WorldWideScience

Sample records for fr23se10r migratory bird

  1. 75 FR 53774 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird...

  2. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces AGENCY: Fish and... birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act... the Armed Forces to incidentally take migratory birds. The Authorization Act also stated that...

  3. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2012-13... RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting... in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds...

  4. 76 FR 48693 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... August 8, 2011 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded... RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...

  5. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the 2010-11...

  6. Ten years of International Migratory Bird Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Wheeler; Susan Bonfield

    2005-01-01

    Public awareness and concern are crucial components of migratory bird conservation. Citizens who are enthusiastic about birds, informed about threats, and empowered to become involved in addressing those threats can make a tremendous contribution to maintaining healthy bird populations. One of the most successful vehicles for public education on migratory birds is...

  7. 76 FR 54051 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  8. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  9. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  10. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somveille, Marius; Manica, Andrea; Butchart, Stuart H M; Rodrigues, Ana S L

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes) where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  11. 75 FR 29917 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX09 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final... on October 27, 2003, to create regulations governing migratory bird rehabilitation in the...

  12. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2011-12 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY... regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2011-12 hunting season. This supplement to the...

  13. 77 FR 42919 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... July 20, 2012 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of Meetings...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird...

  14. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Wildlife Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory...

  15. 78 FR 65578 - Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AY65 Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for... control of depredating birds. A depredation order allows the take of specific species of migratory birds for specific purposes without need for a depredation permit. The depredation order at 50 CFR 21.44...

  16. 78 FR 27927 - Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AY65 Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We propose to revise the regulations that allow control of depredating birds in some counties...

  17. 78 FR 67183 - Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird Surveys AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for... Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-711) and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742d)...

  18. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a...

  19. 50 CFR 20.20 - Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.20 Migratory Bird Harvest... information will be used to provide a sampling frame for the national Migratory Bird Harvest Survey....

  20. Problems confronting migratory birds in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We describe in this paper problems affecting the well-being of Alaska's migratory birds in the belief that recognition of these problems is a step towards finding...

  1. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    The function of migratory bird calls: do they influence orientation and navigation?   Thomas Reichl1, Bent Bach Andersen2, Ole Naesbye Larsen2, Henrik Mouritsen1   1Institute of Biology, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany 2Institute of Biology, University of Southern...... migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...

  2. 50 CFR 92.22 - Subsistence migratory bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence migratory bird species. 92.22... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Regulations Governing Subsistence Harvest § 92.22 Subsistence migratory bird species. You may harvest birds or...

  3. 77 FR 58627 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and...

  4. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution.

  5. 76 FR 9529 - Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 22 RIN 1018-AX53 Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan...; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Mail Stop... Protection Act (BGEPA), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and the Endangered Species Act. BGEPA prohibits...

  6. 78 FR 3446 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish... issues concerning the 2013-14 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held..., Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior,...

  7. 78 FR 78377 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service RIN 1018-AZ80 Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting... preliminary issues concerning the 2014-15 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held..., Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior,...

  8. 77 FR 1718 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish... issues concerning the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held... CONTACT: Chief, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of...

  9. 77 FR 60381 - Migratory Bird Conservation; Executive Order 13186

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC148 Migratory Bird Conservation; Executive Order... the U.S. Fish and ] Wildlife Service (FWS) to promote the conservation of migratory birds. DATES: This... Migratory Birds''. One of the requirements of E.O. 13186 is that each Federal agency taking actions...

  10. 75 FR 27143 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals provide for the legal subsistence harvest of... Federal Drive, Fort Snelling, MN 55111-4056; (612) 713-5432. Region 4 (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida,...

  11. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Convention and the subsequent 1936 Mexico Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals... Building, One Federal Drive, Fort Snelling, MN 55111-4056; (612) 713- 5432. Region 4 (Alabama,...

  12. 78 FR 21199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... subsequent 1936 Mexico Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals provide for the... Drive, Fort Snelling, MN 55111-4056; (612) 713-5432. Region 4 (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida,...

  13. 78 FR 58204 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final... selection. Taking of migratory birds is prohibited unless specifically provided for by annual...

  14. 75 FR 58993 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 185... Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession...

  15. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...... Denmark, Odense, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark   Many migrating passerines emit special calls during nocturnal flight, the so-called flight calls. Several functions of the calls have been suggested but largely remain speculative. Flight calls have been hypothesized to maintain groups during nocturnal...... migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...

  16. North American migratory bird management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    As human population and industry have grown in North America, land-use practices have greatly altered the landscape. As a result of this changed landscape, several migratory bird populations have declined in recent years. For waterbirds, there have been several milestones: the 1986 North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) and the 1989 North American Wetlands Conservation Act. As a result, the United States and Canada have established 12 habitat and 2 species joint ventures. The primary emphasis of waterfowl management in Canada-U.S. has been land purchase and lease, wetland restoration, and coordination of harvest rates. Because of its different biological and cultural context, Mexico has established other conservation priorities. Mexico has had a long-standing concern to conserve its biodiversity and, in addition, conservation of Mexican resources goes hand in hand with human community development. Unlike Canada-U.S., wetland conservation projects in'Mexico include information gathering, environmental education, and management planning for its 32 priority wetlands. For migratory landbirds' scientists attribute declines in several migrant populations to forest fragmentation on the breeding grounds, deforestation on the wintering grounds, pesticide poisoning, or the cumulative effects of habitat changes. In 1990, the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, commonly known as Partners in Flight-Aves de las Americas-was initiated. The next step that is being proposed is the formation of a habitat conservation plan for landbirds modeled after the NAWMP. Management of migratory birds requires a strong international approach in order to coordinate actions for the benefit of migratory birds, their habitats, and the uses they provide.

  17. Migratory diversity predicts population declines in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Gill, Jennifer A; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jones, Victoria R; Franco, Aldina M A

    2016-03-01

    Declines in migratory species are a pressing concern worldwide, but the mechanisms underpinning these declines are not fully understood. We hypothesised that species with greater within-population variability in migratory movements and destinations, here termed 'migratory diversity', might be more resilient to environmental change. To test this, we related map-based metrics of migratory diversity to recent population trends for 340 European breeding birds. Species that occupy larger non-breeding ranges relative to breeding, a characteristic we term 'migratory dispersion', were less likely to be declining than those with more restricted non-breeding ranges. Species with partial migration strategies (i.e. overlapping breeding and non-breeding ranges) were also less likely to be declining than full migrants or full residents, an effect that was independent of migration distance. Recent rates of advancement in Europe-wide spring arrival date were greater for partial migrants than full migrants, suggesting that migratory diversity may also help facilitate species responses to climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. 78 FR 65576 - Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of “Hybrid” Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX90 Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of ``Hybrid... and Wildlife Service (FWS), revise the definition of ``hybrid'' as it relates to birds protected under.... The definition of ``hybrid'' we are codifying is already in use by the Service in other...

  19. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  20. Modeling the Geography of Migratory Pathways and Stopover Habitats for Neotropical Migratory Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Tankersley, Jr.; Kenneth Orvis

    2003-01-01

    Intact migratory routes are critical for the stability of forest-dwelling, neotropical, migratory bird populations, and mortality along migratory pathways may be significant. Yet we know almost nothing about the geography of available stopovers or the possible migratory pathways that connect optimal stopovers. We undertake a spatial analysis of stopover habitat availability and then model potential migratory pathways between optimal stopovers in the eastern United States. Using models of fixe...

  1. 76 FR 59298 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Survey; population status reports for blue-winged teal, sandhill cranes, woodcock, mourning doves, white... has reviewed this rule under Executive Order 12866. OMB bases its determination of regulatory... of age or older must carry on his/her person a valid Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation...

  2. 76 FR 69223 - Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of “Hybrid” Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX90 Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of ``Hybrid.... Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to revise the definition of ``hybrid'' as it relates to.... This definition has created difficulties because it differs from the longstanding Service...

  3. 78 FR 58123 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Flyway-Council system of migratory bird management has been a longstanding example of State-Federal... allowed to continue in an experimental status to allow for additional data collection (75 FR 58250... Conservation Order (CO) activities in the Rainwater Basin (RWB) area of Nebraska, which is implemented...

  4. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... migratory bird abatement permit. On January 12, 2007, we published a Federal Register notice (72 FR 1556..., we published a Federal Register notice (72 FR 69705-69706) announcing final permit conditions. This... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement...

  5. 78 FR 53199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...; migratory game birds in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; youth waterfowl day; and...

  6. 77 FR 53751 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...; migratory game birds in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; youth waterfowl day; and...

  7. 50 CFR 20.25 - Wanton waste of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wanton waste of migratory game birds. 20... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.25 Wanton waste of migratory game birds. No person shall kill or cripple any migratory game bird pursuant to this part...

  8. 76 FR 39367 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Raptor Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX78 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the... primary responsibility for managing migratory birds. Our authority is based on the Migratory Bird Treaty... take and possession of migratory birds for many purposes. The BGEPA allows bald eagles and...

  9. 76 FR 54657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... September 1, 2011 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons...

  10. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  11. Sod house news [Malheur Migratory Bird Refuge, July 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is report written by the CCC personnel about the Sod House Camp on Malheur Migratory Bird Refuge. Topics covered include sports, technical services, camp...

  12. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  13. [Wildlife Inventory Plan : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This inventory plan for the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge includes a summary of refuge objectives, an explanation of the policy on wildlife inventory procedures,...

  14. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1938 to provide habitat and protection for migratory birds. Management objectives have since been expanded to...

  15. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Disease Contingency Plan for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge provides background information on migratory bird disease surveillance; an inventory of Refuge...

  16. [Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Hunt Plan & Related Documents : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 'Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Hunt Plan', beginning on page 66 and continuing through the end of the document, is focused on public hunting and the...

  17. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan for Mingo NWR provides background information on disease surveillance; an inventory of Refuge personnel, equipment, and...

  18. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Comprehensive Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge...

  19. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Summary of biological data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of biological data collected at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge for the year 1992. Data is summarized in tables, charts, graphs and written summaries. Data...

  20. Management of grasslands 1996 : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a summary of grassland management for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, which has recently began acquiring new grassland habitat that will...

  1. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Summary of biological data 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of biological data collected at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge for the year 1994. Data is summarized in tables, charts, graphs and written summaries....

  2. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Narrative report: 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1973 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  3. Environmental Assessment : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Hunt Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Assessment (EA) is designed to evaluate possible actions for modifying the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge (Refuge) public hunt plan. The hunt...

  4. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  5. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  6. Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge First quarter, fiscal year 1932

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes wildlife, grazing, protection, improvements, developments, public relations, and disease on Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge...

  7. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.H.G.; Van Dijk, J.G.B.; Vuong, O.; Lexmond, P.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Fouchier, R.A.M

    2014-01-01

    Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds, has largel

  8. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); J.G.B. Dijk (Jacintha); O. Vuong (Spronken); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); P. Lexmond (Pascal); M. Klaassen (Marcel); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMigratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds

  9. Is there a "migratory syndrome" common to all migrant birds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Perez-Tris, J; Mouritsen, H; Bauchinger, U; Bairlein, F; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Bird migration has been assumed, mostly implicitly, to represent a distinct class of animal behavior, with deep and strong homologies in the various phenotypic expressions of migratory behavior between different taxa. Here the evidence for the existence of what could be called a "migratory syndrome,

  10. Migratory decisions in birds: Extent of genetic versus environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, M.S.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  11. Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other.

  12. 75 FR 53226 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii...; woodcock; common snipe; sandhill cranes; sea ducks; early (September) waterfowl seasons; migratory game... seasons, limits, and other regulations for hunting migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through...

  13. THE BIODIVERSITY AT SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY, HARDOI WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MIGRATORY BIRDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indian subcontinent plays host to a number of migratory birds in summers as well as winters. It is estimated that over hundred species of migratory birds fly to India, either in search of feeding grounds or to escape the severe winter of their native habitat. Sandi bird sanctuary was created in 1990 in order to protect and conserve the natural habitation and surroundings and also the marine vegetation for the migratory birds, as well as for the local people of the region. The term migration is used to describe movements of populations of birds or other animals. There are three types of migrants. One way to look at migration is to consider the distances traveled. The pattern of migration can vary within each category, but is most variable in short and medium distance migrants. The origin of migration is related to the distance traveled. The birds migrating through the area, take shelter on the river front before going to the Sandi Bird sanctuary. The birds generally migrate in the winter months of October-November-December. Bird sanctuary is a popular tourist location. Sandi particularly attracts ornithologists and bird watchers, as many rare migratory birds take refuge in the sanctuary. The bird watching camps arranged to observe the migratory birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary in the month of October and November 2012. The migratory birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary include great crested grebe, white storks, black lbis, glossy lbis, spoonbill, ruddy shelduck, pin tail, sholveller, spot bill duck, mallard, gadwall, wigeon, tufted pochard, gargancey teal, common teal, cotton teal, grey lag goose, coot, black tailed godwit, painted stock pin tail snipe, marsh sand piper, common tern, river tern, magpie robin, white wagtail, pied wagtail, common snipe, starlings, white lbis, red crested pochard, common pochard, painted stock, black lbis, curlew, Indian skimmer etc. The resident birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary include little grebe, darter, purple heron, grey

  14. Modeling the Geography of Migratory Pathways and Stopover Habitats for Neotropical Migratory Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Tankersley, Jr.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Intact migratory routes are critical for the stability of forest-dwelling, neotropical, migratory bird populations, and mortality along migratory pathways may be significant. Yet we know almost nothing about the geography of available stopovers or the possible migratory pathways that connect optimal stopovers. We undertake a spatial analysis of stopover habitat availability and then model potential migratory pathways between optimal stopovers in the eastern United States. Using models of fixed orientation and fixed nightly flight distance between stopovers during spring migration, we explore whether a simple endogenous migratory program is sufficient to ensure successful migration across the modern landscape. Our model runs suggest that the modern distribution of optimum stopovers in the eastern United States can be adequately exploited by birds following migratory pathways defined by fixed-orientation and fixed-distance nightly flights. Longer flight distances may increase the chances of success by enabling migrants to bypass locales offering little habitat. Our results also suggest that most southwest-northeast migratory pathways through the Appalachian mountains are intact. Lack of optimal habitat at key locations in the Southeast causes many modeled pathways to fail. We present a speculative view of regional migration patterns implied by predominant ideas found in stopover ecology literature, and demonstrate the need for broad-scale migration research, in the hope that our approach will foster other continental- and regional-scale projects.

  15. 75 FR 56555 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migrant Peregrine Falcons for Use in Falconry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migrant Peregrine Falcons for Use in Falconry AGENCY... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. George Allen, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and... derived from the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-712), which prohibits any person from...

  16. 50 CFR 92.6 - Use and possession of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use and possession of migratory birds. 92... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.6 Use and possession of migratory birds. You may not sell, offer for sale, purchase, or...

  17. 75 FR 8989 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ...; Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Advisory Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (Commission). This meeting is open to the public. The Advisory Group for the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act (NMBCA) grants program (Advisory Group) will...

  18. 77 FR 5264 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ...; Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Advisory Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (Commission). This meeting is open to the public. The Advisory Group for the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act (NMBCA) grants program (Advisory Group) will...

  19. 76 FR 5820 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...; Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Advisory Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (Commission). This meeting is open to the public. The Advisory Group for the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act (NMBCA) grants program (Advisory Group) will...

  20. 77 FR 39983 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Fluoropolymeric Shot Coatings as Nontoxic for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY66 Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval... INFORMATION CONTACT: George Allen, at 703-358-1825. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird...

  1. 75 FR 9281 - General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, United States-United Mexican States (Mexico... York (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998); Flycatcher, La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae--Alabama, Florida (AOU 1982, 1983..., Motacilla citreola--Alabama (AOU 1995, 1998); Warbler, Crescent-chested, Parula superciliosa--Arizona...

  2. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... for a specific permit authorizing the use of raptors in abatement activities (76 FR 39368). The... the advance notice of proposed rulemaking, please refer to that document at 76 FR 39368 (July 6, 2011... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement...

  3. Status and management of neotropical migratory birds: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M.; Peter W. Stangel

    1993-01-01

    The future for neotropical migratory birds rests with our commitment and ability to provide them adequate habitat during all periods of their life cycle. Our commitment to this cause is apparent in the groundswell of interest in neotropical migrants and the many proactive and coopemtive partnerships resulting from the Partners in Flight - Aves de las Americas...

  4. 75 FR 9314 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control of Purple Swamphens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... with governance of migratory bird permitting in the United States. No other Federal agency has any role... Environmental Policy Act We have analyzed this rule in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of... and its territories in which the species may have been introduced. The environmental impacts...

  5. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josanne H; van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Vuong, Oanh; Bestebroer, Theo; Lexmond, Pascal; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2014-01-01

    Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds, has largely remained unstudied. During an autumn H3 LPAIV epizootic in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) - a partially migratory species - we identified resident and migratory host populations using stable hydrogen isotope analysis of flight feathers. We investigated the role of migratory and resident hosts separately in the introduction and maintenance of H3 LPAIV during the epizootic. To test this we analysed (i) H3 virus kinship, (ii) temporal patterns in H3 virus prevalence and shedding and (iii) H3-specific antibody prevalence in relation to host migratory strategy. We demonstrate that the H3 LPAIV strain causing the epizootic most likely originated from a single introduction, followed by local clonal expansion. The H3 LPAIV strain was genetically unrelated to H3 LPAIV detected both before and after the epizootic at the study site. During the LPAIV epizootic, migratory mallards were more often infected with H3 LPAIV than residents. Low titres of H3-specific antibodies were detected in only a few residents and migrants. Our results suggest that in this LPAIV epizootic, a single H3 virus was present in resident mallards prior to arrival of migratory mallards followed by a period of virus amplification, importantly associated with the influx of migratory mallards. Thus migrants are suggested to act as local amplifiers rather than the often suggested role as vectors importing novel strains from afar. Our study exemplifies that a multifaceted interdisciplinary approach offers promising opportunities to elucidate the role of migratory and resident hosts in infectious disease dynamics in wildlife.

  6. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josanne H Verhagen

    Full Text Available Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV in wild birds, has largely remained unstudied. During an autumn H3 LPAIV epizootic in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos - a partially migratory species - we identified resident and migratory host populations using stable hydrogen isotope analysis of flight feathers. We investigated the role of migratory and resident hosts separately in the introduction and maintenance of H3 LPAIV during the epizootic. To test this we analysed (i H3 virus kinship, (ii temporal patterns in H3 virus prevalence and shedding and (iii H3-specific antibody prevalence in relation to host migratory strategy. We demonstrate that the H3 LPAIV strain causing the epizootic most likely originated from a single introduction, followed by local clonal expansion. The H3 LPAIV strain was genetically unrelated to H3 LPAIV detected both before and after the epizootic at the study site. During the LPAIV epizootic, migratory mallards were more often infected with H3 LPAIV than residents. Low titres of H3-specific antibodies were detected in only a few residents and migrants. Our results suggest that in this LPAIV epizootic, a single H3 virus was present in resident mallards prior to arrival of migratory mallards followed by a period of virus amplification, importantly associated with the influx of migratory mallards. Thus migrants are suggested to act as local amplifiers rather than the often suggested role as vectors importing novel strains from afar. Our study exemplifies that a multifaceted interdisciplinary approach offers promising opportunities to elucidate the role of migratory and resident hosts in infectious disease dynamics in wildlife.

  7. Current selection for lower migratory activity will drive the evolution of residency in a migratory bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Francisco; Berthold, Peter

    2010-04-20

    Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. This knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. We monitored migratory behavior in a population of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) to test for evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Using a common garden experiment in time and captive breeding we demonstrated a genetic reduction in migratory activity and evolutionary change in phenotypic plasticity of migration onset. An artificial selection experiment further revealed that residency will rapidly evolve in completely migratory bird populations if selection for shorter migration distance persists. Our findings suggest that current alterations of the environment are favoring birds wintering closer to the breeding grounds and that populations of migratory birds have strongly responded to these changes in selection. The reduction of migratory activity is probably an important evolutionary process in the adaptation of migratory birds to climate change, because it reduces migration costs and facilitates the rapid adjustment to the shifts in the timing of food availability during reproduction.

  8. 78 FR 65953 - Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Regulations Concerning Certain Depredation Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX92 Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Regulations.... SUMMARY: We propose to remove regulations that set forth certain depredation orders for migratory birds... these regulations apparently are unused, we propose to remove them. Control of depredating birds...

  9. 75 FR 927 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Falconry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 21 and 22 RIN 1018-AW44 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the...: Dr. George T. Allen, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 703-358... now cite for the first time the Birds of Conservation Concern 2008 as restricting the take of...

  10. Sindbis Virus Infection in Resident Birds, Migratory Birds, and Humans, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kurkela, Satu; Rätti, Osmo; Huhtamo, Eili; Uzcátegui, Nathalie Y.; Nuorti, J. Pekka; Laakkonen, Juha; Manni, Tytti; Helle, Pekka; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2008-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV), a mosquito-borne virus that causes rash and arthritis, has been causing outbreaks in humans every seventh year in northern Europe. To gain a better understanding of SINV epidemiology in Finland, we searched for SINV antibodies in 621 resident grouse, whose population declines have coincided with human SINV outbreaks, and in 836 migratory birds. We used hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests for the bird samples and enzyme immunoassays and hemagglutination-i...

  11. Surveillance of Influenza A Virus and Its Subtypes in Migratory Wild Birds of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmacharya, Dibesh; Manandhar, Sulochana; Sharma, Ajay; Bhatta, Tarka; Adhikari, Pratikshya; Sherchan, Adarsh Man; Shrestha, Bishwo; Bista, Manisha; Rajbhandari, Rajesh; Oberoi, Mohinder; Bisht, Khadak; Hero, Jean-Marc; Dissanayake, Ravi; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Hughes, Jane; Debnath, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Nepal boarders India and China and all three countries lie within the Central Asian Flyway for migratory birds. Novel influenza A H7N9 caused human fatalities in China in 2013. Subclinical infections of influenza A H7N9 in birds and the potential for virus dispersal by migratory birds prompted this study to assess avian H7N9 viral intrusion into Nepal. Surveillance of influenza A virus in migratory birds was implemented in early 2014 with assistance from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Of 1811 environmental fecal samples collected from seven wetland migratory bird roosting areas, influenza A H9N2 was found in one sample from a ruddy shelduck in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve located in southern Nepal. Avian H7N9 and other highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were not detected. This study provides baseline data on the status of avian influenza virus in migratory bird populations in Nepal.

  12. Surveillance of Influenza A Virus and Its Subtypes in Migratory Wild Birds of Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibesh Karmacharya

    Full Text Available Nepal boarders India and China and all three countries lie within the Central Asian Flyway for migratory birds. Novel influenza A H7N9 caused human fatalities in China in 2013. Subclinical infections of influenza A H7N9 in birds and the potential for virus dispersal by migratory birds prompted this study to assess avian H7N9 viral intrusion into Nepal. Surveillance of influenza A virus in migratory birds was implemented in early 2014 with assistance from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO. Of 1811 environmental fecal samples collected from seven wetland migratory bird roosting areas, influenza A H9N2 was found in one sample from a ruddy shelduck in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve located in southern Nepal. Avian H7N9 and other highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were not detected. This study provides baseline data on the status of avian influenza virus in migratory bird populations in Nepal.

  13. Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Traudt, Joachim; Güntürkün, Onur; Prior, Helmut; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2002-10-01

    Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception, resulting in an extreme asymmetry of sensing the direction of the magnetic field. We found that captive migrants tested in cages with the magnetic field as the only available orientation cue were well oriented in their appropriate migratory direction when using their right eye only, but failed to show a significant directional preference when using their left eye. This implies that magnetoreception for compass orientation, assumed to take place in the eyes alongside the visual processes, is strongly lateralized, with a marked dominance of the right eye/left brain hemisphere.

  14. 75 FR 34758 - Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0023; Migratory Bird Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0023; Migratory Bird Surveys AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We... regulations as needed. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1018-0023. Title: Migratory Bird Surveys. Service Form...

  15. 50 CFR 92.10 - Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... arrangements for the meeting rooms and associated logistics related to Co-management Council meetings; (2... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management... Structure § 92.10 Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council. (a) Establishment. The U.S. Fish and...

  16. Full annual cycle climate change vulnerability assessment for migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Leah A.; Cohen, Emily B.; Scarpignato, Amy L.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Marra, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a serious challenge faced by all plant and animal species. Climate change vulnerability assessments (CCVAs) are one method to assess risk and are increasingly used as a tool to inform management plans. Migratory animals move across regions and continents during their annual cycles where they are exposed to diverse climatic conditions. Climate change during any period and in any region of the annual cycle could influence survival, reproduction, or the cues used to optimize timing of migration. Therefore, CCVAs for migratory animals best estimate risk when they include climate exposure during the entire annual cycle. We developed a CCVA incorporating the full annual cycle and applied this method to 46 species of migratory birds breeding in the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes (UMGL) region of the United States. Our methodology included background risk, climate change exposure × climate sensitivity, adaptive capacity to climate change, and indirect effects of climate change. We compiled information about migratory connectivity between breeding and stationary non-breeding areas using literature searches and U.S. Geological Survey banding and re-encounter data. Climate change exposure (temperature and moisture) was assessed using UMGL breeding season climate and winter climate from non-breeding regions for each species. Where possible, we focused on non-breeding regions known to be linked through migratory connectivity. We ranked 10 species as highly vulnerable to climate change and two as having low vulnerability. The remaining 34 species were ranked as moderately vulnerable. In general, including non-breeding data provided more robust results that were highly individualistic by species. Two species were found to be highly vulnerable throughout their annual cycle. Projected drying will have the greatest effect during the non-breeding season for species overwintering in Mexico and the Caribbean. Projected temperature increases will have the greatest

  17. 75 FR 44855 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... harvest of MCP cranes in hunt areas outside of the Central Flyway (Arizona, Pacific Flyway portion of New... North American MCP sport harvest, including crippling losses, was 25,731 birds, which was a 39 percent... options for providing production States an opportunity to harvest teal outside the regular duck...

  18. 78 FR 65955 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control Order for Introduced Migratory Bird Species in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...) (16 U.S.C. 703 et seq.), which implements conventions with Great Britain (for Canada), Mexico, Japan... 2 asphyxiation. Any time that euthanasia of a bird is necessary, you must follow the American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines on Euthanasia. (2) If you use a firearm to kill cattle egrets...

  19. Influences of the Weather and Climate on Wintering Migratory Bird in Dongting Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Ju-mei; NIU; Ling-zhi; YAO; Yi; QIN; Hong

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study influences of the weather and climate on wintering migratory bird in Dongting Lake. [Method] Bird analysis data provided by East Dongting Lake National Nature Reserve and wintering migratory bird monitoring data in big and small west lakes in recent 5 years were used. By combing water level data and various meteorological factors in Chenglingji, wintering migratory bird in Dongting Lake was analyzed. [Result] Abnormal precipitation led to drought or flood in Dongting Lake, causing significant adverse effect on the birds. Abnormal climate was important reason for that wintering migratory bird greatly reduced, such as high temperature and later going south of the strong cold air. Extreme weather and climate events led that some birds in Dongting Lake significantly reduced. Meteorological element had certain influence to bird survey. We should select a reasonable investigation time based on weather and climate. In Birding Festival, weather had little effect on bird species observation. In the migratory season of bird, we could see many birds in fine cold weather after a strong cold air, which suitable for observing bird. When it was low temperature or less rain in autumn, and was high temperature or more rain and sunshine in early winter, it was suitable for migratory birds wintering in Dongting Lake. Ardea cinerea, Anser fabalis and Anser erythropus were more in sunny days while Phalacrocorax carbo was more in rainy weather. Grus grus was more in heavy wind weather while Recurvirostra avosetta was more in small wind weather. [Conclusion] The research provided scientific basis for studying migratory bird in east Dongting Lake.

  20. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed...

  1. 50 CFR 20.109 - Extended seasons, limits, and hours for taking migratory game birds by falconry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... taking migratory game birds by falconry. 20.109 Section 20.109 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING... taking migratory game birds by falconry. This section provides annual regulations by which falconers...

  2. LINKING THE COMMUNITY IN THE MIGRATORY RAPTOR BIRDS COUNTS (BIRDS: FALCONIFORM IN EASTERN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylien Barreda-Leyva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Through interviews, workshops, conferences and sociocultural meeting, is carried out the linking of three communities from the high area of Gran Piedra to the studies and counts of migratory raptors birds developed in the east of Cuba. These small communities are near to one of the two points of count of migratory raptors of the region. During the interviews we could verify that some residents possessed basic knowledge on the raptors birds, but didn't know about the migration of these birds. 100 % of the interviewees coincided in that the main local problematic is the loss of birds of pen due to the attack of raptors, specifically the endemic Cuban threatened Accipitter gundlachi. The workshops were able to create spaces of exchange and reflection about the importance of the raptor’s conservation in the region. This linkage of cooperation and increasing awareness, allow an approaching between the communitarians and the researchers and volunteers that work in the counts of raptor birds in Cuba and the feedback of the scientific knowledge with the popular knowledge.

  3. Burrowing Owl and Other Migratory Bird Mitigation for a Runway Construction Project at Edwards AFB

    OpenAIRE

    Hoehn, Amber L.; Hagan, Mark; Bratton, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) scheduled the construction of a runway in the spring of 2007. The runway would be in an area that contained migratory birds and their habitat. The construction project would be near Edwards AFB main runway and had the potential not only to impact species protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), including the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), but also to increase bird and wildlife–aircraft strike hazards in the active flightline areas. To discourage ...

  4. Why Do Migratory Birds Sing on Their Tropical Wintering Grounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Marjorie C; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2016-03-01

    Many long-distance migratory birds sing extensively on their tropical African wintering grounds, but the function of this costly behavior remains unknown. In this study, we carry out a first empirical test of three competing hypotheses, combining a field study of great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) wintering in Africa with a comparative analysis across Palearctic-African migratory songbird species. We asked whether winter song (i) functions to defend nonbreeding territories, (ii) functions as practice to improve complex songs for subsequent breeding, or (iii) is a nonadaptive consequence of elevated testosterone carryover. We found support for neither the long-assumed territory-defense hypothesis (great reed warblers had widely overlapping home ranges and showed no conspecific aggression) nor the testosterone-carryover hypothesis (winter singing in great reed warblers was unrelated to plasma testosterone concentration). Instead, we found strongest support for the song-improvement hypothesis, since great reed warblers sang a mate attraction song type rather than a territorial song type in Africa, and species that sing most intensely in Africa were those in which sexual selection acts most strongly on song characteristics; they had more complex songs and were more likely to be sexually monochromatic. This study underlines how sexual selection can have far-reaching effects on animal ecology throughout the annual cycle.

  5. Spatiotemporal Distributions of Migratory Birds: Patchy Models with Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Wu, Jianhong

    2010-01-01

    We derive and analyze a mathematical model for the spatiotemporal distribution of a migratory bird species. The birds have specific sites for breeding and winter feeding, and usually several stopover sites along the migration route, and therefore a patch model is the natural choice. However, we also model the journeys of the birds along the flyways, and this is achieved using a continuous space model of reaction-advection type. In this way proper account is taken of flight times and in-flight mortalities which may vary from sector to sector, and this information is featured in the ordinary differential equations for the populations on the patches through the values of the time delays and the model coefficients. The seasonality of the phenomenon is accommodated by having periodic migration and birth rates. The central result of the paper is a very general theorem on the threshold dynamics, obtained using recent results on discrete monotone dynamical systems, for birth functions which are subhomogeneous. For such functions, depending on the spectral radius of a certain operator, either there is a globally attracting periodic solution, or the bird population becomes extinct. Evaluation of the spectral radius is difficult, so we also present, for the particular case of just one stopover site on the migration route, a verifiable sufficient condition for extinction or survival in the form of an attractive periodic solution. This threshold is illustrated numerically using data from the U.S. Geological Survey on the bar-headed goose and its migration to India from its main breeding sites around Lake Qinghai and Mongolia.

  6. Advancing migratory bird conservation and management by using radar: An interagency collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Manville, Albert; Green, Michael T.; Krueper, David J.; Johnston, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Migratory birds face many changes to the landscapes they traverse and the habitats they use. Wind turbines and communications towers, which pose hazards to birds and bats in flight, are being erected or proposed across the United States and offshore. Human activities can also destroy or threaten habitats critical to birds during migratory passage, and climate change appears to be altering migratory patterns. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and other agencies are under increasing pressure to identify and evaluate movement patterns and habitats used during migration and other times.

  7. Modeling the distribution of migratory bird stopovers to inform landscape-scale siting of wind development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocewicz, Amy; Estes-Zumpf, Wendy A; Andersen, Mark D; Copeland, Holly E; Keinath, Douglas A; Griscom, Hannah R

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of migratory birds requires understanding the distribution of and potential threats to their migratory habitats. However, although migratory birds are protected under international treaties, few maps have been available to represent migration at a landscape scale useful to target conservation efforts or inform the siting of wind energy developments that may affect migratory birds. To fill this gap, we developed models that predict where four groups of birds concentrate or stopover during their migration through the state of Wyoming, USA: raptors, wetland, riparian and sparse grassland birds. The models were based on existing literature and expert knowledge concerning bird migration behavior and ecology and validated using expert ratings and known occurrences. There was significant agreement between migratory occurrence data and migration models for all groups except raptors, and all models ranked well with experts. We measured the overlap between the migration concentration models and a predictive model of wind energy development to assess the potential exposure of migratory birds to wind development and illustrate the utility of migratory concentration models for landscape-scale planning. Wind development potential is high across 15% of Wyoming, and 73% of this high potential area intersects important migration concentration areas. From 5.2% to 18.8% of each group's important migration areas was represented within this high wind potential area, with the highest exposures for sparse grassland birds and the lowest for riparian birds. Our approach could be replicated elsewhere to fill critical data gaps and better inform conservation priorities and landscape-scale planning for migratory birds.

  8. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  9. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period September, October, November, and December, 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1945. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge trumperter swan translocation project : Issues/action items

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Background information and current issues regarding the trumpeter swan translocation project at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge. Major issues include harvesting of...

  11. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  12. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 - December 31, 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  13. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  14. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: July 1 - December 31, 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from July through December of 1975. The report begins by...

  15. Seasonal changes in the food preference and its significance in a migratory bird

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berthold, P; Berthold, H

    1978-01-01

    The garden warbler (Sylvia borin), a bird of pronounced migratory habit, was studied to determine whether seasonal changes in the type of food consumed depend on the available food supply or on a change in food preference...

  16. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  17. Narrative report : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : For the period January 1 to December 31, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  18. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Quarterly narrative report : May, June, and July, 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through July of 1941. The report begins by summarizing the...

  19. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : January, February, March, April, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  20. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  1. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period May, June, July, and August, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  3. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  4. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  5. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period May, June, July, and August, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the...

  6. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 - December 31, 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  7. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  8. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  9. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 - December 31, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  10. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period September, October, November, and December, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1943. The report begins by summarizing...

  11. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period January, February, March, and April, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the...

  12. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period May, June, July, and August, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the...

  13. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  14. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar Year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  15. Narrative report : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : For the period January 1 to December 31, 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July, August, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  17. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Quarterly narrative report : August, September, and October, 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from August through October of 1940. The report begins by summarizing the...

  18. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : November, December, 1939, January, 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report covers weather conditions, wildlife, hunting, and Refuge development on Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge between November, 1938 and January of...

  19. Integrated Pest Management Plan : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : November 14, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This integrated pest management (IPM) plan addresses the control and/or elimination of pest plants, fish, and insects at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Brigham...

  20. Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge Second quarter, fiscal year 1933 [1932

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes wildlife, grazing, protection, improvements, developments, public relations, and disease on Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge...

  1. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Narrative report: January 1 - December 31, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period January, February, March, April, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the...

  3. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2012: Individual refuge results for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge and is part of the USGS Data Series 754. The survey was...

  4. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period September, October, November, December, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1952. The report begins by summarizing...

  5. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period September, October, November, December, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  7. Is There a “Migratory Syndrome” Common to All Migrant Birds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Mouritsen, Henrik; Bauchinger, Ulf; Bairlein, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Bird migration has been assumed, mostly implicitly, to represent a distinct class of animal behavior, with deep and strong homologies in the various phenotypic expressions of migratory behavior between different taxa. Here the evidence for the existence of what could be called a “migratory syndrome,

  8. Ticks collected from migratory birds, including a new record of Haemaphysalis formosensis, on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Kang, Chang-Wan; Kim, Eun-Mi; Lee, Sang; Moon, Kyoung-Ha; Oh, Mi-Rae; Yamauchi, Takeo; Yun, Young-Min

    2014-04-01

    Migratory birds may disperse parasites across ecological barriers, and recent climate change may alter the pattern of ectoparasite dispersal via changed patterns of bird migration. In order to document the parasitization of migratory birds by Ixodidae ticks on Jeju Island in Korea, we examined 934 migratory birds comprising 75 species for ticks from 2010 to 2012. In total, 313 ticks were collected from 74 migratory birds across 17 avian species and identified based on morphological keys. These ticks represented six species: Haemaphysalis flava, H. formosensis, H. longicornis, H. concinna, Ixodes turdus and I. nipponensis. Of particular note was the presence of H. formosensis, a species not previously reported to have been found in Korea, and H. concinna, which had not been previously reported on Jeju Island. The dominant tick species found were H. flava (226 ticks, 72.2 %) and I. turdus (54 ticks, 17.3 %), and ground-dwelling thrushes such as Pale thrushes (Turdus pallidus; 39 birds, 52.7 %) were the most important hosts. Although H. longicornis is the most abundant and prevalent terrestrial tick on Jeju Island, the species accounted for only 3.8 % of the total ticks collected in this study, suggesting that ticks on migratory birds may differ from the local tick fauna and that exotic ticks may be introduced via migratory birds. Therefore, long-term programs for tick and tick-borne disease surveillance are recommended to understand the role of migratory animals in the introduction of exotic species and associated pathogens and in life cycles of ticks at different stages in this region.

  9. 50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.42 Authority to issue depredating orders...

  10. A visual pathway links brain structures active during magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Heyers

    Full Text Available The magnetic compass of migratory birds has been suggested to be light-dependent. Retinal cryptochrome-expressing neurons and a forebrain region, "Cluster N", show high neuronal activity when night-migratory songbirds perform magnetic compass orientation. By combining neuronal tracing with behavioral experiments leading to sensory-driven gene expression of the neuronal activity marker ZENK during magnetic compass orientation, we demonstrate a functional neuronal connection between the retinal neurons and Cluster N via the visual thalamus. Thus, the two areas of the central nervous system being most active during magnetic compass orientation are part of an ascending visual processing stream, the thalamofugal pathway. Furthermore, Cluster N seems to be a specialized part of the visual wulst. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that migratory birds use their visual system to perceive the reference compass direction of the geomagnetic field and that migratory birds "see" the reference compass direction provided by the geomagnetic field.

  11. A visual pathway links brain structures active during magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyers, Dominik; Manns, Martina; Luksch, Harald; Güntürkün, Onur; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2007-09-26

    The magnetic compass of migratory birds has been suggested to be light-dependent. Retinal cryptochrome-expressing neurons and a forebrain region, "Cluster N", show high neuronal activity when night-migratory songbirds perform magnetic compass orientation. By combining neuronal tracing with behavioral experiments leading to sensory-driven gene expression of the neuronal activity marker ZENK during magnetic compass orientation, we demonstrate a functional neuronal connection between the retinal neurons and Cluster N via the visual thalamus. Thus, the two areas of the central nervous system being most active during magnetic compass orientation are part of an ascending visual processing stream, the thalamofugal pathway. Furthermore, Cluster N seems to be a specialized part of the visual wulst. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that migratory birds use their visual system to perceive the reference compass direction of the geomagnetic field and that migratory birds "see" the reference compass direction provided by the geomagnetic field.

  12. MIGRATORY GAME BIRDS AS A SOURCE OF PUBLIC EXPOSURE FROM THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines assessments of the impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on exposure of the Russian Federation population related to the seasonal migration of game birds. Intake of artificial radionuclides with meat of migratory game birds is shown to be one of the major pathways for the population exposure in the Far Eastern region of the country.

  13. 77 FR 36980 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... [Docket No. FWS-R9-MB-2012-0028; FF09M21200-123-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] RIN 1018-AY61 Migratory Bird Hunting... INFORMATION CONTACT: George Allen, at 703-358-1825. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird...

  14. H5N1 surveillance in migratory birds in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Arthur C; Barbara, Katie A; Indrawan, Mochamad; Ibrahim, Ima N; Petrus, Wicaksana B; Wijaya, Susan; Farzeli, Arik; Antonjaya, Ungke; Sin, Lim W; Hidayatullah, N; Kristanto, Ige; Tampubolon, A M; Purnama, S; Supriatna, Adam; Burgess, Timothy H; Williams, Maya; Putnam, Shannon D; Tobias, Steve; Blair, Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 in an enzoonotic area. Resident, captive, and migratory birds were sampled at five sites in Java, Indonesia. Mist nets were used to trap birds. Birds were identified to species. RNA was extracted from swabs and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) conducted for the HA and M genes of H5N1. Antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition test. Between October 2006 and September 2007, a total of 4,067 captive, resident, and migratory birds comprising 98 species in 23 genera were sampled. The most commonly collected birds were the common sandpiper (6% of total), striated heron (3%), and the domestic chicken (14%). The overall prevalence of H5N1 antibodies was 5.3%. A significantly higher percentage of captive birds (16.1%) showed antibody evidence of H5N1 exposure when compared to migratory or resident birds. The greatest number of seropositive birds in each category were Muschovy duck (captive), striated heron (resident), and the Pacific golden plover (migratory). Seven apparently well captive birds yielded molecular evidence of H5N1 infection. Following amplification, the HA, NA, and M genes were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the isolates were 97% similar to EU124153.1 A/chicken/West Java/Garut May 2006, an isolate obtained in a similar region of West Java. While no known markers of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance were found within the NA gene, M segment analysis revealed the V27A mutation known to confer resistance to adamantanes. Our results demonstrate moderate serologic evidence of H5N1 infection in captive birds, sampled in five sites in Java, Indonesia, but only occasional infection in resident and migratory birds. These data imply that in an enzoonotic region of Indonesia the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 is limited.

  15. Phenological and geographical shifts have interactive effects on migratory bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aubrie R M; Abbott, Karen C

    2014-01-01

    For many taxa, ranges are shifting toward the poles and the timing of seasonal reproduction is advancing in response to climate change. For migratory birds, changes such as these could produce particularly strong impacts because of their potential to affect migratory timing and distance. Due to the relatively complex life histories of migratory species, however, it is difficult to intuit exactly what these impacts will be. Here, we develop a general population model for a long-distance migrant, introducing a framework for understanding the potential implications of changes in both phenology and migratory distance for bird abundances. We find that population sizes may increase with either shorter or longer migratory distances, depending on the nature of any concurrent phenological changes. This interaction between timing and distance suggests a need to consider multiple potential responses to climate change simultaneously in order to understand the overall impact of climate change on migratory populations. Our results reveal a degree of variability in the qualitative nature of this phenology-distance interaction, suggesting a possible explanation for observed variation in how migratory birds have already responded to climate change.

  16. Prevalence of West Nile virus in migratory birds during spring and fall migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, R.J.; McLean, R.G.; Kramer, L.D.; Ubico, S.R.; Dupuis, A.P.; Ebel, G.D.; Guptill, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the role of migratory birds in the dissemination of West Nile virus (WNV), we measured the prevalence of infectious WNV and specific WNV neutralizing antibodies in birds, principally Passeriformes, during spring and fall migrations in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways from 2001-2003. Blood samples were obtained from 13,403 birds, representing 133 species. Specific WNV neutralizing antibody was detected in 254 resident and migratory birds, representing 39 species, and was most commonly detected in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) (9.8%, N = 762) and gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) (3.2%,N = 3188). West Nile virus viremias were detected in 19 birds, including 8 gray catbirds, and only during the fall migratory period. These results provide additional evidence that migratory birds may have been a principal agent for the spread of WNV in North America and provide data on the occurrence of WNV in a variety of bird species. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Magnetite-based magnetoreception: the effect of repeated pulsing on the orientation of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklhofer, M.; Wiltschko, W.; Wiltschko, R.; Ford, H.; Munro, U.

    2007-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that a magnetic pulse affected the orientation of passerine migrants for a short period only: for about 3 days, the birds' headings were deflected eastward from their migratory direction, followed by a phase of disorientation, with the birds returning to their normal migratory direction after about 10 days. To analyze the processes involved in the fading of the pulse effect, migratory birds were subjected to a second, identical pulse 16 days after the first pulse, when the effect of that pulse had disappeared. This second pulse affected the birds' behavior in a different way: it caused an increase in the scatter of the birds' headings for 2 days, after which the birds showed normal migratory orientation again. These observations are at variance with the hypothesis that the magnetite-based receptor had been fully restored, but also with the hypothesis that the input of this receptor was ignored. They rather indicate dynamic processes, which include changes in the affected receptor, but at the same time cause the birds to weigh and rate the altered input differently. The bearing of these findings on the question of whether single domains or superparamagnetic particles are involved in the magnetite-based receptors is discussed.

  18. Magnetite-based magnetoreception: the effect of repeated pulsing on the orientation of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Ford, Hugh; Munro, Ursula; Winklhofer, Michael; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2007-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that a magnetic pulse affected the orientation of passerine migrants for a short period only: for about 3 days, the birds' headings were deflected eastward from their migratory direction, followed by a phase of disorientation, with the birds returning to their normal migratory direction after about 10 days. To analyze the processes involved in the fading of the pulse effect, migratory birds were subjected to a second, identical pulse 16 days after the first pulse, when the effect of that pulse had disappeared. This second pulse affected the birds' behavior in a different way: it caused an increase in the scatter of the birds' headings for 2 days, after which the birds showed normal migratory orientation again. These observations are at variance with the hypothesis that the magnetite-based receptor had been fully restored, but also with the hypothesis that the input of this receptor was ignored. They rather indicate dynamic processes, which include changes in the affected receptor, but at the same time cause the birds to weigh and rate the altered input differently. The bearing of these findings on the question of whether single domains or superparamagnetic particles are involved in the magnetite-based receptors is discussed.

  19. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1982): Migratory Sea Bird Watch (F038) (NODC Accession 0014158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Migratory Sea Bird Watch (F038) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1982). Each dataset uses...

  20. Migratory birds use head scans to detect the direction of the earth's magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Henrik; Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Kropp, Wiebke

    2004-11-09

    Night-migratory songbirds are known to use a magnetic compass , but how do they detect the reference direction provided by the geomagnetic field, and where is the sensory organ located? The most prominent characteristic of geomagnetic sensory input, whether based on visual patterns or magnetite-mediated forces , is the predicted symmetry around the north-south or east-west magnetic axis. Here, we show that caged migratory garden warblers perform head-scanning behavior well suited to detect this magnetic symmetry plane. In the natural geomagnetic field, birds move toward their migratory direction after head scanning. In a zero-magnetic field , where no symmetry plane exists, the birds almost triple their head-scanning frequency, and the movement direction after a head scan becomes random. Thus, the magnetic sensory organ is located in the bird's head, and head scans are used to locate the reference direction provided by the geomagnetic field.

  1. Childrens Birdlist : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This brochure offers children illustrations of types of birds they might encounter while visiting the refuge. Children have the space to 'mark' the birds that they...

  2. The potential role of migratory birds in the transmission of zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The instinct for survival leads migratory birds to exploit seasonal opportunities for breeding habitats and food supplies. Consequently, they travel across national and international borders. These birds are distinguished in local migrants, short-distance, long-distance and vagrant and nomadic migrants. They can transfer micro-organisms across the globe and play a significant role in the ecology and circulation of pathogenic organisms. They are implicated in the transmission of zoonoses as bi...

  3. Waterbird use of catfish ponds and migratory bird habitat initiative wetlands in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaga, James S.; Vilella, Francisco; Kaminski, Richard M.; Davis, J. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture can provide important surrogate habitats for waterbirds. In response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the National Resource Conservation Service enacted the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative through which incentivized landowners provided wetland habitats for migrating waterbirds. Diversity and abundance of waterbirds in six production and four idled aquaculture facilities in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley were estimated during the winters of 2011–2013. Wintering waterbirds exhibited similar densities on production (i.e., ∼22 birds/ha) and idled (i.e., ∼20 birds/ha) sites. A total of 42 species were found using both types of aquaculture wetlands combined, but there was considerable departure in bird guilds occupying the two wetland types. The primary users of production ponds were diving and dabbling ducks and American coots. However, idled ponds, with varying water depths (e.g., mudflats to 20 cm) and diverse emergent vegetation-water interspersion, attracted over 30 species of waterbirds and, on average, had more species of waterbirds from fall through early spring than catfish production ponds. Conservation through the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative was likely responsible for this difference. Our results suggest production and idled Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative aquaculture impoundments produced suitable conditions for various waterbird species and highlight the importance of conservation programs on private lands that promote diversity in vegetation structure and water depths to enhance waterbird diversity.

  4. Distribution study on migratory bird (Scolopacidae: Numenius) in Surabaya, Indonesia: Estimating the effect of habitat and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmawati, Iska; Indah Trisnawati D., T.; Kurnia, Ory; Hamdani, Albi; Fahmi, Mahsun; Fahmi, Mirza

    2017-06-01

    Migratory Birds are responding to recent climate change in variety of ways. Distribution study of migratory birds will help to understand climate change effect in ecosystem area. Its supported by natural resources all around Indonesia. One of this place is Surabaya city specially Wonorejo area. Wonorejo is one of the Important Bird Area (IBA), specifically for bird conserved by Indonesian law and migratory birds. This research aims to know that distribution study on migratory bird enhances the knowledge of climate change effect. The distribution study use mapping method and the environment variables study analyzed by multivariate analysis. The description about how to analize the climate change effect in this area will be described by map and ilustration model. The result show that migratory bird (Scolopacidae) use different area of preference habitat in Wonorejo during migratory season on 2010-2016. In particular, the details of population and scale is likely to characterize global change biodiversity of migratory birds research need to improve in future.

  5. 75 FR 75153 - Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Rusty Blackbird and Tamaulipas (Mexican) Crow From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AV66 Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Rusty Blackbird and Tamaulipas (Mexican) Crow From the Depredation Order for Blackbirds, Cowbirds, Grackles, Crows... carolinus) and the Mexican (Tamaulipas) Crow (Corvus imparatus) from the list of species that may...

  6. 75 FR 48723 - Meeting Announcement: Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Advisory Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... person and via conference call to discuss strategic planning and communication, budget and legislation.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Recognizing the importance of conserving migratory birds, the U.S. Congress passed..., strategic communication, and budget and legislation updates. If you are interested in presenting...

  7. Longitudinal data reveal ontogenetic changes in the wing morphology of a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Hera, Ivan; Pulido, Francisco; Visser, Marcel E.

    2014-01-01

    In migratory bird species, juveniles normally have shorter and more rounded wings than adults. The causes of this age-specific difference in wing morphology, however, are largely unknown. Here, we used longitudinal data collected over 3years from a Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca population to as

  8. Longitudinal data reveal ontogenetic changes in the wing morphology of a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Pulido, F.; Visser, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In migratory bird species, juveniles normally have shorter and more rounded wings than adults. The causes of this age-specific difference in wing morphology, however, are largely unknown. Here, we used longitudinal data collected over 3 years from a Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca population to a

  9. 75 FR 3395 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Falconry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 21 and 22 RIN 1018-AW44 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Falconry Correction In rule document 2010-12 beginning on page 927 in the issue...

  10. Estimating migratory game-bird productivity by integrating age ratio and banding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, G.S.; Link, W.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Richkus, K.D.; Boomer, G. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Context: Reproduction is a critical component of fitness, and understanding factors that influence temporal and spatial dynamics in reproductive output is important for effective management and conservation. Although several indices of reproductive output for wide-ranging species, such as migratory birds, exist, there has been no theoretical justification for their estimators or associated measures of variance.

  11. 76 FR 30186 - Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Birds and Wetlands Conservation Grant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Birds and Wetlands Conservation... administers grant programs associated with the North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA), Public Law... partnerships to carry out wetlands conservation projects in the United States, Canada, and Mexico for...

  12. Actogram analysis of free-flying migratory birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Pedersen, Lykke

    2017-01-01

    The use of accelerometers has become an important part of biologging techniques for large-sized birds with accelerometer data providing information about flight mode, wing-beat pattern, behaviour and energy expenditure. Such data show that birds using much energy-saving soaring/gliding flight like...... frigatebirds and swifts can stay airborne without landing for several months. Successful accelerometer studies have recently been conducted also for free-flying small songbirds during their entire annual cycle. Here we review the principles and possibilities for accelerometer studies in bird migration. We use...... of the life cycle. Accelerometer recording of the annual activity patterns of individual birds will open up a new dimension in bird migration research....

  13. Phenotypic flexibility in digestive system structure and function in migratory birds and its ecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, S R; Karasov, W H

    2001-03-01

    Birds during migration must satisfy the high energy and nutrient demands associated with repeated, intensive flight while often experiencing unpredictable variation in food supply and food quality. Solutions to such different challenges may often be physiologically incompatible. For example, increased food intake and gut size are primarily responsible for satisfying the high energy and nutrient demands associated with migration in birds. However, short-term fasting or food restriction during flight may cause partial atrophy of the gut that may limit utilization of ingested food energy and nutrients. We review the evidence available on the effects of long- and short-term changes in food quality and quantity on digestive performance in migratory birds, and the importance of digestive constraints in limiting the tempo of migration in birds. Another important physiological consequence of feeding in birds is the effect of diet on body composition dynamics during migration. Recent evidence suggests that birds utilize and replenish both protein and fat reserves during migration, and diet quality influences the rate of replenishment of both these reserves. We conclude that diet and phenotypic flexibility in both body composition and the digestive system of migratory birds are important in allowing birds to successfully overcome the often-conflicting physiological challenges of migration.

  14. Estimating migratory connectivity of birds when re-encounter probabilities are heterogeneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emily B.; Hostelter, Jeffrey A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Marra, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires an understanding of migratory connectivity – the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, for most species, we are lacking such information. The North American Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) houses an extensive database of marking, recaptures and recoveries, and such data could provide migratory connectivity information for many species. To date, however, few species have been analyzed for migratory connectivity largely because heterogeneous re-encounter probabilities make interpretation problematic. We accounted for regional variation in re-encounter probabilities by borrowing information across species and by using effort covariates on recapture and recovery probabilities in a multistate capture–recapture and recovery model. The effort covariates were derived from recaptures and recoveries of species within the same regions. We estimated the migratory connectivity for three tern species breeding in North America and over-wintering in the tropics, common (Sterna hirundo), roseate (Sterna dougallii), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). For western breeding terns, model-derived estimates of migratory connectivity differed considerably from those derived directly from the proportions of re-encounters. Conversely, for eastern breeding terns, estimates were merely refined by the inclusion of re-encounter probabilities. In general, eastern breeding terns were strongly connected to eastern South America, and western breeding terns were strongly linked to the more western parts of the nonbreeding range under both models. Through simulation, we found this approach is likely useful for many species in the BBL database, although precision improved with higher re-encounter probabilities and stronger migratory connectivity. We describe an approach to deal with the inherent biases in BBL banding and re-encounter data to demonstrate

  15. Fall migration bird banding: 20 years of monitoring migratory landbirds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tetlin NWR established the fall migration bird banding station in 1993 as part of a state-wide initiative to better understand distribution, abundance and population...

  16. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Brigham City, Utah : October 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1995 brochure offers a history of the refuge, including the 1983 flood. Other topics discussed include 'The Refuge Today', 'When to See the Birds', and 'Visitor...

  17. Transboundary conservation: An ecoregional approach to protect neotropical migratory birds in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Roberto; Adkins, Leslie; Wurschy, Maria Christina; Skerl, Kevin

    1996-11-01

    Future conservation efforts will need to transcend geopolitical boundaries in efforts to protect entire landscapes and ecosystems. Neotropical migratory birds are as a group a useful conservation tool for linking diverse landscapes and people due to their dependence on multiple habitats, sensitivity to habitat changes, and universal public appeal. The conservation of neotropical migrants can therefore function as a powerful hemispheric umbrella for ecosystem protection. Efforts to protect neotropical migratory birds on their nonbreeding grounds have traditionally been focused on Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. To assess the importance of South America to neotropical migrants, an ecoregional classification system was used to determine species distributions in the Andean/Southern Cone Region (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela). The occurrence of migrants in protected areas that are part of The Nature Conservancy's Parks in Peril program was also assessed. Of the 406 neotropical migrant species, nearly one third (132) occur as regular nonbreeding residents in the region and for almost half of these species (53), South America is their main nonbreeding ground. All Parks in Peril sites were found to harbor neotropical migrants. Forty-eight species (36%) have declining longterm North American Breeding Bird Survey population trends and/or high Partners in Flight concern scores and thus are of significant conservation concern. Most importantly, 29 species (22%) of conservation concern use South America as their primary nonbreeding ground, indicating a need for focused conservation action. The nature of the ecoregional approach used in this endeavor makes future prioritization of ecoregions and conservation strategies for neotropical migrants across national boundaries possible. The ability to link diverse landscapes using a common element such as migratory birds allows for unique transboundary partnerships and opportunities for habitat

  18. Surveillance of avian influenza viruses in migratory birds in Egypt, 2003-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Atef; Saad, Magdi; Elassal, Emad; Amir, Ehab; Plathonoff, Chantal; Bahgat, Verina; El-Badry, Maha; Ahmed, Lu'ay S; Fouda, Mostafa; Gamaleldin, Mohammed; Mohamed, Nahed Abd-Elal; Salyer, Stephanie; Cornelius, Claire; Barthel, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Migratory (particularly aquatic) birds are the major natural reservoirs for type A influenza viruses. However, their role in transmitting highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses is unclear. Egypt is a "funnel" zone of wild bird migration pathways from Central Asia and Europe to Eastern and Central Africa ending in South Africa. We sought to detect and isolate avian influenza viruses in migratory birds in Egypt. During September 2003-February 2009, the US Naval Medical Research Unit Number 3, Cairo, Egypt, in collaboration with the Egyptian Ministry of Environment, obtained cloacal swabs from 7,894 migratory birds captured or shot by hunters in different geographic areas in Egypt. Samples were processed by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for detection of the influenza A matrix gene. Positive samples were processed for virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonated eggs and isolates were subtyped by PCR and partial sequencing. Ninety-five species of birds were collected. Predominant species were Green-Winged Teal (Anas carolinensis; 32.0%, n=2,528), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata; 21.4%, n=1,686), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta; 11.1%, n=877). Of the 7,894 samples, 745 (9.4%) were positive for the influenza A matrix gene (mainly from the above predominant species). Thirteen of the 745 (1.7%) were H5-positive by PCR (11 were low-pathogenic avian influenza and two were HPAI H5N1). The prevalences of influenza A was among regions were 10-15%, except in Middle Egypt (4%). Thirty-nine influenza isolates were obtained from PCR-positive samples. Seventeen subtypes of avian influenza viruses (including H5N1 and H7N7) were classified from 39 isolates using PCR and partial sequencing. Only one HPAI H5N1 was isolated in February 2006, from a wild resident Great Egret (Ardea alba). No major die-offs or sick migratory birds were detected during the study. We identified avian influenza virus subtypes not previously reported in Egypt. The HPAI H5N1 isolated

  19. Narrative report : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : For the period May 1, 1962 to August 31, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the...

  20. Construction of nesting islands and its effects on California gull populations at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — California gulls can be expected to increase at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge regardless of the addition of nesting islands. Unlimited nesting habitat and...

  1. Final Environmental Assessment of aerial application of glyphosate for control of phragmites on Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses the aerial application of glyphosate to control Phragmites (Phragmites australis) on Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge....

  2. Narrative report : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : For the period January, 1, 1959 to April 30, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  3. Narrative report : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : For the period January 1, 1965 to December 31, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  4. Migratory birds and marine mammals of the Bristol Bay region: Wildlife narratives for the Bristol Bay Cooperative Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a collection of reports on migratory birds and marine mammals of the Bristol Bay region for the purpose of facilitating the planning process in Bristol Bay....

  5. Narrative report : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : For the period January 1, 1963 to April 30, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  6. Hydrogen sulfide monitoring and the effects of oil and gas activities on migratory birds in southeastern New Mexico [draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study examined the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), emitted by oil and gas activities, by focusing on migratory birds in southeastern New Mexico. Study sites...

  7. Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge Quarterly report on reservation wild life and activities appurtenant thereto. Third quarter, fiscal year 1935.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes wildlife, grazing, protection, improvements and developments on Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge during fiscal year of 1935.

  8. Series of Aerial Images over Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Acquired on November 7th and 9th, 1965.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set includes 22 georeferenced images, acquired on November 7th and 9th, 1965, over portions of Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, in Box Elder County,...

  9. Breeding Productivity of Shorebirds and Colonial Waterbirds at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Utah : 2009 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since 2003, the Avian Ecology Laboratory has monitored the breeding productivity of shorebirds at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge. This information is critical...

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for Aerial Application of Glyphosate for Control of Phragmites on Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses the aerial application of glyphosate to control Phragmites (Phragmites australis) on Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge....

  11. Breeding Productivity of Shorebirds and Colonial Waterbirds at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Utah : 2008 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since 2003, the Avian Ecology Laboratory has monitored the breeding productivity of shorebirds at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge. This information is critical...

  12. The Importance of Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley Reforestation and Wetland Restoration Sites to Wintering Migratory Birds: 2002 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The annual report outlines the importance of conserving and restoring lands for migratory birds in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley.

  13. The Importance of Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley Reforestation and Wetland Restoration Sites to Wintering Migratory Birds: 2000 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The annual report outlines the importance of conserving and restoring lands for migratory birds in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley.

  14. EnviroAtlas - Migratory Bird Hunting Recreation Demand by 12-Digit HUC in the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes the total number of recreational days per year demanded by people ages 18 and over for migratory bird hunting by location in the...

  15. Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge Report on reservation wild life and activities appurtenant thereto, first half of fiscal year 1934

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes wildlife, grazing, protection, improvements, developments, and public relations on Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge between July...

  16. Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge Quarterly report on reservation wild life and activities appurtenant thereto, third quarter, fiscal year 1933

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes wildlife, grazing, protection, improvements, and developments on Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge between January and March of...

  17. Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge Quarterly report on reservation wild life and activities appurtenant thereto. First quarter, fiscal year 1936.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes wildlife, grazing, protection, improvements, developments, and public relations on Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge between July...

  18. Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge Annual report on reservation wild life and activities appurtenant thereto, fiscal year 1934

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes wildlife, grazing, protection, improvements, and developments on Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge during fiscal year 1934.

  19. Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge Annual report on reservation wild life and activities appurtenant thereto, fiscal year 1933

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes wildlife, grazing, protection, improvements, developments, and public relations on Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge during fiscal...

  20. Narrative report : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : For the period January 1, 1964 to December 31, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1964 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  1. The harvest and management of migratory bird eggs by Inuit in Nunatsiavut, Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natcher, David; Felt, Larry; Chaulk, Keith; Procter, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of collaborative research conducted in 2007 on the harvest of migratory bird eggs by Inuit households of Nunatsiavut, Labrador. Harvest variability between communities and species is examined, as is the social and ecological factors affecting the 2007 Inuit egg harvest. Representing the first comprehensive account of Inuit egg use in Labrador, this information should be valuable to agencies responsible for managing migratory bird populations in North America and will contribute to a more informed understanding of the complexity and temporal variability in subsistence harvesting among Labrador Inuit. It is argued that the recognition of this complexity will be critical as the Nunatsiavut Government and other wildlife management agencies formulate management policies that are supportive rather, than constraining, to Inuit resource use in the future.

  2. The Harvest and Management of Migratory Bird Eggs by Inuit in Nunatsiavut, Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natcher, David; Felt, Larry; Chaulk, Keith; Procter, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of collaborative research conducted in 2007 on the harvest of migratory bird eggs by Inuit households of Nunatsiavut, Labrador. Harvest variability between communities and species is examined, as is the social and ecological factors affecting the 2007 Inuit egg harvest. Representing the first comprehensive account of Inuit egg use in Labrador, this information should be valuable to agencies responsible for managing migratory bird populations in North America and will contribute to a more informed understanding of the complexity and temporal variability in subsistence harvesting among Labrador Inuit. It is argued that the recognition of this complexity will be critical as the Nunatsiavut Government and other wildlife management agencies formulate management policies that are supportive rather, than constraining, to Inuit resource use in the future.

  3. The puzzle of magnetic resonance effect on the magnetic compass of migratory birds

    CERN Document Server

    Kavokin, K V

    2008-01-01

    Experiments on the effect of radio-frequency (RF) magnetic fields on the magnetic compass orientation of migratory birds are analyzed using the theory of magnetic resonance. The results of these experiments were earlier interpreted within the radical-pair model of magnetoreception. However, the consistent analysis shows that the amplitudes of the RF fields used are far too small to noticeably influence electron spins in organic radicals. Other possible agents that could mediate the birds' response to the RF fields are discussed, but apparently no known physical system can be responsible for this effect.

  4. Water requirements and drinking rates of homing pigeons: A consideration for exposure risk of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-02-13

    Access to water along a bird's migratory flyway is essential during the vital process of migration. Because of the scarcity of water in some environments, there is potential for migratory birds to encounter and drink from contaminated bodies of water. Ingestion of contaminated water may cause injury and compromise flying ability, leading to a disruption of migration. To determine injury to birds from potential exposure, it is essential to not only know the concentration of a given contaminant in the water but also the quantity and rate of water consumption by the birds. Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were used in a series of experiments to determine differences in drinking behavior after various flights and after periods of resting. Results from this study demonstrate that homing pigeons' water consumption is dramatically different when assessed according to activity, flight distance, and time elapsed after flight. This suggests that the drinking rates of birds during migration are extremely important and much greater than estimated using traditional exposure assessment procedures. Thus, exposure to contaminants via drinking water may be greatly underestimated and the rate of water consumption should be considered when estimating potential exposure risk to avian species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. The potential role of migratory birds in the transmission of zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Tsiouris

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The instinct for survival leads migratory birds to exploit seasonal opportunities for breeding habitats and food supplies. Consequently, they travel across national and international borders. These birds are distinguished in local migrants, short-distance, long-distance and vagrant and nomadic migrants. They can transfer micro-organisms across the globe and play a significant role in the ecology and circulation of pathogenic organisms. They are implicated in the transmission of zoonoses as biological and mechanical carriers and as hosts and carriers of infected ectoparasites. They can cause water-borne, tick-borne and insect-borne diseases. Favourable agents, such as seasonality and stress due to migration, influence the transmission of pathogens. The migration of birds is a natural phenomenon that is followed by the unavoidable repercussions of the participation of these birds as carriers or hosts in the transmission of pathogens. It is not possible to interrupt this sequence but risks can be minimised by controlling and preventing perilous situations. Surveillance of wetlands, ‘stopovers’, places of destination and wintering regions can be done. Furthermore, the implementation strict biosecurity measures that reduce contact with migratory birds will limit the transmission of pathogens.

  6. The potential role of migratory birds in the transmission of zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulou, Ioanna; Tsiouris, Vasilios

    2008-01-01

    The instinct for survival leads migratory birds to exploit seasonal opportunities for breeding habitats and food supplies. Consequently, they travel across national and international borders. These birds are distinguished in local migrants, short-distance, long-distance and vagrant and nomadic migrants. They can transfer micro-organisms across the globe and play a significant role in the ecology and circulation of pathogenic organisms. They are implicated in the transmission of zoonoses as biological and mechanical carriers and as hosts and carriers of infected ectoparasites. They can cause water-borne, tick-borne and insect-borne diseases. Favourable agents, such as seasonality and stress due to migration, influence the transmission of pathogens. The migration of birds is a natural phenomenon that is followed by the unavoidable repercussions of the participation of these birds as carriers or hosts in the transmission of pathogens. It is not possible to interrupt this sequence but risks can be minimised by controlling and preventing perilous situations. Surveillance of wetlands, 'stopovers', places of destination and wintering regions can be done. Furthermore, the implementation strict biosecurity measures that reduce contact with migratory birds will limit the transmission of pathogens.

  7. Projected changes in prevailing winds for transatlantic migratory birds under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. We used occurrence information from eBird (1950-2015) to estimate the geographical location of population centres at a daily temporal resolution across the annual cycle for 10 transatlantic migratory bird species. We used this information to estimate the location and timing of autumn migration within the transatlantic flyway. We estimated how prevailing winds are projected to change within the transatlantic flyway during this time using daily wind speed anomalies (1996-2005 and 2091-2100) from 29 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models implemented under CMIP5. Autumn transatlantic migrants have the potential to encounter strong westerly crosswinds early in their transatlantic journey at intermediate and especially high migration altitudes, strong headwinds at low and intermediate migration altitudes within the Caribbean that increase in strength as the season progresses, and weak tailwinds at intermediate and high migration altitudes east of the Caribbean. The CMIP5 simulations suggest that, during this century, the likelihood of autumn transatlantic migrants encountering strong westerly crosswinds will diminish. As global warming progresses, the need for species to compensate or drift under the influence of strong westerly crosswinds during the initial phase of their autumn transatlantic journey may be diminished. Existing strategies that promote headwind avoidance and tailwind assistance will likely remain valid. Thus, climate change may reduce time and energy requirements and the chance of mortality or

  8. Climate warming, ecological mismatch at arrival and population decline in migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saino, Nicola; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello; Hüppop, Kathrin; Hüppop, Ommo; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Lehikoinen, Esa; Rainio, Kalle; Romano, Maria; Sokolov, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    Climate is changing at a fast pace, causing widespread, profound consequences for living organisms. Failure to adjust the timing of life-cycle events to climate may jeopardize populations by causing ecological mismatches to the life cycle of other species and abiotic factors. Population declines of some migratory birds breeding in Europe have been suggested to depend on their inability to adjust migration phenology so as to keep track of advancement of spring events at their breeding grounds. In fact, several migrants have advanced their spring arrival date, but whether such advancement has been sufficient to compensate for temporal shift in spring phenophases or, conversely, birds have become ecologically mismatched, is still an unanswered question, with very few exceptions. We used a novel approach based on accumulated winter and spring temperatures (degree-days) as a proxy for timing of spring biological events to test if the progress of spring at arrival to the breeding areas by 117 European migratory bird species has changed over the past five decades. Migrants, and particularly those wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, now arrive at higher degree-days and may have therefore accumulated a ‘thermal delay’, thus possibly becoming increasingly mismatched to spring phenology. Species with greater ‘thermal delay’ have shown larger population decline, and this evidence was not confounded by concomitant ecological factors or by phylogenetic effects. These findings provide general support to the largely untested hypotheses that migratory birds are becoming ecologically mismatched and that failure to respond to climate change can have severe negative impacts on their populations. The novel approach we adopted can be extended to the analysis of ecological consequences of phenological response to climate change by other taxa. PMID:20861045

  9. Potential Impacts of Extended Winter Navigation upon Migratory Birds of the Upper U.S. Great Lakes. Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Biological Services Program OBS-82i51 SEPTEMBER 1982 POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF EXTENDED WINTER ’It NAVIGATION UPON MIGRATORY BIRDS OF THE UPPER N"j U.S...Security Classification) Potential Impacts of Extended Winter Navigation Upon Migratory Birds of the Upper U.S. Great Lakes 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Davis...PAGE Unclassified Potential Impacts of Extended Winter Navigation upon Migratory Birds of the Upper U.S. Great Lakes ERRATA SHEET Page XVII, item F6

  10. DNA Barcoding of Birds at a Migratory Hotspot in Eastern Turkey Highlights Continental Phylogeographic Relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Bilgin

    Full Text Available The combination of habitat loss, climate change, direct persecution, introduced species and other components of the global environmental crisis has resulted in a rapid loss of biodiversity, including species, population and genetic diversity. Birds, which inhabit a wide spectrum of different habitat types, are particularly sensitive to and indicative of environmental changes. The Caucasus endemic bird area, part of which covers northeastern Turkey, is one of the world's key regions harboring a unique bird community threatened with habitat loss. More than 75% of all bird species native to Turkey have been recorded in this region, in particular along the Kars-Iğdır migratory corridor, stopover, wintering and breeding sites along the Aras River, whose wetlands harbor at least 264 bird species. In this study, DNA barcoding technique was used for evaluating the genetic diversity of land bird species of Aras River Bird Paradise at the confluence of Aras River and Iğdır Plains key biodiversity areas. Seventy three COI sequences from 33 common species and 26 different genera were newly generated and used along with 301 sequences that were retrieved from the Barcoding of Life Database (BOLD. Using the sequences obtained in this study, we made global phylogeographic comparisons to define four categories of species, based on barcoding suitability, intraspecific divergence and taxonomy. Our findings indicate that the landbird community of northeastern Turkey has a genetical signature mostly typical of northern Palearctic bird communities while harboring some unique variations. The study also provides a good example of how DNA barcoding can build upon its primary mission of species identification and use available data to integrate genetic variation investigated at the local scale into a global framework. However, the rich bird community of the Aras River wetlands is highly threatened with the imminent construction of the Tuzluca Dam by the government.

  11. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketron, T.; Hsu, W.; Kuss, A. M.; Nguyen, A.; Remar, A. C.; Newcomer, M. E.; Fleming, E.; Bebout, L.; Bebout, B.; Detweiler, A. M.; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  12. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chen; Kuss, Amber Jean; Ketron, Tyler; Nguyen, Andrew; Remar, Alex Covello; Newcomer, Michelle; Fleming, Erich; Debout, Leslie; Debout, Brad; Detweiler, Angela; hide

    2011-01-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  13. Zebra finches have a light-dependent magnetic compass similar to migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus; Muheim, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Birds have a light-dependent magnetic compass that provides information about the spatial alignment of the geomagnetic field. It is proposed to be located in the avian retina and mediated by a light-induced, radical-pair mechanism involving cryptochromes as sensory receptor molecules. To investigate how the behavioural responses of birds under different light spectra match with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, we examined the spectral properties of the magnetic compass in zebra finches. We trained birds to relocate a food reward in a spatial orientation task using magnetic compass cues. The birds were well oriented along the trained magnetic compass axis when trained and tested under low-irradiance 521 nm green light. In the presence of a 1.4 MHz radio-frequency electromagnetic (RF)-field, the birds were disoriented, which supports the involvement of radical-pair reactions in the primary magnetoreception process. Birds trained and tested under 638 nm red light showed a weak tendency to orient ∼45 deg clockwise of the trained magnetic direction. Under low-irradiance 460 nm blue light, they tended to orient along the trained magnetic compass axis, but were disoriented under higher irradiance light. Zebra finches trained and tested under high-irradiance 430 nm indigo light were well oriented along the trained magnetic compass axis, but disoriented in the presence of a RF-field. We conclude that magnetic compass responses of zebra finches are similar to those observed in nocturnally migrating birds and agree with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, suggesting that light-dependent, radical-pair-mediated magnetoreception is a common property for all birds, including non-migratory species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Actogram analysis of free-flying migratory birds: new perspectives based on acceleration logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Pedersen, Lykke; Sjöberg, Sissel; Tøttrup, Anders P; Alerstam, Thomas

    2017-03-25

    The use of accelerometers has become an important part of biologging techniques for large-sized birds with accelerometer data providing information about flight mode, wing-beat pattern, behaviour and energy expenditure. Such data show that birds using much energy-saving soaring/gliding flight like frigatebirds and swifts can stay airborne without landing for several months. Successful accelerometer studies have recently been conducted also for free-flying small songbirds during their entire annual cycle. Here we review the principles and possibilities for accelerometer studies in bird migration. We use the first annual actograms (for red-backed shrike Lanius collurio) to explore new analyses and insights that become possible with accelerometer data. Actogram data allow precise estimates of numbers of flights, flight durations as well as departure/landing times during the annual cycle. Annual and diurnal rhythms of migratory flights, as well as prolonged nocturnal flights across desert barriers are illustrated. The shifting balance between flight, rest and different intensities of activity throughout the year as revealed by actogram data can be used to analyse exertion levels during different phases of the life cycle. Accelerometer recording of the annual activity patterns of individual birds will open up a new dimension in bird migration research.

  15. Analyzing the habitat suitability for migratory birds at the Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bo; Zhou, Yunxuan; Zhang, Liquan; Yuan, Lin

    2008-11-01

    The Dongtan Nature Reserve, one of the largest nature reserves in East Asia, is located in the mouth of the Yangtze Estuary and is an important habitat for migratory birds. The Dongtan wetlands were listed in the Chinese Protected Wetlands in 1992, and were designated as internationally important under the Ramsar Wetlands Convention in 2001 and as a national nature reserve in 2005. By their very nature and location, the estuarine and coastal habitats are dynamic and their biodiversity conservation and management relies on up-to-date spatial information. By establishing qualitative and quantitative relationships between bird populations and key habitat factors such as elevation, land cover type, tidal creek density and macrophytobenthos biomass, we developed an object-oriented image approach, in conjunction with Geographical Information Systems and the data from current field surveys, to analyze and assess the habitat suitability for the main types of birds, namely Anatidae, Charadriidae, Ardeidae and Laridae, at the reserve. The results from this study showed that about 40% of the total area of the Dongtan Reserve contained suitable habitats for these four bird families. The Scirpus mariqueter zone, mudflat zone, and tidal creeks were the most important habitats for these birds. This study indicated the potential of this approach for objective and effective evaluation of the species habitat suitability in a dynamic estuarine and coastal area. The implications of the results as a tool for biodiversity conservation, wetland conservation, and ecosystem management are discussed.

  16. Strain diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks dispersed in North America by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Amy; Smith, Robert P; Cahill, Bruce; Lubelczyk, Charles; Elias, Susan P; Lacombe, Eleanor; Morris, Sara R; Vary, Calvin P; Parent, Christine E; Rand, Peter W

    2011-06-01

    The role of migratory birds in the dispersal of Ixodes scapularis ticks in the northeastern U.S. is well established and is presumed to be a major factor in the expansion of the geographic risk for Lyme disease. Population genetic studies of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, the agent of Lyme disease in this region, consistently reveal the local presence of as many as 15 distinct strain types as designated by major groups of the ospC surface lipoprotein. Recent evidence suggests such strain diversity is adaptive to the diverse vertebrate hosts that maintain enzootic infection. How this strain diversity is established in emergent areas is unknown. To determine whether similar strain diversity is present in ticks imported by birds, we examined B. burgdorferi strains in I. scapularis ticks removed from migrants at an isolated island site. Tick mid-guts were cultured and isolates underwent DNA amplification with primers targeting ospC. Amplicons were separated by gel electrophoresis and sequenced. One hundred thirty-seven nymphal ticks obtained from 68 birds resulted in 24 isolates of B. burgdorferi representing eight ospC major groups. Bird-derived ticks contain diverse strain types of B. burgdorferi, including strain types associated with invasive Lyme disease. Birds and the ticks that feed on them may introduce a diversity of strains of the agent of Lyme disease to emergent areas. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  17. Spatial, temporal, and species variation in prevalence of influenza A viruses in wild migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J Munster

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although extensive data exist on avian influenza in wild birds in North America, limited information is available from elsewhere, including Europe. Here, molecular diagnostic tools were employed for high-throughput surveillance of migratory birds, as an alternative to classical labor-intensive methods of virus isolation in eggs. This study included 36,809 samples from 323 bird species belonging to 18 orders, of which only 25 species of three orders were positive for influenza A virus. Information on species, locations, and timing is provided for all samples tested. Seven previously unknown host species for avian influenza virus were identified: barnacle goose, bean goose, brent goose, pink-footed goose, bewick's swan, common gull, and guillemot. Dabbling ducks were more frequently infected than other ducks and Anseriformes; this distinction was probably related to bird behavior rather than population sizes. Waders did not appear to play a role in the epidemiology of avian influenza in Europe, in contrast to the Americas. The high virus prevalence in ducks in Europe in spring as compared with North America could explain the differences in virus-host ecology between these continents. Most influenza A virus subtypes were detected in ducks, but H13 and H16 subtypes were detected primarily in gulls. Viruses of subtype H6 were more promiscuous in host range than other subtypes. Temporal and spatial variation in influenza virus prevalence in wild birds was observed, with influenza A virus prevalence varying by sampling location; this is probably related to migration patterns from northeast to southwest and a higher prevalence farther north along the flyways. We discuss the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza A virus in wild birds in relation to host ecology and compare our results with published studies. These data are useful for designing new surveillance programs and are particularly relevant due to increased interest in avian influenza in

  18. Conserving migratory land birds in the New World: Do we know enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faaborg, J.; Holmes, Richard T.; Anders, A.D.; Bildstein, K.L.; Dugger, K.M.; Gauthreaux, S.A.; Heglund, P.; Hobson, K.A.; Jahn, A.E.; Johnson, D.H.; Latta, S.C.; Levey, D.J.; Marra, P.P.; Merkord, C.L.; Nol, E.; Rothstein, S.I.; Sherry, T.W.; Scott, Sillett T.; Thompson, F. R.; Warnock, N.

    2010-01-01

    Migratory bird needs must be met during four phases of the year: breeding season, fall migration, wintering, and spring migration; thus, management may be needed during all four phases. The bulk of research and management has focused on the breeding season, although several issues remain unsettled, including the spatial extent of habitat influences on fitness and the importance of habitat on the breeding grounds used after breeding. Although detailed investigations have shed light on the ecology and population dynamics of a few avian species, knowledge is sketchy for most species. Replication of comprehensive studies is needed for multiple species across a range of areas. Information deficiencies are even greater during the wintering season, when birds require sites that provide security and food resources needed for survival and developing nutrient reserves for spring migration and, possibly, reproduction. Research is needed on many species simply to identify geographic distributions, wintering sites, habitat use, and basic ecology. Studies are complicated, however, by the mobility of birds and by sexual segregation during winter. Stable-isotope methodology has offered an opportunity to identify linkages between breeding and wintering sites, which facilitates understanding the complete annual cycle of birds. The twice-annual migrations are the poorest-understood events in a bird's life. Migration has always been a risky undertaking, with such anthropogenic features as tall buildings, towers, and wind generators adding to the risk, Species such as woodland specialists migrating through eastern North America have numerous options for pausing during migration to replenish nutrients, but some species depend on limited stopover locations. Research needs for migration include identifying pathways and timetables of migration, quality and distribution of habitats, threats posed by towers and other tall structures, and any bottlenecks for migration. Issues such as human

  19. Experimental and observational studies of seasonal interactions between overlapping life history stages in a migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonra, Christopher M; Marra, Peter P; Holberton, Rebecca L

    2013-11-01

    Prior to reproduction, migratory animals are at the juxtaposition of three life history stages in which they must finish the non-breeding stage, initiate and complete migration, and prepare for the onset of breeding. However, how these stages interact with one another is not fully understood. We provide evidence that, for migratory birds that begin breeding development prior to departure from non-breeding sites, the level of breeding preparation can drive migration phenology, a critical behavioral determinant of reproductive success. Specifically, male American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) plasma androgen levels, which increase in males during the period leading into migration, were positively correlated with energetic condition. We empirically tested the hypothesis that elevated androgen simultaneously supports migratory and breeding preparation in a hormone manipulation field experiment. Males with testosterone implants showed advanced preparation for migration and breeding, and ultimately departed on migration earlier than controls. It is assumed that early departure leads to early arrival at breeding areas, which increases breeding success. Collectively, our observational and experimental results demonstrate how overlapping life history stages can interact to influence important components of an individual's fitness. This highlights the critical need for understanding population processes across the full life cycle of an organism to better understand the ecological and evolutionary origins of complex life history events.

  20. Migratory bird hunter opinions regarding potential management strategies for controlling light goose populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Andrew J.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Nilon, Charles H.; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A.

    2014-01-01

    We expanded the Nebraska Light Goose Conservation Order (LGCO) harvest survey (NE, USA) in spring 2012 to assess migratory bird hunter opinions regarding future management strategies for controlling light goose populations. Although hunters strongly agreed that population control of light geese was an important wildlife management issue, they were generally unsupportive of wildlife officials using forms of direct control methods to control light goose populations. Respondents who indicated participation in the 2012 LGCO were also less supportive of any form of direct control compared with migratory bird hunters who did not participate in the LGCO. When presented with alternative methods by wildlife officials for future light goose population control, respondents were most supportive of wildlife agencies selectively shooting light geese on migration and wintering areas and least supportive of wildlife officials using bait with approved chemicals to euthanize light geese. A clear understanding of public perception of various potential direct-control options will likely assist wildlife biologists in making informed decisions on how to proceed with population control of light geese.

  1. Population dynamics of neotropical migratory birds using agriculture-forest mosaics in Campeche, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Berlanga, M.; Dawson, D.; Wood, P.; Sauer, J.; Robbins, C.S.; Wilson, Marcia H.; Sader, Steven A.

    1995-01-01

    In many areas of the tropics, forests are being converted to agriculture and other uses at a rapid rate. Previous research has documented that forest-breeding migratory birds are distributed across a wide variety of habitat types during midwinter. However, to evaluate the relative importance of different habitat types to wintering birds, we need to examine habitat-specific estimates of survival. During the winter of 1992-1993, mist nets, observations of individually marked birds and point counts were used to sample bird populations in a pasture-forest mosaic in southern Mexico. Sampling was conducted four times throughout the winter on a total of six grids. Twenty nets were run for two days in each grid. A total of 129 species were captured and 3,585 individuals banded. Neotropical migrants made up 31% of the species captured and 47% of the individuals banded. The banding data were used to estimate species richness for permanent and winter residents in different habitats and at different time periods. Capture-recapture models were used to estimate overwintering survival for selected species.

  2. Influenza in migratory birds and evidence of limited intercontinental virus exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Krauss

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Migratory waterfowl of the world are the natural reservoirs of influenza viruses of all known subtypes. However, it is unknown whether these waterfowl perpetuate highly pathogenic (HP H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses. Here we report influenza virus surveillance from 2001 to 2006 in wild ducks in Alberta, Canada, and in shorebirds and gulls at Delaware Bay (New Jersey, United States, and examine the frequency of exchange of influenza viruses between the Eurasian and American virus clades, or superfamilies. Influenza viruses belonging to each of the subtypes H1 through H13 and N1 through N9 were detected in these waterfowl, but H14 and H15 were not found. Viruses of the HP Asian H5N1 subtypes were not detected, and serologic studies in adult mallard ducks provided no evidence of their circulation. The recently described H16 subtype of influenza viruses was detected in American shorebirds and gulls but not in ducks. We also found an unusual cluster of H7N3 influenza viruses in shorebirds and gulls that was able to replicate well in chickens and kill chicken embryos. Genetic analysis of 6,767 avian influenza gene segments and 248 complete avian influenza viruses supported the notion that the exchange of entire influenza viruses between the Eurasian and American clades does not occur frequently. Overall, the available evidence does not support the perpetuation of HP H5N1 influenza in migratory birds and suggests that the introduction of HP Asian H5N1 to the Americas by migratory birds is likely to be a rare event.

  3. Mortality of Migratory Birds from Marine Commercial Fisheries and Offshore Oil and Gas Production in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne I. Ellis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an imminent need for conservation and best-practice management efforts in marine ecosystems where global-scale declines in the biodiversity and biomass of large vertebrate predators are increasing and marine communities are being altered. We examine two marine-based industries that incidentally take migratory birds in Canada: (1 commercial fisheries, through bycatch, and (2 offshore oil and gas exploration, development, and production. We summarize information from the scientific literature and technical reports and also present new information from recently analyzed data to assess the magnitude and scope of mortality. Fisheries bycatch was responsible for the highest levels of incidental take of migratory bird species; estimated combined take in the longline, gillnet, and bottom otter trawl fisheries within the Atlantic, including the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Pacific regions was 2679 to 45,586 birds per year. For the offshore oil and gas sector, mortality estimates ranged from 188 to 4494 deaths per year due to the discharge of produced waters resulting in oil sheens and collisions with platforms and vessels; however these estimates for the oil and gas sector are based on many untested assumptions. In spite of the uncertainties, we feel levels of mortality from these two industries are unlikely to affect the marine bird community in Canada, but some effects on local populations from bycatch are likely. Further research and monitoring will be required to: (1 better estimate fisheries-related mortality for vulnerable species and populations that may be impacted by local fisheries, (2 determine the effects of oil sheens from produced waters, and attraction to platforms and associated mortality from collisions, sheens, and flaring, so that better estimates of mortality from the offshore oil and gas sector can be obtained, and (3 determine impacts associated with accidental spills, which are not included in our current assessment. With a

  4. Soaring migratory birds avoid wind farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Villegas-Patraca

    Full Text Available The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni. We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region.

  5. Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A.; Herrera-Alsina, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni). We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region. PMID:24647442

  6. Soaring migratory birds avoid wind farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A; Herrera-Alsina, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni). We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region.

  7. Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Svenja; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Lefeldt, Nele; Hein, Christine Maira; Zapka, Manuela; Michalik, Andreas; Elbers, Dana; Kittel, Achim; Hore, P J; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2014-05-15

    Electromagnetic noise is emitted everywhere humans use electronic devices. For decades, it has been hotly debated whether man-made electric and magnetic fields affect biological processes, including human health. So far, no putative effect of anthropogenic electromagnetic noise at intensities below the guidelines adopted by the World Health Organization has withstood the test of independent replication under truly blinded experimental conditions. No effect has therefore been widely accepted as scientifically proven. Here we show that migratory birds are unable to use their magnetic compass in the presence of urban electromagnetic noise. When European robins, Erithacus rubecula, were exposed to the background electromagnetic noise present in unscreened wooden huts at the University of Oldenburg campus, they could not orient using their magnetic compass. Their magnetic orientation capabilities reappeared in electrically grounded, aluminium-screened huts, which attenuated electromagnetic noise in the frequency range from 50 kHz to 5 MHz by approximately two orders of magnitude. When the grounding was removed or when broadband electromagnetic noise was deliberately generated inside the screened and grounded huts, the birds again lost their magnetic orientation capabilities. The disruptive effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields is not confined to a narrow frequency band and birds tested far from sources of electromagnetic noise required no screening to orient with their magnetic compass. These fully double-blinded tests document a reproducible effect of anthropogenic electromagnetic noise on the behaviour of an intact vertebrate.

  8. Development of Stable Isotope Analysis Technology for Epidemiological Study of Migratory Birds in Connection with Avian Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongyun; Park, Jongho; Han, Sunho; Song, Kyuseok; Ko, Yongkwon; Bae, Inae; Cho, Mihyun; Jung, Gahee; Yeom, Ina

    2012-03-15

    In order to clarify correlations between the spread of avian influenza and migratory routes of birds, various conventional methods including a ring method, gene analysis, geolocator and a satellite tracking method are being used together. We first report on the estimation of origin of migratory bird in the Korea based on the statistical method of stable isotope ratio analysis of feathers. It is expected that migratory birds in Junam reservoir were from the two different regions according to the stable isotope ration analysis. However, it is not easy to conclude the breeding ground of northern pintails based on the current data because the degree of precision or accuracy can be influenced by many factors. For this reason, this statistical analysis accuracy can be influenced by many factors. For this reason, this statistical analysis can have a scientific significance if the reliability of the whole measurement system is improved. Furthermore, databases are not enough to prepare base map of regional isotope ratios because database of stable isotope ratio in oxygen and hydrogen of rainwater in Korea should be constructed. Though the research has focused on the hydrogen and oxygen until now, investigation of other elements, such as carbon, sulfur, nitrogen and others that can describe metabolic process or regional characteristics, is also worthwhile subject. And it is believed that this research will improve a resolution of detection for the migratory pathway and habitat of birds.

  9. Understanding the Migratory Orientation Program of Birds: Extending Laboratory Studies to Study Free-Flying Migrants in a Natural Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Holland, R.A.; Tøttrup, Anders Peter Them;

    2010-01-01

    orient during migration. Despite the difficulties associated with following free-flying birds over long distances, a number of possibilities currently exist for tracking the long distance, sometimes even globe-spanning, journeys undertaken by migrating birds. Birds fitted with radio transmitters can...... behaviors that are otherwise very difficult to study. Here, we focus on the progress in understanding certain components of the migration-orientation system. Comparably exciting results can be expected in the future from tracking free-flying migrants in the wild. Use of orientation cues has been studied......For many years, orientation in migratory birds has primarily been studied in the laboratory. Although a laboratory-based setting enables greater control over environmental cues, the laboratory-based findings must be confirmed in the wild in free-flying birds to be able to fully understand how birds...

  10. A new approach to evaluate multimodal orientation behaviour of migratory passerine birds recorded in circular orientation cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarowska, Agnieszka; Ilieva, Mihaela; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Akesson, Susanne; Muś, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Circular orientation cages have been used for several decades to record the migratory orientation of passerine migrants, and have been central to the investigation of the functional characteristics of the biological compasses used for orientation. The use of these cages offers unique possibilities to study the migratory behaviour of songbirds, but suffers from statistical limitations in evaluating the directions of the activity recorded in the cages. The migratory activity has been reported to vary, including complex multimodal orientation of migratory passerines tested in orientation cages irrespective of species studied. The currently applied circular statistical methods fail to describe orientation responses differing from unimodal and axial distributions. We propose for the first time a modelling procedure enabling the analysis of multimodal distributions at either an individual or a group level. In this paper we compare the results of conventional methods and the recommended modelling approach. Migratory routes may be more complex than a simple migratory direction, and multimodal behaviour in migratory species at the individual and population levels can be advantageous. Individuals may select the expected migratory direction, but may also return to safer sites en route, i.e. sites already known, which provide food and/or shelter in reverse directions. In individual birds, several directions may be expressed in the same test hour. At the species level, multimodal orientation may give an opportunity to expand the range or may refer to differential migration route preferences in different populations of birds. A conflicting experimental situation may also result in a different preferential orientation. In this paper we suggest a statistical solution to deal with these types of variations in orientation preference.

  11. Flight at low ambient humidity increases protein catabolism in migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Alexander R; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2011-09-09

    Although fat is the primary fuel for migratory flight in birds, protein is also used. Catabolism of tissue protein yields five times as much water per kilojoule as fat, and so one proposed function of protein catabolism is to maintain water balance during nonstop flights. To test the protein-for-water hypothesis, we flew Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) in a climatic wind tunnel under high- and low-humidity conditions at 18°C for up to 5 hours. Flight under dry conditions increased the rates of lean mass loss and endogenous water production and also increased plasma uric acid concentration. These data demonstrate that atmospheric humidity influences fuel composition in flight and suggest that protein deposition and catabolism during migration are, in part, a metabolic strategy to maintain osmotic homeostasis during flight.

  12. Landscape movements of migratory birds and bats reveal an expanded scale of stopover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D Taylor

    Full Text Available Many species of birds and bats undertake seasonal migrations between breeding and over-wintering sites. En-route, migrants alternate periods of flight with time spent at stopover--the time and space where individuals rest and refuel for subsequent flights. We assessed the spatial scale of movements made by migrants during stopover by using an array of automated telemetry receivers with multiple antennae to track the daily location of individuals over a geographic area ~20 × 40 km. We tracked the movements of 322 individuals of seven migratory vertebrate species (5 passerines, 1 owl and 1 bat during spring and fall migratory stopover on and adjacent to a large lake peninsula. Our results show that many individuals leaving their capture site relocate within the same landscape at some point during stopover, moving as much as 30 km distant from their site of initial capture. We show that many apparent nocturnal departures from stopover sites are not a resumption of migration in the strictest sense, but are instead relocations that represent continued stopover at a broader spatial scale.

  13. Diffuse migratory connectivity in two species of shrubland birds: evidence from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Leu, Matthias; Rotenberry, John T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Fesenmyer, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    Connecting seasonal ranges of migratory birds is important for understanding the annual template of stressors that influence their populations. Brewer’s sparrows (Spizella breweri) and sagebrush sparrows (Artemisiospiza nevadensis) share similar sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats for breeding but have different population trends that might be related to winter location. To link breeding and winter ranges, we created isoscapes of deuterium [stable isotope ratio (δ) of deuterium; δ2H] and nitrogen (δ15N) for each species modeled from isotope ratios measured in feathers of 264 Brewer’s and 82 sagebrush sparrows and environmental characteristics at capture locations across their breeding range. We then used feather δ2Hf and δ15Nf measured in 1,029 Brewer’s and 527 sagebrush sparrows captured on winter locations in southwestern United States to assign probable breeding ranges. Intraspecies population mixing from across the breeding range was strong for both Brewer’s and sagebrush sparrows on winter ranges. Brewer’s sparrows but not sagebrush sparrows were linked to more northerly breeding locations in the eastern part of their winter range. Winter location was not related to breeding population trends estimated from US Geological Survey Breeding Bird Survey routes for either Brewer’s or sagebrush sparrows. Primary drivers of population dynamics are likely independent for each species; Brewer’s and sagebrush sparrows captured at the same winter location did not share predicted breeding locations or population trends. The diffuse migratory connectivity displayed by Brewer’s and sagebrush sparrows measured at the coarse spatial resolution in our analysis also suggests that local environments rather than broad regional characteristics are primary drivers of annual population trends.

  14. Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T. T. -Y.; Ip, H. S.; Ghedin, E.; Wentworth, D. E.; Halpin, R. A.; Stockwell, T. B.; Spiro, D. J.; Dusek, R. J.; Bortner, J. B.; Hoskins, J.; Bales, B. D.; Yparraguirre, D. R.; Holmes, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of migratory birds in the ecology and evolution of avian influenza virus (AIV), there is a lack of information on the patterns of AIV spread at the intra-continental scale. We applied a variety of statistical phylogeographic techniques to a plethora of viral genome sequence data to determine the strength, pattern and determinants of gene flow in AIV sampled from wild birds in North America. These analyses revealed a clear isolation-by-distance of AIV among sampling localities. In addition, we show that phylogeographic models incorporating information on the avian flyway of sampling proved a better fit to the observed sequence data than those specifying homogeneous or random rates of gene flow among localities. In sum, these data strongly suggest that the intra-continental spread of AIV by migratory birds is subject to major ecological barriers, including spatial distance and avian flyway. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Understanding the migratory orientation program of birds: extending laboratory studies to study free-flying migrants in a natural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Kasper; Holland, Richard A; Tøttrup, Anders P; Wikelski, Martin

    2010-09-01

    For many years, orientation in migratory birds has primarily been studied in the laboratory. Although a laboratory-based setting enables greater control over environmental cues, the laboratory-based findings must be confirmed in the wild in free-flying birds to be able to fully understand how birds orient during migration. Despite the difficulties associated with following free-flying birds over long distances, a number of possibilities currently exist for tracking the long distance, sometimes even globe-spanning, journeys undertaken by migrating birds. Birds fitted with radio transmitters can either be located from the ground or from aircraft (conventional tracking), or from space. Alternatively, positional information obtained by onboard equipment (e.g., GPS units) can be transmitted to receivers in space. Use of these tracking methods has provided a wealth of information on migratory behaviors that are otherwise very difficult to study. Here, we focus on the progress in understanding certain components of the migration-orientation system. Comparably exciting results can be expected in the future from tracking free-flying migrants in the wild. Use of orientation cues has been studied in migrating raptors (satellite telemetry) and thrushes (conventional telemetry), highlighting that findings in the natural setting may not always be as expected on the basis of cage-experiments. Furthermore, field tracking methods combined with experimental approaches have finally allowed for an extension of the paradigmatic displacement experiments performed by Perdeck in 1958 on the short-distance, social migrant, the starling, to long-distance migrating storks and long-distance, non-socially migrating passerines. Results from these studies provide fundamental insights into the nature of the migratory orientation system that enables experienced birds to navigate and guide inexperienced, young birds to their species-specific winter grounds.

  16. Ecological Causes and Consequences of Intratropical Migration in Temperate-Breeding Migratory Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutchbury, Bridget J M; Siddiqui, Raafia; Applegate, Kelly; Hvenegaard, Glen T; Mammenga, Paul; Mickle, Nanette; Pearman, Myrna; Ray, James D; Savage, Anne; Shaheen, Tim; Fraser, Kevin C

    2016-09-01

    New discoveries from direct tracking of temperate-breeding passerines show that intratropical migration (ITM) occurs in a growing number of species, which has important implications for understanding their evolution of migration, population dynamics, and conservation needs. Our large sample size ([Formula: see text]) for purple martins (Progne subis subis) tracked with geolocators to winter sites in Brazil, combined with geolocator deployments at breeding colonies across North America, allowed us to test hypotheses for ITM, something which has not yet been possible to do for other species. ITM in purple martins was not obligate; only 44% of individuals exhibited ITM, and movements were not coordinated in time or space. We found no evidence to support the resource hypothesis; rainfall and temperature experienced by individual birds during their last 2 weeks at their first roost site were similar to conditions at their second roost site after ITM. Birds generally migrated away from the heavily forested northwestern Amazon to less forested regions to the south and east. ITM in this aerial insectivore appears to support the competition-avoidance hypothesis and may be triggered by increasing local density in the core wintering region. Full life cycle models and migratory networks will need to incorporate ITM to properly address seasonal carryover effects and identify which wintering regions are most important for conservation.

  17. Optimum fuel loads in migratory birds: distinguishing between time and energy minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenstrom; Alerstam

    1997-12-07

    By combining the potential flight range of fuel with different migration policies, the optimum departure fuel load for migratory birds can be calculated. We evaluate the optimum departure fuel loads associated with minimization of three different currencies: (1) overall time of migration, (2) energy cost of transport and (3) total energy coast of migration. Predicted departure loads are highest for (1), lowest for (2) and intermediate for (3). Further, currencies (1) and (3) show departure loads dependent on the fuel accumulation rate at stopovers, while (2) is not affected by variation in the rate of fuel accumulation. Furthermore, fuel loads optimized with respect to currency (3) will differ depending on the size (body mass) of the bird and the energy density of the fuel. We review ecological situations in which the various currencies may apply, and suggest how a combination of stopover decisions and observations of flight speed may be used to decide among the three cases of migration policies. Finally, we calculate that the total energy cost of migration is roughly divided between flight and stopover as 1:2. The total time of migration is similarly divided between flight and stopover as 1:7, probably with a relatively longer stopover time in larger species. Hence, we may expect strong selection pressures to optimize the fuel accumulation strategies during stopover episodes.Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited

  18. Magnetic field changes activate the trigeminal brainstem complex in a migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyers, Dominik; Zapka, Manuela; Hoffmeister, Mara; Wild, John Martin; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2010-05-18

    The upper beak of birds, which contains putative magnetosensory ferro-magnetic structures, is innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1). However, because of the absence of replicable neurobiological evidence, a general acceptance of the involvement of the trigeminal nerve in magnetoreception is lacking in birds. Using an antibody to ZENK protein to indicate neuronal activation, we here document reliable magnetic activation of neurons in and near the principal (PrV) and spinal tract (SpV) nuclei of the trigeminal brainstem complex, which represent the two brain regions known to receive primary input from the trigeminal nerve. Significantly more neurons were activated in PrV and in medial SpV when European robins (Erithacus rubecula) experienced a magnetic field changing every 30 seconds for a period of 3 h (CMF) than when robins experienced a compensated, zero magnetic field condition (ZMF). No such differences in numbers of activated neurons were found in comparison structures. Under CMF conditions, sectioning of V1 significantly reduced the number of activated neurons in and near PrV and medial SpV, but not in lateral SpV or in the optic tectum. Tract tracing of V1 showed spatial proximity and regional overlap of V1 nerve endings and ZENK-positive (activated) neurons in SpV, and partly in PrV, under CMF conditions. Together, these results suggest that magnetic field changes activate neurons in and near the trigeminal brainstem complex and that V1 is necessary for this activation. We therefore suggest that V1 transmits magnetic information to the brain in this migratory passerine bird.

  19. Localisation of the Putative Magnetoreceptive Protein Cryptochrome 1b in the Retinae of Migratory Birds and Homing Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Petra; Bleibaum, Florian; Einwich, Angelika; Günther, Anja; Liedvogel, Miriam; Heyers, Dominik; Depping, Anne; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are ubiquitously expressed in various animal tissues including the retina. Some cryptochromes are involved in regulating circadian activity. Cryptochrome proteins have also been suggested to mediate the primary mechanism in light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. Cryptochrome 1b (Cry1b) exhibits a unique carboxy terminus exclusively found in birds so far, which might be indicative for a specialised function. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a) is so far the only cryptochrome protein that has been localised to specific cell types within the retina of migratory birds. Here we show that Cry1b, an alternative splice variant of Cry1a, is also expressed in the retina of migratory birds, but it is primarily located in other cell types than Cry1a. This could suggest different functions for the two splice products. Using diagnostic bird-specific antibodies (that allow for a precise discrimination between both proteins), we show that Cry1b protein is found in the retinae of migratory European robins (Erithacus rubecula), migratory Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and pigeons (Columba livia). In all three species, retinal Cry1b is localised in cell types which have been discussed as potentially well suited locations for magnetoreception: Cry1b is observed in the cytosol of ganglion cells, displaced ganglion cells, and in photoreceptor inner segments. The cytosolic rather than nucleic location of Cry1b in the retina reported here speaks against a circadian clock regulatory function of Cry1b and it allows for the possible involvement of Cry1b in a radical-pair-based magnetoreception mechanism.

  20. Localisation of the Putative Magnetoreceptive Protein Cryptochrome 1b in the Retinae of Migratory Birds and Homing Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Petra; Bleibaum, Florian; Einwich, Angelika; Günther, Anja; Liedvogel, Miriam; Heyers, Dominik; Depping, Anne; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Janssen‐Bienhold, Ulrike; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are ubiquitously expressed in various animal tissues including the retina. Some cryptochromes are involved in regulating circadian activity. Cryptochrome proteins have also been suggested to mediate the primary mechanism in light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. Cryptochrome 1b (Cry1b) exhibits a unique carboxy terminus exclusively found in birds so far, which might be indicative for a specialised function. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a) is so far the only cryptochrome protein that has been localised to specific cell types within the retina of migratory birds. Here we show that Cry1b, an alternative splice variant of Cry1a, is also expressed in the retina of migratory birds, but it is primarily located in other cell types than Cry1a. This could suggest different functions for the two splice products. Using diagnostic bird-specific antibodies (that allow for a precise discrimination between both proteins), we show that Cry1b protein is found in the retinae of migratory European robins (Erithacus rubecula), migratory Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and pigeons (Columba livia). In all three species, retinal Cry1b is localised in cell types which have been discussed as potentially well suited locations for magnetoreception: Cry1b is observed in the cytosol of ganglion cells, displaced ganglion cells, and in photoreceptor inner segments. The cytosolic rather than nucleic location of Cry1b in the retina reported here speaks against a circadian clock regulatory function of Cry1b and it allows for the possible involvement of Cry1b in a radical-pair-based magnetoreception mechanism. PMID:26953791

  1. Localisation of the Putative Magnetoreceptive Protein Cryptochrome 1b in the Retinae of Migratory Birds and Homing Pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Bolte

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes are ubiquitously expressed in various animal tissues including the retina. Some cryptochromes are involved in regulating circadian activity. Cryptochrome proteins have also been suggested to mediate the primary mechanism in light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. Cryptochrome 1b (Cry1b exhibits a unique carboxy terminus exclusively found in birds so far, which might be indicative for a specialised function. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a is so far the only cryptochrome protein that has been localised to specific cell types within the retina of migratory birds. Here we show that Cry1b, an alternative splice variant of Cry1a, is also expressed in the retina of migratory birds, but it is primarily located in other cell types than Cry1a. This could suggest different functions for the two splice products. Using diagnostic bird-specific antibodies (that allow for a precise discrimination between both proteins, we show that Cry1b protein is found in the retinae of migratory European robins (Erithacus rubecula, migratory Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe and pigeons (Columba livia. In all three species, retinal Cry1b is localised in cell types which have been discussed as potentially well suited locations for magnetoreception: Cry1b is observed in the cytosol of ganglion cells, displaced ganglion cells, and in photoreceptor inner segments. The cytosolic rather than nucleic location of Cry1b in the retina reported here speaks against a circadian clock regulatory function of Cry1b and it allows for the possible involvement of Cry1b in a radical-pair-based magnetoreception mechanism.

  2. Geographic variation in onset of singing among populations of two migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Oscar; Sanz, Juan José; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2008-07-01

    Even though singing plays a major role in bird communication, environmental variables affecting the geographic patterns observed in the variation of singing onset within large areas have not previously been studied. The singing phenology of two long-distance migrants, the Cuckoo Cuculus canorus and the Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos, recorded in thousands of sites throughout Spain, was related to a set of 51 explanatory variables by partial least squares regression. Observed variability in singing onset among localities follows spatial trends on an Iberian scale at 10 × 10 km resolution, and was well modelled by some environmental variables. Of these variables, climate was the most influential. Males of both species sang earlier in warmer and drier sites. Males who were near the Straits of Gibraltar and in the southern Iberian basins, which are geographic gradients closely related with climate in the Iberian Peninsula, were also heard earlier. Most environmental variables affected the singing activity of both species equally, i.e., the same environmental gradients are linked to singing onset. However, the models' predictions indicated differences in the geographical pattern in singing onset between both species, mainly related to their rates of progression during spring migration through Spain. Local variables, such as land uses, vegetation productivity or species abundance, played a minor role on singing onset spatial patterns. Therefore, models' composition supports the hypothesis that singing onset is a good proxy of arrival dates in migratory species, since those variables related to indirect effects on singing onset phenology through migratory progression and arrival to the breeding grounds showed the highest influence.

  3. Migratory bird use of the coastal lagoon system of the Beaufort Sea coastline within the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migratory bird use of the coastal lagoon system of the Beaufort Sea coastline within the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Aerial...

  4. Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge Quarterly report on reservation wild life and activities appurtenant thereto. Second quarter, fiscal year 1935. [1934

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes wildlife, protection, improvements, and developments on Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge during fiscal year 1934.

  5. The Identification of Military Installations as Important Migratory Bird Stopover Sites and the Development of Bird Migration Forecast Models: A Radar Ornithology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    30. Moore, F. R. 1994. Resumption of feeding under risk of predation: effect of migratory condition. Animal Behaviour 48:975-977. Moore, F. R. 1999...can be used to map geographical areas of high bird activity (e.g., stopover, roosting and feeding , and colonial breeding areas). It also provides... Raptors Unknown Abert’s Towhee American Avocet Broad-winged Hawk Unknown Accipiter Anna’s Hummingbird American Bittern Mississippi Kite Unknown

  6. Binational climate change vulnerability assessment of migratory birds in the Great Lakes Basins: Tools and impediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Robert S; Hornseth, Megan L

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a global concern, requiring international strategies to reduce emissions, however, climate change vulnerability assessments are often local in scope with assessment areas restricted to jurisdictional boundaries. In our study we explored tools and impediments to understanding and responding to the effects of climate change on vulnerability of migratory birds from a binational perspective. We apply and assess the utility of a Climate Change Vulnerability Index on 3 focal species using distribution or niche modeling frameworks. We use the distributional forecasts to explore possible changes to jurisdictional conservation responsibilities resulting from shifting distributions for: eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina). We found the Climate Change Vulnerability Index to be a well-organized approach to integrating numerous lines of evidence concerning effects of climate change, and provided transparency to the final assessment of vulnerability. Under this framework, we identified that eastern meadowlark and wood thrush are highly vulnerable to climate change, but hooded warbler is less vulnerable. Our study revealed impediments to assessing and modeling vulnerability to climate change from a binational perspective, including gaps in data or modeling for climate exposure parameters. We recommend increased cross-border collaboration to enhance the availability and resources needed to improve vulnerability assessments and development of conservation strategies. We did not find evidence to suggest major shifts in jurisdictional responsibility for the 3 focal species, but results do indicate increasing responsibility for these birds in the Canadian Provinces. These Provinces should consider conservation planning to help ensure a future supply of necessary habitat for these species.

  7. Binational climate change vulnerability assessment of migratory birds in the Great Lakes Basins: Tools and impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a global concern, requiring international strategies to reduce emissions, however, climate change vulnerability assessments are often local in scope with assessment areas restricted to jurisdictional boundaries. In our study we explored tools and impediments to understanding and responding to the effects of climate change on vulnerability of migratory birds from a binational perspective. We apply and assess the utility of a Climate Change Vulnerability Index on 3 focal species using distribution or niche modeling frameworks. We use the distributional forecasts to explore possible changes to jurisdictional conservation responsibilities resulting from shifting distributions for: eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina). We found the Climate Change Vulnerability Index to be a well-organized approach to integrating numerous lines of evidence concerning effects of climate change, and provided transparency to the final assessment of vulnerability. Under this framework, we identified that eastern meadowlark and wood thrush are highly vulnerable to climate change, but hooded warbler is less vulnerable. Our study revealed impediments to assessing and modeling vulnerability to climate change from a binational perspective, including gaps in data or modeling for climate exposure parameters. We recommend increased cross-border collaboration to enhance the availability and resources needed to improve vulnerability assessments and development of conservation strategies. We did not find evidence to suggest major shifts in jurisdictional responsibility for the 3 focal species, but results do indicate increasing responsibility for these birds in the Canadian Provinces. These Provinces should consider conservation planning to help ensure a future supply of necessary habitat for these species. PMID:28225817

  8. Phenology of two interdependent traits in migratory birds in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadiah Pardede; Johansson, Jacob; Ripa, Jörgen; Jonzén, Niclas

    2015-05-22

    In migratory birds, arrival date and hatching date are two key phenological markers that have responded to global warming. A body of knowledge exists relating these traits to evolutionary pressures. In this study, we formalize this knowledge into general mathematical assumptions, and use them in an ecoevolutionary model. In contrast to previous models, this study novelty accounts for both traits-arrival date and hatching date-and the interdependence between them, revealing when one, the other or both will respond to climate. For all models sharing the assumptions, the following phenological responses will occur. First, if the nestling-prey peak is late enough, hatching is synchronous with, and arrival date evolves independently of, prey phenology. Second, when resource availability constrains the length of the pre-laying period, hatching is adaptively asynchronous with prey phenology. Predictions for both traits compare well with empirical observations. In response to advancing prey phenology, arrival date may advance, remain unchanged, or even become delayed; the latter occurring when egg-laying resources are only available relatively late in the season. The model shows that asynchronous hatching and unresponsive arrival date are not sufficient evidence that phenological adaptation is constrained. The work provides a framework for exploring microevolution of interdependent phenological traits.

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Brain Plasticity, Migratory Lifestyle, and Social Structure in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Shay; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Barnea, Anat

    2017-01-01

    Studies in Passerines have found that migrating species recruit more new neurons into brain regions that process spatial information, compared with resident species. This was explained by the greater exposure of migrants to spatial information, indicating that this phenomenon enables enhanced navigational abilities. The aim of the current study was to test this hypothesis in another order—the Columbiformes – using two closely-related dove species—the migrant turtle-dove (Streptopelia turtur) and the resident laughing dove (S. senegalensis), during spring, summer, and autumn. Wild birds were caught, treated with BrdU, and sacrificed 5 weeks later. New neurons were recorded in the hyperpallium apicale, hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale regions. We found that in doves, unlike passerines, neuronal recruitment was lower in brains of the migratory species compared with the resident one. This might be due to the high sociality of doves, which forage and migrate in flocks, and therefore can rely on communal spatial knowledge that might enable a reduction in individual navigation efforts. This, in turn, might enable reduced levels of neuronal recruitment. Additionally, we found that unlike in passerines, seasonality does not affect neuronal recruitment in doves. This might be due to their non-territorial and explorative behavior, which exposes them to substantial spatial information all year round. Finally, we discuss the differences in neuronal recruitment between Columbiformes and Passeriformes and their possible evolutionary explanations. Our study emphasizes the need to further investigate this phenomenon in other avian orders and in additional species. PMID:28396621

  10. Overwinter survival of neotropical migratory birds in early successional and mature tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Powell, G.V.N.; Nichols, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Many Neotropical migratory species inhabit both mature and early successional forest on their wintering grounds, yet comparisons of survival rates between habitats are lacking. Consequently, the factors affecting habitat suitability for Neotropical migrants and the potential effects of tropical deforestation on migrants are not well understood. We estimated over-winter survival and capture probabilities of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), and Kentucky Warbler (Oporomis formosus) inhabiting two common tropical habitat types, mature and early-successional forest. Our results suggest that large differences (for example, ratio of survival rates (gamma) birds. Capture probability differed between habitats for Kentucky Warblers, but our results provide strong evidence against large differences in capture probability between habitats for Wood Thrush, Hooded Warblers, and Ovenbirds. We found no temporal or among site differences in survival or capture probability for any of the four species. Additional research is needed to examine the effects of winter habitat use on survival during migration and between-winter survival.

  11. The demographic drivers of local population dynamics in two rare migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael; Reichlin, Thomas S; Abadi, Fitsum; Kéry, Marc; Jenni, Lukas; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    The exchange of individuals among populations can have strong effects on the dynamics and persistence of a given population. Yet, estimation of immigration rates remains one of the greatest challenges for animal demographers. Little empirical knowledge exists about the effects of immigration on population dynamics. New integrated population models fitted using Bayesian methods enable simultaneous estimation of fecundity, survival and immigration, as well as the growth rate of a population of interest. We applied this novel analytical framework to the demography of two populations of long-distance migratory birds, hoopoe Upupa epops and wryneck Jynx torquilla, in a study area in south-western Switzerland. During 2002-2010, the hoopoe population increased annually by 11%, while the wryneck population remained fairly stable. Apparent juvenile and adult survival probability was nearly identical in both species, but fecundity and immigration were slightly higher in the hoopoe. Hoopoe population growth rate was strongly correlated with juvenile survival, fecundity and immigration, while that of wrynecks strongly correlated only with immigration. This indicates that demographic components impacting the arrival of new individuals into the populations were more important for their dynamics than demographic components affecting the loss of individuals. The finding that immigration plays a crucial role in the population growth rates of these two rare species emphasizes the need for a broad rather than local perspective for population studies, and the development of wide-scale conservation actions.

  12. Genetic and antigenic characterization of H5 and H7 influenza viruses isolated from migratory water birds in Hokkaido, Japan and Mongolia from 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiono, Takahiro; Ohkawara, Ayako; Ogasawara, Kohei; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Tamura, Tomokazu; Chu, Duc-Huy; Suzuki, Mizuho; Kuribayashi, Saya; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Takada, Ayato; Ogawa, Hirohito; Yoshida, Reiko; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Nao, Naganori; Furuyama, Wakako; Maruyama, Junki; Eguchi, Nao; Ulziibat, Gerelmaa; Enkhbold, Bazarragchaa; Shatar, Munkhduuren; Jargalsaikhan, Tserenjav; Byambadorj, Selenge; Damdinjav, Batchuluun; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Migratory water birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses. H5 and H7 influenza viruses are isolated over the world and also circulate among poultry in Asia. In 2010, two H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were isolated from fecal samples of water birds on the flyway of migration from Siberia, Russia to the south in Hokkaido, Japan. H7N9 viruses are sporadically isolated from humans and circulate in poultry in China. To monitor whether these viruses have spread in the wild bird population, we conducted virological surveillance of avian influenza in migratory water birds in autumn from 2010 to 2014. A total of 8103 fecal samples from migratory water birds were collected in Japan and Mongolia, and 350 influenza viruses including 13 H5 and 19 H7 influenza viruses were isolated. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates are genetically closely related to viruses circulating among wild water birds. The results of the antigenic analysis indicated that the antigenicity of viruses in wild water birds is highly stable despite their nucleotide sequence diversity but is distinct from that of HPAIVs recently isolated in Asia. The present results suggest that HPAIVs and Chinese H7N9 viruses were not predominantly circulating in migratory water birds; however, continued monitoring of H5 and H7 influenza viruses both in domestic and wild birds is recommended for the control of avian influenza.

  13. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Struck Migratory Birds in China in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Zhenjie; Liu, Wenjun; Yin, Yanbo; Hong, Jianmin; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Haiming; Wong, Gary; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yunfeng; Ru, Wendong; Gao, Ruyi; Liu, Di; Liu, Yingxia; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George F; Shi, Weifeng; Lei, Fumin

    2015-08-11

    Approximately 100 migratory birds, including whooper swans and pochards, were found dead in the Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China during January 2015. The causative agent behind this outbreak was identified as H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that this Sanmenxia H5N1 virus was a novel reassortant, possessing a Clade 2.3.2.1c HA gene and a H9N2-derived PB2 gene. Sanmenxia Clade 2.3.2.1c-like H5N1 viruses possess the closest genetic identity to A/Alberta/01/2014 (H5N1), which recently caused a fatal respiratory infection in Canada with signs of meningoencephalitis, a highly unusual symptom with influenza infections in humans. Furthermore, this virus was shown to be highly pathogenic to both birds and mammals, and demonstrate tropism for the nervous system. Due to the geographical location of Sanmenxia, these novel H5N1 viruses also have the potential to be imported to other regions through the migration of wild birds, similar to the H5N1 outbreak amongst migratory birds in Qinghai Lake during 2005. Therefore, further investigation and monitoring is required to prevent this novel reassortant virus from becoming a new threat to public health.

  14. The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways

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    Andrew R. Dalby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks.

  15. How displaced migratory birds could use volatile atmospheric compounds to find their migratory corridor? A test using a particle dispersion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Safi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction represents an important sensory modality for navigation of both homing pigeons and wild birds. Experimental evidence in homing pigeons showed that airborne volatile compounds carried by the winds at the home area are learned in association with wind directions. When displaced, pigeons obtain information on the direction of their displacement using local odours at the release site. Recently, the role of olfactory cues in navigation has been reported also for wild birds during migration. However, the question whether wild birds develop an olfactory navigational map similar to that described in homing pigeons or, alternatively, exploit the distribution of volatile compounds in different manners for reaching the goal is still an open question. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we evaluate the possibilities of reconstructing spatio-temporally explicit aerosol dispersion at large spatial scales using the particle dispersion model FLEXPART. By combining atmospheric information with particle dispersion models, atmospheric scientists predict the dispersion of pollutants for example, after nuclear fallouts or volcanic eruptions or wildfires, or in retrospect reconstruct the origin of emissions such as aerosols. Using simple assumptions, we reconstructed the putative origin of aerosols traveling to the location of migrating birds. We use the model to test whether the putative odour plume could have originated from an important stopover site. If the migrating birds knew this site and the associated plume from previous journeys, the odour could contribut to the reorientation towards the migratory corridor, as suggested for the model scenario in displaced Lesser black-backed gulls migrating from Northern Europe into Africa.

  16. The potential role of migratory birds in transmission cycles of Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Anke; Franke, Jan; Meier, Frank; Sachse, Svea; Dorn, Wolfram; Straube, Eberhard

    2010-06-01

    Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. are potentially emerging tick-borne pathogens, whereas many issues about their ecology, e.g. reservoir host specificity, are still unclear. In spring 2007, we collected 191 feeding Ixodes ricinus ticks from 99 birds of 11 different species on a German bird conservation island in the Baltic Sea. Babesia spp. were detected in 4.7% (9/191), A. phagocytophilum was present in 2.6% (5/191), and Rickettsia spp. were identified in 7.3% (14/191) of the investigated ticks. Further characterization of Babesia spp. infections resulted in B. divergens and B. microti. Among the Rickettsia spp. infections, we identified at least 2 different species: R. monacensis and R. helvetica. Furthermore, 2 ticks harboured mixed infections. Our study provides first interesting insights into the role of migratory birds in the distribution of several emerging tick-borne pathogens.

  17. Applying the scientific method when assessing the influence of migratory birds on the dispersal of H5N1

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    Flint Paul L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of wild birds in the dispersal of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 continues to be the subject of considerable debate. However, some researchers functionally examining the same question are applying opposing null hypotheses when examining this issue. Discussion I describe the correct method for establishing a null hypothesis under the scientific method. I suggest that the correct null hypothesis is that migratory birds can disperse this virus during migration and encourage researchers to design studies to falsify this null. Finally, I provide several examples where statements made during this debate, while strictly true, are not generally informative or are speculative. Summary By adhering to the scientific method, definitive answers regarding the role of wild birds in the dispersal of highly pathogenic viruses will be reached more effectively.

  18. Genetic diversity of highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses at a single overwintering site of migratory birds in Japan, 2014/15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, M; Matsuu, A; Tokorozaki, K; Horie, M; Masatani, T; Nakagawa, H; Okuya, K; Kawabata, T; Toda, S

    2015-05-21

    We isolated eight highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses (H5N8 HPAIVs) in the 2014/15 winter season at an overwintering site of migratory birds in Japan. Genetic analyses revealed that these isolates were divided into three groups, indicating the co-circulation of three genetic groups of H5N8 HPAIV among these migratory birds. These results also imply the possibility of global redistribution of the H5N8 HPAIVs via the migration of these birds next winter.

  19. Maladaptive habitat selection of a migratory passerine bird in a human-modified landscape.

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    Franck A Hollander

    Full Text Available In human-altered environments, organisms may preferentially settle in poor-quality habitats where fitness returns are lower relative to available higher-quality habitats. Such ecological trapping is due to a mismatch between the cues used during habitat selection and the habitat quality. Maladaptive settlement decisions may occur when organisms are time-constrained and have to rapidly evaluate habitat quality based on incomplete knowledge of the resources and conditions that will be available later in the season. During a three-year study, we examined settlement decision-making in the long-distance migratory, open-habitat bird, the Red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio, as a response to recent land-use changes. In Northwest Europe, the shrikes typically breed in open areas under a management regime of extensive farming. In recent decades, Spruce forests have been increasingly managed with large-size cutblocks in even-aged plantations, thereby producing early-successional vegetation areas that are also colonised by the species. Farmland and open areas in forests create mosaics of two different types of habitats that are now occupied by the shrikes. We examined redundant measures of habitat preference (order of settlement after migration and distribution of dominant individuals and several reproductive performance parameters in both habitat types to investigate whether habitat preference is in line with habitat quality. Territorial males exhibited a clear preference for the recently created open areas in forests with higher-quality males settling in this habitat type earlier. Reproductive performance was, however, higher in farmland, with higher nest success, offspring quantity, and quality compared to open areas in forests. The results showed strong among-year consistency and we can therefore exclude a transient situation. This study demonstrates a case of maladaptive habitat selection in a farmland bird expanding its breeding range to human

  20. Spatial heterogeneity in resource distribution promotes facultative sociality in two trans-Saharan migratory birds.

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    Ainara Cortés-Avizanda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migrant populations must cope not only with environmental changes in different biomes, but also with the continuous constraints imposed by human-induced changes through landscape transformation and resource patchiness. Theoretical studies suggest that changes in food distribution can promote changes in the social arrangement of individuals without apparent adaptive value. Empirical research on this subject has only been performed at reduced geographical scales and/or for single species. However, the relative contribution of food patchiness and predictability, both in space and time, to abundance and sociality can vary among species, depending on their degree of flexibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By means of constrained zero-inflated Generalized Additive Models we analysed the spatial distribution of two trans-Saharan avian scavengers that breed (Europe and winter (Africa sympatrically, in relation to food availability. In the summering grounds, the probability of finding large numbers of both species increases close to predictable feeding sources, whereas in the wintering grounds, where food resources are widespread, we did not find such aggregation patterns, except for the black kite, which aggregated at desert locust outbreaks. The comparison of diets in both species through stable isotopes revealed that their diets overlapped during summering, but not during wintering. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that bird sociality at feeding grounds is closely linked to the pattern of spatial distribution and predictability of trophic resources, which are ultimately induced by human activities. Migrant species can show adaptive foraging strategies to face changing distribution of food availability in both wintering and summering quarters. Understanding these effects is a key aspect for predicting the fitness costs and population consequences of habitat transformations on the viability of endangered migratory species.

  1. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.

    2013-01-01

    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  2. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Joaquín; Amat, Francisco; Green, Andy J; Figuerola, Jordi; Gómez, Africa

    2013-01-01

    Since Darwin's time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs), and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. We examined sequence variation for two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S for a subset of the data) in a large set of population samples representing the entire native range of A. franciscana. Furthermore, we performed Mantel tests and redundancy analyses (RDA) to test the role of flyways, geography and human introductions on the phylogeography and population genetic structure at a continental scale. A. franciscana mitochondrial DNA was very diverse, with two main clades, largely corresponding to Pacific and Atlantic populations, mirroring American bird flyways. There was a high degree of regional endemism, with populations subdivided into at least 12 divergent, geographically restricted and largely allopatric mitochondrial lineages, and high levels of population structure (Φ ST of 0.92), indicating low ongoing gene flow. We found evidence of human-mediated introductions in nine out of 39 populations analysed. Once these populations were removed, Mantel tests revealed a strong association between genetic variation and geographic distance (i.e., isolation-by-distance pattern). RDA showed that shared bird flyways explained around 20% of the variance in genetic distance between populations and this was highly significant, once geographic distance was controlled for. The variance explained increased to 30% when the factor human introduction was included in the model. Our findings suggest that bird-mediated transport of brine shrimp propagules does not result in substantial

  3. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Muñoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since Darwin’s time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs, and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. We examined sequence variation for two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S for a subset of the data in a large set of population samples representing the entire native range of A. franciscana. Furthermore, we performed Mantel tests and redundancy analyses (RDA to test the role of flyways, geography and human introductions on the phylogeography and population genetic structure at a continental scale. A. franciscana mitochondrial DNA was very diverse, with two main clades, largely corresponding to Pacific and Atlantic populations, mirroring American bird flyways. There was a high degree of regional endemism, with populations subdivided into at least 12 divergent, geographically restricted and largely allopatric mitochondrial lineages, and high levels of population structure (ΦST of 0.92, indicating low ongoing gene flow. We found evidence of human-mediated introductions in nine out of 39 populations analysed. Once these populations were removed, Mantel tests revealed a strong association between genetic variation and geographic distance (i.e., isolation-by-distance pattern. RDA showed that shared bird flyways explained around 20% of the variance in genetic distance between populations and this was highly significant, once geographic distance was controlled for. The variance explained increased to 30% when the factor human introduction was included in the model. Our findings suggest that bird-mediated transport of brine shrimp propagules does not result

  4. The importance of floodplain forests in the conservation and management of neotropical migratory birds in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Hoover, J.P.; Klaas, E.E.; Thompson, Frank R.

    1996-01-01

    Bottomland forests of the Central Forest Region of the Upper Midwest are found primarily on the floodplains of large rivers and include at least six types of forest communities. Birds breeding in bottomland forests are affected by extensive variation in latitude, climate, hydrology, forest succession, and change caused by anthropogenic disturbances. The floodplain forest bird community differs in species composition and in relative abundance from adjacent upland habitats. High abundances of some species are found in the floodplain and some species, such as the prothonotary warbler, brown creeper, yellow-billed cuckoo, yellow-bellied sapsucker, and great crested flycatcher, show a clear preference for floodplain forests. Studies of nesting success indicate that, for some species, nest success may be higher in the floodplain than in the uplands. Floodplain birds face threats due to large-scale loss of floodplain forest habitat. Conservation efforts should focus on restoring degraded floodplains by maintaining high tree species diversity and wide corridors. To accomplish this, the underlying hydrodynamics which support a diverse floodplain forest habitat may need to be restored. Large, contiguous tracts of floodplain and upland forests should be maintained where they exist and restored in other locations. This will provide some high quality habitat for area-sensitive neotropical migratory birds (NTMBs) in agricultural landscapes where small, scattered forest fragments are the rule. Future research efforts should examine the importance of floodplain forests in maintaining populations of neotropical migrants, especially birds experiencing population declines in adjacent uplands.

  5. Spare capacity and phenotypic flexibility in the digestive system of a migratory bird: defining the limits of animal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Scott R; Karasov, William H

    2014-05-22

    Flexible phenotypes enable animals to live in environments that change over space and time, and knowing the limits to and the required time scale for this flexibility provides insights into constraints on energy and nutrient intake, diet diversity and niche width. We quantified the level of immediate and ultimate spare capacity, and thus the extent of phenotypic flexibility, in the digestive system of a migratory bird in response to increased energy demand, and identified the digestive constraints responsible for the limits on sustained energy intake. Immediate spare capacity decreased from approximately 50% for birds acclimated to relatively benign temperatures to less than 20% as birds approached their maximum sustainable energy intake. Ultimate spare capacity enabled an increase in feeding rate of approximately 126% as measured in birds acclimated for weeks at -29°C compared with +21°C. Increased gut size and not tissue-specific differences in nutrient uptake or changes in digestive efficiency or retention time were primarily responsible for this increase in capacity with energy demand, and this change required more than 1-2 days. Thus, the pace of change in digestive organ size may often constrain energy intake and, for birds, retard the pace of their migration.

  6. 78 FR 33857 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...; 91100-3740-GRNT 7C] Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical... meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA) grant proposals for recommendation to the Migratory...

  7. A method for investigating population declines of migratory birds using stable isotopes: origins of harvested lesser scaup in North America.

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    Keith A Hobson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elucidating geographic locations from where migratory birds are recruited into adult breeding populations is a fundamental but largely elusive goal in conservation biology. This is especially true for species that breed in remote northern areas where field-based demographic assessments are logistically challenging. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Here we used hydrogen isotopes (deltaD to determine natal origins of migrating hatch-year lesser scaup (Aythya affinis harvested by hunters in the United States from all North American flyways during the hunting seasons of 1999-2000 (n = 412 and 2000-2001 (n = 455. We combined geospatial, observational, and analytical data sources, including known scaup breeding range, deltaD values of feathers from juveniles at natal sites, models of deltaD for growing-season precipitation, and scaup band-recovery data to generate probabilistic natal origin landscapes for individual scaup. We then used Monte Carlo integration to model assignment uncertainty from among individual deltaD variance estimates from birds of known molt origin and also from band-return data summarized at the flyway level. We compared the distribution of scaup natal origin with the distribution of breeding population counts obtained from systematic long-term surveys. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis revealed that the proportion of young scaup produced in the northern (above 60 degrees N versus the southern boreal and Prairie-Parkland region was inversely related to the proportions of breeding adults using these regions, suggesting that despite having a higher relative abundance of breeding adults, the northern boreal region was less productive for scaup recruitment into the harvest than more southern biomes. Our approach for evaluating population declines of migratory birds (particularly game birds synthesizes all available distributional data and exploits the advantages of intrinsic isotopic markers that link individuals to geography.

  8. Prevalence and genetic diversity of haematozoa in South American waterfowl and evidence for intercontinental redistribution of parasites by migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew M.; Ramey, Andy M.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the role of migratory birds in the movement and transmission of haematozoa within and between continental regions, we examined 804 blood samples collected from eleven endemic species of South American waterfowl in Peru and Argentina for infection by Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and/or Leucocytozono blood parasites. Infections were detected in 25 individuals of six species for an overall apparent prevalence rate of 3.1%. Analysis of haematozoa mitochondrial DNA revealed twelve distinct parasite haplotypes infecting South American waterfowl, four of which were identical to lineages previously observed infecting ducks and swans sampled in North America. Analysis of parasite mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed close phylogenetic relationships between lineages originating from waterfowl samples regardless of continental affiliation. In contrast, more distant phylogenetic relationships were observed between parasite lineages from waterfowl and passerines sampled in South America for Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon, suggesting some level of host specificity for parasites of these genera. The detection of identical parasite lineages in endemic, South American waterfowl and North American ducks and swans, paired with the close phylogenetic relationships of haematozoa infecting waterfowl on both continents, provides evidence for parasite redistribution between these regions by migratory birds.

  9. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  10. Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Fernanda S; Rodenbusch, Carla R; Okino, Cíntia H; Hein, Héber E; Costa, Eduardo F; Machado, Gustavo; Canal, Cláudio W; Brentano, Liana; Corbellini, Luís G

    2014-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding

  11. Food intake and fuel deposition in a migratory bird is affected by multiple as well as single-step changes in the magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Ian; Fransson, Thord; Jakobsson, Sven; Lind, Johan; Vallin, Adrian; Kullberg, Cecilia

    2008-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that migratory thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) experimentally treated with multiple changes of the magnetic field simulating a journey to their target stopover area in northern Egypt, increased fuel deposition as expected in preparation to cross the Sahara desert. To investigate the significance of food intake on the body mass changes observed, in the work described here we analysed food intake of the nightingales under study in those earlier experiments. Furthermore, to study whether a single change in the magnetic field directly to northern Egypt is sufficient to provide information for fuelling decisions, we performed a new experiment, exposing thrush nightingales trapped in Sweden, directly to a magnetic field of northern Egypt. Our results show that an experimentally induced magnetic field of northern Egypt, close to the barrier crossing, triggers the same response in fuel deposition as experiments with multiple changes of the magnetic field simulating a migratory journey from Sweden to Egypt, suggesting that migratory birds do not require successive changes in field parameters to incorporate magnetic information into their migratory program. Furthermore, irrespective of experimental set up (single or multiple changes of the magnetic field parameters) increase in food intake seems to be the major reason for the observed increase in fuelling rate compared with control birds, suggesting that geomagnetic information might trigger hormonal changes in migratory birds enabling appropriate fuelling behaviour during migration.

  12. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N8) in domestic poultry and its relationship with migratory birds in South Korea during 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Jeong, Wooseog; Choi, Jida; Baek, Jong-Ho; Joo, Yi-Seok; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-10-10

    Highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were introduced into South Korea during 2014, thereby caused outbreaks in wild birds and poultry farms. During the 2014 outbreak, H5N8 HPAIVs were isolated from 38 wild birds and 200 poultry farms (up to May 8, 2014). To better understand the introduction of these viruses and their relationships with wild birds and poultry farm, we analyzed the genetic sequences and available epidemiological data related to the viruses. Genetic analysis of 37 viruses isolated from wild birds and poultry farms showed that all of the isolates belonged to clade 2.3.4.6 of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene, but comprised two distinct groups. During the initial stage of the outbreak, identical isolates from each group were found in wild birds and poultry farms near Donglim Reservoir, which is a resting site for migratory birds, thereby indicating that two types of H5N8 HPAIVs were introduced into the lake at the same time. Interestingly, the one group of H5N8 HPAIV predominated around Donglim Reservoir, and the predominant virus was dispersed by wild birds among the migratory bird habitats in the western region of South Korea as time passed, and it was also detected in nearby poultry farms. Furthermore, compared with the results of the annual AIV surveillance of captured wild birds, which has been performed since 2008, more HPAIVs were isolated and H5 sero-prevalence was also detected during the 2014 outbreak. Overall, our results strongly suggest that migratory birds played a key role in the introduction and spread of viruses during the initial stage of the 2014 outbreak.

  13. Discussing implications of fast depleting rural ponds on the globally threatened wetland winter migratory bird in Haryana: a Case Study of Nigdu village pond in Karnal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohtash Chand Gupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Nigdu-Sarovar is located in Nilokheri block in Karnal district in Haryana (29°50′N 76°55′E. The duration of observations span over seven years (September, 2005 to March, 2012. The recording of wetland winter visitor birds during 2005-08 in winter season included atleast 58 species of birds belonging to 10 orders and 18 families. It is important to mention that 29 species of wetland birds were winter migratory, 17 residents, 9 local migratory and three species of wetland birds like Lesser-whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica, Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus and Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicus were summer migratory. The special features of 2005-06 winter was the huge populations of birds like Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata, Northern Pintail Anas acuta, Common Teal Anas crecca, Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhynchus, Common Pochard Aythya ferina, Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, Greylag Goose Anser anser, Gadwall Anas strepera, Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Common Redshank Tringa totanus etc.In successive years, the scenario was more or less a substantial one depicting stability with respect to diversity of birds, number of birds upto the year of 2008. The popular birds included Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala, Openbill Stork Anastomus oscitans, White-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus, Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus, Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer and Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrines. The sharp decline in winter migratory birds at “Nigdu-Sarovar” started in the year of 2008 when the pond was leased out for FISH-FARMING as per the policies of Govt. of Haryana. Fish Farming based deepening of the pond by excavation of bottom resulting in total decimation of rooted, floating, submerged and ejecting plants along with its subsidiary fauna, Zooplanktons, phytoplankton etc. The age old structural regime of the pond

  14. Transport of Ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eHasle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.

  15. Transport of ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.

  16. Lack of identification of Flaviviruses in oral and cloacal swabs from long- and short-distance migratory birds in Trentino-Alto Adige (North-eastern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisenti, Michela; Arnoldi, Daniele; Rizzolli, Franco; Giacobini, Mario; Bertolotti, Luigi; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2013-10-11

    West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), both belonging to the genus Flavivirus, are emerging in Italy as important human and animal pathogens. Migratory birds are involved in the spread of Flaviviruses over long distances, particularly from Africa to Europe. Once introduced, these viruses can be further be dispersed by short-distance migratory and resident bird species. Thus far, there is still a considerable knowledge gap on the role played by different bird species in the ecology and transmission mechanisms of these viruses. The Region of Trentino-Alto Adige (north-eastern Italy) is located on the migratory route of many of the short- and long-distance migratory birds that cross the Alps, connecting northern Europe and western Asia with southern Europe and Africa. Until now, only a silent circulation of WNV and USUV within the territory of the Province of Trento has been confirmed by serological screening, whilst no cases of infected humans or animals have so far been reported. However, continuous spillover events of both viruses have been reported in neighbouring Regions. The aim of this study was to monitor the circulation of WNV and USUV in Trentino-Alto Adige, in order to detect if active virus shedding occurs in migratory birds captured during their seasonal movements and to evaluate the role that different bird species could play in the spreading of these viruses. We carried out a biomolecular survey on oral and cloacal swabs collected from migratory birds during seasonal migrations. Birds belonging to 18 transaharian and 21 intrapaleartic species were examined during spring (n = 176) and autumn (n = 146), and were tested using a generic nested-PCR. All samples tested negative for Flaviviruses. The possible causes of unapparent shedding, along with ecological and epidemiological implications are discussed. The lack of detection of active virus shedding in these bird species does not exclude the circulation of these viruses within the Trentino

  17. Multiple lineages of Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium) in the Galapagos Islands and evidence for arrival via migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, I I; Zwiers, P; Deem, S L; Geest, E A; Higashiguchi, J M; Iezhova, T A; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G; Kim, D H; Morton, J P; Perlut, N G; Renfrew, R B; Sari, E H R; Valkiunas, G; Parker, P G

    2013-12-01

    Haemosporidian parasites in the genus Plasmodium were recently detected through molecular screening in the Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). We summarized results of an archipelago-wide screen of 3726 endemic birds representing 22 species for Plasmodium spp. through a combination of molecular and microscopy techniques. Three additional Plasmodium lineages were present in Galapagos. Lineage A-infected penguins, Yellow Warblers (Setophaga petechia aureola), and one Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) and was detected at multiple sites in multiple years [corrected]. The other 3 lineages were each detected at one site and at one time; apparently, they were transient infections of parasites not established on the archipelago. No gametocytes were found in blood smears of infected individuals; thus, endemic Galapagos birds may be dead-end hosts for these Plasmodium lineages. Determining when and how parasites and pathogens arrive in Galapagos is key to developing conservation strategies to prevent and mitigate the effects of introduced diseases. To assess the potential for Plasmodium parasites to arrive via migratory birds, we analyzed blood samples from 438 North American breeding Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), the only songbird that regularly migrates through Galapagos. Two of the ephemeral Plasmodium lineages (B and C) found in Galapagos birds matched parasite sequences from Bobolinks. Although this is not confirmation that Bobolinks are responsible for introducing these lineages, evidence points to higher potential arrival rates of avian pathogens than previously thought. Linajes Múltiples de Parásitos de Malaria Aviar (Plasmodium) en las Islas Galápagos y Evidencia de su Arribo por Medio de Aves Migratorias. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Cardona, Carol J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway--breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007-2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway.

  19. Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge Station Management Plan Migratory Bird Depredations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The refuge Station Management Plan directs the management and regulation of bird depredation activities and complaints. This plan discusses historical waterfowl...

  20. Elimination of migratory bird mortality at gold and silver mines using cyanide extraction

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Many of the known hazing techniques or deterrents were observed during this survey. We are dealing with a wide array of birds in varying physical condition...

  1. DNA barcoding techniques for avian influenza virus surveillance in migratory bird habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Ji-Sun; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Kim, Chang-Bae; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2010-04-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) circulates among free-ranging, wild birds. We optimized and validated a DNA barcoding technique for AIV isolation and host-species identification using fecal samples from wild birds. DNA barcoding was optimized using tissue and fecal samples from known bird species, and the method was shown to distinguish 26 bird species. Subsequently, fecal samples (n=743) collected from wild waterfowl habitats confirmed the findings from the laboratory tests. All identified AIV-positive hosts (n=35) were members of the order Anseriformes. We successfully applied the DNA barcoding technique to AIV surveillance and examined AIV epidemiology and host ecology in these wild waterfowl populations. This methodology may be useful in the design of AIV surveillance strategies.

  2. Do the ticks of birds at an important migratory hotspot reflect the seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus at the migration initiation site? A case study in the Danube Delta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila D Sándor

    Full Text Available Migratory birds play important roles as distributors of ticks within and between continents. In the Old World, the most important migratory route of birds links Asia, Europe and Africa. During their migration, birds use various stopover sites, where they feed and rest and where ticks may attach or detach, creating new natural foci for vector-borne diseases. Danube Delta is one of the most important migration hotspots and so far no studies were focused on ticks of migratory birds herein. The aim of the present study was to assess the species diversity and seasonal dynamics of ticks parasitizing migratory birds in Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Migratory birds were trapped on Grindul Lupilor (44°41'N; 28°56'E using mist nets during 4 migratory seasons (2 spring and 2 autumn in 2011 and 2012. From each bird, all the ticks were collected and identified based on morphological features. Epidemiological parameters (prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity were calculated and all data were analysed statistically based on the season (spring and autumn, regional status of birds (migrants and breeding and foraging behaviour (ground feeders, reed-bed feeders, foliage feeders. A total of 1434 birds (46 species were captured. Ticks were found on 94 birds (10 species. Significantly more migratory birds hosted ticks, compared to resident birds. The 400 collected ticks belonged to four species: Ixodes ricinus (92.25%, I. arboricola (6.25%, I. redikorzevi (1.00% and Haemaphysalis punctata (0.50%. A higher prevalence was found for I. ricinus in spring, with higher prevalence of nymphs in this season, while larvae occurred with the same prevalence in both seasons. Larval intensity was higher during spring and nymphs were more abundant during autumn. The seasonal differences in our study may be related not to the local seasonal dynamics of ticks, but on the seasonal dynamics at the site of migration initiation.

  3. Mosquito distribution and West Nile virus infection in zoos and in important sites of migratory and resident birds, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanasak Changbunjong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the distribution of mosquito species in the zoos and in important sites of migratory and resident birds and evaluate West Nile virus (WNV infection in mosquito species. Methods: Mosquitoes distribution investigation was carried out bimonthly from January 2009 to December 2010 in five areas of birds, Thailand by using Centers for Disease Control, light traps, and gravid traps. Mosquitoes were identified, pooled into groups of up to 50 mosquitoes by species, places and time of collection and tested for WNV infection by viral isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: A total of 66 597 mosquitoes comprising 26 species in 8 genera were collected. The five most abundant mosquito species collected were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (79.3%, Culex vishnui (8.2%, Culex sitiens (6%, Culex quinquefasciatus (3.3% and Anopheles peditaeniatus (1.1%. All 1 736 mosquito pools were negative for viral isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Conclusions: This study provides new information on number of mosquito species present and their relative abundance. Although our study found no evidence of WNV in the avifaunal sources of Thailand, mosquito active surveillance should be continuously conducted. The cooperation between related organizations is needed for early detection of WNV disease and development of effective veterinary and public health policies in this region.

  4. A Deeper Statistical Examination of Arrival Dates of Migratory Breeding Birds in Relation to Global Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Herbert Wilson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an 18-year dataset of arrival dates of 65 species of Maine migratory breeding birds, I take a deeper view of the data to ask questions about the shapes of the distribution. For each year, most species show a consistent right-skewed pattern of distribution, suggesting that selection is stronger against individuals that arrive too early compared to those that arrive later. Distributions are consistently leptokurtic, indicating a narrow window of optimal arrival dates. Species that arrive earlier in the spring show higher skewness and kurtosis values. Nectarivorous species showed more pronounced skewness. Wintering area did not explain patterns of skewness or kurtosis. Deviations from average temperatures and the North Atlantic Oscillation index explained little variation in skewness and kurtosis. When arrival date distributions are broken down into different medians (e.g., 5% median and 75% median, stronger correlations emerge for portions of the distribution that are adjacent, suggesting species fine-tune the progress of their migration. Interspecific correlations for birds arriving around the same time are stronger for earliest migrants (the 25% median compared to the true median and the 75% median.

  5. Timing of initial arrival at the breeding site predicts age at first reproduction in a long-lived migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Peter H; Dittmann, Tobias; Ludwigs, Jan-Dieter; Limmer, Bente; Ludwig, Sonja C; Bauch, Christina; Braasch, Alexander; Wendeln, Helmut

    2008-08-26

    In long-lived vertebrates, individuals generally visit potential breeding areas or populations during one or more seasons before reproducing for the first time. During these years of prospecting, they select a future breeding site, colony, or mate and improve various skills and their physical condition to meet the requirements of reproduction. One precondition of successful reproduction is arrival in time on the breeding grounds. Here, we study the intricate links among the date of initial spring arrival, body mass, sex, and the age of first breeding in the common tern Sterna hirundo, a long-lived migratory colonial seabird. The study is based on a unique, individual-based, long-term dataset of sexed birds, marked with transponders, which allow recording their individual arrival, overall attendance, and clutch initiation remotely and automatically year by year over the entire lifetime at the natal colony site. We show that the seasonal date of initial arrival at the breeding grounds predicts the individual age at first reproduction, which mostly occurs years later. Late first-time arrivals remain delayed birds throughout subsequent years. Our findings reveal that timing of arrival at the site of reproduction and timing of reproduction itself are coherent parameters of individual quality, which are linked with the prospects of the breeding career and may have consequences for fitness.

  6. Conservation through connectivity: can isotopic gradients in Africa reveal winter quarters of a migratory bird?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichlin, Thomas S; Hobson, Keith A; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L; Schaub, Michael; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Jenni, Lukas

    2013-02-01

    Conservation of migratory wildlife requires knowledge of migratory connectivity between breeding and non-breeding locations. Stable isotopes in combination with geographical isotopic patterns (isoscapes) can provide inferences about migratory connectivity. This study examines whether such an approach can be used to infer wintering areas in sub-Saharan Africa, where we lack such knowledge for many species, but where this method has not been used widely. We measured δ (2)H, δ (13)C and δ (15)N in winter-grown feathers of a breeding Swiss and Spanish population of European hoopoe Upupa epops--a typical Palaearctic-Afrotropical migrant. δ (2)H values predicted that ~70 % of the hoopoes spent the non-breeding season in the western portion of their potential winter range. This was corroborated by a shallow east-west gradient in feather-δ (2)H values of museum specimens from known African origin across the potential winter range and by the recovery of Swiss hoopoes marked with geolocators. Hoopoes categorized as from eastern versus western regions of the wintering range were further delineated spatially using feather δ (13)C and δ (15)N. δ (15)N showed no trend, whereas adults were more enriched in (13)C in the western portion of the range, with eastern adults being in addition more depleted in (13)C than eastern juveniles. This suggests that eastern juveniles may have occupied more xeric habitats than sympatric adults. We demonstrated that stable isotopes, especially δ (2)H, could only very roughly delineate the winter distribution of a trans-Saharan Palaearctic migrant restricted primarily to the Sahelian and savanna belt south of the Sahara. Further refinements of precipitation isoscapes for Africa as well the development of isoscapes for δ (13)C and δ (15)N may improve assignment of this and other migrants.

  7. Using landscape ecology to test hypotheses about large-scale abundance patterns in migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flather, C.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The hypothesis that Neotropical migrant birds may be undergoing widespread declines due to land use activities on the breeding grounds has been examined primarily by synthesizing results from local studies. Growing concern for the cumulative influence of land use activities on ecological systems has heightened the need for large-scale studies to complement what has been observed at local scales. We investigated possible landscape effects on Neotropical migrant bird populations for the eastern United States by linking two large-scale inventories designed to monitor breeding-bird abundances and land use patterns. The null hypothesis of no relation between landscape structure and Neotropical migrant abundance was tested by correlating measures of landscape structure with bird abundance, while controlling for the geographic distance among samples. Neotropical migrants as a group were more 'sensitive' to landscape structure than either temperate migrants or permanent residents. Neotropical migrants tended to be more abundant in landscapes with a greater proportion of forest and wetland habitats, fewer edge habitats, large forest patches, and with forest habitats well dispersed throughout the scene. Permanent residents showed few correlations with landscape structure and temperate migrants were associated with habitat diversity and edge attributes rather than with the amount, size, and dispersion of forest habitats. The association between Neotropical migrant abundance and forest fragmentation differed among physiographic strata, suggesting that land-scape context affects observed relations between bird abundance and landscape structure. Finally, associations between landscape structure and temporal trends in Neotropical migrant abundance were negatively correlated with forest habitats. These results suggest that extrapolation of patterns observed in some landscapes is not likely to hold regionally, and that conservation policies must consider the variation in landscape

  8. Molecular detection of Anaplasma, Bartonella, and Borrelia species in ticks collected from migratory birds from Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Heung-Chul; Choi, Chang-Yong; Nam, Hyun-Young; Chae, Hee-Young; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Ko, Sungjin; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2013-04-01

    Bird migration is a recurring annual and seasonal event undertaken by more than 100 species of birds in the southeast Asian and northeast Palearctic regions that pass through or remain for short periods from April to May and September to November at Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea (ROK). A total of 212 ticks (40 Haemaphysalis flava, 12 H. longicornis, 146 Ixodes turdus, 13 I. nipponensis, and 1 I. ornithophila) were collected from 65/2,161 (3.0%) migratory birds consisting of 21 species that were captured from January, 2008, through December, 2009, as part of the Migratory Birds Center, Hong-do bird banding program for studying bird migration patterns. Adult ticks were assayed individually while larvae and nymphs were pooled (1-22 and 1-6 ticks per pool, respectively) into 31 and 65 pools, respectively. Ticks were assayed for zoonotic pathogens by PCR using 16S rRNA, heat shock protein (groEL), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene primers to amplify genera specific for Anapalsma, Bartonella, and Borrelia PCR amplicons. Using the 16S rRNA-based nested PCR, A. phagocytophilum (n=1) was detected in I. nipponensis collected from Zoothera sibirica and A. bovis (n=1) was detected in I. turdus collected from Emberiza chrysophrys. Borrelia turdi 16S rRNA genes (n=3) were detected in I. turdus and I. nipponensis collected from Turdus pallidus and Zoothera aurea. Borrelia spp. 16S rRNA genes (n=4) were detected in Ixodes ticks collected from Emberiza tristrami, T. pallidus, and Z. aurea. The Bartonella grahamii ITS gene (n=1) was detected by nested PCR assay in I. turdus collected from Z. aurea. These results provide insight into the potential role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks and associated tick-borne pathogens throughout their ranges in Asia.

  9. Population genetic structure and long-distance dispersal of a recently expanding migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raül; Song, Gang; Navarro, Joan; Zhang, Ruiying; Symes, Craig T; Forero, Manuela G; Lei, Fumin

    2016-06-01

    Long-distance dispersal events and their derivable increases of genetic diversity have been highlighted as important ecological and evolutionary determinants that improve performances of range-expanding species. In the context of global environmental change, specific dispersal strategies have to be understood and foreseen if we like to prevent general biodiversity impoverishment or the spread of allochthonous diseases. We explored the genetic structure and potential population mixing on the recently range-expanding European bee-eater Merops apiaster. In addition, the species is suspected of harbouring and disseminating the most relevant disease for bees and apiculture, Nosema microsporidia. In agreement with complementary ringing recovery data and morphometric measurements, genetic results on two mitochondrial genes and 12 microsatellites showed a reasonably well-structured population partitioning along its breeding distribution. Microsatellite results indicated that not only did a few birds recently disperse long distance during their return migrations and change their natal breeding areas, but also that a group of allochthonous birds together founded a new colony. Although we did not provide evidence on the direct implication of birds in the widespread of Nosema parasites, our finding on the long-distance dispersal of bird flocks between remote breeding colonies adds concern about the role of European bee-eaters in the spread of such disease at a large, inter-continental scale.

  10. Experimental quantification of long distance dispersal potential of aquatic snails in the gut of migratory birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, C.H.A.; Van der Velde, G.; van Lith, B.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Many plant seeds and invertebrates can survive passage through the digestive system of birds, which may lead to long distance dispersal (endozoochory) in case of prolonged retention by moving vectors. Endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds has nowadays been documented for many aquatic plant seeds,

  11. Spring migratory birds (Aves) extend the northern occurrence of blacklegged tick (Acari:Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich, M; Lankester, M W; Wu, K W

    1996-07-01

    Birds that had migrated northward across Lake Superior were captured upon reaching landfall at Thunder Cape (48 degrees 18' N, 88 degrees 56' W) at the southwestern tip of the Sibley Peninsula, northwestern Ontario, from 9 May to 9 June 1995. Twenty-one of 530 birds examined (6 of 55 species) had a total of 34 ticks; 1 blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata, had a northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago). Four blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, larvae were found on an American robin, Turdus migratorius, and 2 on a chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina. This tick was not found on small mammals at Thunder Cape. Twenty-six larvae and a nymph of the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) were found on 1 American robin, 2 Swainson's thrushes, Catharus ustulatus, 1 white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, 1 common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas, 1 blue jay, and 12 chipping sparrows. A nymph of H. chordeilis (Packard) occurred on 1 chipping sparrow. Results demonstrate that northward migrating birds transport larvae of I. scapularis to areas of Ontario where the tick does not appear to have become established in small mammal populations. Spring migrants may be more involved in the dispersal of I. scapularis larvae than previously thought. Cooler temperatures and shorter seasons experienced in the more northerly, continental parts of the established distribution of this tick may extend the life cycle, resulting in a predominance of larvae rather than nymphs being acquired by northward-bound birds in early spring. Consequently, the role of spring migrating birds in the northward spread of I. scapularis and of borreliosis should be reevaluated.

  12. Human-induced contaminant impacts on migratory birds: lessons from the North American eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladky, Kurt K.; Quist, Charlotte; Ramirez, Pedro; Hill, David; Dein, F. Joshua

    2003-01-01

    The effects of aquatic contaminants generated by soda ash mining processes on the North American eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) population illustrates important issues associated with human-induced habitat degradation on the health of migratory species. Eared grebes have been extensively studied in their staging and breeding habitats, but little is known about their 2- to 3-day migratory periods. During migration, few bodies of water are available to the birds for refuge between freshwater breeding areas in Canada and hypersaline lakes (e.g., Great Salt Lake in Utah or Mono Lake in California) to which they migrate. One geographic refuge area includes a series of "tailings" ponds associated with soda ash mining operations in southwestern Wyoming. The ponds range from 100-1200 acres, with water containing high concentrations of sodium decahydrate (Na2CO3•10H2O). At cool temperatures (generally companies have developed hazing strategies and rehabilitation programs in order to minimize mortality. In order to determine causes of grebe mortality and devise strategies to reduce mortality, a field epidemiologic investigation was developed with the following objectives: 1) to determine whether eared grebes have quantifiable physiologic abnormalities associated with exposure to soda ash mine pond water; 2) to evaluate physical effects of sodium decahydrate crystallization on grebe survival; 3) to establish cause of death based on necropsy of deceased grebes; 4) to determine long-term survivability of eared grebes after exposure to the pond water; and 5) to evaluate water quality and determine whether aquatic invertebrates are present in the ponds as a possible food source.

  13. Automated in situ monitoring of migratory birds at Germany's first offshore wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppack, Timothy; Kulemeyer, Christoph; Schulz, Axel; Steuri, Thomas; Liechti, Felix

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Offshore wind farms may negatively affect migrating birds, especially at night, by increased photo tactic attraction and risk of collision. Under favourable weather conditions (clear skies, tail wind) the majority of migrants probably fly well above the reach of wind turbine blades. Under unfavourable conditions (sea fog, precipitation, head wind), however, nocturnal migrants could get attracted by brightly lit wind farms, and the risk of collision would hence increase. To assess these potential effects, migration rates and collision probabilities need to be empirically quantified at existing wind farms. This is not an easy task, given the setting and dimension of an offshore wind farm and the sheer quantity and diversity of small-bodied birds potentially passing by. Nocturnal passerine migrants are impossible to count accurately over extended periods with observational methods, and even classic radar technology fails to pro-vide hard-wired information. Complementing the 'Standards for Environmental Impact Assessment' issued by Germany.s Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH), we have developed and installed a novel radar system (BirdScan) on the research platform FINO 1, situated around 50 km offshore next to the wind farm 'alpha ventus' in the German North Sea. BirdScan operates on the basis of defined detection volumes (fixed radar beam), allowing a precise quantification of passerine and non-passerine radar echoes. Our study design includes alternating measurements within and outside the wind farm in order to assess avoidance and/or photo tactic aggregation behaviour of migrants under various weather situations. At the same time, we are investigating the photo tactic attraction of birds at a smaller spatial scale using motion-controlled infrared cameras directly mounted on the nacelle and shaft of a wind turbine. Through this approach, disoriented birds (and even bats) can be automatically ground-proofed and set in

  14. Experimental quantification of long distance dispersal potential of aquatic snails in the gut of migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H A van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available Many plant seeds and invertebrates can survive passage through the digestive system of birds, which may lead to long distance dispersal (endozoochory in case of prolonged retention by moving vectors. Endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds has nowadays been documented for many aquatic plant seeds, algae and dormant life stages of aquatic invertebrates. Anecdotal information indicates that endozoochory is also possible for fully functional, active aquatic organisms, a phenomenon that we here address experimentally using aquatic snails. We fed four species of aquatic snails to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, and monitored snail retrieval and survival over time. One of the snail species tested was found to survive passage through the digestive tract of mallards as fully functional adults. Hydrobia (Peringia ulvae survived up to five hours in the digestive tract. This suggests a maximum potential transport distance of up to 300 km may be possible if these snails are taken by flying birds, although the actual dispersal distance greatly depends on additional factors such as the behavior of the vectors. We put forward that more organisms that acquired traits for survival in stochastic environments such as wetlands, but not specifically adapted for endozoochory, may be sufficiently equipped to successfully pass a bird's digestive system. This may be explained by a digestive trade-off in birds, which maximize their net energy intake rate rather than digestive efficiency, since higher efficiency comes with the cost of prolonged retention times and hence reduces food intake. The resulting lower digestive efficiency allows species like aquatic snails, and potentially other fully functional organisms without obvious dispersal adaptations, to be transported internally. Adopting this view, endozoochorous dispersal may be more common than up to now thought.

  15. Migratory bird and other data from the Beaufort/Simpson Lagoon as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 01 June 1977 to 05 September 1978 (NODC Accession 8000392)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Migratory bird and other data were collected from the Beaufort/Simpson Lagoon from 01 June 1977 to 05 September 1978. Data were collected by the Alaska Research...

  16. How hazardous is the Sahara Desert crossing for migratory birds? Indications from satellite tracking of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Hake, Mikael; Alerstam, Thomas

    2010-06-23

    We investigated the risk associated with crossing the Sahara Desert for migrating birds by evaluating more than 90 journeys across this desert by four species of raptors (osprey Pandion haliaetus, honey buzzard Pernis apivorus, marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus and Eurasian hobby Falco subbuteo) recorded by satellite telemetry. Forty per cent of the crossings included events of aberrant behaviours, such as abrupt course changes, slow travel speeds, interruptions, aborted crossings followed by retreats from the desert and failed crossings due to death, indicating difficulties for the migrants. The mortality during the Sahara crossing was 31 per cent per crossing attempt for juveniles (first autumn migration), compared with only 2 per cent for adults (autumn and spring combined). Mortality associated with the Sahara passage made up a substantial fraction (up to about half for juveniles) of the total annual mortality, demonstrating that this passage has a profound influence on survival and fitness of migrants. Aberrant behaviours resulted in late arrival at the breeding grounds and an increased probability of breeding failure (carry-over effects). This study also demonstrates that satellite tracking can be a powerful method to reveal when and where birds are exposed to enhanced risk and mortality during their annual cycles.

  17. Changes in spring arrival dates and temperature sensitivity of migratory birds over two centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolářová, Eva; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette; Nekovář, Jiří; Lumpe, Petr; Adamík, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Long-term phenological data have been crucial at documenting the effects of climate change in organisms. However, in most animal taxa, time series length seldom exceeds 35 years. Therefore, we have limited evidence on animal responses to climate prior to the recent warm period. To fill in this gap, we present time series of mean first arrival dates to Central Europe for 13 bird species spanning 183 years (1828-2010). We found a uniform trend of arrival dates advancing in the most recent decades (since the late 1970s). Interestingly, birds were arriving earlier during the cooler early part of the nineteenth century than in the recent warm period. Temperature sensitivity was slightly stronger in the warmest 30-year period (-1.70 ± SD 0.47 day °C-1) than in the coldest period (-1.42 ± SD 0.89 day °C-1); however, the difference was not statistically significant. In the most recent decades, the temperature sensitivity of both short- and long-distance migrants significantly increased. Our results demonstrate how centennial time series can provide a much more comprehensive perspective on avian responses to climate change.

  18. North Atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Dusek

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV in wild birds has been of increasing interest over the last decade due to the emergence of AIVs that cause significant disease and mortality in both poultry and humans. While research clearly demonstrates that AIVs can move across the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean, there has been no data to support the mechanism of how this occurs. In spring and autumn of 2010 and autumn of 2011 we obtained cloacal swab samples from 1078 waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds of various species in southwest and west Iceland and tested them for AIV. From these, we isolated and fully sequenced the genomes of 29 AIVs from wild caught gulls (Charadriiformes and waterfowl (Anseriformes in Iceland. We detected viruses that were entirely (8 of 8 genomic segments of American lineage, viruses that were entirely of Eurasian lineage, and viruses with mixed American-Eurasian lineage. Prior to this work only 2 AIVs had been reported from wild birds in Iceland and only the sequence from one segment was available in GenBank. This is the first report of finding AIVs of entirely American lineage and Eurasian lineage, as well as reassortant viruses, together in the same geographic location. Our study demonstrates the importance of the North Atlantic as a corridor for the movement of AIVs between Europe and North America.

  19. Changes in spring arrival dates and temperature sensitivity of migratory birds over two centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolářová, Eva; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette; Nekovář, Jiří; Lumpe, Petr; Adamík, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Long-term phenological data have been crucial at documenting the effects of climate change in organisms. However, in most animal taxa, time series length seldom exceeds 35 years. Therefore, we have limited evidence on animal responses to climate prior to the recent warm period. To fill in this gap, we present time series of mean first arrival dates to Central Europe for 13 bird species spanning 183 years (1828-2010). We found a uniform trend of arrival dates advancing in the most recent decades (since the late 1970s). Interestingly, birds were arriving earlier during the cooler early part of the nineteenth century than in the recent warm period. Temperature sensitivity was slightly stronger in the warmest 30-year period (-1.70 ± SD 0.47 day °C-1) than in the coldest period (-1.42 ± SD 0.89 day °C-1); however, the difference was not statistically significant. In the most recent decades, the temperature sensitivity of both short- and long-distance migrants significantly increased. Our results demonstrate how centennial time series can provide a much more comprehensive perspective on avian responses to climate change.

  20. North Atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar T.; Ip, Hon S.; Jónsson, Jón E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Federova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds has been of increasing interest over the last decade due to the emergence of AIVs that cause significant disease and mortality in both poultry and humans. While research clearly demonstrates that AIVs can move across the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean, there has been no data to support the mechanism of how this occurs. In spring and autumn of 2010 and autumn of 2011 we obtained cloacal swab samples from 1078 waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds of various species in southwest and west Iceland and tested them for AIV. From these, we isolated and fully sequenced the genomes of 29 AIVs from wild caught gulls (Charadriiformes) and waterfowl (Anseriformes) in Iceland. We detected viruses that were entirely (8 of 8 genomic segments) of American lineage, viruses that were entirely of Eurasian lineage, and viruses with mixed American-Eurasian lineage. Prior to this work only 2 AIVs had been reported from wild birds in Iceland and only the sequence from one segment was available in GenBank. This is the first report of finding AIVs of entirely American lineage and Eurasian lineage, as well as reassortant viruses, together in the same geographic location. Our study demonstrates the importance of the North Atlantic as a corridor for the movement of AIVs between Europe and North America.

  1. Genetic characterization and pathogenicity assessment of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from migratory wild birds in 2011, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Song, Min-Suk; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Baek, Yun Hee; Lee, Jun Han; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Rho, Jong-Bok; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young Ki

    2011-09-01

    The continued spread of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among wild birds and poultry has posed a potential threat to human public health. In the present study, we report the isolation of HPAI H5N1 viruses (A/Md/Korea/W401/11 and A/Md/Korea/W404/11) from fecal samples of migratory birds. Genetic and phlyogenetic analyses demonstrated that these viruses are genetically identical possessing gene segments from avian virus origin and showing highest sequence similarities (as high as 99.8%) to A/Ws/Hokkaido/4/11 and 2009-2010 Mongolian-like clade 2.3.2 isolates rather than previous Korean H5N1 viruses. Both viruses possess the polybasic motif (QRERRRK/R) in HA but other genes did not bear additional virulence markers. Pathogenicity of A/Md/Korea/W401/11 was assessed and compared with a 2006 clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 migratory bird isolate (A/EM/Korea/W149/06) in chickens, ducks, mice and ferrets. Experimental infection in these hosts showed that both viruses have high pathogenic potential in chickens (2.3-3.0 LD(50)s) and mice (3.3-3.9 LD(50)s), but A/Md/Korea/W401/11 was less pathogenic in duck and ferret models. Despite recovery of both infection viruses in the upper respiratory tract, efficient ferret-to-ferret transmission was not observed. These data suggest that the 2011 Korean HPAI wild bird H5N1 virus could replicate in mammalian hosts without pre-adaptation but could not sustain subsequent infection. This study highlights the role of migratory birds in the perpetuation and spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses in Far-East Asia. With the changing pathobiology caused by H5N1 viruses among wild and poultry birds, continued surveillance of influenza viruses among migratory bird species remains crucial for effective monitoring of high-pathogenicity or pandemic influenza viruses.

  2. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.P.M(φ)LLER; E.FLENSTED-JENSEN; W.MARDAL

    2009-01-01

    Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the entire annual cycle. Such a phenotypic shift could generate accumulating effects over the years for individuals, but also across generations. Here we test this novel hypothesis of phenotypic response to climate change by using long-term data on the Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea. Mean breeding date advanced by almost three weeks during the last 70 years. Annual arrival date at the breeding grounds during a period of 47 years was predicted by environmental conditions in the winter quarters in the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic and by mean breeding date the previous year. Annual mean breeding date was only marginally determined by timing of arrival the current year, but to a larger extent by arrival date and breeding date the previous year. Learning affected arrival date as shown by a positive correlation between arrival date in year (i+1) relative to breeding date in year (i) and the selective advantage of early breeding in year (i). This provides a mechanism for changes in arrival date being adjusted to changing environmental conditions. This study suggests that adaptation to changing climatic conditions can be achieved through learning from year to year[Current Zoology 55(2):92-101,2009].

  3. Adjustment of the annual cycle to climatic change in a long-lived migratory bird specie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. MØLLER

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has advanced the phenology of many organisms. Migratory animals face particular problems because climate change in the breeding and the wintering range may be asynchronous, preventing rapid response to changing conditions. Advancement in timing of spring migration may have carry-over effects to other parts of the annual cycle, simply because advancement of one event in the annual cycle also advances subsequent events, gradually causing a general shift in the timing of the entire annual cycle. Such a phenotypic shift could generate accumulating effects over the years for individuals, but also across generations. Here we test this novel hypothesis of phenotypic response to climate change by using long-term data on the Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea. Mean breeding date advanced by almost three weeks during the last 70 years. Annual arrival date at the breeding grounds during a period of 47 years was predicted by environmental conditions in the winter quarters in the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic and by mean breeding date the previous year. Annual mean breeding date was only marginally determined by timing of arrival the current year, but to a larger extent by arrival date and breeding date the previous year. Learning affected arrival date as shown by a positive correlation between arrival date in year (i + 1 relative to breeding date in year (i and the selective advantage of early breeding in year (i. This provides a mechanism for changes in arrival date being adjusted to changing environmental conditions. This study suggests that adaptation to changing climatic conditions can be achieved through learning from year to year

  4. The magnetic retina: light-dependent and trigeminal magnetoreception in migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Henrik; Hore, P J

    2012-04-01

    Recent advances have brought much new insight into the physiological mechanisms and required characteristics of the sensory molecules that enable birds to use magnetic fields for orientation. European robins almost certainly have two magnetodetection senses, one associated with the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, and one based on light-dependent radical-pair processes in both eyes. The first brain areas processing magnetic information from each of these two senses have been identified. It has been experimentally verified that Earth-strength magnetic fields can affect photo-induced chemical reactions and that these reactions can respond to magnetic field direction. Diagnostic behavioural experiments have provided clues to identify putative magnetoreceptive molecules in the retina. We discuss the implications of these and other recent findings and outline crucial open questions with an emphasis on the light-dependent mechanism.

  5. Characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 from migratory wild birds in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jong-Bo; So, Hyun-Hee; Won, Ho-Keun; Mo, In-Pil

    2011-12-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the most important infectious agents in the poultry industry, and vaccines against it have been widely used for prevention and control. Live vaccines, which can replicate in the respiratory and digestive systems, have been especially needed in areas with outbreaks of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease. Towards the goal of searching for a new live vaccine candidate, avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) was isolated from the faeces of wild birds. Three APMV-1 strains thus isolated were characterized in terms of phylogeny, pathogenicity, immunogenicity and tissue tropism, and on the basis of these analyses were classified as lentogenic genotype I NDV. CBU2179, one of the three APMV-1 strains, was selected and was evaluated in terms of its efficacy and safety in specific pathogen-free chickens and commercial broilers. The manufactured trial vaccine from this strain, also called CBU2179, induced similar immune responses to those of VG/GA and B1 commercial vaccines, and provided 100% protection against challenge from viscerotropic velogenic NDV, KJW/49 strain (the official challenge strain in Korea). Also, the CBU2179 virus was re-isolated and persisted as long as or longer than other vaccine strains in both the respiratory and alimentary tracts. Therefore, the CBU2179 strain may represent a good candidate for a live Newcastle disease vaccine to protect chickens against viscerotropic velogenic NDV.

  6. An implantable instrument for studying the long-term flight biology of migratory birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivey, Robin J., E-mail: r.spivey@bangor.ac.uk, E-mail: c.bishop@bangor.ac.uk; Bishop, Charles M., E-mail: r.spivey@bangor.ac.uk, E-mail: c.bishop@bangor.ac.uk [Department of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    The design of an instrument deployed in a project studying the high altitude Himalayan migrations of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) is described. The electronics of this archival datalogger measured 22 × 14 × 6.5 mm, weighed 3 g, was powered by a ½AA-sized battery weighing 10 g and housed in a transparent biocompatible tube sealed with titanium electrodes for electrocardiography (ECG). The combined weight of 32 g represented less than 2% of the typical bodyweight of the geese. The primary tasks of the instrument were to continuously record a digitised ECG signal for heart-rate determination and store 12-bit triaxial accelerations sampled at 100 Hz with 15% coverage over each 2 min period. Measurement of atmospheric pressure provided an indication of altitude and rate of ascent or descent during flight. Geomagnetic field readings allowed for latitude estimation. These parameters were logged twice per minute along with body temperature. Data were stored to a memory card of 8 GB capacity. Instruments were implanted in geese captured on Mongolian lakes during the breeding season when the birds are temporarily flightless due to moulting. The goal was to collect data over a ten month period, covering both southward and northward migrations. This imposed extreme constraints on the design's power consumption. Raw ECG can be post-processed to obtain heart-rate, allowing improved rejection of signal interference due to strenuous activity of locomotory muscles during flight. Accelerometry can be used to monitor wing-beat frequency and body kinematics, and since the geese continued to flap their wings continuously even during rather steep descents, act as a proxy for biomechanical power. The instrument enables detailed investigation of the challenges faced by the geese during these arduous migrations which typically involve flying at extreme altitudes through cold, low density air where oxygen availability is significantly reduced compared to sea level.

  7. Prevalence of Influenza A viruses in wild migratory birds in Alaska: Patterns of variation in detection at a crossroads of intercontinental flyways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Julian B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has stimulated interest in a better understanding of the mechanisms of H5N1 dispersal, including the potential role of migratory birds as carriers. Although wild birds have been found dead during H5N1 outbreaks, evidence suggests that others have survived natural infections, and recent studies have shown several species of ducks capable of surviving experimental inoculations of H5N1 and shedding virus. To investigate the possibility of migratory birds as a means of H5N1 dispersal into North America, we monitored for the virus in a surveillance program based on the risk that wild birds may carry the virus from Asia. Results Of 16,797 birds sampled in Alaska between May 2006 and March 2007, low pathogenic avian influenza viruses were detected in 1.7% by rRT-PCR but no highly pathogenic viruses were found. Our data suggest that prevalence varied among sampling locations, species (highest in waterfowl, lowest in passerines, ages (juveniles higher than adults, sexes (males higher than females, date (highest in autumn, and analytical technique (rRT-PCR prevalence = 1.7%; virus isolation prevalence = 1.5%. Conclusion The prevalence of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds depends on biological, temporal, and geographical factors, as well as testing methods. Future studies should control for, or sample across, these sources of variation to allow direct comparison of prevalence rates.

  8. Comprehensive framework for ecological assessment of the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Brian; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Barbour, Philip J.; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) established and funded the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI), with the goal of improving and increasing wetland habitats on private lands to benefit wintering and migrating waterbirds displaced from oil-impacted coastal wetlands. The NRCS and conservation partners provided financial and technical assistance to landowners and managers of sites enrolled in various conservation easement programs, and incorporated approximately 190,000 ha of wetlands and agricultural lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) and Gulf Coast regions in the MBHI. In fall 2010, the NRCS worked with scientists and graduate students from three universities and various conservation agencies to design and implement landscape-scale evaluations of (1) the use of MBHI-managed wetlands and comparable non-MBHI wetlands by Charadriiformes(shorebirds), Anseriformes (waterfowl), and other waterbirds; and (2) the relative effectiveness of different MBHI practices for providing habitat and food resources for migrating, resident, and wintering waterbirds. In this paper, we describe the scientific framework designed to evaluate the MBHI in improving waterbird habitats on private lands in the MAV, the Gulf Coast Prairies in Louisiana and Texas, and Gulf coastal wetlands of Mississippi and Alabama. The results of our evaluation will enhance our understanding of the influence of MBHI, other Farm Bill Conservation Initiative managed lands (e.g., Wetland Reserve Program), and selected agricultural working lands (e.g., Oryza sativa L. [Rice] fields in southern Louisiana and Texas) on wintering and migrating waterbirds. A proactive approach that uses science to evaluate governmental conservation programs is relevant and can inform development of meaningful public policy that likely will be needed for effective delivery of future conservation programs and to justify

  9. Addressing complexity and uncertainty: conceptual models and expert judgments applied to migratory birds in the oil sands of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Nelitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Complexity and uncertainty are inherent in social-ecological systems. Although they can create challenges for scientists and decision makers, they cannot be a reason for delaying decision making. Two strategies have matured in recent decades to address these challenges. Systems thinking, as embodied by conceptual modeling, is a holistic approach in which a system can be better understood by examining it as a whole. Expert elicitation represents a second strategy that enables a greater diversity of inputs to understand complex systems. We explored the use of conceptual models and expert judgments to inform expansion of monitoring around oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada, particularly related to migratory forest birds. This study area is a complex social-ecological system for which there is an abundance of specific information, but a relatively weak understanding about system behavior. Multiple conceptual models were developed to represent complexity and provide a more fulsome view of influences across the landscape. A hierarchical approach proved useful, and a mechanistic structure of the models clarified the cumulative and interactive nature of factors within and outside the study area. To address gaps in understanding, expert judgments were integrated using a series of structured exercises to derive "weightings" of importance of different components in the conceptual models, specifically pairwise comparisons, Likert scaling, and a maximum difference conjoint approach. These exercises were helpful for discriminating the importance of different influences and illuminating the competing beliefs of experts. Various supporting tools helped us engage a group of experts from across North America, which included a virtual meeting, online polling, desktop sharing, web survey, and financial incentive. This combination of techniques was innovative and proved useful for addressing complexity and uncertainty in a specific natural resource

  10. Evolutionary relationships of West Nile virus detected in mosquitoes from a migratory bird zone of Colombian Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Richard Hoyos; Soto, Sandra Uribe; Gallego-Gómez, Juan Carlos

    2015-05-20

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus, and it is transmitted between Culex sp. mosquitoes and avian hosts. Equids and humans are commonly infected with WNV as dead-end hosts, and the signs and symptoms of infection range from mild illness to neurologic symptoms as encephalitis, meningitis and sometimes death. Previous phylogenetic studies have classified WNV into six genetically distinct lineages and provided valuable insight on WNV dispersal patterns within the Americas and its emergence in different geographic areas. In this study, we isolated, sequenced and genetically characterized the NS5 and envelope genes for two WNV strains detected from Northern of Colombia. Herein we describe the evolutionary relationships with representative WNV-strains isolated in a variety of epidemic outbreaks and countries, to define the phylogeographic origin and possible implications in the epidemiology of this emergent virus in Colombia. Fragments of the NS5 and Envelope genes were amplified with RT-PCR and sequenced to obtain 1186-nt and 1504-nt portions, respectively. Our sequences were aligned with 46 sequences from WNV-strains collected in the U.S., Mexico and Argentina for phylogenetic reconstruction using Bayesian methods. Sequence analyses identified unique non-synonymous substitutions in the envelope gene of the WNV strains we detected, and our sequences clustered together with those from the attenuated Texas - 2002 genotype. A new strain closely related to attenuated strains collected in Texas during 2002 was identified from Colombia by phylogenetic analysis. This finding may explain the absence of human/equine cases of WNV-encephalitis or severe disease in Colombia and possibly other regions of South America. Follow-up studies are needed in ecosystems used by migratory birds areas and virological/entomological surveillance.

  11. Temporal Stability and the Effect of Transgenerational Transfer on Fecal Microbiota Structure in a Long Distance Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Kropáčková, Lucie; Petrželková, Adéla; Adámková, Marie; Tomášek, Oldřich; Martin, Jean-François; Michálková, Romana; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Animal bodies are inhabited by a taxonomically and functionally diverse community of symbiotic and commensal microorganisms. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, inter-individual variation in host-associated microbiota contributes to physiological and immune system variation. As such, host-associated microbiota may be considered an integral part of the host’s phenotype, serving as a substrate for natural selection. This assumes that host-associated microbiota exhibits high temporal stability, however, and that its composition is shaped by trans-generational transfer or heritable host-associated microbiota modulators encoded by the host genome. Although this concept is widely accepted, its crucial assumptions have rarely been tested in wild vertebrate populations. We performed 16S rRNA metabarcoding on an extensive set of fecal microbiota (FM) samples from an insectivorous, long-distance migratory bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). Our data revealed clear differences in FM among juveniles and adults as regards taxonomic and functional composition, diversity and co-occurrence network complexity. Multiple FM samples from the same juvenile or adult collected within single breeding seasons exhibited higher similarity than expected by chance, as did adult FM samples over two consecutive years. Despite low effect sizes for FM stability over time at the community level, we identified an adult FM subset with relative abundances exhibiting significant temporal consistency, possibly inducing long-term effects on the host phenotype. Our data also indicate a slight maternal (but not paternal) effect on FM composition in social offspring, though this is unlikely to persist into adulthood. We discuss our findings in the context of both evolution and ecology of microbiota vs. host interactions and barn swallow biology. PMID:28220109

  12. Surveillance plan for the early detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in migratory birds in the United States: surveillance year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary: This Surveillance Plan (Plan) describes plans for conducting surveillance of wild birds in the United States and its Territories and Freely-Associated States to provide for early detection of the introduction of the H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype of the influenza A virus by migratory birds during the 2009 surveillance year, spanning the period of April 1, 2009 - March 31, 2010. The Plan represents a continuation of surveillance efforts begun in 2006 under the Interagency Strategic Plan for the Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior, 2006). The Plan sets forth sampling plans by: region, target species or species groups to be sampled, locations of sampling, sample sizes, and sampling approaches and methods. This Plan will be reviewed annually and modified as appropriate for subsequent surveillance years based on evaluation of information from previous years of surveillance, changing patterns and threats of H5N1 HPAI, and changes in funding availability for avian influenza surveillance. Specific sampling strategies will be developed accordingly within each of six regions, defined here as Alaska, Hawaiian/Pacific Islands, Lower Pacific Flyway (Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona), Central Flyway, Mississippi Flyway, and Atlantic Flyway.

  13. Interactions between the visual and the magnetoreception system: different effects of bichromatic light regimes on the directional behavior of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Dehe, Lars; Gehring, Dennis; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When magnetic compass orientation of migratory robins was tested, the birds proved well oriented under low intensity monochromatic light of shorter wavelengths up to 565 nm green; from 583 nm yellow onward, they were disoriented. In the present study, we tested robins under bichromatic lights composed (1) of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green and (2) of 565 nm green and 583 nm yellow at two intensities. Under dim blue-green light with a total quantal flux of ca. 8 × 10(15)quanta/sm(2), the birds were well oriented in their migratory direction by their inclination compass; under blue-green light of twice this intensity, their orientation became axial. In both cases, the magnetic directional information was mediated by the radical pair processes in the eye. When green and yellow light were combined, however, the nature of the behavior changed. Under green-yellow light of the higher intensity, the birds showed a 'fixed direction' response that was polar, no longer controlled by the normal inclination compass; under dim green-yellow light, the response became axial. Under these two light conditions, the respective directional information was mediated by the magnetite-based receptors in the skin of the upper beak. Apparently, yellow light leads to a change from one magnetoreception system to the other. How this change is effected is still unknown; it appears to reflect complex interactions between the visual and the two magnetoreception systems.

  14. Surveillance plan for the early detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in migratory birds in the United States: surveillance year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary: This Surveillance Plan (Plan) describes plans for conducting surveillance of wild birds in the United States and its Territories and Freely-Associated States to provide for early detection of the introduction of the H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype of the influenza A virus by migratory birds during the 2009 surveillance year, spanning the period of April 1, 2009 - March 31, 2010. The Plan represents a continuation of surveillance efforts begun in 2006 under the Interagency Strategic Plan for the Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior, 2006). The Plan sets forth sampling plans by: region, target species or species groups to be sampled, locations of sampling, sample sizes, and sampling approaches and methods. This Plan will be reviewed annually and modified as appropriate for subsequent surveillance years based on evaluation of information from previous years of surveillance, changing patterns and threats of H5N1 HPAI, and changes in funding availability for avian influenza surveillance. Specific sampling strategies will be developed accordingly within each of six regions, defined here as Alaska, Hawaiian/Pacific Islands, Lower Pacific Flyway (Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona), Central Flyway, Mississippi Flyway, and Atlantic Flyway.

  15. How do energy stores and changes in these affect departure decisions by migratory birds? A critical view on stopover ecology studies and some future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaljohann, Heiko; Eikenaar, Cas

    2017-07-01

    In birds, accumulating energy is far slower than spending energy during flight. During migration, birds spend, therefore, most of the time at stopover refueling energy used during the previous flight. This elucidates why current energy stores and actual rate of accumulating energy are likely crucial factors influencing bird's decision when to resume migration in addition to other intrinsic (sex, age) and extrinsic (predation, weather) factors modulating the decision within the innate migration program. After first summarizing how energy stores and stopover durations are generally determined, we critically review that high-energy stores and low rates of accumulating energy were significantly related to high departure probabilities in several bird groups. There are, however, also many studies showing no effect at all. Recent radio-tracking studies highlighted that migrants leave a site either to resume migration or to search for a better stopover location, so-called "landscape movements". Erroneously treating such movements as departures increases the likelihood of type II errors which might mistakenly suggest no effect of either trait on departure. Furthermore, we propose that energy loss during the previous migratory flight in relation to bird's current energy stores and migration strategy significantly affects its urge to refuel and hence its departure decision.

  16. Identification, documentation and delineation of coastal migratory bird habitat in Alaska. II, Feeding habits of birds in the Beaufort Sea: Partial final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The impact of oil and gas development on bird populations is usually thought of in terms of spilled oil directly oiling birds and causing mortality. Far more...

  17. Identification, documentation and delineation of coastal migratory bird habitat in Alaska. II, Feeding habits of birds in the Beaufort Sea: Partial final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The impact of oil and gas development on bird populations is usually thought of in terms of spilled oil directly oiling birds and causing mortality. Far more...

  18. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 Clade 2.3.2.1c virus in migratory birds, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhenjie; Li, Mingxin; Cai, Tianlong; Sharshov, Kirill; Susloparov, Ivan; Shestopalov, Alexander; Wong, Gary; He, Yubang; Xing, Zhi; Sun, Jianqing; Liu, Di; Liu, Yingxia; Liu, Lei; Liu, Wenjun; Lei, Fumin; Shi, Weifeng; Gao, George F

    2016-08-01

    A novel Clade 2.3.2.1c H5N1 reassortant virus caused several outbreaks in wild birds in some regions of China from late 2014 to 2015. Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, the viruses possess a stable gene constellation with a Clade 2.3.2.1c HA, a H9N2-derived PB2 gene and the other six genes of Asian H5N1-origin. The Clade 2.3.2.1c H5N1 reassortants displayed a high genetic relationship to a human H5N1 strain (A/Alberta/01/2014). Further analysis showed that similar viruses have been circulating in wild birds in China, Russia, Dubai (Western Asia), Bulgaria and Romania (Europe), as well as domestic poultry in some regions of Africa. The affected areas include the Central Asian, East Asian-Australasian, West Asian-East African, and Black Sea/Mediterranean flyways. These results show that the novel Clade 2.3.2.1c reassortant viruses are circulating worldwide and may have gained a selective advantage in migratory birds, thus posing a serious threat to wild birds and potentially humans.

  19. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  20. When and where does mortality occur in migratory birds? Direct evidence from long- term satellite tracking of raptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Hake, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine; Koks, Ben J.; Trierweiler, Christiane; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Bairlein, Franz; Alerstam, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Information about when and where animals die is important to understand population regulation. In migratory animals, mortality might occur not only during the stationary periods (e.g. breeding and wintering) but also during the migration seasons. However, the relative importance of population limiti

  1. When and where does mortality occur in migratory birds? Direct evidence from long- term satellite tracking of raptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Hake, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine; Koks, Ben J.; Trierweiler, Christiane; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Bairlein, Franz; Alerstam, Thomas

    Information about when and where animals die is important to understand population regulation. In migratory animals, mortality might occur not only during the stationary periods (e.g. breeding and wintering) but also during the migration seasons. However, the relative importance of population

  2. An exception to the rule : Carry-over effects do not accumulate in a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senner, Nathan R.; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fox, James W.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing consensus that events during one part of an animal's annual cycle can detrimentally affect its future fitness. Notably, migratory species have been shown to commonly display such carry-over effects, facing severe time constraints and physiological stresses that can i

  3. Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Cynthia D; Guillemette, Magella; Pelletier, Emilien; Chastel, Olivier; Bonnefoi, Salomé; Verreault, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused the death of a large number of seabirds in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. However, the long term consequences of oil exposure on migratory birds overwintering in this area have received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of oil contamination (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) on the circulating status of prolactin and corticosterone, two hormones that influence reproductive success in birds, in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Using light-based geolocators, it was found that 23.5% of Northern gannets from Bonaventure Island overwintered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010-2011; the remainder of this population overwintered along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. PAH concentrations (eight compounds) in gannet blood cells were all found to be under the method limits of quantification, which could be the result of the ability of seabirds to metabolize these compounds and the time elapsed between oil exposure and blood sampling. Corticosterone and prolactin levels as well as body mass did not differ between the two major birds' wintering sites. Moreover, levels of both these hormones did not vary from early to late incubation period. Present results suggest that if Bonaventure Island-breeding Northern gannets had been exposed to oil in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of this historical spill, this exposure could not be associated with changes in hormonal status and body mass in breeding individuals.

  4. People, wings, and forests: an international program for conservation of migratory birds and their habitats to benefit people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack C. Capp

    2005-01-01

    One in eight bird species in the world have a real risk of becoming extinct in the next 100 years (Birdlife International 2000). About three-fourths of these species occur in forests and over half of these species suffer from severe fragmentation of their habitats. Tropical deforestation is the major reason for bird decline in the world (Youth 2003). Almost half the...

  5. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-04-27

    Executive SummaryWe operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was established in 2010 as part of a long-term monitoring program for neotropical migratory birds during spring migration and for breeding birds as part of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program.During spring migration (April and May), 2011–15, we captured 1,760 individual birds of 54 species, 91 percent (1,595) of which were newly banded, fewer than 1 percent (3) of which were recaptures that were banded in previous years, and 9 percent (143 hummingbirds, 2 hawks, and 17 other birds) of which we released unbanded. We observed an additional 22 species that were not captured. Thirty-four individuals were captured more than once. Bird capture rate averaged 0.49 ± 0.07 captures per net-hour (range 0.41–0.56). Species richness per day averaged 6.87 ± 0.33. Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s warbler) was the most abundant spring migrant captured, followed by Empidonax difficilis (Pacific-slope flycatcher), Vireo gilvus (warbling vireo), Zonotrichia leucophrys (white-crowned sparrow), and Selasphorus rufus (rufous hummingbird). Captures of white-crowned sparrow decreased, and captures of Pacific-slope flycatcher increased, over the 5 years of our study. Fifty-six percent of known-sex individuals were male and 44 percent were female. The peak number of new species arriving per day ranged from April 1 (2013-six species) to April 16 (2012-five species). A significant correlation was determined between the number of migrants captured each day per net-hour and the density of echoes on the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) images across all 5 years, and in each year except 2014. NEXRAD radar imagery appears to be a useful tool for detecting pulses in migration.Our results indicate that Point Loma provides stopover habitat during migration for 76 migratory species, including 20

  6. Migration- and exercise-induced changes to flight muscle size in migratory birds and association with IGF1 and myostatin mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edwin R; Bauchinger, Ulf; Zajac, Daria M; Cerasale, David J; McFarlan, Jay T; Gerson, Alexander R; McWilliams, Scott R; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2011-09-01

    Seasonal adjustments to muscle size in migratory birds may result from preparatory physiological changes or responses to changed workloads. The mechanisms controlling these changes in size are poorly understood. We investigated some potential mediators of flight muscle size (myostatin and insulin-like growth factor, IGF1) in pectoralis muscles of wild wintering or migrating white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis), captive white-throated sparrows that were photoperiod manipulated to be in a `wintering' or `migratory' (Zugunruhe) state, and captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that were either exercised for 2 weeks in a wind tunnel or untrained. Flight muscle size increased in photo-stimulated `migrants' and in exercised starlings. Acute exercise but not long-term training caused increased expression of IGF1, but neither caused a change in expression of myostatin or its metalloprotease activator TLL1. Photo-stimulated `migrant' sparrows demonstrated increased expression of both myostatin and IGF1, but wild sparrows exhibited no significant seasonal changes in expression of either myostatin or IGF1. Additionally, in both study species we describe several splice variants of myostatin that are shared with distantly related bird species. We demonstrate that their expression patterns are not different from those of the typical myostatin, suggesting that they have no functional importance and may be mistakes of the splicing machinery. We conclude that IGF1 is likely to be an important mediator of muscle phenotypic flexibility during acute exercise and during endogenous, seasonal preparation for migration. The role of myostatin is less clear, but its paradoxical increase in photo-stimulated `migrants' may indicate a role in seasonal adjustments of protein turnover.

  7. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  8. Radiocesium in migratory aquatic game birds using contaminated U.S. Department of Energy reactor-cooling reservoirs: A long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennamer, Robert A; Oldenkamp, Ricki E; Leaphart, James C; King, Joshua D; Bryan, A Lawrence; Beasley, James C

    2017-03-05

    Low-level releases of radiocesium into former nuclear reactor cooling-reservoirs on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, dating primarily to the late 1950s and early 1960s, have allowed examination of long-term contaminant attenuation in biota occupying these habitats. Periodic collections of migratory game birds since the 1970s have documented (137)Cs (radiocesium) activity concentrations in birds of SRS reservoirs, including mainly Par Pond and Pond B. In this study, during 2014 and 2015 we released wild-caught American coots (Fulica americana) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) onto Pond B. We made lethal collections of these same birds with residence times ranging from 32 to 173 days to examine radiocesium uptake and estimate the rate of natural attenuation. The two species achieved asymptotic whole-body activity concentrations of radiocesium at different times, with ring-necked ducks requiring almost three times longer than the 30-35 days needed by coots. We estimated ecological half-life (Te) for Pond B coots over a 28-yr period as 16.8 yr (95% CI = 12.9-24.2 yr). Pond B coot Te was nearly four times longer than Te for coots at nearby Par Pond where radiocesium bioavailability had been constrained for decades by pumping of potassium-enriched river water into that reservoir. Te could not be estimated from long-term data for radiocesium in Pond B diving ducks, including ring-necked ducks, likely because of high variability in residence times of ducks on Pond B. Our results highlight the importance: (1) for risk managers to understand site-specific bio-geochemistry of radiocesium for successful implementation of countermeasures at contaminated sites and (2) of residence time as a critical determinant of observed radiocesium activity concentrations in highly mobile wildlife inhabiting contaminated habitats.

  9. Spring-time distributions of migratory marine birds in the southern California Current: Oceanic eddy associations and coastal habitat hotspots over 17 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, P. P. W.; Sydeman, W. J.; Bograd, S. J.; Hyrenbach, K. D.

    2006-02-01

    We used a 17-year time series of shipboard observations to address the hypothesis that marine birds associate with persistent hydrographic features in the southern California Current System (CCS). Overall, approximately 27,000 km of ocean habitat were surveyed, averaging 1600 km per cruise. We identified mesoscale features (eddy centers and the core of the California Current), based on dynamic height anomalies, and considered habitat associations for seven migratory seabird species: black-footed albatross ( Phoebastria nigripes), Cook's petrel ( Pterodroma cookii), Leach's storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa), dark shearwaters (mainly sooty shearwater Puffinus griseus, with a few short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris), northern fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis), red phalarope ( Phalaropus fulicaria), and red-necked phalarope ( Phalaropus lobatus). We explored associations (presence/absence and density relationships) of marine birds with mesoscale features (eddies, current jet) and metrics of primary productivity (chlorophyll a and nitrate concentrations). Mesoscale eddies were consistently identified in the study region, but were spatially and temporally variable. The resolved eddies were large-scale features associated with meanders of the equatorward-flowing California Current. Cook's petrel was found offshore with no specific habitat affinities. Black-footed albatross, red phalarope, and Leach's storm petrel were found in association with offshore eddies and/or the core of the California Current, but the functional relationship for these species varied, possibly reflecting differences in flight capabilities. The more coastal species, including the shearwaters, fulmar, and red-necked phalarope, were positively associated with proxies of primary productivity. Of the hydrographic habitats considered, the upwelling region of Point Conception appears to be an important "hotspot" of sustained primary production and marine bird concentrations. Point Conception and

  10. When and where does mortality occur in migratory birds? Direct evidence from long-term satellite tracking of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Raymond H G; Hake, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine; Koks, Ben J; Trierweiler, Christiane; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Bairlein, Franz; Alerstam, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Information about when and where animals die is important to understand population regulation. In migratory animals, mortality might occur not only during the stationary periods (e.g. breeding and wintering) but also during the migration seasons. However, the relative importance of population limiting factors during different periods of the year remains poorly understood, and previous studies mainly relied on indirect evidence. Here, we provide direct evidence about when and where migrants die by identifying cases of confirmed and probable deaths in three species of long-distance migratory raptors tracked by satellite telemetry. We show that mortality rate was about six times higher during migration seasons than during stationary periods. However, total mortality was surprisingly similar between periods, which can be explained by the fact that risky migration periods are shorter than safer stationary periods. Nevertheless, more than half of the annual mortality occurred during migration. We also found spatiotemporal patterns in mortality: spring mortality occurred mainly in Africa in association with the crossing of the Sahara desert, while most mortality during autumn took place in Europe. Our results strongly suggest that events during the migration seasons have an important impact on the population dynamics of long-distance migrants. We speculate that mortality during spring migration may account for short-term annual variation in survival and population sizes, while mortality during autumn migration may be more important for long-term population regulation (through density-dependent effects).

  11. A global threats overview for Numeniini populations: synthesising expert knowledge for a group of declining migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Brown, Daniel J.; Douglas, David T.; Alves, Jose A.; Bellio, Mariagrazia; Bocher, Pierrick; Buchannan, Graeme M.; Clay, Robert P.; Conklin, Jesse R.; Crockford, Nicola; Dann, Peter; Elts, Jaanus; Friis, Christian; Fuller, Richard A.; Gill, Jennifer A.; Gosbell, Ken; Johnson, James A.; Marquez-Ferrando, Rocio; Masero, Jose´ A.; Melville, David S.; Millington, Spike; Minton, Clive; Mundkur, Taej; Nol, Erika; Pehlak, Hannes; Piersma, Theunis; Rogers, Danny I.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Senner, Nathan R.; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Sheldon, Rob D.; Soloviev, Sergej A.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Verkuil, Yvonne I.

    2017-01-01

    The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species' recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the

  12. Quantifying full phenological event distributions reveals simultaneous advances, temporal stability and delays in spring and autumn migration timing in long-distance migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Will T S; Bolton, Mark; Davis, Peter; Dennis, Roy; Broad, Roger; Robertson, Iain; Riddiford, Nick J; Harvey, Paul V; Riddington, Roger; Shaw, Deryk N; Parnaby, David; Reid, Jane M

    2017-04-01

    Phenological changes in key seasonally expressed life-history traits occurring across periods of climatic and environmental change can cause temporal mismatches between interacting species, and thereby impact population and community dynamics. However, studies quantifying long-term phenological changes have commonly only measured variation occurring in spring, measured as the first or mean dates on which focal traits or events were observed. Few studies have considered seasonally paired events spanning spring and autumn or tested the key assumption that single convenient metrics accurately capture entire event distributions. We used 60 years (1955-2014) of daily bird migration census data from Fair Isle, Scotland, to comprehensively quantify the degree to which the full distributions of spring and autumn migration timing of 13 species of long-distance migratory bird changed across a period of substantial climatic and environmental change. In most species, mean spring and autumn migration dates changed little. However, the early migration phase (≤10th percentile date) commonly got earlier, while the late migration phase (≥90th percentile date) commonly got later. Consequently, species' total migration durations typically lengthened across years. Spring and autumn migration phenologies were not consistently correlated within or between years within species and hence were not tightly coupled. Furthermore, different metrics quantifying different aspects of migration phenology within seasons were not strongly cross-correlated, meaning that no single metric adequately described the full pattern of phenological change. These analyses therefore reveal complex patterns of simultaneous advancement, temporal stability and delay in spring and autumn migration phenologies, altering species' life-history structures. Additionally, they demonstrate that this complexity is only revealed if multiple metrics encompassing entire seasonal event distributions, rather than single

  13. Effects of spring temperatures on the strength of selection on timing of reproduction in a long-distance migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marcel E; Gienapp, Phillip; Husby, Arild; Morrisey, Michael; de la Hera, Iván; Pulido, Francisco; Both, Christiaan

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has differentially affected the timing of seasonal events for interacting trophic levels, and this has often led to increased selection on seasonal timing. Yet, the environmental variables driving this selection have rarely been identified, limiting our ability to predict future ecological impacts of climate change. Using a dataset spanning 31 years from a natural population of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), we show that directional selection on timing of reproduction intensified in the first two decades (1980-2000) but weakened during the last decade (2001-2010). Against expectation, this pattern could not be explained by the temporal variation in the phenological mismatch with food abundance. We therefore explored an alternative hypothesis that selection on timing was affected by conditions individuals experience when arriving in spring at the breeding grounds: arriving early in cold conditions may reduce survival. First, we show that in female recruits, spring arrival date in the first breeding year correlates positively with hatch date; hence, early-hatched individuals experience colder conditions at arrival than late-hatched individuals. Second, we show that when temperatures at arrival in the recruitment year were high, early-hatched young had a higher recruitment probability than when temperatures were low. We interpret this as a potential cost of arriving early in colder years, and climate warming may have reduced this cost. We thus show that higher temperatures in the arrival year of recruits were associated with stronger selection for early reproduction in the years these birds were born. As arrival temperatures in the beginning of the study increased, but recently declined again, directional selection on timing of reproduction showed a nonlinear change. We demonstrate that environmental conditions with a lag of up to two years can alter selection on phenological traits in natural populations, something that has important

  14. Pattern of mercury accumulation in different tissues of migratory and resident birds: Western reef heron (Egretta gularis) and Siberian gull (Larus heuglini) in Hara International Wetland-Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Yousef; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The Hara Mangrove Forest of the Persian Gulf is undergoing increasing pollution from industrial, municipal, and petroleum sources; however, little research in ecotoxicology has been carried out in this ecosystem. In the present study, mercury distribution and accumulation were investigated in muscle, liver, kidney, and feather of the resident Western reef heron (n = 15) and the migratory Siberian gull (n = 15). We also evaluated the relation between Hg concentrations, sex, and age (juvenile vs. adult). Results showed that the highest concentrations of Hg were recorded in the feather (35 ± 0.14-3.0 ± 0.27 mg kg(-1) dw) and at 3.7-, 1.6-, and 1.3-fold in muscle, kidney, and liver, respectively. Concentrations of mercury in tissues of migratory birds were two times higher than in resident birds; geographical differences and feeding habits were used to explain these variations. We found a weak relationship between Hg concentrations in feathers and internal tissues (r ≤ 0.50); conversely, liver presented strong positive correlations with other soft tissues, especially kidney (p > 0.05; r = 0.82). Results showed that sex and age have no significant effects on T-Hg accumulation in these birds (p > 0.05; r mercury pollution in this region.

  15. Phylogenetic Analysis and Pathogenicity Assessment of Two Strains of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Isolated from Migratory Birds: High Homology of Internal Genes with Human H10N8 Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ge; Liang, Chai Hong; Hua, Deng Guo; Song, Lei Yong; Xiang, Yang Guo; Guang, Chen; Lan, Chen Hua; Ping, Hua Yu

    2016-01-01

    Two human-infecting avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H7N9 and H10N8, have emerged in China, which further indicate that the H9N2 subtype of AIVs, as an internal gene donor, may have an important role in the generation of new viruses with cross-species transmissibility and pathogenicity. H9N2 viruses that contain such internal genes widely exist in poultry but are rarely reported in migratory birds. In this study, two strains of the H9N2 virus were isolated from fecal samples of migratory birds in 2014: one strain from Caizi Lake in Anhui Province and one from Chen Lake in Hubei Province of China. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed high homology of all six internal genes of these two strains with the internal genes of the human H10N8 virus in Jiangxi Province, as well as with the human H7N9 virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a possible origin of these two strains from poultry in South China. Both of the two viruses tested could replicated in respiratory organs of infective mice without adaption, by both strains of the H9N2 AIVs from wild birds, suggesting their potential capacity for directly infecting mammals. Our findings indicate the existence of H9N2 viruses that contain internal genes highly homologous with human H10N8 or H7N9 viruses. Wild birds can contribute to the spread of the H9N2 virus that contains the "harmful" internal gene complex, leading to gene rearrangement with other influenza viruses and to the generation of new pathogenic viruses. Therefore, strengthening AIV surveillance in wild birds can promote an understanding of the presence and prevalence of viruses and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of AIVs and human-infecting AIVs.

  16. Migratory bird national resource plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management plans for regional and subspecific populations of Tundra Swans, Trumpeter Swans, White-fronted Goose, Snow Goose, Brant, Canada Goose, Wood Duck, Black...

  17. Yeasts vectored by migratory birds collected in the Mediterranean island of Ustica and description of Phaffomyces usticensis f.a. sp. nov., a new species related to the cactus ecoclade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, Nicola; Carvalho, Cláudia; Sannino, Ciro; Guerreiro, Marco A; Almeida, Pedro M; Settanni, Luca; Massa, Bruno; Sampaio, José P; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2014-09-01

    Nine yeast species belonging to genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Phaffomyces, Rhodotorula and Wickerhamomyces, and one species of Aureobasidium genus were isolated from the cloaca of migratory birds. Candida glabrata and C. inconspicua were the species most frequently isolated and Wickerhamomyces sylviae, which has recently been described as a new species isolated from bird cloaca, was again found. The majority of isolates showed the ability to grow up to 40 °C and/or at pH 3.0, two environmental conditions typical of the digestive tract of birds. The phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA gene placed the cultures of Phaffomyces in a new lineage that differed from the closest species, P. opuntiae, by 13 nucleotide substitutions. The new species was able to grow at 40 °C and at pH 2.5, which suggests a possible adaptation to the bird cloaca. Moreover, the ability to grow in the presence of digitonin at pH 3.7 and the assimilation of ethyl acetate indicates a potential cactophilic origin. For the first time, the presence of yeasts belonging to the Phaffomyces clade in Europe and also in non-cactus environments is reported. The new species is formally described as P. usticensis sp. nov. (PYCC 6346(T) = CBS 12958(T)).

  18. Social learning of migratory performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas; O'Hara, Robert B.; Converse, Sarah J.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Fagan, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Successful bird migration can depend on individual learning, social learning, and innate navigation programs. Using 8 years of data on migrating whooping cranes, we were able to partition genetic and socially learned aspects of migration. Specifically, we analyzed data from a reintroduced population wherein all birds were captive bred and artificially trained by ultralight aircraft on their first lifetime migration. For subsequent migrations, in which birds fly individually or in groups but without ultralight escort, we found evidence of long-term social learning, but no effect of genetic relatedness on migratory performance. Social learning from older birds reduced deviations from a straight-line path, with 7 years of experience yielding a 38% improvement in migratory accuracy.

  19. IncA/C Plasmid Carrying bla(NDM-1), bla(CMY-16), and fosA3 in a Salmonella enterica Serovar Corvallis Strain Isolated from a Migratory Wild Bird in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, L; Guerra, B; Schmoger, S; Fischer, J; Helmuth, R; Zong, Z; García-Fernández, A; Carattoli, A

    2015-10-01

    A Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis strain was isolated from a wild bird in Germany. This strain carried the IncA/C2 pRH-1238 plasmid. Complete sequencing of the plasmid was performed, identifying the blaNDM-1, blaCMY-16, fosA3, sul1, sul2, strA, strB, aac(6')-Ib, aadA5, aphA6, tetA(A), mphA, floR, dfrA7, and merA genes, which confer clinically relevant resistance to most of the antimicrobial classes, including β-lactams with carbapenems, fosfomycin, aminoglycosides, co-trimoxazole, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The strain likely originated from the Asiatic region and was transferred to Germany through the Milvus migrans migratory route. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately...

  1. Data for monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was...

  2. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm: Preliminary note of analysis of data from spring 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    In February 1998, the Ministry of the Environment gave Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.a. approval to erect a wind farm, capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk off the west coast of Jutland. Construction activities at Horns Rev started in September 2001 and were finished in summer 2002. The entire project has been organised as a demonstration project to assess the technical, economic and environmental constraints on the future development of electric power production in Danish offshore environments. Within the framework of the environmental programme, bird investigations have been carried out in relation to the risk of collision between birds and wind turbines since 2002. To provide the latest update on the results from the bird investigations, this note presents results compiled during spring 2004 and deals with a preliminary analysis of effects on birds present at Horns Rev during commercial operation of the Horns Rev wind farm. Due to the remoteness of the area it has not been possible to obtain base-line investigation of bird occurrence and behaviour at the wind farm site. (au)

  3. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drooge, Barend van [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Vives, Ingrid [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cardiel, Iris [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Guitart, Raimon [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: raimon.guitart@uab.cat

    2008-05-15

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for {sigma}PCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and {sigma}PCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors.

  4. Carry-over effects of conditions at the wintering grounds on breeding plumage signals in a migratory bird: roles of phenotypic plasticity and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvistö, P E; Calhim, S; Schuett, W; Sirkiä, P M; Velmala, W; Laaksonen, T

    2016-08-01

    To understand the consequences of ever-changing environment on the dynamics of phenotypic traits, distinguishing between selection processes and individual plasticity is crucial. We examined individual consistency/plasticity in several male secondary sexual traits expressed during the breeding season (white wing and forehead patch size, UV reflectance of white wing patch and dorsal melanin coloration) in a migratory pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) population over an 11-year period. Furthermore, we studied carry-over effects of three environmental variables (NAO, a climatic index; NDVI, a vegetation index; and rainfall) at the wintering grounds (during prebreeding moult) on the expression of these breeding plumage traits of pied flycatcher males at individual and population levels. Whereas NAO correlates negatively with moisture in West Africa, NDVI correlates positively with primary production. Forehead patch size and melanin coloration were highly consistent within individuals among years, whereas the consistency of the other two traits was moderate. Wing patch size decreased with higher NAO and increased with higher rainfall and NDVI at the individual level. Interestingly, small-patched males suffered lower survival during high NAO winters than large-patched males, and vice versa during low NAO winters. These counteracting processes meant that the individual-level change was masked at the population level where no relationship was found. Our results provide a good example of how variation in the phenotypic composition of a natural population can be a result of both environment-dependent individual plasticity and short-term microevolution. Moreover, when plasticity and viability selection operate simultaneously, their impacts on population composition may not be evident.

  5. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  6. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  7. Consequences of habitat loss at migratory stopover sites: a theoretical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, T.P.; Houston, A.L.; Ens, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    We use a dynamic optimization model to assess the consequences of habitat loss at migratory stopover sites. We emphasize costs birds face during stopover (e.g. costs of gaining energy), the timing of site use and the behavioural rules birds might use to implement migratory strategies. Behavioural ru

  8. Acephate affects migratory orientation of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Sauer, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Migratory white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) were exposed to acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), an organophosphorus pesticide, to determine its effects on migratory orientation and behavior. Birds were also exposed to polarizer sheets to determine the mechanism by which acephate may affect migratory orientation. Adult birds exposed to 256 ppm acephate a.i. were not able to establish a preferred migratory orientation and exhibited random activity. All juvenile treatment groups displayed a seasonally correct southward migratory orientation. We hypothesize that acephate may have produced aberrant migratory behavior by affecting the memory of the migratory route and wintering ground. This experiment reveals that an environmentally relevant concentration of a common organophosphorus pesticide can alter migratory orientation, but its effect is markedly different between adult and juvenile sparrows. Results suggest that the survival of free-flying adult passerine migrants may be compromised following organophosphorus pesticide exposure.

  9. Feather corticosterone reveals effect of moulting conditions in the autumn on subsequent reproductive output and survival in an Arctic migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, N Jane; Legagneux, Pierre; Gilchrist, H Grant; Bêty, Joël; Love, Oliver P; Forbes, Mark R; Bortolotti, Gary R; Soos, Catherine

    2015-02-07

    For birds, unpredictable environments during the energetically stressful times of moulting and breeding are expected to have negative fitness effects. Detecting those effects however, might be difficult if individuals modulate their physiology and/or behaviours in ways to minimize short-term fitness costs. Corticosterone in feathers (CORTf) is thought to provide information on total baseline and stress-induced CORT levels at moulting and is an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during the time feathers are grown. We predicted that CORTf levels in northern common eider females would relate to subsequent body condition, reproductive success and survival, in a population of eiders nesting in the eastern Canadian Arctic during a capricious period marked by annual avian cholera outbreaks. We collected CORTf data from feathers grown during previous moult in autumn and data on phenology of subsequent reproduction and survival for 242 eider females over 5 years. Using path analyses, we detected a direct relationship between CORTf and arrival date and body condition the following year. CORTf also had negative indirect relationships with both eider reproductive success and survival of eiders during an avian cholera outbreak. This indirect effect was dramatic with a reduction of approximately 30% in subsequent survival of eiders during an avian cholera outbreak when mean CORTf increased by 1 standard deviation. This study highlights the importance of events or processes occurring during moult on subsequent expression of life-history traits and relation to individual fitness, and shows that information from non-destructive sampling of individuals can track carry-over effects across seasons.

  10. Implications of mitochondrial DNA polyphyly in two ecologically undifferentiated but morphologically distinct migratory birds, the masked and white-browed woodswallows Artamus spp. of inland Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Leo; Wilke, Thomas; Ten Have, Jose; Chesser, R. Terry

    2006-01-01

    The white-browed woodswallow Artamus superciliosus and masked woodswallow A. personatus(Passeriformes: Artamidae) are members of Australia's diverse arid- and semi-arid zone avifauna. Widely sympatric and among Australia's relatively few obligate long-distance temperate-tropical migrants, the two are well differentiated morphologically but not ecologically and vocally. They are pair breeders unlike other Artamus species, which are at least facultative cooperative breeders. For these reasons they are an excellent case in which to use molecular data in integrative study of their evolution from ecological and biogeographical perspectives. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to test whether they are each other's closest relatives, whether they evolved migration independently, whether they have molecular signatures of population expansions like some other Australian arid zone birds, and to estimate the timing of any inferred population expansions. Their mtDNAs are monophyletic with respect to other species of Artamusbut polyphyletic with respect to each other. The two species appear not to have evolved migration independently of each other but their morphological and mtDNA evolution have been strongly decoupled. Some level of hybridization and introgression cannot be dismissed outright as being involved in their mtDNA polyphyly but incomplete sorting of their most recent common ancestor's mtDNA is a simpler explanation consistent with their ecology. Bayesian phylogenetic inference and analyses of diversity within the two species (n=77) with conventional diversity statistics, statistical parsimony, and tests for population expansion vs stability (Tajima's D, Fu's Fsand Ramos-Onsin and Rozas's R2) all favour recent population increases. However, a non-starlike network suggests expansion(s) relatively early in the Pleistocene. Repeated population bottlenecks corresponding with multiple peaks of Pleistocene aridity could explain our findings, which add a new

  11. Seasonal abundance of birds on the Bear River Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains interesting data on the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge such as how far the birds fly, how long do they live, how many have been banded,...

  12. Migratory divides and their consequences for dispersal, population size and parasite-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Garamszegi, L Z; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Soler, J J

    2011-08-01

    Populations of migratory birds differ in their direction of migration with neighbouring populations often migrating in divergent directions separated by migratory divides. A total of 26% of 103 passerine bird species in Europe had migratory divides that were located disproportionately often along a longitudinal gradient in Central Europe, consistent with the assumption of a Quaternary glacial origin of such divides in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas followed by recolonization. Given that studies have shown significant genetic differentiation and reduced gene flow across migratory divides, we hypothesized that an absence of migratory divides would result in elevated rates of gene flow and hence a reduced level of local adaptation. In a comparative study, species with migratory divides had larger population sizes and population densities and longer dispersal distances than species without migratory divides. Species with migratory divides tended to be habitat generalists. Bird species with migratory divides had higher richness of blood parasites and higher growth rates of Staphylococcus on their eggs during the incubation period. There was weaker cell-mediated immunity in adults and stronger cell lysis in species with migratory divides. These findings may suggest that migratory divides constitute barriers to dispersal with consequences for ecology and evolution of distributions, population sizes, habitats and parasite-host interactions. They also suggest that migratory divides may play a role in local adaptation in host-parasite interactions.

  13. Migratory fat deposition in European quail: a role for prolactin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, T; Sharp, P J; Hall, M R; Goldsmith, A R

    1995-07-01

    The present study addresses the role of prolactin as a regulator of migratory fattening in European quail (Coturnix coturnix). Plasma prolactin levels in captive birds undergoing migratory fattening in an outdoor aviary and in the laboratory were measured by radioimmunoassay with an antibody raised against recombinant-derived chicken prolactin. No strong association between prolactin and migratory fattening was apparent, and prolactin levels were more closely related to daylength, with the highest concentrations being reached on long days. Plasma prolactin profiles were similar in intact and castrated male quail. Prolactin was secreted in a daily rhythm, with the highest concentrations occurring early in the photophase. However, when birds were food-restricted for 50 days during a migratory phase, there was no difference in fat deposition between birds food-deprived for the first half of the daily photophase compared with those deprived for the second half. Fattening was reduced in the food-restricted birds relative to ad libitum-fed controls, but there was no difference in plasma prolactin levels between the groups. Injections of ovine prolactin (4 mg/kg) significantly increased food intake and body mass of birds maintained on long days, but there were no differences in fattening between birds injected in the morning compared with those injected in the afternoon. Collectively, these results do not support a major role for prolactin in the regulation of migratory fat deposition in European quail.

  14. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements...... in when and where the bird compensated for the displacement. The last paper investigates effects of habitat shading on the performance of light-level based geolocation and compares experimental data with data from real tracking studies. This illustrates some of the potential problems and limitations...

  15. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  16. Enhancing bird banding information sharing across the western hemishpere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, A.; Berlanga, H.; Howes, L.; Tomosy, M.

    2007-01-01

    Bird banding and marking provide indispensable tools for ornithological research, management, and conservation of migratory birds and their habitats along migratory routes, breeding and non-breeding grounds. With the growing interest in international coordination of tracking bird movements, coordination amongst developing and existing programs is essential for effective data management. The North American Bird Banding Program (Canadian Bird Banding Office and U.S. Bird Banding Laboratory and the Mexican government) has been working to enhance collaboration with other Western Hemisphere countries to establish a voluntary bird banding communication network. This network addresses challenges, such as: demonstrating how sharing banding expertise and information management can support the stewardship of Western Hemisphere migratory birds, ensuring that valuable banding and encounter data are captured and shared. With increasing numbers of international scientific and conservation initiatives, bird banding and marking programs must provide essential international coordination functions as well as support local activities by facilitating access to bands, training, data management and encounter reporting.

  17. Current methods of oiled bird rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Oil Spill Response Workshop cosponsored by the Office of Migratory Bird Management and the Office of Biological Services, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Dept. of...

  18. Migratory Bird Joint Ventures of New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — A joint venture is a self-directed partnership of agencies, organizations, corporations, tribes, or individuals that has formally accepted the responsibility of...

  19. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  20. A Palaearctic migratory raptor species tracks shifting prey availability within its wintering range in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trierweiler, Christiane; Mullie, Wim C.; Drent, Rudi H.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, Franz; Harouna, Abdoulaye; de Bakker, Marinus; Koks, Ben J.

    2013-01-01

    Mid-winter movements of up to several hundreds of kilometres are typical for many migratory bird species wintering in Africa. Unpredictable temporary food concentrations are thought to result in random movements of such birds, whereas resightings and recoveries of marked birds suggest some degree of

  1. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Birds : Brigham City, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This brochure offers a list of 221 species that had been recorded on the refuge as of 1995. A list of accidental species (one or two records in a ten year period)...

  2. Experimental temperature manipulations alter songbird autumnal nocturnal migratory restlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berchtold Adrienne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Migrating birds may respond to a variety of environmental cues in order to time migration. During the migration season nocturnally migrating songbirds may migrate or stop-over at their current location, and when migrating they may vary the rate or distance of migration on any given night. It has long been known that a variety of weather-related factors including wind speed and direction, and temperature, are correlated with migration in free-living birds, however these variables are often correlated with each other. In this study we experimentally manipulated temperature to determine if it would directly modulate nocturnal migratory restlessness in songbirds. We experimentally manipulated temperature between 4, 14, and 24°C and monitored nocturnal migratory restlessness during autumn in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis. White-throated sparrows are relatively shortdistance migrants with a prolonged autumnal migration, and we thus predicted they might be sensitive to weatherrelated cues when deciding whether to migrate or stopover. At warm temperatures (24°C none of the birds exhibited migratory restlessness. The probability of exhibiting migratory restlessness, and the intensity of this restlessness (number of infra-red beam breaks increased at cooler (14°C, 4°C temperatures. These data support the hypothesis that one of the many factors that birds use when making behavioural decisions during migration is temperature, and that birds can respond to temperature directly independently of other weather-related cues.

  3. Migratory restlessness in captive individuals predicts actual departure in the wild

    OpenAIRE

    Eikenaar, Cas; Klinner, Thomas; Szostek, K. Lesley; Bairlein, Franz

    2014-01-01

    In captivity, migratory birds show increased activity during the time that they would normally migrate. The phenology and intensity of such ‘migratory restlessness’ has been shown to mirror species- and population-specific migration patterns observed in the wild and has consequently been used as a proxy for the motivation to migrate. Many studies doing so, however, were aiming to explain among-individual variation in migratory behaviour or traits, and not species- or population-specific trait...

  4. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for November 1940 - January 1941 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  5. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for May - July 1941 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  6. Quarterly report of Upper Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge for May, June and July, 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through July of 1939. Wildlife- including migratory birds...

  7. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for February - April 1941 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  8. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for August - October 1939 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  9. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for August - October 1941 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  10. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for February - April 1940 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  11. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for February - April 1942 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  12. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for August - October 1938 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  13. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for August - October 1940 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  14. Death and danger at migratory stopovers: Problems with "predation risk"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lank, D.B.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    Dierschke (2003) recently published a paper entitled, ``Predation hazard during migratory stopover: are light or heavy birds under risk?¿¿ He measured the body condition of 11 species of passerine migrants depredated by feral cats and raptors at an offshore stopover site, and used these data to

  15. Coordinated bird monitoring: Technical recommendations for military lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Manning, Ann; Fischer, Richard; Eberly, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is subject to several rules and regulations establishing responsibilities for monitoring migratory birds. The Sikes Act requires all military installations with significant natural resources to prepare and implement Integrated Natural Resources Management Plans (INRMPs). These plans guide the conservation and long-term management of natural resources on military lands in a manner that is compatible with and sustains the military mission. An INRMP also supports compliance with all legal requirements and guides the military in fulfilling its obligation to be a good steward of public land.The management and conservation of migratory birds is addressed in installation INRMPs. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate and disclose the potential environmental impacts of their proposed actions. More recently, DoD signed an MOU (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/EO13186_MOU-DoD.pdf) for migratory birds, under Executive Order 13186, with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in July 2006 and a Migratory Bird Rule (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/MigBirdFINALRule_FRFeb2007.pdf) was passed by Congress in February 2007. The Migratory Bird Rule addresses the potential impacts of military readiness activities on populations of migratory birds and establishes a process to implement conservation measures if and when a military readiness activity is expected to have a significant adverse impact on a population of migratory bird species (as determined through the NEPA process). The MOU states that for nonmilitary readiness activities, prior to initiating any activity likely to affect populations of migratory birds DoD shall (1) identify the migratory bird species likely to occur in the area of the proposed action and determine if any species of concern could be affected by the activity, and (2) assess and document, using NEPA when applicable, the effect of the proposed action on species of concern. By

  16. 78 FR 35844 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ...-related regulations. In particular, it was our belief that any potential increase in the possession limits... approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for the public where these...

  17. 75 FR 59041 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Survey; population status reports for blue-winged teal, sandhill cranes, woodcock, mourning doves, white... Order 12866. OMB bases its determination of regulatory significance upon the following four criteria: (a..., shooting hours are sunrise to sunset, and each waterfowl hunter 16 years of age or older must carry on...

  18. 76 FR 58681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... has reviewed this rule under Executive Order 12866. OMB bases its determination of regulatory... cases (e.g., tundra swans, some sandhill crane populations), the Service determines the amount of... must be 15 years of age or younger. In addition, an adult at least 18 years of age must accompany...

  19. 75 FR 52398 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    .... Pintails vi. Scaup vii. Mottled ducks viii. Wood ducks ix. Youth Hunt 2. Sea Ducks 3. Mergansers 4. Canada... year's frameworks. Due to the comprehensive nature of the annual review of the frameworks performed by... options had increased harvest pressure; however, the ability to detect the impact of zone/split...

  20. 77 FR 23093 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... viii. Wood Ducks ix. Youth Hunt x. Mallard Management Units xi. Other 2. Sea Ducks 3. Mergansers 4... breeding population size) did not perform adequately, resulting in a consistent over-prediction of mallard... increased harvest pressure; however, the ability to detect the impact of zone/split configurations was poor...

  1. 77 FR 49867 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    .... Mottled Ducks viii. Wood Ducks ix. Youth Hunt x. Mallard Management Units xi. Other 2. Sea Ducks 3... year's frameworks. Due to the comprehensive nature of the annual review of the frameworks performed by... harvest pressure, in particular the Tall Grass Prairie (TGP) population. We recognize the continuing...

  2. 78 FR 52337 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    .... Mottled ducks viii. Wood ducks ix. Youth Hunt x. Mallard Management Units xi. Other 2. Sea Ducks 3... frameworks. Due to the comprehensive nature of the annual review of the frameworks performed by the Councils... pressure. We recognize the continuing problems posed by increasing numbers of resident Canada geese and...

  3. 75 FR 32872 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... alternatives for duck hunting seasons remain the same as those used in 2009. Service Response: As we stated in... Council Recommendations: The Atlantic Flyway Council recommended adoption of a derived Northern Pintail... usefulness of sex-specific regulations for pintails as a way to increase hunting opportunity on male...

  4. 76 FR 53535 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). Production of arctic-nesting geese depends heavily upon the timing of snow and ice melt, and on spring and early summer temperatures. In 2011, snowmelt timing was average to... Arctic, especially near Queen Maud Gulf, improved relative to last year's very late spring, so...

  5. 76 FR 54675 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... geese (Anser albifrons), and tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). Production of arctic-nesting geese depends heavily upon the timing of snow and ice melt, and on spring and early summer temperatures. In 2011.... Conditions in the central Arctic, especially near Queen Maud Gulf, improved relative to last year's very...

  6. 77 FR 58657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Survey; population status reports for blue-winged teal, sandhill cranes, woodcock, mourning doves, white... annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy. Executive Order 13563 reaffirms the principles of E... Enforcement Fairness Act. For the reasons outlined above, this rule will have an annual effect on the...

  7. 75 FR 18764 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... essential food that is shared and preserves the age-old customs and traditions associated with it. Service Response: We respectfully acknowledge the importance of the customs and traditions that go along with the... environmentally contaminated wild foods. We have notified the public in our regulations of the risks associated...

  8. 76 FR 44729 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... normally migrated through the State, reducing the likelihood that sandhill crane hunters would encounter..., conditional on successful monitoring being conducted as called for in the Flyway hunt plan for this...

  9. 78 FR 45375 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... any migration from the CPRV. The photo-corrected, 3-year average for 2010-12 was 504,658, which is..., airport removal, trap and euthanize, and agricultural shooting permits have all been used in efforts to...

  10. 77 FR 49679 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... October 6, 2012, and run until January 20, 2013. The Tribes propose the same season dates for mergansers... season, the Tribe requests that the tribal member duck season run from September 15, 2012, through..., the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, the St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin,...

  11. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... tribal member duck season run from September 15, 2013, through January 15, 2014. A daily bag limit of 20... Chippewa Indians, the Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, the Red Cliff Band of...

  12. 77 FR 58443 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ..., last fall the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) used the interim strategy to establish its proposed black... same data the CWS used, to ensure comparable application of the strategy. The long-term...

  13. 77 FR 54451 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... flocks were 5.0 times more likely to fly within gun range ( http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds... cranes. Crane carcass tags are required prior to hunting. Sora and Virginia Rails: All Areas. Season Dates: Begin September 1 and end November 25, 2012. Daily Bag Limit: 25 sora and Virginia rails,...

  14. 78 FR 53217 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... goose flocks were 5.0 times more likely to fly within gun range ( http://www.regulations.gov at Docket... carcass tags are required prior to hunting. Sora and Virginia Rails: All Areas Season Dates: Begin September 1 and end November 24, 2013. Daily Bag Limit: 25 sora and Virginia rails, singly or in...

  15. 75 FR 58249 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ..., beginning with the 2010-11 season. Written Comments: The Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) urged us to reduce... ongoing mortality. Fortunately, waterfowl management has a rich and successful history of monitoring and... experiment indicate that the percentage of migrant geese harvested in the 6-county region surrounding Terre...

  16. 75 FR 52873 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... periods associated with these rules. The Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) urged us to reduce bag limits.... Fortunately, waterfowl management has a rich and successful history of monitoring and assessment programs... 22. In 2007, Minnesota began a 3-year experiment to assess the proportion of migrant geese harvested...

  17. 77 FR 58731 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... the Yentna River, and August 1-31--That portion of Unit 16(B) south of the Beluga River, Beluga Lake... shoreline of western Prince of Wales Island from Point Baker to Cape Chacon, but also including...

  18. 76 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... the Yentna River, and August 1-31--That portion of Unit 16(B) south of the Beluga River, Beluga Lake... shoreline of western Prince of Wales Island from Point Baker to Cape Chacon, but also including...

  19. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Beluga River, Beluga Lake, and the Triumvirate Glacier. (2) Closure: June 1-July 31. (l) Southeast Alaska... islands and adjacent shoreline of western Prince of Wales Island from Point Baker to Cape Chacon, but...

  20. 77 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... August 1-31--That portion of Unit 16(B) south of the Beluga River, Beluga Lake, and the Triumvirate... Prince of Wales Island from Point Baker to Cape Chacon, but also including Coronation and Warren...

  1. 78 FR 11988 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... August 1-31--That portion of Unit 16(B) south of the Beluga River, Beluga Lake, and the Triumvirate... Prince of Wales Island from Point Baker to Cape Chacon, but also including Coronation and Warren...

  2. 75 FR 65599 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... the Yentna River, and August 1-31--That portion of Unit 16(B) south of the Beluga River, Beluga Lake... shoreline of western Prince of Wales Island from Point Baker to Cape Chacon, but also including...

  3. 76 FR 68263 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Unit 16(B) south of the Beluga River, Beluga Lake, and the Triumvirate Glacier: (2) Closure: June 1... Hydaburg (Harvest area: small islands and adjacent shoreline of western Prince of Wales Island from...

  4. 77 FR 53117 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... effect of $100 million or more on the economy. Executive Order 13563 reaffirms the principles of E.O... Enforcement Fairness Act. For the reasons outlined above, this rule will have an annual effect on the economy... communicate those selections to us; and ] to establish and publicize the necessary regulations and procedures...

  5. 78 FR 58233 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... would have an annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy. Executive Order 13563 reaffirms the... effect on the economy of $100 million or more. However, because this rule establishes hunting seasons, we... insufficient time to select season dates and limits; to communicate those selections to us; and to establish...

  6. Hampered foraging and migratory performance in swans infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza A virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A van Gils

    Full Text Available It is increasingly acknowledged that migratory birds, notably waterfowl, play a critical role in the maintenance and spread of influenza A viruses. In order to elucidate the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in their natural hosts, a better understanding of the pathological effects in these hosts is required. Here we report on the feeding and migratory performance of wild migratory Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii Yarrell naturally infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI A viruses of subtypes H6N2 and H6N8. Using information on geolocation data collected from Global Positioning Systems fitted to neck-collars, we show that infected swans experienced delayed migration, leaving their wintering site more than a month after uninfected animals. This was correlated with infected birds travelling shorter distances and fuelling and feeding at reduced rates. The data suggest that LPAI virus infections in wild migratory birds may have higher clinical and ecological impacts than previously recognised.

  7. Bird Use of Imperial Valley Crops [ds427

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Agriculture crops in the Imperial Valley of California provide valuable habitat for many resident and migratory birds and are a very important component of the...

  8. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  9. Consolidated checklist of birds in the Pallikaranai Wetlands, Chennai, India

    OpenAIRE

    P.P.N. Raj; J. Ranjini; R. Dhanya; J. Subramanian; Azeez, P. A; S. Bhupathy

    2010-01-01

    We documented the avifauna of Pallikaranai marshes located near the Chennai metropolis in southern India. In total, 110 species of migratory and resident birds including those listed in the Red Data Book were recorded. Presently the wetland is facing severe threats from various anthropogenic pressures caused due to unplanned waste disposal and land conversion. The high population of migratory as well as wetland birds in this area emphasizes the urgent need of conservation of this urban wetland.

  10. Consolidated checklist of birds in the Pallikaranai Wetlands, Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P.N. Raj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We documented the avifauna of Pallikaranai marshes located near the Chennai metropolis in southern India. In total, 110 species of migratory and resident birds including those listed in the Red Data Book were recorded. Presently the wetland is facing severe threats from various anthropogenic pressures caused due to unplanned waste disposal and land conversion. The high population of migratory as well as wetland birds in this area emphasizes the urgent need of conservation of this urban wetland.

  11. Species diversity of birds in mangroves of Kundapura, Udupi District, Karnataka, Southwest Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijaya Kumar K.M; Vijaya Kumara

    2014-01-01

    We quantified species diversity of birds in mangroves at Kundapura from April-2010 to March-2013. We recorded 79 species of 36 families and 14 orders. Of these 71% are resident species, 22% are residential migrants and 8% are migratory. One endangered species, three near threatened species, and a few occasional visitors were re-corded. Species diversity and abundance of birds were greater during from October through May as there was availability of food, increased vegetation and the arrival of migratory birds. Minimum diversity was recorded from June through September owing to heavy rains, increased flow of water, limited availability of food and return of migratory birds.

  12. Counterintuitive roles of experience and weather on migratory performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Adrian I.; Duerr, Adam E.; Miller, Tricia A.; Belthoff, James R; Katzner, Todd E.

    2017-01-01

    Migration allows animals to live in resource-rich but seasonally variable environments. Because of the costs of migration, there is selective pressure to capitalize on variation in weather to optimize migratory performance. To test the degree to which migratory performance (defined as speed of migration) of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) was determined by age- and season-specific responses to variation in weather, we analyzed 1,863 daily tracks (n = 83 migrant eagles) and 8,047 hourly tracks (n = 83) based on 15 min GPS telemetry data from Golden Eagles and 277 hourly tracks based on 30 s data (n = 37). Spring migrant eagles traveled 139.75 ± 82.19 km day−1 (mean ± SE; n = 57) and 25.59 ± 11.75 km hr−1 (n = 55). Autumn migrant eagles traveled 99.14 ± 59.98 km day−1 (n = 26) and 22.18 ± 9.18 km hr−1 (n = 28). Weather during migration varied by season and by age class. During spring, best-supported daily and hourly models of 15 min data suggested that migratory performance was influenced most strongly by downward solar radiation and that older birds benefited less from flow assistance (tailwinds). During autumn, best-supported daily and hourly models of 15 min data suggested that migratory performance was influenced most strongly by south–north winds and by flow assistance, again less strongly for older birds. In contrast, models for hourly performance based on data collected at 30 s intervals were not well described by a single model, likely reflecting eagles' rapid responses to the many weather conditions they experienced. Although daily speed of travel was similar for all age classes, younger birds traveled at faster hourly speeds than did adults. Our analyses uncovered strong, sometimes counterintuitive, relationships among weather, experience, and migratory flight, and they illustrate the significance of factors other than age in determining migratory performance.

  13. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F Stuber

    Full Text Available White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  14. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  15. Developmental Exposure to Aroclor 1254 Alters Migratory Behavior in Juvenile European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahr, Leanne M; Michel, Nicole L; Zahara, Alexander R D; Jones, Paul D; Morrissey, Christy A

    2015-05-19

    Birds exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals during development could be susceptible to neurological and other physiological changes affecting migratory behaviors. We investigated the effects of ecologically relevant levels of Aroclor 1254, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, on moult, fattening, migratory activity, and orientation in juvenile European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Birds were orally administered 0 (control), 0.35 (low), 0.70 (intermediate), or 1.05 (high) μg Aroclor 1254/g-body weight by gavage from 1 through 18 days posthatch and later exposed in captivity to a photoperiod shift simulating an autumn migration. Migratory activity and orientation were examined using Emlen funnel trials. Across treatments, we found significant increases in mass, fat, and moulting and decreasing plasma thyroid hormones over time. We observed a significant increase in activity as photoperiod was shifted from 13L:11D (light:dark) to 12L:12D, demonstrating that migratory condition was induced in captivity. At 12L:12D, control birds oriented to 155.95° (South-Southeast), while high-dosed birds did not. High-dosed birds showed a delayed orientation to 197.48° (South-Southwest) under 10L:14D, concomitant with apparent delays in moult. These findings demonstrate how subtle contaminant-induced alterations during development could lead to longer-scale effects, including changes in migratory activity and orientation, which could potentially result in deleterious effects on fitness and survival.

  16. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  17. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  18. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances each year, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the detection...... increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible radical...

  19. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances each year, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the detection...... increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible radical...

  20. Terrestrial Birds and Conservation Priorities in Baja California Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo Rodriguez-Estrella

    2005-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula has been categorized as an Endemic Bird Area of the world and it is an important wintering area for a number of aquatic, wading and migratory landbird species. It is an important area for conservation of bird diversity in northwestern México. In spite of this importance, only few, scattered studies have been done on the ecology...

  1. Regional migratory osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahir, John G. [Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: john.cahir@nnuh.nhs.uk; Toms, Andoni P. [Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO) is an uncommon disease characterised by a migrating arthralgia involving the weight bearing joints of the lower limb. The typical imaging findings on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and bone scintigraphy are described and illustrated. Men in their fifth and sixth decades of life are most commonly affected. The most common presentation is with proximal to distal spread in the lower limb. The world literature has been reviewed which has revealed 63 documented cases of regional osteoporosis or bone marrow oedema with migratory symptoms. Most of these cases have not been labelled as RMO and therefore the condition is probably under-diagnosed. The radiology of RMO is indistinguishable from transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) except for the migratory symptoms and the two conditions are likely to be part of the same spectrum of disease. Systemic osteoporosis is a more recently recognised accompanying feature that hints at an underlying aetiology and an approach to the management of this condition.

  2. Bird Populations in Fernbank Forest: MIGRANT SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses fragmented forests in general and provides arrival/departure data about migratory birds collected at Fernbank Forest which is located within metropolitan Atlanta. The data indicate that population trends for selected species have not changed over 19 years of migration recordings within this small, but important, fragmented…

  3. Partial migration in tropical birds: the frontier of movement ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekercioglu, Cagan H

    2010-09-01

    Partial migration, in which only some individuals of a species migrate, might be central to the evolution of migratory behaviour and is likely to represent an evolutionary transition between sedentariness and complete migration. In one of the few detailed, individual-based migration studies of tropical birds, Jahn et al. study the partial migration system of a South American bird species for the first time. Food limitation forces the large adult males and small, young females to migrate, contrary to the expectations of the body size and dominance hypotheses. This study confirms the importance of food variability as the primary driver of migratory behaviour. There is urgent need for similar studies on the movement ecology of understudied tropical bird species, whose diversity of migratory behaviour can shed light on the evolution of bird migration.

  4. 50 CFR 21.44 - Depredation order for designated species of depredating birds in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of depredating birds in California. 21.44 Section 21.44 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.44 Depredation order for designated species of...

  5. Monthly Biological report and report of other activities from November 1, 1936 to December 1, 1936 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, upland game birds, mammals, law...

  6. Monthly Biological report and report of other activities from December 1, 1936 to December 31, 1936 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  7. Large and irregular population fluctuations in migratory Pacific (Calidris alpina pacifica) and Atlantic (C. a. hudsonica) dunlins are driven by density-dependence and climatic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Barnett, J.; Lank, D.B.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the forces driving population dynamics is critical for species conservation and population management. For migratory birds, factors that regulate population abundance could come from effects experienced on breeding areas, wintering grounds, or during migration. We compiled survey data

  8. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  9. Birds and wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, Rowena

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Climate change, perhaps more accurately described as climate disruption, is considered to be a major long-term threat to biodiversity, with a high probability that the underlying cause is due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy is an important component of a programme of measures to combat further climate change, to include improved energy efficiency and demand management. Wind energy is the most advanced renewable energy source and is a global industry onshore and, increasingly, offshore. However, as with any form of energy generation, wind energy also has potential environmental costs which have to be balanced against benefits. The environmental impacts on birds derive from the following: collision risk, in particular from the moving rotor blades; displacement arising from disturbance during construction, operation or decommissioning; habitat loss or change leading to alteration of food availability; barrier effects leading to deviation of long distance migratory flights or disruption of local flights between feeding, nesting, and roosting/loafing locations. Not all species of birds, or individuals within a species, are equally susceptible to negative interactions with wind turbines, and neither are the population consequences of impacts equivalent. Of greatest concern are bird species of conservation concern that exhibit behaviours that place them at risk of an adverse impact, notably when that impact leads to a reduction in population size that is unlikely to be compensated for. In particular, cumulative impacts arising from multiple wind farms or wind farms in combination with other developments are of concern. There has been a welcome increase in research effort and peer-reviewed publications on the subject of birds and wind energy in recent years. Increasing our understanding of impacts is essential to delivering possible solutions and this paper reviews current knowledge for birds. (Author)

  10. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  11. Spatial Isolation and Temporal Variation in Fitness and Condition Facilitate Divergence in a Migratory Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Claudia; Mettler, Raeann; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Segelbacher, Gernot; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2015-01-01

    A novel migratory polymorphism evolved within the last 60 years in blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) breeding sympatrically in southwestern Germany. While most individuals winter in the traditional areas in the Mediterranean, a growing number of blackcaps started migrating to Britain instead. The rapid microevolution of this new strategy has been attributed to assortative mating and better physical condition of birds wintering in Britain. However, the isolating barriers as well as the physical condition of birds are not well known. In our study, we examined whether spatial isolation occurred among individuals with distinct migratory behaviour and birds with different arrival dates also differed in physical and genetic condition. We caught blackcaps in six consecutive years upon arrival on the breeding grounds and assigned them via stable isotope analysis to their wintering areas. Analysis of the vegetation structure within blackcap territories revealed different microhabitat preferences of birds migrating to distinct wintering areas. Blackcaps arriving early on the breeding grounds had higher survival rates, better body condition and higher multilocus heterozygosities than later arriving birds. We did however not find an effect of parasite infection status on arrival time. Our results suggest that early arriving birds have disproportionate effects on population dynamics. Allochrony and habitat isolation may thus act together to facilitate ongoing divergence in hybrid zones, and migratory divides in particular. PMID:26656955

  12. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    and many experiments are only becoming possible with the current development of tracking technologies. During this thesis work I have been tracking the poorly known movements of several species of long-distance migrants and document highly complex migration patterns. In three manuscripts these movements......Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... habitats with those in rural habitats. Some species have decreased the frequency of migrants and migration distance in urban environments, and others have not. The other manuscript describes the small scale movements of three different Palaearctic migrants during winter in Africa in a farmland habitat...

  13. Basal metabolic rate declines during long-distance migratory flight in great knots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Tang, SX; Hulsman, K; Battley, Phil F.; Tang, Sixian

    2001-01-01

    Great Knots (Calidris tenuirostris) make one of the longest migratory flights in the avian world, flying almost 5500 km from Australia to China during northward migration. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body composition in birds before and after this flight and found that BMR decreased 4

  14. Testing the role of sensory systems in the migratory heading of a songbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.A.; Thorup, K.; Gagliardo, A.; Bisson, I.A.; Knecht, E.; Mizrahi, D.; Wikelski, M.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of the sensory cues and mechanisms by which migratory birds are able to reach the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year has eluded biologists despite more than 50 years of intensive study. While a number of environmental cues have been proposed to play a role in the

  15. Testing the role of sensory systems in the migratory heading of a songbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.A.; Thorup, K.; Gagliardo, A.; Bisson, I.A.; Knecht, E.; Mizrahi, D.; Wikelski, M.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of the sensory cues and mechanisms by which migratory birds are able to reach the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year has eluded biologists despite more than 50 years of intensive study. While a number of environmental cues have been proposed to play a role in the

  16. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  17. A survey of North American migratory waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christopher J.; Docherty, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of migratory waterfowl for duck plague (DP) virus was conducted in the Mississippi and Central flyways during 1982 and in the Atlantic and Pacific flyways during 1983. Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 3,169 migratory waterfowl in these four flyways, principally mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.), black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster), and pintails (Anas acuta L). In addition 1,033 birds were sampled from areas of recurrent DP outbreaks among nonmigratory and captive waterfowl, and 590 from Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge, the site of the only known major DP outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Duck plague virus was not found in any of the samples. Results support the hypothesis that DP is not established in North American migratory waterfowl as an enzootic disease.

  18. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Abdurrahman; Lee, Seoho; Ahsan, Syed S; Karlsson, Kolbeinn; Gabrielson, Richard; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Winkler, David W; Erickson, David

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  19. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since the 1980s, new populations have emerged in former stopover areas in the Baltic Sea region, and a non-migratory population has emerged in the wintering area in The Netherlands. This thesis aims to understand these changes. First, I studied the delay in com...

  20. Seasonal passerine migratory movements over the arid Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Rodney K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Ruth, Janet M.

    2008-01-01

    Biannually, millions of Neotropical and Nearctic migratory birds traverse the arid southwestern US-Mexico borderlands, yet our knowledge of avian migration patterns and behaviors in this region is extremely limited. To describe the spatial and temporal patterns of migration, we examined echoes from weather surveillance radar sites across the American Southwest from southern Texas to southwestern Arizona during spring 2005 and 2006 and fall 2005. After taking steps to identify radar echoes dominated by birds, we determined migrants’ speeds, directions, and altitudes. Our results show that in spring, migrants generally fl ew lower and faster than in fall, although much of this overall pattern may be driven by higher fall altitudes and higher ground speeds at some of the easternmost sites in the borderlands. Seasonal differences in migrants’ altitudes can be partially explained by seasonal differences in the altitudes of favorable winds. Seasonal differences in migrant ground speeds might arise for many reasons including variation in winds aloft or the presence of naïve hatchyear birds in fall. In addition, migrating bats may also be present throughout the region in varying degrees in radar data. Flight directions across the region were generally north in spring and south in fall, but also were consistent with the premise that songbird migration in North America is comprised of distinct regional migratory systems.

  1. Wind patterns as a potential driver in the evolution and maintenance of a North American migratory suture zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jennifer D; Olsen, Brian J; Hiebeler, David

    2016-09-01

    Suture zones are areas where range contact zones and hybrid zones of multiple taxa are clustered. Migratory divides, contact zones between divergent populations that breed adjacent to one another but use different migratory routes, are a particular case of suture zones. Although multiple hypotheses for both the formation and maintenance of migratory divides have been suggested, quantitative tests are scarce. Here, we tested whether a novel factor, prevailing winds, was sufficient to explain both the evolution and maintenance of the Cordilleran migratory divide using individual-based models. Empirical observations of eastern birds suggest a circuitous migratory route across Canada before heading south. Western breeders, however, travel south along the Pacific coast to their wintering grounds. We modeled the effect of wind on bird migratory flights by allowing them to float at elevation using spatially explicit modeled wind data. Modeled eastern birds had easterly mean trajectories, whereas western breeders showed significantly more southern trajectories. We also determined that a mean airspeed of 18.5 m s(-1) would be necessary to eliminate this difference in trajectory, a speed that is achieved by waterfowl and shorebirds, but is faster than songbird flight speeds. These results lend support for the potential importance of wind in shaping the phylogeographic history of North American songbirds.

  2. Sentinel birds in wild-bird resting sites as potential indicators for West Nile virus infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Seidowski, Diana; Globig, Anja; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus with wild birds as its natural hosts. Ravens, falcons and jays are highly susceptible for WNV and develop deadly encephalitis, while other bird species undergo only subclinical infections. Migratory birds are efficient vectors for geographic spreading of WNV. Until now, WNV infections have not been diagnosed in Germany, but infections in humans and horses have occurred recently in Austria, Hungary and Italy. To investigate potential WNV introduction by infected wild birds, we have monitored the serological status of ducks in three national sentinel stations. No WNV-positive reactions were found, whereas sera from coots from northern Iran were positive.

  3. Serologic evidence of West Nile Virus infection in birds, Tamaulipas State, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Contreras-Cordero, Juan F; Blitvich, Bradley J; González-Rojas, José I; Cavazos-Alvarez, Amanda; Marlenee, Nicole L; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Loroño-Pino, María A; Gubler, Duane J; Cropp, Bruce C; Calisher, Charles H; Beaty, Barry J

    2003-01-01

    Following the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999, surveillance for WNV in migratory and resident birds was established in Tamaulipas State, northern México in December 2001. Overall, 796 birds representing 70 species and 10 orders were captured and assayed for antibodies to WNV. Nine birds had flavivirus-specific antibodies by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; four were confirmed to have antibody to WNV by plaque reduction neutralization test. The WNV-infected birds were a house wren, mourning dove, verdin and Bewick's wren. The house wren is a migratory species; the other WNV-infected birds are presumably residents. The WNV-infected birds were all captured in March 2003. These data provide the first indirect evidence of WNV transmission among birds in northern México.

  4. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M.

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  5. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M.

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  6. Quantifying variation in migratory strategies using ring-recoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwardena, G. M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird populations have traditionally been labelled as “migrant” or “resident” on the basis of field observations and qualitative interpretations of patterns of ring–recoveries. However, even such a non–systematic approach has identified many intermediate species where only part of the population migrates (partial migrants or where different components of the population migrate to different extents (differential migrants. A method that would allow a quantitative definition of migratory tendency to be derived for many species would facilitate investigations into the ecological causes and life–history consequences of migratory behaviour. Species or populations could then be placed objectively into the continuum between true residency and an obligate, long–distance migratory habit. We present a novel method for the analysis of ring–recovery data sets that produces just such a quantitative index of migratory tendency for British birds, developed as part of the BTO’s Migration Atlas project (Wernham et al., 2002. The method uses distributions of ringing–to–recovery distances to classify individual species’ patterns of movement relative to those of other species. The areas between species’ cumulative distance distributions are treated as inter–species dissimilarities and a one–dimensional map is then constructed using multi–dimensional scaling. We have used the method in example analyses to show how it can be used to investigate the factors that affect the migratory strategies that species adopt, such as body size, territoriality and distribution, and in studies of their consequences for demographic parameters such as annual survival and the timing of breeding. We have also conducted initial analyses to show how temporal changes in the indices could reveal otherwise unmeasured population consequences of environmental change and thus have an important application in conservation science. Finally, we discuss how our

  7. Migratory blackcaps tested in Emlen funnels can orient at 85 degrees but not at 88 degrees magnetic inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeldt, Nele; Dreyer, David; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Steenken, Friederike; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2015-01-15

    Migratory birds are known to use the Earth's magnetic field as an orientation cue on their tremendous journeys between their breeding and overwintering grounds. The magnetic compass of migratory birds relies on the magnetic field's inclination, i.e. the angle between the magnetic field lines and the Earth's surface. As a consequence, vertical or horizontal field lines corresponding to 0 or 90 deg inclination should offer no utilizable information on where to find North or South. So far, very little is known about how small the deviations from horizontal or vertical inclination are that migratory birds can detect and use as a reference for their magnetic compass. Here, we asked: what is the steepest inclination angle at which a migratory bird, the Eurasian blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla), can still perform magnetic compass orientation in Emlen funnels? Our results show that blackcaps are able to orient in an Earth's strength magnetic field with inclination angles of 67 and 85 deg, but fail to orient in a field with 88 deg inclination. This suggests that the steepest inclination angle enabling magnetic compass orientation in migratory blackcaps tested in Emlen funnels lies between 85 and 88 deg.

  8. Key Features of Intertidal Food Webs That Support Migratory Shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Béat, Blanche; Dupuy, Christine; Bocher, Pierrick; Chalumeau, Julien; De Crignis, Margot; Fontaine, Camille; Guizien, Katell; Lavaud, Johann; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Montanié, Hélène; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Orvain, Francis; Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Quaintenne, Gwenaël; Radenac, Gilles; Richard, Pierre; Robin, Frédéric; Vézina, Alain F.; Niquil, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The migratory shorebirds of the East Atlantic flyway land in huge numbers during a migratory stopover or wintering on the French Atlantic coast. The Brouage bare mudflat (Marennes-Oléron Bay, NE Atlantic) is one of the major stopover sites in France. The particular structure and function of a food web affects the efficiency of carbon transfer. The structure and functioning of the Brouage food web is crucial for the conservation of species landing within this area because it provides sufficient food, which allows shorebirds to reach the north of Europe where they nest. The aim of this study was to describe and understand which food web characteristics support nutritional needs of birds. Two food-web models were constructed, based on in situ measurements that were made in February 2008 (the presence of birds) and July 2008 (absence of birds). To complete the models, allometric relationships and additional data from the literature were used. The missing flow values of the food web models were estimated by Monte Carlo Markov Chain – Linear Inverse Modelling. The flow solutions obtained were used to calculate the ecological network analysis indices, which estimate the emergent properties of the functioning of a food-web. The total activities of the Brouage ecosystem in February and July are significantly different. The specialisation of the trophic links within the ecosystem does not appear to differ between the two models. In spite of a large export of carbon from the primary producer and detritus in winter, the higher recycling leads to a similar retention of carbon for the two seasons. It can be concluded that in February, the higher activity of the ecosystem coupled with a higher cycling and a mean internal organization, ensure the sufficient feeding of the migratory shorebirds. PMID:24204666

  9. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese, black ducks, mallards, and blue-winged teal are the primary waterfowl species that nest on Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Black ducks and...

  10. 75 FR 57413 - Migratory Bird Permits; Possession and Educational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ...). In that notice, we solicited public input on facilities standards, experience criteria, and... entertaining. As another commenter put it, ``laughter and amusement open pathways for receptive learning. The... not open to the general public, whereas, an educational program offered at a national park is....

  11. Migratory Bird Avian Influenza Sampling; Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing avian influenza sampling information for spring and summer waterbirds on the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, 2015. Data contains sample ID, species common...

  12. Waterfowl production on the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report was written for the purpose of updating Area and Regional R&W personnel on the progress made in monitoring duck nesting and production on the Bear...

  13. Restoration and Enhancement Concept Plan : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Required under the National Environmental Policy Act, and Environmental Assessment of the Refuge was completed in 1991. With the cooperation of public, state, and...

  14. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan: Union Slough NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Disease Contingency Plan for Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge provides background information on disease surveillance; an inventory of Refuge personnel,...

  15. Biological Data Summary : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Biological Data Summary contains various data sets organized according to topic. The following topics are included and prefaced by a title/divider page. -...

  16. Shorebird Nesting Success Report : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This preliminary study was initiated to establish a baseline of nesting success for one of the most important breeding sites of shorebirds within the Greater Salt...

  17. Advanced Monitoring of Migratory Birds on Military Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    explained Shrike occurrence. Finally, the research group conducted an analysis of phenological variation of texture measures in three North American...of phenological variation on texture measures. ...................................... 15 Results and Discussion...17 Species distribution models and maps of predicted probability of occurrence and abundance .... 24 The impact of phenological variation on

  18. Compatibility Determination : Hunting of migratory birds and resident game

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Compatibility Determination for the Minnesota Valley NWR and WMD proposed Hunting Plan. Refuge purposes are outlined and proposed hunting activities are...

  19. 78 FR 65843 - General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-will, Caprimulgus vociferus, becomes Eastern Whip-poor- will (AOU 2010); Green Violet-ear, Colibri...). Caprimulgus vociferus (8). Mexican Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus arizonae (6). Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus Green Violetear, Colibri (8). thalassinus (8). White-crested Elaenia, Elaenia albiceps...

  20. 76 FR 23427 - General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ...); Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus, becomes Green Violetear (AOU 2008); Blue Rock Thrush, Monticola..., Caprimulgus arizonae (6). Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus Green Violetear, Colibri (8). thalassinus...

  1. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... palliatus Black, Haematopus bachmani Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus PALILA, Loxioides bailleui PALM-SWIFT... kennicottii Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis SCRUB-JAY, Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens Island, Aphelocoma... Pine, Carduelis pinus SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua South...

  2. Webcams for bird detection and monitoring: a demonstration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Willem W; Vermeulen, Bart; Stuckens, Jan; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Van Ranst, Marc; Coppin, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  3. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia lonestari in birds in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, B E; Onks, K R; Hamilton, S W; Hayslette, S E; Wright, S M

    2009-01-01

    Lyme disease in the United States is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner), which is transmitted by tick vectors Ixodes scapularis (Say) and I. pacificus (Cooley and Kohls). Borrelia lonestari, transmitted by the tick Amblyomma americanum L., may be associated with a related syndrome, southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI). Borrelia lonestari sequences, reported primarily in the southeastern states, have also been detected in ticks in northern states. It has been suggested that migratory birds may have a role in the spread of Lyme disease spirochetes. This study evaluated both migratory waterfowl and nonmigratory wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris, Eastern wild turkey) for B. burgdorferi and B. lonestari DNA sequences. A total of 389 avian blood samples (163 migratory birds representing six species, 125 wild turkeys harvested in habitats shared with migratory birds, 101 wild turkeys residing more distant from migratory flyways) were extracted, amplified, and probed to determine Borrelia presence and species identity. Ninety-one samples were positive for Borrelia spp. Among migratory birds and turkeys collected near migration routes, B. burgdorferi predominated. Among turkeys residing further away from flyways, detection of B. lonestari was more common. All A. americanum ticks collected from these areas were negative for Borrelia DNA; no I. scapularis were found. To our knowledge, this represents the first documentation of B. lonestari among any birds.

  4. Contrasting patterns of genetic differentiation among Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla with divergent migratory orientations in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeann Mettler

    Full Text Available Migratory divides are thought to facilitate behavioral, ecological, and genetic divergence among populations with different migratory routes. However, it is currently contentious how much genetic divergence is needed to maintain distinct migratory behavior across migratory divides. Here we investigate patterns of neutral genetic differentiation among Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla populations with different migratory strategies across Europe. We compare the level of genetic divergence of populations migrating to southwestern (SW or southeastern (SE wintering areas with birds wintering in the British Isles following a recently established northwesterly (NW migration route. The migratory divide between SW and SE wintering areas can be interpreted as a result of a re-colonization process after the last glaciation. Thus we predicted greater levels of genetic differentiation among the SW/SE populations. However, a lack of genetic differentiation was found between SW and SE populations, suggesting that interbreeding likely occurs among Blackcaps with different migratory orientations across a large area; therefore the SW/SE migratory divide can be seen as diffuse, broad band and is, at best, a weak isolating barrier. Conversely, weak, albeit significant genetic differentiation was evident between NW and SW migrants breeding sympatrically in southern Germany, suggesting a stronger isolating mechanism may be acting in this population. Populations located within/near the SW/SE contact zone were the least genetically divergent from NW migrants, confirming NW migrants likely originated from within the contact zone. Significant isolation-by-distance was found among eastern Blackcap populations (i.e. SE migrants, but not among western populations (i.e. NW and SW migrants, revealing different patterns of genetic divergence among Blackcap populations in Europe. We discuss possible explanations for the genetic structure of European Blackcaps and how gene flow

  5. Contrasting Patterns of Genetic Differentiation among Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) with Divergent Migratory Orientations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Raeann; Schaefer, H. Martin; Chernetsov, Nikita; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Hobson, Keith A.; Ilieva, Mihaela; Imhof, Elisabeth; Johnsen, Arild; Renner, Swen C.; Rolshausen, Gregor; Serrano, David; Wesołowski, Tomasz; Segelbacher, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Migratory divides are thought to facilitate behavioral, ecological, and genetic divergence among populations with different migratory routes. However, it is currently contentious how much genetic divergence is needed to maintain distinct migratory behavior across migratory divides. Here we investigate patterns of neutral genetic differentiation among Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) populations with different migratory strategies across Europe. We compare the level of genetic divergence of populations migrating to southwestern (SW) or southeastern (SE) wintering areas with birds wintering in the British Isles following a recently established northwesterly (NW) migration route. The migratory divide between SW and SE wintering areas can be interpreted as a result of a re-colonization process after the last glaciation. Thus we predicted greater levels of genetic differentiation among the SW/SE populations. However, a lack of genetic differentiation was found between SW and SE populations, suggesting that interbreeding likely occurs among Blackcaps with different migratory orientations across a large area; therefore the SW/SE migratory divide can be seen as diffuse, broad band and is, at best, a weak isolating barrier. Conversely, weak, albeit significant genetic differentiation was evident between NW and SW migrants breeding sympatrically in southern Germany, suggesting a stronger isolating mechanism may be acting in this population. Populations located within/near the SW/SE contact zone were the least genetically divergent from NW migrants, confirming NW migrants likely originated from within the contact zone. Significant isolation-by-distance was found among eastern Blackcap populations (i.e. SE migrants), but not among western populations (i.e. NW and SW migrants), revealing different patterns of genetic divergence among Blackcap populations in Europe. We discuss possible explanations for the genetic structure of European Blackcaps and how gene flow influences the

  6. Birds of the Shatan River Basin, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In our study we recorded 149 species of birds belonging to 97 genera and 36 families in 15 orders. These bird species compose 32% of Mongolian registered bird fauna. Of these 149 species, 54% are passeriformes. Our observation was held in three different habitats: mountains ranging with rocks and forest (88 species, river basins (45 species, and an area around human habitation, specifically train stations outside towns (16 species. Of our studied bird species, 11 are enlisted in the International Union for Conservation of Nature red list as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened species, and 144 are known as least concerned. Also 20 species are listed in Annexes I and II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and 15 species are listed in Annexes I and II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species.

  7. Predicting effects of environmental change on a migratory herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, R A; Wood, K A; Gilkerson, Whelan; Elkinton, E; Black, J. M.; Ward, David H.; Petrie, M.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, food abundance and disturbance from humans threaten the ability of species to successfully use stopover sites and migrate between non-breeding and breeding areas. To devise successful conservation strategies for migratory species we need to be able to predict how such changes will affect both individuals and populations. Such predictions should ideally be process-based, focusing on the mechanisms through which changes alter individual physiological state and behavior. In this study we use a process-based model to evaluate how Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) foraging on common eelgrass (Zostera marina) at a stopover site (Humboldt Bay, USA), may be affected by changes in sea level, food abundance and disturbance. The model is individual-based, with empirically based parameters, and incorporates the immigration of birds into the site, tidal changes in availability of eelgrass, seasonal and depth-related changes in eelgrass biomass, foraging behavior and energetics of the birds, and their mass-dependent decisions to emigrate. The model is validated by comparing predictions to observations across a range of system properties including the time birds spent foraging, probability of birds emigrating, mean stopover duration, peak bird numbers, rates of mass gain and distribution of birds within the site: all 11 predictions were within 35% of the observed value, and 8 within 20%. The model predicted that the eelgrass within the site could potentially support up to five times as many birds as currently use the site. Future predictions indicated that the rate of mass gain and mean stopover duration were relatively insensitive to sea level rise over the next 100 years, primarily because eelgrass habitat could redistribute shoreward into intertidal mudflats within the site to compensate for higher sea levels. In contrast, the rate of mass gain and mean stopover duration were sensitive to changes in total eelgrass biomass and the percentage of time

  8. Avian pox in birds from Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikasingh, E S; Worth, C B; Spence, L; Aitken, T H

    1982-04-01

    Over a 7-year period in Trinidad, 9,514 birds were examined for avian pox and four species were found infected: the golden-headed manakin, Pipra erythrocephala (7% infected), the white-bearded manakin, Manacus manacus (5%), the violaceous euphonia Euphonia violacea (1%), and the bare-eyed thrush, Turdus nudigenis (less than 1%). The elaborate courtship displays of manakins may have a bearing on a "common source" type of infection. The apparently abrupt appearance of the disease at three localities in Trinidad in 1964 perhaps indicates introduction of the virus by migratory birds.

  9. Ecological specialization to fluctuating resources prevents long-distance migratory raptors from becoming sedentary on islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gangoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adaptive transition between behavioral strategies, such as the shift from migratoriness to sedentariness, remains an outstanding question in evolutionary ecology. Density-dependent variation in the age of first breeding has been proposed as a feasible mechanism through which long-lived migratory birds with deferred sexual maturity should become sedentary to persist on islands. Although this pattern seems to hold for most raptors and herons, a few exceptions have been identified. One of these exceptions is the Eleonora's falcon, a long-distance migratory bird, which shows one of the most peculiar adaptations in the timing of reproduction and food requirements among raptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we compiled data concerning demography, banding recoveries and satellite tracking of Eleonora's falcons to discuss likely explanations for the exceptional behavior of this insular long-distance migratory species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: New data reveal that Eleonora's falcons do return to the natal colonies in their first year and young birds are able to breed. However, in contrast to previous hypothesis, the highly specialized strategy of this and other ecologically similar species, as well as the virtual lack of food during winter at breeding areas prevent them from becoming sedentary on islands. Although the ultimate mechanisms underlying the process of sedentarization remain poorly understood, the evidence provided reveal the existence of important trade-offs associated with ecological specialization that may become particularly relevant in the present context of global change.

  10. Dramatic intraspecific differences in migratory routes, stopover sites and wintering areas, revealed using light-level geolocators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmore, Kira E; Fox, James W; Irwin, Darren E

    2012-11-22

    Migratory divides are contact zones between breeding populations that use divergent migratory routes and have been described in a variety of species. These divides are of major importance to evolution, ecology and conservation but have been identified using limited band recovery data and/or indirect methods. Data from band recoveries and mitochondrial haplotypes suggested that inland and coastal Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) form a migratory divide in western North America. We attached light-level geolocators to birds at the edges of this contact zone to provide, to our knowledge, the first direct test of a putative divide using data from individual birds over the entire annual cycle. Coastal thrushes migrated along the west coast to Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. Some of these birds used multiple wintering sites. Inland thrushes migrated across the Rocky Mountains, through central North America to Columbia and Venezuela. These birds migrated longer distances than coastal birds and performed a loop migration, navigating over the Gulf of Mexico in autumn and around this barrier in spring. These findings support the suggestion that divergent migratory behaviour could contribute to reproductive isolation between migrants, advance our understanding of their non-breeding ecology, and are integral to development of detailed conservation strategies for this group.

  11. Talking Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海文

    2005-01-01

    Many students of Englishthink thatlearning a new languageis very difficult.N ow think howdifficultitis to learn English whenyour brain is only the size of abird's brain。That is what som ebirds can do.M any different kinds of birdscan copy the sounds of lan-guage.A frican gray parrots are thebirds bestknown for this.Every D ecem ber in London,the N ationalCage and A viary BirdShow tries to find the best“talkbird in the world.O ne bird nam edPrudle stood outam ong the“talk-ing birds by winning this prizeevery...

  12. MASS CHANGES IN MIGRATING BIRDS - THE EVIDENCE FOR FAT AND PROTEIN STORAGE REEXAMINED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIERSMA, T

    1993-01-01

    The fact that one cannot kill a bird twice makes it very difficult to determine the relative contributions of fat and non-fat components to increases in body mass before migratory flights in individual birds. Knowing the relative contributions of these components is of obvious energetic interest sin

  13. Empirical evidence for differential organ reductions during trans-oceanic bird flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Piersma, T; Dietz, MW; Tang, SX; Dekinga, A; Hulsman, K

    2000-01-01

    Since the early 1960s it has been held that migrating birds deposit and use only fat as fuel during migratory flight, with the non-fat portion of the body remaining homeostatic. Recent evidence from field studies has shown large changes in organ sizes in fuelling birds, and theory on fuel use sugges

  14. MASS CHANGES IN MIGRATING BIRDS - THE EVIDENCE FOR FAT AND PROTEIN STORAGE REEXAMINED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIERSMA, T

    The fact that one cannot kill a bird twice makes it very difficult to determine the relative contributions of fat and non-fat components to increases in body mass before migratory flights in individual birds. Knowing the relative contributions of these components is of obvious energetic interest

  15. Patterns in diurnal airspace use by migratory landbirds along an ecological barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Anna C.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory bird populations and survival are affected by conditions experienced during migration. While many studies and conservation and management efforts focus on terrestrial stoppage and staging areas, the aerial environment through which migrants move also is subjected to anthropogenic impacts with potential consequences to migratory movement and survival. During autumn migration, the northern coastline of Lake Superior acts as an ecological barrier for many landbirds migrating out of the boreal forests of North America. From 24 observation points, we assessed the diurnal movements of birds throughout autumn migration, 2008-2010, within a 210 km by 10 km coastal region along the northern coast of Lake Superior. Several raptor species showed patterns in airspace associated with topographic features such as proximity to the coastline and presence of ridgelines. Funneling movement, commonly used to describe the concentration of raptors along a migratory diversion line that either prevents or enhances migration progress, occurred only for Bald and Golden Eagles. This suggests a "leaky" migration funnel for most migratory raptors (e.g., migrating birds exiting the purported migration corridor). Passerines migrating during the late season showed more spatial and temporal structure in airspace distribution than raptors, including funneling and an association with airspace near the coast. We conclude that a) the diurnal use of airspace by many migratory landbirds is patterned in space and time, b) autumn count sites situated along ecological barriers substantially underestimate the number of raptors due to 'leakage' out of these concentration areas, and c) the magnitude and structure of diurnal passerine movements in airspace have been overlooked. The heavy and structured use of airspace by migratory landbirds, especially the airspace associated with anthropogenic development (e.g., buildings, towers, turbines) necessitates a shift in focus to airspace management and

  16. Aquatic Food Plants and their Consumer Birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary, Hardoi, Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar Jha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the Bird Sanctuaries of Uttar Pradesh, Sandi, was selected for studying some ecological aspects like, aquatic food plants, their food calendar and dependent birds of migratory as well as resident origin. The study site is considered as an ideal wetland. This is located at 27o15’ N and 79o55’ E. Thirty four food plant species were identified to be eaten by 16 birds.These plants were the species of Alloteropsis, Arundo, Azolla, Ceratophyllum, Chloris, Commelina, Cyperus, Echinochloa, Eichhornia, Eleocharis, Hydrilla, Ipomoea, Jussiaea, Lemna, Najas, Nelumbo, Nymphea, Nymphoides, Oryza, Pistia, Polygonum, Potamogeton, Scirpus, Spirodela, Trapa, Typha, Vallisneria, and Wolffia. Common consumer birds eating plant parts were Coot, Pochards, Teal, Wigeon, Gadwal, Gargany, Goose, Whistling-duck, Mallard, Pintail, Shoveler, and Swamphen. These are primarily the migratory birds except Coot, Whistling-duck and Swamphen. Spot-billed Duck, and Indian Moorhen were occasionally seen eating submerged hydrophytes and filamentous slimy green algae. On the basis of multi-strata growth of plants in the Sanctuary a wetland profile was prepared. Food calendar i.e., availability of palatable parts of plants during different months was recorded. Information collected in the study could be used for habitat management, especially the weed removal and ensuring food sustainability for the vegetarian birds.

  17. 76 FR 59271 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...) Whether the rule will have an annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy or adversely affect an... Enforcement Fairness Act. For the reasons outlined above, this rule would have an annual effect on the economy...). Light Geese: Includes lesser snow (including blue) geese, greater snow geese, and Ross's geese....

  18. Seasonal influences on sleep and executive function in the migratory White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Ciaran T

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that the White-crowned Sparrow (WCS decreases sleep by 60% during a period of migratory restlessness relative to a non-migratory period when housed in a 12 h light: 12 h dark cycle. Despite this sleep reduction, accuracy of operant performance was not impaired, and in fact rates of responding were elevated during the migratory period, effects opposite to those routinely observed following enforced sleep deprivation. To determine whether the previously observed increases in operant responding were due to improved performance or to the effects of migration on activity level, here we assessed operant performance using a task in which optimal performance depends on the bird's ability to withhold a response for a fixed interval of time (differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-behavior, or DRL; elevated response rates ultimately impair performance by decreasing access to food reward. To determine the influence of seasonal changes in day length on sleep and behavioral patterns, we recorded sleep and assessed operant performance across 4 distinct seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall under a changing photoperiod. Results Sleep amount changed in response to photoperiod in winter and summer, with longest sleep duration in the winter. Sleep duration in the spring and fall migratory periods were similar to what we previously reported, and were comparable to sleep duration observed in summer. The most striking difference in sleep during the migratory periods compared to non-migratory periods was the change from discrete day-night temporal organization to an almost complete temporal fragmentation of sleep. The birds' ability to perform on the DRL task was significantly impaired during both migratory periods, but optimal performance was sustained during the two non-migratory periods. Conclusions Birds showed dramatic changes in sleep duration across seasons, related to day length and migratory status. Migration

  19. Migratory restlessness in captive individuals predicts actual departure in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Klinner, Thomas; Szostek, K Lesley; Bairlein, Franz

    2014-01-01

    In captivity, migratory birds show increased activity during the time that they would normally migrate. The phenology and intensity of such 'migratory restlessness' has been shown to mirror species- and population-specific migration patterns observed in the wild and has consequently been used as a proxy for the motivation to migrate. Many studies doing so, however, were aiming to explain among-individual variation in migratory behaviour or traits, and not species- or population-specific traits. These studies thus assumed that, also at the level of the individual, migratory restlessness is an accurate proxy for the motivation to migrate. We tested this assumption for the first time and found that it holds; individuals showing very little migratory restlessness remained at stopover for longer than one night, whereas most individuals showing more restlessness departed sooner. This finding validates the use of migratory restlessness as a proxy for the motivation to migrate, thereby justifying the conclusions made in a large body of research on avian migration.

  20. 50 CFR 20.37 - Custody of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody of birds of another. 20.37 Section 20.37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY...

  1. Coordinated bird monitoring: Technical recommendations for military lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Manning, Ann; Fischer, Richard; Eberly, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is subject to several rules and regulations establishing responsibilities for monitoring migratory birds. The Sikes Act requires all military installations with significant natural resources to prepare and implement Integrated Natural Resources Management Plans (INRMPs). These plans guide the conservation and long-term management of natural resources on military lands in a manner that is compatible with and sustains the military mission. An INRMP also supports compliance with all legal requirements and guides the military in fulfilling its obligation to be a good steward of public land.The management and conservation of migratory birds is addressed in installation INRMPs. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate and disclose the potential environmental impacts of their proposed actions. More recently, DoD signed an MOU (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/EO13186_MOU-DoD.pdf) for migratory birds, under Executive Order 13186, with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in July 2006 and a Migratory Bird Rule (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/MigBirdFINALRule_FRFeb2007.pdf) was passed by Congress in February 2007. The Migratory Bird Rule addresses the potential impacts of military readiness activities on populations of migratory birds and establishes a process to implement conservation measures if and when a military readiness activity is expected to have a significant adverse impact on a population of migratory bird species (as determined through the NEPA process). The MOU states that for nonmilitary readiness activities, prior to initiating any activity likely to affect populations of migratory birds DoD shall (1) identify the migratory bird species likely to occur in the area of the proposed action and determine if any species of concern could be affected by the activity, and (2) assess and document, using NEPA when applicable, the effect of the proposed action on species of concern. By

  2. Differential effects of magnetic pulses on the orientation of naturally migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    In migratory passerine birds, strong magnetic pulses are thought to be diagnostic of the remagnetization of iron minerals in a putative sensory system contained in the beak. Previous evidence suggests that while such a magnetic pulse affects the orientation of migratory birds in orientation cages, no effect was present when pulse-treated birds were tested in natural migration. Here we show that two migrating passerine birds treated with a strong magnetic pulse, designed to alter the magnetic sense, migrated in a direction that differed significantly from that of controls when tested in natural conditions. The orientation of treated birds was different depending on the alignment of the pulse with respect to the magnetic field. These results can aid in advancing understanding of how the putative iron-mineral-based receptors found in birds' beaks may be used to detect and signal the intensity and/or direction of the Earth's magnetic field.

  3. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since

  4. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since

  5. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since

  6. 农民工"候鸟式"迁移影响因素分析——基于重庆市9个主城区的农民工调查%Influencing Factors of Migrant Workers' Life-style like "Migratory Birds":Based on the Migrant Workers Investigation in Nine Main Urban Zones in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓阳; 黄毅祥; 许秀川

    2015-01-01

    The new urbanization, which is people-oriented, enjoys a sustained dynamic to stimulate potential domestic demand. And migrant workers' citizenization is the key to promote the development of urbanization. This paper takes survey data as sample, which is about 868 migrant workers ' lifestyle in nine main urban zones in Chongqing. Then, based on the analysis of migrant workers ' structure, their quality and the future development expect, this paper makes an empirical study on the influencing factors of migrant workers' lifestyle which is like "migratory birds" from three dimensions as follows: whether migrant workers wish to transfer the household registration;whether they want to give up the rural homestead; whether they want to settle in the region where they are working. At last, the research result shows that there are many elements to significantly influence migrant workers' circular flow between urban and the rural areas, such as the age of migrant workers, gender, educational level, planting mode of contracted land, urban-rural gap, the living condition in the city where they work and the working pressure. However, given that migrant workers' rural homestead is their last guarantee if they go back to rural area to live and the homestead future earnings are expected to rise, the majority of migrant workers don' t want to give up their homestead in rural area.%新型城镇化具有创造潜在内需的持续动力,其核心是以人为本,关键点为农民工市民化. 本研究以重庆市9个主城区868 个农民工的调研数据为样本,在分析当前农民工结构、素质及未来发展预期的基础上,从转户意愿、放弃宅基地意愿、在务工地定居意愿3个维度对农民工"候鸟式"迁移及其影响因素进行了实证分析,并研究了新老农民工的代际差异. 结果表明,农民工年龄、性别、文化程度、承包地的种植方式、城乡差距、城市打工过程中的居住条件、工作压力等7个因素

  7. Nematode parasite diversity in birds: the role of host ecology, life history and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tommy L F; Koprivnikar, Janet

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have found that migratory birds generally have a more diverse array of pathogens such as parasites, as well as higher intensities of infection. However, it is not clear whether this is driven by the metabolic and physiological demands of migration, differential selection on host life-history traits or basic ecological differences between migratory and non-migratory species. Parasitic helminths can cause significant pathology in their hosts, and many are trophically transmitted such that host diet and habitat use play key roles in the acquisition of infections. Given the concurrent changes in avian habitats and migratory behaviour, it is critical to understand the degree to which host ecology influences their parasite communities. We examined nematode parasite diversity in 153 species of Anseriformes (water birds) and Accipitriformes (predatory birds) in relation to their migratory behaviour, diet, habitat use, geographic distribution and life history using previously published data. Overall, migrators, host species with wide geographic distributions and those utilizing multiple aquatic habitats had greater nematode richness (number of species), and birds with large clutches harboured more diverse nematode fauna with respect to number of superfamilies. Separate analyses for each host order found similar results related to distribution, habitat use and migration; however, herbivorous water birds played host to a less diverse nematode community compared to those that consume some animals. Birds using multiple aquatic habitats have a more diverse nematode fauna relative to primarily terrestrial species, likely because there is greater opportunity for contact with parasite infectious stages and/or consumption of infected hosts. As such, omnivorous and carnivorous birds using aquatic habitats may be more affected by environmental changes that alter their diet and range. Even though there were no overall differences in their ecology and life history

  8. Methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis of bird migration with a tracking radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, B.; Steidinger, P.

    1972-01-01

    Methods of analyzing bird migration by using tracking radar are discussed. The procedure for assessing the rate of bird passage is described. Three topics are presented concerning the grouping of nocturnal migrants, the velocity of migratory flight, and identification of species by radar echoes. The height and volume of migration under different weather conditions are examined. The methods for studying the directions of migration and the correlation between winds and the height and direction of migrating birds are presented.

  9. Cross-species transmission and emergence of novel viruses from birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-02-01

    Birds, the only living member of the Dinosauria clade, are flying warm-blooded vertebrates displaying high species biodiversity, roosting and migratory behavior, and a unique adaptive immune system. Birds provide the natural reservoir for numerous viral species and therefore gene source for evolution, emergence and dissemination of novel viruses. The intrusions of human into natural habitats of wild birds, the domestication of wild birds as pets or racing birds, and the increasing poultry consumption by human have facilitated avian viruses to cross species barriers to cause zoonosis. Recently, a novel adenovirus was exclusively found in birds causing an outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci infection among birds and humans. Instead of being the primary cause of an outbreak by jumping directly from bird to human, a novel avian virus can be an augmenter of another zoonotic agent causing the outbreak. A comprehensive avian virome will improve our understanding of birds' evolutionary dynamics.

  10. Nocturnal migratory songbirds adjust their travelling direction aloft: evidence from a radiotelemetry and radar study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Sissel; Nilsson, Cecilia

    2015-06-01

    In order to fully understand the orientation behaviour of migrating birds, it is important to understand when birds set their travel direction. Departure directions of migratory passerines leaving stopover sites are often assumed to reflect the birds' intended travel directions, but this assumption has not been critically tested. We used data from an automated radiotelemetry system and a tracking radar at Falsterbo peninsula, Sweden, to compare the initial orientation of departing songbirds (recorded by radiotelemetry) with the orientation of songbird migrants in climbing and level flight (recorded by radar). We found that the track directions of birds at high altitudes and in level flight were more concentrated than the directions of departing birds and birds in climbing flight, which indicates that the birds adjust their travelling direction once aloft. This was further supported by a wide scatter of vanishing bearings in a subsample of radio-tracked birds that later passed an offshore radio receiver station 50 km southeast of Falsterbo. Track directions seemed to be more affected by winds in climbing compared with level flights, which may be explained by birds not starting to partially compensate for wind drift until they have reached cruising altitudes.

  11. Changes in bird-migration patterns associated with human-induced mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacín, Carlos; Alonso, Juan C; Martín, Carlos A; Alonso, Javier A

    2017-02-01

    Many bird populations have recently changed their migratory behavior in response to alterations of the environment. We collected data over 16 years on male Great Bustards (Otis tarda), a species showing a partial migratory pattern (sedentary and migratory birds coexisting in the same breeding groups). We conducted population counts and radio tracked 180 individuals to examine differences in survival rates between migratory and sedentary individuals and evaluate possible effects of these differences on the migratory pattern of the population. Overall, 65% of individuals migrated and 35% did not. The average distance between breeding and postbreeding areas of migrant individuals was 89.9 km, and the longest average movement of sedentary males was 3.8 km. Breeding group and migration distance had no effect on survival. However, mortality of migrants was 2.4 to 3.5 times higher than mortality of sedentary birds. For marked males, collision with power lines was the main cause of death from unnatural causes (37.6% of all deaths), and migratory birds died in collisions with power lines more frequently than sedentary birds (21.3% vs 6.3%). The percentage of sedentary individuals increased from 17% in 1997 to 45% in 2012. These results were consistent with data collected from radio-tracked individuals: The proportion of migratory individuals decreased from 86% in 1997-1999 to 44% in 2006-2010. The observed decrease in the migratory tendency was not related to climatic changes (temperatures did not change over the study period) or improvements in habitat quality (dry cereal farmland area decreased in the main study area). Our findings suggest that human-induced mortality during migration may be an important factor shaping the migration patterns of species inhabiting humanized landscapes.

  12. Migratory bats respond to artificial green light with positive phototaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C; Roeleke, Manuel; Marggraf, Lara; Pētersons, Gunārs; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night is spreading worldwide at unprecedented rates, exposing strictly nocturnal animals such as bats to a novel anthropogenic stressor. Previous studies about the effect of artificial light on bats focused almost exclusively on non-migratory species, yet migratory animals such as birds are known to be largely affected by light pollution. Thus, we conducted a field experiment to evaluate if bat migration is affected by artificial light at night. In late summer, we presented artificial green light of 520 nm wavelength to bats that were migrating south along the shoreline of the Baltic Sea. Using a light on-off treatment, we observed that the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii and P. pygmaeus, the two most abundant migratory species at our site, increased by more than 50% in the light-on compared to the light-off treatment. We observed an increased number of feeding buzzes during the light-on compared to the light-off treatment for P. nathusii. However, feeding activity was low in general and did not increase disproportionately during the light-on treatment in relation to the overall echolocation call activity of bats. Further, P. nathusii were attracted towards the green light at a distance of about 23 m, which is way beyond the echolocation detection range for insects of Nathusius' bats. We therefore infer that migratory bats were not attracted to artificial green light because of high insect densities, but instead by positive phototaxis. We conclude that artificial light at night may potentially impact bat migration in a yet unrecognized way.

  13. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in a long-distance migrant shorebird under migratory and non-migratory states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A Reperant

    Full Text Available Corticosterone regulates physiological changes preparing wild birds for migration. It also modulates the immune system and may lead to increased susceptibility to infection, with implications for the spread of pathogens, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1. The red knot (Calidris canutus islandica displays migratory changes in captivity and was used as a model to assess the effect of high plasma concentration of corticosterone on HPAIV H5N1 infection. We inoculated knots during pre-migration (N = 6, fueling (N = 5, migration (N = 9 and post-migration periods (N = 6. Knots from all groups shed similar viral titers for up to 5 days post-inoculation (dpi, peaking at 1 to 3 dpi. Lesions of acute encephalitis, associated with virus replication in neurons, were seen in 1 to 2 knots per group, leading to neurological disease and death at 5 to 11 dpi. Therefore, the risk of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds and of potential transmission between wild birds and poultry may be similar at different times of the year, irrespective of wild birds' migratory status. However, in knots inoculated during the migration period, viral shedding levels positively correlated with pre-inoculation plasma concentration of corticosterone. Of these, knots that did not become productively infected had lower plasma concentration of corticosterone. Conversely, elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone did not result in an increased probability to develop clinical disease. These results suggest that birds with elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone at the time of migration (ready to migrate may be more susceptible to acquisition of infection and shed higher viral titers--before the onset of clinical disease--than birds with low concentration of corticosterone (not ready for take-off. Yet, they may not be more prone to the development of clinical disease. Therefore, assuming no effect of sub-clinical infection on the

  14. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in a long-distance migrant shorebird under migratory and non-migratory states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, Leslie A; van de Bildt, Marco W G; van Amerongen, Geert; Buehler, Debbie M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Jenni-Eiermann, Susi; Piersma, Theunis; Kuiken, Thijs

    2011-01-01

    Corticosterone regulates physiological changes preparing wild birds for migration. It also modulates the immune system and may lead to increased susceptibility to infection, with implications for the spread of pathogens, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1. The red knot (Calidris canutus islandica) displays migratory changes in captivity and was used as a model to assess the effect of high plasma concentration of corticosterone on HPAIV H5N1 infection. We inoculated knots during pre-migration (N = 6), fueling (N = 5), migration (N = 9) and post-migration periods (N = 6). Knots from all groups shed similar viral titers for up to 5 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaking at 1 to 3 dpi. Lesions of acute encephalitis, associated with virus replication in neurons, were seen in 1 to 2 knots per group, leading to neurological disease and death at 5 to 11 dpi. Therefore, the risk of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds and of potential transmission between wild birds and poultry may be similar at different times of the year, irrespective of wild birds' migratory status. However, in knots inoculated during the migration period, viral shedding levels positively correlated with pre-inoculation plasma concentration of corticosterone. Of these, knots that did not become productively infected had lower plasma concentration of corticosterone. Conversely, elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone did not result in an increased probability to develop clinical disease. These results suggest that birds with elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone at the time of migration (ready to migrate) may be more susceptible to acquisition of infection and shed higher viral titers--before the onset of clinical disease--than birds with low concentration of corticosterone (not ready for take-off). Yet, they may not be more prone to the development of clinical disease. Therefore, assuming no effect of sub-clinical infection on the likelihood of

  15. Migratory status is not related to the susceptibility to HPAIV H5N1 in an insectivorous passerine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Kalthoff

    Full Text Available Migratory birds have evolved elaborate physiological adaptations to travelling, the implications for their susceptibility to avian influenza are however unknown. Three groups of stonechats (Saxicola torquata from (I strongly migrating, (II weakly migrating and (III non-migrating populations were experimentally infected with HPAIV H5N1. The different bird groups of this insectivorous passerine species were infected in autumn, when the migrating populations clearly exhibit migratory restlessness. Following infection, all animals succumbed to the disease from 3 through 7 days post inoculation. Viral shedding, antigen distribution in tissues, and survival time did not differ between the three populations. However, notably, endothelial tropism of the HPAIV infection was exclusively seen in the group of resident birds. In conclusion, our data document for the first time the high susceptibility of an insectivorous passerine species to H5N1 infection, and the epidemiological role of these passerine birds is probably limited due to their high sensitivity to HPAIV H5N1 infection. Despite pronounced inherited differences in migratory status, the groups were generally indistinguishable in their susceptibility, survival time, clinical symptoms and viral shedding. Nevertheless, the migratory status partly influenced pathogenesis in the way of viral tropism.

  16. Long-distance dispersal in migratory pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca is relatively common between the UK and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.; Robinson, R.A.; Van der Jeugd, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal can potentially have important consequences for evolutionary change, but is difficult to quantify. We present quantitative estimates of natal dispersal between the UK and the Netherlands in a long-distance migratory bird, the pied flycatcher. Due to over 90 000 individual rin

  17. Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild migratory waterfowl in a region of high poultry production, Delmarva, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hindman, Larry J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Ottinger, Christopher A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Driscoll, Cindy P.; Nagel, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Migratory waterfowl are natural reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and may contribute to the long-distance dispersal of these pathogens as well as spillover into domestic bird populations. Surveillance for AIVs is critical to assessing risks for potential spread of these viruses among wild and domestic bird populations. The Delmarva Peninsula on the east coast of the United States is both a key convergence point for migratory Atlantic waterfowl populations and a region with high poultry production (>4,700 poultry meat facilities). Sampling of key migratory waterfowl species occurred at 20 locations throughout the Delmarva Peninsula in fall and winter of 2013–14. Samples were collected from 400 hunter-harvested or live-caught birds via cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs. Fourteen of the 400 (3.5%) birds sampled tested positive for the AIV matrix gene using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, all from five dabbling duck species. Further characterization of the 14 viral isolates identified two hemagglutinin (H3 and H4) and four neuraminidase (N2, N6, N8, and N9) subtypes, which were consistent with isolates reported in the Influenza Research Database for this region. Three of 14 isolates contained multiple HA or NA subtypes. This study adds to the limited baseline information available for AIVs in migratory waterfowl populations on the Delmarva Peninsula, particularly prior to the highly pathogenic AIV A(H5N8) and A(H5N2) introductions to the United States in late 2014.

  18. Gastro-intestinal microbiota of two migratory shorebird species during spring migration staging in Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migratory birds travel long distances and use diverse habitats, potentially exposing them to a broad range of microbes that could negatively affect their health and survival. Gut microbiota composition has been shown to be closely related to organismal health through interactions...

  19. Gastro-intestinal microbiota of two migratory shorebird species during spring migration staging in Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migratory birds travel long distances and use diverse habitats, potentially exposing them to a broad range of microbes that could negatively affect their health and survival. Gut microbiota composition has been shown to be closely related to organismal health through interactions...

  20. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from migratory water fowls in Hakaluki Haor, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdaus MohdAltaf Hossain

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 135 fecal samples were collected to characterize the Escherichia coli isolates from the migratory waterfowls (whistling Swan harbored in the Hakaluki Haor of Bangladesh in the year of 2008 and 2009. Out of 135 fecal samples, 100 samples were distinguished as positive for isolates of Escherichia coli following cultural, biochemical and motility test. Amongst the recovered isolates only 38% were found upbeat to enterotoxin production propensity on mice inoculation test. Finally, out of 38 % enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC positive isolates no any isolates found to be positive for the aptitude of heat stable (ST toxin yield. So, the presence of ETEC in migratory waterfowls indicating the possibilities of them to act as vector and reservoir of E. coli to spread further infection to animals and humans. This work indicates the first time ETEC characterization from the migratory birds of Bangladesh.