact through impacting the farm biodiversity which alters the future productio

  19. Measuring technical efficiency in the presence of pesticide spillovers and production uncertainty: The case of Dutch arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides’ dynamic effects and production uncertainty play an important role in farmers’ production decisions. Pesticides have a current production impact through reducing crop damage in the current period and a future impact through impacting the farm biodiversity which alters the future

  20. Exposure of small water bodies to pesticides and their transformation products in a lowland catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Based on the European Directive 2009/128/EC (2009), all member states were obliged to set up National Action Plans for the sustainable use of pesticides. In the German National Action Plan (GNAP), the status of small water bodies (swb) defined as water bodies with a catchment pesticide contamination of swbs is insufficient, a monitoring of 10 swbs in the catchment of the lowland river Kielstau was carried out in summer and autumn 2015 for selected herbicides and their transformation products (TP). METHODS Grab samples of the water phase were collected once at the end of the spring/summer application period and a screening was carried out for 102 pesticides and 6 TPs. During autumn application, the rape herbicide metazachlor and the winter grain herbicide flufenacet as well as their TPs oxalic acid (OA) and sulfonic acid (ESA) were in the focus of the study. The sampling was carried out event based after the first and second relevant rainfall events after application. The third sample was collected four weeks after the second sampling to observe the occurrence of the TPs. The target compounds were quantified by LC-MSMSMS. RESULTS For all swbs, the pesticide screening after the spring application showed pesticide/TP concentrations below the quantification limits (0.01-0.05 μg L-1) except of the corn herbicdes metolachlor, terbuthylazine and its TP desethylterbuthylazine. These findings were independent from the time elapsed since the last application of these compounds took place which was partly 4 years ago. After autumn application, the samples were analyzed for the herbicides metazachlor, flufenacet and their TPs which were sprayed on the fields where the swb are located in. These results showed that TPs of both herbicides remained from the year before and reached concentrations up to 1.9 μg L-1 for metazachlor ESA, 0.55 μg L-1 for metazachlor OA, 0.16 μg L-1 for flufenacet OA and 0.04 μg L-1 for flufenacet ESA. After autumn application, maximum

  1. Are pesticide residues associated to rice production affecting oyster production in Delta del Ebro, NE Spain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Victoria; Riva, Carmen; Faria, Melissa; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; de Alda, Miren López; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez Tejedor, Margarita; Roque, Ana; Ginebreda, Antoni; Barata, Carlos

    2012-10-15

    Pesticide usage in Delta del Ebro (NE Spain) during the rice growing season has been associated with oyster episodes of mortality that occur early in summer. However, there are no studies that have directly evaluated pesticide levels and effects in oysters (Crassotrea gigas) cultured in Ebro's Bays. In this study pesticide levels in water, metal body burdens and up to 12 different biochemical markers were monitored in gills and digestive glands of oysters transplanted from May to June in 2008 and 2009. Biochemical responses evidenced clear differences in oysters from 2008 and 2009. Oysters transplanted in 2009 showed their antioxidant defenses unaffected from May to June and consequently increased levels of tissue damage measured as lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks and of mortality rates. Conversely oysters transplanted in 2008 increase their antioxidant defenses from May to June, had low levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage and low mortality rates. Some pesticides in water such as bentazone and propanil together with high temperatures and salinity levels were related with tissue damage in oyster transplanted in 2008 but the observed large differences between years indicate that abiotic factors alone could not explain the high mortalities observed in 2009. An analysis of recent reported studies pointed out in the direction that in addition to abiotic factors the use of oysters sensitive to diseases may explain the observed responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Challenges and opportunities of the bio-pesticides production by solid-state fermentation: filamentous fungi as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz Quiroz, Reynaldo; Roussos, Sevastianos; Hernández, Daniel; Rodríguez, Raúl; Castillo, Francisco; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, production and use of bio-pesticides have increasing and replacing some synthetic chemical pesticides applied to food commodities. In this review, biological control is focused as an alternative, to some synthetic chemical treatments that cause environmental, human health, and food quality risks. In addition, several phytopathogenic microorganisms have developed resistance to some of these synthetic chemicals and become more difficult to control. Worldwide, the bio-pesticides market is growing annually at a rate of 44% in North America, 20% in Europe and Oceania, 10% in Latin and South American countries and 6% in Asia. Use of agro-industrial wastes and solid-state fermentation (SSF) technology offers an alternative to bio-pesticide production with advantages versus conventional submerged fermentations, as reduced cost and energy consumption, low production of residual water and high stability products. In this review, recent data about state of art regarding bio-pesticides production under SSF on agroindustrial wastes will be discussed. SSF can be defined as a microbial process that generally occurs on solid material in the absence of free water. This material has the ability to absorb water with or without soluble nutrients, since the substrate must have water to support the microorganism's growth and metabolism. Changes in water content are analyzed in order to select the conditions for a future process, where water stress can be combined with the best spore production conditions, obtaining in this way an inexpensive biotechnological option for modern agriculture in developing countries.

  3. Experimental and theoretical determination of pesticide processing factors to model their behavior during virgin olive oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Moreno-González, David; Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida

    2018-01-15

    The purpose of the present work was the experimental evaluation of pesticides transfer to virgin olive oil during the production step and prediction of their processing factors, which could be eventually used for the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in olive oil from the MRLs set in olives. A laboratory-scale Abencor system was used for the production of olive oil from olives spiked with the 104 pesticides studied, three different chromatographic methods being used for the analysis of raw olives and the obtained olive oil: (i) gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for GC-amenable pesticides; (ii) hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) for polar pesticides, and; (iii) reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for low to medium polarity pesticides. Processing factors experimentally calculated were correlated to their octanol-water partitioning coefficient (logKow), enabling the calculation of the equivalent MRLs in olive oil from the MRLs in olives, considering the percentage of oil extracted (oil yield) and the log Kow of each pesticide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Occurrence of residues of organochlorine pesticides, nitromusk compounds and polychlorobiphenyls in Turkish canned fish products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, O; Kruse, R; Erkan, N

    2001-04-01

    In our study we elaborated an overview on the contamination grade of fish from Turkish waters by selected organochlorine pesticides, nitromusks and chlorobiphenyl congenres. We could demonstrate, that the tested fish species, being prior processed to canned products and brought to the market, contained particularly unmistakable amounts of the above mentioned analytes. Sardines, sardelles and trout gave results generally far below the German regulatory limits. However total DDT in pelamides reached an order of magnitude near the German limit of 0.5 mg/kg (based on wet weight). The necessity of enhanced systematic measurements for monitoring pollutants in fish from Turkish waters thus becomes evident.

  5. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Douglas; Jansen, Kees; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-07-01

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by other

  6. Assessment of model uncertainty during the river export modelling of pesticides and transformation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Matthias; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The modelling of organic pollutants in the environment is burdened by a load of uncertainties. Not only parameter values are uncertain but often also the mass and timing of pesticide application. By introducing transformation products (TPs) into modelling, further uncertainty coming from the dependence of these substances on their parent compounds and the introduction of new model parameters are likely. The purpose of this study was the investigation of the behaviour of a parsimonious catchment scale model for the assessment of river concentrations of the insecticide Chlorpyrifos (CP) and two of its TPs, Chlorpyrifos Oxon (CPO) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) under the influence of uncertain input parameter values. Especially parameter uncertainty and pesticide application uncertainty were investigated by Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method, based on Monte-Carlo sampling. GSA revealed that half-lives and sorption parameters as well as half-lives and transformation parameters were correlated to each other. This means, that the concepts of modelling sorption and degradation/transformation were correlated. Thus, it may be difficult in modelling studies to optimize parameter values for these modules. Furthermore, we could show that erroneous pesticide application mass and timing were compensated during Monte-Carlo sampling by changing the half-life of CP. However, the introduction of TCP into the calculation of the objective function was able to enhance identifiability of pesticide application mass. The GLUE analysis showed that CP and TCP were modelled successfully, but CPO modelling failed with high uncertainty and insensitive parameters. We assumed a structural error of the model which was especially important for CPO assessment. This shows that there is the possibility that a chemical and some of its TPs can be modelled successfully by a specific model structure, but for other TPs, the model

  7. Occurrence of pesticides and some of their degradation products in waters in a Spanish wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Hernández, E.; Andrades, M. S.; Álvarez-Martín, A.; Pose-Juan, E.; Rodríguez-Cruz, M. S.; Sánchez-Martín, M. J.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA multi-residual analytical method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed to monitor pesticides in natural waters. Fifty-eight compounds, including herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and some of their degradation products, were surveyed to evaluate the quality of natural waters throughout the wine-growing region of La Rioja (Rioja DOCa). Ninety-two sampling points were selected, including surface and ground waters that could be affected by agricultural activities covering the region's three sub-areas. Different parameters that may affect the efficiency of the SPE procedure were optimised (sorbent type, elution solvent and sample volume), and matrix-matched standards were used to eliminate the variable matrix effect and ensure good quantification. The developed method allows the determination of target compounds below the level established by the European Union for waters for human use with suitable precision (relative standard deviations lower than 18%) and accuracy (with recoveries over 61%). Forty compounds included in this study (six insecticides, 12 herbicides, 16 fungicides and six degradation products) were detected in one or more samples. The herbicides terbuthylazine, its metabolite desethyl terbuthylazine, fluometuron and ethofumesate and the fungicides pyrimethanil and tebuconazole were the compounds most frequently detected in water samples (present in more than 60% of the samples). Concentrations above 0.1 μg L-1 were detected for 37 of the compounds studied, and in several cases recorded values of over 18 μg L-1. The results reveal the presence of pesticides in most of the samples investigated. In 64% of groundwaters and 62% of surface waters, the sum of compounds detected was higher than 0.5 μg L-1 (the limit established by EU legislation for the sum of all pesticides detected in waters for human use).

  8. Evaluation of the environmental impacts of pesticides used in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production systems in Khorasan provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Bazrgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental optimizing of pest management strategies and improving theirs trends towards minimum environmental risks programs is a matter of considerable concern of food scientists particularly in developing countries. This study evaluates the environmental impacts of pesticides consumption based on Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ model in different sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production systems in Khorasan provinces as the largest producer of this strategic crop in Iran. For this purpose, information of pesticides used in 26 locations of 11 geographic regions in Khorasan provinces, (North, Razavi and South Khorasan provinces in three types of production systems was gathered: mechanized, semi-mechanized and traditional. In all three production systems, based on EIQ index which uses three risk components: farm worker, consumer and leaching and environment to estimate the relative potential risk of pesticide, the most negative effect of pesticide consumption was on ecosystem organisms as ecological component. Results showed that there is no relationship between sugar beet yield and increasing both diversity of pesticides types and quantity of active ingredients consumption as well. Moreover, granted that increasing in mechanization in sugar beet production caused more environmental load in farm, considering sugar beet yield, mechanized systems resulted in 33% less environmental damage per 1 ton sugar beet produced. Thus, it is expected that there is a possibility to improve ecological function of Khorasan sugar beet production systems without economic loss by substitution or decreasing the use of pesticides. Also, employing more mechanized and more productive systems may reduce environmental hazards in national scale and decrease environmental load due to transportation of non local production in international scale.

  9. Single-step production of a recyclable nanobiocatalyst for organophosphate pesticides biodegradation using functionalized bacterial magnetosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Ginet

    Full Text Available Enzymes are versatile catalysts in laboratories and on an industrial scale; improving their immobilization would be beneficial to broadening their applicability and ensuring their (reuse. Lipid-coated nano-magnets produced by magnetotactic bacteria are suitable for a universally applicable single-step method of enzyme immobilization. By genetically functionalizing the membrane surrounding these magnetite particles with a phosphohydrolase, we engineered an easy-to-purify, robust and recyclable biocatalyst to degrade ethyl-paraoxon, a commonly used pesticide. For this, we genetically fused the opd gene from Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 encoding a paraoxonase to mamC, an abundant protein of the magnetosome membrane in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. The MamC protein acts as an anchor for the paraoxonase to the magnetosome surface, thus producing magnetic nanoparticles displaying phosphohydrolase activity. Magnetosomes functionalized with Opd were easily recovered from genetically modified AMB-1 cells: after cellular disruption with a French press, the magnetic nanoparticles are purified using a commercially available magnetic separation system. The catalytic properties of the immobilized Opd were measured on ethyl-paraoxon hydrolysis: they are comparable with the purified enzyme, with K(m (and k(cat values of 58 µM (and 178 s(-1 and 43 µM (and 314 s(-1 for the immobilized and purified enzyme respectively. The Opd, a metalloenzyme requiring a zinc cofactor, is thus properly matured in AMB-1. The recycling of the functionalized magnetosomes was investigated and their catalytic activity proved to be stable over repeated use for pesticide degradation. In this study, we demonstrate the easy production of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with suitably genetically modified magnetotactic bacteria that are efficient as a reusable nanobiocatalyst for pesticides bioremediation in contaminated effluents.

  10. Economic analysis of pesticide use and environmental spillovers under a dynamic production environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from pests and diseases, with indiscriminate pesticide use having several adverse effects on the environment. In an era of an increasing public awareness on pesticides’ environmental spillovers, the EU is trying to update its pesticide policy by

  11. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production.

  12. Characterisation and comparison of the uptake of ionizable and polar pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products by POCIS and Chemcatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaserzon, S.L.; Hawker, D.W.; Kennedy, K.; Bartkow, M.; Carter, S.; Booij, K.; Mueller, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Growing concern about the environmental impact of ionizable and polar organic chemicals such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products has lead to the inclusion of some in legislative and regulatory frameworks. It is expected that future monitoring requirements for these chemicals in

  13. Characterisation and comparison of the uptake of ionizable and polar pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products by POCIS and Chemcatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaserzon, S.L.; Hawker, D.W.; Kennedy, K.; Bartkow, M.; Carter, S.; Booij, K.; Mueller, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Growing concern about the environmental impact of ionizable and polar organic chemicals such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products has lead to the inclusion of some in legislative and regulatory frameworks. It is expected that future monitoring requirements for these chemicals in

  14. Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: the importance of manipulating concentrated products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Andrea P; Berenstein, Giselle A; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2011-05-15

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure of workers to endosulfan and procymidone at the mix/load and application stages was done in small floricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were performed with different operators under typical greenhouse conditions, based on the whole body dosimetry methodology. These results indicate that the mean Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was 45.0 ± 55.0 mL h(-1) with the highest proportion on torso, head, arms and hands. When the mix/load and application stages were compared, the first was found to contribute the most to the total exposure. Also, the Margin of Safety for the different operations was calculated, and a pesticide surrogate was developed and used to make comparative evaluations of hand exposure for different groups of operators. These results emphasize the importance of the mix/load stage in the exposure process.

  15. Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: The importance of manipulating concentrated products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Andrea P.; Berenstein, Giselle A.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J.M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montserrat, Javier M., E-mail: jmontser@ungs.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J.M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2o piso, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-05-15

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure of workers to endosulfan and procymidone at the mix/load and application stages was done in small floricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were performed with different operators under typical greenhouse conditions, based on the whole body dosimetry methodology. These results indicate that the mean Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was 45.0 {+-} 55.0 mL h{sup -1} with the highest proportion on torso, head, arms and hands. When the mix/load and application stages were compared, the first was found to contribute the most to the total exposure. Also, the Margin of Safety for the different operations was calculated, and a pesticide surrogate was developed and used to make comparative evaluations of hand exposure for different groups of operators. These results emphasize the importance of the mix/load stage in the exposure process.

  16. Induction of microglial reactive oxygen species production by the organochlorinated pesticide dieldrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Haoyu; Fang, Xi; Floyd, Katon M; Polcz, Jeanette E; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Bin

    2007-12-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been speculated to contribute to the development of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) characterized by a progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Activation of brain microglia that produce various neurotoxic factors including cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been increasingly associated with dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by various toxicants. Dieldrin, a highly persistent organochlorinated pesticide found enriched in the substantia nigra of some postmortem PD brains, has been shown to be toxic to dopamine neurons. In this study, we set out to determine the effect of dieldrin on the production of ROS and the underlying mechanism of action in murine microglia. Treatment of microglial cells with 0.1 nM to 1 microM dieldrin for 24 h resulted in a concentration-dependent generation of ROS. The dieldrin-induced microglial ROS generation was time-dependent in that significant ROS production was observed in cells 12-24 h, but not 6 h after dieldrin treatment. Furthermore, the dieldrin-induced microglial ROS generation was significantly reduced by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, gene transcription and protein synthesis. In addition to immortalized microglial cells, dieldrin induced a concentration-dependent ROS generation in primary microglia, but not in primary astroglia. These results demonstrate that nanomolar concentrations of dieldrin can stimulate microglia to produce ROS that may contribute to the degeneration of dopamine neurons known to be vulnerable to oxidative damage. These findings provide important information on the potential role of microglia in dieldrin-induced neurodegeneration in relevance to the development of idiopathic PD.

  17. [Validation study on a multi-residue analysis of pesticides in agricultural products by using phosphoric acid treatment and GC-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Yuhki; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Tomoko; Aikawa, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    A rapid method for multi-residue determination of pesticides in agricultural products was validated. The sample was cut into pieces and placed into a mixer cup containing half weight amount of 10% phosphoric acid in order to suppress degradation of easily degraded pesticides, represented by captan, and then homogenized. Pesticides in the phosphoric acid-treated sample were extracted with acetonitrile using a homogenizer, followed by salting out with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride. The extract was cleaned up on a C18 and graphite carbon black/PSA mini-cartridge column. Some pesticides gave tailing peaks, but these peaks became sharp and symmetrical when polyethylene glycol (PEG) 300 was added to the test solution. Recovery tests were performed on nine kinds of agricultural products (brown rice, soybean, spinach, cabbage, potato, orange, apple, strawberry, and Japanese pear) fortified with 170 pesticides at 0.01 and 0.1 μg/g. Each concentration of pesticide residue was extracted from 2 samples on 5 separate days. The trueness of the method for 147-164 pesticides in each sample was 70-120% with satisfactory repeatability and within-run reproducibility. This method is expected to useful for multi-residue analysis of pesticides in agricultural products.

  18. Considering human exposure to pesticides in food products: Importance of dissipation dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    , we estimated dissipation from measured data and provide reference half-lives for 333 pesticides applied at 20°C under field conditions. Our framework allows for detailed explorations of dietary choices in LCA with respect to human health impacts from pesticide exposure via crop consumption. The next...

  19. Environmental governance of pesticides in Ethiopian vegetable and cut flower production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, Belay

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe to prevent or control pests, diseases, and weeds. In this process, improper pesticide registration, distribution and use has become more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental and human health risks in many parts of the worl

  20. Pests, pesticide use and alternative options in European maize production: current status and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissle, M.; Mouron, P.; Musa, T.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Groten, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Political efforts are made in the European Union (EU) to reduce pesticide use and to increase the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM). Within the EU project ENDURE, research priorities on pesticide reduction are defined. Using maize, one of the most important crops in Europe, as a cas

  1. Environmental governance of pesticides in Ethiopian vegetable and cut flower production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, Belay

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe to prevent or control pests, diseases, and weeds. In this process, improper pesticide registration, distribution and use has become more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental and human health risks in many parts of the

  2. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Binder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  3. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-03-25

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  4. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...... comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1...

  5. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin......, fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin...

  6. Life cycle toxicity assessment of pesticides used in integrated and organic production of oranges in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraske, Ronnie; Sanjuán, Neus

    2011-02-01

    The relative impacts of 25 pesticides including acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and post-harvest fungicides, used in the production of oranges in Spain were assessed with current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) tools. Chemical specific concentrations were combined with pesticide emission data and information on chemical toxicity to assess human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts. As a case study, the relative impacts of two orange production systems in the region of Valencia, integrated pest management (IP) and organic production (OP), were assessed. The evaluation of active ingredients showed that on average acaricides have the highest human toxicity impact scores, while for freshwater ecotoxicity insecticides show the highest impact. In both impact categories the lowest impact scores were calculated for herbicides. In the production of 1 kg of orange fruits, where several kinds of pesticides are combined, results show that post-harvest fungicides can contribute more than 95% to the aggregate human toxicity impacts. More than 85% of aquatic ecotoxicity is generated by fungicides applied before harvest. The potential to reduce impacts on freshwater ecosystems is seven orders of magnitude, while impacts on human health can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. Hence, this stresses the importance of a careful pre-selection of active ingredients. In both impact categories, organic production represents the least toxic pest-control method.

  7. Evaluation of the environmental impacts of pesticides used in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production systems in Khorasan provinces

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Bazrgar; Soltani,A.; A. Koocheki; Zeinali,E.; A GHAEMI

    2016-01-01

    Environmental optimizing of pest management strategies and improving theirs trends towards minimum environmental risks programs is a matter of considerable concern of food scientists particularly in developing countries. This study evaluates the environmental impacts of pesticides consumption based on Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) model in different sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production systems in Khorasan provinces as the largest producer of this strategic crop in Iran. For this pur...

  8. Spatial interpolation of pesticide drift from hand-held knapsack sprayers used in potato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Pleschberger, Martin; Scheiber, Michael; Pilz, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Tropical mountainous regions in developing countries are often neglected in research and policy but represent key areas to be considered if sustainable agricultural and rural development is to be promoted. One example is the lack of information of pesticide drift soil deposition, which can support pesticide risk assessment for soil, surface water, bystanders and off-target plants and fauna. This is considered a serious gap, given the evidence of pesticide-related poisoning in those regions. Empirical data of drift deposition of a pesticide surrogate, Uranine tracer, were obtained within one of the highest potato producing regions in Colombia. Based on the empirical data, different spatial interpolation techniques i.e. Thiessen, inverse distance squared weighting, co-kriging, pair-copulas and drift curves depending on distance and wind speed were tested and optimized. Results of the best performing spatial interpolation methods, suitable curves to assess mean relative drift and implications on risk assessment studies will be presented.

  9. 77 FR 59186 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Use: Pet Spot treatment for Dogs. Contact: Autumn Metzger, RD, (703) 305-5314, email address: metzger... protection, Pesticides and pests. Dated: September 19, 2012. Daniel J. Rosenblatt, Acting...

  10. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing the...

  11. Comparing the water, energy, pesticide and fertilizer usage for the production of foods consumed by different dietary types in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Harold J; Harwatt, Helen; Soret, Samuel; Sabaté, Joan

    2015-09-01

    To compare the use of water, energy, pesticides and fertilizer to produce commodities for two dietary patterns that vary in the content of plant and animal products. A unique analysis using 'real-world' data was performed, in contrast to previous analyses which applied simulated data. Consumption data from the Adventist Health Study were used to identify two dietary patterns with a markedly different consumption of several plant and animal products. State agricultural data were collected and applied to commodity production statistics. Indices were created to allow a comparison of the resource requirements for each dietary pattern. California, USA. None. The diet containing more animal products required an additional 10 252 litres of water, 9910 kJ of energy, 186 g of fertilizer and 6 g of pesticides per week in comparison to the diet containing less animal products. The greatest contribution to the difference came from the consumption of animal products, particularly beef. Consuming a more plant-based diet could to an extent alleviate the negative environmental impacts related to food production. As a method to feed ourselves more sustainably, behavioural adjustments appear to be a very important tool.

  12. Effects of pesticides on songbird productivity in conjunction with pecan cultivation in southern Georgia: A multiple-exposure experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnode, K.A.; White, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    A prototypic experimental design was used to assess sublethal effects of multiple and varied organophosphates and carbamates on reproduction in birds. The design allowed for classification of pesticide exposure according to toxicity of applied compounds and type and frequency of applications. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of nests, eggs, and nestlings were determined for northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos), brown thrashers (Toxostoma rufum), and northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) nesting along edges of pecan orchards and row crops in southern Georgia [USA]. Egg and nestling DSRs for all species combined varied inversely (P 0.05) among three exposure levels. Brain cholinesterase activities were age-dependent and substantiated adult, but not nestling, exposure. Results suggest that increasing exposure to pesticides may reduce songbird productivity.

  13. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations.

  14. Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Mirjana; Cupać, Svjetlana; Durović, Rada; Milinović, Jelena; Kljajić, Petar

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in

  15. Multiresidue analytical procedures for pesticides residues in vegetable products; Metodi mutiresiduo per l`analisi di residui di antiparassitari in prodotti vegetali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruppo di lavoro per i residui di antiparassitari della Commissione permanente di coordinamento interregionale per i problemi relativi al controllo ufficiale dei prodotti alimentari

    1997-09-01

    Multiresidue methods for pesticide residues in vegetable products, most frequently used by laboratories of the Italian national health service, by the regional and provincial agencies for environmental protection and by the National health institute. The analytical behaviour is presented for 249 pesticides through the different steps of extraction and cleanup, along with data for the gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to spectrophotometric detector (HPL/UV).

  16. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...... comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1....... Satisfactory results were found among herbicides containing pendimethalin and methabenzthiazuron, among fungicides containing azaconazole, tolylfluanid, propamocarb and cyprodinil, and among insecticides containing amitraz, phosalone and diflubenzuron. Thus, the twelve analysed samples of these pesticides...

  17. 77 FR 13599 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... 20460-0001 or Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs.... Proposed Uses: Rhubarb and berry, low growing, except strawberry, subgroup 13-07H. Contact: Maggie Rudick... 8025, Walnut Creek, CA 94596-8025. Active ingredient: Clothianidin. Proposed Use: Strawberry;...

  18. Refined methodology for the determination of neonicotinoid pesticides and their metabolites in honey bees and bee products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Alaa

    2010-05-26

    An analytical method was refined for the extraction and determination of neonicotinoid pesticide residues and their metabolites in honey bees and bee products. Samples were extracted with 2% triethylamine (TEA) in acetonitrile (ACN) followed by salting out, solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, and detection using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was validated in triplicate at three fortification concentrations in each matrix. Good recoveries were observed for most analytes and ranged between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations between replicates of pesticides and ranged between 0.2 and 15 ng/g for the neonicotinoid metabolites. This refined method provides lower detection limits and improved recovery of neonicotinoids and their metabolites, which will help researchers evaluate subchronic effects of these pesticides, address data gaps related to colony collapse disorder (CCD), and determine the role of pesticides in pollinator decline.

  19. [A Simultaneous Determination Method with Acetonitrile-n-Hexane Partitioning and Solid-Phase Extraction for Pesticide Residues in Livestock and Marine Products by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Mayuko; Kobayashi, Yukari; Shimizu, Masanori; Maruyama, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    A simultaneous determination method was examined for 312 pesticides (including isomers) in muscle of livestock and marine products by GC-MS. The pesticide residues extracted from samples with acetone and n-hexane were purified by acetonitrile-n-hexane partitioning, and C18 and SAX/PSA solid-phase extraction without using GPC. Matrix components such as cholesterol were effectively removed. In recovery tests performed by this method using pork, beef, chicken and shrimp, 237-257 pesticides showed recoveries within the range of 70-120% in each sample. Validity was confirmed for 214 of the target pesticides by means of a validation test using pork. In comparison with the Japanese official method using GPC, the treatment time of samples and the quantity of solvent were reduced substantially.

  20. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...

  1. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin...

  2. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2003 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing clodinafop- propargyl, clomazone, fluroxypyr and glyphosate. 2) Fungicides containing bitertanol, fuberidazole, fenhexamid and pencycuron...

  3. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...

  4. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  5. A study on the behaviour of pesticides and their transformation products in the Scheldt estuary using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, R J; Van Hattum, B; Brinkman, U A

    2000-12-01

    Off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) was used to study the estuarine behaviour of the polar pesticides, atrazine, chloridazon, diuron and metolachlor, and their transformation products (TPs), hydroxyatrazine (HA), desisopropylatrazine (DIA), desethylatrazine (DEA), 3,4-dichlorophenylmethylurea (DPMU) and monuron. The compounds were identified by comparing their LC retention times and product-ion spectra with those of standard solutions. In all but one case the detection limits of the method were sufficient to determine the compounds of interest over the entire salinity range in the estuary. The concentrations of the dissolved pesticides ranged from 70 ng l-1 for chloridazon to 1350 ng l-1 for diuron. The levels of TPs were 3-8% of the levels of their parent pesticide. The mixing plots of polar pesticides and their TPs indicated that TPs, which are present in fresh river water, are conservatively transported to the sea and that no additional amounts of TPs are formed during their transport through the estuary. The one exception was HA, of which approximately 10% of the amount transported to the North Sea is formed in the lower part of the estuary by photochemical oxidation of atrazine. The latter was concluded from the ratios of each analyte over the sum total of the parent pesticide and all TPs along the salinity gradient, which proved to be a useful tool for identifying such estuarine transformations.

  6. Side-effects of pesticides used in the organic system of production on Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pesticides, used in the organic system, on Apis mellifera under laboratory conditions. Four multiple (0.25x, 0.5x, 1x and 2x concentrations as recommended by they manufacturers of the following products: Rotenat CE®, Pironat®, Biopirol 7M®, Organic neem®, Natuneem® and lime sulfur were tested by topical application and ingestion. Of all the products and concentrations tested, only the lime sulfur (5000 ml 100L-1 and 10000 mL 100L-1 of water by ingestion, and Rotenat CE® (1200ml 100L-1 of water on topical application were considered slightly harmful for A. mellifera, as the classification of IOBC/WPRS for the laboratory tests.

  7. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... of antimicrobial pesticides (Part 158W) Antimicrobials play an important role in public health and safety. While providing ...

  8. Emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, a food additive and pesticides) in waters of Sydney estuary, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G F; Drage, D S; Thompson, K; Eaglesham, G; Mueller, J F

    2015-08-15

    The current investigation of marine water from 30 sites adjacent to stormwater outlets across the entire Sydney estuary is the first such research in Australia. The number of analytes detected were: 8/59 pharmaceutical compounds (codeine, paracetamol, tramadol, venlafaxine, propranolol, fluoxetine, iopromide and carbamazepine), 7/38 of the pesticides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,4-dichloroaniline, carbaryl, diuron, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), mecoprop and simazine) and 0/3 of the personal care products (PCPs) analysed. An artificial sweetener (acesulfame) was detected, however none of the nine antibiotics analysed were identified. Sewage water is not discharged to this estuary, except infrequently as overflow during high-precipitation events. The presence of acesulfame (a recognised marker of domestic wastewater) and pharmaceuticals in water from all parts of the estuary after a dry period, suggests sewage water is leaking into the stormwater system in this catchment. The pesticides are applied to the environment and were discharged via stormwater to the estuary.

  9. Application of Current Hapten in the Production of Broad Specificity Antibodies Against Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xian-jin; YAN Chun-rong; LIU Yuan; YU Xiang-yang; ZHANG Cun-zheng

    2008-01-01

    Diethylphosphono acetic acid (DPA) was used as a current hapten to generate broad specificity polycolonal antibodies against a group of organophosphorus pesticides. Six New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with immunogens synthesized by the active ester method (AEM) or 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodimide method (EDC). The titers of antisera reached 25 600 by AEM and 6 400 by EDC, respectively. Polyclonal antibodies raised against DPA were screened and selected for the competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA). A CI-ELISA for DPA was developed with a detection limit of 3.536 ng mL-1 and an I50 value of 0.182 ug mL-1. The assay specificity was evaluated by obtaining competitive curves for several structurally related compounds as competitors. The antiserum showed high affinities to chlorpyrifos, diazinon, omethoate, parathion-ethyl and profenofos with I50 of 0.12, 0.15, 0.21, 0.88, 0.97 and 2.5 ug mL-1, respectively. The results indicate that the assay could be a screening tool for quantitation and semi-quantitation determination of the above former five organophosphorus pesticides.

  10. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the pro......The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... analytical chemical authority control: Herbicides containing metamitron, propaquizafop and haloxyfop-ethoxyethyl. Fungicides containing azoxystrobin, propiconazole, cyprodinil, picoxystrobin and fenpropidin. Insecticides containing pirimicarb. Plant growth regulators containing chlormequat chloride, mepiquat...

  11. Evaluation of a recent product to remove lipids and other matrix co-extractives in the analysis of pesticide residues and environmental contaminants in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the application of a novel lipid removal product to the residue analysis of 65 pesticides and 52 environmental contaminants in kale, pork, salmon, and avocado by fast, low pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involves QuEChE...

  12. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... analytical chemical authority control: Herbicides containing metamitron, propaquizafop and haloxyfop-ethoxyethyl. Fungicides containing azoxystrobin, propiconazole, cyprodinil, picoxystrobin and fenpropidin. Insecticides containing pirimicarb. Plant growth regulators containing chlormequat chloride, mepiquat...

  13. Characterisation and comparison of the uptake of ionizable and polar pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products by POCIS and Chemcatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserzon, S L; Hawker, D W; Kennedy, K; Bartkow, M; Carter, S; Booij, K; Mueller, J F

    2014-11-01

    Growing concern about the environmental impact of ionizable and polar organic chemicals such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products has lead to the inclusion of some in legislative and regulatory frameworks. It is expected that future monitoring requirements for these chemicals in aquatic environments will increase, along with the need for low cost monitoring and risk assessment strategies. In this study the uptake of 13 neutral and 6 ionizable pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products by modified POCIS (with Strata™-X sorbent) and Chemcatchers™ (SDB-RPS or SDB-XC) was investigated under controlled conditions at pH = 6.5 for 26 days. The modified POCIS and Chemcatcher™ (SDB-RPS) samplers exhibited similar performance with the uptake of the majority of the 19 chemicals of interest categorised as linear over the 26 day deployment. Only a few ionized herbicides (picloram and dicamba) and triclosan showed negligible accumulation. Chemcatcher™ with SDB-XC sorbent performed relatively poorly with only carbamazepine having a linear accumulation profile, and 8 compounds showing no measurable accumulation. Differences in the uptake behavior of chemicals were not easily explained by their physico-chemical properties, strengthening the requirement for detailed calibration data. PES membranes accumulated significant amount of some compounds (i.e. triclosan and diuron), even after extended deployment (i.e. 26 days). At present there is no way to predict which compounds will demonstrate this behavior. Increasing membrane pore size from 0.2 to 0.45 μm for Chemcatcher™ (SBD-RPS) caused an average increase in Rs of 24%.

  14. Determination of atrazine and degradation products in Luxembourgish drinking water: origin and fate of potential endocrine-disrupting pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, T; Cocco, E; Gourdol, L; Guignard, C; Hoffmann, L

    2011-08-01

    Several pesticides have been hypothesized to act as endocrine-disrupting compounds, exhibiting hormonal activity and perturbing normal physiological functions. Among these, especially s-triazine herbicides have received increased attention. Despite being banned in many countries, including the European Union, atrazine is still the world's most widely used herbicide. Despite its discontinued use, considerable concentrations of atrazine and its degradation products, mainly desethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA), are still found in the environment, including drinking water sources. The aim of this investigation was to study concentrations of especially s-triazine herbicides and major degradation products in drinking water, including spring water, tap water and bottled water in Luxembourg. Spring water (2007/2008/2009, n = 69/69/69), tap water (2008/2009, n = 19/26), and bottled water (2007/2008/2009, n = 5/13/7) were sampled at locations in Luxembourg and investigated for pesticides by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Atrazine was the predominant triazine, detectable in many spring water locations, tap and bottled water, ranging (mean) from 0-57 (9), 0-44 (4), and 0-4 (1) ng l(-1), respectively. DEA and DIA in spring water ranged (mean) from 0-120 (19) and 0-27 (3) ng l(-1), with higher concentrations from agricultural areas and low molar ratios of DEA:atrazine high ratios of atrazine:nitrate suggesting point-source contamination. Levels (mean) of DEA and DIA in tap water were 0-62 (14) and 0-6 (water 0-11 (2) and 0-7 (2) ng l(-1). Simazine and other triazines were detected in traces (water, presumably partly due to non-agricultural contamination, with concentrations being below thresholds advocated by the European Union Directive 98/83/EC.

  15. A Survey of Determination for Organophosphorus Pesticide Residue in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a fast, high efficient determination method of Organophosphorus Pesticides (OPPs residue because OPPs widely used in crops pest control fields in China are causing fearful risks for environment as well as animals and human health, traditional and advanced determination methods were discussed in the study. Based on the spectrum analysis technology combined colorimetric OPPs residue detection experiments in leafy vegetables showed that the absorbance of color reaction between OPPs residues and suitable colorimetric reagents can be distinguished in ppm level of OPPs residues. The detection limit of chlorpyrifos after color reaction with 0.5% Pbcl2 in acetic acid solution is 0.5 ppm. The conclusion was drawn that the detection technologies were diversified, however, a simple, efficient, rapid and nondestructive detection method is lacking and the spectrum analysis technology combined colorimetric can be a new fast and efficient determination method in the future.

  16. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  17. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  18. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater underlying areas of high-density row-crop production in Alabama, 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries, sampled a network of 15 wells for up to 167 pesticides and pesticide degradates from 2009 through 2013 in three areas of high-density row-crop agriculture in Alabama. Eighteen herbicides, 2 fungicides, and 9 degradates were detected in water from the sampled wells. The highest concentration of a detected pesticide was 4.49 micrograms per liter of bentazon in Baldwin County, Alabama, which was well below the lifetime health advisory level of 200 micrograms per liter. None of the measured pesticide concentrations exceeded a human-health benchmark. Insecticides were not detected.

  19. Contribution to the food products' analysis: A research and evaluation on the hemolytic effect of some pesticides used in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alam, Josephine; Millet, Maurice; Chbani, Asma; Fajloun, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides are a real concern for the society as their use has become critical, leading sometimes to their accumulation as residues in fruits and vegetables. After examining the pesticides sold in Northern Lebanon, this study is focused on the analysis and identification of pesticides residues in fruits and vegetables that are harvested in this region and treated with the locally sold pesticides. Results show: first, (i) a use of Zineb by the name of another pesticide Micronized Sulfur to avoid prosecution; (ii) a significant presence of Metalaxyl in lemons and oranges; (iii) a significant presence of Trifluralin in strawberries; and (iv) a significant presence of Zineb in lemons and tomatoes. Second, with the use of hemolytic tests on human blood results show: (i) a critical concentration and a significant hemolytic effect of some pesticides used in Lebanon; and (ii) an absence of hemolytic effect in the collected fractions of the different analyzed fruit extracts containing pesticides. Finally, this work is the first step for pesticides' analysis in vegetables and fruits in Lebanon, initiating a wider analytical study in order to control and examine the use of pesticides which, according to our results, could have an adverse effect on human health over a long term.

  20. 78 FR 55695 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ..., Greensboro, NC 27419. Active ingredient: Avermectin (Abamectin). Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Use... ingredient: Avermectin (Abamectin). Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Use: Caneberries (Group 13-07A). 3... 27419. Active ingredient: Avermectin (Abamectin). Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Uses: Corn...

  1. 78 FR 32246 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production..., hay, crop group 18; coffee, bean, green; coffee, bean, roasted, instant; hops; peanut, hay;...

  2. 76 FR 69730 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications to Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing... 2120, New York, NY 10006. Active ingredient: Acetamiprid. Proposed uses: Asparagus, Brassica leafy...

  3. Spatial modeling of personalized exposure dynamics: the case of pesticide use in small-scale agricultural production landscapes of the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binder Claudia R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is a global health issue with the largest impacts in the developing countries where residential and small-scale agricultural areas are often integrated and pesticides sprayed manually. To reduce health risks from pesticide exposure approaches for personalized exposure assessment (PEA are needed. We present a conceptual framework to develop a spatial individual-based model (IBM prototype for assessing potential exposure of farm-workers conducting small-scale agricultural production, which accounts for a considerable portion of global food crop production. Our approach accounts for dynamics in the contaminant distributions in the environment, as well as patterns of movement and activities performed on an individual level under different safety scenarios. We demonstrate a first prototype using data from a study area in a rural part of Colombia, South America. Results Different safety scenarios of PEA were run by including weighting schemes for activities performed under different safety conditions. We examined the sensitivity of individual exposure estimates to varying patterns of pesticide application and varying individual patterns of movement. This resulted in a considerable variation in estimates of magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure over the model runs for each individual as well as between individuals. These findings indicate the influence of patterns of pesticide application, individual spatial patterns of movement as well as safety conditions on personalized exposure in the agricultural production landscape that is the focus of our research. Conclusion This approach represents a conceptual framework for developing individual based models to carry out PEA in small-scale agricultural settings in the developing world based on individual patterns of movement, safety conditions, and dynamic contaminant distributions. The results of our analysis indicate our prototype model is sufficiently

  4. Repression and recuperation of brood production in Bombus terrestris bumble bees exposed to a pulse of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Laycock

    Full Text Available Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and some blame the residues of neonicotinoid pesticides in the nectar and pollen of treated crops. Bumble bees are important wild pollinators that are widely exposed to dietary neonicotinoids by foraging in agricultural environments. In the laboratory, we tested the effect of a pulsed exposure (14 days 'on dose' followed by 14 days 'off dose' to a common neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, on the amount of brood (number of eggs and larvae produced by Bombus terrestris L. bumble bees in small, standardised experimental colonies (a queen and four adult workers. During the initial 'on dose' period we observed a dose-dependent repression of brood production in colonies, with productivity decreasing as dosage increased up to 98 µg kg(-1 dietary imidacloprid. During the following 'off dose' period, colonies showed a dose-dependent recuperation such that total brood production during the 28-day pulsed exposure was not correlated with imidacloprid up to 98 µg kg(-1. Our findings raise further concern about the threat to wild bumble bees from neonicotinoids, but they also indicate some resilience to a pulsed exposure, such as that arising from the transient bloom of a treated mass-flowering crop.

  5. Repression and recuperation of brood production in Bombus terrestris bumble bees exposed to a pulse of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Ian; Cresswell, James E

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and some blame the residues of neonicotinoid pesticides in the nectar and pollen of treated crops. Bumble bees are important wild pollinators that are widely exposed to dietary neonicotinoids by foraging in agricultural environments. In the laboratory, we tested the effect of a pulsed exposure (14 days 'on dose' followed by 14 days 'off dose') to a common neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, on the amount of brood (number of eggs and larvae) produced by Bombus terrestris L. bumble bees in small, standardised experimental colonies (a queen and four adult workers). During the initial 'on dose' period we observed a dose-dependent repression of brood production in colonies, with productivity decreasing as dosage increased up to 98 µg kg(-1) dietary imidacloprid. During the following 'off dose' period, colonies showed a dose-dependent recuperation such that total brood production during the 28-day pulsed exposure was not correlated with imidacloprid up to 98 µg kg(-1). Our findings raise further concern about the threat to wild bumble bees from neonicotinoids, but they also indicate some resilience to a pulsed exposure, such as that arising from the transient bloom of a treated mass-flowering crop.

  6. Time-dependent integrity during storage of natural surface water samples for the trace analysis of pharmaceutical products, feminizing hormones and pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prévost Michèle

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monitoring and analysis of trace contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides require the preservation of the samples before they can be quantified using the appropriate analytical methods. Our objective is to determine the sample shelf life to insure proper quantification of ultratrace contaminants. To this end, we tested the stability of a variety of pharmaceutical products including caffeine, natural steroids, and selected pesticides under refrigerated storage conditions. The analysis was performed using multi-residue methods using an on-line solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS in the selected reaction monitoring mode. After 21 days of storage, no significant difference in the recoveries was observed compared to day 0 for pharmaceutical products, while for pesticides, significant losses occurred for DIA and simazine after 10 days (14% and 17% reduction respectively and a statistically significant decrease in the recovery was noted for cyanazine (78% disappearance. However, the estrogen and progestogen steroids were unstable during storage. The disappearance rates obtained after 21 days of storage vary from 63 to 72% for the feminizing hormones. Overall, pharmaceuticals and pesticides seem to be stable for refrigerated storage for up to about 10 days (except cyanazine and steroidal hormones can be quite sensitive to degradation and should not be stored for more than a few days.

  7. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. 77 FR 8861 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production.... Proposed Use: Alfalfa, timothy, wheat. Contact: Olga Odiott, Registration Division, (703) 308- 9369 odiott...

  9. 76 FR 51027 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications to Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production...): Amur river grape, broccoli raab, cantaloupe, Chinese cabbage (bok choy), citron melon, collards,...

  10. 78 FR 53139 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of Application for New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    .... Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112.... Active ingredient: Flonicamid. Product Name: Technical Flonicamid Insecticide. Proposed Use(s): Alfalfa, forage; alfalfa, hay; alfalfa, seed; clover, forage; clover, hay; fruit, pome (crop group 11-10); fruit...

  11. 78 FR 64937 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production.... Product type: Bacteristat, fungistat. Proposed uses: Indoor non-food use on fibers, carpet, films... vegetables, cotton, hops, tobacco, fruit and nut trees, turf, and ornamentals. (BPPD) List of Subjects...

  12. Production and Identification of High Affinity Monoclonal Antibodies Against Pesticide Carbofuran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To produce high-affinity monoclonal antibodies against pesticide carbofuran, and the develop immunochemical assays for people's health and environmental protection, the hapten 4-[[(2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyloxy) carbonyl]-amino]-butanoic acid (BFNB) of carbofuran was synthesized and Balb/c mice were immunized by the hapten-carrier (BFNB-bovine serum albumin, BFNB-BSA) conjugates. The splenocytes of immunized mice were fused with Sp2/0 cells and the cultural supernatants of hybridoma cells were screened by the indirect enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA), based on BFNB-ovoalbumin conjugates (BFNB-OVA). Purified monoclonal antibody (McAb) was obtained from fluids of ascites, deposited by octanoic acid and ammonium sulfate. The affinity and the specificity of McAb were characterized by ELISA or indirect competitive ELISA. A hybridoma cell line (5D3) secreting anti-carbofuran McAb had been established. The titer of culture medium and ascites was up to 1:2.048 × 103 and 1:1.024 × 106, respectively, and the subtype of the McAb was IgG1. The affinity constant of the McAb was about 2.54 × 109 L mol-1, with an IC50 value of 1.18 ng mL-1 and a detection limit of 0.01 ng mL-1. Cross-reactivity studies showed that the McAb was quiet specific for carbofuran, as among the four analogous compounds, they were all hardly recognized (4.59 × 10-4% for 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranol and less than 3.0 × 10-4% for others). The prepared McAb had a very high affinity and specificity,and it could be used to develop ELISA for rapid determination of carbofuran.

  13. [Study of multi-residue method for determining pesticide residues in processed foods manufactured from agricultural products by LC-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Naoki; Takatori, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Kajimura, Keiji; Obana, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    A rapid multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in processed foods manufactured from agricultural products was examined. Five mL water was added to 5 g sample in a polypropylene tube, and the tube was left to stand at room temperature for 30 min. Then, 20 mL acetonitrile was added to the sample. The mixture was homogenized in a high-speed homogenizer, followed by salting out with 1 g NaCl and 4 g anhydrous MgSO4. After centrifugation, the organic layer was purified on a graphitized carbon/PSA cartridge column. After removal of the solvent, the extract was resolved in methanol-water and analyzed with LC-MS/MS. The recoveries of 93 pesticides fortified into 5 kinds of processed foods [Chinese cabbage kimchi, marmalade, raisin, umeboshi (pickled plum) and worcester sauce] were examined at the concentrations of 0.02 and 0.1 μg/g (n=5). The recoveries of 61 pesticides in all foods were 70-120% with relative standard deviation below 20% at both concentrations. Seventy-four processed foods obtained from markets in Japan were examined with this method. Pesticide residues over the maximum residue limit (0.01 μg/g) were detected in 2 processed foods.

  14. Effect of some commonly used pesticides on seed germination, biomass production and photosynthetic pigments in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Kanwal, Memoona; Murad, Waheed; Zia ur Rehman; Shafiq ur Rehman; Daud, M K; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic substances. Their toxicity may not be absolutely specific to the target organisms but can adversely affect different processes in the non-target host plants. In the present study, the effect of over application of four commonly used pesticides (emamectin benzoate, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) was evaluated on the germination, seedling vigor and photosynthetic pigments in tomato. The obtained results revealed that seed germination was decreased by the pesticides and this effect was more prominent at early stages of exposure. All the tested pesticides reduced the growth of tomato when applied in higher concentration than the recommended dose, but at lower doses the pesticides had some stimulatory effects on growth as compared to the control. A similar effect of pesticides was observed on the photosynthetic pigments, i.e. a decrease in pigments concentrations was caused at higher doses but an increase was observed at lower doses of pesticides. The calculation of EC50 values for different parameters revealed the lowest EC50 values for emamectin (ranged as 51-181 mg/L) followed by alpha-cypermethrin (191.74-374.39), lambda-cyhalothrin (102.43-354.28) and imidacloprid (430.29-1979.66 mg/L). A comparison of the obtained EC50 values for different parameters of tomato with the recommended doses revealed that over application of these pesticides can be harmful to tomato crop. In a few cases these pesticides were found toxic even at the recommended doses. However, a field based study in this regard should be conducted to further verify these results.

  15. 76 FR 69732 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    .... Proposed Uses: For formulation into end-use herbicide products used on cowpea, succulent (Tennessee only..., Philadelphia, PA 19103. Active Ingredient: Sulfentrazone. Proposed Uses: For use on cowpea,...

  16. Pesticide governance in export supply chains: the case of vegetable and fruit production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van Hoi,; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the role of international agrofood supply chains in greening vegetable and fruit products and production in Vietnam. Mainly through contract-based procurement, the export- oriented vegetable and fruit supply chain is better structured and organized than the domestic supply chain. Exporter

  17. 78 FR 32245 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... ingredient: Abamectin. Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Uses: Cattle Ear Tags on Lactating Dairy Cows... Road, Pasadena, TX 77507-1041. Active ingredient: Novaluron. Product Type: Insecticide; Insect Growth... provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as...

  18. 78 FR 78356 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... 13528, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3528. Active ingredient: Saflufenacil. Product type: Herbicide... ingredient: Saflufenacil. Product type: Herbicide. Proposed uses: Grass forage, fodder and hay, including...- 2011-0568. Applicant: Marrone Bio Innovations, 2121 Second St., Suite B-107, Davis, CA 95618. Active...

  19. Analysis of eight organophosphorus pesticide residues in fresh vegetables retailed in agricultural product markets of Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Liang, Yongchao; Jiang, Xin

    2008-10-01

    A method to effectively remove pigments in fresh vegetables using activated carbon followed cleanup through solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to further reduce matrix interference and contamination, was established to determine eight organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) in this study, and it has been successfully applied for the determination of eight OPPs in various fresh vegetables with the recoveries ranging from 61.8% to 107%. To evaluate eight OPPs residue level, some fresh vegetables retailed at three agricultural product markets (APM) of Nanjing in China were detected, the results showed that phorate in Shanghai green (0.0257 microg g(-1)) and Chinese cabbage (0.0398 microg g(-1)), dimethoate in Shanghai green (0.0466-0.0810 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.077 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.118-0.124 microg g(-1)), methyl-parathion in Shanghai green (0.0903 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.157 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.0924 microg g(-1)), malathion in Shanghai green (0.0342-0.0526 microg g(-1)), chorpyrifos in spinach (0.106-0.204 microg g(-1)), and Chinese cabbage (0.149 microg g(-1)), chlorfenvinfos in carrot (0.094-0.131 microg g(-1)), were found. However, fonofos and fenthion were not detected in all the collected vegetable samples.

  20. 77 FR 66836 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... (Mating Disruptor) with Carob Moth Pheromone Mimic (7,9,11-Dodecatrien-1-ol, formate at 90.8%. Product... 92507. Active ingredient: Biochemical Pheromone (Mating Disruptor) with Carob Moth Pheromone Mimic...

  1. 77 FR 72342 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ...) number and the EPA File Symbol for the product of interest as shown in the body of this document, by one... agree or disagree; suggest alternatives and substitute language for your requested changes. iv....

  2. Low pressure UV/H2O2 treatment for the degradation of the pesticides metaldehyde, clopyralid and mecoprop - Kinetics and reaction product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semitsoglou-Tsiapou, Sofia; Templeton, Michael R; Graham, Nigel J D; Hernández Leal, Lucía; Martijn, Bram J; Royce, Alan; Kruithof, Joop C

    2016-03-15

    The degradation kinetics of three pesticides - metaldehyde, clopyralid and mecoprop - by ultraviolet photolysis and hydroxyl radical oxidation by low pressure ultraviolet hydrogen peroxide (LP-UV/H2O2) advanced oxidation was determined. Mecoprop was susceptible to both LP-UV photolysis and hydroxyl radical oxidation, and exhibited the fastest degradation kinetics, achieving 99.6% (2.4-log) degradation with a UV fluence of 800 mJ/cm(2) and 5 mg/L hydrogen peroxide. Metaldehyde was poorly degraded by LP-UV photolysis while 97.7% (1.6-log) degradation was achieved with LP-UV/H2O2 treatment at the maximum tested UV fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 15 mg/L hydrogen peroxide. Clopyralid was hardly susceptible to LP-UV photolysis and exhibited the lowest degradation by LP-UV/H2O2 among the three pesticides. The second-order reaction rate constants for the reactions between the pesticides and OH-radicals were calculated applying a kinetic model for LP-UV/H2O2 treatment to be 3.6 × 10(8), 2.0 × 10(8) and 1.1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) for metaldehyde, clopyralid and mecoprop, respectively. The main LP-UV photolysis reaction product from mecoprop was 2-(4-hydroxy-2-methylphenoxy) propanoic acid, while photo-oxidation by LP-UV/H2O2 treatment formed several oxidation products. The photo-oxidation of clopyralid involved either hydroxylation or dechlorination of the ring, while metaldehyde underwent hydroxylation and produced acetic acid as a major end product. Based on the findings, degradation pathways for the three pesticides by LP-UV/H2O2 treatment were proposed.

  3. 77 FR 75153 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...: Fungicide. Proposed Uses: Seed treatment for use on potato; and potato, wet peel. Contact: Heather Garvie... Ingredient: Fluxapyroxad. Product Type: Fungicide. Proposed Uses: Seed treatment use on Brassica vegetables... stable fly larvae in cattle barns and horse barns; control of litter beetles in poultry...

  4. 78 FR 23558 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111... CBI must be submitted for inclusion in the public docket. Information so marked will not be disclosed.... Ltd., 8 Rocla Court, Glenvale, Queensland, Australia, 4350, c/o MacIntosh Associates, Inc., 1203...

  5. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2003 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing clodinafop- propargyl, clomazone, fluroxypyr and glyphosate. 2) Fungicides containing bitertanol, fuberidazole, fenhexamid and pencycuron...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...

  6. Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 300 pesticide products in seven chemical classes are registered with EPA, meaning EPA has evaluated their safety and effectiveness: pyrethins, pyrethroids, desiccants, biochemicals, pyrroles, neonicotinoids, and insect growth regulators.

  7. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any pest." Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Local Contacts Find local pesticide & pest control information Pesticide Information and Resources: Frequently Asked Questions: ...

  8. Pesticides in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Grmek-Košnik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of pesticides deceives of indisputable advantage, however remainders of pesticides in drinking water might represent potential danger for health on foodstuffs. In European Union (EU pesticides and their relevant metabolic, degrading and reactive products, with exception for aldrin, dieldrin, heptaclor and heptaclor epoxide, should not exceed the concentration of 0.10 μg/l. At limit value 0.10 μg/l we wish to achieve null value these substances in drinking water.Methods: In years 2004 and 2005 monitoring of pesticides in drinking waters on pipes of consumers in all larger towns in state was done. Majority of pesticides were analysed by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry while fluid cromatography was used primarily for badly volatile or polar and termolabile compound.Results: Results of analyses of drinking water and of ground waters for years 2004 and 2005 showed that levels of atrazine, desethyl-atrazine and 2.6 dichlorobenzamide were exceeded few times when compared to required levels. In 2005 bentazone, MCPP, metolachlor, terbuthylazin were exceeded. In 2004 concentration of pesticides were exceeded in 25 samples in 15 different areas, supplying 183,881 inhabitants. In 2005 concentration of pesticides were exceeded in 31 samples in 14 different areas, supplying 151,297 inhabitants. The distribution shows, that contamination was present mostly in the northeast part of Slovenia, where intensive agriculture takes place.Conclusions: Received status review acquired by monitoring of pesticides in drinking water is only an assessment of circumstances that will gain in representativity by enlarged number of sampling locations and longer observation time. For assessment of trends of pollution of drinking water in Slovenia it will be necessary to monitor concentration of pesticides through longer period. We could have unpolluted drinking water only with restricted use of pesticides on water-protection ranges or

  9. 75 FR 74673 - Pesticides; Regulation To Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export; Notification to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 168 RIN 2070-AJ53 Pesticides; Regulation To Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export...(a) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). As described in the Agency's... specificity to existing labeling regulations for the export of unregistered pesticide products and...

  10. Fate and environmental impact of pesticides in plastic mulch production runoff: field and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Andrea M; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2002-07-17

    Concentrations of copper, azinphosmethyl, chlorothalonil, and endosulfan sulfate ranged from less than 1 to greater than 1000 microg/L in runoff from tomato plastic mulch production. When this runoff entered local creeks, the copper concentration was as high as 22 microg/L, which exceeded the measured larval clam LC50 values of 21 and 12 microg/L Cu at 96 and 192 h, respectively. A greenhouse scale investigation of copper and toxicity demonstrated that sedimentation reduced total copper concentration in runoff by 90%, although the dissolved copper concentration was unchanged, averaging 139 +/- 55 microg/L. When runoff was applied to marine mesocosms containing grass shrimp and mummichog fish, unsettled runoff produced the greatest mortality, although even settled runoff caused more mortality than that in the control mesocosm receiving runoff without added copper. Desorption of soil-sorbed copper occurred quickly in saline water and contributed to toxicity. Copper toxicity in runoff can be reduced, but not eliminated, by sedimentation.

  11. Environmental Impacts from Pesticide Use: A Case Study of Soil Fumigation in Florida Tomato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Houston

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternative fumigants has been ongoing since the 1992 Parties of the Montreal Protocol classified methyl bromide as a Class I controlled substance with an ozone depletion potential (ODP of 0.7 and destined it for phase-out. This paper focuses on the hazards from fumigants proposed as alternatives for pre-plant soil fumigation in tomato production. We use the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ developed by Kovach et al. to estimate the hazards from methyl bromide and the proposed alternative fumigants to workers, consumers, beneficial arthropods, birds, fish, and bees. Our findings indicate that iodomethane 98/2 has the lowest EIQ index value and field use rating, and is the alternative with the lowest relative risk. Among environmental categories, workers and beneficial arthropods experience the highest relative risks from the proposed tomato fumigants, and fish and consumers the least risks.

  12. The use and disposal of household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed.

  13. The occurrence of pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in Italian organic honeys from different productive areas in relation to potential environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, L M; Labella, G F; Giorgi, A; Panseri, S; Pavlovic, R; Bonacci, S; Arioli, F

    2016-07-01

    Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and consumer interest is currently oriented towards organic foods. Regarding this, the European Commission establishes that the qualification of organic honey and other beekeeping products as being from organic production is closely bound with the characteristics of hive treatments as well as the quality of the environment. Agricultural contamination with pesticides is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed, in particular in the field of organic production systems. In this study, the occurrence of different classes of contaminants selected as representative of potential contamination sources were investigated in 59 organic honeys: organochlorines, OCs; organophosphates, OPs; polychlorobiphenyls, PCBs and polybromodiphenylethers, PBDEs. A method based on Accelerated Solvent Extraction with "in line" clean-up and GC-MS/MS detection was developed to detect contaminants. Residues of many pesticides were found in most of the samples investigated. The majority of honey samples contained at least one of the pesticides, even if their concentrations were found to be lower than its MRL. Diazinon, Mevinphos, Coumaphos, Chlorpyrifos and Quinoxyfen were the residues frequently detected in samples coming from the apple and citrus orchard areas. Furthermore, the results of the present study show that the presence of the residue in organic honey may also be affected by the geographical area (e.g. the presence of an agricultural system) confirming honey bee and beehive matrices as appropriate sentinels for monitoring contamination in the environment. The optimised method proved to be simple and rapid, requiring small sample sizes and minimising solvent consumption, due to the ASE having an "in line" clean-up step. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Obsolete pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  15. Polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) uptake rates for 17 polar pesticides and degradation products: laboratory calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Imtiaz; Togola, Anne; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) are useful for monitoring a wide range of chemicals, including polar pesticides, in water bodies. However, few calibration data are available, which limits the use of these samplers for time-weighted average concentration measurements in an aquatic medium. This work deals with the laboratory calibration of the pharmaceutical configuration of a polar organic chemical integrative sampler (pharm-POCIS) for calculating the sampling rates of 17 polar pesticides (1.15 ≤  logK(ow) ≤ 3.71) commonly found in water. The experiment, conducted for 21 days in a continuous water flow-through exposure system, showed an integrative accumulation of all studied pesticides for 15 days. Three compounds (metalaxyl, azoxystrobine, and terbuthylazine) remained integrative for the 21-day experiment. The sampling rates measured ranged from 67.9 to 279 mL day(-1) and increased with the hydrophobicity of the pesticides until reaching a plateau where no significant variation in sampling rate is observed when increasing the hydrophobicity.

  16. Globalization, Foreign Investment Dependence and Agriculture Production: Pesticide and Fertilizer Use in Less-Developed Countries, 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Kuykendall, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Bridging the areas of political-economic sociology, the sociology of agriculture and environmental sociology, this study tests two hypotheses derived from a refined theory of foreign investment dependence. The hypotheses state that pesticide and fertilizer use intensity in less-developed countries are both positively associated with foreign…

  17. Effect of estrogenic activity, and phytoestrogen and organochlorine pesticide contents in an experimental fish diet on reproduction and hepatic vitellogenin production in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inudo, Makiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Naomi; Matsuoka, Munekazu; Mori, Taiki; Taniyama, Shigeto; Kadokami, Kiwao; Koga, Minoru; Shinohara, Ryota; Hutchinson, T H; Iguchi, Taisen; Arizono, Koji

    2004-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are giving rise to serious concerns for humans and wildlife. Phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein in plants, and organochlorine pesticides are suspected EDCs, because their chemical structure is similar to that of natural or synthetic estrogens and they have estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. We assessed estrogenic activity and dietary phytoestrogen and organochlorine pesticide contents of various fish diets made in the United Kingdom, and compared them with those features of diets made in Japan that were tested in a previous study. Genistein and daidzein were detected in all of the diets. Using an in vitro bioassay, many of these diets had higher activation of estrogen beta-receptors than estrogen alpha-receptors. Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene, beta-benzene hexachloride (BHC), and gamma-BHC were detected in all fish diets. On the basis of these data, we investigated the effect of differing dietary phytoestrogen content in Japanese fish diets on hepatic vitellogenin production and reproduction (fecundity and fertility) in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Assessment of the effects of a 28-day feeding period on reproduction of paired medaka did not indicate significant differences in the number of eggs produced and fertility among all feeding groups. However, hepatic vitellogenin values were significantly higher for male medaka fed diet C (genistein, 58.5 +/- 0.6 microg/g; daidzein, 37.3 +/- 0.2 microg/g) for 28 days compared with those fed diet A (genistein, phytoestrogens, such as diet C, have the potential to induce hepatic vitellogenin production in male medaka, even if reproductive parameters are unaffected. Therefore, some diets, by affecting vitellogenin production in males, may alter estrogenic activity of in vivo tests designed to determine activity of test compounds added to the diet.

  18. The influence of fertiliser and pesticide emissions model on life cycle assessment of agricultural products: The case of Danish and Italian barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt Rivera, Ximena C; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra; Niero, Monia

    2017-08-15

    Barley is an ancient crop and a great source of nutrients. It is the third largest agricultural commodity produced in Denmark and represents a relevant crop in Italy too. Due to the increasing customers awareness of sustainability issues, it has become essential to evaluate the environmental impact and the use of resources in food production and distribution systems. However, especially in agriculture, difficulties are encountered when emissions from fertilisers and pesticides need to be modelled, due to a variety of modelling options and their dependency on the availability of site-specific information. How to address these difficulties might affect the results reliability. Hence, this study aims to evaluate, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, the influence of different models for estimating emissions from fertilisers and pesticides on the environmental impacts of barley cultivation in Denmark and Italy. Two models for fertilisers and pesticides' emissions have been applied; these differ on the extent of data requirements and complexity of calculation algorithms, which might increase the results accuracy and robustness. The results show that the modelling options do affect the environmental impacts of barley production, in particular climate change, eutrophication categories, acidification and freshwater eco-toxicity. This study estimates that the variations for such categories range from 15% in the case of climate change to 89% in the case of marine eutrophication. These findings highlight the importance of the emission modelling options as well as the constraints of data requirements, critical aspects when a LCA study on agricultural products is carried out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of Selected Pharmaceuticals, Personal-Care Products, Organic Wastewater Compounds, and Pesticides in the Lower Tallapoosa River Watershed near Montgomery, Alabama, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Carolyn J.; Gill, Amy C.; McPherson, Ann K.; Meyer, Michael T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic and natural organic compounds derived from agricultural operations, residential development, and treated and untreated sanitary and industrial wastewater discharges can contribute contaminants to surface and ground waters. To determine the occurrence of these compounds in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed, Alabama, new laboratory methods were used that can detect human and veterinary antibiotics; pharmaceuticals; and compounds found in personal-care products, food additives, detergents and their metabolites, plasticizers, and other industrial and household products in the environment. Well-established methods for detecting 47 pesticides and 19 pesticide degradates also were used. In all, 186 different compounds were analyzed by using four analytical methods. The lower Tallapoosa River serves as the water-supply source for more than 100,000 customers of the Montgomery Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board. Source-water protection is a high priority for the Board, which is responsible for providing safe drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montgomery Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board, conducted this study to provide baseline data that could be used to assess the effects of agriculture and residential development on the occurrence of selected organic compounds in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed. Twenty samples were collected at 10 sites on the Tallapoosa River and its tributaries. Ten samples were collected in April 2005 during high base streamflow, and 10 samples were collected in October 2005 when base streamflow was low. Thirty-two of 186 compounds were detected in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed. Thirteen compounds, including atrazine, 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT), hexazinone, metalaxyl, metolachlor, prometryn, prometon, simazine, azithromycin, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and tylosin, had measurable concentrations above their laboratory reporting levels

  20. America's Growing Dilemma: Pesticides in Food and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Valerie; Sullivan, Monica, Ed.

    Public concern about the safety of continued reliance on pesticides in agricultural production is widespread and growing. The lack of understanding of how food is grown, the role of pesticides in food production, the risk assessment and regulatory processes and alternatives to pesticide use limits citizen participation in food safety debates and…

  1. TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

  2. Proficiency test for chemical laboratories for the analysis of a pesticide in a formulated product: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Doyeli; Rani, Anita

    2009-01-01

    A multilaboratory proficiency testing program was conducted by the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (India) and coordinated by the Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology. This program was conducted to compare the performance of individual laboratories in the area of pesticide formulation (Chlorpyrifos 20 EC) analysis. A total of 24 laboratories in India participated. Analysis of 2 parameters (i.e., estimation of the active ingredient and the acidity) of 2 samples of Chlorpyrifos 20 EC was the objective of this program. Homogeneity tests were performed before sample distribution. Performance of the participating laboratories was evaluated by using new robust statistics given in the guidelines of the National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia. Results were collated and statistically computed to calculate the value of 2 types of Z-scores (Zwi and Zbi). In addition to the statistical analysis, a graphical representation such as the Youden plot was also generated to evaluate the performance of participating laboratories.

  3. Effect of the Composition and Structure of Excipient Emulsion on the Bioaccessibility of Pesticide Residue in Agricultural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruojie; Wu, Wenhao; Zhang, Zipei; Park, Yeonhwa; He, Lili; Xing, Baoshan; McClements, David Julian

    2017-10-04

    The influence of co-ingestion of food emulsions with tomatoes on the bioaccessibility of a model pesticide (chlorpyrifos) was studied. Emulsions were fabricated with different oil contents (0-8%), lipid compositions (medium chain triglyceride (MCT) and corn oil), and particle diameters (d32 = 0.17 and 10 μm). The emulsions were then mixed with chlorpyrifos-contaminated tomato puree, and the mixtures were subjected to a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consisting of mouth, stomach, and small intestine. The particle size, surface charge, and microstructure of the emulsions was measured as they passed through the GIT, and chlorpyrifos bioaccessibility was determined after digestion. The composition and structure of the emulsions had a significant impact on chlorpyrifos bioaccessibility. Bioaccessibility increased with increasing oil content and was higher for corn oil than MCT, but did not strongly depend on oil droplet size. These results suggest that co-ingestion of emulsions with fruits or vegetables could increase pesticide bioaccessibility.

  4. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields e Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products aimed at avoiding any unacceptable influence on the environment, in particular contamination of water, including drinking water and groundwater...

  5. Polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) uptake rates for 17 polar pesticides and degradation products: laboratory calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Imtiaz; Togola, Anne; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) are useful for monitoring a wide range of chemicals, including polar pesticides, in water bodies. However, few calibration data are available, which limits the use of these samplers for time-weighted average concentration measurements in an aquatic medium. This work deals with the laboratory calibration of the pharmaceutical configuration of a polar organic chemical integrative sampler (pharm-POCIS) for calculating th...

  6. [Determination of pesticide residues from seed coating reagent in agricultural products using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wanchun; Huang, Mei; Xu, Chaoyi

    2008-11-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of eight pesticide residues from seed coating in fruits, vegetable and grain. The sample was extracted by methanol-water (1:1, v/v) and determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in positive mode (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The UPLC analyses were performed on an Acquity UPLC C18 column with gradient eluation. The utility of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of crude extracts, with no sample clean up, from soybean. The linear range was 1 - 200 microg/L. The correlation coefficients (r) were under 0.997. The average recoveries of eight pesticides in samples (from 0.006 to 1.2 mg/kg) ranged from 60% to 110%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10%. The results indicate that the method is easier, faster, more sensitive, and suitable for the qualitative and quantitative confirmation of pesticide residues from seed coating reagent in fruit, vegetable and grain samples.

  7. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Anette E.; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products...... to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone...... of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied...

  8. Integrated Pest Management Practices Reduce Insecticide Applications, Preserve Beneficial Insects, and Decrease Pesticide Residues in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Jeremy D; Burrack, Hannah J

    2016-09-22

    Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at pests reached ET (IPM), while the other field was managed per grower discretion (Grower Standard). IPM fields received an average of two fewer insecticide applications without compromising yield. More insecticide applications resulted in higher pesticide residues in cured leaf samples from Grower Standard fields than those from IPM fields. Reductions in insecticides and management intensity also resulted in larger beneficial insect populations in IPM fields.

  9. Study and analysis on pesticide residues in strawberry product in Baoding district%保定辖区草莓制品农药残留研究分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪; 王翠芬; 刘萍; 刘晓慧; 颜红; 谢英; 冉升

    2015-01-01

    Objective Through calculating strawberry products pesticide detection situation in Baoding district, the causes of pollution of strawberry products pesticide were investigated for providing the basis for treatment. Methods Five kinds of pesticide residues in strawberry products were determined by using GB/T 5009.146-2008 “Determination of organochlorines and pyrethroid pesticide multiresidues in vegetable foods”and GB/T 19648-2006 “Method for determination of 500 pesticides and related chemicals in fruits and vegetables”. Results In 2011~2013, the detection rate of pesticide residues was 13.99% in strawberry products. The results indicated that detection rate of pesticide residue in strawberry products in Baoding district decreased year after year as the supervised and management measures were carried out by government, with the detection rate of pesticide residues fell from 16.20% in 2011 to 8.54% in 2013. Conclusion Therefore, we should continue to strengthen the supervision and management, to provide guarantee for the quality of products.%目的:通过统计保定辖区草莓制品中各类农药检出情况,了解保定辖区草莓制品中农药残留污染现状,探讨污染原因,为监督管理提供依据。方法采用GB/T 5009.146-2008《植物性食品中有机氯和拟除虫菊酯类农药多种残留量的测定》和 GB/T 19648-2006《水果和蔬菜中500种农药及相关化学品残留量的测定气相色谱-质谱法》,测定草莓制品中5种农药残留。结果2011~2013年草莓制品中农药残留检出率13.99%。随着政府各项监督管理措施的落实,检出率呈下降趋势,由2011年16.20%下降至2013年8.54%。结论应继续加强监督管理,为产品质量提供保障。

  10. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesticide spray solutions and during the cleaning-up of spraying equipment. Farmers who mix, load, and spray pesticides can be exposed to these chemicals due to spills and splashes, direct spray contact as a result of faulty or missing protective equipment, or even drift. However, farmers can be also exposed to pesticides even when performing activities not directly related to pesticide use. Farmers who perform manual labor in areas treated with pesticides can face major exposure from direct spray, drift from neighboring fields, or by contact with pesticide residues on the crop or soil. This kind of exposure is often underestimated. The dermal and inhalation routes of entry are typically the most common routes of farmers’ exposure to pesticides. Dermal exposure during usual pesticide handling takes place in body areas that remain uncovered by protective clothing, such as the face and the hands. Farmers’ exposure to pesticides can be reduced through less use of pesticides and through the correct use of the appropriate type of personal protective equipment in all stages of pesticide handling.

  11. Seasonal exposures to triazine and other pesticides in surface waters in the western Highveld corn-production region in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Preez, L.H.; Jansen Van Rensburg, P.J.; Jooste, A.M.; Carr, J.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.; Kendall, R.J.; Smith, E.E.; Van Der Kraak, G.; Solomon, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize concentrations of atrazine, terbuthylazine, and other pesticides in amphibian habitats in surface waters of a corn-production area of the western Highveld region (North-West Province) of South Africa. The study was conducted from November 2001 to June 2002, coinciding with the corn-production season. Pesticide residues were measured at regular intervals in surface water from eight ponds, three in a non-corn-growing area (NCGA) and five within the corn-growing area (CGA). Measured atrazine concentrations differed significantly among sites and between samples. In the five CGA sites, the maximum atrazine concentrations measured during the study ranged from 1.2 to 9.3 ??g/L. Although no atrazine was recorded as being applied in the catchment of the three NCGA sites, maximum concentrations from 0.39 to 0.84 ??g/L were measured during the study, possibly as a result of atmospheric transport. Maximum measured concentrations of terbuthylazine ranged from 1.22 to 2.1 ??g/L in the NCGA sites and from 1.04 to 4.1 ??g/L in the CGA sites. The source of terbuthylazine in the NCGA sites may have been in use other than in corn. The triazine degradation products, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA) and diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) were also found in water from both the CGA and NCGA sites. Concentrations of DIA were ??? 1 ??g/L throughout the season, while DEA concentrations were mostly 2 ??g/L in some locations. Concentrations of DACT were highly variable (LOD to 8 ??g/L) both before and after planting and application, suggesting that they resulted from historical use of triazines in the area. Other herbicides such as simazine and acetochlor were only detected infrequently and pesticides such as S-metolachlor, cypermethrin, monocrotophos, and terbuphos, known to be used in the CGA, were not detected in any of the samples. Because of dilution by higher than normal rainfall in the study period, these concentrations may

  12. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and

  13. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and (

  14. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but l...

  15. Procedures for Removal of Pesticides from the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, M.; Bilandžić, N.; Briški, F.

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in food production, and it is believed that more than 1000 types of pesticides are in use. Organochlorines and organophosphorous pesticides are used in large quantities due to their efficacy and low cost. These persistent organic pollutants remain in the soil, silt, and sediment long after application, and enter into watercourses, finding their way directly into the food chain. Today, the following procedures are used to remove pesticides from polluted localities: l...

  16. Pesticide Exposure and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2017-01-01

    Exposureto pesticides can trigger or exacerbate asthma, induce bronchospasm, orincrease bronchial hyperreactivity. Pesticides that inhibit cholinesterase canprovoke bronchospasm through increased cholinergic activity. At high doses,certain pesticides can act as airway irritants. Low levels that areinsufficient to cause acute poisoning can trigger severe reactions in thosewithout a previous diagnosis of asthma. Pesticides linked to asthma, wheezing,and hyperreactive airway disease include: 1. ...

  17. Method development and fate determination of pesticide-treated hops and their subsequent usage in the production of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengel, Matt J; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2002-06-05

    The fate of residues of seven agrochemicals (chlorfenapyr, quinoxyfen, tebuconazole, fenarimol, pyridaben, and E- and Z-dimethomorph) from the treatment on hops to the brewing of beer was studied. First, a multi-residue analytical method was developed for the determination of pesticide residues in spent hops, trub, wort, and beer. Each matrix was validated over at least two levels of fortification, for all seven compounds, in the ranges 0.05-5.0, 0.001-1.0, 0.001-0.05, and 0.0005-1.0 ppm for spent hops, trub, wort, and beer, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 73 to 136%. Second, the matrixes prepared from hops, which were treated under commercial practices with each compound, were analyzed using the method developed. The use of treated hops resulted in the carryover of 0.001 ppm of tebuconazole, 0.008 Z-dimethomorph, and 0.005 ppm of E-dimethomorph into the wort. The bulk of the remaining residues of all seven compounds was found on the spent hops. Following fermentation, all compounds were found in levels less than 0.0005 ppm in beer, except Z- (0.006 ppm) and E-dimethomorph (0.004 ppm). Third, when all seven pesticides were spiked prior to the pitching of yeast into clean wort, most of the nonpolar compounds (chlorfenapyr, quinoxyfen, and pyridaben) partitioned into the organic material (trub) which settled to the bottom, while the more polar compounds (fenarimol, tebuconazole, and E- and Z-dimethomorph) were generally distributed evenly between the beer and the trub.

  18. Pesticide contamination of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Michael; Spranghers, Thomas; De Clercq, Patrick; Cooreman-Algoed, Margot; Couchement, Tasmien; De Clercq, Griet; Verbeke, Sarah; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-06-15

    The use of pesticides contributes to the productivity and the quality of the cultivated crop. A large portion of the agricultural produce is not consumed as it is not an edible part or the quality of the product is too low. This waste of agricultural produce can be valorised as a substrate for the production of certain insects for human consumption. However, pesticides applied on the plants might accumulate during the life cycle of the insects fed on the waste materials and may cause a health risk to humans consuming the insects. Pesticide residues in larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, were investigated. We monitored the accumulation of pesticides in the larvae upon consumption of contaminated fresh produce. An increased uptake rate by the insects was found for pesticides with higher Kow-values. Excretion of pesticides by the insect was inversely related to the log(Kow) values of the pesticides.

  19. Comparison of the production, economic returns, and energy intensiveness of corn belt farms that do and do not use inorganic fertilizers and pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockeretz, W.; Klepper, R.; Commoner, B.; Gertler, M.; Fast, S.; O' Leary, D.; Blobaum, R.

    1975-07-20

    This report compares crop production on a sample of 16 mixed crop-livestock farms in the Corn Belt on which no inorganic fertilizers and almost no pesticides are used, to that of a matched sample that uses conventional fertilization and pest control practices. In the 1974 crop year, the market value of the crops raised per acre was slightly higher on the conventional sample (an average of 8 percent), but this difference was not statistically significant at the 90 percent probability level. There was no difference between the two groups' crop production returns, that is, value of production less operating costs. The operating costs on the conventional farms were greater for fertilization and pest control, but other costs were about equal for the two samples. The energy intensiveness (defined as energy input divided by value of production) on the farms that do not use fertilizers is an average of one-third as much as that of the conventional group. This difference arises almost entirely from the latters' use of energy-intensive fertilizers, primarily anhydrous ammonia and other forms of nitrogen. (auth)

  20. Evaluation of Quechers Sample Preparation and GC Mass Spec-trom¬etry Method for the Determination of 15 Pesticide Resi¬dues in Tomatoes Used in Salad Production Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham JAHANMARD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was the first attempt for determination and measurement of pesticide residues in tomatoes used in salad production plants in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: A multiresidue method based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe sample preparation, followed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS was developed and validated for the determination of 15 pesticides (permethrin, primicarb, dichlorvos, diazinone, fenpropathrin, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, malathion, chlortalonil, brompropilate, propargit, tetradifone, phosalone, iprodion and endosulfane from different classes. The recovery yields ranged from 83.84 to 119.73%and the relative standard deviation (RSD was below 20.54%. The limits of detection (LODs were between 1.63to 10.5 mg/kg and the limits of quantifications (LOQs were between 5.43to35 mg/kg. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 22 tomato samples obtained from salad production plants in Isfahan in Sep to Dec 2014.Results: An amount of 31.81% of samples showed contamination above maximum residue levels (MRLs with pesticides. In addition, 13.6% of samples had contamination with diazinone and 18.18% of samples with chlorpyrifos.Conclusion: A full consideration is essential for tomatoes used in salad and food productions. It suggests a need for revision of the current trend of supervision for tomatoes and other vegetables presented in wholesale markets. In all, the study confirms that pesticide residue determination in food products, especially in raw fruits and vegetables, is a very demanding task in public health safety and trade. Keywords: Pesticide residue, Tomato, QuEChERS, Gas chromatography, Mass spectrometry

  1. Use of the dog as non-rodent test species in the safety testing schedule associated with the registration of crop and plant protection products (pesticides): present status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Rainer J; Spielmann, Horst

    2005-11-01

    The results from a survey of the expert information that is publicly accessible on the use of the dog as test species during the regulatory evaluation of agricultural chemicals and pesticides are reported. Methods that are being used or considered in order to reduce the number of dogs used for this purpose are described. Regulatory evaluation aims at establishing threshold values for safe human exposure; it is based on no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOELs) determined in animal studies. Current regulations require testing in two species, a rodent species (usually rat or mouse), and a non-rodent species (usually the dog). Subchronic (90-day) and chronic (12-month) repeated-dose feeding studies must be routinely conducted in dogs. This report first focuses on the results from a retrospective study analysing data on 216 pesticides kept on record by the Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, BfR (German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment), the competent regulatory authority in Germany. The study was sponsored and coordinated by SET, the German Foundation for the Promotion of Research on Replacement and Complementary Methods to Reduce Animal Testing (Stiftung zur Förderung der Erforschung von Ersatz-und Ergänzungsmethoden zur Einschränkung von Tierversuchen, Mainz) and conducted by the BfR. Since the data submitted for registration of a product is the property of the manufacturer, the study could only proceed with the collaboration of the German Association of Manufacturers of Agricultural Chemicals (Industrieverband Agrar, IVA). To ensure confidentiality, designated codes were used instead of the compounds' proper names when the study was published. The results support two major conclusions. The use of the dog for the testing of pesticides is indeed necessary because the dog has proved to be the most sensitive species for about 15% of the compounds examined. However, chronic studies are only of limited value since they only provide essential information that

  2. Chiral Synthons in Pesticide Syntheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The use of chiral synthons in the preparation of enantiomerically pure pesticides is described in this chapter. Several routes to chiral synthons based on asymmetric synthesis or on natural products are illustrated. Important sources of chiral building blocks are reviewed. Furthermore the implicatio

  3. Production cost analysis and use of pesticides in the transgenic and conventional corn crop [Zea mays (L.)] in the valley of San Juan, Tolima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Kelly Avila; Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro; Moreno, Giovanni Reyes; Castro, Carlos Silva

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 10 producers of conventional corn (Hybrids PAC 105 and Maximus) and 10 producers of transgenic corn (Pioneer Hybrid 30T17) was carried out in the municipality of Valle de San Juan in the territorial division of Tolima (Colombia), in order to analyze the differences in production costs and environmental impacts of these two agricultural technologies.  The environmental impacts were determined by calculating the field "Environmental Index Quotient" (EIQ). In the production cost analysis, a difference of 15% was found in benefit of the transgenic technology. The structure of costs of the transgenic technology was benefited by the reduced use of pesticides (insecticides and herbicides). In regards to production, the transgenic technology showed a greater yield, 5.22 ton/ha in comparison to 4.25 ton/ha the conventional technology, thus a 22% difference in yield. Finally, the EIQ calculation showed quantitative differences of 196.12 for the conventional technology (EIQ insecticides 165.14 + EIQ herbicides 30.98), while the transgenic technology was of 4.24 (EIQ insecticides 0 + EIQ herbicides 4.24). These results show a minor environmental impact when using the transgenic technology in comparison to the conventional technology, in regards to the use of insecticides and herbicides in a temporal, spatial and genotypical context analysis. :

  4. The pesticide deltamethrin increases free radical production and promotes nuclear translocation of the stress response transcription factor Nrf2 in rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, HY; Wu, SY; Ma, Q; Shi, N

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a critical role in the mammalian response to chemical and oxidative stress through induction of phase II detoxification enzymes and oxidative stress response proteins. We reported that Nrf2 expression was activated by deltamethrin (DM), a prototype of the widely used pyrithroid pesticides, in PC12 cells. However, no study has examined Nrf2 nuclear translocation and free radical production, two hallmarks of oxidative stress, in the mammalian brain in vivo. To this end, we examined translocation of Nrf2 and production of free radicals in rat brain exposed to DM. Indeed, DM initiated nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Nrf2 translocation was accompanied by the expression of heme oxygenase-1 gene, an Nrf2-regulated gene linked to free radical production. Deltamethrin exposure promoted free radical formation in rat brain and reactive oxygen species generation in PC12 cells. Translocation of Nrf2 may be a response to DM-dependent induction of free radicals and DM may act as a mammalian neurotoxin by initiating oxidative stress. PMID:21398409

  5. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  6. Pesticides and honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Pedro; Godinho, Joana

    2012-01-01

    After the analysis of the criterion of toxicological classification (TC) of pesticides to honeybees and of the evolution of TC and of legislation related to the theme, in Portugal, it is demonstrated how the absence of rigor of the Portuguese Pesticide Regulation Authority (AFN) and of the pesticides suppliers contribute to the very high probability of mortality of honeybees by pesticides and finally are presented proposals for the optimization of perspectives to...

  7. Pesticides and Environmental Health

    OpenAIRE

    İlter, Hüseyin; Gökdeniz, Mehmet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2017-01-01

    Pesticidesare used to prevent, control harmful organisms or to reduce their damage inagriculture. The use of pesticides is still indispensable in order to preventthe negative effects of the agricultural diseases and pests.3,2 million tons inthe world, almost 40 thousand tons of pesticide consumption in Turkey is themost important indicator of this. Pesticides get mixed and transform throughair, water and soil then other living things in these environments. Themovement of a pesticide is affect...

  8. Pesticides and food safety

    OpenAIRE

    Ötegen, Volkan Recai; Akbaba, Muhsin; Nazlıcan, Ersin; Kurt, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Besidesprevention of tropical diseases, pesticides are also used to make agriculturalactivities fertile. But pesticides are potentially harmful to our health andmay be toxic to the immune, reproductive and nervous systems. Afterapplication; pesticide residues consist depending on factors such as plantspecies, time of administration, how it applied. While pesticides make foodsupply sustainable, there are concerns about residues in food that peopleconsume. Therefore food safety concept introduc...

  9. 农产品/食品中农药残留快速检测方法研究进展%Review on rapid detection of pesticide residues in agricultural and food products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雪松; 王维琴; 许林云; 卢利群; 周宏平; 陈卉卉

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides were widely applied to eliminate or control a variety of agricultural pests and diseases. However, they exhibited acute or chronic toxicity on human health through their residues in agricultural product and food. Thus, monitoring pesticide residues was extremely crucial to ensure that pesticides in agricultural products were in permitted levels. The identification and quantification of pesticides were generally based on mass spectrometry combined with gas and/or liquid chromatography, or capillary electrophoresis. However, these methods involved large and expensive instruments, time-consuming sample preparation and trained personnel. Therefore, it was important to set up onsite assays and techniques, especially highly sensitive and selective, simple, efficient, and cost effective ones for rapid detection of pesticide residues. This review summarized the application of fast analytical methodologies such as enzyme inhibition assays (EIA), immunoassays, optical spectroscopy assays and various biosensors in the analysis of pesticide residues in agro product and food in the past few years. EIA was widely used for rapid colorimetric or spectrophotometric screening of pesticides in China, which was based on the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity by organophosphate and carbamate. Immunoassays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were quantitative or qualitative methods of analysis for a substance, which took antibodies as the analytical reagents. Immunoassays depended on the use of an analytical reagent that was associated with a detectable marker, such as enzyme, fluorescence, chemoluminescence radioactive element, and so on. Colloidal gold-based immunoassay was proven to be fast, sensitive and cost-effective for pesticide detection. Biosensors were analytical devices, used for the detection of analytes, which combined a biological component with a physicochemical detector. The development of biosensors for pesticides was also an active

  10. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  11. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  12. Food processing as a means for pesticide residue dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. However, their inadequate application may produce large quantities of residues in the environment and, once the environment is contaminated with pesticides, they may easily enter into the human food chain through plants, creating a potentially serious health hazard. Nowadays, consumers are becoming more aware of the importance of safe and high quality food products. Thus it is pertinent to explore simple, cost-effective strategies for decontaminating food from pesticides. Various food processing techniques, at industrial and/or domestical level, have been found to significantly reduce the contents of pesticide residues in most food materials. The extent of reduction varies with the nature of pesticides, type of commodity and processing steps. Pesticides, especially those with limited movement and penetration ability, can be removed with reasonable efficiency by washing, and the effectiveness of washing depends on pesticide solubility in water or in different chemical solvents. Peeling of fruit and vegetable skin can dislodge pesticide residues to varying degrees, depending on constitution of a commodity, chemical nature of the pesticide and environmental conditions. Different heat treatments (drying, pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, steaming, boiling, cooking, frying or roasting during various food preparation and preservation processes can cause losses of pesticide residues through evaporation, co-distillation and/or thermal degradation. Product manufactures, from the simplest grain milling, through oil extraction and processing, juicing/pureeing or canning of fruits and vegetables, to complex bakery and dairy production, malting and brewing, wine making and various fermentation processes, play a role in the reduction of pesticide contents, whereby each operation involved during processing usually adds to a cumulative effect of reduction of

  13. Ultra-trace-level determination of polar pesticides and their transformation products in surface and estuarine water samples using column liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, R J; Hogenboom, A C; Leonards, P E; Peerboom, R A; Cofino, W P; Brinkman, U A

    1999-10-01

    A method is developed for the determination of polar pesticides and their transformation products [atrazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, hydroxyatrazine, diuron, 3,4-dichlorophenylmethylurea, 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DPU), monuron, bentazone, anthranil-isopropylamide, chloridazon, metolachlor] in surface, estuarine and sea water samples at the low ng/l level. Solid-phase extraction is combined off-line with column liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-ESI-MS-MS). The applicability of two solid-phase materials, i.e., LiChrolut EN cartridges and graphitized carbon black extraction disks, is evaluated. The influence of the organic solvent used in gradient LC, as well as the amount of co-extracted humic material on the ESI process is studied. The eluotropic strength of the organic solvent was found to have a distinct effect on the sensitivity of ESI-MS if coupled with LC gradient separations. Methanol gave much better results than acetonitrile and phenylurea compounds are more susceptible to solvent changes than triazines. Co-extracted humic material causes signal suppression in ESI-MS-MS detection. The degree of suppression depends upon the sample pH and the nature of the samples, i.e., surface or estuarine water. Detection limits in LC-ESI-MS-MS ranged from 0.2 to 2 ng/l, with the exception of DPU (8 ng/l). The applicability of the procedure was demonstrated by analyzing surface and estuarine water.

  14. Draft PRN 2006-A: Use of Antimicrobial Pesticide Products in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems (HVAC&R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft notice provides guidance to registrants of EPA-registered antimicrobial products whose labels bear general directions related to hard, non-porous or porous surfaces, but which are not but which are not specifically registered for HVAC uses.

  15. Comparative Analysis on Pesticide Management System between America and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cunzheng; ZHANG; Yong; GONG; Weili; SHAN; Xianjin; LIU

    2013-01-01

    The production and usage amount of pesticides in US rank the leading position in the world. On the basis of protecting the environment and human health, US government has enacted a series of laws and regulations to normalize and manage the production and use of pesticides so as to ensure the development of modern agriculture. In this paper, US pesticide management system is briefly reviewed and compared with the pesticide management system of China, which may provide good reference for china in establishing its own management system and make steps towards the international standard.

  16. Private Environmental Governance in the Ethiopian Pesticide Supply Chain: Importation, Distribution and Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, B.T.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural pesticides are important chemicals that are used to mitigate crop damage or loss and improve productivity. However, pesticides may cause negative environmental and human health effects depending on their specific distribution and use. Securing environmental safety and sustainability of

  17. Private Environmental Governance in the Ethiopian Pesticide Supply Chain: Importation, Distribution and Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, B.T.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural pesticides are important chemicals that are used to mitigate crop damage or loss and improve productivity. However, pesticides may cause negative environmental and human health effects depending on their specific distribution and use. Securing environmental safety and sustainability of

  18. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  19. European Union policy on pesticides: implications for agriculture in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess, Stephen; Kildea, Steven; Moody, Aidan; Rennick, Gordon; Murchie, Archie K; Cooke, Louise R

    2014-11-01

    European Community (EC) legislation has limited the availability of pesticide active substances used in effective plant protection products. The Pesticide Authorisation Directive 91/414/EEC introduced the principle of risk assessment for approval of pesticide active substances. This principle was modified by the introduction of Regulation (EC) 1107/2009, which applies hazard, the intrinsic toxicity of the active substance, rather than risk, the potential for hazard to occur, as the approval criterion. Potential impacts of EC pesticide legislation on agriculture in Ireland are summarised. While these will significantly impact on pesticide availability in the medium to long term, regulations associated with water quality (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and Drinking Water Directive 1998/83/EC) have the potential to restrict pesticide use more immediately, as concerns regarding public health and economic costs associated with removing pesticides from water increase. This rationale will further reduce the availability of effective pesticide active substances, directly affecting crop protection and increasing pesticide resistance within pest and disease populations. In addition, water quality requirements may also impact on important active substances used in plant protection in Ireland. The future challenge for agriculture in Ireland is to sustain production and profitability using reduced pesticide inputs within a framework of integrated pest management.

  20. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Damalas, Christos A.; KOUTROUBAS, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesti...

  1. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Damalas, Christos A.; KOUTROUBAS, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesti...

  2. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... human health and the environment from unintentional misuse of pesticides. Web-distributed labeling would... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web- Distributed Labeling for Pesticide... is announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice...

  3. Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 41 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods Via linkage to the United States Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55,580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided pesticide use information via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: 1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 41 pesticides, 2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures, and 3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalization. Results Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide chlordane. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.89) and hospitalization due to pesticide use (HR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.67, 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD. Conclusions Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. PMID:26177651

  4. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

  5. MBR深度处理农药工艺废水的应用%Application of MBR Technology in the Advanced Treatment of Wastewater from Pesticide Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉俊

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment and MBR technology were applied in the treatment of wastewater from pyrethroids pesticide production. Through the advanced treatment, COD of the final effluent was 28 mg/L, P ( NH3-N) was 0. 1 mg/L and SS was 0. 08 mg/L, which came up the primary standard of integrated discharge of the wastewater. The MBR advanced treatment system was run more than two months, and its operation was stabled, and indexes of the final effluent met the requirements of the recovered reusing water. The cost of recovered reusing water, which produced by the pretreatment and MBR technology applied in the treatment of wastewater and were used as the filling water of water cooling system in screw compression refrigeration unit, was 1. 79 yuan/ton, and it was less than the current water fee (2. 2 yuan/ton) .%采用预处理-超滤膜工艺深度处理某农药化工厂拟除虫菊酯类农药生产工艺废水。经过深度处理出水 COD 为28 mg/L, P( NH3-N)为0.1 mg/L, SS为0.08 mg/L,完全达到污水综合排放一级标准要求。 MBR深度处理系统连续运行两个月以上,运行过程稳定,出水水质检测合符回用要求。采用预处理-超滤膜工艺产水回用于螺杆压缩制冷机组水冷却系统补水的成本为每吨产水1.79元,低于现行的自来水每吨2.2元的费用。

  6. Pesticide potential dermal exposure during the manipulation of concentrated mixtures at small horticultural and floricultural production units in Argentina: the formulation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenstein, Giselle A; Hughes, Enrique A; March, Hugo; Rojic, Guillermo; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2014-02-15

    Potential dermal exposure measurements of horticultural and floricultural field operators that handled concentrated pesticides showed a correlation with the types of formulations used (liquid or solid) during the mix and load stage. For liquid formulations, hand exposure was 22-62 times greater than that for solid ones. The dermal exposure mechanism was studied for this formulation under laboratory conditions, finding that the rupture of the aluminum seal of the pesticide container and the color of the liquid formulation are important factors. Additionally, significant external surface contamination of pesticide containers collected at horticultural farms was found. This could partially account for the differences between the exposure levels of field and laboratory experiments for liquid formulations.

  7. Personal safety issues related to the use of pesticides in agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Zadjali, Said [Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, PO Box 321, Muscat 100 (Oman); Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Deadman, Mike, E-mail: mikedead@squ.edu.om [Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 34, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2015-01-01

    The level of uptake and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by farm workers in Oman is low; the conditions under which pesticides are stored are frequently below acceptable international standards. Research was undertaken to explore the drivers working against safe storage of agrochemicals and effective personal protection usage by pesticide application personnel. Results from a survey of over 200 respondents, representing workers in, and owners of, farms either within or outside a local farmer's association (FA), suggest that FA membership raises standards of behaviour both in terms of safe pesticide storage and use of PPE. Age of respondents had no apparent effect on the likelihood of PPE (gloves and masks) use. PPE use was, however, highest among respondents with more advanced educational backgrounds. Positive responses for glove and mask use, when applying pesticides, were higher for owners and workers in FA farms compared to non-FA farms. Lowest reported use of PPE was among workers in non-FA farms. Analysis of responses appears to indicate that behaviour patterns of workers in FA farms mirror that of the farm owners. This was not the case in non-FA farms. The results suggest that conformity to social norms, in this case acceptable work-environment behaviour, is a powerful driver behind raised usage levels of PPE in farms in Oman. - Highlights: • Pesticide-related safety standards are frequently poor on many farms in Northern Oman. • Pesticides are frequently stored within the living accommodation of farm workers. • Safety standards generally increase with the education status of farm workers. • A local farmers’ association (FA) has the effect of raising safety standards on member’s farms. • FA farm workers are more likely to conform to the behaviour shown by owners of FA farms.

  8. Multi-residue method for determination of 58 pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in water using solvent demulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Rombaldi, Caroline; Arias, Jean Lucas de Oliveira; Marube, Liziane Cardoso; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and efficient sample pretreatment using solvent-based de-emulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SD-DLLME) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was studied for the extraction of 58 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and pesticides from water samples. Type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents, pH, salt addition, amount of salt and type of demulsification solvent were evaluated. Limits of quantification (LOQ) in the range from 0.0125 to 1.25 µg L(-1) were reached, and linearity was in the range from the LOQ of each compound to 25 μg L(-1). Recoveries ranged from 60% to 120% for 84% of the compounds, with relative standard deviations lower than 29%. The proposed method demonstrated, for the first time, that sample preparation by SD-DLLME with determination by LC-MS/MS can be successfully used for the simultaneous extraction of 32 pesticides and 26 PPCPs from water samples. The entire procedure, including the extraction of 58 organic compounds from the aqueous sample solution and the breaking up of the emulsion after extraction with water, rather than with an organic solvent, was environmentally friendly. In addition, this technique was less expensive and faster than traditional techniques. Finally, the analytical method under study was successfully applied to the analysis of all 58 pesticides and PPCPs in surface water samples.

  9. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides and their major degradation product residues in food samples by HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guilong; He, Qiang; Lu, Ying; Mmereki, Daniel; Zhong, Zhihui

    2016-10-01

    A simple method based on dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) was developed for the extraction of chlorpyrifos (CP), chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM), and their main degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in tomato and cucumber samples. The determination was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). In the DSPE-DLLME-SFO, the analytes were first extracted with acetone. The clean-up of the extract by DSPE was carried out by directly adding activated carbon sorbent into the extract solution, followed by shaking and filtration. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method was sensitive and showed a good linearity within a range of 2-500 ng/g, with the correlation coefficients (r) varying from 0.9991 to 0.9996. The enrichment factors ranged from 127 to 138. The limit of detections (LODs) were in the range of 0.12-0.68 ng/g, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 50 ng/g of each analytes in tomato samples were in the range of 3.25-6.26 % (n = 5). The proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the mentioned analytes residues in tomato and cucumber samples, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  10. Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebdoua, Samira; Lazali, Mohamed; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Tellah, Sihem; Nabi, Fahima; Ounane, Ghania

    2017-01-17

    A total of 160 samples of 13 types of fresh fruits and vegetables from domestic production and import were analysed to detect the presence of pesticide residues. Analysis was performed by multi-residual extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 42.5% of the tested samples, no residues were found and 12.5% of samples contained pesticide residues above maximum residue limits. Risk assessment for long-term exposure was done for all pesticides detected in this study. Except chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, exposure to pesticides from vegetables and fruits was below 1% of the acceptable daily intake. Short-term exposure assessment revealed that in seven pesticide/commodity combinations, including three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin), the acute reference dose had been exceeded.

  11. 75 FR 17571 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... pendimethalin and its metabolite, expressed as pendimethalin equivalents, in or on alfalfa forage. BASF... not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...

  12. 78 FR 44444 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS... crops: Apples: 45%; asparagus: 30%; barley: 2.5%; cantaloupes: 15%; carrots: 2.5%; celery: 2.5%; corn: 2...

  13. 76 FR 23882 - Metiram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... entities may include, but are not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... estimated the PCT for existing uses as follows: Apple, 65%; asparagus, 30%; barley, 2%; beans, dried, 2.5...

  14. 75 FR 24421 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... entities may include, but are not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... Health Risk Assessment to support tolerances in/on Asparagus, Barley, Beans, Beets, Brassica leafy greens...

  15. 78 FR 24094 - Azoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... follows: Almonds, 25%; apricots, 10%; artichokes, 25%; asparagus, 2.5%; green beans, 10%; blackberries, 5...

  16. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  17. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamane, Ali; Baldi, Isabelle; Tessier, Jean-François; Raherison, Chantal; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three) and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two) were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  18. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  19. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carriquiriborde, P.; Mirabella, P.; Waichman, A.; Solomon, K.; Brink, van den P.J.; Maund, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the

  20. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carriquiriborde, P.; Mirabella, P.; Waichman, A.; Solomon, K.; Brink, van den P.J.; Maund, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the

  1. The use and fate of pesticides in vegetable-based agroecosystems in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntow, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Use and Fate of Pesticides in Vegetable-based Agroecosystems in Ghana presents the results of a doctoral study conducted on pesticide use in vegetable production in Ghana, West Africa. It covers the various aspects of pesticide use, behavior, and impacts in vegetable-based agroecosystems and

  2. 40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. 158.2083 Section 158.2083 Protection of... determine the human health assessment data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. (2.... Table—EUP Biochemical Pesticides Human Health Assessment Data Requirements Guideline Number Data...

  3. 40 CFR 161.108 - Relationship of Pesticide Assessment Guidelines to data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 161.108 Relationship of Pesticide Assessment Guidelines to data requirements...: Humans and Domestic Animals PB83-153916 161.340 G Product Performance PB83-153924 161.640 I...

  4. Pesticide pollution status in cocoa plantation soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Atuanya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Management of cocoa plantation field relied on the use of pesticides over the years; hence, the fate of such chemicals is one of the most debated issues among the stakeholders. Young and old cocoa plantation fields from 4 major cocoa producing States in Nigeria were selected as the study area. Eight composites soil samples collected from 3 portions of 6 transect measured area (100 x 50m of the field were transported to the laboratory in sterile glass jar for analysis. A total of 19 organochlorine pesticides residues; (aldrin, α-hexachlorohexane, β-hexachlorohexane, γ-hexachlorohexane, δ-hexachlorohexane, α-chlordane, γ-chlordane, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dieldrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan-II, endosulfan sulfate, endrin, endrin aldehydes, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and metoxychlor were analyzed with gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector. The results revealed the variation in the number of residues detected among the study fields. Endosulfan-I had the highest value g organochlorine pesticides residue detected. Most of the residue concentrations were within the European Union regulatory standard of Czech Republic. Other-cyclodine group had the highest concentration value among the evaluated organochlorine pesticides groups. The significant (P < 0.05 higher concentration of total organochlorine pesticides were observed in old fields. Composition quotients values indicate that most of the observed organochlorine pesticides residues were products of historical usage. There were strong correlations among the total organic carbon contents of soils and the total organochlorine pesticides compounds. Government regulatory agencies are encouraged to vigorously embark in further monitoring and ensuring the safety compliance of farmers towards the use of pesticides in Nigeria farms.

  5. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the pesticide label. Check with your local solid waste management authority, environmental agency or health department to find ... of your phone book under categories such as solid waste, public works, or garbage, ... containers. Pesticide residues can contaminate the new contents and cause serious ...

  6. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  7. Pesticide Sector Performed Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lvxian

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Further output growth in the first half of 2007 According to data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the output of pesticides (usually refering to pure pesticide technical) in China was 856 thousand tons in the first half of 2007, an increase of 25.6% over the same period of 2006.

  8. Food and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  9. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  10. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  11. In vitro effect of pesticides on the germination, vegetative growth, and conidial production of two strains of Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Verona; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are widely used as biological control agents against a broad range of insect and arachnid pests. However, the control efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi is variable because of unfavourable and fluctuating environmental conditions and intrinsic factors. One strategy to enhance entomopathogenic fungi efficacy is a combined use of entomopathogenic fungi and low dosages of pesticides. These sub-lethal dosages of chemicals can increase the control efficiency of entomopathogenic fungi but only if they do not affect the fungi. Adverse effects could include the inhibition of germination and/or vegetative growth as well as conidiogenesis. The present study investigated the in vitro effects of different concentrations of fipronil, permethrin, imidacloprid, NeemAzal, and amitraz as potential candidates for combined applications on two strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (MA). MA was inoculated on a medium amended with five different concentrations (0.32-200 ppm) of the abovementioned pesticides. The germination, vegetative growth, and sporulation were evaluated. The results showed, according to a physiology parameter compatibility classification, that all pesticides were compatible with both tested MA strains. Only fipronil in the higher dose rates of 40 and 200 ppm was close to moderately toxic to MA-7. Furthermore, only higher concentrations of the pesticides caused a slight inhibition (about 15%) of conidial germination and a reduction in colony size. Sporulation was reduced at most by approximately 50% by 40 or 200 ppm of fipronil or amitraz, respectively. Therefore, it is possible to use the tested pesticides in combination with either strain of MA for an integrated pest management approach. Studies on the effect of these combinations on target organisms are in progress.

  12. DETERMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATERS SAMPLED FROM CLUJ AND HUNEDOARA COUNTIES

    OpenAIRE

    MARIA-ELISABETA LOVÁSZ; IRINA DUMITRAŞCU; OVIDIU TRAIAN POPA; ANCA ELENA GURZĂU

    2011-01-01

    Determination of organochlorine pesticides in drinking waterssampled from Cluj and Hunedoara counties. Pesticides are found scattered indifferent environmental factors (water, air, soil) wherefrom they are drawn off byvegetal and animal organisms. Water pollution by pesticides results from the plantprotection products industry and also from massive application of these resourcesin agriculture and other branches of economy. Pesticides can reach surface wateralong with dripping waters and by in...

  13. Quantitative targeted and retrospective data analysis of relevant pesticides, antibiotics and mycotoxins in bakery products by liquid chromatography-single-stage Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Emiliano; Commissati, Italo; Gritti, Elisa; Catellani, Dante; Suman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In addition to 'traditional' multi-residue and multi-contaminant multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometric techniques devoted to quantifying a list of targeted compounds, the global food industry requires non-targeted methods capable of detecting other possible potentially hazardous compounds. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a single-stage Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer (UHPLC-HRMS Exactive™-Orbitrap Technology) was successfully exploited for the complete selective and quantitative determination of 33 target compounds within three major cross categories (pesticides, antibiotics and mycotoxins) in bakery matrices (specifically milk, wheat flour and mini-cakes). Resolution was set at 50 000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) to achieve the right compromise between an adequate scan speed and selectivity, allowing for the limitations related to the necessary generic sample preparation approach. An exact mass with tolerance of 5 ppm and minimum peak threshold of 10 000 units were fixed as the main identification conditions, including retention time and isotopic pattern as additional criteria devoted to greatly reducing the risk of false-positive findings. The full validation for all the target analytes was performed: linearity, intermediate repeatability and recovery (28 analytes within 70-120%) were positively assessed; furthermore, limits of quantification between 5 and 100 µg kg(-1) (with most of the analytes having a limit of detection below 6 µg kg(-1)) indicate good performance, which is compatible with almost all the regulatory needs. Naturally contaminated and fortified mini-cakes, prepared through combined use of industrial and pilot plant production lines, were analysed at two different concentration levels, obtaining good overall quantitative results and providing preliminary indications of the potential of full-scan HRMS cluster analysis. The effectiveness of this analytical approach was also tested in

  14. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  15. Australian work exposures studies: occupational exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomichen, Jasmine; El-Zaemey, Sonia; Heyworth, Jane S; Carey, Renee N; Darcey, Ellie; Reid, Alison; Glass, Deborah C; Driscoll, Tim; Peters, Susan; Abramson, Michael; Fritschi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in some occupational settings. Some pesticides have been classified as carcinogens; however, data on the number of workers exposed to pesticides are not available in Australia. The main aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of pesticide exposure in Australian workplaces. The analysis used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study, a series of nationwide telephone surveys which investigated work-related prevalence and exposure to carcinogens and asthmagens, including pesticides, among current Australian workers. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Workers were considered exposed to pesticides if they reported applying or mixing pesticides in their current job. Of the 10 371 respondents, 410 (4%) respondents were assessed as being exposed to pesticides in the workplace, with exposure being more likely among males, individuals born in Australia, individuals with lower education level and those residing in regional or remote areas. Glyphosate was the most common active ingredient used by workers. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational pesticide exposure in Australia and one of the few recent studies internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Nanotechnology Applied to Bio-Encapsulation of Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Renato; Abhilash, Purushothaman Chirakkuzhyil; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been made towards the application of nanotechnology in sustainable food production. In this context, the bio-encapsulation process has taken prominence in particular as an ecofriendly method for pest control while reducing the pesticide load in the environment considerably. By taking into consideration, here we are presenting an overview regarding the prospects for the development of nanoencapsulated pesticides in sustainable agriculture and highlight some challenges to be addressed in order to develop efficient nano-carrier systems that may arise as an alternative for conventional pesticide application. However, much research has to be done in this area in order to develop safe and promising pesticide delivery systems for increasing global food production by enhancing the selectivity, specificity and longevity of the encapsulated pesticides while reducing the negative environmental impacts to ecosystem and human beings.

  17. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highes...... individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design.......This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  18. Migrant farm workers' access to pesticide protection and information: Cultivando Buenos Habitos campaign development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, R; Wilson, K; Buttram, C; Jones, K; Steiner, C

    1999-01-01

    Formative evaluation of south Georgian migrant farm workers' access to information and products to promote pesticide protection and understanding of cancer risk associated with pesticide exposure was conducted using field observation, in-depth interviews of Georgia's Migrant Health Program's outreach workers, and structured face-to-face surveys of migrant farm workers. The data indicated that fewer than one-third of the pesticide products reviewed contained messages about pesticide use and exposure risk for humans. Risk information on products appeared in English only. Few protective devices were available for purchase. Migrant farm workers were aware in a very general sense of health risks posed by pesticides, but they were specifically unaware of the reach of pesticides sprayed, as illustrated by their field behaviors. Findings also demonstrated the need to educate outreach workers about migrant farm workers' cancer risk, so that they may act as migrant farm workers' health advocates to reduce the adverse effects associated with pesticide exposure.

  19. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  20. 荔枝生产中农药使用对蜜蜂的影响分析%Impact Analysis of Pesticide Application in Litchi Production on Bees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王思威; 刘艳萍; 孙海滨

    2016-01-01

    针对我国荔枝生长各阶段的病虫害发生和防治的农药种类,综合分析了对收获期荔枝农药残留量及在花期采粉采蜜的蜜蜂的影响,明确了影响荔枝残留量超标和蜜蜂种群生长发育及行为的施药因子,提出了参照农药合理使用准则施药以防止荔枝上农药残留量超标、选择合理的用药时期以防止蜜蜂种群失调的对策。%According to the diseases and insect pests occurrence and the pesticides prevention and control at different stages of litchi growth in China,we comprehensively analyzed the effects on pesticide residue of litchi and the honey at flowering stage .Drug application factors affecting the litchi residues and the growth of bee population were detected.Countermeasures were put forward,such as selecting rational drug use according to the applying rules of pesticides.

  1. Biosensor technology for pesticides--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Bhardwaj, Atul

    2015-03-01

    Pesticides, due to their lucrative outcomes, are majorly implicated in agricultural fields for crop production enhancement. Due to their pest removal properties, pesticides of various classes have been designed to persist in the environment over a longer duration after their application to achieve maximum effectiveness. Apart from their recalcitrant structure and agricultural benefits, pesticides also impose acute toxicological effects onto the other various life forms. Their accumulation in the living system may prove to be detrimental if established in higher concentrations. Thus, their prompt and accurate analysis is a crucial matter of concern. Conventional techniques like chromatographic techniques (HPLC, GC, etc.) used for pesticides detection are associated with various limitations like stumpy sensitivity and efficiency, time consumption, laboriousity, requirement of expensive equipments and highly trained technicians, and many more. So there is a need to recruit the methods which can detect these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, rapidly, and easily in the field. Present work is a brief review of the pesticide effects, their current usage scenario, permissible limits in various food stuffs and 21st century advancements of biosensor technology for pesticide detection. Due to their exceptional performance capabilities, easiness in operation and on-site working, numerous biosensors have been developed for bio-monitoring of various environmental samples for pesticide evaluation immensely throughout the globe. Till date, based on sensing element (enzyme based, antibody based, etc.) and type of detection method used (Electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric, etc.), a number of biosensors have been developed for pesticide detection. In present communication, authors have summarized 21st century's approaches of biosensor technology for pesticide detection such as enzyme-based biosensors, immunosensors, aptamers, molecularly imprinted polymers, and

  2. Ontology-based Expert System for Safe and Reasonable Application of Pesticides in Vegetable Production%基于本体的蔬菜农药安全使用专家系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春雨; 谢丙炎; 郑建秋; 李健强

    2011-01-01

    为实现蔬菜生产过程中有害生物的有效防治与农药的合理使用,设计了B/S结构的远程农药安全合理使用专家系统.该系统具有有害生物查询、识别诊断、防治方法决策、农药安全合理使用决策、知识库管理、专家交流等功能模块,采用了本体技术对专家知识进行建模,能够实现高效智能推理和知识的共享与重用;建立了多因素的农药评价模型,综合考虑农药使用的各种因素,为蔬菜有害生物防治推荐科学的农药品种和安全合理的使用技术;应用表明该系统具有成本低廉、扩展性强、实用性好、用户友好等优点.%A safe and reasonable application of pesticides expert system was designed with B/S structure which had six sub-systems such as pests querying, pest identifying, decision-making of control methods, pesticide recommendation, knowledge management and expert consulting. Ontology technology was applied to model expert knowledge in order to achieve high intelligent reasoning and the sharing, and the knowledge reusing. Furthermore, a multi-factor model of pesticide evaluation was designed for comprehensively considering various factors that affect the reasonable selection of pesticides. The implemented prototype system verified that the solution was low-cost, high scalable, user-friendly and efficient. It is widely prospective in various vegetable productions and will supply a guideline for other crops production.

  3. Residential Pesticide Usage in Older Adults Residing in Central California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Ritz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on residential pesticide usage and behaviors that may influence pesticide exposure was collected in three population-based studies of older adults residing in the three Central California counties of Fresno, Kern, and Tulare. We present data from participants in the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors (SUPERB study (N = 153 and from community controls ascertained in two Parkinson’s disease studies, the Parkinson’s Environment and Gene (PEG study (N = 359 and The Center for Gene-Environment Studies in Parkinson’s Disease (CGEP; N = 297. All participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on recent and lifetime indoor and outdoor residential pesticide use. Interviews ascertained type of product used, frequency of use, and behaviors that may influence exposure to pesticides during and after application. Well over half of all participants reported ever using indoor and outdoor pesticides; yet frequency of pesticide use was relatively low, and appeared to increase slightly with age. Few participants engaged in behaviors to protect themselves or family members and limit exposure to pesticides during and after treatment, such as ventilating and cleaning treated areas, or using protective equipment during application. Our findings on frequency of use over lifetime and exposure related behaviors will inform future efforts to develop population pesticide exposure models and risk assessment.

  4. Pesticide Registration Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  5. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  6. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  7. Why We Review Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    As required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA periodically reviews existing registered pesticides to ensure they can be used safely, without unreasonable risks to human health and the environment.

  8. Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

  9. Respiratory Protection against Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Although the respiratory (breathing) system tolerates exposure to a limited degree, some chemicals can impair or destroy portions of it. For many pesticides, the respiratory system is the quickest and most direct route into the circulatory system, allowing rapid transport throughout the body. Thus, it is important to follow the pesticide label and follow directions for control of exposure, especially when respiratory protection is specified. A respirator is a safety device covering at least t...

  10. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  11. Factors associated with the decline in suicide by pesticide poisoning in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Eddleston, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for one-third of suicides worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a commonly used method. We investigated trends in pesticide suicide, and factors associated with such trends...... of the workforce involved in agriculture and unemployment. We compared pesticide products banned by the Taiwanese government with products that remained on the market and pesticides that accounted for the most poisoning deaths in Taiwan. Results. Age-standardised rates of pesticide suicide showed a 67% reduction...... from 7.7 per 100,000 (42% of all suicides) in 1987 to 2.5 per 100,000 (12% of all suicides) in 2010, in contrast to a 69% increase in suicide rates by other methods. Pesticide poisoning was the most commonly used method of suicide in 1987 but had become the third most common method by 2010...

  12. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly...... affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate......, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal...

  13. Development of pesticide use maps for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dabrowski, James M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available . Introduction According to the South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) there are in excess of 3000 pesticide products approved for use in South Africa.1 Pesticides are important to crop management because they contribute... on the spatial distribution of the crops to which they are applied. The Census of Agriculture Provincial Statistics performed by Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) in 200223 was used to estimate the spatial distribution of crop production in South Africa...

  14. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip J; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. The results are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20 years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well due to changes in pumping, wellhead management is important for managing pesticide concentrations.

  15. Reducing pesticide level in wine by selective filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempereur Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine Pesticide residues, even when below grape regulatory limit, are a concern for consumers and have an impact on the export potential of wine in certain markets. A consortium of European SMEs (www.adfimax.com has developed a product that reduces the level of mycotoxins and pesticides in wine while keeping all other wine parameter identical. The product is derived from renewable vegetable fiber. The production process includes both activation and micronisation. The usage recommendation is to substitute only the pre-coat, typically perlite, by the product at 1 or 1.5 kg⋅m−2 without changing the other layer (body feed typically kieselguhr. This paper describes the results of numerous industrial trials that were performed in France, Luxemburg, Germany and Spain. The impact of the product on the wine oenological characteristics was evaluated for different wine (white, red and rosé in different countries and for different grape variety (including Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot and Gamay. Results showed a reduction of the test wine pesticide level of 50% to 60% for all pesticides compared to the blank. Level of pesticide analyzed in the cake where extremely high at a level of a 1,000 times greater than the filtered wine showing the ability of the product to selectively capture the pesticides molecules.

  16. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2014-02-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of

  17. Monitoring of pesticides and nitrates on water, soil and agricultural production in the Bracciano lake district; Monitoraggio di pesticidi e nitrati nelle acque, suolo, e prodotti agricoli nel bacino del lago di Bracciano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffarelli, V.; Correnti, A. [ENEA, Div. Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Cecchini, G.; Frugis, A.; Segatori, M. [WRc Italia SpA, Gruppo ACEA, Centro di Ricerca e Sviluppo, Rome (Italy); Conte, E.; Milani, R.; Morali, G. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, Rome (Italy); Ciampi, G. [Agenzia Regionale per l' Innovazione e lo Sviluppo in Agricoltura del Lazio, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In the Bracciano Lake district, in actuation of the 2081/93 EEC, obj. 5b, a study was carried out, aimed to the realisation of a territorial informative system and supply technical support to the farmers for phyto pathological problems. A monitoring program has been realized for pesticide and nitrate in environmental samples and agricultural products. Five hundred and sixteen samples have been collected and analysed, from march 1999 to October 2000: 191 samples of water (ground and surface water), 20 samples of soil, 340 samples of agricultural products (vegetables and fruit). Pesticides were found in irrigation water and soil samples; the irregularities on agricultural products, 3% could disappear if the treatments are correct and respect the label indications. [Italian] In attuazione del regolamento 2081/93 ECC ob.5 b, nel bacino del lago di Bracciano, e' stato realizzato uno studio mirato alla realizzazione di un sistema informativo territoriale e a fornire un supporto tecnico per la gestione della difesa fitosanitaria della produzione agricola. Una campagna di monitoraggio e' stata realizzata per l'analisi della presenza di pesticidi in campioni ambientali e nei prodotti agricoli. Sono stati prelevati e analizzati 516 campioni nel periodo marzo '99. Ottobre 2000: 191 campioni di acque superficiali e di falda, 20 campioni di suolo, 340 campioni (frutta e vegetali). Pesticidi sono stati ritrovati nelle acque di irrigazione e nel suolo; la presenza di irregolarita' riscontrate nel 3% dei prodotti agricoli, e' da attribuire a un uso non corretto dei prodotti fitosanitari.

  18. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  19. Case study to illustrate an approach for detecting contamination and impurities in pesticide formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasali, Helen; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Machera, Kyriaki; Ambrus, Arpad

    2014-11-26

    Counterfeit pesticides threaten public health, food trade, and the environment. The present work draws attention to the importance of regular monitoring of impurities in formulated pesticide products. General screening revealed the presence of carbaryl as a contaminant in a copper oxychloride formulated product. In this paper, as a case study, a liquid chromatographic diode array-mass spectrometric method developed for general screening of pesticide products and quantitative determination of carbaryl together with its validation is presented. The proposed testing strategy is considered suitable for use as a general approach for testing organic contaminants and impurities in solid pesticide formulations.

  20. Degradation Processes of Pesticides Used in Potato Cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, M; Barchańska, H; Turek, M

    Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide).Application of pesticides improves crop efficiency, however, as pesticides are not totally selective, it affects also non-target organisms. Moreover, the agrochemicals may accumulate in crops and, as a consequence, negatively influence the quality of food products and consumer health. Additional risks of plant protection products are related to their derivatives, that are created both in the environment (soil, water) and in plant organisms, since many of these compounds may exhibit toxic effects.This article is devoted to the degradation processes of pesticides used in potato crop protection. Attention is also paid to the toxicity of both parent compounds and their degradation products for living organisms, including humans. Information about the level of pesticide contamination in the environment (water, soil) and accumulation level in edible plants complement the current knowledge about the risks associated with widespread use of thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, rimsulfuron and metalaxyl in potato cultivation.

  1. Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI), established in 1963, is the first professional pesticide institute in China. After being approved by the Science & Technology Committee of PRC, it became the base for Shanghai Branch of National Pesticide R&D South center.

  2. Pesticides: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumstead, Cynthia, Ed.; And Others

    Developed to provide an introduction to the issues surrounding the use of chemical pesticides, this booklet encourages individuals and communities to become active in determining the safe use and regulation of pesticides. The major components of the guide include: (1) an explanation of the issue; (2) pesticides and their effect on human health;…

  3. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.

  4. Estimated annual agricultural pesticide use for counties of the conterminous United States, 2008-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2015-01-01

    Annual county-level pesticide use was estimated for 423 herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides applied to agricultural crops grown in the conterminous United States during 2008–12. For all States except California, pesticide-use data were compiled from proprietary surveys of farm operations located within U.S. Department of Agriculture Crop Reporting Districts (CRDs). Surveyed pesticide-use data were used in conjunction with county annual harvested-crop acres reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture 2007 and 2012 Censuses of Agriculture and the 2008–11 County Agricultural Production Survey to calculate use rates per harvested-crop acre, or an “estimated pesticide use” (EPest) rate, for each crop by year. County-use estimates were then calculated by multiplying EPest rates by harvested-crop acres for each pesticide crop combination. Use estimates for California were obtained from annual Department of Pesticide Regulation-Pesticide Use Reports.

  5. Monitoring of pesticide leaching from cultivated fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüsch, Walter; Rosenbom, Annette E; Badawi, Nora;

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme (PLAP) was initiated in 1998 by the Danish Parliament in order to evaluate whether the use of approved pesticides will result in an unacceptable contamination of the groundwater, if applied under field conditions in accordance with current Danish...... regulation. In this programme, water samples from variably saturated soil and groundwater collected at five cultivated fields are analysed for selected pesticides and their degradation products. The PLAP results are summarised and evaluated in yearly reports and used by the Danish Environmental Protection...

  6. Unidentified Inert Ingredients in Pesticides: Implications for Human and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Caroline; Surgan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Background By statute or regulation in the United States and elsewhere, pesticide ingredients are divided into two categories: active and inert (sometimes referred to as other ingredients, adjuvants, or coformulants). Despite their name, inert ingredients may be biologically or chemically active and are labeled inert only because of their function in the formulated product. Most of the tests required to register a pesticide are performed with the active ingredient alone, not the full pesticide formulation. Inert ingredients are generally not identified on product labels and are often claimed to be confidential business information. Objectives In this commentary, we describe the shortcomings of the current procedures for assessing the hazards of pesticide formulations and demonstrate that inert ingredients can increase the toxicity of and potential exposure to pesticide formulations. Discussion Inert ingredients can increase the ability of pesticide formulations to affect significant toxicologic end points, including developmental neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, and disruption of hormone function. They can also increase exposure by increasing dermal absorption, decreasing the efficacy of protective clothing, and increasing environmental mobility and persistence. Inert ingredients can increase the phytotoxicity of pesticide formulations as well as the toxicity to fish, amphibians, and microorganisms. Conclusions Pesticide registration should require full assessment of formulations. Evaluations of pesticides under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and similar statutes should include impact assessment of formulations. Environmental monitoring for pesticides should include inert ingredients. To enable independent research and risk assessment, inert ingredients should be identified on product labels. PMID:17185266

  7. Pesticide exports from U.S. ports, 2001-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl; Kerr, Kathleen; Sadripour, Ava

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of U.S. Custom Service records for 2001-2003 indicates that nearly 1.7 billion pounds of pesticide products were exported from U.S. ports, a rate >32 tons/hour. Exports included >27 million pounds of pesticides whose use is forbidden in the United States. WHO Class 1a and 1b pesticides were exported at an average rate of >16 tons/day. Pesticide exports included >500,000 pounds of known or suspected carcinogens, with most going to developing countries; pesticides associated with endocrine disruption were exported at an average rate of >100 tons/day. Although the rate of export of banned products declined, as did exports of pesticides included in global conventions on Prior Informed Consent and Persistent Organic Pollutions, substantial quantities of hazardous products remain in trade. These products pose unacceptable risks in countries where unsafe use and storage practices are prevalent. Policy makers, growers, and scientists must undertake more aggressive efforts to foster sustainable agricultural practices globally.

  8. The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed...... they did want to help to improve identification of such customers. The community did not blame vendors when pesticides used for self-poison were purchased from their shops. Vendors have already taken steps to restrict access, including selling low toxic products, counselling and asking customer to return...

  9. Disposal and degradation of pesticide waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsot, Allan S; Racke, Kenneth D; Hamilton, Denis J

    2003-01-01

    Generation of pesticide waste is inevitable during every agricultural operation from storage to use and equipment cleanup. Large-scale pesticide manufacturers can afford sophisticated recovery, treatment, and cleanup techniques. Small-scale pesticide users, for example, single farms or small application businesses, struggle with both past waste problems, including contaminated soils, and disposal of unused product and equipment rinsewater. Many of these problems have arisen as a result of inability to properly handle spills during, equipment loading and rinsewater generated after application. Small-scale facilities also face continued problems of wastewater handling. Old, obsolete pesticide stocks are a vexing problem in numerous developing countries. Pesticide waste is characterized by high concentrations of a diversity of chemicals and associated adjuvants. Dissipation of chemicals at elevated concentrations is much slower than at lower concentrations, in part because of microbial toxicity and mass transfer limitations. High concentrations of pesticides may also move faster to lower soil depths, especially when pore water becomes saturated wish a compound. Thus, if pesticide waste is not properly disposed of, groundwater and surface water contamination become probable. The Waste Management Hierarchy developed as an Australian Code of Practice can serve as a guide for development of a sound waste management plan. In order of desirability, the course of actions include waste avoidance, waste reduction, waste recycling, waste treatment, and waste disposal. Proper management of pesticide stocks, including adequate storage conditions, good inventory practices, and regular turnover of products,. will contribute to waste avoidance and reduction over the long-term. Farmers can also choose to use registered materials that have the lowest recommended application rates or are applied in the least volume of water. Wastewater that is generated during equipment rinsing can be

  10. [Exposure pathways to pesticides in schoolchildren in the Province of Talca, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Muñoz, María Pía

    2014-01-01

    To describe pesticide concentrations in distinct environmental matrices at two time points (low and high seasons in local agricultural production) and to estimate the association between the presence of pesticide residues in matrices and the use of pesticides in the home with the sociodemographic variables of schoolchildren in the Province of Talca, Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 190 schoolchildren. Families were surveyed about their children's vegetable consumption in school and at home, the use of pesticides in the home, and other sociodemographic variables. Additionally, we measured pesticide residues in vegetables and water consumed by the schoolchildren and in the soil of 14 schools. At both time points, the vegetable matrix had the highest pesticide concentration, both in urban and rural schoolchildren. The most common pesticide residues in vegetables were chlorpyrifos, diphenylamine, pyrimethanil, and thiabendazole. In the home, pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides were mainly used in summer. Dangerous pesticide residues such as azinphos methyl and dimethoate were found in vegetables consumed by the children in schools and households, and organochlorines were found in the soil in some schools. Pesticide exposure should be limited and the health effects related to pesticide exposure should be assessed in the school population. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Can economic incentives encourage actual reductions in pesticide use and enfironmental spillovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Spiro, A.; Stefanou, S.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical pesticides constitute an important input in crop production. But their indiscriminate use can impact negatively agricultural productivity, human health, and the environment. Recently, attention is focused on the use of economic incentives to reduce pesticide use and its related indirect

  12. Seletividade de agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã para adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Side effects of pesticides used in integrated production of apple in adults of Trichogramma pretiosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Gindri Manzoni

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade de 12 agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã, em laboratório (temperatura 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotófase de 14 horas, tendo-se exposto adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum a resíduos secos dos agrotóxicos, na máxima dosagem recomendada para uso em campo, e tendo-se posteriormente mensurado o número de ovos parasitados por fêmea. Reduções no parasitismo, em relação à testemunha (água, foram utilizadas para classificar os agrotóxicos em inócuo (99%. Foram inócuos os acaricidas Envidor (espirodiclofeno, Kendo 50 SC (fenpiroximato e Ortus 50 SC (fenpiroximato, os fungicidas Antracol 700 PM (propinebe, Midas BR (famoxadona + mancozebe, Palisade (fluquinconazol, Persist SC (mancozebe e Systhane PM (miclobutanil e o inseticida Mimic 240 SC (tebufenozida; o herbicida Polaris (glifosato foi levemente nocivo; os herbicidas Finale (glufosinato sal de amônio e Roundup Original (glifosato foram moderadamente nocivos a T. pretiosum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the side effects of 12 pesticides used in the integrated production of apple, in laboratory (25±1ºC temperature, 70±10% relative humidity and 14 hours photophase, exposing adults of Trichogramma pretiosum to fresh dry pesticide film, in the maximum dosage recommended for field use, with subsequent assessement of the number of eggs parasitized per female. The reduction in the parasitism, compared with the control (water, was used to classify the pesticides as harmless (99%. The acaricides Envidor (spirodiclofen, Kendo 50 SC (fenpyroximate and Ortus 50 SC (fenpyroximate, the fungicides Antracol 700 PM (propineb, Midas BR (famoxadone + mancozeb, Palisade (fluquinconazole, Persist SC (mancozeb and Systhane PM (myclobutanil and the insecticide Mimic 240 SC (tebufenozide were harmless; the herbicide Polaris (glyphosate was slightly harmful; the herbicides Finale (gluphosinate-ammonium and Roundup

  13. Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Hendy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides.Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides.Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50 were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; examined for any medical and neurological problems with particular attention to sensory and motor functions including cranial nerves, sensory and motor system, and reflexes. From each participant, a blood sample was taken to measure acetylcholinesterase activity, and liver and kidney functions. Children who have never worked in agriculture (n = 50, matched on age, education, and socioeconomic status were also studied and served as controls.Results: More neuromuscular disorders were identified in pesticide applicators than controls. A significant lower level of acetylcholinesterase was found in the applicator group compared to the controls. There was also a significant difference in hematological, renal and hepatic indices in the exposed children compared to the control children. Working more days in the current season and also working more years as a pesticide applicator were both associated with an increase in the prevalence of neuromuscular abnormalities and significant changes in the laboratory tests.Conclusion: Children and adolescent pesticide applicators working in farms of Egypt are at risk of developing serious health problems similar to those of adults.

  14. Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

  15. Determination of Organophosphorous Pesticide Residues in Aquatic Products by Gas Chromatography%固相净化气相色谱法测定水产品中多种有机磷农药残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万译文; 刘丽; 李小玲; 黄华伟

    2012-01-01

    Established an analytical method for the determination of 8 organophosphorous pesticide residues in aquatic products by GC/FPD. The sample was extracted by acetonitrile, purified by ENVI-C18 and PSA solid-phase extraction, cartridges using acetone/n-hexane ( 1:1, V:V) as eluent. The eluent was blown to dryness under a stream of nitrogen,was then injected into the GC system to quantitative analysis. Calibration curves of high cor-relation were for 8 organophosphorous pesticide residues in a range between 0.050 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L,detec-tion limits were in the range of 1. 8μg/kg~2.5 (μg/kg,RSD of spiked replicate samples ranged from 1.1%~ 5.7% and the recovery rates were from 69.8%~116%.%建立了水产品中8种有机磷农药残留同时测定的方法,选择乙腈提取,ENVI-C18串联PSA固相萃取柱净化,经丙酮/正己烷混合溶液(体积比1∶1)洗脱,洗脱液氮吹浓缩后采用气相色谱外标法定量.8种有机磷农药在0.050 mg/L~1.00 mg/L范围内线性良好,检出限在1.8 μg/kg~2.5 μg/kg之间,3个添加水平加标样品平行测定的相对标准偏差为1.1% ~5.7%,回收率为69.8%~116%.

  16. Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson's disease in East Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Amanpreet S; Tarbutton, G Lester; Levin, Jeffrey L; Plotkin, George M; Lowry, Larry K; Nalbone, J Torey; Shepherd, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may have a role in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is little human data on risk associated with specific pesticide products, including organic pesticides such as rotenone with PD. Using a case-control design, this study examined self-reports of exposure to pesticide products, organic pesticides such as rotenone, and other occupational and environmental exposures on the risk of PD in an East Texas population. The findings demonstrated significantly increased risk of PD with use of organic pesticides such as rotenone in the past year in gardening (OR = 10.9; 95% CI = 2.5-48.0) and any rotenone use in the past (OR = 10.0; 95% CI = 2.9-34.3). Use of chlorpyrifos products (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.02-3.8), past work in an electronics plant (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 1.1-23.6), and exposure to fluorides (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.03-10.3) were also associated with significantly increased risk. A trend of increased PD risk was observed with work history in paper/lumber mill (OR = 6.35; 95% CI = 0.7-51.8), exposure to cadmium (OR = 5.3; 95% CI = 0.6-44.9), exposure to paraquat (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 0.4-31.6), and insecticide applications to farm animals/animal areas and agricultural processes (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 0.5-38.1). Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and fish intake were associated with reduced risk. In summary, this study demonstrates an increased risk of PD associated with organic pesticides such as rotenone and certain other pesticides and environmental exposures in this population.

  17. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  18. Smallholder farmers’ knowledge, perception and practice in pesticide use in South Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikre Lemessa Ocho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are often used to manage pests and enhance agricultural productivity. However, pesticides have negative impacts on human and animal health as well as on the environment if not properly used and handled. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices of smallholder farmers in agricultural pesticides utilization in three major cereal producing districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia. For the study original data collected from 140 randomly selected farmers using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and key informant interviews with district level experts were used. The results showed that 98% of the sample households use pesticides; of which 45% purchase pesticides from open market. Furthermore, while the herbicide 2, 4-D was used by 57% of the households, 48% of the respondents did not know the type of pesticides they used. Only 30% read the instructions and less than 40% understand the signs on pesticide containers. Most households perceived that pesticides are useful; however, 98.5% of them witnessed its negative effects. Some health related discomforts reported include nausea, vomiting, headache, and skin irritation with the respective shares of 68%, 18%, 12% and 2%. Ninety five percent of the respondents believed that it is possible to minimize the negative effects of pesticides. But, 80% use normal clothes for spraying pesticides; 40% wash spray equipments in yard; 23% throw pesticide containers in open field and 32% reuse pesticide containers for other purposes. Findings of the study revealed that there is mismatch among knowledge, perception and practice of the farmers. Hence, it is important to carefully design pesticides supply chain and train farmers to create awareness about the careful use of pesticide, and disposal of the leftover and containers.

  19. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. The results are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined......, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20 years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well......This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly...

  20. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in Mexican butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, S M; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Infanzón, R M

    2003-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programmes against ectoparasites and as seed dresser. Owing to their chemical stability, they tend to accumulate in the lipid part of the organisms. The stored pesticides are excreted with the endogenous fat during milk production. The aim was to monitor the organochlorine pesticide levels in butter manufactured in Mexico. From the pesticides, only HCB, beta-HCH, pp'-DDT, op'-DDT and pp'-DDE with major frequency and levels were detected. The HCB mean level was low at 0.008 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. From the HCH isomer, only the beta-HCH at 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis was determined, remaining as the main contaminant of the monitored butters. Among DDTs, pp'-DDE was the major constituent (0.043 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis) followed by pp'-DDT (0.036 mg kg(-1)) and op'-DDT (0.009 mg kg(-1)). Comparing the previous study (1994) and this one (2001), all organochlorine pesticides had a descendent tendency; beta-HCH decreased from 0.095 to 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis, whereas the total DDT decreased from 0.056 to 0.047 mg kg(-1), pp'-DDT from 0.050 to 0.036 mg kg(-1), op'-DDT from 0.018 to 0.009 mg kg(-1), while pp'-DDE increased from 0.032 to 0.043 mg kg(-1). The decreased DDT levels in Mexican butters is caused by the substitution of organochlorine insecticides with pyrethroids used by the Mexican Ministry of Health since 1999 in sanitary programmes.

  1. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  2. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  3. Bioeconomic Analysis of Pesticide Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, L. Joe; Farnsworth, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insects to develop resistance to specific pesticides affects pesticide demand. However, the affect of resistance on demand cannot be observed or measured. This analysis substitutes an expression for the unobserved resistance variable in a pesticide demand model and then illustrates the model's potential by estimating demand for DDT. To arrive at the expression characterizing the unobserved resistance variable a biological resistance model is constructed then incorporated into t...

  4. Pesticide exposure--Egyptian scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2004-05-20

    Pesticides have contributed to dramatic increases in crop yields and in the quantity and variety of the diet. Also, they have helped to limit the spread of certain diseases. But pesticides have harmful effects; they can cause injury to human health as well as to the environment. The range of these adverse health effects includes acute and persistent injury to the nervous system, lung damage, injury to the reproductive organs, dysfunction of the immune and endocrine systems, birth defects, and cancer. Problems associated with pesticide hazards to man and the environment are not confined to the developing countries. Developed nations have already suffered these problems, and still facing some problems in certain locations. For many reasons, the severity of pesticide hazards is much pronounced in Third World Countries. A number of long persistent organochlorines and highly toxic organophosphates, which have been banned or severely restricted, are still marketed and used in many developing countries. The misuse of pesticides by concerned individuals, in addition to lack of or weak national controlling plans are behind the outbreak of adverse effects in developing countries. Since about 25 years, the use of DDT and many other organochlorine pesticides in Egyptian agriculture has been banned. However, these long persistent compounds are still detectable in many different types of environmental samples (e.g., water, fish, sediment, vegetables, fruits, milk, foodstuffs, etc.). Large number of compounds known as "extremely hazardous", "highly hazardous", "probable human carcinogenic", and "possible human carcinogenic", are listed among the pesticides registered and recommended for use in Egypt during the season of 2001/2002. The present article deals with: trends and patterns of pesticide use, impact of pesticides on human health, factors contributing to pesticide risks, environmental impacts of pesticides, and bioaccumulation of pesticide residues in food; giving special

  5. The 2011 European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the results of the control activities related to pesticide residues in food carried out in 2011 in 29 European countries (27 Member States and 2 EFTA countries. The report also presents a dietary risk assessment. On the basis of the detailed analysis of the results, EFSA derived some recommendations aimed at improving the enforcement of the European pesticide residue legislation. In 2011, more than 79,000 samples of more than 600 food products were tested for pesticide residues throughout Europe. Nearly 900 pesticides were sought and less than 400 were detected in measurable amounts. In the framework of the EU-coordinated monitoring programme which covered more than 12,000 samples 98.1 % of the tested food samples analysed complied with the legal limits and that 53.4 % of samples contained no measurable residues at all. The dietary risk assessment that was performed to estimate the long-term exposure of consumers confirmed that there was no long-term risk to consumer health through their diets from 99 % of the 171 pesticides assessed. For two pesticides (dieldrin and heptachlor the estimated worst-case exposure exceeded the toxicological reference value, indicating there may be a potential for an impact on consumer health. Neither compound is authorised for use as a pesticide, but due to historical use and the high persistence of the molecules and their capacity to bioaccumulate, they are still present in the food chain. The risk assessment that focussed on the short-term exposure revealed that potential consumer health concerns could not be excluded in 253 instances should the products that contained residues in high concentrations be consumed in high amounts. Finally, an acute risk assessment was carried out for pears that contained multiple residues of pesticides that share the same toxicological effects. Two samples of pears exceeded the toxicological threshold for cumulative effects.

  6. Pesticide Chemical Research in Toxicology: Lessons from Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2017-01-17

    Pesticide researchers are students of nature, and each new compound and mechanism turns a page in the ever-expanding encyclopedia of life. Pesticides are both probes to learn about life processes and tools for pest management to facilitate food production and enhance health. In contrast to some household and industrial chemicals, pesticides are assumed to be hazardous to health and the environment until proven otherwise. About a thousand current pesticides working by more than 100 different mechanisms have helped understand many processes and coupled events. Pesticide chemical research is a major source of toxicology information on new natural products, novel targets or modes of action, resistance mechanisms, xenobiotic metabolism, selective toxicity, safety evaluations, and recommendations for safe and effective pest management. Target binding site models help define the effect of substituent changes and predict modifications for enhanced potency and safety and circumvention of resistance. The contribution of pesticide chemical research in toxicology is illustrated here with two each of the newer or most important insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. The insecticides are imidacloprid and chlorantraniliprole acting on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) channel, respectively. The herbicides are glyphosate that inhibits aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and mesotrione that prevents plastoquinone and carotenoid formation. The fungicides are azoxystrobin inhibiting the Qo site of the cytochrome bc1 complex and prothioconazole inhibiting the 14α-demethylase in ergosterol biosynthesis. The two target sites involved for each type of pesticide account for 27-40% of worldwide sales for all insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. In each case, selection for resistance involving a single amino acid change in the binding site or detoxifying enzyme circumvents the pesticide chemists's structure optimization and guarantees survival of

  7. Modelling pesticides residues

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of a specific method to assess the presence of residues in agricultural commodities. The following objectives are formulated: to identify and describe main processes in environment — plant exchanges, to build of a model to assess the residue concentration at harvest in agricultural commodities, to understand the functioning of the modelled system, to characterise pesticides used in field crops and identify optimisation potentials in phytosanitary...

  8. In-hive Pesticide Exposome: Assessing risks to migratory honey bees from in-hive pesticide contamination in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Kirsten S.; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Tarpy, David R.; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, James L.; Frazier, Maryann; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    This study measured part of the in-hive pesticide exposome by analyzing residues from live in-hive bees, stored pollen, and wax in migratory colonies over time and compared exposure to colony health. We summarized the pesticide burden using three different additive methods: (1) the hazard quotient (HQ), an estimate of pesticide exposure risk, (2) the total number of pesticide residues, and (3) the number of relevant residues. Despite being simplistic, these models attempt to summarize potential risk from multiple contaminations in real-world contexts. Colonies performing pollination services were subject to increased pesticide exposure compared to honey-production and holding yards. We found clear links between an increase in the total number of products in wax and colony mortality. In particular, we found that fungicides with particular modes of action increased disproportionally in wax within colonies that died. The occurrence of queen events, a significant risk factor for colony health and productivity, was positively associated with all three proxies of pesticide exposure. While our exposome summation models do not fully capture the complexities of pesticide exposure, they nonetheless help elucidate their risks to colony health. Implementing and improving such models can help identify potential pesticide risks, permitting preventative actions to improve pollinator health.

  9. In-hive Pesticide Exposome: Assessing risks to migratory honey bees from in-hive pesticide contamination in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Kirsten S.; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Tarpy, David R.; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, James L.; Frazier, Maryann; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This study measured part of the in-hive pesticide exposome by analyzing residues from live in-hive bees, stored pollen, and wax in migratory colonies over time and compared exposure to colony health. We summarized the pesticide burden using three different additive methods: (1) the hazard quotient (HQ), an estimate of pesticide exposure risk, (2) the total number of pesticide residues, and (3) the number of relevant residues. Despite being simplistic, these models attempt to summarize potential risk from multiple contaminations in real-world contexts. Colonies performing pollination services were subject to increased pesticide exposure compared to honey-production and holding yards. We found clear links between an increase in the total number of products in wax and colony mortality. In particular, we found that fungicides with particular modes of action increased disproportionally in wax within colonies that died. The occurrence of queen events, a significant risk factor for colony health and productivity, was positively associated with all three proxies of pesticide exposure. While our exposome summation models do not fully capture the complexities of pesticide exposure, they nonetheless help elucidate their risks to colony health. Implementing and improving such models can help identify potential pesticide risks, permitting preventative actions to improve pollinator health. PMID:27628343

  10. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Frances; Ermler, Sibylle; Kugathas, Subramaniam [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Rosivatz, Erika [Institute of Chemical Biology, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Scholze, Martin [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Kortenkamp, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.kortenkamp@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition

  11. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  12. Heterogeneous oxidation of pesticides on aerosol condensed phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Ravier, Sylvain; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2015-04-01

    Pesticides are widely used all over the world. It is known that they exhibit adverse health effects and environmental risks due to their physico-chemical properties and their extensive use which is growing every year. They are distributed in the atmosphere, an important vector of dissemination, over long distances away from the target area. The partitioning of pesticides between the gas and particulate phases influences their atmospheric fate. Most of the pesticides are semi-volatile compounds, emphasizing the importance of assessing their heterogeneous reactivity towards atmospheric oxidants. These reactions are important because they are involved in, among others, direct and indirect climate changes, adverse health effects from inhaled particles, effects on cloud chemistry and ozone production. In this work, the importance of atmospheric degradation of pesticides is evaluated on the surface of aerosol deliquescent particles. The photolysis processing and heterogeneous reactivity towards O3 and OH, was evaluated of eight commonly used pesticides (cyprodinil, deltamethrin, difenoconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, permethrin, tetraconazole) adsorbed on silica particles. Silicate particles are present in air-borne mineral dust in atmospheric aerosols, and heterogeneous reactions can be different in the presence of these mineral particles. Depending on their origin and conditioning, aerosol particles containing pesticides can have complex and highly porous microstructures, which are influenced by electric charge effects and interaction with water vapour. Therefore, the kinetic experiments and consecutive product studies were performed at atmospherically relevant relative humidity (RH) of 55 %. The identification of surface bound products was performed using GC-(QqQ)-MS/MS and LC-(Q-ToF)-MS/MS and the gas-phase products were on-line monitored by PTR-ToF-MS. Based on the detected and identified reaction products, it was observed that water plays a crucial

  13. Simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study by isotope dilution–high performance liquid chromatography–linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng [College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Yang, Xin, E-mail: beijing-yangxin@163.com [China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng [China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Key Lab of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100021 (China); Liu, Wei [Shandong Province Environmental Monitoring Centre, Jinan 250013 (China); Wu, Yongning, E-mail: china_cdc@yahoo.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Key Lab of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2013-06-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •19 triazines were determined in cereal samples from Chinese TDS for the first time. •Isotope dilution technique and HPLC–LIT-MS{sup 3} method are both applied in this study. •CCαs and CCβs are much lower in this work than those of the previous publications. -- Abstract: A selective and sensitive isotope dilution–high performance liquid chromatography–linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Isotope Dilution–HPLC–LIT-MS{sup 3}) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study (TDS). The method integrated the addition of isotope internal standards, liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), clean-up with MCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and HPLC–LIT-MS{sup 3} analysis with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.9940) verified by applying the Mandel's fitting test (p > 0.087) performed at the 95% confidence level. Decision limits (CCαs) and detection capabilities (CCβs) of the 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products fell in the ranges of 0.0020–0.4200 μg kg{sup −1} and 0.0024–0.4500 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 70.1% to 112.8%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 1.5% to 13.5%. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied to analyzing the proposed cereal samples from the fourth Chinese TDS. Eleven triazines were detected in six cereal samples with the concentrations ranging from 0.013 to 0.987 μg kg{sup −1}. This method can also be used for the further determination of the triazines in other food group composites, and ultimately served as a methodological foundation for assessing the triazines in the average Chinese diet in the general population.

  14. Pesticides for apicultural and/or agricultural application found in Belgian honey bee wax combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Reybroeck, Wim; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-05-01

    In a Belgian pilot study honey bee wax combs from ten hives were analyzed on the presence of almost 300 organochlorine and organophosphorous compounds by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Traces of 18 pesticides were found and not a single sample was free of residues. The number of residues found per sample ranged from 3 to 13, and the pesticides found could be categorized as (1) pesticides for solely apicultural (veterinary) application, (2) pesticides for solely agricultural (crop protection) application, (3) pesticides for mixed agricultural and apicultural (veterinary) application. The frequencies and quantities of some environmental pollutants bear us high concerns. Most alarming was the detection of lindane (gamma-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (including its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), two insecticides that are banned in Europe. The present comprehensive residue analysis, however, also reveals residues of pesticides never found in beeswax before, i.e. DEET, propargite and bromophos.

  15. Removal of organochlorine pesticides from water using virgin and regenerated granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRJANA B. NINKOVIĆ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Public water systems use granular activated carbon in order to eliminate pesticides. After saturation, the used activated carbon is regenerated and reused in order to reduce the costs of water production and minimize waste. In this study, the adsorption of 10 different chlorinated pesticides from water using columns packed with commercial virgin and regenerated granular activated carbon was simulated in order to compare their adsorption capacities for different chlorinated pesticides. The breakthrough curves showed that chlorinated pesticides from the group of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH were poorly adsorbed, followed by cyclodiens as averagely adsorbed and the derivatives of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (DDT as strongly adsorbed. However, the adsorption capacity of regenerated granular activated carbon was considerably lower for tested pesticides compared to the virgin granular carbon. In addition, rinsing of the pesticides after the saturation point is a far more efficient process on regenerated carbon.

  16. Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Villagrasa, Marta [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C/Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain); López de Alda, Miren, E-mail: mlaqam@cid.csic.es [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc [AGBAR-Aigües de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 211, E-08018 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C/Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (SPE–LC–MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30 ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1 μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI. - Highlights: • Pesticides are poorly removed in WWTPs. • Urban wastewaters are important sources of pesticides to the aquatic environment. • Diazinon and diuron: the

  17. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation

  18. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of

  19. Persistentorganic pollutants in Colombia: quantificationand diagnosisfororganochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto García Ubaque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet Colombia commitments with Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs, the country carried out identification and quantification of organochlorine pesticide stocks, in order to update and consolidate information on storage sites and contaminated soils. Methodology proposed by the United Nations program for development (UNDP was used and covered the following stages: (a consultation of secondary information available in previous inventories, (b review activities related to these products life cycle, (c location of warehouses and sites of destruction or burial and (d visit a sample of identified sites. Colombia has 159 812 kg of DDT in stock and it was estimated 88 629 m3 of contaminated soil by POPs pesticides. It were unable to identify a vast underreporting quantities of pesticides used and contaminated sites, not only in the country, but in inventories in other countries of the region; reflecting that the reported results are partial and contamination from unidentified sources may occur. It is important to intensify activities of research and innovation not only for wastes and contaminated soils treatment, but for agricultural production and crop protection.

  20. Determination of pesticide residues in sewage sludge: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, José L; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Albero, Beatriz; García-Valcárcel, Ana I

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are widely applied to protect plants from diseases, weeds, and insect damage, and they usually come into contact with soil where they may undergo a variety of transformations and provide a complex pattern of metabolites. Spreading sewage sludge on agricultural lands has been actively promoted by national authorities as an economic way of recycling. However, as a byproduct of wastewater treatment, sewage sludge may contain pesticides and other toxic substances that could be incorporated into agricultural products or be distributed in the environment. This article reviews the determination of pesticides in sewage sludge samples. Sample preparation including pretreatment, extraction, and cleanup, as well as the subsequent instrumental determination of pesticide residues, are discussed. Extraction techniques such as Soxhlet extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and matrix solid-phase dispersion and their most recent applications to the determination of pesticides in sewage sludge samples are reviewed. Determination of pesticides, generally carried out by GC and HPLC coupled with different detectors, especially MS for the identification and quantification of residues, is summarized and discussed.

  1. Unthinkable Risk: How Children Are Exposed and Harmed When Pesticides Are Used at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Becky

    This report examines the extensive presence of pesticide contamination in the environment and its impact on children. Chapters 1 and 2 review evidence that when pesticides are used indoors or out in other comparable settings, unavoidable contamination occurs, even when products are used according to label directions. Chapter 3 explains that people…

  2. Transformations of pesticides in the atmosphere : A state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, R.; Guicherit, R.; Hites, R.A.; Palm, W.U.; Seiber, J.N.; Voogt, P. de

    1999-01-01

    The current knowledge about transformation rates and products of pesticides in the atmosphere is reviewed. Reactive species and their concentrations in the atmosphere are presented. Reactions of pesticides with these species (including photolysis) in the gas and the particulate phase are evaluated f

  3. Occupational risks and health effects of pesticides in three commercial farming systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negatu, B.

    2017-01-01

    Occupational pesticide exposure is one of the most important occupational risks among farmers and farm workers in Africa. In Ethiopia agriculture contributes 47% of the total Gross domestic product (GDP) and employs 80% of the work force. The main objective of this study was to assess pesticide

  4. Current use and legacy pesticide deposition to ice caps on Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Hermanson, Mark H.; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Camilla; Forsstrom, Sanja; Muir, Derek C. G.; Pohjola, Veijo; van de Wal, Roderik; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Transport and deposition of current use (CUP) and legacy pesticides (LP) and residual products to the Arctic have been documented in abiotic matrices. These observations show that some "low-persistence" pesticides with high OH center dot reaction rates are stable enough to accumulate in a polar envi

  5. Current use and legacy pesticide deposition to ice caps on Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggirello, R. M.; Hermanson, M.H.; Isaksson, E.; Teixeira, C.; Forsström, S.; Muir, D.C.G.; Pohjola, V.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Meijer, H.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Transport and deposition of current use (CUP) and legacy pesticides (LP) and residual products to the Arctic have been documented in abiotic matrices. These observations show that some “low-persistence” pesticides with high OH· reaction rates are stable enough to accumulate in a polar environment. I

  6. EUROPOEM : a predictive occupational exposure database for registration purposes of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    2001-01-01

    For registration of agricultural pesticides, the risks for humans, animals, and the environment must be determined. The risk assessment is based on an appraisal of the levels of exposure and the hazards of the active substance(s) in the plant protection product, that is, the agricultural pesticide.

  7. 76 FR 22067 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    .... Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...; strawberry at 1.5 ppm; tree nut group at 0.02 ppm; alfalfa, forage at 4.5 ppm; alfalfa, hay at 8.0 ppm...

  8. 76 FR 69690 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    .... Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...-chloro-3- pyridyl)methyl]- N 2-cyano- N 1-methylacetamidine, in or on asparagus at 0.8 ppm; Brassica...

  9. 76 FR 61647 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    .... Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... or on asparagus; cherimoya; dates, fresh; figs, fresh; globe artichokes; pawpaws; pineapple, water...

  10. 76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    .... Potentially ] affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... potassium hypochlorite, in or on apple; artichoke; asparagus; brussel sprouts; carrot; cauliflower; celery...

  11. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  12. Multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using low-temperature cleanup and solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Zhu, Ailing; He, Jianli; Chang, Qiaoying; Hu, Xueyan; Chen, Hui; Fan, Chunlin; Jiang, Wenxiao; Chen, Min; Li, Jiancheng; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang

    2015-10-01

    A multi-class multi-residue analysis method for determination of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established. These 17 classes, a total of 40 kinds of target compounds were chosen because their administration to food-producing animals is banned or regulated in China and may be potentially abused or misused. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (49.5+49.5+1, v/v/v). Most of lipids in the extract were removed by low-temperature cleanup, prior to solid phase extraction on HLB cartridges. The quantification and confirmation of the 40 analytes were performed by LC-MS/MS with electro-spray ionization (ESI) interface in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.006-0.3μg/kg and 0.02-1.0μg/kg, respectively. The spiked recoveries in milk, yogurt, milk powder and cheese samples were from 67.3% to 106.9%. The repeatability and the within-laboratory reproducibility were less than 12.7% and 13.9%. Applying this method, our results revealed the presences of chloramphenicol, cimeterol, and flunixin at the concentration of 0.027-0.452μg/kg in some samples.

  13. DETOXIFICATION OF PESTICIDES POLLUTED SOIL BY ADSORBTION ON ACTIVATED CARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Mukhin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes a very severe social-ecological problem, related to the contamination of soils by pesticides and fodder micotoxins. The authors suggest the utilization of a carbon adsorption based method of purification of soils contaminated with traces of pesticides. It is demonstrated that this method of soil rehabilitation leads to an 80% crop increase, allowing the production of environmentally clean plant products. The utilization of special activated carbons “Ptitsesorb” leads to a 30-40% decrease of necessary combined fodder in chickens breeding.

  14. 果蔬汁生产中农药残留控制技术研究进展%Pesticide Residues Control Technology in Fruit and Vegetable Juice Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩蓬勃; 梁宁利; 冯艳芸

    2016-01-01

    农药残留是影响果蔬汁质量的关键问题,本文对果蔬汁中农药残留控制方法研究进展进行追踪。%The pesticide residue is the key problem affecting the quality of fruit and vegetable juice.In this paper, the research progress in pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable juice control method has carried on the track.

  15. Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Koomen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and

  16. Implementation of the effects of physicochemical properties on the foliar penetration of pesticides and its potential for estimating pesticide volatilization from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichiheb, Nebila; Personne, Erwan; Bedos, Carole; Van den Berg, Frederik; Barriuso, Enrique

    2016-04-15

    Volatilization from plant foliage is known to have a great contribution to pesticide emission to the atmosphere. However, its estimation is still difficult because of our poor understanding of processes occurring at the leaf surface. A compartmental approach for dissipation processes of pesticides applied on the leaf surface was developed on the base of experimental study performed under controlled conditions using laboratory volatilization chamber. This approach was combined with physicochemical properties of pesticides and was implemented in SURFATM-Pesticides model in order to predict pesticide volatilization from plants in a more mechanistic way. The new version of SURFATM-Pesticide model takes into account the effect of formulation on volatilization and leaf penetration. The model was evaluated in terms of 3 pesticides applied on plants at the field scale (chlorothalonil, fenpropidin and parathion) which display a wide range of volatilization rates. The comparison of modeled volatilization fluxes with measured ones shows an overall good agreement for the three tested compounds. Furthermore the model confirms the considerable effect of the formulation on the rate of the decline in volatilization fluxes especially for systemic products. However, due to the lack of published information on the substances in the formulations, factors accounting for the effect of formulation are described empirically. A sensitivity analysis shows that in addition to vapor pressure, the octanol-water partition coefficient represents important physicochemical properties of pesticides affecting pesticide volatilization from plants. Finally the new version of SURFATM-Pesticides is a prospecting tool for key processes involved in the description of pesticide volatilization from plants.

  17. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  18. A review on the fermentation of foods and the residues of pesticides-biotransformation of pesticides and effects on fermentation and food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Jorge; López-Fernández, Olalla; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Residues of pesticides in food are influenced by processing such as fermentation. Reviewing the extensive literature showed that in most cases, this step leads to large reductions in original residue levels in the fermented food, with the formation of new pesticide by-products. The behavior of residues in fermentation can be rationalized in terms of the physical-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In addition, the presence of pesticides decrease the growth rate of fermentative microbiota (yeasts and bacterias), which provokes stuck and sluggish fermentations. These changes have in consequence repercussions on several aspects of food sensory quality (physical-chemical properties, polyphenolic content, and aromatic profile) of fermented food. The main aim of this review is to deal with all these topics to propose challenging needs in science-based quality management of pesticides residues in food.

  19. Gold nanoparticle-based fluorescent sensor for the analysis of dithiocarbamate pesticides in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senkbeil, Silja; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides play a key role in the high yields achieved in modern agricultural food production. Besides their positive effect on increasing productivity they are intentionally toxic, often towards non-target organisms and contaminated food products can have a serious impact on human...... and environmental health. This paper demonstrates the potential of a gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensor for in field detection of dithiocarbamate pesticides at remote locations. Combining the attractive optical properties of gold nanoparticles with on chip mixing and detection, using a simple digital...... camera, a detection limit of 16 μg L-1 for Ziram, a dithiocarbamate pesticide, was obtained....

  20. PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNICS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Banaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Pesticide application tehnics improvement is the result of several-year recording theoretical models, numerous practical tests, and data collection relating to technical systems in plant protection and its environment in the narrowest sense. In this first edition, the authors cover the area they have dealt with for many years. The authors aimed to present complete and clear methods how to solve specific problems in the agricultural practice management, plant protection, and direct practice application – ‘‘Know- How'', with as many as possible useful data. References used, along with local ones, are mostly American and from Western Europe. This textbook is intended for those who already use the agricultural technique in plant protection and those who are just acquiring the basics of technical systems proper application in daily practice, regardless the size of the agricultural farm. The authors covered in details and explained some bases of physics logic, analysis, and synthesis of specific laws while using pesticides due to extremely importance in understanding the problem area.

  1. Organochlorine pesticide residues in cow's milk and butter in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, S M; Pardío, V T; Waliszewski, K N; Chantiri, J N; Aguirre, A A; Infanzón, R M; Rivera, J

    1997-12-03

    This monitoring study of 355 samples of cow's milk collected from the central region of Veracruz state and 448 samples of national butter brands was conducted to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained for mean HCH levels were 0.094 and 0.093 mg/kg on fat basis in cow's milk and butter samples, respectively. The mean DDT levels were 0.159 and 0.049 mg/kg, respectively. In relation to cow's milk, the total HCH levels in Veracruz state were higher but total DDT levels were comparable to those reported in other countries. On the other hand, organochlorine levels detected in national brand butter samples were lower than those found in other countries, where these pesticides are still used in sanitary actions. These results confirmed that dairy products in Mexico presented organochlorine pesticide residues (owing to their use in sanitary actions) indicating a human exposure through these food products.

  2. Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Chapter 12 in Handbook of Ecotoxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elwood F.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    1995-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are used throughout the world to control a large variety of insects and other invertebrates, fungi, birds, mammals, and herbaceous plants. Over 100 different organophosphorus and carbamate chemicals are registered in the U.S. alone for use in thousands of products applied to widely diverse habitats including agricultural crops, forests, rangelands, wetlands, towns, and cities. These applications are estimated to be nearly 200 million acre-treatments (i.e., number of acres treated corrected for number of treatments) per year to control nuisance, depradating, and disease-bearing invertebrates and vertebrates, and to maintain landscape aesthetics. Except for mosquito control, most applications target terrestrial habitat. Due to drift or run-off, pesticide and degrades are inevitably detected in soils and water that are fundamental to the primary productivity of ecosystems. Thus, critical life-giving systems are frequently contaminated with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides, however briefly, each year.

  3. CYP/PON genetic variations as determinant of organophosphate pesticides toxicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GURPREET KAUR; A. K. JAIN; SANDEEP SINGH

    2017-03-01

    In the present scenario of increased accumulation of pesticides in the environment, it is important to understand its impact on human health. The focus is on gene–environment interaction, highlighting the consequences and factors that may halt the biotransformation of some pesticides and change their actual dose response curve due to mixed exposure to pesticides. The paraoxonase and cytochrome P450 gene families are involved in the metabolism of oxon derivate (toxic than its parent compound) of organophosphate pesticides, thus, mutations in these genes may impact the metabolic outcome of pesticides and subsequent health hazards. The complex multi gene–environment interaction and one gene – one risk factor are two different aspects to understand the potential health effect related to environmental exposure studies. The genetic polymorphisms areassociated with varying levels of risk within the population, as gene products of varied genotype alter the biotransformation of exogenous/endogenous substrates. This paper is aimed to review the impact of endogenous and exogenous factors on a mechanistic pathway of organophosphate pesticide biotransformation and various risk associated with it among the humanpopulation. Understanding the genetic polymorphism of genes involved in pesticide metabolism and highlighting the gene isoform dependent interindividual differences to metabolize particular pesticides may help us to unravel the reasons behind differential toxicity for pesticides exposure than expected.

  4. DETERMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATERS SAMPLED FROM CLUJ AND HUNEDOARA COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-ELISABETA LOVÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of organochlorine pesticides in drinking waterssampled from Cluj and Hunedoara counties. Pesticides are found scattered indifferent environmental factors (water, air, soil wherefrom they are drawn off byvegetal and animal organisms. Water pollution by pesticides results from the plantprotection products industry and also from massive application of these resourcesin agriculture and other branches of economy. Pesticides can reach surface wateralong with dripping waters and by infiltration may reach the groundwater layers,organochlorine pesticides are most often found in the water sources (dieldrin,endrin, DDT, aldrin, lindane, heptachlor, etc. due to their increased persistence inthe external environment. This study followed up the determination oforganochlorine pesticides in 14 drinking water samples collected from the outputof water treatment plants in Cluj and Hunedoara counties that process surfacewater and deep-water sources. For identification of organochlorine pesticides, thegas chromatographic method after liquid-liquid extraction was used, by a gascromatograph Shimadzu GC 2010 with detector ECD (Electron CaptureDetection. There were not detected higher values than the method detection limit(0.01 μg/l in the drinking water samples collected and analyzed for both totalorganochlorine pesticides and components, which were well below the maximumconcentration admitted by Law 452/2002 regarding drinking water quality. Resultsare correlated with the sanitary protection areas for water sources and with the useof agricultural lands in the area. The solution to reduce risk of pesticides use isecological agriculture , which gains increasingly more ground in Romania too.

  5. The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, David; Eddleston, Michael; Phillips, Michael R; Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-12-21

    Evidence is accumulating that pesticide self-poisoning is one of the most commonly used methods of suicide worldwide, but the magnitude of the problem and the global distribution of these deaths is unknown. We have systematically reviewed the worldwide literature to estimate the number of pesticide suicides in each of the World Health Organisation's six regions and the global burden of fatal self-poisoning with pesticides. We used the following data sources: Medline, EMBASE and psycINFO (1990-2007), papers cited in publications retrieved, the worldwide web (using Google) and our personal collections of papers and books. Our aim was to identify papers enabling us to estimate the proportion of a country's suicides due to pesticide self-poisoning. We conservatively estimate that there are 258,234 (plausible range 233,997 to 325,907) deaths from pesticide self-poisoning worldwide each year, accounting for 30% (range 27% to 37%) of suicides globally. Official data from India probably underestimate the incidence of suicides; applying evidence-based corrections to India's official data, our estimate for world suicides using pesticides increases to 371,594 (range 347,357 to 439,267). The proportion of all suicides using pesticides varies from 4% in the European Region to over 50% in the Western Pacific Region but this proportion is not concordant with the volume of pesticides sold in each region; it is the pattern of pesticide use and the toxicity of the products, not the quantity used, that influences the likelihood they will be used in acts of fatal self-harm. Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for about one-third of the world's suicides. Epidemiological and toxicological data suggest that many of these deaths might be prevented if (a) the use of pesticides most toxic to humans was restricted, (b) pesticides could be safely stored in rural communities, and (c) the accessibility and quality of care for poisoning could be improved.

  6. The use of parasites as bioindicators of pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Rastislav; Sabová, Lucia; Legáth, Jaroslav

    2009-09-01

    Organisms used in risk assessment of pesticides must be the most sensitive ones to pesticides exposure. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of two commercial pesticide products (containing glyphosate and tolylfluanid) to larval stages of parasites Cooperia curticei, Ostertagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei. There were two concentrations tested for each product vs. control group. Larvae (500 individuals/Petri dish) were incubated at 27 °C and observed daily for 42 days.We found out that T. axei larvae are the most resistant ones to tolylfluanid exposure - there was no statistical significance in any concentration tested after 42 days of tolylfluanid exposure. 100% of dead larvae were found on 33(rd) day of experiment at higher concentration, resp. on 37(th) day at lower tested concentration of glyphosate. C. curticei, O. circumcincta and H. contortus showed similar statistical significance in both pesticides tested (there was high statistical significance (p<0.0001) at both concentrations of glyphosate and only at higher tested concentration of tolylfluanid). C. curticei and H. contortus larvae were found dead, spiral shaped and without movement at all concentrations tested, spiral shape was not observed in other two tested larvae. O. circumcincta larvae reacted to pesticides exposure very quickly; rapid death was recorded on second day of experiment at both concentrations of glyphosate and at higher tested concentration of tolylfluanid. From four tested small ruminant parasites (L3), O. circumcincta larvae seem to be the most sensitive ones and need further research.

  7. Pesticides in honey: A review on chromatographic analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tette, Patrícia Amaral Souza; Rocha Guidi, Letícia; Glória, Maria Beatriz de Abreu; Fernandes, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Honey is a product of high consumption due to its nutritional and antimicrobial properties. However, residues of pesticides, used in plagues' treatment in the hive or in crop fields in the neighborhoods, can compromise its quality. Therefore, determination of these contaminants in honey is essential, since the use of pesticides has increased significantly in recent decades because of the growing demand for food production. Furthermore, pesticides in honey can be an indicator of environmental contamination. As the concentration of these compounds in honey is usually at trace levels and several pesticides can be found simultaneously, the use of highly sensitive and selective techniques is required. In this context, miniaturized sample preparation approaches and liquid or gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry became the most important analytical techniques. In this review we present and discuss recent studies dealing with pesticide determination in honey, focusing on sample preparation and separation/detection methods as well as application of the developed methods worldwide. Furthermore, trends and future perspectives are presented.

  8. Use of point-of-sale data to track usage patterns of residential pesticides: methodology development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chism Bill

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residential-use pesticides have been shown to be a major source of pesticide exposure to people in the United States. However, little is understood about the exposures to household pesticides and the resultant health effects. One reason that little is known about home-use pesticide exposure is the lack of comprehensive data on exposures to pesticides in the home. One method to help ascertain the amount of pesticides present in the home is use of point-of-sale data collected from marketing companies that track product sales to obtain the volume of pesticides sold for home-use. This provides a measure of volume of home-use pesticide. Methods We have constructed a searchable database containing sales data for home-use permethrin-containing pesticides sold by retail stores in the United States from January 1997 through December 2002 in an attempt to develop a tracking method for pesticide. This pilot project was conducted to determine if point-of-sale data would be effective in helping track the purchase of home-use permethrin containing pesticides and if it would stand as a good model for tracking sales of other home-use pesticides. Results There are several limitations associated with this tracking method, including the availability of sales data, market coverage, and geographic resolution. As a result, a fraction of sales data potentially available for reporting is represented in this database. However, the database is sensitive to the number and type of merchants reporting permethrin sales. Further, analysis of the sale of individual products included in the database indicates that year to year variability has a greater impact on reported permethrin sales than the amount sold by each type of merchant. Conclusion We conclude that, while nothing could completely replace a detailed exposure assessment to estimate exposures to home-use pesticides, a point-of-sale database is a useful tool in tracking the purchase of these types

  9. Use of point-of-sale data to track usage patterns of residential pesticides: methodology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekarian, Nyree; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Edmondson, Stuart; Chism, Bill; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2006-01-01

    Background Residential-use pesticides have been shown to be a major source of pesticide exposure to people in the United States. However, little is understood about the exposures to household pesticides and the resultant health effects. One reason that little is known about home-use pesticide exposure is the lack of comprehensive data on exposures to pesticides in the home. One method to help ascertain the amount of pesticides present in the home is use of point-of-sale data collected from marketing companies that track product sales to obtain the volume of pesticides sold for home-use. This provides a measure of volume of home-use pesticide. Methods We have constructed a searchable database containing sales data for home-use permethrin-containing pesticides sold by retail stores in the United States from January 1997 through December 2002 in an attempt to develop a tracking method for pesticide. This pilot project was conducted to determine if point-of-sale data would be effective in helping track the purchase of home-use permethrin containing pesticides and if it would stand as a good model for tracking sales of other home-use pesticides. Results There are several limitations associated with this tracking method, including the availability of sales data, market coverage, and geographic resolution. As a result, a fraction of sales data potentially available for reporting is represented in this database. However, the database is sensitive to the number and type of merchants reporting permethrin sales. Further, analysis of the sale of individual products included in the database indicates that year to year variability has a greater impact on reported permethrin sales than the amount sold by each type of merchant. Conclusion We conclude that, while nothing could completely replace a detailed exposure assessment to estimate exposures to home-use pesticides, a point-of-sale database is a useful tool in tracking the purchase of these types of pesticides to 1) detect

  10. Health and environmental hazards of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyaniwura, T T

    1991-01-01

    The increase in world population and in demand for food and economic crops has put a pesticide burden on man and the environment. Pesticide residues from vector control and agricultural uses contaminate the terrestrial and aquatic surroundings and contribute to the pollution problem of the environment. Various human toxicoses have resulted from pesticide use. The major pathogenic pesticides are chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates. With careful and enlightened use, pesticide toxicity, to both man and the environment, could be significantly reduced.

  11. Transfer of pesticides and copper in a stormwater wetland receiving contaminated runoff from a vineyard catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, E.; Babcsanyi, I.; Payraudeau, S.; Imfeld, G.

    2012-04-01

    Wetlands can collect contaminated runoff from urban and agricultural catchments, and have intrinsic physical, chemical and biological processes useful for mitigating pesticides. However, knowledge about the ability of wetlands to mitigate pesticide mixtures in runoff is currently very limited. Our results show that stormwater wetlands that primarily serve for flood protection can also be effective tools for reducing concentrations and loads of runoff-related pesticides. Concentrations and loads of 20 pesticides and degradation products, as well as copper were continuously recorded during the period of pesticide application (April to September 2009, 2010 and 2011) at the inlet, the outlet and in sediments of a stormwater wetland that collects runoff from a vineyard catchment. Removal rates of dissolved loads ranged from 39% (simazine) to 100% (cymoxanil, gluphosinate, kresoxim methyl and terbuthylazine). Dimethomorph, diuron, glyphosate and metalaxyl were more efficiently removed in spring than in summer. The calculation of sedimentation rates from discharge measurements and total suspended solids (TSS) values revealed that the wetland retained more than 77% of the input mass of suspended solids, underscoring the capability of the wetland to trap pesticide-laden particles. Only flufenoxuron was frequently detected in the wetland sediments. An inter-annual comparison showed that changes in the removal of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA, a degradation product of glyphosate), isoxaben or simazine can be attributed mainly to the larger vegetation cover in 2010 compared to 2009. More than 80% of the copper load entering the wetland was retained in the sediments and the plants. Our results demonstrate that stormwater wetlands can efficiently remove pesticide mixtures and copper in agricultural runoff during critical periods of pesticide application. Nevertheless, fluctuations in the runoff regime, as well as the vegetation and hydrochemical characteristics affect the

  12. Analytical methods for detecting pesticide switches with evolution of pesticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Juan J. Nieto; Cheke, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    After a pest develops resistance to a pesticide, switching between different unrelated pesticides is a common management option, but this raises the following questions: (1) What is the optimal frequency of pesticide use? (2) How do the frequencies of pesticide applications affect the evolution of pesticide resistance? (3) How can the time when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL) be estimated and (4) how can the most efficient frequency of pesticide applications be dete...

  13. The Concept of Withholding Period and Pesticide Residue in Grain Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbola, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on pesticides, their unquantifiable benefits to agriculture, pesticide residue, maximum pesticide residue limit, and withholding period in grain storage. It delved into the origin of synthetic pesticide and its introduction to Nigeria in the 1950s, it maintained that pesticide have posed major health and social challenges, and have had negative, unintended, catastrophic, fatal consequences to man, animals, and even the environment especially when instructions on their labels are not adhered to. Again, it maintained that withholding periods are often stipulated on the labels of genuine pesticides, it reiterated that not adhering to the stipulated withholding period can have catastrophic consequences on consumers of grain and grain products. Furthermore, it dwelt on the activities of Nigerian stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI and National Food Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC, their mandates and quest to nip pesticide poisoning in the bud. Finally, recommendations were put forward to check the seeming ignorance and dearth of information about pesticide residue limit and withholding period, and dangers that are concomitants of not adhering to these.

  14. Scope of the worldwide effort to regulate pesticide contamination in surface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Aaron A; Li, Zijian

    2014-12-15

    Regulating surface soil contamination is a worldwide problem. Many jurisdictions address this problem with regulatory guidance values (RGVs) that specify the maximum allowable soil concentration of contaminants. Pesticides are a particularly important class of soil contaminants because of their intentional toxicity and widespread application to home, garden, and agricultural soils. Pesticides are also difficult to regulate because they are marketed in thousands of products made from hundreds of potentially toxic chemicals. Worldwide, at least 174 jurisdictions from 54 United Nations member states have promulgated more than 19,400 pesticide RGVs. Values may be found for at least 739 pesticides, identified by unique Chemical Abstract Service numbers (CAS No.). Using CAS numbers helps to avoid confusion that may result from alternative product names, chemical nomenclature conventions, or flawed translations. Assembling the set of pesticide RGVs required translating guidance documents authored in 30 different languages. Results indicate that more than 100 RGVs have been promulgated for each of the 22 most frequently regulated pesticides including over 300 values for DDT. Data are presented on the number of pesticides typically addressed by a regulatory jurisdiction and on the size and variability of the RGV datasets for the 200 most frequently regulated pesticides.

  15. Exposure to pesticides with dermal toxicity in farmers of Community of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Brandon Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermal route has a toxicological importance, as well as substances such as entry, but by frequent local effects. In applications of pesticides by farmers is common and important the dermal exposure to pesticides, so the dermal route in this sector of activity could be of particular relevance. Objective: To determine the hazard of dermal exposure in farmers using pesticides and to propose specific preventive measures. Material and methods: A transversal descriptive study based on a questionnaire designed by the researchers, replying to the 238 attendees at the courses for pesticide handler card basic level Department of Health Xativa-Ontinyent (Valencia in 2009. Pesticides used were collected over the past 12 months and reviewed their R phrases (risk phrases looking for dermal effects. Results: 55 % of pesticides had some phrase R on skin problems. The phrase R38 "Irritating to skin" was found in 16 products, used by 59.05 % of respondents and the R43 "Possibility of sensitization by skin contact" at 7, used by 23.91 %. Conclusions: The skin irritation effect was related to more dermal exposure to these pesticides. It is necessary to emphasize the skin protection in the courses for workers who apply these products. Skin problems should be included damages for workplace exposure to pesticides.

  16. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  17. Exposure to pesticides residues from consumption of Italian blood oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, B; D'Urso, M G; Chiappara, E

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a 5-year study to evaluate pesticide levels, derived from orchard activities, on Italy's most common orange cultivar (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck, cv. Tarocco). Using a Bayesian approach, the study allowed both the qualitative (number) and quantitative distributions (amount) of pesticides to be determined with its own probability value. Multi-residue analyses of 460 samples highlighted the presence of ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, dicofol, etofenprox, fenazaquin, fenitrothion, imazalil, malathion and metalaxil-m. A total of 30.5% of samples contained just one pesticide, 2.16% two pesticides and 0.65% of samples had three pesticides present simultaneously. The most common residue was ethyl chlorpyrifos followed by methyl chlorpyrifos. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values for ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, as well as the distance from the safety level (non-observed adverse effect level, NOAEL), were calculated. The risk was differentiated (1) to take account of the period of actual citrus consumption (180 days) and (2) to discriminate the risk derived from eating oranges containing a certain level of chlorpyrifos from unspecified pesticides. The most likely EDI values for ethyl chlorpyrifos derived from Italian blood orange consumption are 0.01 and 0.006 mg/day calculated for 180 and 365 days, respectively. Considering the probability of the occurrence of ethyl chlorpyrifos, these EDI values are reduced to 2.6 x 10(-3) and 1.3 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. For methyl chlorpyrifos, the most likely EDI values are 0.09 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively; considering the probability of its occurrence, the EDI values decrease to 6.7 x 10(-3) and 3.4 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. The results confirmed that levels of pesticides in Italian Tarocco oranges derived from a known controlled chain of production are safe.

  18. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change Climate Change Home What is Climate Change Greenhouse ...

  19. In Case of Pesticide Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Call the Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 for help with first aid information. The ... Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By ...

  20. Impact of on-site, small and large scale wastewater treatment facilities on levels and fate of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, artificial sweeteners, pesticides, and perfluoroalkyl substances in recipient waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Gros, Meritxell; Ahrens, Lutz; Wiberg, Karin

    2017-12-01

    One of the main risks associated with effluents from both wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and on-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs) is the release of micropollutants (MPs) in receiving water bodies. However, the impact of MPs present in the effluents of OSSFs in the aquatic environment has not been studied so far. The current study evaluates the impact of the effluents of OSSFs and small-to-large scale WWTPs on natural waters. The discharge of 74 MPs was assessed including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, artificial sweeteners and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The sampling was carried out within a Swedish catchment and included three sites that are exclusively affected by OSSFs and other sites that are mainly affected by WWTPs or a mixture of sources (7 sites, 28 samples). Results show that although OSSFs serve a much smaller total number of people, the MPs emitted from OSSFs reached the aquatic environment in significant quantities (concentrations of >150ngL(-1) of ∑MPs). The composition profiles for sites affected by WWTPs were similar and were dominated by sucralose (27% of the ∑MPs), caffeine (27% of the ∑MPs), lamotrigine (10% of the ∑MPs), desvenlafaxine (5% of the ∑MPs), and diclofenac (4% of the ∑MPs). In contrast, the sites affected by OSSFs showed high variability, exhibiting a different profile from those affected by WWTPs and also from each other, demonstrating that OSSFs are not homogeneous sources of MPs. Some specific compounds, such as diethyltoluamide (DEET) and caffeine, were proportionally much more important at sites affected by OSSFs than at sites affected by WWTPs (representing a much higher percentage of the ∑MPs in the OSSFs). In contrast, PFASs did not show high concentration variation among the different sampling sites and the composition profiles were relatively similar, indicating that these substances follow different routes of entry into the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017

  1. Environmental Benefits from Reduced Pesticide Use and Returns to Research: An Application to the U.S. Cotton Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sande, Doris N.; Mullen, Jeffrey D.; Matekole, Augustus N.

    2010-01-01

    Cotton production is one of the main pesticide use industries in the U.S. This intensive use has resulted in the disruption of naturally occurring biological control factors that regulate other insect pest populations and “the pesticide treadmill”. The result is resistance to insecticides, high control costs and unacceptable levels of chemical insecticides in the environment. Concerns about the environmental and human health effects from pesticide use thus need to be modeled in evaluation stu...

  2. Survey of pesticide application on vegetables in the Littoral area of Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjrah, Yao; Dovlo, Agbéko; Karou, Simplice D; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kwashie; Agbonon, Amégnona; de Souza, Comlan; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable production in Togo is seriously affected by pests attack. To reduce damage, farmers indiscriminately use pesticides. Various studies have reported high concentrations of pesticide residues more than acceptable limits in vegetables and other edible food. The aim of the presented study is to study the attitudes and practices developed by vegetable growers about pesticides applications. A standardized questionnaires which included socio-professional factors, provisions and operations concerning the use of varieties of pesticides were addressed to 150 growers in vegetable farms along the Littoral of Togo. In order to complete data concerning pesticides, seven runoff private companies and agents of the 'Direction de la Protection des Végétaux' were interviewed. Data were statistical treated using Sphinx Plus. The survey showed that vegetable growers have an acceptable educational level (36% have more than 7 years of formal education) to exploit instructions concerning pesticide use, but more than 97% do not use recommended tools. Only 21% of them received training for pesticide use. Moreover, 84% of them did not usually wear gloves, and less than 30% used oro-nasal masks. Failure to observe minimum intervals between pesticide application and sale is worrying because extremely hazardous (Carbofuran and Cadusaphos) or moderately toxic (Cypermethrin, Dimethoate, Endosulfan, Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Fipronil) are the products currently used. The presented study indicates that pesticides application in the survey area represents a potential risk for the environment, farmers and consumers. More investigations are needed to quantify pesticides residues on the vegetables currently con,umed and moreover, to determine the potential effect of those products on human and animals health.

  3. Pesticide regulation, utilization, and retailers' selling practices in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies: current situation and needed changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Lexley M; Boysielal, Kim; Siung-Chang, Avril

    2007-08-01

    To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticides and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91% response rate) in the survey. Currently only 2.9% (21) of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate, and Fastac) from World Health Organization (WHO) Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U) are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2% (38) of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9% utilization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand, and colloquial names of pesticides used in Trinidad and Tobago; WHO classification of approved pesticides; manufacturers; packaging; and antidotes and their availability for use by the Board and health professionals in Trinidad. Urgent critical evaluation of legislation regarding pesticide

  4. Pesticide removal by combined ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Since the seventies, new water treatment processes have been introduced in the production of drinking water from surface water. Their major aim was to adequately cope with the disinfection of this water, and/or with the removal of pesticides and other organic micropollutants from it. This research f

  5. In vitro dopaminergic neurotoxicity of pesticides : a link with neurodegeneration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, Harm J.; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Around the globe, chemical compounds are used to treat or repel pests and plagues that pose a threat to food and feed production. From epidemiological studies, it is known that there is a link between exposure to certain chemical classes of these so-called pesticides and the prevalence of

  6. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in fish sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... the organochlorine pesticide residues in fish sold in markets and fishing sites in Abidjan, ... analyzed, at various concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 14.4 μg.kg-1 of fresh product.

  7. Pesticide removal by combined ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Since the seventies, new water treatment processes have been introduced in the production of drinking water from surface water. Their major aim was to adequately cope with the disinfection of this water, and/or with the removal of pesticides and other organic micropollutants from it. This

  8. Comparison of exposure assessment guidelines for pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, P; Iyengar, S

    1992-01-01

    The field of exposure assessment of pesticides has become well established in the past decade. Consequently, government agencies and industry groups have identified the need for guidelines for conducting studies that assess mixer/loader/applicator exposure to pesticides, as well as the exposure of individuals to residues. This paper reviews guidelines on mixer/loader/applicator exposure studies issued by the International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products, the National Agricultural Chemicals Association, the U.S. EPA, and the World Health Organization. Mention is also made of Canadian exposure guidelines in preparation. Also reviewed are two guidelines for conducting indoor occupant exposure studies, one by the National Agricultural Chemicals Association and one by Health and Welfare Canada. The only available guideline (EPA) on assessing pesticide exposure to workers upon reentry into treated fields is also reviewed. These guidelines are reviewed and compared as to criteria for requirements of exposure studies, methodologies recommended for dermal, inhalation, and biological monitoring, quality assurance and quality control, the use of surrogate data, data reporting, and exposure calculations. From this comparison, it is evident that there has been little significant progress in the area of methodologies used for dermal exposure monitoring. The use of patches as suggested by Durham and Wolfe (1962) is still accepted and widely used, despite its limitations. However, relatively recent research in this area has shown that the fluorescent tracer technique (Fenske et al. 1986a,b) and use of full-body dosimeters may help in overcoming some of these limitations. The tracer technique is mentioned in the EPA guidelines and full-body dosimeters are addressed by EPA, WHO, and NACA. Biological monitoring can also overcome many of the limitations of passive dosimetry, but all guidelines stress the need for extensive knowledge of the

  9. Groundwater vulnerability maps for pesticides for Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, Jef; Joris, Ingeborg; Bronders, Jan; Van Looy, Stijn; Vanden Boer, Dirk; Heuvelmans, Griet; Seuntjens, Piet

    2017-04-01

    Pesticides are increasingly being detected in shallow groundwater and and are one of the main causes of the poor chemical status of phreatic groundwater bodies in Flanders. There is a need for groundwater vulnerability maps in order to design monitoring strategies and land-use strategies for sensitive areas such as drinking water capture zones. This research focuses on the development of generic vulnerability maps for pesticides for Flanders and a tool to calculate substance-specific vulnerability maps at the scale of Flanders and at the local scale. (1) The generic vulnerability maps are constructed using an index based method in which maps of the main contributing factors in soil and saturated zone to high concentrations of pesticides in groundwater are classified and overlain. Different weights are assigned to the contributing factors according to the type of pesticide (low/high mobility, low/high persistence). Factors that are taken into account are the organic matter content and texture of soil, depth of the unsaturated zone, organic carbon and redox potential of the phreatic groundwater and thickness and conductivity of the phreatic layer. (2) Secondly a tool is developed that calculates substance-specific vulnerability maps for Flanders using a hybrid approach where a process-based leaching model GeoPEARL is combined with vulnerability indices that account for dilution in the phreatic layer. The GeoPEARL model is parameterized for Flanders in 1434 unique combinations of soil properties, climate and groundwater depth. Leaching is calculated for a 20 year period for each 50 x 50 m gridcell in Flanders. (3) At the local scale finally, a fully process-based approach is applied combining GeoPEARL leaching calculations and flowline calculations of pesticide transport in the saturated zone to define critical zones in the capture zone of a receptor such as a drinking water well or a river segment. The three approaches are explained more in detail and illustrated

  10. Use of by-products rich in carbon and nitrogen as a nutrient source to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner)-based bio pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicente, Fernando H. [EMBRAPA Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: valicent@cnpms.embrapa.br; Mourao, Andre H.C. [Curso de Meio Ambiente, Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    The amount and sources of carbon and nitrogen used to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner)-based biopesticide may influence the quality of the fi nal product. The objective of this research was to test different levels of carbon and nitrogen: medium 1 - 1.5% maize glucose + 0.5% soy fl our, medium 2 - 3.0% maize glucose + 1.0% soy flour, medium 3 - 1.0% maize glucose + 3.0% soy fl our and medium 4 - Luria Bertani (LB) + salts (FeSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4}, MnSO{sub 4}, MgSO{sub 4}). The seed culture was produced in LB medium plus salt, under agitation (200 rpm) for 18h at 30 deg C. The strain 344 of Bt was used (B. thuringiensis var tolworthi - belonging to the EMBRAPA's Bt Bank). The pH was measured at regular intervals, and After culturing for 96h, the pH of the four tested media was basified (6.91 and 8.15), the number of spores yielded 4.39 x 10{sup 9} spores/ml in medium 3, where the amount of protein is high. The dry biomass weight accumulated in media 3 was 39.3 g/l. Mortality of 2-day-old larvae Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) was 100% when using Bt produced in media 3 and 4. CL{sub 50} for medium 3 was 8.4 x 10{sup 6} spores/ml. All tested media were satisfactory to Bt growth, and medium 3 was the most promising to be used on a large scale Bt-based biopesticide production. (author)

  11. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

  12. ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF APPLICATION OF PESTICIDES IN RICE FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Among several pests of rice as one of the main agricultural products in Iran, rice borer, Chilo suppressalis is one of the most important pests of this crop. Use of pesticides coincided with the occurrence of this pest in the northern region of Iran in 1972. At present in order to control this pest, more than 12000 tones of pesticides granules are used annually. Ecological effects of pesticides application and the use of Trichograma sp. as a natural enemy, for assessing the impacts of pesticides in environments, especially on different living organisms on the plant, in irrigation water, and in 5 cm depth of surface soil, were investigated in two regions of Amol, named Osk. Mahalleh and Capik Field of Tashbandan. Results indicated that the two treatments were not different on croploss. One the contrary, in the pesticide treatment, there was a considerable decrease in the population of living organisms, particularly, no organism was observed in 5 cm depth of surface soil. It is recommended that in order to maintain the balance of environment, the use of chemicals for controlling rice borer must be with extreme care, only in the inevitable was with the use of principles of Integrated Pest Management.

  13. Computer program for distance learning of pesticide application technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Bruno; Cunha, Joao P A R

    2011-12-01

    Distance learning presents great potential for mitigating field problems on pesticide application technology. Thus, due to the lack of teaching material about pesticide spraying technology in the Portuguese language and the increasing availability of distance learning, this study developed and evaluated a computer program for distance learning about the theory of pesticide spraying technology using the tools of information technology. The modules comprising the course, named Pulverizar, were: (1) Basic concepts, (2) Factors that affect application, (3) Equipments, (4) Spraying nozzles, (5) Sprayer calibration, (6) Aerial application, (7) Chemigation, (8) Physical-chemical properties, (9) Formulations, (10) Adjuvants, (11) Water quality, and (12) Adequate use of pesticides. The program was made available to the public on July 1(st), 2008, hosted at the web site www.pulverizar.iciag.ufu.br, and was simple, robust and practical on the complementation of traditional teaching for the education of professionals in Agricultural Sciences. Mastering pesticide spraying technology by people involved in agricultural production can be facilitated by the program Pulverizar, which was well accepted in its initial evaluation.

  14. High frequency monitoring of pesticides in runoff water from a vineyard: ecotoxicological and hysteresis pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Landry, David; Payraudeau, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall-induced peaks in pesticide concentrations can occur rapidly; therefore, low frequency sampling may largely underestimate maximum pesticide concentrations and fluxes. Detailed storm-based sampling of pesticide concentrations in runoff water to better predict pesticide sources, transport pathways and toxicity within the headwater catchments is actually lacking. High frequency monitoring (2 min) of dissolved concentrations and loads for seven pesticides (Dimetomorph, Fluopicolide, Glyphosate, Iprovalicarb, Tebuconazole, Tetraconazole and Triadimenol) and one degradation product (AMPA) were assessed for 20 runoff events from 2009 to 2012 at the outlet of a vineyard catchment in the Layon catchment in France. The pesticide concentrations reached 387 µg/L. All of the runoff events exceeded the mandated acceptable concentrations of 0.1 µg/L for each pesticide (European directive 2013/39/EC). High resolution sampling used to detect the peak pesticide levels revealed that Toxic Units (TU) for algae, invertebrates and fish often exceeded the European Uniform principles (25%). The instantaneous and average (time or discharge-weighted) concentrations indicated an up to 30- or 4-fold underestimation of the TU obtained when measuring the maximum concentrations, respectively, highlighting the important role of the sampling methods for assessing peak exposure. High resolution sampling combined with concentration-discharge hysteresis analyses revealed that clockwise responses were predominant (52%), indicating that Hortonian runoff is the prevailing surface runoff trigger mechanism in the study catchment. The hysteresis patterns for suspended solids and pesticides were highly dynamic and storm- and chemical-dependent. Intense rainfall events induced stronger C-Q hysteresis (magnitude). This study provides new insights into the complexity of pesticide dynamics in runoff water and highlights the ability of hysteresis analysis to improve the understanding of pesticide

  15. A review of the global pesticide legislation and the scale of challenge in reaching the global harmonization of food safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handford, Caroline E; Elliott, Christopher T; Campbell, Katrina

    2015-10-01

    Pesticide use is important in agriculture to protect crops and improve productivity. However, pesticides have the potential to cause adverse human health or environmental effects, depending on exposure levels. This review examines existing pesticide legislation worldwide, focusing on the level of harmonization and impacts of differing legislation on food safety and trade. Pesticide legislation varies greatly worldwide, because countries have different requirements, guidelines, and legal limits for plant protection. Developed nations have more stringent regulations than developing countries, which lack the resources and expertise to adequately implement and enforce legislation. Global differences in pesticide legislation act as a technical barrier to trade. International parties such as the European Union (EU), Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have attempted to harmonize pesticide legislation by providing maximum residue limits (MRLs), but globally these limits remain variable. Globally harmonized pesticide standards would serve to increase productivity, profits, and trade and also enhance the ability to protect public health and the environment.

  16. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. METHODS: To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers...... from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: This study...... spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. CONCLUSION: The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia...

  17. Hair as a marker for pesticides exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Baker, Charlotte; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-01-01

    Rats were orally treated with mixtures of chlorinated pesticides. Hair was collected and analyzed for pesticide residues over a period of up to four weeks. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the recovered pesticides in hair were determined using gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Results suggest that hair can be used as a biomarker for the monitoring of organochlorinated pesticide residues at low parts per billion levels. Chlorinated pesticides were also detected in human hair of environmentally exposed and occupationally exposed individuals, which indicates that hair can be used for monitoring pesticides exposure.

  18. Monitoring of total type ii pyrethroid pesticides in citrus oils and water by converting to a common product 3-phenoxybenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Mark R; Yang, Zheng; Fu, Xun; Ahn, Ki Chang; Gee, Shirley J; Bom, David C; Zhong, Ping; Chang, Dan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-05-23

    Pyrethroids are a class of insecticides that are becoming increasingly popular in agricultural and home use applications. Sensitive assays for pyrethroid insecticides in complex matrices are difficult with both instrumental and immunochemical methods. Environmental analysis of the pyrethroids by immunoassay requires either knowing which pyrethroids contaminate the source or the use of nonspecific antibodies with cross-reactivities to a class of compounds. We describe an alternative method that converts the type II pyrethroids to a common chemical product, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), prior to analysis. This method is much more sensitive than detecting the parent compound, and it is much easier to detect a single compound rather than an entire class of compounds. This is useful in screening for pyrethroids as a class or in situations where a single type of pyrethroid is used. We demonstrated this technique in both citrus oils and environmental water samples with conversion rates of the pyrethroid to 3-PBA that range from 45 to 75% and methods that require no extraction steps for either the immunoassay or the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques. Limits of detection for this technique applied to orange oil are 5 nM, 2 μM, and 0.8 μM when detected by LC-MS/MS, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and immunoassay, respectively. The limit of detection for pyrethroids in water when detected by immunoassay was 2 nM.

  19. Solid state fermentation of biogas residues for production of Bacillus thuringiensis based bio-pesticide%以沼渣为原料固态发酵生产Bt生物农药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮玮; 弓爱君; 邱丽娜; 要如磊

    2013-01-01

    used as a substrate for bio-pesticides production by solid state fermentation. Principal component analysis of biogas residue indicated that it was well suited for the growth of Bacillus thuringiensis in the experiments. The culture medium recipe was optimized by the orthogonal test. Brewer's grain, corn meal, soybean cake power and mixed ions were chosen to carry out the study. The results showed that brewer’s grain had the biggest effects on the growth of Bacillus thuringiensis and then followed the growth effects of corn meal, soybean cake power and mixed ions. Ultimately, the optimum media were 50% biogas residues, 35% brewer's grain, 10% corn meal, and 5% soybean cake power. This article compared the fermentation process among conventional media, only biogas residues media and the optimum media, under the optimized conditions. Spore counts of 5.23×1010 CFU/g and entomotoxicity of 16100 IU/mg were obtained after 48h fermentation, while 2.55×1010 CFU/g spore counts and 12500 IU/mg entomotoxicity were obtained in the conventional medium, and 1.74×108 CFU/g spore counts and 6000 IU/mg entomotoxicity were found in the only biogas residue medium. At last, by comparing the cost between conventional medium and the optimum media, the cost could be lowered by 36.3%. The present study proved the feasibility of using kitchen waste for the production of bio-pesticides, and it seemed to be a promising alternative for the use of conventional mediums to reduce the costs.

  20. EVALUATION OF FARMERS APPRECIATION IN REDUCING PESTICIDE BY ORGANIC FARMING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih Indraningsih

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables and dairy milk are important commodities in Pangalengan and Lembang, West Java. However, agrochemicals are used intensively and excessively in production system. Therefore, pesticide residues and contamination commonly occurred in agricultural products and environments. The study aimed to assess farmers’ attitudes on pesticide toxicity and reducing pesticide residues in animal and food crops products, and investigate the attitude changes of farmers on pesticide use. It was an on-farm research and farmers were directly involved in the study. The attitude change was analyzed on questionnaire and interview base for over 99 respondents in Pangalengan and Lembang between 2001 and 2003. Samples of soils, weeds, cabbages and milk were collected for pesticide residue analysis. Results showed that farmers did not aware on toxicity effects of pesticides in both animal and human health. There was misinterpretation among the farmers where pesticides were regarded as drugs rather than toxic compound to increase productivity. The organochlorines/OCs (lindane and heptachlor were common pesticide contaminants found in soils of 7.9- 11.4 ppb, but no organophospates (OPs were detected. Both OCs and OPs were also detected in soils of Lembang at a range of 11.53-65.63 ppb and 0.6-2.6 ppb, respectively. There were pesticide residues detected in weeds collected from Pangalengan (8.93 ppb lindane, 2.05 ppb heptachlor, and 33.27 ppb chlorpyriphos methyl/CPM and Lembang (6.45 ppb lindane, 2.65 ppb endosulfan, 6.85 ppb diazinon, and 0.5 ppb CPM. Only endosulfan with least residue level (0.1 ppb was detected in organic cabbages, whereas lindane was detected much higher (3.7 ppb in non-organic cabbages. Pesticide residues were not detected in milk of dairy cattle fed on by-products of organic cabbages, but lindane was still present in milk of dairy cattle fed on non-organic cabbages for 7 days subsequently. The present study indicates that the organic farming

  1. Pesticide assessment: Protecting public health on the home turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Meg; Walker, C Robin; van der Jagt, Richard Hc; Claman, Paul

    2006-04-01

    Pesticide regulation is examined in the context of Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency's assessment of the chlorophenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for turf. 2,4-D is the most common herbicide used to kill weeds in grass.The medical literature does not uniformly indicate harms from herbicides. However, the balance of epidemiological research suggests that 2,4-D can be persuasively linked to cancers, neurological impairment and reproductive problems. These may arise from 2,4-D itself, from breakdown products or dioxin contamination, or from a combination of chemicals.Regulators rely largely on toxicology, but experiments may not replicate exposures from 2,4-D application to lawns because environmental breakdown products (eg, 2,4-dichlorophenol) may not accumulate and selected herbicides are possibly less contaminated. Dioxins are bioaccumulative chemicals that may cause cancer, harm neurological development, impair reproduction, disrupt the endocrine system and alter immune function. No dioxin analyses were submitted to the Pest Management Regulatory Agency, and the principal contaminants of 2,4-D are not among the 17 congeners covered in pesticide regulation. Independent assessment of all dioxins is needed, in tissues and in the environment.The 2,4-D assessment does not approach standards for ethics, rigour or transparency in medical research. Canada needs a stronger regulator for pesticides. Potentially toxic chemicals should not be registered when more benign solutions exist, risks are not clearly quantifiable or potential risks outweigh benefits. Until landscaping pesticides are curtailed nationally, local bylaws and Quebec's Pesticide Code are prudent measures to protect public health. Physicians have a role in public education regarding pesticides.

  2. The Non-point Source Pollution Effects of Pesticides Based on the Survey of 340 Farmers in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianchao; YU; Limeng; GU; Qian; BI

    2015-01-01

    Using the survey data on 340 farmers in Chongqing City,this paper performs an empirical analysis of the factors influencing the non-point source pollution of pesticides. The results show that the older householders will apply more pesticides,which may be due to the weak physical strength and weak ability to accept the concept of advanced cultivation; the householders with high level of education will choose to use less pesticides; the pesticide application rate is negatively correlated with whether farmers have participated in agricultural technology training,that is,the farmers having participated in agricultural technology training have stronger ability to scientifically apply pesticides,and in-depth understanding of advanced agricultural production technology and positive and negative effects of pesticides,so they often choose to reduce the application rate of pesticide; the cognitive factor on the role of pesticides in better promoting the growth of crops is significant,which requires the government and relevant departments to carry out concrete publicity of effectiveness and negative impact of different pesticides during the popularization of agricultural science knowledge,to prompt farmers to have a systematic and in-depth understanding of the agricultural nonpoint source pollution caused by pesticides.

  3. Determination of pesticide residues in fruit-based soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reyes, Juan F; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2008-12-01

    Here we report the first worldwide reconnaissance study of the presence and occurrence of pesticides in fruit-based soft drinks. While there are strict regulations and exhaustive controls for pesticides in fruits, vegetables, and drinking water, scarce attention has been paid to highly consumed derivate products, which may contain these commodities as ingredients. In the case of the fruit-based soft drinks industry, there are no clear regulations, relating to pesticides, which address them, even when there is significant consumption in vulnerable groups such as children. In this work, we have developed a screening method to search automatically for up to 100 pesticides in fruit-based soft drinks extracts based on the application of liquid chromatography-electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The sample extracts injected were obtained by a preliminary sample treatment step based on solid-phase extraction using hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced polymer-based reverse phase cartridges and methanol as eluting solvent. Subsequent identification, confirmation, and quantitation were carried out by LC-TOF MS analysis: the confirmation of the target species was based on retention time matching and accurate mass measurements of protonated molecules ([M + H]+) and fragment ions (obtaining accuracy errors typically lower than 2 ppm). With the proposed method, we measured over 100 fruit-based soft drink samples, purchased from 15 different countries from companies with brands distributed worldwide and found relatively large concentration levels of pesticides in most of the samples analyzed. The concentration levels detected were of the micrograms per liter level, low when considering the European maximum residue levels (MRLs) set for fruits but very high (i.e., 300 times) when considering the MRLs for drinking or bottled water. The detected pesticides (carbendazim, thiabendazole, imazalil and its main degradate, prochloraz and its main degradate, malathion, and

  4. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2110 Microbial pesticides data requirements. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1) The following § 158.2120 through §...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2100 Microbial pesticides definition and applicability. (a) This subpart applies to all living or dead microbial pesticides as...

  7. MULTI-RESIDUE ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES IN GRAPES IN BIJAPUR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S.Pujeri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit samples of grapes were analyzed for pesticide residues, employing multi-residue analysis by gas- liquid chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS/ LCMS/ MS. All the fruit samples showed the presence of pesticide residues with one or other group of pesticides. Some of the grape samples contain more than the minimum residue limit. The increasing interest in the study of pesticides in grapes is justified from an enological point of view, since some pesticides can interfere with fermentative microflora used in wine production, as well as affect consumer safety. There were no significant differences between some pesticide levels found in the whole grape (skin and pulp and in the grape skin. Chlorpyriphos, captan, dichlorovos, oxyfluorfen, fipronoil, 4- bromo-2-chlorophenol and indoxycarb were detected. Nevertheless, consumer intake of pesticides from grapes studied in this work should be decreased as a result of water washing of the grapes. In this paper, multiresidue determination of pesticides using GCMS/ LC-MS/MS are discussed.

  8. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huici Omar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. Methods To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. Results This study documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken during spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. Conclusion The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution.

  9. Negative effects of pesticides on wild bee communities can be buffered by landscape context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mia G; Blitzer, E J; Gibbs, Jason; Losey, John E; Danforth, Bryan N

    2015-06-22

    Wild bee communities provide underappreciated but critical agricultural pollination services. Given predicted global shortages in pollination services, managing agroecosystems to support thriving wild bee communities is, therefore, central to ensuring sustainable food production. Benefits of natural (including semi-natural) habitat for wild bee abundance and diversity on farms are well documented. By contrast, few studies have examined toxicity of pesticides on wild bees, let alone effects of farm-level pesticide exposure on entire bee communities. Whether beneficial natural areas could mediate effects of harmful pesticides on wild bees is also unknown. Here, we assess the effect of conventional pesticide use on the wild bee community visiting apple (Malus domestica) within a gradient of percentage natural area in the landscape. Wild bee community abundance and species richness decreased linearly with increasing pesticide use in orchards one year after application; however, pesticide effects on wild bees were buffered by increasing proportion of natural habitat in the surrounding landscape. A significant contribution of fungicides to observed pesticide effects suggests deleterious properties of a class of pesticides that was, until recently, considered benign to bees. Our results demonstrate extended benefits of natural areas for wild pollinators and highlight the importance of considering the landscape context when weighing up the costs of pest management on crop pollination services.

  10. Multiresidue Analysis of 86 Pesticides Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry: II-Nonleafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. EL-Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1057 samples of fresh vegetables from import and domestic production were analyzed (cold pepper, egg plant, carrot, cucumber, potato, hot pepper, cultivation tomato, squash, beans, okra, onions, cauliflower, and green house tomato. The aim of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in market foods in Riyadh, which have been collected from Riyadh Development Company (Al-Tamer Vegetables Market. Pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GC-MSD. A multiresidue method was developed and described for simultaneous determination of 86 pesticides commonly used in crop protection. This method used to determine 86 pesticide residues with a broad range of physicochemical properties in fresh vegetables related to organophosphorus (OPP, organochlorines (OCP, pyrethroids, and carbamates mainly used in agriculture. Sample extract was cleaned up by using AOAC method. Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL were detected in 15.89% of the total samples (168 from 1057 samples, but 83.90% of the total samples (887 from 1057 samples has no residues or contained pesticide residues at or below MRL. The detected and most frequently found pesticide residues were permethrin (45 times and endosulfan (34 times followed by deltamethrin (27 times. The findings of this study pointed to the following recommendations: the need for a monitoring program for pesticide residues in imported food crops.

  11. Fate of pesticides in combined paddy rice-fish pond farming systems in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyusheva, Maria; Lamers, Marc; La, Nguyen; Nguyen, Van Vien; Streck, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, high population growth and export-oriented economics in Vietnam have led to a tremendous intensification of rice production, which in turn has significantly increased the amount of pesticides applied in rice cropping systems. Since pesticides are toxic by design, there is a natural concern on the impact of their presence in the environment on human health and environmental quality. The present study was designed to examine the water regime and fate of pesticides (fenitrothion, dimethoate) during two consecutive rice crop seasons in combined paddy rice-fish pond farming systems in northern Vietnam. Major results revealed that 5 and 41% (dimethoate), and 1 and 17% (fenitrothion) of the applied mass of pesticides were lost from the paddy field to the adjacent fish pond during spring and summer crop seasons, respectively. The decrease of pesticide concentration in paddy surface water was very rapid with dissipation half-life values of 0.3 to 0.8 and 0.2 d for dimethoate and fenitrothion, respectively. Key factors controlling the transport of pesticides were water solubility and paddy water management parameters, such as hydraulic residence time and water holding period. Risk assessment indicates that the exposure to toxic levels of pesticides for aquaculture (, ) is significant, at least shortly after pesticide application.

  12. A Floral Fragrance, Methyl Benzoate, is An Efficient Green Pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Zhang, Aijun

    2017-02-01

    Over-reliance on synthetic pesticides in insect pest control has caused widespread public and scientific concerns for human health and the environment, especially since many insect pests have already developed resistances to conventional pesticides and Bt products. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in development of alternative control methods for insect pest management. Based on laboratory studies, we report that methyl benzoate (MB), a naturally-occurring compound in many plants, may possess toxicity against various stages of a variety of insect pests, including the brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, as well as the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Based on our laboratory toxicity data, MB was at least 5 to 20 times more toxic than the conventional pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), sulfur & pyrethrin mixture, and some organic commercial products available on the market against H. halys, P. xylostella, and M. sexta, eggs. Because MB is considered an environment-friendly, it has great potential to be used as an alternative tool to synthetic pesticide for insect pest management in crop production, thereby, reducing threats to natural ecosystems and human health caused by over-application of conventional synthetic pesticides.

  13. Chlorinated organic pesticides in marketed food: Barcelona, 2001-06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontcuberta, M. [Agencia de Salut Publica de Barcelona, ASPB, Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Av Drassanes 13, 08001 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: mfontcub@aspb.es; Arques, J.F.; Villalbi, J.R.; Martinez, M.; Centrich, F.; Serrahima, E.; Pineda, L.; Duran, J.; Casas, C. [Agencia de Salut Publica de Barcelona, ASPB, Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Av Drassanes 13, 08001 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    This paper reports concentration levels of 22 chlorinated organic compounds (both primary compounds and metabolites) in food marketed in the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in 2001-06. Samples included meat products, fish and seafood, eggs, milk and dairy, vegetal oils, cereal products and derivates, vegetables, fresh fruits, dry fruits, spices, formula and baby food, tea and wine. Levels of chlorinated organic compounds were determined by gas chromatography with selective detectors: electron capture (ECD), flame photometric (FPD) and confirmation with mass-spectrometry. Chlorinated organic pesticides were detected in 7 of the 1,484 samples analyzed in the 2001-06 period (0.5%): 1 dairy product, 1 fruit, 1 olive oil and 4 vegetables. Specific pesticides detected are lindane and endosulfan {alpha}, {beta} or sulphate. A decrease in both the proportion of samples with detectable residues and in the variety of chlorinated pesticides found is visible when comparing these results with those of the previous 1989-2000 period. These results suggest the gradual disappearance of regulated chlorinated organic pesticides as a consequence of the growing worldwide implementation of current regulatory agreements.

  14. Gold nanoparticle-based fluorescent sensor for the analysis of dithiocarbamate pesticides in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senkbeil, Silja; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas G.;

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides play a key role in the high yields achieved in modern agricultural food production. Besides their positive effect on increasing productivity they are intentionally toxic, often towards non-target organisms and contaminated food products can have a serious impact on human and environmen......Pesticides play a key role in the high yields achieved in modern agricultural food production. Besides their positive effect on increasing productivity they are intentionally toxic, often towards non-target organisms and contaminated food products can have a serious impact on human...

  15. Pesticide residues in Portuguese strawberries grown in 2009-2010 using integrated pest management and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Virgínia C; Domingues, Valentina F; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Pesticides are among the most widely used chemicals in the world. Because of the widespread use of agricultural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to low levels of pesticide residues through their diets. Scientists do not yet have a total understanding of the health effects of these pesticide residues. This work aims to determine differences in terms of pesticide residue content in Portuguese strawberries grown using different agriculture practices. The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe sample preparation method was conducted and shown to have good performance for multiclass pesticides extraction in strawberries. The screening of 25 pesticides residue was performed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In quantitative validation, acceptable performances were achieved with recoveries of 70-120 and integrated pest management (IPM) practices harvested in 2009-2010. The results showed the presence of fludioxonil, bifenthrin, mepanipyrim, tolylfluanid, cyprodinil, tetraconazole, and malathion when using IPM below the maximum residue levels.

  16. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... relationship between EPA-approved labels for pesticides registered under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide... AGENCY Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for.... SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice)...

  17. Immunotoxicity of organophosphorous pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tamara; Handy, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This study reviews the toxic effects of organophosphate (OP) pesticides on the immune systems and immune functions of invertebrates, fish, and higher vertebrate wildlife. The fundamental features and mechanisms of OP-induced immunotoxicity are illustrated with reference to parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and diazinon. Immunotoxicity may be direct via inhibition of serine hydrolases or esterases in components of the immune system, through oxidative damage to immune organs, or by modulation of signal transduction pathways controlling immune functions. Indirect effects include modulation by the nervous system, or chronic effects of altered metabolism/nutrition on immune organs. Immunotoxicities are varied and include pathology of immune organs, and decreased humoral and/or cell mediated immunity. Altered non-specific immunity, decreased host resistance, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity are also features of immunotoxicity; although not all of these have been conclusively demonstrated in terms of pollutant exposure and immunotoxic effects in wildlife within individual experiments. Immunotoxicological biomarkers and biological monitoring tools are urgently needed to assess the extent of immunotoxicity in wildlife. Selection of universal biomarkers is hampered by the physiological diversity of immune systems in animals. However, by drawing on evidence from human epidemiology and tiered approaches in mammalian immunotoxicity evaluation, a selection of generic biomarkers of immunotoxicity in animals is suggested. Priorities for future research are also identified.

  18. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

    2006-11-15

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

  19. Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162249.html Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria Study of Washington farm workers finds alterations persist ... News) -- Pesticide exposure may change the makeup of bacteria in the mouths of farm workers, a new ...

  20. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  1. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  2. How We Engage Our Pesticide Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of EPA's pesticide program is directly connected to our efforts to engage all stakeholders. In addition to meetings on pesticide-specific actions, we sponsor advisory committees that include diverse, independent stakeholders.

  3. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, L.; Beseler, C.; Bouchard, M.F.; Bellinger, D.C.; Colosio, C.; Grandjean, P.; Harari, R.; Kootbodien, T.; Kromhout, H.; Little, F.; Meijster, T.; Moretto, A.; Rohlman, D.S.; Stallones L.

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and

  4. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  5. Utilization of Poultry Litter to Enhance Fungal Activity and Microbial Dynamics in the Presence of Pesticide Mixture: Implication on Pesticide Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. In this study, five treatments were ...

  6. PURE: a web-based decision support system to evaluate pesticide environmental risk for sustainable pest management practices in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu; Zhang, Minghua

    2012-08-01

    Farmers, policy makers, and other stakeholders seek tools to quantitatively assess pesticide risks for mitigating pesticide impacts on ecosystem and human health. This paper presents the Pesticide Use Risk Evaluation (PURE) decision support system (DSS) for evaluating site-specific pesticide risks to surface water, groundwater, soil, and air across pesticide active ingredient (AI), pesticide product, and field levels. The risk score is determined by the ratio of the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) to the toxicity value for selected endpoint organism(s); except that the risk score for the air is calculated using the emission potential (EP), which is a pesticide product property for estimating potential volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by California Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA). The risk scores range from 0 to 100, where 0 represents negligible risk while 100 means the highest risk. The procedure for calculating PEC in surface water was evaluated against monitoring data for 41 pesticide AIs, with a statistically significant correlation coefficient of r=0.82 (penvironmental protection organizations in mitigating pesticide use impacts on the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  8. FDA Issues Final Guidance Clarifying FDA and EPA Jurisdiction over Mosquito-Related Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    FDA finalized guidance to provide information on FDA and EPA jurisdiction over the regulation of mosquito-related products intended to function as pesticides, including those products intended to function as pesticides

  9. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  10. [Biological consequences of oxidative stress induced by pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicka-Maciąg, Emilia

    2011-06-17

    Pesticides are used to protect plants and numerous plant products. They are also utilized in several industrial branches. These compounds are highly toxic to living organisms. In spite of close supervision in the use of pesticides there is a serious risk that these agents are able to spread into the environment and contaminate water, soil, food, and feedstuffs. Recently, more and more studies have been focused on understanding the toxic mechanisms of pesticide actions. The data indicate that the toxic action of pesticides may include the induction of oxidative stress and accumulation of free radicals in the cell. Long-lasting or acute oxidative stress disturbs cell metabolism and is able to produce permanent changes in the structure of proteins, lipids, and DNA. The proteins that are oxidized may lose or enhance their activity. Moreover, the proteins oxidized are able to form aggregates that inhibit the systems responsible for protein degradation and lead to alterations of proteins in the cell. Once oxidized, lipids have the capacity to damage and depolarize cytoplasmic membranes. Free oxygen radicals are harmful to DNA including damage to single nitric bases, DNA strand breaks and adduct production. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress may accelerate development of numerous diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative ones such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease and may also be responsible for infertility.

  11. Importance and toxicological effects of organophosphorus pesticides: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kazemi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental risk assessment is an estimate of the likelihood or probability of an adverse impact on the environment resulting from human activities such as applying of pesticides against of target pests (insects, plant pathogens, weeds, nematodes, microbes, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish and so on in the agriculture. Since the Withdrawal of organochlorine pesticides from use, organophosphorus pesticides (OPs have become the most widely used pesticides available today in the entire world especially in the Iran. The use of OPs has a number of health advantages, including control of insect vector borne diseases and increasing the food and agriculture productions. However, the use of these toxic compounds on man, animals or in his immediate environment has caused potential hazards that seriously are baneful for public health. There has been increasing awareness and concern on the part of food and health officials and of the dairy industry about the presence OPs in milk and other milk products. In this article, we reviewed some printed articles about OP poisoning and its management.

  12. Assessment of perception and intention in pesticide purchase in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jong Chao; Liao, Chih-Hsiang

    2016-05-01

    Environmental chemical agents such as pesticides can be purchased easily at a relatively low price, and this has resulted in high concern of environmental toxicity to human health, due to their persistence in various environmental bodies. Hence, this study aims to propose important factors influencing pesticide purchase intentions, including consumers' perceptions of the brand image and the ecological health risk. Since consumers are primary users, the seller knows the product's features but not the psychology of those who purchase it. Therefore, we attempted to clarify purchase intentions and perceptions using structural equation modeling techniques to empirically analyze survey data from 324 pesticide consumers in Taiwan. Our results demonstrate that perceived brand image positively affects perceived quality of a product, whereas perceived risk negatively affects perceived quality and purchase intentions. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that perceived quality positively affects purchase intentions. These relationships suggest that perceived quality mediates both the positive association between brand image and purchase intentions and the negative association between perceived risk and purchase intentions. Based on such outcomes, we propose that consumers need to be informed of pesticides related to costs and environmental benefits.

  13. TOXIC EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON THE BIOTA OF FRESHWATER RESERVOIRS OF UKRAINE (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolesnyk

    2015-12-01

    water temperature and a decrease in oxygen content results in an increase in pesticide toxicity. Practical value. The array of the generalized information on the toxic and lethal effects of pesticides will be important for scientists who investigate the biological risk of pesticides and their impact on basic categories of freshwater biota and, in general, for ichthyological and environmental research. The information on the peculiarities of the toxic effects of pesticides on fish is important in the conditions of increasing demand for fish products as a source of valuable proteins for humans.

  14. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...: Elicitor of Induced Systemic Resistance with Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 at 95%. Proposed... ingredient: Elicitor of Induced Systemic Resistance with Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 at 5%. Proposed classification/use: To elicit systemic changes in plants, thereby activating their own defense systems...

  15. 75 FR 24695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...: Pyrasulfotole. Proposed Uses: Sorghum (grain and forage) and Grass Grown for Seed including Conservation Reserve...: Alfalfa seed treatment. Contact: Julie Chao, (703) 308-8735, chao.julie@epa.gov . 3. Registration Number... 94596. Active ingredient: Metconazole. Proposed Use: Seed treatment use for canola, corn, cotton, small...

  16. 75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... used. v. If you estimate potential costs or burdens, explain how you arrived at your estimate in... G Street, NW.; Washington, DC 20001(on behalf of DSM Food Specialities BV; P.O. Box 12600 MA Delft.... Novak; Keller and Heckman, LLP; 1001 G Street, NW.; Washington, DC 20001(on behalf of DSM...

  17. 75 FR 11175 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... 20460- 0001. Susanne Cerrelli (703) 308-8077 Do. 86174-E cerrelli.susanne@epa.go 86174-G v. 86174-R... used. v. If you estimate potential costs or burdens, explain how you arrived at your estimate in... pullulans strain DSM 14940 Technical. Active Ingredient: Aureobasidium pullulans strain DSM 14940 at...

  18. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, CREOSOTE WOOD ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... p' 'i~r -t,u· IIU~ !-.t~rj ; "''' c j ~~ '0. 22;': •• e t~"'\\foIe'c·..,· c! ,~.~ F- ."..f:lt al~vt J'~j'f ~~, 2 ~,,,,r. '~:e~ 01'"", I' to ~,--:I bo::,;) em:l.'''q .... ,d. ...

  19. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, ELLISCO GRANULAR ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... I ,nt ~ , tc , B tT tit, ~~ iH t? C1 t t r" r- t f' d ~,:: ! h" ~Y j: ",,1 (;:: " s t : ~) (, Ii ns :m ddr 0 p !r:' ~'I.,.j', Ule funr'c,1 11110 Pl ... o (nIf'W seek m ecJ Ita I i ttent I 0'" ...

  20. 75 FR 66095 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... ingredients: Boscalid and Pyraclostrobin. Proposed use(s): Seed treatment on rapeseed (cultivars, varieties...). Proposed use(s): Blueberries. Contact: Rosemary Kearns, (703) 305-5611, kearns.rosemary@epa.gov . 5...

  1. 75 FR 10259 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... address for each contact person listed is: Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office...: Pasteuria usgae. Proposed Uses: Strawberries. Contact: Jeannine Kausch, (703) 347-8920, kausch.jeannine@epa... A. Matthews, Acting Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  2. 76 FR 26291 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001, and Biopesticides and Pollution... group; stonefruit group; strawberries; tree nut group. Contact: Daniel Peacock, Registration Division...: Pistachio. Contact: Shanaz Bacchus, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, (703) 308-8097,...

  3. 76 FR 16413 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ..., lunaria, meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed, oil radish, poppy seed, rapeseed (canola), sesame, and sweet...: Quizalofop-p-ethyl. Proposed Uses: Sorghum containing the INZEN AII herbicide tolerance trait and...

  4. 75 FR 5077 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... contains two inert ingredients, BHT and bumetrizole. BHT is an antioxidant and bumetrizole functions as a UV stabilizer. BHT is approved by the FDA as a food additive permitted for direct addition to food...

  5. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, PYRENONE DAIRY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... l'na~,I!\\1: - IC.q:lsh'lI·11 TI-hi.· ... l .... uf r,1l,rlt'ld Amt'r 1,'.11. [,.rIIPI".ll ~f_,1 'Ihl ... l'I".III.·1 r,'IIt.lllI:-> thluru(llI(1ro".IIIII.u-11 .111.1 Chll'lo.1 ,UI'II" ,HI"H;-I~ ...

  6. 75 FR 13282 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ..., NC 27419. Active ingredient: Thiamethoxam. Proposed Use: Peanut seed treatment. Contact: Julie Chao... Northline Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27408. Active ingredient: Thiamethoxam, (Z)-9-tricosene. Proposed Use:...

  7. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, WOLMANAC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... except where otherwise provided above ~gf~~sDfg N5r ~il~~npf~~s~~! e~~~~~d~~~ ~~d~~t~u~aa"~3~~el~~~~nn:~~~~al ...

  8. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, SEVANA BIRD ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... 'c-"anl 1l., .. nul.H "111i ,I ~·f.III·.I." .!l'plh,lh" ~ .. nlkd Jl'('~lh ,'1\\ Ih\\., ~\\J lin~ a1 ar,tl\\' III , ... !l ~lllh" '\\' I III 'rTlnkkr .lnti dflr Iffillalcd fklth arrh ~(,. h' 'I) n·, \\, ...

  9. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, GUARDIAN 46% ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... 1 I \\ I \\ I , __ .. _Gi I i I . t t I . , I I I I I , • j I i • 'I I I ! I , I Plh"U'l! .~.: I Y t··, 'H us)' AN: :-1' Il{t\\ ·1 ~~\\~. I : Cl)t\\l~~d' ,\\1.'1.11.":\\! t· ... " ...

  10. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, TEXACO SPRAY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... ".cla pr .• I~ ·~,nuln'. n"d nt.I'~t!lI", '''e· 'nult.dlls I:,plh II toll"' (..i~~l· ')".1 I fti.(t1,';:'i P1f.lr 11 .• :11' rrf'l\\ "~';f!I'l"i hi "'otW) 'II' 4IIf..,. P1,') • 'f'plsmls.,. ...

  11. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, PHOENIX BRAND ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... eb.·,crJ:lS. " 1111-" In, IrNJ ~~~ttr~s~~~1a~r Bt~rtt~~s, Green June 11 I',nl . -, '1 ~j TA ~AIL 11 ... '('t:~l.lb'e Y,'tnih -~ 1 ~·l tlint r CIII1"bIM~ Cut ... orms. ...

  12. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, TOBACCO STATES ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... ' •. :.r ,,11,1 .- --- _ .. III " .... 1.11\\''11\\ \\tilt!;:,. lIflr.I' ""'t.\\"!! I o· .. r "1'''' l "found, .fart IlLIII .... :If tA ahout " h::...h \\\\ ht'll 1111'11 •• , -- 111; .. ...

  13. 75 FR 53692 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...: Bifenthrin. Proposed uses: Grass forage, fodder and hay group, grass grown for seed, pasture and rangeland..., buckwheat, oat, pistachio, and rye. Contact: Linda A. DeLuise, (703) 305-5428, deluise.linda@epa.gov ....

  14. 76 FR 10026 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... ingredient: L-lactic acid Proposed Use: Commercial water additive in fruit and vegetable processing and wash.... Active ingredient: Terbutryn. Proposed Uses: Materials preservation of coatings, stuccos, roof...

  15. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist... Number/File Symbol: 2647-718, 264-719, 264-850. Docket Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0682. Company name and..., 10308-32. Docket Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0771. Company name and address: Valent U.S.A. Corporation,...

  16. 76 FR 4688 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... and suggest alternatives. vii. Explain your views as clearly as possible, avoiding the use of...): Brassica leafy greens subgroup 5B, potatoes, sugar beets, carrots, and rotational wheat. Contact: Janet...): Potatoes, sugar beets, carrots, and rotational wheat. Contact: Janet Whitehurst, (703) 305-...

  17. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, OC CLENCIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... 11 ... III .... 01111 lOll fOl' ~ to ;j lIIiuUh!S. H"llIm·,'. lll' .... f' \\lolita Iu)I.!1Il.· ',\\tll', .tI,,j dl\\. ro: ll.Jt :"dIlLln·:-, . f'an [0 1t'1II0V(! .~IW"'''' 111111 ;twi Il";I\\'\\' soli. ...

  18. 75 FR 34114 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... seed, gold of pleasure, hare's ear mustard, lesquerella, lunaria, meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed... pleasure, hare's ear mustard, lesquerella, lunaria, meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed, oil radish, poppy... mustard, lesquerella, lunaria, meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed, oil radish, poppy seed, rapeseed...

  19. 75 FR 51045 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... 18300, Greensboro, NC 27419. Active ingredient: Trinexapac ethyl. Proposed use: Grass grown for seed... ingredient: Clothianidin. Proposed use: Mustard seed. Contact: Kable Bo Davis, (703) 306-0415, davis.kable..., guava, mango, olive, pomegranate, pome fruit, and stone fruit; conifers, eucalyptus; and...

  20. 75 FR 20841 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ..., papaya, star apple, black sapote, mango, sapodilla, canistel, mamey sapote. Contact: Autumn Metzger, (703... ingredient: Clothianidin. Proposed Use(s): Rice seed treatment. Contact: Marianne Lewis, (703) 308-8043... ingredient: Spinosad. Proposed Use(s): Seed treatments on: bulb vegetables (crop group 3); dried shelled...

  1. 75 FR 4384 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., non-bearing fruit and nut trees, ornamentals, turfgrass, peppers (bell and non-bell), tomatoes, and... tomatoes, peppers (bell and non-bell), and rice. Contact: Bethany Benbow, (703) 347-8072, benbow.bethany...%. Proposed use: Contraceptive for the use in limiting populations of wild and feral horses and...

  2. 75 FR 19388 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist you and others in determining whether this... protectant, Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Protein and the Genetic Material ] (Vector PV-GMIR9) Necessary...

  3. Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Binning, Philip John

    data of a tracer experiment in a riparian zone. Three compounds were considered: an older pesticide MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and persistent, glyphosate (Roundup), a new biodegradable and strongly sorbed pesticide, and its degradation product AMPA. Global sensitivity analysis using the method...... water. Global sensitivity analysis results were compared with rank correlation statistics between pesticide concentrations and geological parameters derived from a comprehensive database of Danish drinking water wells. Aquitard thickness and well depth are the most critical parameters in both the model...

  4. Model-based computer-aided design for controlled release of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro Sunè, Nuria; Gani, Rafiqul; Bell, G.;

    2005-01-01

    In the field of controlled release technology for pesticides or active ingredients (AI), models that can predict its delivery during application are important for purposes of design and marketing of the pesticide product. Appropriate models for the controlled release of pesticides, if available, ...... extended models have been developed and implemented into a computer-aided system. The total model consisting of the property models embedded into the release models are then employed to study the release of different combinations of AIs and polymer-based microcapsules....

  5. Evaluation of transfer rates of multiple pesticides from green tea into infusion using water as pressurized liquid extraction solvent and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongping; Pan, Meiling; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-02-01

    Pesticide residues could be transferred from tea into its infusion and by-products, and subsequently consumed by humans. Extra extraction conditions may induce more pesticide leaching into the infusion and by-products of tea and cause greater damage to humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the infusion of multiple pesticides from green tea into hot water via pressurized liquid extraction. The results showed that pesticides in spiked samples generally have higher leaching (0.8-45.0%) than those in the positive samples. There was a marked rise of transfer rates when water solubility increased from 20mgL(-1) to 450mgL(-1) and LogKow decreased from 6 to 4. All pesticides had more leaching into hot water using pressurized liquid extraction than traditional tea brewing. This study helps in risk assessment of pesticide residues and in the formulation of maximum residue levels (MRLs) in tea and its by-products.

  6. Light induced heterogeneous ozone processing on the pesticides adsorbed on silica particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, J.; Désert, M.; Quivet, E.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.

    2013-12-01

    , delthamethrine, permethrine and pendimethaline, respectively. Concerning the other four pesticides under study i.e. difenoconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon and tetraconazole the obtained rate constants were extremely slow, human health, and to make recommendations in order to reduce population exposure to the pesticide plume. The results of this work will contribute to better describe and understand the pollution by phyto-sanitary products on the regional scale, which constitutes a necessary step in the development of environmental strategies. As a result the obtained results will help in the development of future environmental strategies to better understand and control phyto-sanitary product application and human exposure.

  7. Lead isotopic compositions of common arsenical pesticides used in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert; Foley, Nora; Robinson, Gilpin; Wandless, Gregory; Dillingham, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    The three most important arsenical pesticides and herbicides that were extensively used on apple, blueberry, and potato crops in New England from mid-1800s to recent times are lead arsenate, calcium arsenate, and sodium arsenate. Lead arsenate was probably the most heavily used of the arsenical pesticides until it was banned in 1988. Other metal-arsenic pesticides were also used but in lesser amounts. A recent report identified areas in New England where arsenical pesticides were used extensively (Robinson and Ayuso, 2004). On the basis of factor analysis of metal concentrations in stream sediment samples, a positive correlation with pesticide use was shown in regions having stream sediment sample populations that contained concentrations of high arsenic and lead. Lead isotope compositions of stream sediments from areas with heavy use of the pesticides could not be entirely explained by lead originating from rock sulfides and their weathering products. An industrial lead contribution (mostly from atmospheric deposition of lead) was suggested in general to explain the lead isotopic distributions of the stream sediments that could not be accounted for by the natural lead in the environment. We concluded that when agricultural land previously contaminated with arsenical pesticides is urbanized, pesticide residues in the soils and stream sediments could be released into the groundwater. No lead isotopic data characterizing the compositions of pesticides were available for comparison. We have determined the lead isotopic compositions of commonly used pesticides in New England, such as lead arsenate, sodium metaarsenite, and calcium arsenate, in order to assist in future isotopic comparisons and to better establish anthropogenic sources of Pb and As. New data are also presented for copper acetoarsenite (or Paris green), methyl arsonic acid and methane arsonic acid, as well as for arsanilic acid, all of which are used as feed additives to promote swine and poultry growth

  8. Seletividade de agrotóxicos recomendados na produção integrada da maçã a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae em condições de laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used in intregated production of apple on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Gindri Manzoni

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de oito agrotóxicos recomendados na Produção Integrada da Maçã (PIM foi avaliada sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley em laboratório, utilizando-se da metodologia padronizada pela International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC. Os produtos (% da formulação comercial na calda Captan 500 PM (0,240 e Delan (0,125 foram inócuos; Promalin (9,000 foi levemente nocivo; Assist (4,000 e Dormex (1,200 foram moderadamente nocivos; Vertimec 18 CE (0,100, Malathion 1000 CE (0,100 e Supracid 400 CE (0,100 foram nocivos a adultos de T. pretiosum no teste de toxicidade em laboratório. Os agrotóxicos classificados como moderadamente nocivos e nocivos requerem testes subseqüentes de persistência biológica do produto em casa de vegeta��ão e de campo.The side effects of eight pesticides recommended in the Integrated Production of Apple (IPA was evaluated on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley in laboratory, using the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC standard methodology. The pesticides (% commercial formulation in spray water Captan 500 PM (0.240 and Delan (0.125 were harmless; Promalin (9.000 was slightly harmful; Assist (4.000 and Dormex (1.200 were moderately harmful; Vertimec 18 CE (0.100, Malathion 1000 CE (0.100 and Supracid 400 CE (0.100 were harmful to parasitoids in toxicity test on egg parasitoid T. pretiosum. The pesticides classified as moderately harmful and harmful, request subsequent tests of biological persistence of the product in greenhouse and on field.

  9. Monitoring for Pesticides in Groundwater and Surface Water in Nevada, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thodal, Carl E.; Carpenter, Jon; Moses, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial pesticide applicators, farmers, and homeowners apply about 1 billion pounds of pesticides annually to agricultural land, non-crop land, and urban areas throughout the United States (Gilliom and others, 2006, p. 1). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) defines a pesticide as any substance used to kill or control insects, weeds, plant diseases, and other pest organisms. Although there are important benefits from the proper use of pesticides, like crop protection and prevention of human disease outbreaks, there are also risks. One risk is the contamination of groundwater and surface-water resources. Data collected during 1992-2001 from 51 major hydrologic systems across the United States indicate that one or more pesticide or pesticide breakdown product was detected in more than 50 percent of 5,057 shallow (less than 20 feet below land surface) wells and in all of the 186 stream sites that were sampled in agricultural and urban areas (Gilliom and others, 2006, p. 2-4). Pesticides can contaminate surface water and groundwater from both point sources and non-point sources. Point sources are from specific locations such as spill sites, disposal sites, pesticide drift during application, and application of pesticides to control aquatic pests. Non-point sources represent the dominant source of surface water and groundwater contamination and may include agricultural and urban runoff, erosion, leaching from application sites, and precipitation that has become contaminated by upwind applications. Pesticides typically enter surface water when rainfall or irrigation exceeds the infiltration capacity of soil and resulting runoff then transports pesticides to streams, rivers, and other surface-water bodies. Contamination of groundwater may result directly from spills near poorly sealed well heads and from pesticide applications through improperly designed or malfunctioning irrigation systems that also are used to apply pesticides (chemigation; Carpenter and

  10. Pesticide Occurrence and Distribution in the Lower Clackamas River Basin, Oregon, 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Rinella, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide occurrence and distribution in the lower Clackamas River basin was evaluated in 2000?2005, when 119 water samples were analyzed for a suite of 86?198 dissolved pesticides. Sampling included the lower-basin tributaries and the Clackamas River mainstem, along with paired samples of pre- and post-treatment drinking water (source and finished water) from one of four drinking water-treatment plants that draw water from the lower river. Most of the sampling in the tributaries occurred during storms, whereas most of the source and finished water samples from the study drinking-water treatment plant were obtained at regular intervals, and targeted one storm event in 2005. In all, 63 pesticide compounds were detected, including 33 herbicides, 15 insecticides, 6 fungicides, and 9 pesticide degradation products. Atrazine and simazine were detected in about half of samples, and atrazine and one of its degradates (deethylatrazine) were detected together in 30 percent of samples. Other high-use herbicides such as glyphosate, triclopyr, 2,4-D, and metolachlor also were frequently detected, particularly in the lower-basin tributaries. Pesticides were detected in all eight of the lower-basin tributaries sampled, and were also frequently detected in the lower Clackamas River. Although pesticides were detected in all of the lower basin tributaries, the highest pesticide loads (amounts) were found in Deep and Rock Creeks. These medium-sized streams drain a mix of agricultural land (row crops and nurseries), pastureland, and rural residential areas. The highest pesticide loads were found in Rock Creek at 172nd Avenue and in two Deep Creek tributaries, North Fork Deep and Noyer Creeks, where 15?18 pesticides were detected. Pesticide yields (loads per unit area) were highest in Cow and Carli Creeks, two small streams that drain the highly urban and industrial northwestern part of the lower basin. Other sites having relatively high pesticide yields included middle Rock Creek and

  11. [Survey of pesticide residues in imported spices and herbs (1997.4-2011.3)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kinoshita, Teruaki; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    A survey of pesticide residues in 313 samples of imported spices and herbs on the Tokyo market from April 1997 to March 2011 was carried out. Thirty-seven kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid, carbamate and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 3.3 ppm from 64 samples. The rate of detection was highest in peel (100%) followed by stem (66.7%), fruit (34.5%), bark (33.3%), flower (31.3%) and leaf (14.7%). No residues were detected in root, seed or whole grass. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all plant parts. The insecticides were detected in products from all production areas, suggesting that their use is common. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as less than 1% of their ADI values, based on the daily intake of spices and herbs. Therefore, these spices and herbs should be safe when consumed in customary amounts.

  12. Wildlife ecotoxicology of pesticides: can we track effects to the population level and beyond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Heinz-R; Triebskorn, Rita

    2013-08-16

    During the past 50 years, the human population has more than doubled and global agricultural production has similarly risen. However, the productive arable area has increased by just 10%; thus the increased use of pesticides has been a consequence of the demands of human population growth, and its impact has reached global significance. Although we often know a pesticide's mode of action in the target species, we still largely do not understand the full impact of unintended side effects on wildlife, particularly at higher levels of biological organization: populations, communities, and ecosystems. In these times of regional and global species declines, we are challenged with the task of causally linking knowledge about the molecular actions of pesticides to their possible interference with biological processes, in order to develop reliable predictions about the consequences of pesticide use, and misuse, in a rapidly changing world.

  13. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  14. Modeling Ghanaian cocoa farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of application: the case of Brong Ahafo Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkyirah, Elisha Kwaku; Okoffo, Elvis Dartey; Adu, Derick Taylor; Aziz, Ahmed Abdul; Ofori, Amoako; Denkyirah, Elijah Kofi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are a significant component of the modern agricultural technology that has been widely adopted across the globe to control pests, diseases, weeds and other plant pathogens, in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are said to be toxic and exposes farmers to risk due to the hazardous effects of these chemicals, pesticide use among cocoa farmers in Ghana is still high. Furthermore, cocoa farmers do not apply pesticide on their cocoa farms at the recommended frequency of application. In view of this, the study assessed the factors influencing cocoa farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of pesticide application. A total of 240 cocoa farmers from six cocoa growing communities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana were selected for the study using the multi-stage sampling technique. The Probit and Tobit regression models were used to estimate factors influencing farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of pesticide application, respectively. Results of the study revealed that the use of pesticide is still high among farmers in the Region and that cocoa farmers do not follow the Ghana Cocoa Board recommended frequency of pesticide application. In addition, cocoa farmers in the study area were found to be using both Ghana Cocoa Board approved/recommended and unapproved pesticides for cocoa production. Gender, age, educational level, years of farming experience, access to extension service, availability of agrochemical shop and access to credit significantly influenced farmers' decision to use pesticides. Also, educational level, years of farming experience, membership of farmer based organisation, access to extension service, access to credit and cocoa income significantly influenced frequency of pesticide application. Since access to extension service is one key factor that reduces pesticide use and frequency of application among cocoa farmers, it is recommended that policies by

  15. Agricultural pesticides and veterinary substances in Uruguayan beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet, Jorge; Campá, Juan Pablo; Grajales, Mauricio; Lhéritier, Christophe; Gómez Pajuelo, Antonio; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas

    2017-06-01

    Over the last decade, Uruguay has expanded and intensified its rainfed crop production. This process has affected beekeeping in several ways: for example, by reducing the space available. This has increased the density of apiaries, the risk of varroosis and acaricide use. Additionally, the dominance of no-tillage crops has increased the frequencies of application and of loads of pesticides in regions where such crops share the land with beekeeping and honey production. Therefore, the exposure of bees to xenobiotics (agricultural pesticides and veterinary products) has increased in line with pollution of hives and their products. To document pollution from hive exposure to pesticides, we surveyed the presence of 30 xenobiotics normally used in Uruguay, in recycled beeswax (RB) and in honey cappings (HC) from the main Uruguayan beekeeping regions. There was contamination of all the analyzed samples (RB and HC) with the herbicide atrazine at a range of 1-2 ng g(-1). At least three or four additional xenobiotics were detected: insecticides (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and thiacloprid); fungicides (azoxystrobin and tebuconazole); and veterinary products (coumaphos, ethion, and tau-fluvalinate). The frequency of detection of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and coumaphos in RB samples was higher than in those of HC. Moreover, the concentrations of azoxystrobin, coumaphos, and tebuconazole in RB samples were higher than in HC samples. Therefore, we suggest the use of HC to produce recycled printed beeswax films for use in hives to minimize pollution transfer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  17. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  18. Persistence of pesticides in water from farm plots recently converted to organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    SCHRACK, D.; COQUIL, X.; ORTAR, A.; Benoit, M.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, the pervasive use of pesticides in agricultural areas has led to the deterioration of the quality of groundwater and surface water, resources earmarked for human consumption. The aim of the European Water Framework Directive 91/474 is to restore the “good ecological status” of surface water and to protect water that might be used for drinking water production by 2015. Interactions within the soil determine the fate of environmental pesticides. Water resource contamination may persi...

  19. 超声诱导降解有机磷%ULTRASONIC DEGRADATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏青; 聂长明; 徐伟昌

    2001-01-01

    The ultrasonic degradation of the wastewater simulated by organophosphorous pesticides was studied. The degradation products of organophosphorous pesticides in water and their affecting factors are described.%研究了有机磷农药模拟废水在超声诱导作用下的降解。并对降解产物及影响因素进行了初步探讨。

  20. Pesticides, People, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2005-01-01

    If a teacher were to ask his/her students what they do when they find ants or other insects in their homes, their most common response would probably be, "Get the bug spray!" Because students are not only being exposed to pesticides but are also developing patterns of behavior likely to continue throughout their lives. Discussions about…