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Sample records for fr17jn10p bulk solid

  1. Characterisation of bulk solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGlinchey [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    2005-07-01

    Handling of powders and bulk solids is a critical industrial technology across a broad spectrum of industries, including minerals processing. With contributions from leading authors in their respective fields, this book provides the reader with a sound understanding of the techniques, importance and application of particulate materials characterisation. It covers the fundamental characteristics of individual particles and bulk particulate materials, and includes discussion of a wide range of measurement techniques, and the use of material characteristics in design and industrial practice. Contents: Characterising particle properties; Powder mechanics and rheology; Characterisation for hopper and stockpile design; Fluidization behaviour; Characterisation for pneumatic conveyor design; Explosiblility; 'Designer' particle characteristics; Current industrial practice; and Future trends. 130 ills.

  2. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  3. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-09-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation-best described as an atomic scale ripple-was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain.

  4. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  5. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  6. Pseudopotentials for calculating the bulk and surface properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is presented describing research in condensed matter physics using pseudopotentials to calculate electronic, structural, and vibrational properties of solids. Semiconductors are emphasized, and both bulk and surface calculations are discussed. (author) [pt

  7. Combating wear in bulk solids handling plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    A total of five papers presented at a seminar on problems of wear caused by abrasive effects of materials in bulk handling. Topics of papers cover the designer viewpoint, practical experience from the steel, coal, cement and quarry industries to create an awareness of possible solutions.

  8. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... reduced iron (DRI) as briquettes molded at a temperature of 650 [deg]C or higher that have a density of 5... temperature of 650 [deg]C or higher or had a density of 5.0 g/cm[sup3] or greater. In this proposed rule, we... bulk materials of Hazard Classes 4 through 9. c. One comment recommended that a DCM be required for...

  9. Chirality-dependent friction of bulk molecular solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dian; Cohen, Adam E

    2014-08-26

    We show that the solid-solid friction between bulk chiral molecular solids can depend on the relative chirality of the two materials. In menthol and 1-phenyl-1-butanol, heterochiral friction is smaller than homochiral friction, while in ibuprofen, heterochiral friction is larger. Chiral asymmetries in the coefficient of sliding friction vary with temperature and can be as large as 30%. In the three compounds tested, the sign of the difference between heterochiral and homochiral friction correlated with the sign of the difference in melting point between racemate (compound or conglomerate) and pure enantiomer. Menthol and ibuprofen each form a stable racemic compound, while 1-phenyl-1-butanol forms a racemic conglomerate. Thus, a difference between heterochiral and homochiral friction does not require the formation of a stable interfacial racemic compound. Measurements of chirality-dependent friction provide a unique means to distinguish the role of short-range intermolecular forces from all other sources of dissipation in the friction of bulk molecular solids.

  10. Bulk elastic wave propagation in partially saturated porous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.; Thigpen, L.; Chin, R.C.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The linear equations of motion that describe the behavior of small disturbances in a porous solid containing both liquid and gas are solved for bulk wave propagation. The equations have been simplified by neglecting effects due to changes in capillary pressure. With this simplifying assumption, the equations reduce to two coupled (vector) equations of the form found in Biot's equations (for full saturation) but with more complicated coefficients. As in fully saturated solids, two shear waves with the same speed but different polarizations exist as do two compressional waves with distinct speeds. Attenuation effects can be enhanced in the partially saturated solid, depending on the distribution of gas in the pore space. Two models of the liquid/gas spatial distribution are considered: a segregated-fluids model and a mixed-fluids model. The two models predict comparable attentuation when the gas saturation is low, but the segregated-fluids model predicts a more rapid roll-off of attenuation as the gas saturation increases

  11. Bionic design methodology for wear reduction of bulk solids handling equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Schott, D.L.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale handling of particulate solids can cause severe wear on bulk solids handling equipment surfaces. Wear reduces equipment life span and increases maintenance cost. Examples of traditional methods to reduce wear of bulk solids handling equipment include optimizing transport operations

  12. 129Xe NMR spectroscopy in microporous solids: The effect of bulk properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripmeester, John A.; Ratcliffe, Christopher I.

    1993-01-01

    In this contribution we point out a number of factors related to the bulk properties of microporous solids which must be taken into account in order first of all to obtain meaningful 129 Xe NMR spectral data, and secondly to interpret the data properly. This sensitivity to bulk properties is especially important for microporous solids where there is little or no barrier to xenon passage from inside the particle to the interparticle space. We examine the effect of particle size, powder bulk density and particle anisotropy, and also the effect of low thermal conductivity of low density powders

  13. Direct determination of bulk etching rate for LR-115-II solid state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thickness of the removed layer of the LR-115-II solid state nuclear track detector during etching is measured directly with a rather precise instrument. Dependence of bulk etching rate on temperature of the etching solution is investigated. It has been found that the bulk etching rate is 3.2 m/h at 60°C in 2.5 N NaOH of ...

  14. Laser generation of nanostructures on the surface and in the bulk of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bityurin, N M

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers nanostructuring of solid surfaces by nano-optical techniques, primarily by laser particle nanolithography. Threshold processes are examined that can be used for laser structuring of solid surfaces, with particular attention to laser swelling of materials. Fundamental spatial resolution issues in three-dimensional (3D) laser nanostructuring are analysed with application to laser nanopolymerisation and 3D optical information recording. The formation of nanostructures in the bulk of solids due to their structural instability under irradiation is exemplified by photoinduced formation of nanocomposites. (photonics and nanotechnology)

  15. [Recycle of contaminated scrap metal]: Task 1.3.2, Bulk solids feed system. Topical report, October 1993-- January 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    A critical requirement in DOE's efforts to recycle, reuse, and dispose of materials from its decontamination and decommissioning activities is the design of a robust system to process a wide variety of bulk solid feeds. The capability to process bulk solids will increase the range of materials and broaden the application of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP). The term bulk solids refers to materials that are more economically fed into the top of a molten metal bath than by submerged injection through a tuyere. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) has characterized CEP's ability to process bulk solid feed materials and has achieved significant growth in the size of bulk solid particles compatible with Catalytic Extraction Processing. Parametric experimental studies using various feed materials representative of the components of various DOE waste streams have validated design models which establish the reactor operating range as a function of feed material, mass flow rate, and particle size. MMT is investigating the use of a slurry system for bulk solid addition as it is the most efficient means for injecting soils, sludges, and similar physical forms into a catalytic processing unit. MMT is continuing to evaluate condensed phase product removal systems and alternative energy addition sources to enhance the operating efficiency of bulk solids CEP units. A condensed phase product removal system capable of on-demand product removal has been successfully demonstrated. MMT is also investigating the use of a plasma arc torch to provide supplemental heating during bulk solids processing. This comprehensive approach to bulk solids processing is expected to further improve overall process efficiency prior to the deployment of CEP for the recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning Activities

  16. Effects of Sludge Dry Solid Content and Residual Bulking Agents on Volatile Solids Reduction Using Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Abdoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this study, the compound effects of sludge dry solid content and residual bulking agent type (paper, saw dust, straw mixed with activated sludge (10, 15, and 20% dry solids on volatile solids (V.S. reduction were investigated using Eisenia foetida in pilot scale experiments with batches of fifty earthworms in each of the 10 experimental treatments over a period of 10 weeks. The maximum V.S. reduction was attained in the mixture of sludge and paper, with a D.S. of 15% (0.42 ± 0.03 % day-1 while the minimum V.S. reduction was achieved in the mixture of sludge and straw, with a D.S. of 10% (0.26 ± 0.01 % day-1. In the second stage, the survival of Eisenia foetida in the anaerobic sewage sludge was investigated. In the unmixed raw anaerobic sludge, all the earthworms died during the first 9 weeks of the study period due to acute toxicity. From week 10, however, their survival rate improved so that by week 12 when toxicity reduced to 25.40%, they completely survived. This is while in the mixture of anaerobic sludge with paper (D.S. 15%, 100% of the earthworms survived from week 8 after the volatile solids reduced to 20.42% and 17.40%.

  17. Surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous solid water films: Confirmation of “top-down” crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2016-10-01

    The crystallization kinetics of nanoscale amorphous solid water (ASW) films are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). TPD measurements are used to probe surface crystallization and RAIRS measurements are used to probe bulk crystallization. Isothermal TPD results show that surface crystallization is independent of the film thickness (from 100 to 1000 ML). Conversely, the RAIRS measurements show that the bulk crystallization time increases linearly with increasing film thickness. These results suggest that nucleation and crystallization begin at the ASW/vacuum interface and then the crystallization growth front propagates linearly into the bulk. This mechanism was confirmed by selective placement of an isotopic layer (5% D2O in H2O) at various positions in an ASW (H2O) film. In this case, the closer the isotopic layer was to the vacuum interface, the earlier the isotopic layer crystallized. These experiments provide direct evidence to confirm that ASW crystallization in vacuum proceeds by a “top-down” crystallization mechanism.

  18. The wetting of planar solid surfaces by symmetric binary mixtures near bulk gas-liquid coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woywod, Dirk; Schoen, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the wetting of planar, nonselective solid substrates by symmetric binary mixtures where the attraction strength between like molecules of components A and B is the same, that is ε AA ε BB AB vertical bar ≤ vertical bar ε AA vertical bar, that is by varying the attraction between a pair of unlike molecules. By means of mean-field lattice density functional calculations we observe a rich wetting behaviour as a result of the interplay between ε AB and the attraction of fluid molecules by the solid substrate ε W . In accord with previous studies we observe complete wetting only above the critical end point if the bulk mixture exhibits a moderate to weak tendency to liquid-liquid phase separation even for relatively strong fluid-substrate attraction. However, in this case layering transitions may arise below the temperature of the critical end point. For strongly phase separating mixtures complete wetting is observed for all temperatures T ≥0 along the line of discontinuous phase transitions in the bulk

  19. Bulk metal concentrations versus total suspended solids in rivers: Time-invariant & catchment-specific relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Ruegner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Bennett, Jeremy; Fazel Valipour, Shahin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can act as carriers of potentially bioavailable metal species and are thus an emerging area of interest in river system monitoring. The delineation of bulk metals concentrations in river water into dissolved and particulate components is also important for risk assessment. Linear relationships between bulk metal concentrations in water (CW,tot) and total suspended solids (TSS) in water can be used to easily evaluate dissolved (CW, intercept) and particle-bound metal fluxes (CSUS, slope) in streams (CW,tot = CW + CSUS TSS). In this study, we apply this principle to catchments in Iran (Haraz) and Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, and Steinlach) that show differences in geology, geochemistry, land use and hydrological characteristics. For each catchment, particle-bound and dissolved concentrations for a suite of metals in water were calculated based on linear regressions of total suspended solids and total metal concentrations. Results were replicable across sampling campaigns in different years and seasons (between 2013 and 2016) and could be reproduced in a laboratory sedimentation experiment. CSUS values generally showed little variability in different catchments and agree well with soil background values for some metals (e.g. lead and nickel) while other metals (e.g. copper) indicate anthropogenic influences. CW was elevated in the Haraz (Iran) catchment, indicating higher bioavailability and potential human and ecological health concerns (where higher values of CSUS/CW are considered as a risk indicator).

  20. Effect of initial bulk density on high-solids anaerobic digestion of MSW: General mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Luis M; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing; De Clercq, Djavan; Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Sai; Ni, Zhe

    2017-06-01

    Initial bulk density (IBD) is an important variable in anaerobic digestion since it defines and optimizes the treatment capacity of a system. This study reveals the mechanism on how IBD might affect anaerobic digestion of waste. Four different IBD values: D 1 (500-700kgm -3 ), D 2 (900-1000kgm -3 ), D 3 (1100-1200kgm -3 ) and D 4 (1200-1400kgm -3 ) were set and tested over a period of 90days in simulated landfill reactors. The main variables affected by the IBD are the methane generation, saturation degree, extraction of organic matter, and the total population of methanogens. The study identified that IBD >1000kgm -3 may have significant effect on methane generation, either prolonging the lag time or completely inhibiting the process. This study provides a new understanding of the anaerobic digestion process in saturated high-solids systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Method of altering the effective bulk density of solid material and the resulting product: hollow polymeric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, L.B.; Nolen, R.L.; Solomon, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Hollow spherical particles are made by spraying a mixture of powdered solid material with a solution of a film-forming polymer in a solvent therefor into a heated chamber where the solvent evaporates. The powder is thereby captured in the wall of the hollow polymer particles formed. Such particles are used to form a suspension in a fluid material. The hollow particles are of such size and wall thickness, in relation to the bulk density of the powdered solid material, that the bulk density of each hollow spherical particle is commensurate with the density of the fluid material. The particles thereby remain in suspension over a substantial period of time with little or no agitation of the fluid. (author)

  2. Flowability of bulk solids used in shale fracturing grouts as determined by the Jenike and Johanson method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.; Weeren, H.O.

    1979-09-01

    Smooth operation of the shale fracturing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory requires that an even, uninterrupted flow of dry solids be delivered to a mixer at a rate of approximately 1200 lb/min. Some operational difficulties have been experienced with the dry solids system at the existing facility. Occasionally the solids flow from a bin was difficult to initiate or was irregular, particularly when the storage bin was nearly empty. A new shale fracturing facility is now being designed with a solids handling system that will eliminate the current problems. This report describes the tests made to obtain the necessary information about bulk-flow properties of the dry solids that are required for the facility modifications. Flow properties of fly ash, attapulgite, pottery clay, and a blended solids mix were determined in a Jenike and Johanson Flowfactor Tester. Tests with this unit involve the consolidation of a solid at a given pressure and the measurement of the force required to create a shear plane. The procedure is repeated several times at different consolidating pressures to determine a locus of points that can be displayed graphically. Results indicate that a bottom-hopper opening of about 4 ft will be required on the new, bulk storage bins if mass flow is to be achieved. It was also found that the existing bins are quite unsuitable for either their present function or their proposed function. Since these bins have served moderately well for 14 years, the effect of aeration is obviously major; these tests indicate only an upper limit to the size of the hopper opening that will be required. Pottery clay and attapulgite were found to have flow characteristics considerably inferior to blended solids. It is known, however, that attapulgite clay will flow from the existing bins, and modification of the bin bottoms to enlarge the openings does not appear to be justified

  3. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.; Bakker, G. L.; Li, S.; Vreeburg, J. H G; Verberk, J. Q J C; Medema, G. J.; Liu, W. T.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected

  4. Environmental and safety aspects. The best of 'powder handling and processing' 1989 - 1997. 'Bulk solids handling' 1992 - 1997 (H/2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehlbier, R.H. (ed.)

    2000-07-01

    The book contains articles published either during 1992-1997 in ''bulk solids handling'' or during 1989-1997 in ''powder handling and processing''. Main topics are aspects of safety and environmental protection in bulk solids handling: dusts, hazardous powders, prevention and mitigation of dust explosions, powdered coal handling, dedusting, filters, electrostatic precipitation, materials recovery, occupational safety.(uke)

  5. Estimation of track registration efficiency in solution medium and study of gamma irradiation effects on the bulk-etch rate and the activation energy for bulk etching of CR-39 (DOP) Solid State Nuclear Track Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The fission track registration efficiency of diethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate (dioctyl phthalate doped) (CR-39 (DOP)) solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) in solution medium (K wet ) has been experimentally determined and is found to be (9.7 ± 0.5).10 -4 cm. This is in good agreement with the values of other SSNTDs. The gamma irradiation effects in the dose range of 50.0-220.0 kGy on the bulk etch rate, V b and the activation energy for bulk etching, E of this solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) have also been studied. It is observed that the bulk etch rates increase and the activation energies for bulk etching decrease with the increase in gamma dose. These results have been explained on the basis of scission of the detector due to gamma irradiation

  6. Development of Sulfide Solid Electrolytes and Interface Formation Processes for Bulk-Type All-Solid-State Li and Na Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Akitoshi, E-mail: hayashi@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Sakuda, Atsushi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Department of Energy and Environment, Research Institute of Electrochemical Energy, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Tatsumisago, Masahiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    All-solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) are recognized as an ultimate goal of rechargeable batteries because of their high safety, versatile geometry, and good cycle life. Compared with thin-film batteries, increasing the reversible capacity of bulk-type all-solid-state batteries using electrode active material particles is difficult because contact areas at solid–solid interfaces between the electrode and electrolyte particles are limited. Sulfide SEs have several advantages of high conductivity, wide electrochemical window, and appropriate mechanical properties, such as formability, processability, and elastic modulus. Sulfide electrolyte with Li{sub 7}P{sub 3}S{sub 11} crystal has a high Li{sup +} ion conductivity of 1.7 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 25°C. It is far beyond the Li{sup +} ion conductivity of conventional organic liquid electrolytes. The Na{sup +} ion conductivity of 7.4 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} is achieved for Na{sub 3.06}P{sub 0.94}Si{sub 0.06}S{sub 4} with cubic structure. Moreover, formation of favorable solid–solid interfaces between electrode and electrolyte is important for realizing solid-state batteries. Sulfide electrolytes have better formability than oxide electrolytes. Consequently, a dense electrolyte separator and closely attached interfaces with active material particles are achieved via “room-temperature sintering” of sulfides merely by cold pressing without heat treatment. Elastic moduli for sulfide electrolytes are smaller than that of oxide electrolytes, and Na{sub 2}S–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} glass electrolytes have smaller Young’s modulus than Li{sub 2}S–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} electrolytes. Cross-sectional SEM observations for a positive electrode layer reveal that sulfide electrolyte coating on active material particles increases interface areas even with a minimum volume of electrolyte, indicating that the energy density of bulk-type solid-state batteries is enhanced. Both surface coating

  7. Thermally activated reaction–diffusion-controlled chemical bulk reactions of gases and solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Möller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical kinetics of the reaction of thin films with reactive gases is investigated. The removal of thin films using thermally activated solid–gas to gas reactions is a method to in-situ control deposition inventory in vacuum and plasma vessels. Significant scatter of experimental deposit removal rates at apparently similar conditions was observed in the past, highlighting the need for understanding the underlying processes. A model based on the presence of reactive gas in the films bulk and chemical kinetics is presented. The model describes the diffusion of reactive gas into the film and its chemical interaction with film constituents in the bulk using a stationary reaction–diffusion equation. This yields the reactive gas concentration and reaction rates. Diffusion and reaction rate limitations are depicted in parameter studies. Comparison with literature data on tokamak co-deposit removal results in good agreement of removal rates as a function of pressure, film thickness and temperature.

  8. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high suspended solids from a bulk drug industry using fixed film reactor (AFFR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangagni Rao, A; Venkata Naidu, G; Krishna Prasad, K; Chandrasekhar Rao, N; Venkata Mohan, S; Jetty, Annapurna; Sarma, P N

    2005-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry using an anaerobic fixed film reactor (AFFR) designed and fabricated in the laboratory. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS) of the wastewater were found to be very high with low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to COD ratio and high total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Acclimatization of seed consortia and startup of the reactor was carried out by directly using the wastewater, which resulted in reducing the period of startup to 30 days. The reactor was studied at different organic loading rates (OLR) and it was found that the optimum OLR was 10 kg COD/m(3)/day. The wastewater under investigation, which had a considerable quantity of SS, was treated anaerobically without any pretreatment. COD and BOD of the reactor outlet wastewater were monitored and at steady state and optimum OLR 60-70% of COD and 80-90% of BOD were removed. The reactor was subjected to organic shock loads at two different OLR and the reaction could withstand the shocks and performance could be restored to normalcy at that OLR. The results obtained indicated that AFFR could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry having high COD, TDS and TSS.

  9. Enhancement of the photoelectric performance in inverted bulk heterojunction solid solar cell with inorganic nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, Weiling; Zhang, Chengxi; Luo, Lingli; Yuan, Binxia; Jin, Lin; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid solar cells based on FeS_2 or PbS NCs showed power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.0% and 3.11%, respectively. • The FeS_2 NCs/polymer solar cells showed good time and thermal stability when exposed in air condition. • Ternary solid solar cells based on PbS NCs exhibited a higher short circuit current density (J_s_c). - Abstract: Nanocrystal/polymer solid solar cells have the advantages of low-cost, simple process, and flexible manufacture. In this work, ternary solid solar cells based on FeS_2 and PbS nanocrystals exhibited photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.0% and 3.1%, respectively. As a kind of semiconductor with optical absorption in the visible and near-infrared regions, FeS_2 nanocrystals matched well with the solar radiation spectrum. Furthermore, PbS Nanocrystals could increase the number of electrons, due to its multiple exciton effect. Additionally, the FeS_2 nanocrystals solar cells showed high stability, with 83.3% of its initial efficiency remained after 15 weeks of exposure in air, and kept good stable performance at 20–80 °C. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency fluctuation magnitudes were also found to be smaller than quantum-dot sensitized solar cell under the same conditions.

  10. Effect of adding bulking materials over the composting process of municipal solid biowastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biowastes (BW, the main raw materials for the composting installations in developing countries, are characterized for containing uncooked food wastes (FW, high moisture content, low porosity, acidic pH, and low C/N ratios which affects the overall composting process (CP. In this study, we evaluated the effect of adding sugarcane bagasse (SCB and star grass (SG (Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum. Pilg. as bulking materials (BM over the quality of the substrate, progress of the process, and quality of the obtained product. In this sense, two pilot-scale experiments were performed. The first one contained a substrate formed by 78% BW and 22% SCB (pile A. The second experiment contained a substrate formed by 66% BW and 34% SG (pile B. For each experiment, control treatments (piles A' and B' respectively were performed by using 100% BW without BM. The results showed that in both cases the adding of BM improved substrate quality (pH, moisture, and total organic C content [TOC], speeding up the starting step (2-3 d and reducing the duration of the thermophilic phase of CP (3 d. However, the physico-chemical properties of both BM increased cooling and maturation phases duration (between 15 and 20 d. Obtained products quality was improved in terms of higher TOC, cation-exchange capacity, bulk density, and higher water holding capacity. Application of obtained products A and B could improve some soil properties like major nutrient, water retention, and increasing the organic matter.

  11. Bulk diffusion and solubility of silver and nickel in lead, lead-silver and lead-nickel solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenzou-Badrour, H.; Moya, G.; Bernardini, J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study of solubility and bulk diffusion of /sup 110/Ag and /sup 63/Ni in lead, lead-silver and lead-nickel solid solutions in the temperature range 220 to 88 0 C are reported. Owing to the low solubility of silver and nickel in lead, Fick's solution corresponding to the boundary condition of a constant concentration of solute at the surface has been used. Depth profile concentration analysis suggests a fundamental difference between the diffusion mechanisms of silver and nickel. Since silver penetration profiles in pure lead give diffusion coefficients independent of the penetration depth and silver concentration, it is suggested that slight decreases of silver diffusivity in lead-silver solid solutions have no significance. This implies that the interstitial silver atoms do not associate significantly with each other to form Ag-Ag dimers. In contrast, different behaviors of /sup 63/Ni depth profile concentration in pure lead and saturated PbNi solid solutions agree with a Ni-Ni interaction leading to the formation of less mobile dimers near the surface in pure lead

  12. Sodium lauryl sulfate - a biocide for controlling acidity development in bulk commercially formed solid elemental sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyne, J. B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1996-04-01

    Acidification of bulk elemental sulfur caused by Thiobacillus species which consume elemental sulfur by converting it into oxidized sulfur forms, was studied. Contributory factors, such as length of time in transit or in storage, warm temperatures, the presence of air and moisture, particle size and form of sulfur, and the presence of sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients, were reviewed. Laboratory experiments with adding sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a known biocide, to sulfur inoculated with Thiobacillus, proved to be an efficient method for controlling acidity development. At the concentration required for effectiveness SLS did not interfere with purity specifications, had negligible effect on moisture, and appeared to be compatible with current dust suppression application practices. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Molecular-dynamics method for the simulation of bulk-solid interfaces at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsko, J.F.; Wolf, D.; Yip, S.; Phillpot, S.R.; Nguyen, T.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for the molecular-dynamics simulation of bulk planar interfaces at high temperatures is presented. The method uses the basic Parrinello-Rahman (constant-stress) scheme, modified for the application to inhomogeneous systems. Since our computational cell contains only one interface with two-dimensional (2D) periodic border conditions, we are able to study isolated interfaces all the way up to melting. The interaction between boundaries which may lead to their annihilation at higher temperatures, which is a problem when 3D periodic borders are applied, is thus avoided. As an application, the method is used to study the stability of a grain boundary at high temperatures. Observations on a possible connection between grain-boundary migration and ''premelting'' are discussed

  14. Subthreshold radiation-induced processes in the bulk and on surfaces and interfaces of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, N.

    1998-01-01

    A review is given on the processes induced under irradiation by electronic encounters and by elastic encounters below the knock-on threshold. It is pointed out that electronic encounters cause bond scission that results in defect formation and sputtering in a variety of materials. The conditions for generation of permanent radiation-induced process as a consequence of electronic encounters are critically examined. Two critical issues are localization of electronic excitation energy and energetics. Self-trapping of excitons is one way of localization; otherwise defects are involved in localization and therefore in radiation-induced processes (RIP) by electronic excitation. Arguments on energetics indicate presence of linear and nonlinear electronic process with respect to the density of excitation. The registration of energetic heavy-ion tracks is explained in terms of non-linear electronic processes. The difference in the processes in the bulk, on surfaces and at interfaces is critically discussed. The possible contribution of subthreshold elastic encounters to thermodynamically driven interface reaction is also discussed. (orig.)

  15. Testing the system detection unit for measuring solid minerals bulk density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytyuk, I. N.; Kopteva, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper provides a brief description of the system for measuring flux per volume of solid minerals via example of mineral coal. The paper discloses the operational principle of the detection unit. The paper provides full description of testing methodology, as well as practical implementation of the detection unit testing. This paper describes the removal of two data arrays via the channel of scattered anddirect radiation for the detection units of two generations. This paper describes Matlab software to determine the statistical characteristics of the studied objects. The mean value of pulses per cycles, and pulse counting inaccuracy relatively the mean value were determined for the calculation of the stability account of the detection units.

  16. Graphene as an active virtually massless top electrode for RF solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave (SMR-BAW) resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Marius; Hoffmann, René; Lebedev, Vadim; Cimalla, Volker; Ambacher, Oliver

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical and electrical losses induced by an electrode material greatly influence the performance of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. Graphene as a conducting and virtually massless 2D material is a suitable candidate as an alternative electrode material for BAW resonators which reduces electrode induced mechanical losses. In this publication we show that graphene acts as an active top electrode for solidly mounted BAW resonators (BAW-SMR) at 2.1 GHz resonance frequency. Due to a strong decrease of mass loading and its remarkable electronic properties, graphene demonstrates its ability as an ultrathin conductive layer. In our experiments we used an optimized graphene wet transfer on aluminum nitride-based solidly mounted resonator devices. We achieved more than a triplication of the resonator’s quality factor Q and a resonance frequency close to an ‘unloaded’ resonator without metallization. Our results reveal the direct influence of both, the graphene quality and the graphene contacting via metal structures, on the performance characteristic of a BAW resonator. These findings clearly show the potential of graphene in minimizing mechanical losses due to its virtually massless character. Moreover, they highlight the advantages of graphene and other 2D conductive materials for alternative electrodes in electroacoustic resonators for radio frequency applications.

  17. Nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the liquid bulk and at a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagov, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The main achievements in the study of the vapor phase origin in liquid and the subsequent growth of the vapor bubbles are presented briefly, and a number of issues on which there is no single opinion as yet are also outlined. The theory of homogeneous nucleation and a great number of experiments make it possible not only to explain qualitatively the causes of spontaneous formation of vapor nucleation centers in the metastable liquid but provides a simple computational relation for the estimating the intensity of this process. None of the existing hypotheses, however, can give a complete answer to the question of the mechanism of the vapor phase nucleation on a solid surface under ''pure conditions'', although this is a more pressing problem. At the same time, the role of cavities of reservoir type (with a narrow orifice) on the surface under heating as reliable stabilizers of the vapor formation (especially in liquid metals) is clarified from the practical point of view. Thus, the identification of technology for production of such cavities would make it possible to increase substantially the efficiency of heat transferring surfaces. Any computational relations for the growth of bubbles on the heating surface also are (and, according to the author, necessarily will be) approximate ones, although considerable success has been achieved in this field

  18. 5V-class bulk-type all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries with electrode-solid electrolyte composite electrodes prepared by aerosol deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Wadaguchi, Masaki; Yoshida, Koki; Yamamoto, Yuta; Motoyama, Munekazu; Yamamoto, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Composite electrodes (∼9 μm in thickness) composed of 5V-class electrode of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNM) and high Li+ conductive crystalline-glass solid electrolyte (LATP, Ohara Inc.) were prepared at room temperature by aerosol deposition (AD) on platinum sheets. The resultant LNM-LATP composite electrodes were combined with LiPON and Li, and 5V-class bulk-type all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries (SSBs) were prepared. The crystallnity of the LNM in the LNM-LATP composite electrode was improved by annealing. Both thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy analysis and XRD analysis clarified that the side reactions between the LNM and the LATP occurred over 500 °C with oxygen release. From these results, annealing temperature of the LNM-LATP composite electrode system was optimized at 500 °C due to the improved crystallinity of the LNM with avoiding the side-reactions. The SSBs with the composite electrodes (9 μm in thickness, 40 vol% of the LNM) annealed at 500 °C delivered 100 mAh g-1 at 10 μA cm-2 at 100 °C. Degradation of the discharge capacity with the repetition of the charge-discharge reactions was observed, which will originate from large volume change of the LNM (∼6.5%) during the reactions.

  19. Determination of the main solid-state form of albendazole in bulk drug, employing Raman spectroscopy coupled to multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Natalia L; Arias, Juan M; Altabef, Aída Ben; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2016-09-10

    Albendazole (ALB) is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, which exhibits two solid-state forms (Forms I and II). The Form I is the metastable crystal at room temperature, while Form II is the stable one. Because the drug has poor aqueous solubility and Form II is less soluble than Form I, it is desirable to have a method to assess the solid-state form of the drug employed for manufacturing purposes. Therefore, a Partial Least Squares (PLS) model was developed for the determination of Form I of ALB in its mixtures with Form II. For model development, both solid-state forms of ALB were prepared and characterized by microscopic (optical and with normal and polarized light), thermal (DSC) and spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR, Raman) techniques. Mixtures of solids in different ratios were prepared by weighing and mechanical mixing of the components. Their Raman spectra were acquired, and subjected to peak smoothing, normalization, standard normal variate correction and de-trending, before performing the PLS calculations. The optimal spectral region (1396-1280cm(-1)) and number of latent variables (LV=3) were obtained employing a moving window of variable size strategy. The method was internally validated by means of the leave one out procedure, providing satisfactory statistics (r(2)=0.9729 and RMSD=5.6%) and figures of merit (LOD=9.4% and MDDC=1.4). Furthermore, the method's performance was also evaluated by analysis of two validation sets. Validation set I was used for assessment of linearity and range and Validation set II, to demonstrate accuracy and precision (Recovery=101.4% and RSD=2.8%). Additionally, a third set of spiked commercial samples was evaluated, exhibiting excellent recoveries (94.2±6.4%). The results suggest that the combination of Raman spectroscopy with multivariate analysis could be applied to the assessment of the main crystal form and its quantitation in samples of ALB bulk drug, in the routine quality control laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  1. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  2. On the use of atomistic simulations to aid bulk metallic glasses structural elucidation with solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ary R; Rino, José P

    2017-08-24

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) experimental 27 Al metallic shifts reported in the literature for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were revisited in the light of state-of-the-art atomistic simulations. In a consistent way, the Gauge-Including Projector Augmented-Wave (GIPAW) method was applied in conjunction with classical molecular dynamics (CMD). A series of Zr-Cu-Al alloys with low Al concentrations were selected as case study systems, for which realistic CMD derived structural models were used for a short- and medium-range order mining. That initial procedure allowed the detection of trends describing changes on the microstructure of the material upon Al alloying, which in turn were used to guide GIPAW calculations with a set of abstract systems in the context of ssNMR. With essential precision and accuracy, the ab initio simulations also yielded valuable trends from the electronic structure point of view, which enabled an overview of the bonding nature of Al-centered clusters as well as its influence on the experimental ssNMR outcomes. The approach described in this work might promote the use of ssNMR spectroscopy in research on glassy metals. Moreover, the results presented demonstrate the possibility to expand the applications of this technique, with deeper insight into nuclear interactions and less speculative assignments.

  3. Chronology of formation of early solar system solids from bulk Mg isotope analyses of CV3 chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Claydon, Jennifer L.; Elliott, Tim; Coath, Christopher D.; Lai, Yi-Jen; Russell, Sara S.

    2018-04-01

    We have analysed the petrography, major element abundances and bulk Al-Mg isotope systematics of 19 ferromagnesian chondrules from the CV3 chondrites Allende, Mokoia, and Vigarano, together with an Al-rich chondrule and refractory olivine from Mokoia. Co-variations of Al/Mg with Na/Mg and Ti/Mg in our bulk chondrules suggest their compositions are dominantly controlled by reworking of different proportions of chondrule components (e.g. mafic minerals and mesostatis); their precursors are thus fragments from prior generations of chondrules. Our samples show a range in fractionation corrected 26Mg/24Mg (Δ‧26Mg) ∼ 60 ppm, relative to precisions behaviour once 26Al was effectively extinct ((26Al/27Al)0 3.4 ± 0.6 × 10-5. Overall, our samples record a sequence of events from the formation of ferromagnesian objects within 0.5 Ma of CAI to re-equilibration of chondrules and silicate vapour >2 Ma post CAI, assuming an initially homogeneous 26Al/27Al. Metamorphism on the asteroid parent body may have played a subsequent role in affecting Mg isotope composition, but we argue this had a minor influence on the observations here.

  4. Radical polymerization of capillary bridges between micron-sized particles in liquid bulk phase as a low temperature route to produce porous solid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauf, Katharina; Riazi, Kamran; Willenbacher, Norbert; Koos, Erin

    2017-10-01

    We present a generic and versatile low temperature route to produce macro-porous bodies with porosity and pore size distribution that are adjustable in a wide range. Capillary suspensions, where the minor fluid is a monomer, are used as pre-cursors. The monomer is preferentially located between the particles, creating capillary bridges, resulting in a strong, percolating network. Thermally induced polymerization of these bridges at temperatures below 100 °C for less than 5 hours and subsequent removal of the bulk fluid yields macroscopic, self-supporting solid bodies with high porosity. This process is demonstrated using methylmethacrylate and hydroxyethylmethacrlyate with glass particles as a model system. The produced PMMA had a molecular weight of about 500.000 g/mol and dispersity about three. Application specific porous bodies, including PMMA particles connected by PMMA bridges, micron-sized capsules containing phase change material with high inner surface, and porous graphite membranes with high electrical conductivity, are also shown.

  5. A comparative study of composting the solid fraction of dairy manure with or without bulking material: Performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Ma, Shi-Chun; Wang, Shi-Peng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Deng, Yu; Kida, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    The present study compared the development of various physicochemical properties and the composition of microbial communities involved in the composting process in the solid fraction of dairy manure (SFDM) with a sawdust-regulated SFDM (RDM). The changes in several primary physicochemical properties were similar in the two composting processes, and both resulted in mature end-products within 48days. The bacterial communities in both composting processes primarily comprised Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Firmicutes were predominant in the thermophilic phase, whereas Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, and Nitrospirae were more abundant in the final mature phase. Furthermore, the succession of bacteria in both groups proceeded in a similar pattern, suggesting that the effects of the bulking material on bacterial dynamics were minor. These results demonstrate the feasibility of composting using only the SFDM, reflected by the evolution of physicochemical properties and the microbial communities involved in the composting process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A simple differential steady-state method to measure the thermal conductivity of solid bulk materials with high accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, D; Chen, G

    2014-02-01

    Accurate measurements of thermal conductivity are of great importance for materials research and development. Steady-state methods determine thermal conductivity directly from the proportionality between heat flow and an applied temperature difference (Fourier Law). Although theoretically simple, in practice, achieving high accuracies with steady-state methods is challenging and requires rather complex experimental setups due to temperature sensor uncertainties and parasitic heat loss. We developed a simple differential steady-state method in which the sample is mounted between an electric heater and a temperature-controlled heat sink. Our method calibrates for parasitic heat losses from the electric heater during the measurement by maintaining a constant heater temperature close to the environmental temperature while varying the heat sink temperature. This enables a large signal-to-noise ratio which permits accurate measurements of samples with small thermal conductance values without an additional heater calibration measurement or sophisticated heater guards to eliminate parasitic heater losses. Additionally, the differential nature of the method largely eliminates the uncertainties of the temperature sensors, permitting measurements with small temperature differences, which is advantageous for samples with high thermal conductance values and/or with strongly temperature-dependent thermal conductivities. In order to accelerate measurements of more than one sample, the proposed method allows for measuring several samples consecutively at each temperature measurement point without adding significant error. We demonstrate the method by performing thermal conductivity measurements on commercial bulk thermoelectric Bi2Te3 samples in the temperature range of 30-150 °C with an error below 3%.

  7. Simulation study of a chaotic cavity transducer based virtual phased array used for focusing in the bulk of a solid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrue, Steven; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Bou Matar, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    In acoustic and ultrasonic non-destructive testing techniques, it is sometimes beneficial to concentrate sound energy at a chosen location in space and at a specific instance in time, for example to improve the signal-to-noise ratio or activate the nonlinearity of damage features. Time Reversal (TR) techniques, taking advantage of the reversible character of the wave equation, are particularly suited to focus ultrasonic waves in time and space. The characteristics of the energy focusing in solid media using principles of time reversed acoustics are highly influenced by the nature and dimensions of the medium, the number of transducers and the length of the received signals. Usually, a large number of transducers enclosing the domain of interest is needed to improve the quality of the focusing. However, in the case of highly reverberant media, the number of transducers can be reduced to only one (single-channel TR). For focusing in a non-reverberant medium, which is impossible when using only one source, an adaptation of the single-channel reciprocal TR procedure has been recently suggested by means of a Chaotic Cavity Transducer (CCT), a single element transducer glued on a cavity of chaotic shape. In this paper, a CCT is used to focus elastic energy, at different times, in different points along a predefined line on the upper surface of a thick solid sample. Doing so, all focusing points can act as a virtual phased array transducer, allowing to focus in any point along the depth direction of the sample. This is impossible using conventional reciprocal TR, as you need to have access to all points in the bulk of the material for detecting signals to be used in the TR process. To asses and provide a better understanding of this concept, a numerical study has been developed, allowing to verify the basic concepts of the virtual phased array and to illustrate multi-component time reversal focusing in the bulk of a solid material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Strong work-hardening behavior induced by the solid solution strengthening of dendrites in TiZr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, D.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Jiao, W.T. [College of Education, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Y.F. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Vocational and Technical College of Building Materials, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, B.A.; Li, J.; Zhang, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma, M.Z., E-mail: mz550509@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Hardness of dendrite of TiZr-based BMGMCs increases. • Strong work-hardening behavior is obtained after solid solution strengthening. • Lattice distortions of dendrite suffering from rapid cooling are detected. - Abstract: A series of TiZr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) with distinguished mechanical properties are successfully fabricated by adding different volume fractions of Ta (Ti{sub 38.8}Zr{sub 28.8}Cu{sub 6.2}Be{sub 16.2}Nb{sub 10} as the basic composition, denoted as Ta{sub 0.0}–Ta{sub 8.0}). Along with the growth of precipitated phase, typical dendritic morphology is fully developed in the TiZr-based BMGMCs of Ta{sub 8.0}. Energy-dispersive spectrometry analysis of the dendrites and glass matrix indicates that the metallic elements of Nb and Ta should preferentially form solid solution into dendrites. The chaotic structure of high-temperature precipitate phase is trapped down by the rapid cooling of the copper-mould. The detected lattice distortions in the dendrites are attributed to the strong solid solution strengthening of the metallic elements of Ti, Zr, Nb, and Ta. These lattice distortions increase the resistance of the dislocation motion and pin the dislocations, thus the strength and hardness of dendrite increase. Dendrites create a strong barrier for the shear band propagation and generate multiple shear bands after solid solution strengthening, thereby providing the TiZr-based BMGMCs with greatly improved capacity to sustain plastic deformation and resistance to brittle fracture. Thus, the TiZr-based BMGMCs possess distinguished work-hardening capability. Among these TiZr-based BMGMCs, the sample Ta{sub 0.5} possesses the largest plastic strain (ε{sub p}) at 20.3% and ultimate strength (σ{sub max}) of 2613 MPa during compressive loading. In addition, the sample of Ta{sub 0.5} exhibits work-hardening up to an ultrahigh tensile strength of 1680 MPa during the tensile process, and then progressively

  9. Experimental heat capacities, excess entropies, and magnetic properties of bulk and nano Fe3O4-Co3O4 and Fe3O4-Mn3O4 spinel solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliesser, Jacob M.; Huang, Baiyu; Sahu, Sulata K.; Asplund, Megan; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Woodfield, Brian F.

    2018-03-01

    We have measured the heat capacities of several well-characterized bulk and nanophase Fe3O4-Co3O4 and Fe3O4-Mn3O4 spinel solid solution samples from which magnetic properties of transitions and third-law entropies have been determined. The magnetic transitions show several features common to effects of particle and magnetic domain sizes. From the standard molar entropies, excess entropies of mixing have been generated for these solid solutions and compared with configurational entropies determined previously by assuming appropriate cation and valence distributions. The vibrational and magnetic excess entropies for bulk materials are comparable in magnitude to the respective configurational entropies indicating that excess entropies of mixing must be included when analyzing entropies of mixing. The excess entropies for nanophase materials are even larger than the configurational entropies. Changes in valence, cation distribution, bonding and microstructure between the mixing ions are the likely sources of the positive excess entropies of mixing.

  10. Impact of Bulk Aggregation on the Electronic Structure of Streptocyanines: Implications for the Solid-State Nonlinear Optical Properties and All-Optical Switching Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2014-10-16

    Polymethine dyes in dilute solutions show many of the electronic and optical properties required for all-optical switching applications. However, in the form of thin films, their aggregation and interactions with counterions do generally strongly limit their utility. Here, we present a theoretical approach combining molecular-dynamics simulations and quantum-chemical calculations to describe the bulk molecular packing of streptocyanines (taken as representative of simple polymethines) with counterions of different hardness (Cl and BPh4 ) and understand the impact on the optical properties. The accuracy of the force field we use is verified by reproducing experimental crystal parameters as well as the configurations of polymethine/counterion complexes obtained from electronic-structure calculations. The aggregation characteristics can be understood in terms of both polymethinecounterion and polymethinepolymethine interactions. The counterions are found to localize near one end of the streptocyanine backbones, and the streptocyanines form a broad range of aggregates with significant electronic couplings between neighboring molecules. As a consequence, the linear and nonlinear optical properties are substantially modified in the bulk. By providing an understanding of the relationship between the molecular interactions and the bulk optical properties, our results point to a clear strategy for designing polymethine and counterion molecular structures and optimizing the materials properties for all-optical switching applications.

  11. Impact of Bulk Aggregation on the Electronic Structure of Streptocyanines: Implications for the Solid-State Nonlinear Optical Properties and All-Optical Switching Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Shiring, Stephen B.; Risko, Chad; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Polymethine dyes in dilute solutions show many of the electronic and optical properties required for all-optical switching applications. However, in the form of thin films, their aggregation and interactions with counterions do generally strongly limit their utility. Here, we present a theoretical approach combining molecular-dynamics simulations and quantum-chemical calculations to describe the bulk molecular packing of streptocyanines (taken as representative of simple polymethines) with counterions of different hardness (Cl and BPh4 ) and understand the impact on the optical properties. The accuracy of the force field we use is verified by reproducing experimental crystal parameters as well as the configurations of polymethine/counterion complexes obtained from electronic-structure calculations. The aggregation characteristics can be understood in terms of both polymethinecounterion and polymethinepolymethine interactions. The counterions are found to localize near one end of the streptocyanine backbones, and the streptocyanines form a broad range of aggregates with significant electronic couplings between neighboring molecules. As a consequence, the linear and nonlinear optical properties are substantially modified in the bulk. By providing an understanding of the relationship between the molecular interactions and the bulk optical properties, our results point to a clear strategy for designing polymethine and counterion molecular structures and optimizing the materials properties for all-optical switching applications.

  12. Zirconium based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.K.; Neogy, S.; Savalia, R.T.; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; Banerjee, S.

    2006-01-01

    Metallic glasses have come into prominence in recent times because their nanocrystalline atomic arrangement imparts many useful and unusual properties to these metallic solids. In this study, bulk glasses have been obtained in Zr based multicomponent alloy by induction melting these alloys in silica crucibles and casting these in form of rods 3 and 6 mm in diameter in a copper mould

  13. Bulk solid state rechargeable lithium ion battery fabrication with Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 electrolyte and Cu0.1V2O5 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Ying; McGinn, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, low-temperature route was developed to process bulk solid-state Li-ion batteries employing Al-doped Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte (thickness: ∼ 0.5 mm; 25 °C conductivity: ∼ 2 × 10 −4 S cm −1 ). A composite Cu 0.1 V 2 O 5 –based slurry was directly painted on Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 and dried at 120 °C to prepare the cathode film. The opposite side of the electrolyte was subsequently exposed to molten Li to form the anode. The discharge capacity of the solid state battery was 53 mAh g −1 (calculated based on the weight of active cathode material) at room temperature with 5 μA cm −2 discharging current. Severe capacity decay occurred after the initial discharging. A comparable liquid electrolyte battery was tested at room temperature for comparison and had a much slower decay rate. However, when the operating temperature of the solid state battery was increased to 50 °C, the cell performance significantly improved. At 50 °C, the battery exhibited 176 mAh g −1 initial discharging capacity at 5 μA cm −2 current density and 93 mAh g −1 initial capacity under a 10 μA cm −2 discharging current density. After 20 cycles, the capacity decayed to 68.6 mAh g −1 when cycled at a 10 μA cm −2 current density. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the interface resistance of the battery at different temperatures. The results indicated that both the cathode and anode interface resistance were dramatically reduced at 50 °C. The decrease in interface resistances at elevated temperature is proposed as the main reason for the observed battery performance enhancement

  14. Early diagenesis of mangrove leaves in a tropical estuary: Bulk chemical characterization using solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Ronald; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Hedges, John I.

    1990-07-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) leaves during decomposition in tropical estuarine waters were characterized using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental (CHNO) analysis. Carbohydrates were the most abundant components of the leaves accounting for about 50 wt% of senescent tissues. Tannins were estimated to account for about 20 wt% of leaf tissues, and lipid components, cutin, and possibly other aliphatic biopolymers in leaf cuticles accounted for about 15 wt%. Carbohydrates were generally less resistant to decomposition than the other constituents and decreased in relative concentration during decomposition. Tannins were of intermediate resistance to decomposition and remained in fairly constant proportion during decomposition. Paraffinic components were very resistant to decomposition and increased in relative concentration as decomposition progressed. Lignin was a minor component of all leaf tissues. Standard methods for the colorimetric determination of tannins (Folin-Dennis reagent) and the gravimetric determination of lignin (Klason lignin) were highly inaccurate when applied to mangrove leaves. The N content of the leaves was particularly dynamic with values ranging from 1.27 wt% in green leaves to 0.65 wt% in senescent yellow leaves attached to trees. During decomposition in the water the N content initially decreased to 0.51 wt% due to leaching, but values steadily increased thereafter to 1.07 wt% in the most degraded leaf samples. The absolute mass of N in the leaves increased during decomposition indicating that N immobilization was occurring as decomposition progressed.

  15. Non-monotonic compositional dependence of isothermal bulk modulus of the (Mg1–xMnxCr2O4 spinel solid solutions, and its origin and implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressibility of the spinel solid solutions, (Mg1−xMnxCr2O4 with x = 0.00 (0, 0.20 (0, 0.44 (2, 0.61 (2, 0.77 (2 and 1.00 (0, has been investigated by using a diamond-anvil cell coupled with synchrotron X-ray radiation up to ∼10 GPa (ambient T. The second-order Birch–Murnaghan equation of state was used to fit the PV data, yielding the following values for the isothermal bulk moduli (KT, 198.2 (36, 187.8 (87, 176.1 (32, 168.7 (52, 192.9 (61 and 199.2 (61 GPa, for the spinel solid solutions with x = 0.00 (0, 0.20 (0, 0.44 (2, 0.61 (2, 0.77 (2 and 1.00 (0, respectively (KT′ fixed as 4. The KT value of the MgCr2O4 spinel is in good agreement with existing experimental determinations and theoretical calculations. The correlation between the KT and x is not monotonic, with the KT values similar at both ends of the binary MgCr2O4MnCr2O4, but decreasing towards the middle. This non-monotonic correlation can be described by two equations, KT = −49.2 (11x + 198.0 (4 (x ≤ ∼0.6 and KT = 92 (41x + 115 (30 (x ≥ ∼0.6, and can be explained by the evolution of the average bond lengths of the tetrahedra and octahedra of the spinel solid solutions. Additionally, the relationship between the thermal expansion coefficient and composition is correspondingly reinterpreted, the continuous deformation of the oxygen array is demonstrated, and the evolution of the component polyhedra is discussed for this series of spinel solid solutions. Our results suggest that the correlation between the KT and composition of a solid solution series may be complicated, and great care should be paid while estimating the KT of some intermediate compositions from the KT of the end-members.

  16. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  17. Polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, RAJ; Hummelen, JC; Saricifti, NS

    Nanostructured phase-separated blends, or bulk heterojunctions, of conjugated Polymers and fullerene derivatives form a very attractive approach to large-area, solid-state organic solar cells.The key feature of these cells is that they combine easy, processing from solution on a variety of

  18. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  19. 76 FR 8658 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... CONTACT: If you have questions about this document, contact Mr. Richard Bornhorst at 202-372-1426 or [email protected] . If you have questions about viewing the docket (USCG-2009-0091), call Ms... AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule; information collection approval. SUMMARY: On October 19, 2010...

  20. 75 FR 64585 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ...), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue... is categorically excluded under section 2.B.2, figure 2-1, paragraphs (34)(a) and (d) of the... followed after unloading. 148.115 Report of incidents. Subpart D--Stowage and Segregation 148.120 Stowage...

  1. Bulk handling benefits from ICT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The efficiency and accuracy of bulk handling is being improved by the range of management information systems and services available today. As part of the program to extend Richards Bay Coal Terminal, Siemens is installing a manufacturing execution system which coordinates and monitors all movements of raw materials. The article also reports recent developments by AXSMarine, SunGuard Energy, Fuelworx and Railworx in providing integrated tools for tracking, managing and optimising solid/liquid fuels and rail car maintenance activities. QMASTOR Ltd. has secured a contract with Anglo Coal Australia to provide its Pit to Port.net{reg_sign} and iFuse{reg_sign} software systems across all their Australians sites, to include pit-to-product stockpile management. 2 figs.

  2. Superductile bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, K.F.; Ruan, F.; Yang, Y.Q.; Chen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (<2%) at room temperature. We report a newly developed Pd-Si binary bulk metallic glass, which exhibits a uniform plastic deformation and a large plastic engineering strain of 82% and a plastic true strain of 170%, together with initial strain hardening, slight strain softening and final strain hardening characteristics. The uniform shear deformation and the ultrahigh plasticity are mainly attributed to strain hardening, which results from the nanoscale inhomogeneity due to liquid phase separation. The formed nanoscale inhomogeneity will hinder, deflect, and bifurcate the propagation of shear bands

  3. Theory of thermal expansivity and bulk modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish

    2005-01-01

    The expression for thermal expansivity and bulk modulus, claimed by Shanker et al. to be new [Physica B 233 (1977) 78; 245 (1998) 190; J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59 (1998) 197] are compared with the theory of high pressure-high temperature reported by Kumar and coworkers. It is concluded that the Shanker formulation and the relations based on this are equal to the approach of Kumar et al. up to second order

  4. Auctioning Bulk Mobile Messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added

  5. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  6. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Makino, Akihiro; Mizushima, Takao

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  7. Micromegas in a bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giomataris, I.; De Oliveira, R.; Andriamonje, S.; Aune, S.; Charpak, G.; Colas, P.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer, E.; Giganon, A.; Rebourgeard, Ph.; Salin, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such a fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine

  8. Particles, contacts, bulk behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, Stefan; Tomas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Granular matter consists of discrete “particles”. These can be separate sand-grains, agglomerates (made of many primary particles), or solid materials like rock, composites, or metal-alloys—all with particulate inhomogeneous, possibly anisotropic micro-structure. Particles can be as small as

  9. Bulk glass formation and crystallization in zirconium based bulk metallic glass forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savalia, R.T.; Neogy, S.; Dey, G.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2002-01-01

    The microstructures of Zr based metallic glasses produced in bulk form have been described in the as-cast condition and after crystallization. Various microscopic techniques have been used to characterize the microstructures. The microstructure in the as-cast condition was found to contain isolated crystals and crystalline aggregates embedded in the amorphous matrix. Quenched-in nuclei of crystalline phases were found to be present in fully amorphous regions. These glasses after crystallization gave rise to nanocrystalline solids. (author)

  10. Comparing near-infrared conventional diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for determination of the bulk properties of solid samples by multivariate regression: determination of Mooney viscosity and plasticity indices of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano da Silva, Carlos; Pasquini, Celio

    2015-01-21

    Conventional reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and hyperspectral imaging (HI) in the near-infrared region (1000-2500 nm) are evaluated and compared, using, as the case study, the determination of relevant properties related to the quality of natural rubber. Mooney viscosity (MV) and plasticity indices (PI) (PI0 - original plasticity, PI30 - plasticity after accelerated aging, and PRI - the plasticity retention index after accelerated aging) of rubber were determined using multivariate regression models. Two hundred and eighty six samples of rubber were measured using conventional and hyperspectral near-infrared imaging reflectance instruments in the range of 1000-2500 nm. The sample set was split into regression (n = 191) and external validation (n = 95) sub-sets. Three instruments were employed for data acquisition: a line scanning hyperspectral camera and two conventional FT-NIR spectrometers. Sample heterogeneity was evaluated using hyperspectral images obtained with a resolution of 150 × 150 μm and principal component analysis. The probed sample area (5 cm(2); 24,000 pixels) to achieve representativeness was found to be equivalent to the average of 6 spectra for a 1 cm diameter probing circular window of one FT-NIR instrument. The other spectrophotometer can probe the whole sample in only one measurement. The results show that the rubber properties can be determined with very similar accuracy and precision by Partial Least Square (PLS) regression models regardless of whether HI-NIR or conventional FT-NIR produce the spectral datasets. The best Root Mean Square Errors of Prediction (RMSEPs) of external validation for MV, PI0, PI30, and PRI were 4.3, 1.8, 3.4, and 5.3%, respectively. Though the quantitative results provided by the three instruments can be considered equivalent, the hyperspectral imaging instrument presents a number of advantages, being about 6 times faster than conventional bulk spectrometers, producing robust spectral data by ensuring sample

  11. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  12. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-10-17

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  14. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  15. Reflector stack optimization for Bulk Acoustic Wave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy

    2011-01-01

    Thin-film bulk-acoustic-wave (BAW) devices are used for RF selectivity in mobile communication system and other wireless applications. Currently, the conventional RF filters are getting replaced by BAW filters in all major cell phone standards. In this thesis, we study solidly mounted BAW resonators

  16. Contamination of YBCO bulk superconductors by samarium and ytterbium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volochová, D.; Jurek, Karel; Radušovská, M.; Piovarči, S.; Antal, V.; Kováč, J.; Jirsa, Miloš; Diko, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 496, JAN (2014), s. 14-17 ISSN 0921-4534 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : YBCO bulk superconductors * critical temperature * critical current density * peak effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.942, year: 2014

  17. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  18. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of synthetic polymers in bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of high-resolution NMR of solid polymers; High-resolution NMR of glassy amorphous polymers; Carbon-13 solid-state NMR of semicrystalline polymers; Conformational analysis of polymers of solid-state NMR; High-resolution NMR studies of oriented polymers; High-resolution solid-state NMR of protons in polymers; and Deuterium NMR of solid polymers. This work brings together the various approaches for high-resolution NMR studies of bulk polymers into one volume. Heavy emphasis is, of course, given to 13C NMR studies both above and below Tg. Standard high-power pulse and wide-line techniques are not covered

  19. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, M D; Fujishiro, H

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB 2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet–superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed. (topical review)

  1. Clean bulk YBaCuO superconductors doped by paramagnetic ions of Sm and Yb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsa, Miloš; Volochová, D.; Kováč, J.; Diko, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 4 (2017), s. 1027-1029 ISSN 0587-4246 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : YBaCuO * bulk superconductors * paramagnetic ions * microstructure * vortex pinning Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2016

  2. The effect of Sm addition on the microstructure and superconducting properties of YBCO bulk superconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volochová, D.; Diko, P.; Piovarči, S.; Antal, V.; Kováč, J.; Jirsa, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 4 (2017), s. 1009-1011 ISSN 0587-4246 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : YBaCuO * bulk superconductors * paramagnetic ions * microstructure * vortex pinning Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2016

  3. Bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi-Yim, H.; Johnson, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Composites with a bulk metallic glass matrix were synthesized and characterized. This was made possible by the recent development of bulk metallic glasses that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the undercooled liquid state. In this letter, experimental methods for processing metallic glass composites are introduced. Three different bulk metallic glass forming alloys were used as the matrix materials. Both ceramics and metals were introduced as reinforcement into the metallic glass. The metallic glass matrix remained amorphous after adding up to a 30 vol% fraction of particles or short wires. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites show only peaks from the second phase particles superimposed on the broad diffuse maxima from the amorphous phase. Optical micrographs reveal uniformly distributed particles in the matrix. The glass transition of the amorphous matrix and the crystallization behavior of the composites were studied by calorimetric methods. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Bulk viscosity and cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesham, A.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent interesting paper, Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera (Nuovo Cimento B, 109(1994) 1317) have derived several solutions with bulk viscosity in homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. They also discussed the properties of these solutions. In this paper the authors relate the solutions of Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera by simple transformations to previous solutions published in the literature, showing that all the solutions can be derived from the known existing ones. Drawbacks to these approaches of studying bulk viscosity are pointed out, and better approaches indicated

  5. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  6. Bulk viscosity of molecular fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Frederike; Matar, Omar K.; Müller, Erich A.

    2018-05-01

    The bulk viscosity of molecular models of gases and liquids is determined by molecular simulations as a combination of a dilute gas contribution, arising due to the relaxation of internal degrees of freedom, and a configurational contribution, due to the presence of intermolecular interactions. The dilute gas contribution is evaluated using experimental data for the relaxation times of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. The configurational part is calculated using Green-Kubo relations for the fluctuations of the pressure tensor obtained from equilibrium microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. As a benchmark, the Lennard-Jones fluid is studied. Both atomistic and coarse-grained force fields for water, CO2, and n-decane are considered and tested for their accuracy, and where possible, compared to experimental data. The dilute gas contribution to the bulk viscosity is seen to be significant only in the cases when intramolecular relaxation times are in the μs range, and for low vibrational wave numbers (<1000 cm-1); This explains the abnormally high values of bulk viscosity reported for CO2. In all other cases studied, the dilute gas contribution is negligible and the configurational contribution dominates the overall behavior. In particular, the configurational term is responsible for the enhancement of the bulk viscosity near the critical point.

  7. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  8. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  9. Multi-Chromatic Ultrashort Pulse Filamentation and Bulk Modification in Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-05

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0194 Multi- Chromatic Ultrashort Pulse Filamentation and Bulk Modification in Dielectrics Jeremy Gulley KENNESAW STATE...Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multi- chromatic Ultrashort Pulse Filamentation and Bulk Modification in Dielectrics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...in, and modification of, dielectric solids by multi- chromatic ultrashort laser pulses. It was a theoretical effort to develop models of multi

  10. Ordered bulk degradation via autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Kristensen, Anders Riis; Andersen, Jens S

    2008-01-01

    During amino acid starvation, cells undergo macroautophagy which is regarded as an unspecific bulk degradation process. Lately, more and more organelle-specific autophagy subtypes such as reticulophagy, mitophagy and ribophagy have been described and it could be shown, depending on the experimental...... at proteasomal and lysosomal degradation ample cross-talk between the two degradation pathways became evident. Degradation via autophagy appeared to be ordered and regulated at the protein complex/organelle level. This raises several important questions such as: can macroautophagy itself be specific and what...

  11. Photoelectron spectroscopy bulk and surface electronic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Suga, Shigemasa

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is now becoming more and more required to investigate electronic structures of various solid materials in the bulk, on surfaces as well as at buried interfaces. The energy resolution was much improved in the last decade down to 1 meV in the low photon energy region. Now this technique is available from a few eV up to 10 keV by use of lasers, electron cyclotron resonance lamps in addition to synchrotron radiation and X-ray tubes. High resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now widely applied to band mapping of materials. It attracts a wide attention from both fundamental science and material engineering. Studies of the dynamics of excited states are feasible by time of flight spectroscopy with fully utilizing the pulse structures of synchrotron radiation as well as lasers including the free electron lasers (FEL). Spin resolved studies also made dramatic progress by using higher efficiency spin detectors and two dimensional spin detectors. Polarization depend...

  12. Microhardness of bulk-fill composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fil (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and ...

  13. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.; Holmes, R.J.; Mathew, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  14. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  15. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  16. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  17. Longitudinal and bulk viscosities of expanded rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheri, Ali Hossein Mohammad; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K

    2003-01-01

    First three non-vanishing sum rules for the bulk and longitudinal stress auto-correlation functions have been evaluated for liquid Rb at six thermodynamic states along the liquid-vapour coexistence curve. The Mori memory function formalism and the frequency sum rules have been used to calculate bulk and longitudinal viscosities. The results thus obtained for the ratio of bulk viscosity to shear viscosity have been compared with experimental and other theoretical predictions wherever available. The values of the bulk viscosity have been found to be more than the corresponding values of the shear viscosity for all six thermodynamic states investigated here

  18. Nanopatterned Bulk Metallic Glass Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Emily R; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Yu, Roy; Corona, Sydney L; Li, Jinyang; Vaddiraju, Sagar; Legassey, Allen; Loye, Ayomiposi; Balestrini, Jenna; Solly, Dawson A; Schroers, Jan; Taylor, André D; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Herzog, Raimund I; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2017-12-22

    Nanopatterning as a surface area enhancement method has the potential to increase signal and sensitivity of biosensors. Platinum-based bulk metallic glass (Pt-BMG) is a biocompatible material with electrical properties conducive for biosensor electrode applications, which can be processed in air at comparably low temperatures to produce nonrandom topography at the nanoscale. Work presented here employs nanopatterned Pt-BMG electrodes functionalized with glucose oxidase enzyme to explore the impact of nonrandom and highly reproducible nanoscale surface area enhancement on glucose biosensor performance. Electrochemical measurements including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric voltammetry (AV) were completed to compare the performance of 200 nm Pt-BMG electrodes vs Flat Pt-BMG control electrodes. Glucose dosing response was studied in a range of 2 mM to 10 mM. Effective current density dynamic range for the 200 nm Pt-BMG was 10-12 times greater than that of the Flat BMG control. Nanopatterned electrode sensitivity was measured to be 3.28 μA/cm 2 /mM, which was also an order of magnitude greater than the flat electrode. These results suggest that nonrandom nanotopography is a scalable and customizable engineering tool which can be integrated with Pt-BMGs to produce biocompatible biosensors with enhanced signal and sensitivity.

  19. Aspects of silicon bulk lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, P. T.

    1985-01-01

    The best lifetimes attained for bulk crytalline silicon as a function of doping concentrations are analyzed. It is assumed that the dopants which set the Fermi level do not contribute to the recombination traffic which is due to the unknown defect. This defect is assumed to have two charge states: neutral and negative, the neutral defect concentration is frozen-in at some temperature T sub f. The higher doping concentrations should include the band-band Auger effect by using a generalization of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism. The generalization of the SRH mechanism is discussed. This formulation gives a straightforward procedure for incorporating both band-band and band-trap Auger effects in the SRH procedure. Two related questions arise in this context: (1) it may sometimes be useful to write the steady-state occupation probability of the traps implied by SRH procedure in a form which approximates to the Fermi-Dirac distribution; and (2) the effect on the SRH mechanism of spreading N sub t levels at one energy uniformly over a range of energies is discussed.

  20. Electric field dependence of the electron mobility in bulk wurtzite ZnO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric field dependence of the electron mobility in bulk wurtzite ZnO. K ALFARAMAWI ... tion to ultraviolet light emitters, gas sensors, surface acoustic wave devices and ..... Dorkel J M and Leturcq P H 1981 Solid-State Electron. 24 8211.

  1. Superconductivity in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O bulk and film ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A A; Ozmanian, KH R; Sandomirskii, B B

    1988-07-01

    A superconducting transition with Tc0 = 82-95 K and Tc(R = 0) = 82-72 K was observed in Bi(Sr/1-x/Ca/x/)2Cu3O(y) bulk and film specimens obtained via a solid-phase reaction. Temperature dependences of the resistance, critical current, and magnetic susceptibility were measured.

  2. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  3. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  4. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  5. On the bulk viscosity of relativistic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.

    1978-01-01

    An expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient in terms of the trace of the hydrodynamic energy-stress tensor is derived from the Kubo formula. This, along with a field-theoretic model of an interacting system of scalar particles, suggests that at high temperatures the bulk viscosity tends to zero, contrary to the often quoted resuls of Iso, Mori and Namiki. (author)

  6. Bulk-viscosity-driven asymmetric inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waga, I.; Lima, J.A.S.; Portugal, R.

    1987-01-01

    A primordial net bosinic charge is introduced in the context of the bulk-viscosity-driven inflationary models. The analysis is carried through a macroscopic point of view in the framework of the causal thermodynamic theory. The conditions for having exponetial and generalized inflation are obtained. A phenomenological expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient is also derived. (author) [pt

  7. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  8. Municipal Household Solid Waste Compost: Effects on Carrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of municipal household solid waste compost on N, P and K uptake and yield of carrot (Daucus carrota), using a coastal savanna Haplic Acrisol. Bulked samples of fresh solid waste from 45 households within the Cape Coast Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana ...

  9. Effective medium of periodic fluid-solid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun; Wu, Ying; Liu, Zhengyou

    2012-01-01

    An analytic solution of the effective mass density and bulk modulus of a periodic fluid-solid composite is obtained by using the multiple-scattering theory in the long-wavelength limit. It is shown that when the concentration of solid inclusions

  10. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Kim, Bom Soo; Oz, Yaron

    2014-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent

  11. Bulk Leisure--Problem or Blessing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    With an increasing number of the nation's work force experiencing "bulk leisure" time because of new work scheduling procedures, parks and recreation offices are encouraged to examine their program scheduling and content. (JM)

  12. Technical specifications for the bulk shielding reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This report provides information concerning the technical specifications for the Bulk Shielding Reactor. Areas covered include: safety limits and limiting safety settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and monitoring of airborne effluents. 10 refs

  13. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  14. Force measurements for levitated bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Y.; Sawa, K.; Iwasa, Y.; Nagashima, K.; Otani, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tomita, M.; Murakami, M.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a force measurement system which enables us to directly measure the levitation force of levitated bulk superconductors. Experimental data of the levitation forces were compared with the results of numerical simulation based on the levitation model that we deduced in our previous paper. They were in fairly good agreement, which confirms that our levitation model can be applied to the force analyses for levitated bulk superconductors. (author)

  15. Force measurements for levitated bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan); ISTEC, Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-16-25 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan). E-mail: tachi at istec.or.jp; Uemura, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan); ISTEC, Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-16-25 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sawa, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Iwasa, Y. [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Nagashima, K. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Otani, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tomita, M.; Murakami, M. [ISTEC, Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-16-25 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    We have developed a force measurement system which enables us to directly measure the levitation force of levitated bulk superconductors. Experimental data of the levitation forces were compared with the results of numerical simulation based on the levitation model that we deduced in our previous paper. They were in fairly good agreement, which confirms that our levitation model can be applied to the force analyses for levitated bulk superconductors. (author)

  16. ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Khakim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI. Bulk shielding merupakan fasilitas yang terintegrasi dengan reaktor Kartini yang berfungsi sebagai penyimpanan sementara bahan bakar bekas. Fasilitas ini merupakan fasilitas yang termasuk dalam struktur, sistem dan komponen (SSK yang penting bagi keselamatan. Salah satu fungsi keselamatan dari sistem penanganan dan penyimpanan bahan bakar adalah mencegah kecelakaan kekritisan yang tak terkendali dan membatasi naiknya temperatur bahan bakar. Analisis keselamatan paling kurang harus mencakup analisis keselamatan dari sisi neutronik dan termo hidrolik Bulk shielding. Analisis termo hidrolik ditujukan untuk memastikan perpindahan panas dan proses pendinginan bahan bakar bekas berjalan baik dan tidak terjadi akumulasi panas yang mengancam integritas bahan bakar. Code tervalidasi PARET/ANL digunakan untuk analisis pendinginan dengan mode konveksi alam. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa mode pendinginan konvekasi alam cukup memadai dalam mendinginkan panas sisa tanpa mengakibatkan kenaikan temperatur bahan bakar yang signifikan. Kata kunci: Bulk shielding, bahan bakar bekas, konveksi alam, PARET.   ABSTRACT THERMAL HYDRAULIC SAFETY ANALYSIS OF BULK SHIELDING KARTINI REACTOR. Bulk shielding is an integrated facility to Kartini reactor which is used for temporary spent fuels storage. The facility is one of the structures, systems and components (SSCs important to safety. Among the safety functions of fuel handling and storage are to prevent any uncontrolable criticality accidents and to limit the fuel temperature increase. Safety analyses should, at least, cover neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations of the bulk shielding. Thermal hydraulic analyses were intended to ensure that heat removal and the process of the spent fuels cooling takes place adequately and no heat accumulation that challenges the fuel integrity. Validated code, PARET/ANL was used for analysing the

  17. Topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shao-Yong; Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Huang, Hong-Bo

    2018-04-01

    Topological phononic insulators (TPnIs) show promise for application in the manipulation of acoustic waves for the design of low-loss transmission and perfectly integrated communication devices. Since solid phononic crystals exist as a transverse polarization mode and a mixed longitudinal-transverse polarization mode, the realization of topological edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is desirable to enhance the controllability of the edge waves in solid systems. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) solid/solid hexagonal-latticed phononic system that simultaneously supports the topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is investigated. Firstly, two pairs of two-fold Dirac cones, respectively corresponding to the out-of-plane and in-plane waves, are obtained at the same frequency by tuning the crystal parameters. Then, a strategy of zone folding is invoked to form double Dirac cones. By shrinking and expanding the steel scatterer, the lattice symmetry is broken, and band inversions induced, giving rise to an intriguing topological phase transition. Finally, the topologically protected edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves, which can be simultaneously located at the frequency range from 1.223 to 1.251 MHz, are numerically observed. Robust pseudospin-dependent elastic edge wave propagation along arbitrary paths is further demonstrated. Our results will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  18. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond J E

    2014-10-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots containing a high concentration of shear wave displacement, controlled by the frame region width at the edge of the resonator. We also demonstrate a novel methodology to arrive at an optimum frame region width for spurious mode suppression and shear wave confinement. This methodology makes use of dispersion curves obtained from finite-element method (FEM) eigenfrequency simulations for arriving at an optimum frame region width. The frame region optimization is demonstrated for solidly mounted resonators employing several shear wave optimized reflector stacks. Finally, the FEM simulation results are compared with measurements for resonators with Ta2O5/ SiO2 stacks showing suppression of the spurious modes.

  19. Effectiveness of three bulking agents for food waste composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Bijaya K.; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, Jose; King, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Rather than landfilling, composting the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes recycles the waste as a safe and nutrient enriched soil amendment, reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and generates less leachate. The objective of this project was to investigate the composting effectiveness of three bulking agents, namely chopped wheat (Triticum) straw, chopped mature hay consisting of 80% timothy (milium) and 20% clover (triphullum) and pine (pinus) wood shavings. These bulking agents were each mixed in duplicates at three different ratios with food waste (FW) and composted for 10 days using prototype in-vessel composters to observe their temperature and pH trends. Then, each mixture was matured in vertical barrels for 56 days to measure their mass loss and final nutrient content and to visually evaluate their level of decomposition. Chopped wheat straw (CWS) and chopped hay (CH) were the only two formulas that reached thermophilic temperatures during the 10 days of active composting when mixed with FW at a wet mass ratio of 8.9 and 8.6:1 (FW:CWS and FW:CH), respectively. After 56 days of maturation, these two formulas were well decomposed with no or very few recognizable substrate particles, and offered a final TN exceeding the original. Wood shavings (WS) produced the least decomposed compost at maturation, with wood particles still visible in the final product, and with a TN lower than the initial. Nevertheless, all bulking agents produced compost with an organic matter, TN, TP and TK content suitable for use as soil amendment

  20. 5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

  1. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  2. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ''Training.'' Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination

  3. Bulk-memory processor for data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.O.; McMillan, D.E.; Sunier, J.W.; Meier, M.; Poore, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    To meet the diverse needs and data rate requirements at the Van de Graaff and Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facilities, a bulk memory system has been implemented which includes a fast and flexible processor. This bulk memory processor (BMP) utilizes bit slice and microcode techniques and features a 24 bit wide internal architecture allowing direct addressing of up to 16 megawords of memory and histogramming up to 16 million counts per channel without overflow. The BMP is interfaced to the MOSTEK MK 8000 bulk memory system and to the standard MODCOMP computer I/O bus. Coding for the BMP both at the microcode level and with macro instructions is supported. The generalized data acquisition system has been extended to support the BMP in a manner transparent to the user

  4. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  5. Holographic bulk reconstruction with α' corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shubho R.; Sarkar, Debajyoti

    2017-10-01

    We outline a holographic recipe to reconstruct α' corrections to anti-de Sitter (AdS) (quantum) gravity from an underlying CFT in the strictly planar limit (N →∞ ). Assuming that the boundary CFT can be solved in principle to all orders of the 't Hooft coupling λ , for scalar primary operators, the λ-1 expansion of the conformal dimensions can be mapped to higher curvature corrections of the dual bulk scalar field action. Furthermore, for the metric perturbations in the bulk, the AdS /CFT operator-field isomorphism forces these corrections to be of the Lovelock type. We demonstrate this by reconstructing the coefficient of the leading Lovelock correction, also known as the Gauss-Bonnet term in a bulk AdS gravity action using the expression of stress-tensor two-point function up to subleading order in λ-1.

  6. Bulk Vitrification Performance Enhancement: Refractory Lining Protection Against Molten Salt Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Evans, Michael B.; Smith, Benjamin T.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Matyas, Josef; Buchmiller, William C.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Fluegel, Alexander

    2007-08-06

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material that consists of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. This study supports the BV design and operations by exploring various methods aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the castable refractory block portion of the refractory lining, which limits the effectiveness of the final waste form.

  7. Big bang nucleosynthesis constraints on bulk neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, H.S.; Mohapatra, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the constraints imposed by the requirement of successful nucleosynthesis on models with one large extra hidden space dimension and a single bulk neutrino residing in this dimension. We solve the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the thermal distribution of the Kaluza-Klein modes and evaluate their contribution to the energy density at the big bang nucleosynthesis epoch to constrain the size of the extra dimension R -1 ≡μ and the parameter sin 2 2θ which characterizes the mixing between the active and bulk neutrinos

  8. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  9. Radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, W.R. Jr.; Habing, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The evolutionary development of a radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology is reviewed. The metal gate hardened CMOS status is summarized, including both radiation and reliability data. The development of a radiation-hardened bulk silicon gate process which was successfully implemented to a commercial microprocessor family and applied to a new, radiation-hardened, LSI standard cell family is also discussed. The cell family is reviewed and preliminary characterization data is presented. Finally, a brief comparison of the various radiation-hardened technologies with regard to performance, reliability, and availability is made

  10. Transport mechanisms and wetting dynamics in molecularly thin films of long-chain alkanes at solid/vapour interface : relation to the solid-liquid phase transition

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Wetting and phase transitions play a very important role our daily life. Molecularly thin films of long-chain alkanes at solid/vapour interfaces (e.g. C30H62 on silicon wafers) are very good model systems for studying the relation between wetting behaviour and (bulk) phase transitions. Immediately above the bulk melting temperature the alkanes wet partially the surface (drops). In this temperature range the substrate surface is covered with a molecularly thin ordered, solid-like alkane film (...

  11. Magneto-transmission as a probe of Dirac fermions in bulk graphite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orlita, Milan; Faugeras, C.; Martinez, G.; Maude, D. K.; Sadowski, M.L.; Schneider, J.M.; Potemski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 45 (2008), 454223/1-454223/4 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652 Grant - others:EC(XE) RITA -CT-2003-505474; ANR(FR) ANR-06-NANO-019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : bulk graphite * Dirac fermions * magnetic field Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.900, year: 2008

  12. Titania doping effect on superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, G; Serquis, A [Institute Balseiro - Centra Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, (8400) S. C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Bridoux, G, E-mail: serranog@ib.cnea.gov.a [Institute Balseiro - Centra Atomico Bariloche, (8400) S. C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    In this work we study the microstructural and superconducting properties of doped and undoped bulk MgB{sub 2} samples prepared by solid-state reaction, with 0 and 2.5 %at. nominal TiO{sub 2} nanotubes contents, annealed at different temperatures in the 750-900 deg. C range. We discuss the T{sub c}, J{sub c} and H{sub c2} performance and their correlation with the different synthesis parameters.

  13. Surface, interface and bulk materials characterization using Indus synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase, Deodatta M.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources, providing intense, polarized and stable beams of ultra violet, soft and hard x-ray photons, are having great impact on physics, chemistry, biology, materials science and other areas research. In particular synchrotron radiation has revolutionized materials characterization techniques by enhancing its capabilities for investigating the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of solids. The availability of synchrotron sources and necessary instrumentation has led to considerable improvements in spectral resolution and intensities. As a result, application scope of different materials characterization techniques has tremendously increased particularly in the analysis of solid surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. The Indian synchrotron storage ring, Indus-1 and Indus-2 are in operation at RRCAT, Indore. The UGC-DAE CSR with the help of university scientist had designed and developed an angle integrated photoelectron spectroscopy (AlPES) beam line on Indus-1 storage ring of 450 MeV and polarized light beam line for soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) on Indus-2 storage ring of 2.5 GeV. (author)

  14. 46 CFR 148.04-23 - Unslaked lime in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unslaked lime in bulk. 148.04-23 Section 148.04-23... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN BULK Special Additional Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-23 Unslaked lime in bulk. (a) Unslaked lime in bulk must be transported in unmanned, all steel, double-hulled barges...

  15. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The operator...: (1) LNG. (2) LPG. (3) Vessel fuel. (4) Oily waste from vessels. (5) Solvents, lubricants, paints, and...

  16. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  17. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization is cond...

  18. Bulk viscosity in 2SC quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark G; Schmitt, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The bulk viscosity of three-flavour colour-superconducting quark matter originating from the nonleptonic process u + s ↔ u + d is computed. It is assumed that up and down quarks form Cooper pairs while the strange quark remains unpaired (2SC phase). A general derivation of the rate of strangeness production is presented, involving contributions from a multitude of different subprocesses, including subprocesses that involve different numbers of gapped quarks as well as creation and annihilation of particles in the condensate. The rate is then used to compute the bulk viscosity as a function of the temperature, for an external oscillation frequency typical of a compact star r-mode. We find that, for temperatures far below the critical temperature T c for 2SC pairing, the bulk viscosity of colour-superconducting quark matter is suppressed relative to that of unpaired quark matter, but for T ∼> T c /30 the colour-superconducting quark matter has a higher bulk viscosity. This is potentially relevant for the suppression of r-mode instabilities early in the life of a compact star

  19. THE OPTIMIZATION OF PLUSH YARNS BULKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINEREANU Adam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  20. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization behaviors ... cooling rate is fixed, the change of undercooling depends on the melt processing tem- ... solidification and a deep knowledge of undercooling of ... evolution, to obtain the information for the nucleation and ..... When cooling rate is fixed, the change.

  1. A stereoscopic look into the bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bartłomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Sully, James [Theory Group, SLAC National Accelerator LaboratoryMenlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-07-26

    We present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphism-invariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the “OPE blocks,” contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1/N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimal surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields. Although the OPE blocks are non-local operators in the CFT, they admit a simple geometric description as fields in kinematic space — the space of pairs of CFT points. We develop the tools for constructing local bulk operators in terms of these non-local objects. The OPE blocks also allow for conceptually clean and technically simple derivations of many results known in the literature, including linearized Einstein’s equations and the relation between conformal blocks and geodesic Witten diagrams.

  2. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of bulk viscosity on the early evolution of Universe for a spatially homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker model is considered. Einstein's field equations are solved by using `gamma-law' equation of state = ( - 1)ρ, where the adiabatic parameter gamma () depends on the scale factor of the model.

  3. Failure by fracture in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, C.M.A.; Alves, Luis M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits formability in bulk metal forming in the light of fundamental concepts of plasticity,ductile damage and crack opening modes. It proposes a new test to appraise the accuracy, reliability and validity of fracture loci associated with crack opening by tension and out-of-plane shear...

  4. Hexaferrite multiferroics: from bulk to thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzarova, T.; Ghelev, Ch; Peneva, P.; Georgieva, B.; Kolev, S.; Vertruyen, B.; Closset, R.

    2018-03-01

    We report studies of the structural and microstructural properties of Sr3Co2Fe24O41 in bulk form and as thick films. The precursor powders for the bulk form were prepared following the sol-gel auto-combustion method. The prepared pellets were synthesized at 1200 °C to produce Sr3Co2Fe24O41. The XRD spectra of the bulks showed the characteristic peaks corresponding to the Z-type hexaferrite structure as a main phase and second phases of CoFe2O4 and Sr3Fe2O7-x. The microstructure analysis of the cross-section of the bulk pellets revealed a hexagonal sheet structure. Large areas were observed of packages of hexagonal sheets where the separate hexagonal particles were ordered along the c axis. Sr3Co2Fe24O41 thick films were deposited from a suspension containing the Sr3Co2Fe24O41 powder. The microstructural analysis of the thick films showed that the particles had the perfect hexagonal shape typical for hexaferrites.

  5. Lattice dynamics in solid oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, K.; Klein, M.L.; Chandrasekharan, V.

    1979-01-01

    Lattice dynamical calculations for the bulk α, β, and γ phases of solid O 2 and for the monolayer α and β phases have been made in the harmonic approximation. In the α and β phases, atom-atom 6-12 potentials are employed. In the γ phase, effective potentials are used between molecular centers and only the translational lattice vibrations are calculated. It is found that Laufer and Leroi's potential parameters give two k=O frequencies at 42.7 and 43.6 cm -1 in the bulk α-O 2 , and at 40.7 cm -1 for the degenerate k=0 modes in the β phase. The observed Raman lines for α-O 2 at 43 and 79 cm -1 , which are both known to exhibit isotope shifts, are thus tentatively assigned to an accidentally degenerate line and a two-phonon band, respectively, In view of the possible contribution from anharmonic effects, the agreement of the calculation with experiment (48-51 cm -1 ) in β-O 2 may be better than it seems. For the bulk γ-O 2 , a discrepancy is observed between the calculated elastic constants and those derived from Brillouin scattering experiments. This discrepancy may be due to the neglect of translation-rotation coupling. In the monolayer O 2 , Raman active modes at 28.3 and 40.6 cm -1 for the α phase, and 31.9 cm -1 for the β phase are predicted

  6. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with integration of a 50-80% efficient power management IC, which incorporates a supply-independent bias circuitry, an active diode for low-dropout rectification, a bias-flip system for higher efficiency, and a trickle battery charger. The overall system does not require a pre-charged battery, and has power consumption of <1microW in active-mode (measured) and <5pA in sleep-mode (simulated). Under lg vibration at 155Hz, a 70mF ultra-capacitor is charged from OV to 1.85V in 50 minutes.

  7. Majorana modes in solid state systems and its dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2018-04-01

    We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev's spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.

  8. A simple model for low energy ion-solid interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajerzadeh, S.; Selvakumar, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A simple analytical model for ion-solid interactions, suitable for low energy beam depositions, is reported. An approximation for the nuclear stopping power is used to obtain the analytic solution for the deposited energy in the solid. The ratio of the deposited energy in the bulk to the energy deposited in the surface yields a ceiling for the beam energy above which more defects are generated in the bulk resulting in defective films. The numerical evaluations agree with the existing results in the literature. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Fluctuation effects in bulk polymer phase behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, F.S.; Rosedale, J.H.; Stepanek, P.; Lodge, T.P.; Wiltzius, P.; Hjelm R, Jr.; Fredrickson, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    Bulk polymer-polymer, and block copolymer, phase behaviors have traditionally been interpreted using mean-field theories. Recent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of critical phenomena in model binary polymer mixtures confirm that non-mean-field behavior is restricted to a narrow range of temperatures near the critical point, in close agreement with the Ginzburg criterion. In contrast, strong derivations from mean-field behavior are evident in SANS and rheological measurements on model block copolymers more than 50C above the order-disorder transition (ODT), which can be attributed to sizeable composition fluctuations. Such fluctuation effects undermine the mean-field assumption, conventionally applied to bulk polymers, and result in qualitative changes in phase behavior, such as the elimination of a thermodynamic stability limit in these materials. The influence of fluctuation effects on block copolymer and binary mixture phase behavior is compared and contrasted in this presentation

  11. Nuclear Matter Bulk Parameter Scales and Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, B. M.; Delfino, A.; Dutra, M.; Lourenço, O.

    2015-01-01

    We study the arising of correlations among some isovector bulk parameters in nonrelativistic and relativistic hadronic mean-field models. For the former, we investigate correlations in the nonrelativistic (NR) limit of relativistic point-coupling models. We provide analytical correlations, for the NR limit model, between the symmetry energy and its derivatives, namely, the symmetry energy slope, curvature, skewness and fourth order derivative, discussing the conditions in which they are linear ones. We also show that some correlations presented in the NR limit model are reproduced for relativistic models presenting cubic and quartic self-interactions in its scalar field. As a direct application of such linear correlations, we remark its association with possible crossing points in the density dependence of the linearly correlated bulk parameter. (author)

  12. Structural determinants in the bulk heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Angela; Höfinger, Siegfried; Haunschmid, Ernst; Pop, Sergiu C; Narumi, Tetsu; Yasuoka, Kenji; Yasui, Masato; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2018-02-21

    Photovoltaics is one of the key areas in renewable energy research with remarkable progress made every year. Here we consider the case of a photoactive material and study its structural composition and the resulting consequences for the fundamental processes driving solar energy conversion. A multiscale approach is used to characterize essential molecular properties of the light-absorbing layer. A selection of bulk-representative pairs of donor/acceptor molecules is extracted from the molecular dynamics simulation of the bulk heterojunction and analyzed at increasing levels of detail. Significantly increased ground state energies together with an array of additional structural characteristics are identified that all point towards an auxiliary role of the material's structural organization in mediating charge-transfer and -separation. Mechanistic studies of the type presented here can provide important insights into fundamental principles governing solar energy conversion in next-generation photovoltaic devices.

  13. ANFO bulk loading in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajjar, A.

    1987-08-01

    With India's total coal production projected to increase from 152 to 237 million tons by 1990, net additional production from new mines must be more because of substantial depletion in existing mines. This article discusses the best possible application of explosive techniques in open-cast coal mines to economize production cost. The most energy-efficient and safest explosive is ANFO (ammonium nitrate, fuel oil); however, manual charging by INFO is not possible. Therefore, the solution is the application of bulk-loading systems of ANFO for giant mining operations. Cost of blasting per ton of coal production in India is in the range of Rs 25. Thus, the author suggests it will be the responsibility of mining engineers to see that the ANFO based bulk-loading system is implemented and the cost of production per ton reduced to Rs 19.50.

  14. Nonlinear AC susceptibility, surface and bulk shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Indenbom, M. V.; D'Anna, G.; Benoit, W.

    1996-02-01

    We calculate the nonlinear AC response of a thin superconducting strip in perpendicular field, shielded by an edge current due to the geometrical barrier. A comparison with the results for infinite samples in parallel field, screened by a surface barrier, and with those for screening by a bulk current in the critical state, shows that the AC response due to a barrier has general features that are independent of geometry, and that are significantly different from those for screening by a bulk current in the critical state. By consequence, the nonlinear (global) AC susceptibility can be used to determine the origin of magnetic irreversibility. A comparison with experiments on a Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+δ crystal shows that in this material, the low-frequency AC screening at high temperature is mainly due to the screening by an edge current, and that this is the unique source of the nonlinear magnetic response at temperatures above 40 K.

  15. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  16. Internal shear cracking in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an uncoupled ductile damage criterion for modelling the opening and propagation of internal shear cracks in bulk metal forming. The criterion is built upon the original work on the motion of a hole subjected to shear with superimposed tensile stress triaxiality and its overall...... performance is evaluated by means of side-pressing formability tests in Aluminium AA2007-T6 subjected to different levels of pre-strain. Results show that the new proposed criterionis able to combine simplicity with efficiency for predicting the onset of fracture and the crack propagation path for the entire...... cracking to internal cracks formed undert hree-dimensional states of stress that are typical of bulk metal forming....

  17. Induction detection of concealed bulk banknotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Christopher; Chen, Antao

    2011-01-01

    Bulk cash smuggling is a serious issue that has grown in volume in recent years. By building on the magnetic characteristics of paper currency, induction sensing is found to be capable of quickly detecting large masses of banknotes. The results show that this method is effective in detecting bulk cash through concealing materials such as plastics, cardboards, fabrics and aluminum foil. The significant difference in the observed phase between the received signals caused by conducting materials and ferrite compounds, found in banknotes, provides a good indication that this process can overcome the interference by metal objects in a real sensing application. This identification strategy has the potential to not only detect the presence of banknotes, but also the number, while still eliminating false positives caused by metal objects

  18. Induction detection of concealed bulk banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christopher; Chen, Antao

    2012-06-01

    The smuggling of bulk cash across borders is a serious issue that has increased in recent years. In an effort to curb the illegal transport of large numbers of paper bills, a detection scheme has been developed, based on the magnetic characteristics of bank notes. The results show that volumes of paper currency can be detected through common concealing materials such as plastics, cardboard, and fabrics making it a possible potential addition to border security methods. The detection scheme holds the potential of also reducing or eliminating false positives caused by metallic materials found in the vicinity, by observing the stark difference in received signals caused by metal and currency. The detection scheme holds the potential to detect for both the presence and number of concealed bulk notes, while maintaining the ability to reduce false positives caused by metal objects.

  19. Bulk viscous cosmology with causal transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piattella, Oliver F.; Fabris, Júlio C.; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    We consider cosmological scenarios originating from a single imperfect fluid with bulk viscosity and apply Eckart's and both the full and the truncated Müller-Israel-Stewart's theories as descriptions of the non-equilibrium processes. Our principal objective is to investigate if the dynamical properties of Dark Matter and Dark Energy can be described by a single viscous fluid and how such description changes when a causal theory (Müller-Israel-Stewart's, both in its full and truncated forms) is taken into account instead of Eckart's non-causal one. To this purpose, we find numerical solutions for the gravitational potential and compare its behaviour with the corresponding ΛCDM case. Eckart's and the full causal theory seem to be disfavoured, whereas the truncated theory leads to results similar to those of the ΛCDM model for a bulk viscous speed in the interval 10 −11 || cb 2 ∼ −8

  20. Bulk metallic glasses and high entropy alloys for reprocessing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.; Jayaraj, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in materials engineering have generated complex alloys that retain a glassy state in bulk form (bulk metallic glasses or BMGs) via ingot casting. High corrosion resistance is expected for BMGs (amorphous) as they are free from defects associated with the crystalline state such as grain boundaries, dislocations and stacking faults. Compared with conventional alloys containing one or two principal elements, the recently developed HEAs are usually composed of five or more elements with equimolar or near equimolar elemental fractions, which forms single solid solution phase. These HEAs exhibit excellent microstructural stability with better mechanical, wear and corrosion resistance properties as they are essentially single phase. Reprocessing of spent fuel from the fast breeder reactor involves the use of high concentration of (11.5 M) nitric acid under boiling conditions for the dissolution of the fuel. Conventional AISI type 304LSS and nitric acid grade 304L stainless steel would undergo inter-granular corrosion under these conditions and cannot be used for the fabrication of dissolver vessel. Currently titanium is used and zirconium alloys are proposed for future dissolver applications. Thus searching for newer materials with higher corrosion resistance suggests metallic glasses and HEAs for critical components of the dissolver application. Several Zr-based glassy alloys with different microstructural states and Ni-Nb based glassy alloys and TiZrHfNbTa HEA were cast and characterized for microstructure and corrosion resistance in nitric acid medium. From these studies, factors such as the corrosive environment (nitric acid, chloride and fluoride), and the presence of passivating elements in the alloy were emphasized for better corrosion resistance of BMGs and HEA. Attempts were also made to prepare coatings of Zr-and Ni-based glassy alloys on 304LSS by laser based deposition technique and their corrosion properties were evaluated. (author)

  1. Raman characterization of bulk ferromagnetic nanostructured graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Helena; Divine Khan, Ngwashi; Faccio, Ricardo; Araújo-Moreira, F.M.; Fernández-Werner, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize bulk ferromagnetic graphite samples prepared by controlled oxidation of commercial pristine graphite powder. The G:D band intensity ratio, the shape and position of the 2D band and the presence of a band around 2950 cm -1 showed a high degree of disorder in the modified graphite sample, with a significant presence of exposed edges of graphitic planes as well as a high degree of attached hydrogen atoms.

  2. Depositing bulk or micro-scale electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kedar G.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Tolosa, Vanessa; Tooker, Angela C.; Sheth, Heeral J.; Felix, Sarah H.; Delima, Terri L.

    2016-11-01

    Thicker electrodes are provided on microelectronic device using thermo-compression bonding. A thin-film electrical conducting layer forms electrical conduits and bulk depositing provides an electrode layer on the thin-film electrical conducting layer. An insulating polymer layer encapsulates the electrically thin-film electrical conducting layer and the electrode layer. Some of the insulating layer is removed to expose the electrode layer.

  3. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A bulk viscosity driven inflationary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waga, I.; Falcao, R.C.; Chanda, R.

    1985-01-01

    Bulk viscosity associated with the production of heavy particles during the GUT phase transition can lead to exponential or 'generalized' inflation. The condition of inflation proposed is independent of the details of the phase transition and remains unaltered in presence of a cosmological constant. Such mechanism avoids the extreme supercooling and reheating needed in the usual inflationary models. The standard baryongenesis mechanism can be maintained. (Author) [pt

  5. Accelerating universes driven by bulk particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, F.A.; Cruz, F.F.; Oliveira, J.F.N.

    2005-01-01

    We consider our universe as a 3d domain wall embedded in a 5d dimensional Minkowski space-time. We address the problem of inflation and late time acceleration driven by bulk particles colliding with the 3d domain wall. The expansion of our universe is mainly related to these bulk particles. Since our universe tends to be permeated by a large number of isolated structures, as temperature diminishes with the expansion, we model our universe with a 3d domain wall with increasing internal structures. These structures could be unstable 2d domain walls evolving to fermi-balls which are candidates to cold dark matter. The momentum transfer of bulk particles colliding with the 3d domain wall is related to the reflection coefficient. We show a nontrivial dependence of the reflection coefficient with the number of internal dark matter structures inside the 3d domain wall. As the population of such structures increases the velocity of the domain wall expansion also increases. The expansion is exponential at early times and polynomial at late times. We connect this picture with string/M-theory by considering BPS 3d domain walls with structures which can appear through the bosonic sector of a five-dimensional supergravity theory

  6. Sodium Flux Growth of Bulk Gallium Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Dollen, Paul Martin

    This dissertation focused on development of a novel apparatus and techniques for crystal growth of bulk gallium nitride (GaN) using the sodium flux method. Though several methods exist to produce bulk GaN, none have been commercialized on an industrial scale. The sodium flux method offers potentially lower cost production due to relatively mild process conditions while maintaining high crystal quality. But the current equipment and methods for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN are generally not amenable to large-scale crystal growth or in situ investigation of growth processes, which has hampered progress. A key task was to prevent sodium loss or migration from the sodium-gallium growth melt while permitting N2 gas to access the growing crystal, which was accomplished by implementing a reflux condensing stem along with a reusable sealed capsule. The reflux condensing stem also enabled direct monitoring and control of the melt temperature, which has not been previously reported for the sodium flux method. Molybdenum-based materials were identified from a corrosion study as candidates for direct containment of the corrosive sodium-gallium melt. Successful introduction of these materials allowed implementation of a crucible-free containment system, which improved process control and can potentially reduce crystal impurity levels. Using the new growth system, the (0001) Ga face (+c plane) growth rate was >50 mum/hr, which is the highest bulk GaN growth rate reported for the sodium flux method. Omega X-ray rocking curve (?-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were 1020 atoms/cm3, possibly due to reactor cleaning and handling procedures. This dissertation also introduced an in situ technique to correlate changes in N2 pressure with dissolution of nitrogen and precipitation of GaN from the sodium-gallium melt. Different stages of N2 pressure decay were identified and linked to

  7. New perspectives for visual characterization of pharmaceutical solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Niklas; Antikainen, Osmo; Rantanen, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    The utilization of descriptive image information in pharmaceutical powder technology is rather limited. Consequently, the development of this discipline is a challenge within physical characterization of pharmaceutical solids. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an inventive visual...... in particle size analysis also enabling the evaluation of the further product quality in the end of the granulation process. The idea of characterization of bulk surface images opens new perspectives for characterization of pharmaceutical solids....

  8. A Generalizable Top-Down Nanostructuring Method of Bulk Oxides: Sequential Oxygen-Nitrogen Exchange Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lanlee; Kang, Byungwuk; Han, Suyoung; Kim, Hee-Eun; Lee, Moo Dong; Bang, Jin Ho

    2018-05-27

    A thermal reaction route that induces grain fracture instead of grain growth is devised and developed as a top-down approach to prepare nanostructured oxides from bulk solids. This novel synthesis approach, referred to as the sequential oxygen-nitrogen exchange (SONE) reaction, exploits the reversible anion exchange between oxygen and nitrogen in oxides that is driven by a simple two-step thermal treatment in ammonia and air. Internal stress developed by significant structural rearrangement via the formation of (oxy)nitride and the creation of oxygen vacancies and their subsequent combination into nanopores transforms bulk solid oxides into nanostructured oxides. The SONE reaction can be applicable to most transition metal oxides, and when utilized in a lithium-ion battery, the produced nanostructured materials are superior to their bulk counterparts and even comparable to those produced by conventional bottom-up approaches. Given its simplicity and scalability, this synthesis method could open a new avenue to the development of high-performance nanostructured electrode materials that can meet the industrial demand of cost-effectiveness for mass production. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Transfer points of belt conveyors operating with unfavorable bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H [Technische Universitaet, Dresden (German Democratic Republic)

    1989-06-01

    Describes design of belt conveyor chutes that transfer bulk of surface mines from one conveyor to another. Conveyor belt velocity is a significant parameter. Unfavorable chute design may lead to bulk flow congestion, bulk velocity losses etc. The bulk flow process is analyzed, bulk flow velocities, belt inclinations and bulk feeding from 2 conveyors into one chute are taken into account. Conventional chutes have parabolic belt impact walls. An improved version with divided impact walls is proposed that maintains a relatively high bulk velocity, reduces friction at chute walls and decreases wear and dirt build-up. Design of the improved chute is explained. It is built to adapt to existing structures without major modifications. The angle between 2 belt conveyors can be up to 90 degrees, the best bulk transfer is noted at conveyor angles below 60 degrees. Various graphs and schemes are provided. 6 refs.

  10. Surface and bulk excitations in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    In this lecture collective and single-particle electron excitations of solids will be discussed with emphasis on the properties of metallic and semiconducting materials. However, some of the general properties of long-wavelength collective modes to be discussed are valid for insulators as well, and some considerations apply to nuclear excitations such as optical or acoustical phonons, dipolar plasmons, etc. The concept of elementary excitations in solids, pioneered by Bohm and Pines almost 4 decades ago, has proved to be extremely useful in understanding the properties of systems of many particles, especially in respect to the response to the action of external probes. 32 refs., 12 figs

  11. Brane Lorentz symmetry from Lorentz breaking in the bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolami, O [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Carvalho, C [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-05-15

    We propose the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking of a bulk vector field as a way to generate the selection of bulk dimensions invisible to the standard model confined to the brane. By assigning a nonvanishing vacuum value to the vector field, a direction is singled out in the bulk vacuum, thus breaking the bulk Lorentz symmetry. We present the condition for induced Lorentz symmetry on the brane, as phenomenologically required.

  12. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  13. Characterization and bulk properties of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonder, E.; Connolly, T.F.

    1979-06-01

    The bulk properties of oxides are divided into two classes, intrinsic properties which depend solely on the identity of the material, and extrinsic ones, which differ for different samples of the same compound. Sources of tabulated numerical values of intrinsic properties are given and modern developments in information storage and retrieval are discussed. Extrinsic properties are shown to depend on defects and trace impurities in the samples. Techniques of trace impurity analysis are discussed and realistic limits of detection and accuracies are given for routine analyses

  14. High-temperature bulk acoustic wave sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritze, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric crystals like langasite (La 3 Ga 5 SiO 14 , LGS) and gallium orthophosphate (GaPO 4 ) exhibit piezoelectrically excited bulk acoustic waves at temperatures of up to at least 1450 °C and 900 °C, respectively. Consequently, resonant sensors based on those materials enable new sensing approaches. Thereby, resonant high-temperature microbalances are of particular interest. They correlate very small mass changes during film deposition onto resonators or gas composition-dependent stoichiometry changes of thin films already deposited onto the resonators with the resonance frequency shift of such devices. Consequently, the objective of the work is to review the high-temperature properties, the operation limits and the measurement principles of such resonators. The electromechanical properties of high-temperature bulk acoustic wave resonators such as mechanical stiffness, piezoelectric and dielectric constant, effective viscosity and electrical conductivity are described using a one-dimensional physical model and determined accurately up to temperatures as close as possible to their ultimate limit. Insights from defect chemical models are correlated with the electromechanical properties of the resonators. Thereby, crucial properties for stable operation as a sensor under harsh conditions are identified to be the formation of oxygen vacancies and the bulk conductivity. Operation limits concerning temperature, oxygen partial pressure and water vapor pressure are given. Further, application-relevant aspects such as temperature coefficients, temperature compensation and mass sensitivity are evaluated. In addition, approximations are introduced which make the exact model handy for routine data evaluation. An equivalent electrical circuit for high-temperature resonator devices is derived based on the one-dimensional physical model. Low- and high-temperature approximations are introduced. Thereby, the structure of the equivalent circuit corresponds to the

  15. High-temperature bulk acoustic wave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric crystals like langasite (La3Ga5SiO14, LGS) and gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) exhibit piezoelectrically excited bulk acoustic waves at temperatures of up to at least 1450 °C and 900 °C, respectively. Consequently, resonant sensors based on those materials enable new sensing approaches. Thereby, resonant high-temperature microbalances are of particular interest. They correlate very small mass changes during film deposition onto resonators or gas composition-dependent stoichiometry changes of thin films already deposited onto the resonators with the resonance frequency shift of such devices. Consequently, the objective of the work is to review the high-temperature properties, the operation limits and the measurement principles of such resonators. The electromechanical properties of high-temperature bulk acoustic wave resonators such as mechanical stiffness, piezoelectric and dielectric constant, effective viscosity and electrical conductivity are described using a one-dimensional physical model and determined accurately up to temperatures as close as possible to their ultimate limit. Insights from defect chemical models are correlated with the electromechanical properties of the resonators. Thereby, crucial properties for stable operation as a sensor under harsh conditions are identified to be the formation of oxygen vacancies and the bulk conductivity. Operation limits concerning temperature, oxygen partial pressure and water vapor pressure are given. Further, application-relevant aspects such as temperature coefficients, temperature compensation and mass sensitivity are evaluated. In addition, approximations are introduced which make the exact model handy for routine data evaluation. An equivalent electrical circuit for high-temperature resonator devices is derived based on the one-dimensional physical model. Low- and high-temperature approximations are introduced. Thereby, the structure of the equivalent circuit corresponds to the Butterworth

  16. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  17. Forming of bulk metallic glass microcomponents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wert, John A.; Thomsen, Christian; Jensen, Rune Debel

    2009-01-01

    The present article considers forward extrusion, closed-die forging and backward extrusion processes for fabrication of individual microcomponents from two bulk metallic glass (BMG) compositions: Mg60Cu30Y10 and Zr44Cu40Ag8Al8. Two types of tooling were used in the present work: relatively massive...... die sets characteristic of cold forming operations for crystalline metals and lightweight die sets adapted to the special characteristics of BMGs. In addition to demonstrating that microcomponents of several geometries can be readily fabricated from BMGs, rheological properties are combined...

  18. Thulium-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H. B.; Yu, P.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y.

    2008-01-01

    We report the formation and properties of a thulium-based bulk metallic glass (BMG). Compared with other known rare-earth (RE) based BMGs, Tm-based BMGs show features of excellent glass formation ability, considerable higher elastic modulus, smaller Poisson's ratio, high mechanical strength, and intrinsic brittleness. The reasons for the different properties between the Tm-based and other RE-based BMGs are discussed. It is expected that the Tm-based glasses with the unique properties are appropriate candidates for studying some important issues in BMGs

  19. Bulk monitoring and segregation of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddow, H.; Adsley, I.; Pearman, I.; Sweeney, A.; Davies, M., E-mail: helen.beddow@nuvia.co.uk [Nuvia Limited, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Several sites in the UK are contaminated by radioactive legacy wastes. These include; radium luminising sites and more recently the oil, and (potentially) fracking industries; sites contaminated from thorium gas mantle factories; old nuclear research sites; nuclear power sites, and the Sellafield reprocessing site. Nuvia has developed a suite of technologies to map the location of and to recover and process wastes during remedial operations. The main method for delineating contaminated areas in-situ is by use of the Groundhog system, whilst bulk monitoring methods employ the Gamma Excavation Monitor, the High Resolution Assay Monitor, and the Conveyor Active Particle System. (author)

  20. Bulk monitoring and segregation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddow, H.; Adsley, I.; Pearman, I.; Sweeney, A.; Davies, M.

    2014-01-01

    Several sites in the UK are contaminated by radioactive legacy wastes. These include; radium luminising sites and more recently the oil, and (potentially) fracking industries; sites contaminated from thorium gas mantle factories; old nuclear research sites; nuclear power sites, and the Sellafield reprocessing site. Nuvia has developed a suite of technologies to map the location of and to recover and process wastes during remedial operations. The main method for delineating contaminated areas in-situ is by use of the Groundhog system, whilst bulk monitoring methods employ the Gamma Excavation Monitor, the High Resolution Assay Monitor, and the Conveyor Active Particle System. (author)

  1. Fundamental study of bulk power HVDC transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Study on the HVDC power transmission have been conducted since 1956. Shinshinano-Frequency Changer had been operated at first on 1977, as our home product, and Hokkaido-Honshu DC transmission also realized at 1979. Research and Development of the bulk power HVDC have been promoted by the UHV transmission special committee in our Institute from 1980. This paper is a comprehensive report published in the parts of operating control, insulation of DC line and countermeasure of fault current, and interferences in order to contribute for planning, design and operating of the UHV DC transmission in future. (author)

  2. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...

  3. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    are described. Most of our new results are related to the two-dimensional problem. A numerical topology optimization procedure that solves the inverse homogenization problem is adopted and used to look for two-dimensional three-phase composites with a maximal effective bulk modulus. For the combination...... isotropic three-dimensional three-phase composites with cylindrical inclusions of arbitrary cross-sections (plane strain problem) or transversely isotropic thin plates (plane stress or bending of plates problems). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  5. Experimenting with Different Bulking Agents in an Aerobic Food Waste Composter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chann, S.

    2016-12-01

    With one third of Hong Kong's solid wastage being food scraps, reducing food waste has become crucial. The ISF Academy, a Hong Kong private school, had an A900 Rocket Food Composter installed in 2013, hoping to reduce its carbon footprint. The 27 metric tons of food wastage produced annually by the school is put through an aerobic process and the wastage is converted into humus. The composter has a capacity of 1750 litres of food and it produces humus every 14 days. The base of the humus consists of a bulking agent and food waste (2:1). A bulking agent is a carbon based material used to absorb moisture and odors, add structure and air and eliminate bugs from humus. This study contains comparative data on a few of the listed bulking agents: Hemp, Kenaf, rapeseed oil straw, miscanthus and shredded cardboard. The aim of this study is to determine an alternative reliable, affordable and suitable bulking agent to wood shavings: the current agent used. The humus produced must pass regulations for "general agricultural use" as it is used for experiential learning and gardening with primary school students. Over 500 children are participating in the school's plantation project, producing legumes for the school cafeteria. ISF pioneers and sets an example for other Hong Kong schools, showing that a composting and plantation scheme, not only proves to have environmental benefits but also educational uses.

  6. Solid-solid phase transitions in Fe nanowires induced by axial strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M

    2009-01-01

    By means of classical molecular-dynamics simulations we investigate the solid-solid phase transition from a bcc to a close-packed crystal structure in cylindrical iron nanowires, induced by axial strain. The interatomic potential employed has been shown to be capable of describing the martensite-austenite phase transition in iron. We study the stress versus strain curves for different temperatures and show that for a range of temperatures it is possible to induce a solid-solid phase transition by axial strain before the elasticity is lost; these transition temperatures are below the bulk transition temperature. The two phases have different (non-linear) elastic behavior: the bcc phase softens, while the close-packed phase stiffens with temperature. We also consider the reversibility of the transformation in the elastic regimes, and the role of the strain rate on the critical strain necessary for phase transition.

  7. 7 CFR 58.313 - Print and bulk packaging rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Print and bulk packaging rooms. 58.313 Section 58.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....313 Print and bulk packaging rooms. Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related products...

  8. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  9. Enhancement of surface magnetism due to bulk bond dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.; Sarmento, E.F.; Albuquerque, E.L. de

    1985-01-01

    Within a renormalization group scheme, the phase diagram of a semi-infinite simple cubic Ising ferromagnet is discussed, with arbitrary surface and bulk coupling constants, and including possible dilution of the bulk bonds. It is obtained that dilution makes easier the appearance of surface magnetism in the absence of bulk magnetism. (Author) [pt

  10. Thermal properties of superconducting bulk metallic glasses at ultralow temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuss, Daniel Simon

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the first investigation of thermal properties of superconducting bulk metallic glasses in the range between 6mK and 300K. Measuring the thermal conductivity provides the possibility to probe the fundamental interactions governing the heat flow in solids. At ultralow temperatures a novel contactless measuring technique was used, which is based on optical heating and paramagnetic temperature sensors that are read out by a SQUID magnetometer. Below the critical temperature T c the results can be described by resonant scattering of phonons by tunneling systems. Above T c the phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity can be described successfully within a model considering not only electrons and phonons but also localized modes as scattering centres. To expand the accessible temperature range for experiments an adiabatic nuclear demagnetization refrigerator was set up. For measuring the base temperature a novel noise thermometer was developed which enables continuous measuring of the temperature in this temperature range for the first time. Therefore the magnetic Johnson noise of a massive copper cylinder is simultaneously monitored by two SQUID magnetometers. A subsequent cross-correlation suppresses the amplifier noise by more than one order of magnitude. The thermometer was characterized between 42μK and 0.8K showing no deviation from the expected linear behaviour between the power spectral density of the thermal noise and the temperature.

  11. Dynamics of polymers in the bulk state by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Kaji, Keisuke; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Inoue, Kazuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamics of polymers in the bulk state was studied by quasi- and inelastic neutron scattering techniques in the time range of 10 -13 to 10 -10 s. The present work can be classified into three parts: (i) dynamics in the glassy, state, (ii) dynamics near the glass transition and (iii) dynamics in the molten state. In the first section, we discuss the low energy excitation in glassy polymers, which is an origin of anomalous thermal properties of amorphous materials at low temperatures. In the next section, we study dynamics of amorphous polymers near the glass transition which is one of the current topics of solid state physics as well as polymer physics. It was found that two modes of motion appear near the glass transition in the energy ranges near 1 meV and of 10-30μeV. These fast and slow modes arising ca. 50K below T g and just above T g , respectively, are discussed from viewpoints of molecular basis. In the last section, dynamics in the molten state is investigated by focusing on the mechanism of local conformational transition of polymer chains. The results are analyzed in terms of jump diffusion model with damped vibrational motions and compared with the Kramers' rate theory. (author)

  12. Usage of pumice as bulking agent in sewage sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuandong; Li, Weiguang; Wang, Ke; Li, Yunbei

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the impacts of reused and sucrose-decorated pumice as bulking agents on the composting of sewage sludge were evaluated in the lab-scale reactor. The variations of temperature, pH, NH3 and CO2 emission rate, moisture content (MC), volatile solid, dissolved organic carbon, C/N and the water absorption characteristics of pumice were detected during the 25days composting. The MC of pumice achieved 65.23% of the 24h water absorptivity within the first 2h at the mass ratio of 0.6:1 (pumice:sewage sludge). Reused pumice increased 23.68% of CO2 production and reduced 21.25% of NH3 emission. The sucrose-decorated pumice reduced 43.37% of nitrogen loss. These results suggested that adding pumice and sucrose-decorated pumice in sludge composting matrix could not only adjust the MC of materials, but also improve the degradation of organic matters and reduce nitrogen loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elastic properties of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in supercooled liquid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiyama, N.; Inoue, A.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2001-01-01

    In situ ultrasonic measurements for the Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in three states: Glassy solid, supercooled liquid, and crystalline, have been performed. It is found that velocities of both longitudinal and transverse waves and elastic moduli (shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus......, and Lame parameter), together with Debye temperature, gradually decrease with increasing temperature through the glass transition temperature as the Poisson's ratio increases. The behavior of the velocity of transverse wave vs. temperature in the supercooled liquid region could be explained by viscosity...

  14. Partial discharges and bulk dielectric field enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Johansson, Torben

    2000-01-01

    A consequence of partial discharge activity within a gaseous void is the production of a field enhancement in the solid dielectric in the proximity of the void. This situation arises due to the charge created by the partial discharges accumulating at the void wall. The influence of the spatial...

  15. Use of containers to carry bulk and break bulk commodities and its impact on gulf region ports and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The University of New Orleans Transportation Institute was tasked by the Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) in mid-2012 to assess the use of containers to transport bulk and break bulk commodities and to determine what their impact would...

  16. A solid tungsten divertor for ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A; Greuner, H; Jaksic, N; Böswirth, B; Maier, H; Neu, R; Vorbrugg, S

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a solid tungsten divertor for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is presented. The Div-III design is compatible with the existing divertor structure. It re-establishes the energy and heat receiving capability of a graphite divertor and overcomes the limitations of tungsten coatings. In addition, a solid tungsten divertor allows us to investigate erosion and bulk deuterium retention as well as test castellation and target tilting. The design criteria as well as calculations of forces due to halo and eddy currents are presented. The thermal properties of the proposed sandwich structure are calculated with finite element method models. After extensive testing of a target tile in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS, two solid tungsten tiles were installed in AUG for in-situ testing.

  17. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  18. Alternative solid forms for Savannah River Plant defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Goforth, S.T.; Smith, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Solid forms and processes were evaluated for immobilization of SRP high-level radioactive waste, which contains bulk chemicals such as hydrous iron and aluminium oxides. Borosilicate glass currently is the best overall choice. High-silica glass, tailored ceramics, and coated ceramics are potentially superior products, but require more difficult processes

  19. Geochemistry of suspended and settling solids in two freshwater lakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the 1987–1992 time variationof the bulk chemical composition, levels of heavymetals, arsenic, nitrogen and phosporous insuspended and settling solids in Lake Volkerak andLake Zoom (The Netherlands). Suspended and setlingsolids were collected with continuous flowcentrifuges and

  20. Elastic properties of superconducting bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of this thesis the elastic properties of a superconducting bulk metallic glass between 10 mK and 300 K were first investigated. In order to measure the entire temperature range, in particular the low temperature part, new experimental techniques were developed. Using an inductive readout scheme for a double paddle oscillator it was possible to determine the internal friction and the relative change of sound velocity of bulk metallic glasses with high precision. This allowed for a detailed comparison of the data with different models. The analysis focuses on the low temperature regime where the properties of glassy materials are governed by atomic tunneling systems as described by the tunneling model. The influence of conduction electrons in the normal conducting state and quasiparticles in the superconducting state of the glass were accounted for in the theoretical description, resulting in a good agreement over a large temperature range between measured data and prediction of the tunneling model. This allowed for a direct determination of the coupling constant between electrons and tunneling systems. In the vicinity of the transition temperature Tc the data can only be described if a modified distribution function of the tunneling parameters is applied.

  1. Boundary-bulk relation in topological orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the relation between an anomaly-free n+1D topological order, which are often called n+1D topological order in physics literature, and its nD gapped boundary phases. We argue that the n+1D bulk anomaly-free topological order for a given nD gapped boundary phase is unique. This uniqueness defines the notion of the “bulk” for a given gapped boundary phase. In this paper, we show that the n+1D “bulk” phase is given by the “center” of the nD boundary phase. In other words, the geometric notion of the “bulk” corresponds precisely to the algebraic notion of the “center”. We achieve this by first introducing the notion of a morphism between two (potentially anomalous topological orders of the same dimension, then proving that the notion of the “bulk” satisfies the same universal property as that of the “center” of an algebra in mathematics, i.e. “bulk = center”. The entire argument does not require us to know the precise mathematical description of a (potentially anomalous topological order. This result leads to concrete physical predictions.

  2. Bulk delivery of explosives offers positive advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    The bulk delivery of precisely-formulated explosives directly to the shothole is a safe, secure and cost effective way of bringing rock to the quarry floor. This article describes several of the latest generation of Anfo trucks. The typical Anfo truck carries ammonium nitrate and fuel oil in bulk, together with several other mix constituents, including an emulsifying agent. These are designed to form the basis of a range of emulsion-type explosives. In effect, these are water in oil emulsions where the water phase consists of droplets of a saturated solution of the oxidizing material suspended in oil. The formulations may be further tailored to the shothole requirements by the addition of oils or waxes, which can alter the viscosity of the explosive. The precise and programmable controls which determine the exact quantities of materials delivered to the mixer mean that the explosive mixtures can be tailored exactly to the requirements of the blasting operation, be it the amount of rock to be dislodged, the geological conditions, or the state of the shothole - either wet or dry. 4 systems are described in detail. 3 figs.

  3. Theory of bulk and interface constant phase elements in electrode- electrolyte systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress gained in the last few years in our understanding of bulk and interface constant-phase-angle (CPA) behavior in electrode-electrolyte systems. It is now fairly well established that the interface constant-phase element originates from the fractal nature of the interface. The complex geometry gives rise to a fractal distribution of parallel current paths, and the competition between these paths results in the fractional power law behavior of the impedance across the interface. On the other hand, the early hope of relating the CPA exponent to the fractal dimension of the interface has been shown to be unattainable. Our understanding of the bulk CPA behavior, which is most prevalent in solid electrolytes, is only tentative. It is illustrated using a simple model that, under nonlinear dynamical laws that govern the flow of ions in the electrolyte, a current in the solid can generate a fractal distribution of vacancies which tend to impede the flow. The current is forced to negotiate a complex path through the solid, and the resulting fluctuation in path length and flow rate could be a source of the CPA behavior. 32 refs., 18 figs

  4. 78 FR 72841 - List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    .... FDA-2013-N-1525] List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug... proposed rule to list bulk drug substances used in pharmacy compounding and preparing to develop a list of... Formulary monograph, if a monograph exists, and the United States Pharmacopoeia chapter on pharmacy...

  5. Solid phase microextraction speciation analysis of triclosan in aqueous mediacontaining sorbing nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinska, K.

    2014-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is applied in the speciation analysis of the hydrophobic compound triclosan in an aqueous medium containing sorbing SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). It is found that these NPs, as well as their complexes with triclosan, partition between the bulk medium and the solid

  6. ???????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???

    OpenAIRE

    ????????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

    2012-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks)/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks). ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ...

  7. Bulk forming of industrial micro components in conventional metals and bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer

    2007-01-01

    For production of micro components in large numbers, forging is an interesting and challenging process. The conventional metals like silver, steel and aluminum often require multi-step processes, but high productivity and increased strength justify the investment. As an alternative, bulk metallic...

  8. Thermal characterization of semiconducting polymer bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Roddel A.

    Polymer semiconductors are intriguing due to their potential use in flexible electronics. Poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)--a very common polymer in this field--is semicrystalline and it is known that crystalline P3HT has a higher hole mobility than amorphous P3HT. Quantifying each fraction in the bulk and thin film states is therefore crucial to understanding its performance in transistor and other applications. In polymer solar cells, it acts as an electron donor and is typically mixed with the nanoparticle-like molecule, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)--an electron acceptor--in a thin film morphology termed a bulk heterojunction (BHJ). The structural hierarchy within the bulk heterojunction is complicated and its characterization, with a focus on P3HT morphology, is the topic of this dissertation. Calorimetry can play an important role in the elucidation of P3HT morphology with quantitative analysis of the crystalline and amorphous fractions present in the material. This was demonstrated by employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to obtain the enthalpy of fusion of 100% crystalline P3HT (42.9 J/g) using oligomeric P3HT measurements. The more sensitive temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) was then used to examine the glass transition of P3HT and the crystalline, mobile amorphous and rigid amorphous phases were quantified. The presence of these phases can play a large role in understanding the charge transfer process in polymer semiconductors. BHJ thin films of 50 wt.% PCBM were then analyzed and a polymer crystallinity of 30% was found after thermal annealing from initially non-crystalline polymer material. With assistance from previously acquired small angle neutron scattering data, a thorough analysis of the entire BHJ morphology was accomplished. A surprisingly large rigid amorphous polymer phase is present in the BHJ which could be located at the P3HT/PCBM interface, affecting charge transfer. Finally, interlayer diffusion of PCBM was

  9. Radiation effects in bulk and nanostructured silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrom, E.

    2012-07-01

    Understanding radiation effects in silicon (Si) is of great technological importance. The material, being the basis of modern semiconductor electronics and photonics, is subjected to radiation already at the processing stage, and in many applications throughout the lifetime of the manufactured component. Despite decades of research, many fundamental questions on the subject are still not satisfactorily answered, and new ones arise constantly as device fabrication shifts towards the nanoscale. In this study, methods of computational physics are harnessed to tackle basic questions on the radiation response of bulk and nanostructured Si systems, as well as to explain atomic-scale phenomena underlying existing experimental results. Empirical potentials and quantum mechanical models are coupled with molecular dynamics simulations to model the response of Si to irradiation and to characterize the created crystal damage. The threshold displacement energy, i.e., the smallest recoil energy required to create a lattice defect, is determined in Si bulk and nanowires, in the latter system also as a function of mechanical strain. It is found that commonly used values for this quantity are drastically underestimated. Strain on the nanowire causes the threshold energy to drop, with an effect on defect production that is significantly higher than in an another nanostructure with similar dimensions, the carbon nanotube. Simulating ion irradiation of Si nanowires reveals that the large surface area to volume ratio of the nanostructure causes up to a three-fold enhancement in defect production as compared to bulk Si. Amorphous defect clusters created by energetic neutron bombardment are predicted, on the basis of their electronic structure and abundance, to cause a deleterious phenomenon called type inversion in Si strip detectors in high-energy physics experiments. The thinning of Si lamellae using a focused ion beam is studied in conjunction with experiment to unravel the cause for

  10. Structure and physical properties of silicon clusters and of vacancy clusters in bulk silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieck, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the growth-pattern of free silicon clusters and vacancy clusters in bulk silicon is investigated. The aim is to describe and to better understand the cluster to bulk transition. Silicon structures in between clusters and solids feature new interesting physical properties. The structure and physical properties of silicon clusters can be revealed by a combination of theory and experiment, only. Low-energy clusters are determined with different optimization techniques and a density-functional based tight-binding method. Additionally, infrared and Raman spectra, and polarizabilities calculated within self-consistent field density-functional theory are provided for the smaller clusters. For clusters with 25 to 35 atoms an analysis of the shape of the clusters and the related mobilities in a buffer gas is given. Finally, the clusters observed in low-temperature experiments are identified via the best match between calculated properties and experimental data. Silicon clusters with 10 to 15 atoms have a tricapped trigonal prism as a common subunit. Clusters with up to about 25 atoms follow a prolate growth-path. In the range from 24 to 30 atoms the geometry of the clusters undergoes a transition towards compact spherical structures. Low-energy clusters with up to 240 atoms feature a bonding pattern strikingly different from the tetrahedral bonding in the solid. It follows that structures with dimensions of several Angstroem have electrical and optical properties different from the solid. The calculated stabilities and positron-lifetimes of vacancy clusters in bulk silicon indicate the positron-lifetimes of about 435 ps detected in irradiated silicon to be related to clusters of 9 or 10 vacancies. The vacancies in these clusters form neighboring hexa-rings and, therefore, minimize the number of dangling bonds. (orig.)

  11. Raman spectroscopic assessment of degree of conversion of bulk-fill resin composites--changes at 24 hours post cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Par, M; Gamulin, O; Marovic, D; Klaric, E; Tarle, Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine degree of conversion (DC) of solid and flowable bulk-fill composites immediately and after 24 hours and investigate the variations of DC at surface and depths up to 4 mm. Eight bulk-fill composites (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill [shades IVA and IVB], Quixfil, X-tra fil, Venus Bulk Fill, X-tra Base, SDR, Filtek Bulk Fill) were investigated, and two conventional composites (GrandioSO, X-Flow) were used as controls. The samples (n = 5) were cured for 20 seconds with irradiance of 1090 mW/cm(2). Raman spectroscopic measurements were made immediately after curing on sample surfaces and after 24 hours of dark storage at surface and at incremental depths up to 4 mm. Mean DC values were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test for dependent samples. Surface DC values immediately after curing ranged from 59.1%-71.8%, while the 24-hour postcure values ranged from 71.3%-86.1%. A significant increase of DC was observed 24 hours post cure for all bulk-fill composites, which amounted from 11.3% to 16.9%. Decrease of DC through depths up to 4 mm varied widely among bulk-fill composites and ranged from 2.9% to 19.7%. All bulk-fill composites presented a considerable 24-hour postcure DC increase and clinically acceptable DC at depths up to 4 mm. Conventional control composites were sufficiently cured only up to 2 mm, despite significant postcure polymerization.

  12. Transformation of bulk alloys to oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Danni; Benson, Jim; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer prospects for enhancing the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a broad range of functional materials and composites, but their synthesis methods are typically elaborate and expensive. We demonstrate a direct transformation of bulk materials into nanowires under ambient conditions without the use of catalysts or any external stimuli. The nanowires form via minimization of strain energy at the boundary of a chemical reaction front. We show the transformation of multimicrometer-sized particles of aluminum or magnesium alloys into alkoxide nanowires of tunable dimensions, which are converted into oxide nanowires upon heating in air. Fabricated separators based on aluminum oxide nanowires enhanced the safety and rate capabilities of lithium-ion batteries. The reported approach allows ultralow-cost scalable synthesis of 1D materials and membranes.

  13. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI; Yang, Fan [Piscataway, NJ

    2011-03-01

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  14. Bulk nanoscale materials in steel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, B; Wang, X; Masse, J-P; Zurob, H; Embury, D; Bouaziz, O

    2010-01-01

    Although a number of nanoscale metallic materials exhibit interesting mechanical properties the fabrication paths are often complex and difficult to apply to bulk structural materials. However a number of steels which exhibit combinations of plasticity and phase transitions can be deformed to produce ultra high strength levels in the range 1 to 3 GPa. The resultant high stored energy and complex microstructures allow new nanoscale structures to be produced by combinations of recovery and recrystallisation. The resultant structures exhibit totally new combinations of strength and ductility to be achieved. In specific cases this also enables both the nature of the grain boundary structure and the spatial variation in structure to be controlled. In this presentation both the detailed microstructural features and their relation to the strength, work-hardening capacity and ductility will be discussed for a number of martensitic and austenitic steels.

  15. Tuneable film bulk acoustic wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorgian, Spartak Sh; Vorobiev, Andrei K

    2013-01-01

    To handle many standards and ever increasing bandwidth requirements, large number of filters and switches are used in transceivers of modern wireless communications systems. It makes the cost, performance, form factor, and power consumption of these systems, including cellular phones, critical issues. At present, the fixed frequency filter banks based on Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBAR) are regarded as one of the most promising technologies to address performance -form factor-cost issues. Even though the FBARs improve the overall performances the complexity of these systems remains high.  Attempts are being made to exclude some of the filters by bringing the digital signal processing (including channel selection) as close to the antennas as possible. However handling the increased interference levels is unrealistic for low-cost battery operated radios. Replacing fixed frequency filter banks by one tuneable filter is the most desired and widely considered scenario. As an example, development of the softwa...

  16. Criticality in Bulk Metallic Glass Constituent Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Rodrigo Miguel Ojeda; Graedel, T. E.; Pekarskaya, Evgenia; Schroers, Jan

    2017-11-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), which readily form amorphous phases during solidification, are increasingly being used in first applications of watch components, electronic casings, and sporting goods. The compositions of BMGs typically include four to six elements. Various political and geological factors have recently led to supply disruptions for several metals, including some present in BMG compositions. In this work, we assess the "criticality" of 22 technologically interesting BMG compositions, compare the results with those for three common engineering alloy groups, and derive recommendations for BMG composition choices from a criticality perspective. The criticality of BMGs is found to be generally much higher compared with those for the established engineering alloys. Therefore, criticality concerns should also be considered in the choice between existing and developing novel BMGs.

  17. A route to transparent bulk metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2012-07-23

    Hypothetical compounds based on a sapphire host are investigated with respect to their structural as well as electronic features. The results are obtained by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation. A quarter of the Al atoms in Al 2O 3 is replaced by a 4d transition metal M ion, with d 0 to d 9 electronic configuration. We perform structure optimizations for all the compounds and analyze the electronic states. Due to the sizeable band gap of the Al 2O 3 host, we can identify promising candidates for transparent bulk metals. We explain the mechanisms leading to this combination of materials properties. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Mechanical reliability of bulk high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiman, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    Most prospective applications for high T c superconductors in bulk form, e.g. magnets, motors, will require appreciable mechanical strength. Work at NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] has begun to address issues related to mechanical reliability. For example, recent studies on Ba-Y-Cu-O have shown that the intrinsic crack growth resistance, K IC , of crystals of this material is even smaller than was first reported, less than that of window glass, and is sensitive to moisture. Processing conditions, particularly sintering and annealing atmosphere, have been shown to have a major influence on microstructure and internal stresses in the material. Large internal stresses result from the tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transformation as well as the thermal expansion anisotropy in the grains of the ceramic. Because stress relief is absent, microcracks form which have a profound influence on strength

  19. On bulk viscosity and moduli decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    This pedagogically intended lecture, one of four under the header 'Basics of thermal QCD', reviews an interesting relationship, originally pointed out by Boedeker, that exists between the bulk viscosity of Yang-Mills theory (of possible relevance to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collision experiments) and the decay rate of scalar fields coupled very weakly to a heat bath (appearing in some particle physics inspired cosmological scenarios). This topic serves, furthermore, as a platform on which a number of generic thermal field theory concepts are illustrated. The other three lectures (on the QCD equation of state and the rates of elastic as well as inelastic processes experienced by heavy quarks) are recapitulated in brief encyclopedic form. (author)

  20. Bulk disk resonator based ultrasensitive mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James

    2009-01-01

    range. The sensor has been characterized in terms of sensitivity both for distributed mass detection, performing six consecutive depositions of e-beam evaporated Au, and localized mass detection, depositing approximately 7.5 pg of Pt/Ga/C three times consecutively with a Focused Ion Beam system......In the framework of developing an innovative label-free sensor for multiarrayed biodetection applications, we present a novel bulk resonator based mass sensor. The sensor is a polysilicon disk which shows a Q-factor of 6400 in air at 68.8 MHz, resulting in mass resolutions down in the femtogram....... The sensor has an extremely high distributed mass to frequency shift sensitivity of 60104 Hzcm2/¿g and shows a localized mass to frequency sensitivity up to 4405 Hz/pg with a localized mass resolution down to 15 fg. The device has been fabricated with a new microfabrication process that uses only two...

  1. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  2. On the pinning performance analysis in bulk RE-123 twin-free superconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsa, Miloš; Petrenko, Pavlo; Yao, X.; Muralidhar, M.

    463-465, - (2007), s. 353-356 ISSN 0921-4534. [International Symposium on Superconductivity /19./. Nagoya, 01.10.2006-03.10.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME728 Grant - others:MOST(CN) 2006CB601003; SSTC(CN) 055207077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Penk effect * bulk RE-123 superconductors * pinning force scaling * pinning classification Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2007

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of self-diffusion processes in titanium in bulk material, on grain junctions and on surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, Gennady B; Verkhovtsev, Alexey V; Yakubovich, Alexander V; Schramm, Stefan; Solov'yov, Andrey V

    2014-08-21

    The process of self-diffusion of titanium atoms in a bulk material, on grain junctions and on surface is explored numerically in a broad temperature range by means of classical molecular dynamics simulation. The analysis is carried out for a nanoscale cylindrical sample consisting of three adjacent sectors and various junctions between nanocrystals. The calculated diffusion coefficient varies by several orders of magnitude for different regions of the sample. The calculated values of the bulk diffusion coefficient correspond reasonably well to the experimental data obtained for solid and molten states of titanium. Investigation of diffusion in the nanocrystalline titanium is of a significant importance because of its numerous technological applications. This paper aims to reduce the lack of data on diffusion in titanium and describe the processes occurring in bulk, at different interfaces and on surface of the crystalline titanium.

  4. Cell wall elasticity: I. A critique of the bulk elastic modulus approach and an analysis using polymer elastic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.

  5. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  6. Locality, bulk equations of motion and the conformal bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York,250 Bedford Park Blvd. W, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Haifa,199 Aba Khoushy Ave., Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2016-10-18

    We develop an approach to construct local bulk operators in a CFT to order 1/N{sup 2}. Since 4-point functions are not fixed by conformal invariance we use the OPE to categorize possible forms for a bulk operator. Using previous results on 3-point functions we construct a local bulk operator in each OPE channel. We then impose the condition that the bulk operators constructed in different channels agree, and hence give rise to a well-defined bulk operator. We refer to this condition as the “bulk bootstrap.” We argue and explicitly show in some examples that the bulk bootstrap leads to some of the same results as the regular conformal bootstrap. In fact the bulk bootstrap provides an easier way to determine some CFT data, since it does not require knowing the form of the conformal blocks. This analysis clarifies previous results on the relation between bulk locality and the bootstrap for theories with a 1/N expansion, and it identifies a simple and direct way in which OPE coefficients and anomalous dimensions determine the bulk equations of motion to order 1/N{sup 2}.

  7. Investigation of donor-acceptor copolymer films and their blends with fullerene in the active layers of bulk heterojunction solar cells by Raman microspectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cimrová, Věra; Morávková, Zuzana; Pokorná, Veronika; Výprachtický, Drahomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, August (2017), s. 194-199 ISSN 1566-1199 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conjugated polymers * low-band gap * bulk heterojunction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.399, year: 2016

  8. Multi-parameter-fitting procedure for photothermal infrared radiometry on multilayered and bulk-absorbing solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Peter; Gruss, Christian

    2001-01-01

    Photothermal infrared radiometry has been used for the measurement of thermophysical, optical, and geometrical properties of multilayered samples of paint on a metallic substrate. A special data normalization is applied to reduce the number of sensitive parameters which makes the identification task for the remaining parameters easier. The normalization stabilizes the evaluation of the photothermal signal and makes the infrared radiometry more attractive for applications in the industrial environment. It is shown that modeling and multi-parameter-fitting can be applied successfully to the normalized data for the determination of layer thicknesses. As a side product we can calculate some other physical properties of the sample. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  9. Correspondence between Experiment and Theory of Bulk Electrocrystallisation at Solid Electrodes in Aqueous Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    A model of electrodeposition and electrodissolution at electrode surfaces in aqueous solution is presented. The description is based on the assumption that redox reaction of water is the more important process controlling the electrode kinetics. Chronoamperometric measurements and experiments...... of cyclic voltammetry indicate that the current fundamentally is proportional to inverse time. It was proposed that redox-active species different from water never touch the surface but they predominantly interact with surface-active hydrogen or oxygen formed at the surface by redox processes of water...

  10. Odd harmonics-enhanced supercontinuum in bulk solid-state dielectric medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garejev, N; Jukna, V; Tamošauskas, G; Veličkė, M; Šuminas, R; Couairon, A; Dubietis, A

    2016-07-25

    We report on generation of ultrabroadband, more than 4 octave spanning supercontinuum in thin CaF2 crystal, as pumped by intense mid-infrared laser pulses with central wavelength of 2.4 μm. The supercontinuum spectrum covers wavelength range from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared and its short wavelength side is strongly enhanced by cascaded generation of third, fifth and seventh harmonics. Our results capture the transition from Kerr-dominated to plasma-dominated filamentation regime and uncover that in the latter the spectral superbroadening originates from dramatic plasma-induced compression of the driving pulse, which in turn induces broadening of the harmonics spectra due to cross-phase modulation effects. The experimental measurements are backed up by the numerical simulations based on a nonparaxial unidirectional propagation equation for the electric field of the pulse, which accounts for the cubic nonlinearity-induced effects, and which reproduce the experimental data in great detail.

  11. Gaseous emissions from management of solid waste: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Guillermo; Moral, Raúl; Aguilera, Eduardo; Del Prado, Agustín

    2015-03-01

    The establishment of sustainable soil waste management practices implies minimizing their environmental losses associated with climate change (greenhouse gases: GHGs) and ecosystems acidification (ammonia: NH3 ). Although a number of management strategies for solid waste management have been investigated to quantify nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) losses in relation to varied environmental and operational conditions, their overall effect is still uncertain. In this context, we have analyzed the current scientific information through a systematic review. We quantified the response of GHG emissions, NH3 emissions, and total N losses to different solid waste management strategies (conventional solid storage, turned composting, forced aerated composting, covering, compaction, addition/substitution of bulking agents and the use of additives). Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 50 research articles involving 304 observations. Our results indicated that improving the structure of the pile (waste or manure heap) via addition or substitution of certain bulking agents significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) emissions by 53% and 71%, respectively. Turned composting systems, unlike forced aerated composted systems, showed potential for reducing GHGs (N2 O: 50% and CH4 : 71%). Bulking agents and both composting systems involved a certain degree of pollution swapping as they significantly promoted NH3 emissions by 35%, 54%, and 121% for bulking agents, turned and forced aerated composting, respectively. Strategies based on the restriction of O2 supply, such as covering or compaction, did not show significant effects on reducing GHGs but substantially decreased NH3 emissions by 61% and 54% for covering and compaction, respectively. The use of specific additives significantly reduced NH3 losses by 69%. Our meta-analysis suggested that there is enough evidence to refine future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies from solid waste

  12. Gaseous emissions from management of solid waste: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Guillermo; Moral, Raúl; Aguilera, Eduardo; del Prado, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of sustainable soil waste management practices implies minimizing their environmental losses associated with climate change (greenhouse gases: GHGs) and ecosystems acidification (ammonia: NH3). Although a number of management strategies for solid waste management have been investigated to quantify nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) losses in relation to varied environmental and operational conditions, their overall effect is still uncertain. In this context, we have analyzed the current scientific information through a systematic review. We quantified the response of GHG emissions, NH3 emissions, and total N losses to different solid waste management strategies (conventional solid storage, turned composting, forced aerated composting, covering, compaction, addition/substitution of bulking agents and the use of additives). Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 50 research articles involving 304 observations. Our results indicated that improving the structure of the pile (waste or manure heap) via addition or substitution of certain bulking agents significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions by 53% and 71%, respectively. Turned composting systems, unlike forced aerated composted systems, showed potential for reducing GHGs (N2O: 50% and CH4: 71%). Bulking agents and both composting systems involved a certain degree of pollution swapping as they significantly promoted NH3 emissions by 35%, 54%, and 121% for bulking agents, turned and forced aerated composting, respectively. Strategies based on the restriction of O2 supply, such as covering or compaction, did not show significant effects on reducing GHGs but substantially decreased NH3 emissions by 61% and 54% for covering and compaction, respectively. The use of specific additives significantly reduced NH3 losses by 69%. Our meta-analysis suggested that there is enough evidence to refine future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies from solid waste

  13. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique

  14. A CFT perspective on gravitational dressing and bulk locality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewkowycz, Aitor; Turiaci, Gustavo J. [Physics Department, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Verlinde, Herman [Physics Department, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2017-01-02

    We revisit the construction of local bulk operators in AdS/CFT with special focus on gravitational dressing and its consequences for bulk locality. Specializing to 2+1-dimensions, we investigate these issues via the proposed identification between bulk operators and cross-cap boundary states. We obtain explicit expressions for correlation functions of bulk fields with boundary stress tensor insertions, and find that they are free of non-local branch cuts but do have non-local poles. We recover the HKLL recipe for restoring bulk locality for interacting fields as the outcome of a natural CFT crossing condition. We show that, in a suitable gauge, the cross-cap states solve the bulk wave equation for general background geometries, and satisfy a conformal Ward identity analogous to a soft graviton theorem. Virasoro symmetry, the large N conformal bootstrap and the uniformization theorem all play a key role in our derivations.

  15. Curing characteristics of flowable and sculptable bulk-fill composites

    OpenAIRE

    Miletic, Vesna; Pongpruenska, Pong; De Munck, Jan; Brooks, Neil R; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine and correlate the degree of conversion (DC) with Vickers hardness (VH) and translucency parameter (TP) with the depth of cure (DoC) of five bulk-fill composites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six specimens per group, consisting of Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill ("TEC Bulk," Ivoclar Vivadent), SonicFill (Kerr), SDR Smart Dentin Replacement ("SDR," Dentsply), Xenius base ("Xenius," StickTech; commercialized as EverX Posterior, GC), Filtek Bul...

  16. Theory of bulk-surface coupling in topological insulator films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kush; Garate, Ion

    2014-12-01

    We present a quantitative microscopic theory of the disorder- and phonon-induced coupling between surface and bulk states in doped topological insulator films. We find a simple mathematical structure for the surface-to-bulk scattering matrix elements and confirm the importance of bulk-surface coupling in transport and photoemission experiments, assessing its dependence on temperature, carrier density, film thickness, and particle-hole asymmetry.

  17. Localization of bulk form fields on dilatonic domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, Donam

    2001-06-01

    We study the localization properties of bulk form potentials on dilatonic domain walls. We find that bulk form potentials of any ranks can be localized as form potentials of the same ranks or one lower ranks, for any values of the dilaton coupling parameter. For large enough values of the dilaton coupling parameter, bulk form potentials of any ranks can be localized as form potentials of both the same ranks and one lower ranks. (author)

  18. Recycling Pig Slurry Solid Fraction Compost as a Sound Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the physical and acoustical properties of compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction (SF in order to assess the potential to recycle this agricultural waste as a sound absorber. The compacts were obtained by compression. The physical parameters investigated were bulk density, durability, and particle size distribution. The acoustical features of the compacts were studied with an impedance tube device in order to verify the acoustic absorption coefficient. Two composts were prepared: pig SF compost without a bulking agent (SSFC and pig SF compost with wood chips as a bulking agent (WCC. The study’s results indicated that compost particles dimension played a key role in the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts: the smaller the particles, the higher the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts. The densification process increased the bulk density of the investigated composts up to 690 kg m−3 for SSFC and 660 kg m−3 for WWC, with, respectively, medium (77.9% and low (66.5% durability. The addition of woody bulking agent significantly reduced the absorption coefficient: the best results, in terms of potential use as a sound absorber, were observed for compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction without the addition of wood chips.

  19. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  20. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  1. Fault current limiter using bulk oxides superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmont, O.; Ferracci, P.; Porcar, L.; Barbut, J.M.; Tixador, P.; Noudem, J.G.; Bourgault, D.; Tournier, R.

    1998-01-01

    We study the limitation possibilities of bulk Bi high T c materials. For this we test these materials with AC or DC currents above their critical currents. We study particularly the evolution of the voltage with time or with current. The material, the value of the current and the time duration play important parts. For sintered Bi samples the voltage depends only on the current even for values much larger than the critical current. With textured samples the V(I) curves shows an hysteretic behaviour due to a warming up. The textured materials are more interesting than sintered ones in terms of required volume for the current limitation. In both cases the superconductors are in a dissipative state but not in the normal state. This state is nevertheless reached if the dissipated energy inside the sample is sufficient. We have tried to apply a magnetic field on the samples in order to trigger a more effective limitation. The voltage increases but with a limited effect for currents much higher (3-4 times) than the critical zero field current. We think that the dissipative state is due mainly to the grain boundaries which become resistive above the critical current. (orig.)

  2. Thermodynamic properties of bulk and confined water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallamace, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.mallamace@unime.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienza della Terra Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Corsaro, Carmelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienza della Terra Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Mallamace, Domenico [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Università di Messina, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino [IPCF-CNR, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Stanley, H. Eugene [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The thermodynamic response functions of water display anomalous behaviors. We study these anomalous behaviors in bulk and confined water. We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the configurational specific heat and the transport parameters in both the thermal stable and the metastable supercooled phases. The data we obtain suggest that there is a behavior common to both phases: that the dynamics of water exhibit two singular temperatures belonging to the supercooled and the stable phase, respectively. One is the dynamic fragile-to-strong crossover temperature (T{sub L} ≃ 225 K). The second, T{sup *} ∼ 315 ± 5 K, is a special locus of the isothermal compressibility K{sub T}(T, P) and the thermal expansion coefficient α{sub P}(T, P) in the P–T plane. In the case of water confined inside a protein, we observe that these two temperatures mark, respectively, the onset of protein flexibility from its low temperature glass state (T{sub L}) and the onset of the unfolding process (T{sup *})

  3. Studies of bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, Raquel; McIntyre, Max; Tzolov, Marian

    We are studying bulk heterojunction solar cells that were fabricated using a mixture of PCPDTBT and PCBM­C60. The impedance data of the cells in dark responded like a simple RC circuit. The value of the dielectric constant derived from these results is consistent with the values reported in the literature for these materials. We are showing that the parallel resistance in the equivalent circuit of linear lump elements can be interpreted using the DC current­voltage measurements. The impedance spectra under light illumination indicated the existence of additional polarization. This extra feature can be described by a model that includes a series RC circuit in parallel with the equivalent circuit for a device in dark. The physical interpretation of the additional polarization is based on photo­generated charges getting trapped in wells, which have a characteristic relaxation time corresponding to the observed break frequency in the impedance spectra. We have studied the influence of the anode and cathode interface on this phenomena, either by using different interface materials, or by depositing the metal electrode while the substate is heated.

  4. Bulk water freezing dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, S.; Carpenter, J.; Nallapaneni, M.; Chen, J. Y.; Miljkovic, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we elucidate the mechanisms governing the heat-transfer mediated, non-thermodynamic limited, freezing delay on non-wetting surfaces for a variety of characteristic length scales, Lc (volume/surface area, 3 mm commercial superhydrophobic spray coatings, showing a monotonic increase in freezing time with coating thickness. The added thermal resistance of thicker coatings was much larger than that of the nanoscale superhydrophobic features, which reduced the droplet heat transfer and increased the total freezing time. Transient finite element method heat transfer simulations of the water slab freezing process were performed to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient at the substrate-water/ice interface during freezing, and shown to be in the range of 1-2.5 kW/m2K for these experiments. The results shown here suggest that in order to exploit the heat-transfer mediated freezing delay, thicker superhydrophobic coatings must be deposited on the surface, where the coating resistance is comparable to the bulk water/ice conduction resistance.

  5. Calcium Isotopic Composition of Bulk Silicate Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Ionov, D. A.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, F.

    2016-12-01

    Ca isotopes are used to study the accretion history of the Earth and terrestrial planets, but, Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) remains poorly constrained [1]. To better understand the Ca isotopic composition of BSE, we analyzed 22 well studied peridotite xenoliths from Tariat (Mongolia), Vitim (southern Siberia) and Udachnaya (Siberian Craton). These samples include both fertile and highly depleted garnet and spinel peridotites that show no or only minor post-melting metasomatism or alteration. Ca isotope measurements were done on a Triton-TIMS using double spike method at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, CAS. The data are reported as δ44/40Ca (relative to NIST SRM 915a). Results for geostandards are consistent with those from other laboratories. 2 standard deviations of SRM 915a analyses are 0.13‰ (n=48). δ44/40Ca of both and fertile and refractory peridotites range from 0.79 to 1.07‰ producing an average of 0.93±0.12‰ (2SD). This value defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE, which is consistent with the average δ44/40Ca of oceanic basalts ( 0.90‰)[2,3]. [1] Huang et al (2010) EPSL 292; [2] Valdes et al (2014) EPSL 394; [3]DePaolo (2004) RMG 55.

  6. Interplay between mesoscopic phase separation and bulk magnetism in the layered Na.sub.x./sub.CoO.sub.2./sub

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zorkovská, A.; Orendáč, M.; Šebek, Josef; Šantavá, Eva; Svoboda, P.; Bradaric, I.; Savič, I.; Feher, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 13 (2005), 132412/1-132412/4 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Na x CoO 2 * mesoscopic phase separation * bulk magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005

  7. Numerical simulations of the melting behavior of bulk and nanometer-sized Cu systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, G.; Delogu, F.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to investigate the melting mechanisms of four different Cu systems consisting of a surface-free crystalline bulk, a semi-crystal terminating with a free surface and two unsupported particles with a radius of about 4 and 8 nm, respectively. Starting from a relaxed configuration at 300 K, the systems were gradually heated up to the characteristic melting points. The surface-free bulk system underwent homogeneous melting at the limit of superheating, whereas the melting of the semi-crystal and of the nanometer-sized particles occurred with heterogeneous features. In these latter cases, the structural and energetic properties revealed a two-state character with a definite difference between disordered surface layers and bulk-like interiors. In addition, the melting point and the latent heat of fusion of the nanometer-sized particles were significantly depressed with respect to the ones of the semi-crystal, approximately corresponding to the equilibrium values. Pre-melting phenomena took place at the free surfaces at temperatures significantly below the melting point, determining the formation of a solid-liquid interface. Numerical findings indicate that in all the cases the onset of melting is connected with the proliferation and migration of lattice defects and that an intimate relationship exists between homogeneous and heterogeneous melting mechanisms

  8. Development of a novel filling technique. Loading bulk particulate materials into tankers or processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnish, R.J.; Berry, R.; Bradley, M. [Greenwich Univ., Chatham Maritime, Kent (United Kingdom). Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology

    2008-07-01

    The majority of industrial dosing or filling operations demand high filling rates and often good repeatability of discharges. For coarse, free-flowing materials the issues of obtaining a high degree of filling efficiency are substantially less challenging than for less free-flowing or cohesive bulk particulates. Typical equipment arrangements for achieving a controlled (often dual rate) discharge of particles into a relatively small capacity container (flask, sack or big bag) often rely on either a mechanical extraction of material from a buffer (screw feeders) or the manipulation of a constricting arrangement to achieve a turn down in discharge rate. Where less freeflowing or very fine particles are being handled, the introduction of air into the powder is invariably used to modify the bulk condition of the material to a condition where discharge can be initiated and supported (typical examples being powder feed to an impeller packer, or discharge of powder into a rail or road wagon). This article will therefore report on some recent research that has been undertaken by The Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology, University of Greenwich. (orig.)

  9. On the adsorption properties of magnetic fluids: Impact of bulk structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubovcikova, Martina [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia); Gapon, Igor V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, Kyiv (Ukraine); Zavisova, Vlasta [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia); Koneracka, Martina, E-mail: konerack@saske.sk [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia); Petrenko, Viktor I. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, Kyiv (Ukraine); Soltwedel, Olaf [Max-Planck-Institut for Solid State Research, Outstation at MLZ, Garching (Germany); Almasy, László [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Physical Faculty, St. Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kopcansky, Peter [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2017-04-01

    Adsorption of nanoparticles from magnetic fluids (MFs) on solid surface (crystalline silicon) was studied by neutron reflectometry (NR) and related to the bulk structural organization of MFs concluded from small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The initial aqueous MF with nanomagnetite (co-precipitation reaction) stabilized by sodium oleate and MF modified by a biocompatible polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), were considered. Regarding the bulk structure it was confirmed in the SANS experiment that comparatively small and compact (size~30 nm) aggregates of nanoparticle in the initial sample transfer to large and developed (size>130 nm, fractal dimension 2.7) associates in the PEG modified MF. This reorganization in the aggregates correlates with the changes in the neutron reflectivity that showed that a single adsorption layer of individual nanoparticles on the oxidized silicon surface for the initial MF disappears after the PEG modification. It is concluded that all particles in the modified fluid are in the aggregates that are not adsorbed by silicon. - Highlights: • Different bulk structure of initial MF and PEG modified MF was confirmed. • PEG modification of MF transforms small MNPs aggregates to large and developed. • Individual non-aggregated nanoparticles are preferably adsorbed on oxidized silicon. • Nanoparticles from MF form a single adsorption layer on the silicon surface. • PEG modified MF compose large developed aggregates that are not adsorbed by surface.

  10. Bulk and interfacial stresses in suspensions of soft and hard colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truzzolillo, D; Roger, V; Dupas, C; Cipelletti, L; Mora, S

    2015-01-01

    We explore the influence of particle softness and internal structure on both the bulk and interfacial rheological properties of colloidal suspensions. We probe bulk stresses by conventional rheology, by measuring the flow curves, shear stress versus strain rate, for suspensions of soft, deformable microgel particles and suspensions of near hard-sphere-like silica particles. A similar behaviour is seen for both kinds of particles in suspensions at concentrations up to the random close packing volume fraction, in agreement with recent theoretical predictions for sub-micron colloids. Transient interfacial stresses are measured by analyzing the patterns formed by the interface between the suspensions and their solvent, due to a generalized Saffman–Taylor hydrodynamic instability. At odds with the bulk behaviour, we find that microgels and hard particle suspensions exhibit vastly different interfacial stress properties. We propose that this surprising behaviour results mainly from the difference in particle internal structure (polymeric network for microgels versus compact solid for the silica particles), rather than softness alone. (paper)

  11. Observation of surface excitons in rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saile, V.; Skibowski, M.; Steinmann, W.; Guertler, P.; Koch, E.E.; Kozevnikov, A.

    1976-04-01

    Evidence is obtained for the excitation of surface excitons in solid Ar, Kr and Xe in optical transmission and reflection experiments using synchrotron radiation. They are located at photon energies ranging from 0.6 eV for Ar to 0.1 eV for Xe below the corresponding bulk excitons excited from the valence bands. Their halfwidths (20-50 MeV) is less than half the values found for the bulk excitons. Some are split by an amount considerably smaller than the spin orbit splitting of the valence bands. (orig.) [de

  12. On the correspondence between boundary and bulk lattice models and (logarithmic) conformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belletête, J.; Gainutdinov, A. M.; Jacobsen, J. L.; Saleur, H.; Vasseur, R.

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between bulk and boundary properties is one of the founding features of (rational) conformal field theory (CFT). Our goal in this paper is to explore the possibility of having an equivalent relationship in the context of lattice models. We focus on models based on the Temperley-Lieb algebra, and use the concept of ‘braid translation’, which is a natural way, in physical terms, to ‘close’ an open spin chain by adding an interaction between the first and last spins using braiding to ‘bring’ them next to each other. The interaction thus obtained is in general non-local, but has the key feature that it is expressed solely in terms of the algebra for the open spin chain—the ‘ordinary’ Temperley-Lieb algebra and its blob algebra generalization. This is in contrast with the usual periodic spin chains which involve only local interactions, and are described by the periodic Temperley-Lieb algebra. We show that for the restricted solid-on-solid models, which are known to be described by minimal unitary CFTs (with central charge ccontent in terms of the irreducibles is the same, as well as the spectrum, but the detailed structure (like logarithmic coupling) is profoundly different. This carries over to the continuum limit. The situation is similar for the sl(2\\vert 1) case. The problem of relating bulk and boundary lattice models for LCFTs thus remains open.

  13. Solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide, L.

    1977-01-01

    Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  15. Xerophilic mycopopulations of teas in bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available d.o.o., Novi Sad AU Krunić Vesna J. AF EKOLd.o.o., Novi Sad KW teas % mould contamination % thermal treatment KR nema Other the water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world today. They are used for ages, in the beginning as refreshing drinks, and later more for their healing properties. Teas have been demonstrated to show antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Considering that the teas, during the production, are not treated with any temperature, there is high risk for contamination with different type of microorganisms, especially with moulds. Moulds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes and under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, moulds grow on many commodities including cereals, oil seeds, nuts, herbs and spices. Most of them are potential producers of mycotoxins which present a real hazard to human health. The aim of this work was to investigate total mould count and to identify moulds isolated from teas in bulk, than from teas treated with hot, sterile, distilled water and from the tea filtrates. Tested teas were peppermint, sage, yarrow, black tea, bearberry, lemon balm, mixture of teas from Zlatibor. In teas in balk was observed high contamination with different kinds of moulds (1.84-4.55 cfu/g, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. lovaniensis, A niger, A. phoenicus, A. repens, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The most frequent were species from Aspergillus and Eurotium genera. Thermal treatment with hot, sterile, distilled water reduced the number of fungal colonies. Aspergillus awamori was the most resistant and appeared in six samples of filtrates of tea, Aspergillus niger in one sample and Penicillium chrysogenum in one sample.

  16. High trapped fields in bulk YBCO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Günter; Gruss, Stefan; Krabbes, Gernot; Schätzle, Peter; Verges, Peter; Müller, Karl-Hartmut; Fink, Jörg; Schultz, Ludwig

    The trapped field properties of bulk melt-textured YBCO material were investigated at different temperatures. In the temperature range of liquid nitrogen, maximum trapped fields of 1.1 T were found at 77 K by doping of YBCO with small amounts of zinc. The improved pinning of zinc-doped YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) results in a pronounced peak effect in the field dependence of the critical current density. the trapped field at lower temperatures increases due to the increasing critical current density, however, at temperatures around 50 K cracking of the material is observed which is exposed to considerably tensile stresses due to Lorentz forces. Very high trapped fields up to 14.4 T were achieved at 22.5 K for a YBCO disk pair by the addition of silver improving the tensile strength of YBCO and by using a bandage made of a steel tube. The steel tube produces a compressive stress on YBCO after cooling down from 300 K to the measuring temperature, which is due to the higher coeeficient of thermal expansion of steel compared with that of YBCO in the a,b plane. The application of superconducting permanent magnets with trapped fields of 10 T and more in superconducting bearings would allow to obtain very high levitation pressures up to 2500 N/cm2 which is two orders of magnitude higher than the levitation pressure achievable in superconducting bearings with conventional permanent magnets. The most important problem for the application of superconducting permanent magnets is the magnetizing procedure of the YBCO material. Results of magnetizing YBCO disks by using of pulsed magnetic fields will be presented.

  17. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs at atomic scale.

  18. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  19. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  20. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  1. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2009-01-01

    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  2. Magnetomechanical coupling in thermal amorphous solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, H. George E.; Ilyin, Valery; Mondal, Chandana; Procaccia, Itamar

    2018-05-01

    Standard approaches to magnetomechanical interactions in thermal magnetic crystalline solids involve Landau functionals in which the lattice anisotropy and the resulting magnetization easy axes are taken explicitly into account. In glassy systems one needs to develop a theory in which the amorphous structure precludes the existence of an easy axis, and in which the constituent particles are free to respond to their local amorphous surroundings and the resulting forces. We present a theory of all the mixed responses of an amorphous solid to mechanical strains and magnetic fields. Atomistic models are proposed in which we test the predictions of magnetostriction for both bulk and nanofilm amorphous samples in the paramagnetic phase. The application to nanofilms with emergent self-affine free interfaces requires a careful definition of the film "width" and its change due to the magnetostriction effect.

  3. 7 CFR 58.211 - Packaging room for bulk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging room for bulk products. 58.211 Section 58... Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.211 Packaging room for bulk products. A separate room or area shall... dust within the packaging room and where needed, a dust collector shall be provided and properly...

  4. Quantifying Dustiness, Specific Allergens, and Endotoxin in Bulk Soya Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J. Mason

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soya is an important bulk agricultural product often transported by sea as chipped beans and/or the bean husks after pelletisation. There are proven allergens in both forms. Bulk handling of soya imports can generate air pollution containing dust, allergens, and pyrogens, posing health risks to dockside workers and surrounding populations. Using an International Organization for Standardization (ISO standardised rotating drum dustiness test in seven imported soya bulks, we compared the generated levels of dust and two major soya allergens in three particle sizes related to respiratory health. Extractable levels of allergen and endotoxin from the bulks showed 30–60 fold differences, with levels of one allergen (hydrophobic seed protein and endotoxin higher in husk. The generated levels of dust and allergens in the three particle sizes also showed very wide variations between bulks, with aerolysed levels of allergen influenced by both the inherent dustiness and the extractable allergen in each bulk. Percentage allergen aerolysed from pelletized husk—often assumed to be of low dustiness—after transportation was not lower than that from chipped beans. Thus, not all soya bulks pose the same inhalation health risk and reinforces the importance of controlling dust generation from handling all soya bulk to as low as reasonably practicable.

  5. Bulk photovoltaic effect in an organi c polar crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijayaraghavan, R.K.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Abdul Rahim, M.; Das, S.

    2014-01-01

    Organic polar crystals from the donor–acceptor substituted 1,4-diphenybutadiene 1 can generate a short-circuit photocurrent and a photovoltage upon illumination with near UV light. The photocurrent and photovoltage are attributed to a bulk photovoltaic effect. The bulk photovoltaic effect has been

  6. Calculation and design for SSRF's bulk shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, K.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (China)]. E-mail: fangkm@sinap.ac.cn; Xu, X.J. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (China); Cai, J.H. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (China)

    2006-12-15

    Shielding design objectives for the SSRF are chosen, assumptions for beam loss rates are given, the methods used on the APS by Moe are summarized and introduced to make calculation and design on bulk shield, the factor of skyshine is also considered, design thicknesses for SSRF's bulk shield are presented.

  7. Effect of Bulk and Interfacial Rheological Properties on Bubble Dissolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Meinders, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes theoretical calculations of the combined effect of bulk and interracial rheological properties on dissolution behavior of a bubble in an infinite medium at saturated conditions. Either bulk or interracial elasticity can stop the bubble dissolution process, and stability criteria

  8. Bulk density and porosity distributions in a compost pile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van J.T.; Raats, P.A.C.; Haneghem, van I.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with the description of the initial distribution of bulk density and porosity at the moment a compost pile is built or rebuilt. A relationship between bulk density and vertical position in a pile is deduced from theoretical and empirical considerations. Formulae to calculate

  9. Role of bulking agents in bladder exstrophyepispadias complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Role of pelvic osteotomy in surgical management of bladder exstrophy is controversial But pelvic rim closure importantly. Bulking agents have been used for perineal and pelvic dysfunction in adults. In this study, bladder extrophy repair was performed without pubic closure And bulking agent injections were ...

  10. Bulk and edge spin transport in topological magnon insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rückriegel, A.; Brataas, A.; Duine, R.A.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the spin transport properties of a topological magnon insulator, a magnetic insulator characterized by topologically nontrivial bulk magnon bands and protected magnon edge modes located in the bulk band gaps. Employing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, we calculate the spin

  11. Influence of bulk dielectric polarization upon PD transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1995-01-01

    associated with the actual space charge in the void, and one related to changes in the bulk polarization brought about by changes in the field external to the void due to this space charge. The magnitude of the induced charge and its components are discussed in relation to a heterogeneous bulk dielectric...

  12. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    .... Remediation Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for Public Comment. SUMMARY... biphenyl (PCB) disposal regulations regarding PCB bulk product and PCB remediation waste. The proposed... regarding PCB bulk product and PCB remediation waste under regulations promulgated at 40 CFR part 761. The...

  13. Bulk viscosity of spin-one color superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' d, Basil A.

    2009-08-27

    The bulk viscosity of several quark matter phases is calculated. It is found that the effect of color superconductivity is not trivial, it may suppress, or enhance the bulk viscosity depending on the critical temperature and the temperature at which the bulk viscosity is calculated. Also, is it found that the effect of neutrino-emitting Urca processes cannot be neglected in the consideration of the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter. The results for the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter are used to calculate the r-mode instability window of quark stars with several possible phases. It is shown that each possible phase has a different structure for the r-mode instability window. (orig.)

  14. Renormalization group approach to causal bulk viscous cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinchon, J A; Harko, T; Mak, M K

    2002-01-01

    The renormalization group method is applied to the study of homogeneous and flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker type universes, filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid. The starting point of the study is the consideration of the scaling properties of the gravitational field equations, the causal evolution equation of the bulk viscous pressure and the equations of state. The requirement of scale invariance imposes strong constraints on the temporal evolution of the bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time, thus leading to the possibility of obtaining the bulk viscosity coefficient-energy density dependence. For a cosmological model with bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the Hubble parameter, we perform the analysis of the renormalization group flow around the scale-invariant fixed point, thereby obtaining the long-time behaviour of the scale factor

  15. Bulk velocity extraction for nano-scale Newtonian flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenfei, E-mail: zwenfei@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Mechanical Reliability for Heavy Equipments and Large Structures of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Sun, Hongyu [Key Laboratory of Mechanical Reliability for Heavy Equipments and Large Structures of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2012-04-16

    The conventional velocity extraction algorithm in MDS method has difficulty to determine the small flow velocity. This study proposes a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. Based on the Newton's law of viscosity, according to the calculated viscosities and shear stresses, the flow velocity can be obtained by numerical integration. This new method can overcome the difficulty existed in the conventional MDS method and improve the stability of the computational process. Numerical results show that this method is effective for the extraction of bulk velocity, no matter the bulk velocity is large or small. -- Highlights: ► Proposed a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. ► It is effective for the extraction of small bulk velocity. ► The accuracy, convergence and stability of the new method is good.

  16. Bulk velocity extraction for nano-scale Newtonian flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenfei; Sun, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The conventional velocity extraction algorithm in MDS method has difficulty to determine the small flow velocity. This study proposes a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. Based on the Newton's law of viscosity, according to the calculated viscosities and shear stresses, the flow velocity can be obtained by numerical integration. This new method can overcome the difficulty existed in the conventional MDS method and improve the stability of the computational process. Numerical results show that this method is effective for the extraction of bulk velocity, no matter the bulk velocity is large or small. -- Highlights: ► Proposed a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. ► It is effective for the extraction of small bulk velocity. ► The accuracy, convergence and stability of the new method is good.

  17. Temperature dependence of bulk viscosity in water using acoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, M J; Parker, N G; Povey, M J W

    2011-01-01

    Despite its fundamental role in the dynamics of compressible fluids, bulk viscosity has received little experimental attention and there remains a paucity of measured data. Acoustic spectroscopy provides a robust and accurate approach to measuring this parameter. Working from the Navier-Stokes model of a compressible fluid one can show that the bulk viscosity makes a significant and measurable contribution to the frequency-squared acoustic attenuation. Here we employ this methodology to determine the bulk viscosity of Millipore water over a temperature range of 7 to 50 0 C. The measured attenuation spectra are consistent with the theoretical predictions, while the bulk viscosity of water is found to be approximately three times larger than its shear counterpart, reinforcing its significance in acoustic propagation. Moreover, our results demonstrate that this technique can be readily and generally applied to fluids to accurately determine their temperature dependent bulk viscosities.

  18. Bulk viscosity of spin-one color superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'd, Basil A.

    2009-01-01

    The bulk viscosity of several quark matter phases is calculated. It is found that the effect of color superconductivity is not trivial, it may suppress, or enhance the bulk viscosity depending on the critical temperature and the temperature at which the bulk viscosity is calculated. Also, is it found that the effect of neutrino-emitting Urca processes cannot be neglected in the consideration of the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter. The results for the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter are used to calculate the r-mode instability window of quark stars with several possible phases. It is shown that each possible phase has a different structure for the r-mode instability window. (orig.)

  19. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [Clinton, TN; Montgomery, Frederick C [Oak Ridge, TN; Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  20. Microthrix parvicella abundance associates with activated sludge settling velocity and rheology - Quantifying and modelling filamentous bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Ramin, Elham; Szabo, Peter; Dechesne, Arnaud; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work is to identify relevant settling velocity and rheology model parameters and to assess the underlying filamentous microbial community characteristics that can influence the solids mixing and transport in secondary settling tanks. Parameter values for hindered, transient and compression settling velocity functions were estimated by carrying out biweekly batch settling tests using a novel column setup through a four-month long measurement campaign. To estimate viscosity model parameters, rheological experiments were carried out on the same sludge sample using a rotational viscometer. Quantitative fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (qFISH) analysis, targeting Microthrix parvicella and phylum Chloroflexi, was used. This study finds that M. parvicella - predominantly residing inside the microbial flocs in our samples - can significantly influence secondary settling through altering the hindered settling velocity and yield stress parameter. Strikingly, this is not the case for Chloroflexi, occurring in more than double the abundance of M. parvicella, and forming filaments primarily protruding from the flocs. The transient and compression settling parameters show a comparably high variability, and no significant association with filamentous abundance. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetrical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to assess calibration scenarios to model filamentous bulking. Our results suggest that model predictions can significantly benefit from explicitly accounting for filamentous bulking by calibrating the hindered settling velocity function. Furthermore, accounting for the transient and compression settling velocity in the computational domain is crucial to improve model accuracy when modelling filamentous bulking. However, the case-specific calibration of transient and compression settling parameters as well as yield stress is not necessary, and an average parameter set - obtained under bulking and good settling

  1. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  2. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  3. Influence of Soap Characteristics and Food Service Facility Type on the Degree of Bacterial Contamination of Open, Refillable Bulk Soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W; Jensen, Dane; Gerba, Charles P; Shumaker, David; Arbogast, James W

    2018-02-01

    Concern has been raised regarding the public health risks from refillable bulk-soap dispensers because they provide an environment for potentially pathogenic bacteria to grow. This study surveyed the microbial quality of open refillable bulk soap in four different food establishment types in three states. Two hundred ninety-six samples of bulk soap were collected from food service establishments in Arizona, New Jersey, and Ohio. Samples were tested for total heterotrophic viable bacteria, Pseudomonas, coliforms and Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. Bacteria were screened for antibiotic resistance. The pH, solids content, and water activity of all soap samples were measured. Samples were assayed for the presence of the common antibacterial agents triclosan and parachlorometaxylenol. More than 85% of the soap samples tested contained no detectable microorganisms, but when a sample contained any detectable microorganisms, it was most likely contaminated at a very high level (∼7 log CFU/mL). Microorganisms detected in contaminated soap included Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia liquefaciens, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter gergoviae, Serratia odorifera, and Enterobacter cloacae. Twenty-three samples contained antibiotic-resistant organisms, some of which were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Every sample containing less than 4% solids had some detectable level of bacteria, whereas no samples with greater than 14% solids had detectable bacteria. This finding suggests the use of dilution and/or low-cost formulations as a cause of bacterial growth. There was a statistically significant difference ( P = 0.0035) between the fraction of bacteria-positive samples with no detected antimicrobial agent (17%) and those containing an antimicrobial agent (7%). Fast food operations and grocery stores were more likely to have detectable bacteria in bulk-soap samples compared with convenience stores ( P food service establishments.

  4. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  5. Disinfection ultraviolet radiation bulk food products

    OpenAIRE

    Семенов, А. А.

    2014-01-01

    В работе представлены результаты обеззараживания сыпучих пищевых продуктов ультрафиолетовым излучением. Предложена технология бактерицидного обеззараживания сыпучих продуктов с размером частиц до 50 мкм. Проведены необходимые расчеты, связанные с дозой облучения, с временем пребывания частиц в зоне облучения и необходимой дозой инактивации в зависимости от вида бактерий. Considered the results of bulk food products disinfection by ultraviolet radiation. The technology bactericidal disinfec...

  6. Stability of bulk metallic glass structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    2003-06-18

    The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub (80-x)}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which

  7. Superhard Rhenium/Tungsten Diboride Solid Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew T; Turner, Christopher L; Lei, Jialin; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H; Kaner, Richard B

    2016-11-02

    Rhenium diboride (ReB 2 ), containing corrugated layers of covalently bonded boron, is a superhard metallic compound with a microhardness reaching as high as 40.5 GPa (under an applied load of 0.49 N). Tungsten diboride (WB 2 ), which takes a structural hybrid between that of ReB 2 and AlB 2 , where half of the boron layers are planar (as in AlB 2 ) and half are corrugated (as in ReB 2 ), has been shown not to be superhard. Here, we demonstrate that the ReB 2 -type structure can be maintained for solid solutions of tungsten in ReB 2 with tungsten content up to a surprisingly large limit of nearly 50 atom %. The lattice parameters for the solid solutions linearly increase along both the a- and c-axes with increasing tungsten content, as evaluated by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction. From micro- and nanoindentation hardness testing, all of the compositions within the range of 0-48 atom % W are superhard, and the bulk modulus of the 48 atom % solid solution is nearly identical to that of pure ReB 2 . These results further indicate that ReB 2 -structured compounds are superhard, as has been predicted from first-principles calculations, and may warrant further studies into additional solid solutions or ternary compounds taking this structure type.

  8. Migration of inclusions in solids in stress gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical method of assessing the influence of stress and temperature gradients on the motion of inclusions in solids is developed. In nonuniform stress fields, the stress distribution on the surface of the cavity must be calculated and transformed to a potential gradient for driving a surface atom flux. The bubble migration velocity is the first Legendre coefficient of the surface flux. Higher order components represent distortion. The stress gradient effect appears only in small-magnitude terms in the surface chemical potential, specifically in the stress effect on the solid atomic volume and in the elastic energy density. The migration velocities of spherical and faceted bubbles in solids are computed and the extent of distortion of a spherical bubble is estimated. The role of vacancy exchange with the bulk solid on the migration velocity is assessed. (author)

  9. Bulk media assay using backscattered neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikai, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarized a systematic study of bulk media assay using backscattered neutron spectrometry. The source-sample-detector geometry used for the measurements of leakage and elastically backscattered (EBS) spectra of neutrons is shown. Neutrons up to about 14 MeV were produced via 2 H (d,n) and 9 Be (d,n) reactions using different deuteron beam energies between 5 and 10 MeV at the MGC-20E cyclotron of ATOMKI (Debrecen). Neutron yields of the Pu-Be and 252 Cf sources were 5.25 x 10 6 n/s and 1.8 x 10 6 n/s, respectively. Flux density distributions of thermal and primary 14 MeV neutrons were measured for graphite, water and coal samples in various moderator (M)-sample (S)-reflector (R) geometries. Relative fractions and integrated yields of 252 Cf, Pu-Be and 14 MeV neutrons above the (n,n'γ) reaction thresholds for 12 C, 16 O and 28 Si isotopes vs sample thickness have also been determined. It was found that the integrated reaction rate vs sample thickness decreasing exponentially with different attenuation coefficients depending on the neutron spectrum and the composition of the sample. The spectra of neutrons from sources passing through slabs of water, graphite, sand, Al, Fe and Pb up to 20 cm in thickness have been measured by a PHRS system in the 1.2 to 1.5 MeV range. The leakage neutron spectra from a Pu-Be source placed in the center of 30 cm diameter sphere filled with water, paraffin oil, SiO 2 , zeolite and river sand were also measured. The measured spectra have been compared with the calculated results obtained by the three dimensional Monte-Carlo code MCNP-4A and point-wise cross sections from the ENDF/B-4, ENDF/B-6, ENDF/E-1, BROND-2 and JENDL-3.1 data files. New results were obtained for validation of different data libraries from a comparison on the measured and the calculated spectra. Some typical results for water, Al, sand and Fe are shown. A combination of the backscattered neutron spectrometry with the surface gauge used both for the

  10. End-Member Formulation of Solid Solutions and Reactive Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtner, Peter C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A model for incorporating solid solutions into reactive transport equations is presented based on an end-member representation. Reactive transport equations are solved directly for the composition and bulk concentration of the solid solution. Reactions of a solid solution with an aqueous solution are formulated in terms of an overall stoichiometric reaction corresponding to a time-varying composition and exchange reactions, equivalent to reaction end-members. Reaction rates are treated kinetically using a transition state rate law for the overall reaction and a pseudo-kinetic rate law for exchange reactions. The composition of the solid solution at the onset of precipitation is assumed to correspond to the least soluble composition, equivalent to the composition at equilibrium. The stoichiometric saturation determines if the solid solution is super-saturated with respect to the aqueous solution. The method is implemented for a simple prototype batch reactor using Mathematica for a binary solid solution. Finally, the sensitivity of the results on the kinetic rate constant for a binary solid solution is investigated for reaction of an initially stoichiometric solid phase with an undersaturated aqueous solution.

  11. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-05-01

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Soft magnetic properties of bulk amorphous Co-based samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuezer, J.; Bednarcik, J.; Kollar, P.

    2006-01-01

    Ball milling of melt-spun ribbons and subsequent compaction of the resulting powders in the supercooled liquid region were used to prepare disc shaped bulk amorphous Co-based samples. The several bulk samples have been prepared by hot compaction with subsequent heat treatment (500 deg C - 575 deg C). The influence of the consolidation temperature and follow-up heat treatment on the magnetic properties of bulk samples was investigated. The final heat treatment leads to decrease of the coercivity to the value between the 7.5 to 9 A/m (Authors)

  13. Onset of bulk pinning in BSCCO single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Indenbom, M. V.; Berseth, V.; Li, T. W.; Benoit, W.

    1996-11-01

    The long growth defects often found in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8, “single” crystals effectively weaken the geometrical barrier and lower the field of first flux penetration. This means that the intrinsic (bulk) magnetic properties can be more easily accessed using magnetic measurements. Thus, the onset of strong bulk flux pinning in the sample bulk is determined to lie at T ≈ 40 K, indepedent of whether the field strength is above or below the field of the second peak in the magnetisation.

  14. Bulk local states and crosscaps in holographic CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University,Toshima, Tokyo 175-8501 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ooguri, Hirosi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Center for Mathematical Sciences and Applications andCenter for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-17

    In a weakly coupled gravity theory in the anti-de Sitter space, local states in the bulk are linear superpositions of Ishibashi states for a crosscap in the dual conformal field theory. The superposition structure can be constrained either by the microscopic causality in the bulk gravity or the bootstrap condition in the boundary conformal field theory. We show, contrary to some expectation, that these two conditions are not compatible to each other in the weak gravity regime. We also present an evidence to show that bulk local states in three dimensions are not organized by the Virasoro symmetry.

  15. Atomistic simulations of bulk, surface and interfacial polymer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Upendra

    In chapter I, quasi-static molecular mechanics based simulations are used to estimate the activation energy of phenoxy rings flips in the amorphous region of a semicrystalline polyimide. Intra and intermolecular contributions to the flip activation energy, the torsional cooperativity accompanying the flip, and the effect of the flip on the motion in the glassy bulk state, are looked at. Also, comparison of the weighted mean activation energy is made with experimental data from solid state NMR measurements; the simulated value being 17.5 kcal/mol., while the experimental value was observed to be 10.5 kcal/mol. Chapter II deals with construction of random copolymer thin films of styrene-butadiene (SB) and styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile (SBA). The structure and properties of the free surfaces presented by these thin films are analysed by, the atom mass density profiles, backbone bond orientation function, and the spatial distribution of acrylonitrile groups and styrene rings. The surface energies of SB and SBA are calculated using an atomistic equation and are compared with experimental data in the literature. In chapter III, simulations of polymer-polymer interfaces between like and unlike polymers, specifically cis-polybutadiene (PBD) and atatic polypropylene (PP), are presented. The structure of an incompatible polymer-polymer interface, and the estimation of the thermodynamic work of adhesion and interfacial energy between different incompatible polymers, form the focus here. The work of adhesion is calculated using an atomistic equation and is further used in a macroscopic equation to estimate the interfacial energy. The interfacial energy is compared with typical values for other immiscible systems in the literature. The interfacial energy compared very well with interfacial energy values for a few other immiscible hydrocarbon pairs. In chapter IV, the study proceeds to look at the interactions between nonpolar and polar small molecules with SB and SBA thin

  16. 13C solid state NMR investigation of natural resins components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Nogueira, Jose S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish and analytical methodology as a routine using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the mainly chemical components presented in natural resins in bulk. And also to evaluate the molecular behaviour of these resins. The routine solid state techniques allow us to assign the main compounds presented in the resins. Therefore, applying specialised techniques, like variable contact time, delayed contact time, dephasing time and proton spin lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1 H ρ), more information about chemical structure and molecular dynamic is available

  17. Modeling the Microstructure Curvature of Boron-Doped Silicon in Bulk Micromachined Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure curvature, or buckling, is observed in the micromachining of silicon sensors because of the doping of impurities for realizing certain electrical and mechanical processes. This behavior can be a key source of error in inertial sensors. Therefore, identifying the factors that influence the buckling value is important in designing MEMS devices. In this study, the curvature in the proof mass of an accelerometer is modeled as a multilayered solid model. Modeling is performed according to the characteristics of the solid diffusion mechanism in the bulk-dissolved wafer process (BDWP based on the self-stopped etch technique. Moreover, the proposed multilayered solid model is established as an equivalent composite structure formed by a group of thin layers that are glued together. Each layer has a different Young’s modulus value and each undergoes different volume shrinkage strain owing to boron doping in silicon. Observations of five groups of proof mass blocks of accelerometers suggest that the theoretical model is effective in determining the buckling value of a fabricated structure.

  18. Procedures for sampling and sample-reduction within quality assurance systems for solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-15

    The bias introduced when sampling solid biofuels from stockpiles or containers instead of from moving streams is assessed as well as the number and size of samples required to represent accurately the bulk sample, variations introduced when reducing bulk samples into samples for testing, and the usefulness of sample reduction methods. Details are given of the experimental work carried out in Sweden and Denmark using sawdust, wood chips, wood pellets, forestry residues and straw. The production of a model European Standard for quality assurance of solid biofuels is examined.

  19. Principles of electron backscattering by solids and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrig, H.

    1977-01-01

    The parameters concerning the electron backscattering from thin films and solids (atomic scattering cross-section, atomic number, single/multiple scattering, film thickness of self-supporting films and of surface films on bulk substrates, scattering angular distribution, angle of incidence, diffraction effects) are described. Their influence on some important contrast mechanisms in scanning electron microscopy (thickness contrast, Z/material contrast, tilting/topography contrast, orientation contrast) is discussed. The main backscattering electron detection systems are briefly described. (orig.) [de

  20. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  1. Nanoscale hydrodynamics near solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diego; de la Torre, J. A.; Duque-Zumajo, D.; Español, Pep; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Chejne, Farid

    2018-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a successful and well-established theory for the study of the structure of simple and complex fluids at equilibrium. The theory has been generalized to dynamical situations when the underlying dynamics is diffusive as in, for example, colloidal systems. However, there is no such a clear foundation for Dynamic DFT (DDFT) for the case of simple fluids in contact with solid walls. In this work, we derive DDFT for simple fluids by including not only the mass density field but also the momentum density field of the fluid. The standard projection operator method based on the Kawasaki-Gunton operator is used for deriving the equations for the average value of these fields. The solid is described as featureless under the assumption that all the internal degrees of freedom of the solid relax much faster than those of the fluid (solid elasticity is irrelevant). The fluid moves according to a set of non-local hydrodynamic equations that include explicitly the forces due to the solid. These forces are of two types, reversible forces emerging from the free energy density functional, and accounting for impenetrability of the solid, and irreversible forces that involve the velocity of both the fluid and the solid. These forces are localized in the vicinity of the solid surface. The resulting hydrodynamic equations should allow one to study dynamical regimes of simple fluids in contact with solid objects in isothermal situations.

  2. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  3. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  5. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  6. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  7. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  8. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Can groundwater be successfully implemented as a bulk water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that groundwater can be developed as a potential viable bulk-water supply source. This paper attempts .... fracturing, even when using conventional geophysical methods. Gneiss and/or ..... will start to be self-sufficient in about 2018 and 2019.

  10. Role of the antiferromagnetic bulk spins in exchange bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Ivan K. [Center for Advanced Nanoscience and Physics Department, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Morales, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.morales@ehu.es [Department of Chemical-Physics & BCMaterials, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Batlle, Xavier [Departament Física Fonamental and Institut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Martí i Franqués s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Nowak, Ulrich [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, 78464 Konstanz (Germany); Güntherodt, Gernot [Physics Institute (IIA), RWTH Aachen University, Campus RWTH-Melaten, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    This “Critical Focused Issue” presents a brief review of experiments and models which describe the origin of exchange bias in epitaxial or textured ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayers. Evidence is presented which clearly indicates that inner, uncompensated, pinned moments in the bulk of the antiferromagnet (AFM) play a very important role in setting the magnitude of the exchange bias. A critical evaluation of the extensive literature in the field indicates that it is useful to think of this bulk, pinned uncompensated moments as a new type of a ferromagnet which has a low total moment, an ordering temperature given by the AFM Néel temperature, with parallel aligned moments randomly distributed on the regular AFM lattice. - Highlights: • We address the role of bulk antiferromagnetic spins in the exchange bias phenomenon. • Significant experiments on how bulk AFM spins determine exchange bias are highlighted. • We explain the model that accounts for experimental results.

  11. Bulk Nano-structured Materials for Turbomachinery Components, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort seeks to exploit some of the tremendous benefits that could be attained from a revolutionary new approach to grain refinement in bulk...

  12. Preparation of Nb thin films with bulk transition temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, L H [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1984-08-01

    Thin films (1000-2000 A) of Nb were prepared with bulk transition temperatures (9.25 K) by evaporation from an electron gun. Necessary substrate temperatures, evaporation rates and H/sub 2/O pressures were determined.

  13. Role of the antiferromagnetic bulk spins in exchange bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Morales, Rafael; Batlle, Xavier; Nowak, Ulrich; Güntherodt, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    This “Critical Focused Issue” presents a brief review of experiments and models which describe the origin of exchange bias in epitaxial or textured ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayers. Evidence is presented which clearly indicates that inner, uncompensated, pinned moments in the bulk of the antiferromagnet (AFM) play a very important role in setting the magnitude of the exchange bias. A critical evaluation of the extensive literature in the field indicates that it is useful to think of this bulk, pinned uncompensated moments as a new type of a ferromagnet which has a low total moment, an ordering temperature given by the AFM Néel temperature, with parallel aligned moments randomly distributed on the regular AFM lattice. - Highlights: • We address the role of bulk antiferromagnetic spins in the exchange bias phenomenon. • Significant experiments on how bulk AFM spins determine exchange bias are highlighted. • We explain the model that accounts for experimental results.

  14. Bulk metallic glass for low noise fluxgate, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The team of Prime Photonics, Virginia Tech, and Utron Kinetics propose to demonstrate a method for fabrication of a bulk, amorphous, cobalt-rich material that...

  15. Bulk and edge spin transport in topological magnon insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückriegel, Andreas; Brataas, Arne; Duine, Rembert A.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the spin transport properties of a topological magnon insulator, a magnetic insulator characterized by topologically nontrivial bulk magnon bands and protected magnon edge modes located in the bulk band gaps. Employing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, we calculate the spin current driven through a normal metal |topological magnon insulator |normal metal heterostructure by a spin accumulation imbalance between the metals, with and without random lattice defects. We show that bulk and edge transport are characterized by different length scales. This results in a characteristic system size where the magnon transport crosses over from being bulk dominated for small systems to edge dominated for larger systems. These findings are generic and relevant for topological transport in systems of nonconserved bosons.

  16. Concentration polarization, surface currents, and bulk advection in a microchannel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Peder; Bruus, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    . A remarkable outcome of the investigations is the discovery of strong couplings between bulk advection and the surface current; without a surface current, bulk advection is strongly suppressed. The numerical simulations are supplemented by analytical models valid in the long channel limit as well...... as in the limit of negligible surface charge. By including the effects of diffusion and advection in the diffuse part of the electric double layers, we extend a recently published analytical model of overlimiting current due to surface conduction....

  17. Bulk Extractor 1.4 User’s Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    optimistically decompresses data in ZIP, GZIP, RAR, and Mi- crosoft’s Hibernation files. This has proven useful, for example, in recovering email...command line. Java 7 or above must be installed on the machine for the Bulk Extractor Viewer to run. Instructions on running bulk_extractor from the... Hibernation File Fragments (decompressed and processed, not carved) Subsection 4.6 winprefetch Windows Prefetch files, file fragments (processed

  18. Anisotropic cosmological models with bulk viscosity and particle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4.1.3 Ideal gas. In the case of an ideal gas. = 0 and pc = 0. Then eq. (2) becomes. ˙η + 3ηH = 0. (69). Equation (69), on integration gives η = η1t. −3/n,. (70) where η1 is an integrating constant. Equation (69) is the expression for particle creation density. This model has only bulk viscosity and bulk viscous stress is obtained as.

  19. Factors that may compromise bulk water distribution reliability

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Ing. This thesis considers water supply and divides the water supply environment into three categories; the macro water supply environment, the water supply scheme and the consumers. Each of the categories is briefly explored in terms of the factors that may influence it. Subsequently, some of the unique features of a bulk water distribution system are dealt with, as well as different approaches related to bulk water distribution system design and assessment. One of these approaches, the...

  20. Experimental evidence of beam-foil plasma creation during ion-solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prashant, E-mail: prashant@iuac.res.in; Nandi, Tapan [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Charge state evolution of the energetic projectile ions during the passage through thin carbon foils has been revisited using the X-ray spectroscopy technique. Contributions from the bulk and the solid surface in the charge changing processes have been segregated by measuring the charge state distribution of the projectile ions in the bulk of the target during the ion–solid interaction. Interestingly, the charge state distribution measured in the bulk exhibits Lorentzian profile in contrast to the well-known Gaussian structure observed using the electromagnetic methods and the theoretical predictions. The occurrence of such behavior is a direct consequence of the imbalance between charge changing processes, which has been seen in various cases of the laboratory plasma. It suggests that the ion-solid collisions constitute high-density, localized plasma in the bulk of the solid target, called the beam-foil plasma. This condensed beam-foil plasma is similar to the high-density solar and stellar plasma which may have practical implementations in various fields, in particular, plasma physics and nuclear astrophysics. The present work suggests further modification in the theoretical charge state distribution calculations by incorporating the plasma coupling effects during the ion–solid interactions. Moreover, the multi-electron capture from the target exit surface has been confirmed through comparison between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted values of the mean charge state of the projectile ions.

  1. Does boundary quantum mechanics imply quantum mechanics in the bulk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad

    2018-03-01

    Perturbative bulk reconstruction in AdS/CFT starts by representing a free bulk field ϕ (0) as a smeared operator in the CFT. A series of 1 /N corrections must be added to ϕ (0) to represent an interacting bulk field ϕ. These corrections have been determined in the literature from several points of view. Here we develop a new perspective. We show that correlation functions involving ϕ (0) suffer from ambiguities due to analytic continuation. As a result ϕ (0) fails to be a well-defined linear operator in the CFT. This means bulk reconstruction can be understood as a procedure for building up well-defined operators in the CFT which thereby singles out the interacting field ϕ. We further propose that the difficulty with defining ϕ (0) as a linear operator can be re-interpreted as a breakdown of associativity. Presumably ϕ (0) can only be corrected to become an associative operator in perturbation theory. This suggests that quantum mechanics in the bulk is only valid in perturbation theory around a semiclassical bulk geometry.

  2. Bulk density calculations from prompt gamma ray yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Nagadi, M.M.; Al-Amoudi, O.S.B.; Maslehuddin, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The gamma ray yield from a Prompt Gamma ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup is a linear function of element concentration and neutron flux in a the sample with constant bulk density. If the sample bulk density varies as well, then the element concentration and the neutron flux has a nonlinear correlation with the gamma ray yield [1]. The measurement of gamma ray yield non-linearity from samples and a standard can be used to estimate the bulk density of the samples. In this study the prompt gamma ray yield from Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Ash, Silica Fumes and Superpozz cements samples have been measured as a function of their calcium and silicon concentration using KFUPM accelerator-based PGNAA setup [2]. Due to different bulk densities of the blended cement samples, the measured gamma ray yields have nonlinear correlation with calcium and silicon concentration of the samples. The non-linearity in the yield was observed to increase with gamma rays energy and element concentration. The bulk densities of the cement samples were calculated from ratio of gamma ray yield from blended cement and that from a Portland cement standard. The calculated bulk densities have good agreement with the published data. The result of this study will be presented

  3. Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Xu, Y.; Deng, Z.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.; Morita, M.; Teshima, H.

    2010-12-01

    We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as a suitable cryogen for the operation of HTS rotating machines with field poles composed of RE-Ba-Cu-O family materials, where RE is a rare-earth metal. Regarding the materials processing of the bulks HTS, thanks to the addition of magnetic particles to GdBa2Cu3O7 - d (Gd123) bulk superconductors an increase of more than 20% in the trapped magnetic flux density was achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature. Field-pole Gd123 bulks up to 46 mm in diameter were synthesized with the addition of Fe-B alloy magnetic particles and assembled into the synchronous machine rotor to be tested. Successful cooling of the magnetized rotor field poles down to 35 K and low-output-power rotating operation was achieved up to 720 rpm in the test machine with eight field-pole bulks. The present results show a substantial basis for making a prototype system of rotating machinery of applied HTS bulks.

  4. Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, M; Felder, B; Tsuzuki, K; Xu, Y; Deng, Z; Izumi, M [Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Hayakawa, H [Kitano Seiki Co. Ltd, 7-17-3, Chuo, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0024 (Japan); Morita, M; Teshima, H, E-mail: d082025@kaiyodai.ac.j [Nippon Steel Co. Ltd, 20-1, Shintomi, Huttsu-shi, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as a suitable cryogen for the operation of HTS rotating machines with field poles composed of RE-Ba-Cu-O family materials, where RE is a rare-earth metal. Regarding the materials processing of the bulks HTS, thanks to the addition of magnetic particles to GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-d} (Gd123) bulk superconductors an increase of more than 20% in the trapped magnetic flux density was achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature. Field-pole Gd123 bulks up to 46 mm in diameter were synthesized with the addition of Fe-B alloy magnetic particles and assembled into the synchronous machine rotor to be tested. Successful cooling of the magnetized rotor field poles down to 35 K and low-output-power rotating operation was achieved up to 720 rpm in the test machine with eight field-pole bulks. The present results show a substantial basis for making a prototype system of rotating machinery of applied HTS bulks.

  5. Effect of different bulking agents on water variation and thermal balance and their respective contribution to bio-generated heat during long-term storage sludge biodrying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Cui, Chongwei; He, Junguo; Tang, Jian

    2018-04-17

    Biodrying was first used for the post-treatment of long-term storage sludge with vinasse as bulking agents. The effect of different bulking agents on water and heat variation and their respective contributions to bio-generated heat during storage sludge biodrying were investigated. Three different bulking agents (beer lees and distillers grains, with conventional straw used for comparison) were mixed with storage sludge for biodrying for an 18-day period. The results revealed the treatment with beer lees as bulking agent achieved the best performance with the highest water removal capacity (658 g kg -1 initial water). The extent of organic degradation in the mixture was related to the degradation ability of the bulking agents. The degradation of C- and H-containing materials (e.g., carboxylic acid) accounted for volatile solids (VS) loss. Water and thermal analyses showed that evaporation was the main way of water loss (accounting for 90%), while evaporation heat was the main component of heat consumption (accounting for 56.67-60.62%).The biodegradation of bulking agents contributed a high proportion of the bio-generated heat consumed by water evaporation (82.35-86.67%).

  6. Universal decoherence in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M

    2004-03-26

    Symmetry implications for the decoherence of quantum oscillations of a two-state system in a solid are studied. When the oscillation frequency is small compared to the Debye frequency, the universal lower bound on the decoherence due to the atomic environment is derived in terms of the macroscopic parameters of the solid, with no unknown interaction constants.

  7. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  8. Process parameters, orientation, and functional properties of melt-processed bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharchenko, I.V.; Terryll, K.M.; Rao, K.V.; Balachandran, U.

    1995-03-01

    This study compared the microstructure, texturing, and functional properties (critical currents) of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x -based bulk pellets that were prepared by the quench-melt-growth-process (QMGP), melt-textured growth (MTG), and conventional solid-state reaction (SSR) approaches. Using two X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods, θ-2θ, and rocking curves, the authors found that the individual grains of two melt-processed pellets exhibited remarkable preferred orientational alignment (best rocking curve width = 3.2 degree). However, the direction of the preferred orientation among the grains was random. Among the three types of bulk materials studied, the QMGP sample was found to have the best J c values, ∼ 4,500 A/cm 2 at 77 K in a field of 2 kG, as determined from SQUID magnetic data

  9. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo Studies of Bulk and Few- or Single-Layer Black Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulenburger, Luke; Baczewski, Andrew; Zhu, Zhen; Guan, Jie; Tomanek, David

    2015-03-01

    The electronic and optical properties of phosphorus depend strongly on the structural properties of the material. Given the limited experimental information on the structure of phosphorene, it is natural to turn to electronic structure calculations to provide this information. Unfortunately, given phosphorus' propensity to form layered structures bound by van der Waals interactions, standard density functional theory methods provide results of uncertain accuracy. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods achieve high accuracy when applied to solids in which van der Waals forces play a significant role. In this talk, we will present QMC results from our recent calculations on black phosphorus, focusing on the structural and energetic properties of monolayers, bilayers and bulk structures. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Microstructural and bulk property changes in hardened cement paste during the first drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Ippei, E-mail: ippei@dali.nuac.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, ES Building, No. 546, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464–8603 (Japan); Nishioka, Yukiko; Igarashi, Go [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, ES Building, No. 539, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464–8603 (Japan); Matsui, Kunio [Products and Marketing Development Dept. Asahi-KASEI Construction Materials Corporation, 106 Someya, Sakai-machi, Sashima-gun, Ibaraki, 306–0493 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports the microstructural changes and resultant bulk physical property changes in hardened cement paste (hcp) during the first desorption process. The microstructural changes and solid-phase changes were evaluated by water vapor sorption, nitrogen sorption, ultrasonic velocity, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance. Strength, Young's modulus, and drying shrinkage were also examined. The first drying process increased the volume of macropores and decreased the volume of mesopores and interlayer spaces. Furthermore, in the first drying process globule clusters were interconnected. During the first desorption, the strength increased for samples cured at 100% to 90% RH, decreased for 90% to 40% RH, and increased again for 40% to 11% RH. This behavior is explained by both microstructural changes in hcp and C–S–H globule densification. The drying shrinkage strains during rapid drying and slow drying were compared and the effects of the microstructural changes and evaporation were separated.

  12. Bulk and Thin film Properties of Nanoparticle-based Ionic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jason

    2008-03-01

    Nanoparticle-based ionic materials (NIMS) offer exciting opportunities for research at the forefront of science and engineering. NIMS are hybrid particles comprised of a charged oligomeric corona attached to hard, inorganic nanoparticle cores. Because of their hybrid nature, physical properties --rheological, optical, electrical, thermal - of NIMS can be tailored over an unusually wide range by varying geometric and chemical characteristics of the core and canopy and thermodynamic variables such as temperature and volume fraction. On one end of the spectrum are materials with a high core content, which display properties similar to crystalline solids, stiff waxes, and gels. At the opposite extreme are systems that spontaneously form particle-based fluids characterized by transport properties remarkably similar to simple liquids. In this poster I will present our efforts to synthesize NIMS and discuss their bulk and surface properties. In particular I will discuss our work on preparing smart surfaces using NIMS.

  13. Dangers of releasing CO₂ to fight fires in the cargo hold of seagoing bulk carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Jarleivson Hilduberg, Øssur

    the application of CO₂ to deep-seated fires involving solids subject to smoldering, but without identifying or alerting the reader to the potential presence of explosive pyrolysis gases. NFPA 12 appears to presume that electrostatic discharges will dissipate safety if metal nozzles are used and the entire system......On seagoing general cargo vessels, the cargo is stored in bulk in the holds. Fire protection for cargo holds comprises detection and firefighting capability. Detection normally incorporates a smoke sampling system that continuously draws air from each cargo hold and passes it to a smoke detector...... cabinet. The fire can be fought by flooding the cargo hold with inert carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is stored in its liquid form at pressures in excess of 50 bar and kept in multiple vertical steel cylinders arranged in a battery. For firefighting to be effective, SOLAS regulations require...

  14. Anomalous edge states and the bulk-edge correspondence for periodically-driven two dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudner, Mark Spencer; Lindner, Netanel; Berg, Erez

    2013-01-01

    revealed phenomena that cannot be characterized by analogy to the topological classification framework for static systems. In particular, in driven systems in two dimensions (2D), robust chiral edge states can appear even though the Chern numbers of all the bulk Floquet bands are zero. Here, we elucidate...... the crucial distinctions between static and driven 2D systems, and construct a new topological invariant that yields the correct edge-state structure in the driven case. We provide formulations in both the time and frequency domains, which afford additional insight into the origins of the “anomalous” spectra...... that arise in driven systems. Possibilities for realizing these phenomena in solid-state and cold-atomic systems are discussed....

  15. Reentrant spin glass ordering in an Fe-based bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Qiang; Shen, Jun, E-mail: junshen@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2015-02-07

    We report the results of the complex susceptibility, temperature, and field dependence of DC magnetization and the nonequilibrium dynamics of a bulk metallic glass Fe{sub 40}Co{sub 8}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}Er{sub 2}. Solid indication of the coexistence of reentrant spin glass (SG) and ferromagnetic orderings is determined from both DC magnetization and AC susceptibility under different DC fields. Dynamics scaling of AC susceptibility indicates critical slowing down to a reentrant SG state with a static transition temperature T{sub s} = ∼17.8 K and a dynamic exponent zv = ∼7.3. The SG nature is further corroborated from chaos and memory effects, magnetic hysteresis, and aging behavior. We discuss the results in terms of the competition among random magnetic anisotropy and exchange interactions and compare them with simulation predictions.

  16. Photocatalysis with chromium-doped TiO2: Bulk and surface doping

    KAUST Repository

    Ould-Chikh, Samy

    2014-04-15

    The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 modified by chromium are usually found to depend strongly on the preparation method. To clarify this problem, two series of chromium-doped titania with a chromium content of up to 1.56 wt % have been prepared under hydrothermal conditions: the first series (Cr:TiO2) is intended to dope the bulk of TiO2, whereas the second series (Cr/TiO2) is intended to load the surface of TiO2 with Cr. The catalytic properties have been compared in the photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid. Characterization data provides evidence that in the Cr/TiO2 catalysts chromium is located on the surface of TiO2 as amorphous CrOOH clusters. In contrast, in the Cr:TiO 2 series, chromium is mostly dissolved in the titania lattice, although a minor part is still present on the surface. Photocatalytic tests show that both series of chromium-doped titania demonstrate visible-light-driven photo-oxidation activity. Surface-doped Cr/TiO2 solids appear to be more efficient photocatalysts than the bulk-doped Cr:TiO2 counterparts. It\\'s classified! The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 modified by chromium depend strongly on the preparation method. To clarify this problem, two types of modified titania are discussed: one with CrIII doped in the bulk and one with CrOOH clusters on the TiO2 surface (see picture). Both series show visible-light-driven photo-oxidation activity. However, surface modification appears to be a more efficient strategy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Flexible thermoelectric generator using bulk legs and liquid metal interconnects for wearable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Francisco; Parekh, Dishit P.; Ladd, Collin; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Dickey, Michael D.; Öztürk, Mehmet C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Flexible thermoelectric generator (TEG) with bulk legs. •Flexible thermoelectric generator with liquid metal interconnects. •Flexible TEG with potential to match the performance of rigid TEGs. •Flexible TEG for wearable electronics. -- Abstract: Interest in wearable electronics for continuous, long-term health and performance monitoring is rapidly increasing. The reduction in power levels consumed by sensors and electronic circuits accompanied by the advances in energy harvesting methods allows for the realization of self-powered monitoring systems that do not have to rely on batteries. For wearable electronics, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) offer the unique ability to continuously convert body heat into usable energy. For body harvesting, it is preferable to have TEGs that are thin, soft and flexible. Unfortunately, the performances of flexible modules reported to date have been far behind those of their rigid counterparts. This is largely due to lower efficiencies of the thermoelectric materials, electrical or thermal parasitic losses and limitations on leg dimensions posed by the synthesis techniques. In this work, we present an entirely new approach and explore the possibility of using standard bulk legs in a flexible package. Bulk thermoelectric legs cut from solid ingots are far superior to thermoelectric materials synthesized using other techniques. A key enabler of the proposed technology is the use of EGaIn liquid metal interconnects, which not only provide extremely low interconnect resistance but also stretchability with self-healing, both of which are essential for flexible TE modules. The results suggest that this novel approach can finally produce flexible TEGs that have the potential to challenge the rigid TEGs and provide a pathway for the realization of self-powered wearable electronics.

  18. Weak ferromagnetic component on the bulk ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, C.B.R. [Departamento de Física, Campus prof. Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Mendonça, E.C. [Departamento de Física, Campus prof. Alberto Carvalho, UFS, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Silva, L.S. [Departamento de Física, Campus prof. Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Folly, W.S.D.; Meneses, C.T. [Departamento de Física, Campus prof. Alberto Carvalho, UFS, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Duque, J.G.S., E-mail: gerivaldoduque@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Campus prof. Alberto Carvalho, UFS, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Magnetization data on the bulk ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} antiferromagnetic compound (T{sub N}≈10 K) obtained via solid state reaction at different synthesis temperatures show one weak ferromagnetic component at room temperature. We have related it with the cationic disorder effect present on spinel structure of our bulk samples which comes from the magnetic interaction between iron ions sit on both octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The magnetization measurements show to all samples a clear peak around 10 K consistent with the antiferromagnetic phase transition. On the other hand, after extracted the paramagnetic component, the hysteresis loops measured at room temperature display one weak ferromagnetic component. Once the T-dependence of magnetization does not fit to a Curie–Weiss law to temperatures well above the magnetic transition we have used a combination of the Curie–Weiss law (paramagnetic spins) and a typical temperature dependence of M{sub 0}, M{sub 0}(T)=M{sub 0}(0)[1−(T/T{sub C}){sup 2}]{sup 0.5} (ordered ferromagnetic spins). We note an increase of the M{sub 0}(0) as function of the synthesis temperature. This reinforce our supposition of a cationic disorder effect driving the system to present two kinds of magnetic interactions between iron ions on A and B sites. - Highlights: • Study of the cationic disorder at bulk ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} compound. • Structural and magnetization characterization. • The observation of two magnetic phases.

  19. Unified bulk-boundary correspondence for band insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jun-Won; Bardarson, Jens H.; Slager, Robert-Jan

    2018-03-01

    The bulk-boundary correspondence, a topic of intensive research interest over the past decades, is one of the quintessential ideas in the physics of topological quantum matter. Nevertheless, it has not been proven in all generality and has in certain scenarios even been shown to fail, depending on the boundary profiles of the terminated system. Here, we introduce bulk numbers that capture the exact number of in-gap modes, without any such subtleties in one spatial dimension. Similarly, based on these 1D bulk numbers, we define a new 2D winding number, which we call the pole winding number, that specifies the number of robust metallic surface bands in the gap as well as their topological character. The underlying general methodology relies on a simple continuous extrapolation from the bulk to the boundary, while tracking the evolution of Green's function's poles in the vicinity of the bulk band edges. As a main result we find that all the obtained numbers can be applied to the known insulating phases in a unified manner regardless of the specific symmetries. Additionally, from a computational point of view, these numbers can be effectively evaluated without any gauge fixing problems. In particular, we directly apply our bulk-boundary correspondence construction to various systems, including 1D examples without a traditional bulk-boundary correspondence, and predict the existence of boundary modes on various experimentally studied graphene edges, such as open boundaries and grain boundaries. Finally, we sketch the 3D generalization of the pole winding number by in the context of topological insulators.

  20. New solid-state effects used in neutron detection and dosimetry. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Hahn, G.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given of radiation effects on solids and their usability for personnel neutron dosimetry. Part 1 covers mechanical effects on the crystal lattice of solids (dislocations in copper foils and changes in the bulk modulus, unclear effects in quartz connected with changes in the oscillation frequency), thermal effects of metals embedded in type I superconductors (superheated colloid detectors) or other materials (superheated drop detectors)

  1. Evaluation of alternative methods of simulating asymmetric bulk heating in fusion reactor blanket/shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Wadkins, R.P.; Wessol, D.E.

    1981-10-01

    As a part of Phase O, Test Program Element-II of the Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program, a study was conducted by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to identify, characterize, and recommend alternative approaches for simulating fusion bulk heating in blanket/shield components. This is the report on that effort. Since the usefulness of any simulation approach depends upon the particular experiment considered, classes of problem types (thermal-hydraulic, thermomechanical, etc.) and material types (structure, solid breeder, etc.) are developed. The evaluation of the various simulation approaches is performed for the various significant combinations of problem class and material class. The simulation approaches considered are discrete-source heating, direct resistance, electromagnetic induction, microwave heating, and nuclear heating. From the evaluations performed for each experiment type, discrete - source heating emerges as a good approach for bulk heating simulation in thermal - hydraulics experiments, and nuclear heating appears to be a good approach in experiments addressing thermomechanics and combined thermal-hydraulic/thermomechanics

  2. Bulk and surface properties of magnesium peroxide MgO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobit R.; Bredow, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium peroxide has been identified in Mg/air batteries as an intermediate in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) [1]. It is assumed that MgO2 is involved in the solid-electrolyte interphase on the cathode surface. Therefore its structure and stability play a crucial role in the performance of Mg/air batteries. In this work we present a theoretical study of the bulk and low-index surface properties of MgO2. All methods give a good account of the experimental lattice parameters for MgO2 and MgO bulk. The reaction energies, enthalpies and free energies for MgO2 formation from MgO are compared among the different DFT methods and with the local MP2 method. A pronounced dependence from the applied functional is found. At variance with a previous theoretical study but in agreement with recent experiments we find that the MgO2 formation reaction is endothermic (HSE06-D3BJ: ΔH = 51.9 kJ/mol). The stability of low-index surfaces MgO2 (001) (Es = 0.96 J/m2) and (011) (Es = 1.98 J/m2) is calculated and compared to the surface energy of MgO (001). The formation energy of neutral oxygen vacancies in the topmost layer of the MgO2 (001) surface is calculated and compared with defect formation energies for MgO (001).

  3. Preparation of gold microparticles using halide ions in bulk block copolymer phases via photoreduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2009-01-01

    Gold microparticles were prepared from the gold salt in the solid bulk phase of a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer via a photoreduction process in the presence of halide ions. The shapes and sizes of the gold microparticles were found to be dependent on the types and amount of halide ions as well as the types of cations used due to the combined effects of the adsorption power and oxidative dissolution ability of the additives on gold surfaces. Gold nanorods were obtained when poly(ethylene oxide) was used instead of the block copolymer. This suggests that the poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) parts in the block copolymer are essential for the formation of gold microparticles, even though the degree of the direct interaction between the PPO blocks and gold salt is not significant. - Graphical abstract: Gold microparticles were successfully prepared using halide ions as additives in the polymeric bulk phase via photoreduction with the glow lamp irradiation.

  4. Iterative absolute electroanalytical approach to characterization of bulk redox conducting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewera, Adam; Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Chojak, Malgorzata; Makowski, Oktawian; Golimowski, Jerzy; Kulesza, Pawel J

    2004-05-15

    A novel electroanalytical approach is proposed here, and it is demonstrated with the direct and simultaneous determination of two unknowns: the concentration of redox sites and the apparent diffusion coefficient for charge propagation in a single crystal of dodecatungstophosphoric acid. This Keggin-type polyoxometalate serves as a model bulk redox conducting inorganic material for solid-state voltammetry. The system has been investigated using an ultramicrodisk working electrode in the absence of external liquid supporting electrolyte. The analytical method requires numerical solution of the combination of two equations in which the first one describes current (or charge) in a well-defined (either spherical or linear) diffusional regime and the second general equation describes chronoamperometric (or normal pulse voltammetric current) under mixed (linear-spherical) conditions. The iterative approach is based on successive approximations through calculation and minimizing the least-squares error function. The method is fairly universal, and in principle, it can be extended to the investigation of other bulk systems including sol-gel processed materials, redox melts, and solutions on condition that they are electroactive and well behaved, they contain redox centers at sufficiently high level, and a number of electrons for the redox reaction considered is known.

  5. Hygroscopicity and bulk thermal expansion in Y2W3O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumithra, S.; Umarji, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Negative thermal expansion material, Y 2 W 3 O 12 has been synthesized by the solid-state method and bulk thermal expansion of the material has been investigated from 300 to 1100 K. The material reversibly forms a trihydrate composition whose X-ray diffraction pattern can be indexed to an orthorhombic unit cell with a = 10.098(1) A, b = 13.315(3) A, c = 9.691(4) A. The cell volume of the hydrated pattern is 7% smaller than the unhydrated cell volume. According to the dilatometric studies, the material shows a 3-6% increase in the linear strain at about 400 K, which can be attributed to the removal of water. Sintering the material at 1473 K leads to large grain size of >100 μm, which results in a large hysteresis in the bulk thermal expansion behavior. Hot pressing at 1273 K under a uniaxial pressure of 25 MPa results in a fine-grained (2-5 μm) ceramic. Glazing the ceramic prevents moisture pick up and a linear thermal expansion over the entire temperature range 1100-300 K and an average linear thermal expansion co-efficient of -9.65 x 10 -6 /K is observed. The effect of water on the thermal expansion behavior of this system is discussed

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of zinc oxide solubility: From bulk down to nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escorihuela, Laura; Fernández, Alberto; Rallo, Robert; Martorell, Benjamí

    2018-02-01

    The solubility of metal oxides is one of the key descriptors for the evaluation of their potential toxic effects, both in the bulk form and in nanoparticulated aggregates. Current work presents a new methodology for the in silico assessment of the solubility of metal oxides, which is demonstrated using a well-studied system, ZnO. The calculation of the solubility is based on statistical thermodynamics tools combined with Density Functional Tight Binding theory for the evaluation of the free energy exchange during the dissolution process. Models of small ZnO clusters are used for describing the final dissolved material, since the complete ionic dissolution of ZnO is hindered by the formation of O2- anions in solution, which are highly unstable. Results show very good agreement between the computed solubility values and experimental data for ZnO bulk, up to 0.5 mg·L-1 and equivalents of 50 g·L-1 for the free Zn2+ cation in solution. However, the reference model for solid nanoparticles formed by free space nanoparticles can only give a limited quantitative solubility evaluation for ZnO nanoparticles.

  7. Formation, structure, and evolution of boiling nucleus and interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Peng, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Yong; Wang, Bu-Xuan

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, the concept of the molecular free path is introduced to derive a criterion distinguishing active molecules from inactive molecules in liquid phase. A concept of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of active molecules is proposed to describe the physical configuration before the formation of a nucleus during vapor-liquid phase transition. All active molecules exist as monomers when the concentration of active molecules is lower than CAC, while the active molecules will generate aggregation once the concentration of the active molecules reaches CAC. However, these aggregates with aggregation number, N, smaller than five can steadily exist in bulk phase. The other excess active molecules can only produce infinite aggregation and form a critical nucleus of vapor-liquid phase transition. Without any outer perturbation the state point of CAC corresponds to the critical superheated or supercooled state. Meanwhile, a model of two-region structure of a nucleus is proposed to describe nucleus evolution. The interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus is dependent of the density gradient in the transition region and varies with the structure change of the transition region. With the interfacial tension calculated using this model, the predicted nucleation rate is very close to the experimental measurement. Furthermore, this model and associated analysis provides solid theoretical evidences to clarify the definition of nucleation rate and understand nucleation phenomenon with the insight into the physical nature.

  8. Influence of isotopic disorder on solid state amorphization and polyamorphism in solid H2O -D2O solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromnitskaya, E. L.; Danilov, I. V.; Lyapin, A. G.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a low-temperature and high-pressure ultrasonic study of elastic properties of isotopic H2O-D2O solid solutions, comparing their properties with those of the isotopically pure H2O and D2O ices. Measurements were carried out for solid state amorphization (SSA) from 1h to high-density amorphous (HDA) ice upon compression up to 1.8 GPa at 77 K and for the temperature-induced (77 -190 K ) u-HDA (unrelaxed HDA) → e-HDA (expanded HDA) → low-density amorphous (LDA )→1 c cascade of ice transformations near room pressure. There are many similarities in the elasticity behaviour of H2O ,D2O , and H2O-D2O solid solutions, including the softening of the shear elastic modulus as a precursor of SSA and the HDA →LDA transition. We have found significant isotopic effects during H/D substitution, including elastic softening of H2O -D2O solid solutions with respect to the isotopically pure ices in the case of the bulk moduli of ices 1c and 1h and for both bulk and shear elastic moduli of HDA ice at high pressures (>1 GPa ) . This softening is related to the configurational isotopic disorder in the solid solutions. At low pressures, the isotope concentration dependence of the elastic moduli of u-HDA ice changes remarkably and becomes monotonic with pronounced change of the bulk modulus (≈20 %) .

  9. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  10. Linking high harmonics from gases and solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vampa, G; Hammond, T J; Thiré, N; Schmidt, B E; Légaré, F; McDonald, C R; Brabec, T; Corkum, P B

    2015-06-25

    When intense light interacts with an atomic gas, recollision between an ionizing electron and its parent ion creates high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser frequency. This sub-cycle effect generates coherent soft X-rays and attosecond pulses, and provides a means to image molecular orbitals. Recently, high harmonics have been generated from bulk crystals, but what mechanism dominates the emission remains uncertain. To resolve this issue, we adapt measurement methods from gas-phase research to solid zinc oxide driven by mid-infrared laser fields of 0.25 volts per ångström. We find that when we alter the generation process with a second-harmonic beam, the modified harmonic spectrum bears the signature of a generalized recollision between an electron and its associated hole. In addition, we find that solid-state high harmonics are perturbed by fields so weak that they are present in conventional electronic circuits, thus opening a route to integrate electronics with attosecond and high-harmonic technology. Future experiments will permit the band structure of a solid to be tomographically reconstructed.

  11. Dependence of Exciton Diffusion Length and Diffusion Coefficient on Photophysical Parameters in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Douglas; Singh, Jai

    2017-11-01

    Recently, the dependence of exciton diffusion length (LD ) on some photophysical parameters of organic solids has been experimentally demonstrated, however no systematic theoretical analysis of this phenomenon has been carried out. We have conducted a theoretical study by using the Förster resonance energy transfer and Dexter carrier transfer mechanisms together with the Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion equation to derive analytical models for the diffusion lengths (LD ) and diffusion coefficients (D) of singlet (S) and triplet (T) excitons in organic solids as functions of spectral overlap integral (J) , photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (φD ) , dipole moment (μT ) and refractive index (n) of the photoactive material. The exciton diffusion lengths and diffusion coefficients in some selected organic solids were calculated, and we found that the singlet exciton diffusion length (LDS ) increases with φD and J, and decreases with n. Also, the triplet exciton diffusion length (LDT ) increases with φD and decreases with μT . These may be achieved through doping the organic solids into broad optical energy gap host materials as observed in previous experiments. The calculated exciton diffusion lengths are compared with experimental values and a reasonably good agreement is found between them. The results presented are expected to provide insight relevant to the synthesis of new organic solids for fabrication of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells characterized by better power conversion efficiency.

  12. Longitudinal and bulk viscosities of Lennard-Jones fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankeshwar, K.; Pathak, K. N.; Ranganathan, S.

    1996-12-01

    Expressions for the longitudinal and bulk viscosities have been derived using Green Kubo formulae involving the time integral of the longitudinal and bulk stress autocorrelation functions. The time evolution of stress autocorrelation functions are determined using the Mori formalism and a memory function which is obtained from the Mori equation of motion. The memory function is of hyperbolic secant form and involves two parameters which are related to the microscopic sum rules of the respective autocorrelation function. We have derived expressions for the zeroth-, second-and fourth- order sum rules of the longitudinal and bulk stress autocorrelation functions. These involve static correlation functions up to four particles. The final expressions for these have been put in a form suitable for numerical calculations using low- order decoupling approximations. The numerical results have been obtained for the sum rules of longitudinal and bulk stress autocorrelation functions. These have been used to calculate the longitudinal and bulk viscosities and time evolution of the longitudinal stress autocorrelation function of the Lennard-Jones fluids over wide ranges of densities and temperatures. We have compared our results with the available computer simulation data and found reasonable agreement.

  13. Evaluation and remediation of bulk soap dispensers for biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Lindsey A; Ramsay, Bradley D; Goeres, Darla M; Fields, Matthew W; Zapka, Carrie A; Macinga, David R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating bulk soap in public restroom soap dispensers have demonstrated up to 25% of open refillable bulk-soap dispensers were contaminated with ~ 6 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, plastic counter-mounted, plastic wall-mounted and stainless steel wall-mounted dispensers were analyzed for suspended and biofilm bacteria using total cell and viable plate counts. Independent of dispenser type or construction material, the bulk soap was contaminated with 4-7 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) bacteria, while 4-6 log(10)(CFU cm(-2)) biofilm bacteria were isolated from the inside surfaces of the dispensers (n = 6). Dispenser remediation studies, including a 10 min soak with 5000 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite, were then conducted to determine the efficacy of cleaning and disinfectant procedures against established biofilms. The testing showed that contamination of the bulk soap returned to pre-test levels within 7-14 days. These results demonstrate biofilm is present in contaminated bulk-soap dispensers and remediation studies to clean and sanitize the dispensers are temporary.

  14. Development of a superconducting bulk magnet for NMR and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Tamada, Daiki; Yanagi, Yousuke; Itoh, Yoshitaka; Nemoto, Takahiro; Utumi, Hiroaki; Kose, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    A superconducting bulk magnet composed of six vertically stacked annular single-domain c-axis-oriented Eu-Ba-Cu-O crystals was energized to 4.74 T using a conventional superconducting magnet for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Shim coils, gradient coils, and radio frequency coils for high resolution NMR and MRI were installed in the 23 mm-diameter room-temperature bore of the bulk magnet. A 6.9 ppm peak-to-peak homogeneous region suitable for MRI was achieved in the central cylindrical region (6.2 mm diameter, 9.1 mm length) of the bulk magnet by using a single layer shim coil. A 21 Hz spectral resolution that can be used for high resolution NMR spectroscopy was obtained in the central cylindrical region (1.3 mm diameter, 4 mm length) of the bulk magnet by using a multichannel shim coil. A clear 3D MR image dataset of a chemically fixed mouse fetus with (50 μm)(3) voxel resolution was obtained in 5.5 h. We therefore concluded that the cryogen-free superconducting bulk magnet developed in this study is useful for high-resolution desktop NMR, MRI and mobile NMR device. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  16. Mass production of bulk artificial nacre with excellent mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huai-Ling; Chen, Si-Ming; Mao, Li-Bo; Song, Zhao-Qiang; Yao, Hong-Bin; Cölfen, Helmut; Luo, Xi-Sheng; Zhang, Fu; Pan, Zhao; Meng, Yu-Feng; Ni, Yong; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2017-08-18

    Various methods have been exploited to replicate nacre features into artificial structural materials with impressive structural and mechanical similarity. However, it is still very challenging to produce nacre-mimetics in three-dimensional bulk form, especially for further scale-up. Herein, we demonstrate that large-sized, three-dimensional bulk artificial nacre with comprehensive mimicry of the hierarchical structures and the toughening mechanisms of natural nacre can be facilely fabricated via a bottom-up assembly process based on laminating pre-fabricated two-dimensional nacre-mimetic films. By optimizing the hierarchical architecture from molecular level to macroscopic level, the mechanical performance of the artificial nacre is superior to that of natural nacre and many engineering materials. This bottom-up strategy has no size restriction or fundamental barrier for further scale-up, and can be easily extended to other material systems, opening an avenue for mass production of high-performance bulk nacre-mimetic structural materials in an efficient and cost-effective way for practical applications.Artificial materials that replicate the mechanical properties of nacre represent important structural materials, but are difficult to produce in bulk. Here, the authors exploit the bottom-up assembly of 2D nacre-mimetic films to fabricate 3D bulk artificial nacre with an optimized architecture and excellent mechanical properties.

  17. Bulk viscosity, interaction and the viability of phantom solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyva, Yoelsy; Sepulveda, Mirko [Universidad de Tarapaca, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Arica (Chile)

    2017-06-15

    We study the dynamics of a bulk viscosity model in the Eckart approach for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe. We have included radiation and dark energy, assumed as perfect fluids, and dark matter treated as an imperfect fluid having bulk viscosity. We also introduce an interaction term between the dark matter and dark energy components. Considering that the bulk viscosity is proportional to the dark matter energy density and imposing a complete cosmological dynamics, we find bounds on the bulk viscosity in order to reproduce a matter-dominated era (MDE). This constraint is independent of the interaction term. Some late time phantom solutions are mathematically possible. However, the constraint imposed by a MDE restricts the interaction parameter, in the phantom solutions, to a region consistent with a null value, eliminating the possibility of late time stable solutions with w < -1. From the different cases that we study, the only possible scenario, with bulk viscosity and interaction term, belongs to the quintessence region. In the latter case, we find bounds on the interaction parameter compatible with latest observational data. (orig.)

  18. Running with rugby balls: bulk renormalization of codimension-2 branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Burgess, C. P.; van Nierop, L.; Salvio, A.

    2013-01-01

    We compute how one-loop bulk effects renormalize both bulk and brane effective interactions for geometries sourced by codimension-two branes. We do so by explicitly integrating out spin-zero, -half and -one particles in 6-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar theories compactified to 4 dimensions on a flux-stabilized 2D geometry. (Our methods apply equally well for D dimensions compactified to D - 2 dimensions, although our explicit formulae do not capture all divergences when D > 6.) The renormalization of bulk interactions are independent of the boundary conditions assumed at the brane locations, and reproduce standard heat-kernel calculations. Boundary conditions at any particular brane do affect how bulk loops renormalize this brane's effective action, but not the renormalization of other distant branes. Although we explicitly compute our loops using a rugby ball geometry, because we follow only UV effects our results apply more generally to any geometry containing codimension-two sources with conical singularities. Our results have a variety of uses, including calculating the UV sensitivity of one-loop vacuum energy seen by observers localized on the brane. We show how these one-loop effects combine in a surprising way with bulk back-reaction to give the complete low-energy effective cosmological constant, and comment on the relevance of this calculation to proposed applications of codimension-two 6D models to solutions of the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems.

  19. Bulk-edge correspondence in topological transport and pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Fukui, Takahiro; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2018-03-01

    The bulk-edge correspondence (BEC) refers to a one-to-one relation between the bulk and edge properties ubiquitous in topologically nontrivial systems. Depending on the setup, BEC manifests in different forms and govern the spectral and transport properties of topological insulators and semimetals. Although the topological pump is theoretically old, BEC in the pump has been established just recently [1] motivated by the state-of-the-art experiments using cold atoms [2, 3]. The center of mass (CM) of a system with boundaries shows a sequence of quantized jumps in the adiabatic limit associated with the edge states. Despite that the bulk is adiabatic, the edge is inevitably non-adiabatic in the experimental setup or in any numerical simulations. Still the pumped charge is quantized and carried by the bulk. Its quantization is guaranteed by a compensation between the bulk and edges. We show that in the presence of disorder the pumped charge continues to be quantized despite the appearance of non-quantized jumps.

  20. Delocalization of brane gravity by a bulk black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seahra, Sanjeev S; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the analogue of the Randall-Sundrum braneworld in the case when the bulk contains a black hole. Instead of the static vacuum Minkowski brane of the RS model, we have an Einstein static vacuum brane. We find that the presence of the bulk black hole has a dramatic effect on the gravity that is felt by brane observers. In the RS model, the 5D graviton has a stable localized zero mode that reproduces 4D gravity on the brane at low energies. With a bulk black hole, there is no such solution-gravity is delocalized by the 5D horizon. However, the brane does support a discrete spectrum of metastable massive bound states, or quasinormal modes, as was recently shown to be the case in the RS scenario. These states should dominate the high frequency component of the bulk gravity wave spectrum on a cosmological brane. We expect our results to generalize to any bulk spacetime containing a Killing horizon. (letter to the editor)

  1. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Photocarrier dynamics in monolayer phosphorene and bulk black phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zereshki, Peymon; Wei, Yaqing; Ceballos, Frank; Bellus, Matthew Z; Lane, Samuel D; Pan, Shudi; Long, Run; Zhao, Hui

    2018-06-13

    We report a combined theoretical and experimental study on photocarrier dynamics in monolayer phosphorene and bulk black phosphorus. Samples of monolayer phosphorene and bulk black phosphorus were fabricated by mechanical exfoliation, identified according to their reflective contrasts, and protected by covering them with hexagonal boron nitride layers. Photocarrier dynamics in these samples was studied by an ultrafast pump-probe technique. The photocarrier lifetime of monolayer phosphorene was found to be about 700 ps, which is about 9 times longer than that of bulk black phosphorus. This trend was reproduced in our calculations based on ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory in the Kohn-Sham representation, and can be attributed to the smaller bandgap and stronger nonadiabatic coupling in bulk. The transient absorption response was also found to be dependent on the sample orientation with respect to the pump polarization, which is consistent with the previously reported anisotropic absorption of phosphorene. In addition, an oscillating component of the differential reflection signal at early probe delays was observed in the bulk sample and was attributed to the layer-breathing phonon mode with an energy of about 1 meV and a decay time of about 1.35 ps. These results provide valuable information for application of monolayer phosphorene in optoelectronics.

  3. Brane big bang brought on by a bulk bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gen, Uchida; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2002-01-01

    We propose an alternative inflationary universe scenario in the context of Randall-Sundrum braneworld cosmology. In this new scenario the existence of extra dimension(s) plays an essential role. First, the brane universe is initially in the inflationary phase driven by the effective cosmological constant induced by a small mismatch between the vacuum energy in the five-dimensional bulk and the brane tension. This mismatch arises since the bulk is initially in a false vacuum. Then, false vacuum decay occurs, nucleating a true vacuum bubble with negative energy inside the bulk. The nucleated bubble expands in the bulk and consequently hits the brane, causing a hot big-bang brane universe of the Randall-Sundrum type. Here, the termination of the inflationary phase is due to the change of the bulk vacuum energy. The bubble kinetic energy heats up the universe. As a simple realization, we propose a model in which we assume an interaction between the brane and the bubble. We derive the constraints on the model parameters taking into account the following requirements: solving the flatness problem, no force which prohibits the bubble from colliding with the brane, a sufficiently high reheating temperature for the standard nucleosynthesis to work, and the recovery of Newton's law up to 1 mm. We find that a fine-tuning is needed in order to satisfy the first and the second requirements simultaneously, although the other constraints are satisfied in a wide range of the model parameters

  4. Depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.

  5. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Primary energy production from solid biomass (wood, wood waste and other solid vegetal and animal materials) reached 62,4 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2006, i-e 3,1 more than in 2005. The primary energy coming from the direct combustion of renewable origin solid urban waste in incineration unit scan also be added to this figure. In 2006 this represented a production of 5,3 Mtoe, i-e 0,1 Mtoe more than in 2005. (author)

  6. Applications in solid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  7. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  8. Roles of Bulk and Surface Chemistry in the Oxygen Exchange Kinetics and Related Properties of Mixed Conducting Perovskite Oxide Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola H. Perry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mixed conducting perovskite oxides and related structures serving as electrodes for electrochemical oxygen incorporation and evolution in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells, respectively, play a significant role in determining the cell efficiency and lifetime. Desired improvements in catalytic activity for rapid surface oxygen exchange, fast bulk transport (electronic and ionic, and thermo-chemo-mechanical stability of oxygen electrodes will require increased understanding of the impact of both bulk and surface chemistry on these properties. This review highlights selected work at the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER, Kyushu University, set in the context of work in the broader community, aiming to characterize and understand relationships between bulk and surface composition and oxygen electrode performance. Insights into aspects of bulk point defect chemistry, electronic structure, crystal structure, and cation choice that impact carrier concentrations and mobilities, surface exchange kinetics, and chemical expansion coefficients are emerging. At the same time, an understanding of the relationship between bulk and surface chemistry is being developed that may assist design of electrodes with more robust surface chemistries, e.g., impurity tolerance or limited surface segregation. Ion scattering techniques (e.g., secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, or low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, LEIS with high surface sensitivity and increasing lateral resolution are proving useful for measuring surface exchange kinetics, diffusivity, and corresponding outer monolayer chemistry of electrodes exposed to typical operating conditions. Beyond consideration of chemical composition, the use of strain and/or a high density of active interfaces also show promise for enhancing performance.

  9. STUDY ON BIODEGRADATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN BULK IN THE REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodecontaminare methods are based on biodegradation in the subsurface presence of microorganisms capable of degrading most of carbonaceous organic pollutants and much of inorganic pollutants. Biodegradation in bulk meet that principle biological decontamination several ways. These methods are intended solely for solids, and is often used for on-site remediation of soils contaminated with organic products. Station bioremediation ensure reducing the harmfulness of residues from oil exploitation activities considered hazardous, using a bioremediation process. Bioremediation process will lead to reduction of oil content and thus reducing the hazard of waste.

  10. Efficient Bulk Operations on Dynamic R-Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Hinrichs, Klaus; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2002-01-01

    In recent years there has been an upsurge of interest in spatial databases. A major issue is how to manipulate efficiently massive amounts of spatial data stored on disk in multidimensional spatial indexes (data structures). Construction of spatial indexes (bulk loading ) has been studied...... intensively in the database community. The continuous arrival of massive amounts of new data makes it important to update existing indexes (bulk updating ) efficiently. In this paper we present a simple, yet efficient, technique for performing bulk update and query operations on multidimensional indexes. We...... present our technique in terms of the so-called R-tree and its variants, as they have emerged as practically efficient indexing methods for spatial data. Our method uses ideas from the buffer tree lazy buffering technique and fully utilizes the available internal memory and the page size of the operating...

  11. Preparation of bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng [Los Alamos, NM; He, Duanwei [Sichuan, CN

    2011-05-10

    Bulk, superhard, B--C--N nanocomposite compacts were prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture at a pressure in a range of from about 15 GPa to about 25 GPa, and sintering the pressurized encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a temperature in a range of from about 1800-2500 K. The product bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compacts were well sintered compacts with nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B--C--N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compacts had a measured Vicker's hardness in a range of from about 41 GPa to about 68 GPa.

  12. On-line and bulk analysis for the resource industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.S.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.; Madsen, I.C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are the basis of many CSIRO on-line and bulk analysis systems that are now widely used in the mineral and energy industries. The continuous analysis and rapid response of these systems have led to improved control of mining, processing and blending operations. This paper reviews recent developments in neutron, gamma-ray and X-ray techniques for on-line and bulk analysis by CSIRO Minerals including neutron techniques for the on-conveyor belt determination of the composition of cement raw meal, the on-line analysis of composition in pyrometallurgical applications, the on-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal, and the rapid and accurate determination of gold in bulk laboratory samples. The paper also discusses a new gamma-ray technique for the on-line determination of ash in coal and the application of X-ray diffraction techniques for the on-line determination of mineralogy in the cement industry

  13. Polish model of electric energy market-bulk energy tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malysa, H.

    1994-01-01

    The key problem of electric energy supply industry reform is gradually launching a competitive wholesale generation market since 1994. In process of this transformation the important role plays bulk energy supply tariff in electricity transactions between Polish Power Grid Company and distribution and retail supply companies (distributors). Premises, factors and constrains having influence on shaping of the bulk energy supply tariff are presented. A brief outline of economic foundation for calculation of demand charges and energy rate is given. Particular attention has been paid to description of bulk energy supply tariff structure. The scope and manner of adjustment of this tariff to circumstances and constrains in the initial stage of the wholesale electric energy market have been described as well. (author). 8 refs

  14. Palladium diffusion into bulk copper via the (100) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, E; Kellogg, G L [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Sun, J; Pohl, K [Department of Physics and Materials Science Program, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2009-08-05

    Using low-energy electron microscopy, we measure the diffusion of Pd into bulk Cu at the Cu(100) surface. Interdiffusion is tracked by measuring the dissolution of the Cu(100)-c(2 x 2)-Pd surface alloy during annealing (T>240 deg. C). The activation barrier for Pd diffusion from the surface alloy into the bulk is determined to be (1.8 +- 0.6) eV. During annealing, we observe the growth of a new layer of Cu near step edges. Under this new Cu layer, dilute Pd remaining near the surface develops a layered structure similar to the Cu{sub 3}Pd L 1{sub 2} bulk alloy phase.

  15. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  16. Sheared solid materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic ... We expect that m is a key order parameter for amorphous solids or glasses. .... It satisfies the mechanical equilibrium condition and can be calculated ...

  17. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  18. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  19. Temperature measurement of RE123 bulk superconductors on magnetizing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, K.; Kaneyama, M.; Oka, T.; Fujishiro, H.; Noto, K.

    2004-01-01

    We study on the magnetization behavior of to magnetize RE123 bulk superconductors to apply it as strong magnets. Through magnetizing process, the temperature of bulk superconductors is raised by pinning loss caused by the magnetic fluxes motion (e.g. flux jump of flux flow), and the trapped field is decreased. This paper presents the measurement of temperature changes of Sm123 bulk superconductors during the exciting process by iteratively magnetizing pulsed-field operation with reducing amplitudes (IMRA) method. Five thermocouples are put on the surface of Sm123 bulk superconductor of 46 mm in diameter. The temperatures at the center, on the growth sector boundary (GSB) line and in the sector region surrounded by GSB's line (inter-GSB region) are monitored. The temperature at a cold stage is also measured. A Hall sensor is attached near the center thermocouple to measure the trapped field. After a bulk superconductor is cooled by the GM type refrigerator until 40 K, iterative pulsed-fields of 2.32-5.42 T are applied by a magnetizing coil. When high magnetic field of 5.42 T is applied, a temperature of bulk superconductor reaches to 72.4 K and the magnetic field distribution has C form with which a part of circle is dented, and then, a trapped field is 2.28 T. When a lower magnetic field of 4.64 T is applied, a maximum temperature is 68.3 K and a trapped field is raised to 2.70 T, and moreover, the distribution becomes round shape like field-cooling method (FC). We showed clearly that heat generation by pinning loss was related to the mechanism of magnetic field capture

  20. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems. ► Multi-seeded YBCO bulks joint the way for large-scale application. ► Levitation platforms demonstrate “superconductivity” to a great public audience (100 years anniversary). ► HTS magnetic bearings show forces up to 1 t. ► Modular HTS maglev vacuum cryostats are tested for train demonstrators in Brazil, China and Germany. -- Abstract: ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN 2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500–3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN 2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved

  1. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werfel, Frank N., E-mail: werfel@t-online.de [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany); Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems. ► Multi-seeded YBCO bulks joint the way for large-scale application. ► Levitation platforms demonstrate “superconductivity” to a great public audience (100 years anniversary). ► HTS magnetic bearings show forces up to 1 t. ► Modular HTS maglev vacuum cryostats are tested for train demonstrators in Brazil, China and Germany. -- Abstract: ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN{sub 2} and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500–3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN{sub 2} allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  2. Bulk material engineering and procurement management of NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Sanhong; Fan Kai

    2005-01-01

    In a nuclear power project, bulk material is often not in an outstanding position, compared to equipment, yet bulk material is one of most difficult part in engineering and procurement management. If the schedule is not in good control, it will seriously hamper the progress of the whole project. The article explores bulk material engineering and procurement management of NPS, illustrated with tables and graphs. First, major difficult aspects of bulk material procurement are described. On one hand, bulk material is really bulky in kind. We must have detail information of manufacturers, manufacture duration, and take good control of bidding schedule. On the other hand, when an order is placed, we need to make clear everything in the procurement package, such as material types, delivery batches, quantity of each batch and delivery schedule, which is a tremendous work. Then, a schedule conflict is analyzed: when an order is placed, the detail type and quantity cannot be defined (since the construction design is not finished yet). To settle this conflict, the concept 'Requirement Schedule Curve' is brought forward, along with the calculation method. To get this curve, we need to make use of the technical data of the reference power station, along with the site construction schedule, to produce a site quantity requirement curve varying from time, for each type of material. Last, based on the 'Requirement Schedule Curve', we are able to build a unified database to control the engineering, procurement, manufacturing and delivery schedule, so as to procure precisely, manufacture on time, and optimize the storage. In this way, the accurate control of bulk material engineering and procurement schedule can be achieved. (authors)

  3. Genetic Variation among Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Norwegian Bulk Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, H. J.; Mørk, T.; Caugant, D. A.; Kearns, A.; Rørvik, L. M.

    2005-01-01

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from bovine (n = 117) and caprine (n = 114) bulk milk were characterized and compared with S. aureus strains from raw-milk products (n = 27), bovine mastitis specimens (n = 9), and human blood cultures (n = 39). All isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In addition, subsets of isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multiplex PCR (m-PCR) for genes encoding nine of the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), and the cloverleaf method for penicillin resistance. A variety of genotypes were observed, and greater genetic diversity was found among bovine than caprine bulk milk isolates. Certain genotypes, with a wide geographic distribution, were common to bovine and caprine bulk milk and may represent ruminant-specialized S. aureus. Isolates with genotypes indistinguishable from those of strains from ruminant mastitis were frequently found in bulk milk, and strains with genotypes indistinguishable from those from bulk milk were observed in raw-milk products. This indicates that S. aureus from infected udders may contaminate bulk milk and, subsequently, raw-milk products. Human blood culture isolates were diverse and differed from isolates from other sources. Genotyping by PFGE, MLST, and m-PCR for SE genes largely corresponded. In general, isolates with indistinguishable PFGE banding patterns had the same SE gene profile and isolates with identical SE gene profiles were placed together in PFGE clusters. Phylogenetic analyses agreed with the division of MLST sequence types into clonal complexes, and isolates within the same clonal complex had the same SE gene profile. Furthermore, isolates within PFGE clusters generally belonged to the same clonal complex. PMID:16332822

  4. Mechanisms of the anomalous Pockels effect in bulk water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukita, Shunpei; Suzuki, Yuto; Shiokawa, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2018-04-01

    The "anomalous" Pockels effect is a phenomenon that a light beam passing between two electrodes in an aqueous electrolyte solution is deflected by an AC voltage applied between the electrodes: the deflection angle is proportional to the voltage such that the incident beam alternately changes its direction. This phenomenon, the Pockels effect in bulk water, apparently contradicts what is believed in nonlinear optics, i.e., macroscopic inversion symmetry should be broken for the second-order nonlinear optical effect to occur such as the first-order electro-optic effect, i.e., the Pockels effect. To clarify the underlying mechanism, the dependence of the effect on the electrode material is investigated to find that the Pockels coefficient with Pt electrodes is two orders of magnitude smaller than with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. It is experimentally confirmed that the Pockels effect of interfacial water in the electric double layer (EDL) on these electrodes shows an electrode dependence similar to the effect in bulk water while the effects depend on the frequency of the AC voltage such that the interfacial signal decreases with frequency but the bulk signal increases with frequency up to 221 Hz. These experimental results lead to a conclusion that the beam deflection is caused by the refractive index gradient in the bulk water region, which is formed transiently by the Pockels effect of interfacial water in the EDL when an AC electric field is applied. The refractive index gradient is caused by the diffuse layer spreading into the bulk region to work as a breaking factor of inversion symmetry of bulk water due to its charge-biased ionic distribution. This mechanism does not contradict the principle of nonlinear optics.

  5. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity

  6. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  7. Theory of nuclear quadrupole interactions in solid hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.S.; Sahoo, N.; Das, T.P.; Kelires, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear quadrupole interaction of 19 F * (I=5/2) nucleus in solid hydrogen fluoride has been studied using the Hartree Fock cluster technique to understand the influence of both intrachain hydrogen bonding effects and the weak interchain interaction. On the basis of our investigations, the 34.04 MHz coupling constant observed by TDPAD measurements has been ascribed to the bulk solid while the observed 40.13 MHz coupling constant is suggested as arising from a small two- or three-molecule cluster produced during the proton irradiation process. Two alternate explanations are offered for the origin of coupling constants close to 40 MHz in a number of solid hydrocarbons containing hydrogen and fluorine ligands. (orig.)

  8. New phenomena in epitaxial growth: solid films on quasicrystalline substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournee, V; Thiel, P A

    2005-01-01

    An overview is given of the research conducted in the field of solid film growth on quasiperiodic surfaces. An atomistic description of quasicrystalline surfaces is presented and discussed in relation to bulk structural models. The various systems for which thin film growth has been attempted so far are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the nucleation mechanisms of the solid films, on their growth modes in relation to the nature of the deposited metals, on the possibility of intermixing or alloying at the interface and on the epitaxial relationships at the crystal-quasicrystal interfaces. We also describe situations where the deposited elements adopt a quasiperiodic structure, which opens up the possibility of extending our understanding of the relation between quasiperiodicity and the physical properties of such structurally and chemically complex solids. (topical review)

  9. Combustion of large solid fuels in cement rotary kilns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma

    (MBM), waste wood, sewage sludge, paper and plastics. The alternative fuel share of the total energy varies significantly from region to region, but the general trend is towards increased alternative fuel utilization. Solid alternative fuels typically have physical and chemical properties that differ...... from traditional solid fossil fuels. This creates a need for new combustion equipment or modification of existing kiln systems, because alternative fuels may influence process stability and product quality. Process stability is mainly influenced by exposing the raw material bed in the rotary kiln...... oxidation is a slow process which may greatly reduce the amounts of solid fuels to be utilized in the material inlet end of rotary kilns due to the limited residence time. Several parameters control the rate of char oxidation: a) bulk oxygen concentration, b) mass transfer rate of oxygen to char particles...

  10. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  11. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  12. Collapse of Incoherent Light Beams in Inertial Bulk Kerr Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Edmundson, Darran; Królikowski, Wieslaw

    1999-01-01

    We use the coherent density function theory to show that partially coherent beams are unstable and may collapse in inertial bulk Kerr media. The threshold power for collapse, and its dependence on the degree of coherence, is found analytically and checked-numerically. The internal dynamics of the...... of the walk-off modes is illustrated for collapsing and diffracting partially coherent beams.......We use the coherent density function theory to show that partially coherent beams are unstable and may collapse in inertial bulk Kerr media. The threshold power for collapse, and its dependence on the degree of coherence, is found analytically and checked-numerically. The internal dynamics...

  13. Reversible ultrafast melting in bulk CdSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wenzhi; He, Feng; Wang, Yaguo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, transient reflectivity changes in bulk CdSe have been measured with two-color femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy under a wide range of pump fluences. Three regions of reflectivity change with pump fluences have been consistently revealed for excited carrier density, coherent phonon amplitude, and lattice temperature. For laser fluences from 13 to 19.3 mJ/cm 2 , ultrafast melting happens in first several picoseconds. This melting process is purely thermal and reversible. A complete phase transformation in bulk CdSe may be reached when the absorbed laser energy is localized long enough, as observed in nanocrystalline CdSe

  14. Bulk Restoration for SDN-Based Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bulk restoration scheme for software defined networking- (SDN- based transport network. To enhance the network survivability and improve the throughput, we allow disrupted flows to be recovered synchronously in dynamic order. In addition backup paths are scheduled globally by applying the principles of load balance. We model the bulk restoration problem using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation. Then, a heuristic algorithm is devised. The proposed algorithm is verified by simulation and the results are analyzed comparing with sequential restoration schemes.

  15. Nuclear spin warm up in bulk n -GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotur, M.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Vladimirova, M.; Jouault, B.; Korenev, V. L.; Kavokin, K. V.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the spin-lattice relaxation in n -type insulating GaAs is dramatically accelerated at low magnetic fields. The origin of this effect, which cannot be explained in terms of well-known diffusion-limited hyperfine relaxation, is found in the quadrupole relaxation, induced by fluctuating donor charges. Therefore, quadrupole relaxation, which governs low field nuclear spin relaxation in semiconductor quantum dots, but was so far supposed to be harmless to bulk nuclei spins in the absence of optical pumping, can be studied and harnessed in the much simpler model environment of n -GaAs bulk crystal.

  16. Bulk-mediated surface diffusion: non-Markovian desorption dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelli, Jorge A; Budde, Carlos E; Prato, Domingo; Wio, Horacio S

    2005-01-01

    Here we analyse the dynamics of adsorbed molecules within the bulk-mediated surface diffusion framework, when the particle's desorption mechanism is characterized by a non-Markovian process, while the particle's adsorption as well as its motion in the bulk is governed by Markovian dynamics. We study the diffusion of particles in both semi-infinite and finite cubic lattices, analysing the conditional probability to find the system on the reference absorptive plane as well as the surface dispersion as functions of time. The results are compared with known Markovian cases showing the differences that can be exploited to distinguish between Markovian and non-Markovian desorption mechanisms in experimental situations

  17. Physical factors controlling the ductility of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [Central South University, China; Liu, Chain T [ORNL; Zhang, Z. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Keppens, V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify key physical factor controlling the deformation and fracture behavior of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), we compiled and analyzed the elastic moduli and compressive ductility for BMGs. In addition, new modulus data were generated in the critical ranges in order to facilitate the analysis. We have found that the intrinsic ductility of BMGs can be correlated with the bulk-to-shear modulus ratio B/G according to Pugh's [Philos. Mag. 45, 823 (1954) ] rule. In some individual BMG systems, for example, Fe based, the relationship seems to be very clear. The physical meaning of this correlation is discussed in terms of atomic bonding and connectivity.

  18. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  19. Synchrotron radiation in solid state chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigna, Paolo; Pin, Sonia; Spinolo, Giorgio; Newton, Mark A.; Chiara Tarantino, Serena; Zema, Michele

    2011-01-01

    An approach towards the reactivity in the solid state is proposed, primarily based on recognizing the crucial role played by the interfacial free energy and by the topotactical relationship between the two reactants, which in turn control formation of the new phase and its spatial and orientational relationships with respect to the parent phases. Using one of the reactants in the form of film, the ratio between bulk and interfacial free energy can be changed, and the effect of interfacial free energy is maximized. The role of Synchrotron Radiation in such an approach is exemplified by using a new developed technique for μ-XANES mapping with nanometric resolution for studying the reactivity of thin films of NiO onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals. The result obtained allowed us to speculate about the rate determining step of the NiO+Al 2 O 3 →NiAl 2 O 4 interfacial reaction.

  20. Correlation between structural, electrical and magnetic properties of GdMnO3 bulk ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samantaray, S.; Mishra, D.K.; Pradhan, S.K.; Mishra, P.; Sekhar, B.R.; Behera, Debdhyan; Rout, P.P.; Das, S.K.; Sahu, D.R.; Roul, B.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on ferroelectric properties of GdMnO 3 (GMO) bulk ceramics at room temperature prepared by the conventional solid state reaction route following slow step sintering schedule. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop as well as sharp dielectric anomaly in pure (99.999%) GMO sintered ceramics has been clearly observed. Samples sintered at 1350 °C become orthorhombic with Pbnm space group and showed frequency independent sharp dielectric anomalies at 373 K and a square type of novel ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature. Interestingly, dielectric anomalies and ferroelectric behavior were observed to be dependent upon sintering temperature of GdMnO 3 . Room temperature dielectric constant (ε r ) value at different frequencies is observed to be abnormally high. The magnetic field and temperature dependent magnetization show antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K for both 1350 °C and 1700 °C sintered GMO. Present findings showed the possibility of application of GdMnO 3 at room temperature as multifunctional materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of single-phasic polycrystalline GdMnO 3 sample by the solid state sintering route. • Observation of square type P–E hysteresis loop with higher saturation and remnant polarization. • Observation of antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K in polycrystalline GdMnO 3 . • Possibility of room temperature application of GdMnO 3 as multifunctional material

  1. The determination of bulk (apparent) density of plant fibres by density method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifah Hanisah Syed Abd Aziz; Raja Jamal Raja hedar; Zahid Abdullah

    2004-01-01

    The absolute density of plant fibres excludes all pores and lumen and therefore is a measure of the solid matter of the fibres. On the other hand the bulk density, which is being discussed here, includes all the solid matter and the pores of the fibres. In this work, the apparent density of the fibre was measured by using the Archimedes principle, which involves the immersion of a known weight of fibre into a solvent of lower density than the fibre. Toluene with a density of about 860 kg/m3 was chosen as a solvent. A tuft of fibre was weighed and recorded as W fa . The fibre was then immersed in toluene, which wetted the fibre, and made to rest on the weighing pan submerged in the solvent and the weight of the immersed fibre was recorded as W fs . The apparent density was then calculated using the equation. All the measurements were taken at room temperature. The fibre samples were not oven dried prior to measurement. (Author)

  2. Correlation between structural, electrical and magnetic properties of GdMnO{sub 3} bulk ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samantaray, S. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Mishra, D.K. [Department of Physics, Institute of Technical Education and Research, S ‘O’ A University, Bhubaneswar 751030, Odisha (India); Pradhan, S.K. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Mishra, P.; Sekhar, B.R. [Institue of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India); Behera, Debdhyan [Advanced Materials Technology Department, CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Rout, P.P.; Das, S.K. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Sahu, D.R. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Roul, B.K., E-mail: ims@iopb.res.in [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India)

    2013-08-15

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on ferroelectric properties of GdMnO{sub 3} (GMO) bulk ceramics at room temperature prepared by the conventional solid state reaction route following slow step sintering schedule. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop as well as sharp dielectric anomaly in pure (99.999%) GMO sintered ceramics has been clearly observed. Samples sintered at 1350 °C become orthorhombic with Pbnm space group and showed frequency independent sharp dielectric anomalies at 373 K and a square type of novel ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature. Interestingly, dielectric anomalies and ferroelectric behavior were observed to be dependent upon sintering temperature of GdMnO{sub 3}. Room temperature dielectric constant (ε{sub r}) value at different frequencies is observed to be abnormally high. The magnetic field and temperature dependent magnetization show antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K for both 1350 °C and 1700 °C sintered GMO. Present findings showed the possibility of application of GdMnO{sub 3} at room temperature as multifunctional materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of single-phasic polycrystalline GdMnO{sub 3} sample by the solid state sintering route. • Observation of square type P–E hysteresis loop with higher saturation and remnant polarization. • Observation of antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K in polycrystalline GdMnO{sub 3}. • Possibility of room temperature application of GdMnO{sub 3} as multifunctional material.

  3. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rice in the husk (paddy or rough) 1006.20 Husked (brown) Rice 1006.30 Semi-milled or wholly milled Rice....91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar...

  4. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rice in the husk (paddy or rough) 1006.20 Husked (brown) Rice 1006.30 Semi-milled or wholly milled Rice....91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar...

  5. Ion conduction in crystalline superionic solids and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Angesh

    2014-06-01

    Superionic solids an area of multidisciplinary research activity, incorporates to study the physical, chemical and technological aspects of rapid ion movements within the bulk of the special class of ionic materials. It is an emerging area of materials science, as these solids show tremendous technological scopes to develop wide variety of solid state electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, sensors, electrochromic displays (ECDs), memories, etc. These devices have wide range of applicabilities viz. power sources for IC microchips to transport vehicles, novel sensors for controlling atmospheric pollution, new kind of memories for computers, smart windows/display panels, etc. The field grew with a rapid pace since then, especially with regards to designing new materials as well as to explore their device potentialities. Amongst the known superionic solids, fast Ag+ ion conducting crystalline solid electrolytes are attracted special attention due to their relatively higher room temperature conductivity as well as ease of materials handling/synthesis. Ion conduction in these electrolytes is very much interesting part of today. In the present review article, the ion conducting phenomenon and some device applications of crystalline/polycrystalline superionic solid electrolytes have been reviewed in brief. Synthesis and characterization tools have also been discussed in the present review article.

  6. Quantum tunneling of magnetization in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamp, P.C.E.; Barbara, B.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic solids should, under certain circumstances, show macroscopic quantum behavior, in which coherence exists between completely distinct magnetization states, each involving a very large number of spins (∼10 12 spins). This article reviews the recent work in this field, concentrating particularly on macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) of magnetization. The two main phenomena discussed are the tunneling of magnetization in single-domain particles or grains (in which some 10 3 - 10 4 spins rotate together through an energy barrier), and the tunneling of domain walls in films or in bulk magnets; where walls containing ∼10 10 spins may tunnel off a pinning potential, or from one pinning center to another. Some attention is also given to the quantum nucleation of magnetization reversal in a bulk magnet, and to the quantum motion of other magnetic solitons (such as vortices). After a thorough analysis of the basic grain and wall tunneling phenomena, the authors continue on to a discussion of the various dissipative or decoherence mechanisms, which destroy the phase correlations involved in tunneling. The coupling of grain magnetization to phonons, photons, and electrons is shown to have little consequence for weakly-conducting or insulating grains. Domain walls couple to these and also to magnons and impurities or defects; the 3rd order coupling to magnons can have serious effects, but if one uses pure insulators at low temperatures, these can also be ignored

  7. 75 FR 72909 - Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Bulk-Power System. See Rules Concerning Certification of the Electric Reliability Organization; and... Bulk-Power System in North America because it protects the reliability of the bulk electric system and... Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register...

  8. 29 CFR 794.131 - “Customer * * * engaged in bulk distribution”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCustomer * * * engaged in bulk distributionâ. 794.131... Sales Made to Other Bulk Distributors § 794.131 “Customer * * * engaged in bulk distribution”. A sale to a customer of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products will...

  9. Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu, E-mail: yamamoto@appchem.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  10. Cohesion and device reliability in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali; Bruner, Christopher; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2012-01-01

    that the phase separated bulk heterojunction layer is the weakest layer and report quantitative cohesion values which ranged from ∼1 to 20 J m -2. The effects of layer thickness, composition, and annealing treatments on layer cohesion are investigated. Using

  11. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or vinegar.... The bulk still wine record will contain the following: (a) The volume produced by fermentation in wine... fermentation, amelioration, sweetening, addition of spirits, blending; (d) The volume of wine used and produced...

  12. Modelling dust liberation in bulk material handling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derakhshani, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Dust has negative effects on the environmental conditions, human health as well as industrial equipment and processes. In this thesis, the transfer point of a belt conveyor as a bulk material handling system with a very high potential place for dust liberation is studied. This study is conducted

  13. Electro-optical modeling of bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Pieters, Bart E.; Taretto, Kurt; Rau, Uwe

    2008-11-01

    We introduce a model for charge separation in bulk heterojunction solar cells that combines exciton transport to the interface between donor and acceptor phases with the dissociation of the bound electron/hole pair. We implement this model into a standard semiconductor device simulator, thereby creating a convenient method to simulate the optical and electrical characteristics of a bulk heterojunction solar cell with a commercially available program. By taking into account different collection probabilities for the excitons in the polymer and the fullerene, we are able to reproduce absorptance, internal and external quantum efficiency, as well as current/voltage curves of bulk heterojunction solar cells. We further investigate the influence of mobilities of the free excitons as well as the mobilities of the free charge carriers on the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells. We find that, in general, the highest efficiencies are achieved with the highest mobilities. However, an optimum finite mobility of free charge carriers can result from a large recombination velocity at the contacts. In contrast, Langevin-type of recombination cannot lead to finite optimum mobilities even though this mechanism has a strong dependence on the free carrier mobilities.

  14. Hybrid zinc oxide conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Wienk, M.M.; Kemerink, M.; Yang, X.N.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices based on blends of a conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(3‘,7‘-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) as electron donor and crystalline ZnO nanoparticles (nc-ZnO) as electron acceptor have been studied. Composite nc-ZnO:MDMO-PPV films were cast

  15. Austenitic stainless steel bulk property considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1979-04-01

    The bulk properties of annealed 304, 316, and 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steels are evaluated for the temperature and radiation conditions expected in a near-term fusion reactor. Of interest are the thermophysical properties, void swelling produced by neutron radiaion, and the tensile, creep, and fatigue properties before and after irradiation

  16. Unit-of-Use Versus Traditional Bulk Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany So

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choice between unit-of-use versus traditional bulk packaging in the US has long been a continuous debate for drug manufacturers and pharmacies in order to have the most efficient and safest practices. Understanding the benefits of using unit-of-use packaging over bulk packaging by US drug manufacturers in terms of workflow efficiency, economical costs and medication safety in the pharmacy is sometimes challenging.Methods: A time-saving study comparing the time saved using unit-of-use packaging versus bulk packaging, was examined. Prices between unit-of-use versus bulk packages were compared by using the Red Book: Pharmacy’s Fundamental Reference. Other articles were reviewed on the topics of counterfeiting, safe labeling, and implementation of unit-of-use packaging. Lastly, a cost-saving study was reviewed showing how medication adherence, due to improved packaging, could be cost-effective for patients.Results: When examining time, costs, medication adherence, and counterfeiting arguments, unit-of-use packaging proved to be beneficial for patients in all these terms.

  17. Unit-of-Use Versus Traditional Bulk Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany So

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choice between unit-of-use versus traditional bulk packaging in the US has long been a continuous debate for drug manufacturers and pharmacies in order to have the most efficient and safest practices. Understanding the benefits of using unit-of-use packaging over bulk packaging by US drug manufacturers in terms of workflow efficiency, economical costs and medication safety in the pharmacy is sometimes challenging. Methods: A time-saving study comparing the time saved using unit-of-use packaging versus bulk packaging, was examined. Prices between unit-of-use versus bulk packages were compared by using the Red Book: Pharmacy's Fundamental Reference. Other articles were reviewed on the topics of counterfeiting, safe labeling, and implementation of unit-of-use packaging. Lastly, a cost-saving study was reviewed showing how medication adherence, due to improved packaging, could be cost-effective for patients. Results: When examining time, costs, medication adherence, and counterfeiting arguments, unit-of-use packaging proved to be beneficial for patients in all these terms.   Type: Student Project

  18. Bulk and boundary critical behavior at Lifshitz points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lifshitz points are multicritical points at which a disordered phase, a homogeneous ordered phase, and a modulated ordered phase meet. Their bulk universality classes are described by natural generalizations of the standard 4 model. Analyzing these models systematically via modern field-theoretic renormalization ...

  19. Escape angles in bulk chi((2)) soliton interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2002-01-01

    We develop a theory for nonplanar interaction between two identical type I spatial solitons propagating at opposite, but arbitrary transverse angles in quadratic nonlinear (or so-called chi((2))) bulk, media. We predict quantitatively the outwards escape angle, below which the solitons turn around...

  20. In situ Raman spectroscopy studies of bulk and surface metal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Jehng, J.M.; Deo, G.; Guliants, V.V.; Benziger, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk V-P-O and model supported vanadia catalysts were investigated with in situ Raman spectroscopy during n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride in order to determine the fundamental molecular structure-reactivity/selectivity insights that can be obtained from such experiments. The in situ Raman

  1. Bulk and track etching of PET studied by spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z.Y.; Duan, J.L.; Maekawa, Y.; Koshikawa, H.; Yoshida, M.

    2004-01-01

    UV-VIS spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) solutions formed by etching PET in NaOH solution were analyzed with respect to the etching time. A linear relationship between absorptions centered at 4.45 and 5.11 eV with weight loss of PET in NaOH solution was established. The relation was applied to study the influence of UV light illumination on bulk etching of PET and to evaluate pore size of etched-through tracks. It is found that bulk etching of PET can be greatly enhanced by UV illumination in air in the wavelength range around 313 nm. A surface area of about 350 nm in thickness shows a 23 times increase in bulk-etching rate after illuminated for 6 h. The phenomenon is attributed to the oxygen-assisted photo-degradation through generating of new photo-unstable species. The enhancement in bulk etching was immediately reduced as the etching proceeds below the surface with an exponential decay constant of about 1.5 μm -1 . Etching of Xe ion irradiated PET films gives extra etching products with similar chemical structure as revealed by spectrophotometer measurements. Quantitative analysis of etching products from latent tracks implies that pores of about 14.6 nm in radius are formed after etching in 0.74 N NaOH at 40 deg. C for 35 min, which is in agreement with the conductometric measurement

  2. First principles study of lithium insertion in bulk silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Wenhui; Zhang, Qianfan; Cui, Yi; Wang, Enge

    2010-01-01

    Si is an important anode material for the next generation of Li ion batteries. Here the energetics and dynamics of Li atoms in bulk Si have been studied at different Li concentrations on the basis of first principles calculations. It is found

  3. Simulation and analysis of microwave heating while joining bulk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATHARVA

    Processing of bulk metallic materials using microwave energy is challenging. ... The distributed power and heat source were computed in a stationary, .... the heat transfer equation is used in order to get the temperature distributions and other system properties. ... equation (2) to obtain the distribution of the E and H fields.

  4. Free standing bulk metallic glass microcomponents: Tooling considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Cormac; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Ohnuma, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses have enormous potential for use in small-scale devices such as MEMS and biomedical components. Thermoplastic forging of free standing components poses challenges unlike those seen when forging crystalline materials. Central to these challenges is the simultaneous advantage/disadvantage...

  5. Microalgae for the production of bulk chemicals and biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of microalgae production for biodiesel was discussed. Although algae are not yet produced at large scale for bulk applications, there are opportunities to develop this process in a sustainable way. It remains unlikely, however, that the process will be developed for biodiesel as the

  6. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and bulk organic geochemistry of black ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stratigraphy, sedimentology and bulk organic geochemistry of black shales from the Proterozoic. Vindhyan Supergroup (central India). S Banerjee1,∗. , S Dutta. 2. , S Paikaray. 1 and U Mann. 2. 1. Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India. 2. Forschungszentrum ...

  7. No evidence for bulk velocity from type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huterer, Dragan; Shafer, Daniel L. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: huterer@umich.edu, E-mail: dlshafer@umich.edu, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    We revisit the effect of peculiar velocities on low-redshift type Ia supernovae. Velocities introduce an additional guaranteed source of correlations between supernova magnitudes that should be considered in all analyses of nearby supernova samples but has largely been neglected in the past. Applying a likelihood analysis to the latest compilation of nearby supernovae, we find no evidence for the presence of these correlations, although, given the significant noise, the data is also consistent with the correlations predicted for the standard ΛCDM model. We then consider the dipolar component of the velocity correlations—the frequently studied ''bulk velocity''—and explicitly demonstrate that including the velocity correlations in the data covariance matrix is crucial for drawing correct and unambiguous conclusions about the bulk flow. In particular, current supernova data is consistent with no excess bulk flow on top of what is expected in ΛCDM and effectively captured by the covariance. We further clarify the nature of the apparent bulk flow that is inferred when the velocity covariance is ignored. We show that a significant fraction of this quantity is expected to be noise bias due to uncertainties in supernova magnitudes and not any physical peculiar motion.

  8. Effect of bulk modulus on performance of a hydrostatic transmission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an induction motor, a fixed or variable displacement motor, and all required ... oped a linear relation between oil bulk modulus and pressure for a HST system. ..... Piotrowska A 2003 The control of the rotational speed of hydraulic engine in ...

  9. Induction linear accelerators with high-Tc bulk superconductor lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Hidenori; Wada, Haruhisa; Mori, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    1991-01-01

    Solenoidal coils in a one-stage induction accelerator were replaced by a high-T c bulk superconductor lens (Supertron). The accelerator postaccelerated injected electron beams to ∼ 400 keV, ∼ 0.35 kA, and ∼ 10 ns of duration time. (author)

  10. The homogenisation of bulk material in blending piles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerstel, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the homogenisation of bulk material in three types of piles is dealt with. The homogenisation implies that the fluctuations of a material proprety in the input flow of the pile are transformed into output fluctuations, whereby the latter ones are evened out. Analyses are presented

  11. Organic carbon organic matter and bulk density relationships in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and soil organic carbon (SOC) constitute usually a small portion of soil, but they are one of the most important components of ecosystems. Bulk density (dB or BD) value is necessary to convert organic carbon (OC) content per unit area. Relationships between SOM, SOC and BD were established ...

  12. Integrated analysis software for bulk power system stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T; Nagao, T; Takahashi, K [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents Central Research Inst.of Electric Power Industry - CRIEPI`s - own developed three softwares for bulk power network analysis and the user support system which arranges tremendous data necessary for these softwares with easy and high reliability. (author) 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Determination of Tolterodine tartrate in bulk and formulation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a new simple, accurate, precise and fully validated extractive colorimetric method for the determination of tolterodine tartrate (TL) in bulk and in tablet dosage form, Method: A chloroform extractable orange red complex formed between the acid dye, tropaeolin OOO-1 and tolterodine in acid media is the ...

  14. Sink strengths of dislocations taking into account bulk recombination effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, E.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of the rate theory to describe radiation damage processes is closely associated with the calculation of the various sink strengths. In this connection the effect of bulk recombination is usually neglected, because of the complexity of the problem. For this reason we present in this paper, for the first time, by means of the rigorous elastic-field model of a dislocation embedded in a lossy continuum, analytic expressions for the diffusion flux of irradiation-induced point defects into a dislocation, taking into account the elastic interaction, additional sinks and higher order bulk recombination effects. The resulting self-consistent formulae for the dislocation sink strengths clearly demonstrate the importance of the bulk recombination for the micro-structures of irradiated materials. In conjunction with the Harwell computer code VS5 it became clear that this new dislocation bias also leads to a change in the macrostructural observables. The order of magnitude of this effect emphasizes that neglecting bulk recombination as a general principle is not justified

  15. Fatigue studies in compensated bulk lead zirconate titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, Cyril; Morrison, Finlay D.; Lupascu, Doru C.; Scott, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Impedance analysis studies were carried out on compensated bulk lead zirconate titanate samples. Fatigue is concomitant with the onset of dielectric loss. This is shown to be dominantly due to an irreversibly modified near-surface layer that can be polished off. The highly compensated nature of these samples minimizes the role of oxygen vacancies

  16. The homogeneity of levitation force in single domain YBCO bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Keran; Xu Kexi; Wu Xingda; Pan Pengjun

    2007-01-01

    The pellet homogeneity of levitation force versus the position in comparison to the seed or to the top surface has been studied in the entire volume of a single domain YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ bulk sample processed by the top-seeded melt texturing growth (TSMTG). It is found that the levitation forces increase and peak at a depth of 3 mm from the top of the sample at liquid nitrogen temperature. In other words, the second disk has the largest levitation force density. The phenomenon can be interpreted by the interaction between the microcracks or pores produced by crystal growth and the oxygenation. We propose a model in which Y211 particles distribution leading to microcracks and pores reduces the effective induced shielding current loops (ISCL) and increases the perimeters of ISCL. This corresponds to a decrease in the grain size and results in greatly reduced levitation forces of the bottom of the bulk. From the research, we know that the density of the YBCO bulk is also an important parameter for the levitation properties. The result is very attractive and useful for the fundamental studies and fabrication of TSMTG YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ bulk

  17. The homogeneity of levitation force in single domain YBCO bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Keran; Xu, Ke-Xi; Wu, Xing-da; Pan, Peng-jun

    2007-11-01

    The pellet homogeneity of levitation force versus the position in comparison to the seed or to the top surface has been studied in the entire volume of a single domain YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ bulk sample processed by the top-seeded melt texturing growth (TSMTG). It is found that the levitation forces increase and peak at a depth of 3 mm from the top of the sample at liquid nitrogen temperature. In other words, the second disk has the largest levitation force density. The phenomenon can be interpreted by the interaction between the microcracks or pores produced by crystal growth and the oxygenation. We propose a model in which Y211 particles distribution leading to microcracks and pores reduces the effective induced shielding current loops (ISCL) and increases the perimeters of ISCL. This corresponds to a decrease in the grain size and results in greatly reduced levitation forces of the bottom of the bulk. From the research, we know that the density of the YBCO bulk is also an important parameter for the levitation properties. The result is very attractive and useful for the fundamental studies and fabrication of TSMTG YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ bulk.

  18. Estimating forest canopy bulk density using six indirect methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Joe Scott; Kathy Gray; James Reardon

    2005-01-01

    Canopy bulk density (CBD) is an important crown characteristic needed to predict crown fire spread, yet it is difficult to measure in the field. Presented here is a comprehensive research effort to evaluate six indirect sampling techniques for estimating CBD. As reference data, detailed crown fuel biomass measurements were taken on each tree within fixed-area plots...

  19. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  20. Femtosecond coherent emission from GaAs bulk microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurioli, Massimo; Bogani, Franco; Ceccherini, Simone; Colocci, Marcello; Beltram, Fabio; Sorba, Lucia

    1999-02-01

    The emission from a λ/2 GaAs bulk microcavity resonantly excited by femtosecond pulses has been characterized by using an interferometric correlation technique. It is found that the emission is dominated by the coherent signal due to light elastically scattered by disorder, and that scattering is predominantly originated from the lower polariton branch.

  1. Anisotropic colloids: bulk phase behavior and equilibrium sedimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marechal, M.A.T.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the phase behavior of anisotropically shaped (i.e. non-spherical) colloids using computer simulations. Only hard-core interactions between the colloids are taken into account to investigate the effects of shape alone. The bulk phase behavior of three different shapes of

  2. Multi-agent adaptive systems in dry bulk shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Steve; Dullaert, Wout; Vernimmen, Bert

    Investment decisions in dry bulk shipping form one of the most difficult managerial tasks due to the high degree of uncertainty and the cyclical nature of the market. Adequate information on ship prices is, therefore, crucial when justifying such decisions. This paper is the first to embed trading

  3. Estimating Soil Bulk Density and Total Nitrogen from Catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though data on soil bulk density (BD) and total nitrogen (TN) are essential for planning modern farming techniques, their data availability is limited for many applications in the developing word. This study is designed to estimate BD and TN from soil properties, land-use systems, soil types and landforms in the ...

  4. Combining item and bulk material loss-detection uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Loss detection requirements, such as five formula kilograms with 99% probability of detection, which apply to the sum of losses from material in both item and bulk form, constitute a special problem for the nuclear material statistician. Requirements of this type are included in the Material Control and Accounting Reform Amendments described in the Advance Notice of Proposed Rule Making (Federal Register, 46(175):45144-46151). Attribute test sampling of items is the method used to detect gross defects in the inventory of items in a given control unit. Attribute sampling plans are designed to detect a loss of a specificed goal quantity of material with a given probability. In contrast to the methods and statistical models used for item loss detection, bulk material loss detection requires all the material entering and leaving a control unit to be measured and the calculation of a loss estimator that will be tested against an appropriate alarm threshold. The alarm threshold is determined from an estimate of the error inherent in the components of the loss estimator. In this paper a simple grahical method of evaluating the combined capabilities of bulk material loss detection methods and item attribute testing procedures will be described. Quantitative results will be given for several cases, indicating how a decrease in the precision of the item loss detection method tends to force an increase in the precision of the bulk loss detection procedure in order to meet the overall detection requirement. 4 figures

  5. Measurements of anomalous neutron transport in bulk graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.; Smith, G.A.; Vogelaar, B.; Howell, C.R.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Tornow, W.

    2003-01-01

    The neutron absorption of bulk granular graphite has been measured in a classical exponential diffusion experiment. Our first measurements of April 2002 implementing both exponential decay and pulsed die-away experiments and using the TUNL pulsed accelerator at Duke University as a neutron source indicated a capture cross section for graphite a striking factor of three lower than the measured value for carbon of 3.4 millibarns. Therefore a new exponential experiment with an improved geometry enabling greater accuracy has been performed giving an apparent cross section for carbon in the form of bulk granular graphite of less than 0.5 millibarns. This result confirms our first result and is also consistent with less than one part per million of boron in our graphite. The bulk density of the graphite is 1.02 compared with the actual particle density of 1.60 indicating a packing fraction of 0.64 or a void fraction of 0.36. We suspect that the apparent suppression of absorption in bulk graphite may be associated with the strong coherent diffraction of neutrons that dominates neutron transport in graphite. Coherent diffraction has never been taken into account in graphite reactor design and no neutron transport code including general use codes such as MCNP incorporate diffraction effects even though diffraction dominates many practical thermal neutron transport problems. (orig.)

  6. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2014-01-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots

  7. Interpolymer Complexation: Comparisons of Bulk and Interfacial Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cattoz, Beatrice; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Cosgrove, Terence; Crossman, Martin; Espidel, Youssef; Prescott, Stuart W.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between the strong polyelectrolyte sodium poly(styrenesulfonate), NaPSS, and the neutral polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone), PVP, were investigated in bulk and at the silica/solution interface using a combination of diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), small-angle

  8. Soil water sensor response to bulk electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water monitoring using electromagnetic (EM) sensors can facilitate observations of water content at high temporal and spatial resolutions. These sensors measure soil dielectric permittivity (Ka) which is largely a function of volumetric water content. However, bulk electrical conductivity BEC c...

  9. Large-scale Homogenization of Bulk Materials in Mammoth Silos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This doctoral thesis concerns the large-scale homogenization of bulk materials in mammoth silos. The objective of this research was to determine the best stacking and reclaiming method for homogenization in mammoth silos. For this purpose a simulation program was developed to estimate the

  10. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  11. Microbial production of bulk chemicals: development of anaerobic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Lamot, I.; Oost, van der J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    nnovative fermentation processes are necessary for the cost-effective production of bulk chemicals from renewable resources. Current microbial processes are either anaerobic processes, with high yield and productivity, or less-efficient aerobic processes. Oxygen utilization plays an important role

  12. Bulk-plasmon contribution to the work function of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, F A; DIaz-Valdes, J; Jouin, H

    2007-01-01

    By consideration of the Koopmans theorem expression for the work function of a metal, we find that the total height of the surface barrier potential equals the value of the bulk-plasmon energy of pure metals. As a consequence a simple formula for the work function is obtained which shows better agreement with the experimental data than the most complete existent theories

  13. Bulk Versus Edge in the Quantum Hall Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Y. -C.; Lee, D. -H.

    1996-01-01

    The manifestation of the bulk quantum Hall effect on edge is the chiral anomaly. The chiral anomaly {\\it is} the underlying principle of the ``edge approach'' of quantum Hall effect. In that approach, $\\sxy$ should not be taken as the conductance derived from the space-local current-current correlation function of the pure one-dimensional edge problem.

  14. Climate control of a bulk storage room for foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van S.; Zwart, H.; Keesman, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A storage room contains a bulk of agricultural products, such as potatoes, onions, fruits, etcetera. The products produce heat due to respiration, see for example [1, 2]. A ventilator blows cooled air around to keep the products at a steady temperature and prevent spoilage. The aim is to design a

  15. Postharvest quality of carrot cultivars, packaged and in bulk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... presented the highest number of sprouts when stored in bulk (48.5%) and the largest number of carrots with radicels (54.7%). ... The carrot (Daucus carota L.), a plant of the family. Apiaceae ... widespread global consumption and large planted area. .... increased temperature and CO2 concentration and the.

  16. Should bulk cloudwater or fogwater samples obey Henry's law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1991-06-01

    Mixing of droplets with different pH that are individually in Henry's law equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere always results in a bulk mixture that is supersaturated with weak acids like S(IV) and HCOOH, and bases like NH3 with respect to the original atmosphere. High supersaturations result only when the pH of the bulk droplet mixture exceeds the pKa of the species, in which pH range large pH differences among droplets of different sizes lead to large deviations from Henry's law for the bulk mixture. The deviation is shown to depend on the ratio of the arithmetic mean to the harmonic mean of the hydrogen ion concentrations of the droplets with the liquid water content used as weighting factor in the calculation of the means. The theory developed can explain observed discrepancies from Henry's law in atmospheric samples and also other observed phenomena like the reported increase of pH values of bulk aqueous samples during storage.

  17. Bulk characterization of pharmaceutical powders by low-pressure compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A.H.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Hovgaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    Low-pressure compression of pharmaceutical powders using small amounts of sample (50 mg) was evaluated as an alternative to traditional bulk powder characterization by tapping volumetry. Material parameters were extrapolated directly from the compression data and by fitting with the Walker...

  18. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M

    2003-07-15

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix.

  19. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix

  20. No evidence for bulk velocity from type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan; Shafer, Daniel L.; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the effect of peculiar velocities on low-redshift type Ia supernovae. Velocities introduce an additional guaranteed source of correlations between supernova magnitudes that should be considered in all analyses of nearby supernova samples but has largely been neglected in the past. Applying a likelihood analysis to the latest compilation of nearby supernovae, we find no evidence for the presence of these correlations, although, given the significant noise, the data is also consistent with the correlations predicted for the standard ΛCDM model. We then consider the dipolar component of the velocity correlations—the frequently studied ''bulk velocity''—and explicitly demonstrate that including the velocity correlations in the data covariance matrix is crucial for drawing correct and unambiguous conclusions about the bulk flow. In particular, current supernova data is consistent with no excess bulk flow on top of what is expected in ΛCDM and effectively captured by the covariance. We further clarify the nature of the apparent bulk flow that is inferred when the velocity covariance is ignored. We show that a significant fraction of this quantity is expected to be noise bias due to uncertainties in supernova magnitudes and not any physical peculiar motion

  1. Measurements of anomalous neutron transport in bulk graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, C.D.; Smith, G.A. [ADNA Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogelaar, B. [Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Howell, C.R.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Tornow, W. [Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The neutron absorption of bulk granular graphite has been measured in a classical exponential diffusion experiment. Our first measurements of April 2002 implementing both exponential decay and pulsed die-away experiments and using the TUNL pulsed accelerator at Duke University as a neutron source indicated a capture cross section for graphite a striking factor of three lower than the measured value for carbon of 3.4 millibarns. Therefore a new exponential experiment with an improved geometry enabling greater accuracy has been performed giving an apparent cross section for carbon in the form of bulk granular graphite of less than 0.5 millibarns. This result confirms our first result and is also consistent with less than one part per million of boron in our graphite. The bulk density of the graphite is 1.02 compared with the actual particle density of 1.60 indicating a packing fraction of 0.64 or a void fraction of 0.36. We suspect that the apparent suppression of absorption in bulk graphite may be associated with the strong coherent diffraction of neutrons that dominates neutron transport in graphite. Coherent diffraction has never been taken into account in graphite reactor design and no neutron transport code including general use codes such as MCNP incorporate diffraction effects even though diffraction dominates many practical thermal neutron transport problems. (orig.)

  2. Essays on Port, Container, and Bulk Chemical Logistics Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asperen (Eelco)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe essays in this thesis are concerned with two main themes in port logistics. The first theme is the coordination of transport arrivals with the distribution processes and the use of storage facilities. We study this for both containerized and bulk chemical transport. The second theme

  3. Estimation of bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce) has been estimated over the Arabian Sea from the moisture budget during the pre-monsoon season of 1988. The computations have been made over two regions (A: 0-8 degrees N: 60-68 degrees E: B: 0...

  4. Singularities and Entropy in Bulk Viscosity Dark Energy Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xinhe; Dou Xu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper bulk viscosity is introduced to describe the effects of cosmic non-perfect fluid on the cosmos evolution and to build the unified dark energy (DE) with (dark) matter models. Also we derive a general relation between the bulk viscosity form and Hubble parameter that can provide a procedure for the viscosity DE model building. Especially, a redshift dependent viscosity parameter ζ ∝ λ 0 + λ 1 (1 + z) n proposed in the previous work [X.H. Meng and X. Dou, Commun. Theor. Phys. 52 (2009) 377] is investigated extensively in this present work. Further more we use the recently released supernova dataset (the Constitution dataset) to constrain the model parameters. In order to differentiate the proposed concrete dark energy models from the well known ΛCDM model, statefinder diagnostic method is applied to this bulk viscosity model, as a complementary to the Om parameter diagnostic and the deceleration parameter analysis performed by us before. The DE model evolution behavior and tendency are shown in the plane of the statefinder diagnostic parameter pair {r, s} as axes where the fixed point represents the ΛCDM model. The possible singularity property in this bulk viscosity cosmology is also discussed to which we can conclude that in the different parameter regions chosen properly, this concrete viscosity DE model can have various late evolution behaviors and the late time singularity could be avoided. We also calculate the cosmic entropy in the bulk viscosity dark energy frame, and find that the total entropy in the viscosity DE model increases monotonously with respect to the scale factor evolution, thus this monotonous increasing property can indicate an arrow of time in the universe evolution, though the quantum version of the arrow of time is still very puzzling. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  5. Bulk viscous matter and recent acceleration of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasidharan, Athira; Mathew, Titus K. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)

    2015-07-15

    We consider a cosmological model dominated by bulk viscous matter with a total bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the velocity and acceleration of the expansion of the universe in such a way that ζ = ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1}(a)/(a) + ζ{sub 2}(a)/(a). We show that there exist two limiting conditions in the bulk viscous coefficients (ζ{sub 0}, ζ{sub 1}, ζ{sub 2}) which correspond to a universe having a Big Bang at the origin, followed by an early decelerated epoch and then making a smooth transition into an accelerating epoch. We have constrained the model using the type Ia Supernovae data, evaluated the best estimated values of all the bulk viscous parameters and the Hubble parameter corresponding to the two limiting conditions. We found that even though the evolution of the cosmological parameters are in general different for the two limiting cases, they show identical behavior for the best estimated values of the parameters from both limiting conditions. A recent acceleration would occur if ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1} > 1 for the first limiting conditions and if ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1} < 1 for the second limiting conditions. The age of the universe predicted by this model is found to be less than that predicted from the oldest galactic globular clusters. The total bulk viscosity seems to be negative in the past and becomes positive when z ≤ 0.8. So the model violates the local second law of thermodynamics. However, the model satisfies the generalized second law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon throughout the evolution of the universe. We also made a statefinder analysis of the model and found that it is distinguishably different from the standard ΛCDM model at present, but it shows a de Sitter type behavior in the far future of the evolution. (orig.)

  6. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  7. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 μm), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (∼0.55 nm) and mesopores (∼3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N2 physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO2 and good CO2/CH4 selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO2 and CH4 gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Comparison of bulk Micromegas with different amplification gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Purba, E-mail: purba.bhattacharya@saha.ac.in [Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharya, Sudeb [Emeritus Scientist (CSIR), Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Majumdar, Nayana; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Sarkar, Sandip [Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Colas, Paul; Attie, David [DSM/IRFU, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France)

    2013-12-21

    The bulk Micromegas detector is considered to be a promising candidate for building TPCs for several future experiments including the projected linear collider. The standard bulk with a spacing of 128μm has already established itself as a good choice for its performances in terms of gas gain uniformity, energy and space point resolution, and its capability to efficiently pave large readout surfaces with minimum dead zone. The present work involves the comparison of this standard bulk with a relatively less used bulk Micromegas detector having a larger amplification gap of 192μm. Detector gain, energy resolution and electron transparency of these Micromegas have been measured under different conditions in various Argon-based gas mixtures to evaluate their performance. These measured characteristics have also been compared in detail to numerical simulations using the Garfield framework that combines packages such as neBEM, Magboltz and Heed. Further, we have carried out another numerical study to determine the effect of dielectric spacers on different detector features. A comprehensive comparison of the two detectors has been presented and analyzed in this work. -- Highlights: •We present a comparative study between bulk Micromegas having different amplification gaps. •Various detector characteristics such as gain, electron transparency, energy resolution have been measured experimentally. •Successful comparisons of these measured data with the simulation results indicate that the device physics is quite well understood. •A numerical study to determine the effect of dielectric spacers on different detect or features has been carried out.

  9. Investigation of bulk acoustic microwaves excited by an interdigital transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshotka O. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excitation of bulk and surface acoustic waves with the interdigital transducer (IDT, which is deposited on the surface of piezoelectric crystal, is widely used in the development of devices in acoustoelectronics and in the design of the microwave acousto-optic deflectors. Excitation of bulk acoustic waves by IDT in the devices on surface acoustic waves leads to the appearance of spurious signals. At the same time excitation of bulk acoustic waves with IDT from the surface of lithium niobate crystals allows creating high frequency acousto-optic deflectors, which makes possible to significantly simplify the technology of their production. Therefore, significant attention is paid to the task of excitation and distribution of bulk acoustic waves with IDT including recent times by the method of simulation of their excitation and distribution. The obtained theoretical results require experimental verification. This paper documents the visualization of acoustic beams excited with IDT from the XY-surface of lithium niobate crystals. The Bragg cells with LiNbO3 crystals coated with IDT with a different period of electrodes were manufactured for the experimental research of excitation and distribution of bulk acoustic waves. Visualization results have shown that the acoustic waves excited with IDT distribute in both the Fresnel zone and the Fraunhofer zone. The length of these zones is caused by individual elementary emitters of which consists the IDT (by their size. At the same time the far zone for IDT is located at distances much greater than the actual size of the LiNbO3 crystals. This peculiarity is not always taken into account when calculating diffraction. The achieved results can be used to design high-frequency acousto-optic devices, as well as in the development of devices based on surface acoustic waves.

  10. Formation of multiple stoichiometric phases in binary systems by combined bulk and grain boundary diffusion: Experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F.D.; Schillinger, W.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic extremal principle has been used by the authors to treat the evolution of binary and multicomponent systems under the assumption that all phases are nearly stoichiometric. Up to now only bulk diffusion has been taken into account. The concept is now extended to combined bulk and grain boundary diffusion possible in each newly formed phase. The grains are approximated by cylinders allowing interface diffusion along the top and bottom of the grains and grain boundary diffusion along the mantle with different interface/grain boundary diffusion coefficients. A consistent analysis yields an effective diffusion coefficient taking into account the combined interface/grain boundary and bulk diffusion of each individual component. The current concept is applied to the Cu–Sn couple which has been studied by a number of researchers. The results of simulations are compared with experiments at 200 °C on solid systems reported in the literature as well as with our experiments at 250 °C with liquid Sn.

  11. The optimisation of transfer chutes in the bulk materials industry / M.N. van Aarde

    OpenAIRE

    Van Aarde, Michiel Nicolaas

    2009-01-01

    Bulk materials handling is a rapidly growing global industry. Immense challenges exist to improve the efficiency and cost effectiveness of transporting and handling bulk materials continuously. The nature and scale of bulk materials handling varies from country to country. This study specifically focuses on the handling of bulk materials in the mining sector. Within this industry, transfer chutes are a key component used for transferring bulk material from one conveyor to another. Among o...

  12. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The European (EU 25) wish to substitute solid biomass origin energy consumption (principally wood and wood waste, but also straw, crop harvest residues, vegetal and animal waste) for a part of that of fossil fuel origin (petrol, gas and coal) is beginning to pay off. 58,7 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) of solid biomass was produced in 2005, i.e. a 3.1 Mtoe increase with respect to 2004. Production of primary energy coming from direct combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in incineration plants should also be added on to this figure. The 0,2 Mtoe increase in this production with respect to 2004 brings valorization of this type of waste up to 5,3 Mtoe in 2005. (author)

  13. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  14. Particle Engineering Via Mechanical Dry Coating in the Design of Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li; Morton, David A V; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2015-01-01

    Cohesive powders are problematic in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms because they exhibit poor flowability, fluidization and aerosolization. These undesirable bulk properties of cohesive powders represent a fundamental challenge in the design of efficient pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Recently, mechanical dry coating has attracted increasing attention as it can improve the bulk properties of cohesive powders in a cheaper, simpler, safer and more environment-friendly way than the existing solvent-based counterparts. In this review, mechanical dry coating techniques are outlined and their potential applications in formulation and manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms are discussed. Reported data from the literature have shown that mechanical dry coating holds promise for the design of superior pharmaceutical solid formulations or manufacturing processes by engineering the interfaces of cohesive powders in an efficient and economical way.

  15. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, T

    1989-01-01

    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  16. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  17. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun

    2011-06-26

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun; Wu, Ying; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  20. Proton tunneling in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-01-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  1. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  2. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  3. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  4. Optical properties of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Wooten, Frederick

    1972-01-01

    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  5. Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Z; Manchiraju, K [Southwire Co.

    2012-02-22

    This project is to develop and demonstrate the concept feasibility of a highly energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis process, friction stir extrusion (FSE) technology. Specifically, the project seeks to explore and demonstrate the feasibility to recycle metals, produce nano-particle dispersion strengthened bulk materials and/or nano-composite materials from powders, chips or other recyclable feedstock metals or scraps through mechanical alloying and thermo-mechanical processing in a single-step. In this study, we focused on metal recycling, producing nano-engineered wires and evaluating their potential use in future generation long-distance electric power delivery infrastructure. More comprehensive R&D on the technology fundamentals and system scale-up toward early-stage applications in two targeted “showcase” fields of use: nano engineered bulk materials and Al recycling will be considered and planned as part of Project Continuation Plan.

  6. Processing and characterization of bulk FeSe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muralidhar, M.; Hanai, T.; Furutani, K.; Diko, P.; Jirsa, Miloš; Murakami, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2016), s. 109-115 ISSN 2328-2231 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : FeSe * x-ray diffraction * magnetization measurements * SEM * EDX analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  7. Magnetic characterisation of large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O superconductor–soft ferromagnetic alloy hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M.P.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Kirsch, S.; Xu, Z.; Dennis, A.R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D.A.; Vanderheyden, B.; Vanderbemden, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large grain, bulk YBaCuO superconductor (SC) combined with ferromagnetic elements. • The flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet in the remanent state. • The trapped field in the SC is enhanced by the presence of the ferromagnet. • The effects of the SC and the ferromagnet add when the ferromagnet is saturated. - Abstract: Large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) high temperature superconductors (HTS) have significant potential for use in a variety of practical applications that incorporate powerful quasi-permanent magnets. In the present work, we investigate how the trapped field of such magnets can be improved by combining bulk YBCO with a soft FeNi, ferromagnetic alloy. This involves machining the alloy into components of various shapes, such as cylinders and rings, which are attached subsequently to the top surface of a solid, bulk HTS cylinder. The effect of these modifications on the magnetic hysteresis curve and trapped field of the bulk superconductor at 77 K are then studied using pick-up coil and Hall probe measurements. The experimental data are compared to finite element modelling of the magnetic flux distribution using Campbell’s algorithm. Initially we establish the validity of the technique involving pick-up coils wrapped around the bulk superconductor to obtain its magnetic hysteresis curve in a non-destructive way and highlight the difference between the measured signal and the true magnetization of the sample. We then consider the properties of hybrid ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) structures. Hall probe measurements, together with the results of the model, establish that flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet, which acts, effectively, like a magnetic short circuit. Magnetic hysteresis curves show that the effects of the superconductor and the ferromagnet simply add when the ferromagnet is saturated fully by the applied field. The trapped field of the hybrid structure is always larger than that of the

  8. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  9. Physical properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies

  10. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  11. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  12. Solid biomass barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually warm temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. The first 4 countries are Germany (11.690 Mtoe), France (9.223 Mtoe), Sweden (8.165 Mtoe) and Finland (7.476 Mtoe) and when the production is relative to the population the first 4 countries become: Finland (1.391 toe/inhab.), Sweden (0.867 toe/inhab.), Latvia (0.784 toe/inhab.) and Estonia (0.644 toe/inhab.). Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing, to reach 72.800 TWh at the end of 2011, it means +2.6% compared to 2010. The energy policy of various states concerning solid biomass is analyzed

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  14. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  15. Continuous mixing of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raouf, M.S.

    1963-01-01

    The most important literature on theoretical aspects of mixing solids was reviewed.

    Only when the mixed materials showed no segregation it was possible to analyse the mixing process quantitatively. In this case the mixture could be described by the 'χ' Square test. Longitudinal mixing could be

  16. Physical properties of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.

    1977-10-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies. (GHT)

  17. Prediction of changes in important physical parameters during composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters...... and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors...... for 30 days (d) under forced aeration and measurements were conducted on the solid samples at the beginning of composting and at 10-d intervals during composting. The results suggest that differences in initial physical properties of SSF influence the development of compost maximum temperatures (40...

  18. Copper phthalocyanine and metal free phthalocyanine bulk heterojunction photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Amjad, E-mail: amjad.farooq1212@hotmail.com [Wah Engineering College, University of Wah, Wah Cantt. 47040 (Pakistan); GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Swabi (Pakistan); Karimov, Kh.S. [GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Swabi (Pakistan); Physical Technical Institute, Aini St. 299/1, Dushanbe 734063 (Tajikistan); Ahmed, Nisar; Ali, Taimoor [GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Swabi (Pakistan); Khalid Alamgir, M. [National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology, NCP complex, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Usman, Muhammad [Experimental Physics Laboratories, National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-01-15

    In this study we present the dependence of electrical properties of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and metal free phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}Pc) bulk heterojunction structure under different illumination levels. To fabricate the device on ITO coated glass substrate the bulk heterojunction thin film of CuPc and H{sub 2}Pc with thickness varying from 100 nm to 300 nm are deposited by thermal evaporator. Aluminum thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation as a top contact. The optical properties of the fabricated device are investigated using UV–vis spectroscopy. The current-voltage characteristics in dark and under illumination show that the device is sensitive towards visible light. The absorption spectrum describes its photo sensitivity in the range of wavelength from 200 nm to 850 nm. Simulation of current-intensity of light curve is carried out and experimental results are found in good agreement with simulated ones.

  19. Copper phthalocyanine and metal free phthalocyanine bulk heterojunction photodetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Amjad; Karimov, Kh.S.; Ahmed, Nisar; Ali, Taimoor; Khalid Alamgir, M.; Usman, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present the dependence of electrical properties of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and metal free phthalocyanine (H 2 Pc) bulk heterojunction structure under different illumination levels. To fabricate the device on ITO coated glass substrate the bulk heterojunction thin film of CuPc and H 2 Pc with thickness varying from 100 nm to 300 nm are deposited by thermal evaporator. Aluminum thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation as a top contact. The optical properties of the fabricated device are investigated using UV–vis spectroscopy. The current-voltage characteristics in dark and under illumination show that the device is sensitive towards visible light. The absorption spectrum describes its photo sensitivity in the range of wavelength from 200 nm to 850 nm. Simulation of current-intensity of light curve is carried out and experimental results are found in good agreement with simulated ones

  20. Cast bulk metallic glass alloys: prospects as wear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Shiflet, Gary J. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA)

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are single phase materials with unusual physical and mechanical properties. One intriguing area of possible use is as a wear material. Usually, pure metals and single phase dilute alloys do not perform well in tribological conditions. When the metal or alloy is lightweight, it is usually soft leading to galling in sliding situations. For the harder metals and alloys, their density is usually high, so there is an energy penalty when using these materials in wear situations. However, bulk metallic glasses at the same density are usually harder than corresponding metals and dilute single phase alloys, and so could offer better wear resistance. This work will discuss preliminary wear results for metallic glasses with densities in the range of 4.5 to 7.9 g/cc. The wear behavior of these materials will be compared to similar metals and alloys.