Akyol, A.; Lim, W.F.; Verwijmeren, P.
Current attempts to reform financial markets presume that shareholder empowerment benefits shareholders. We investigate the wealth effects associated with the Securities and Exchange Commission's rule to facilitate director nominations by shareholders. Our results are not in line with shareholder
...', nominees for director. We believe that these rules will benefit shareholders by improving corporate suffrage, the disclosure provided in connection with corporate proxy solicitations, and communication... Communications E. Costs 1. Costs Related to Potential Adverse Effects on Company and Board Performance 2. Costs...
...: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final rule; notice of effective date. SUMMARY: This release provides notice of the effective date of the amendment to Exchange Act Rule 14a-8, the shareholder proposal rule, which will require companies to include in their proxy materials, under certain circumstances...
This paper conducts the first assessment of shareholder activism in banking and its effects on risk and performance. The focus is on the conflicts among bank shareholders, managers, and creditors (e.g., regulators, deposit insurer, taxpayers, depositors). This paper finds activism may generally be a destabilizing force, increasing bank risk-taking, but creating market value for shareholders, and leaving operating returns unchanged, consistent with the empirical dominance of the Shareholder-Cr...
Full Text Available Equal treatment of shareholders is regulated in Art.269 of Company Act (2011 of Republic of Serbia. Equal treatment of shareholders means that all shareholders are to be treated equally under same circumstances. Obligation to treat all shareholders equally rests on all company bodies, predominantly general meeting. The standard whether an action violates the principle of equal treatment of all shareholders regarding the main rights of shareholders (such as voting right etc. is the nominal value of shares, or the equal treatment per person regarding ancillary rights (such as right to speak in shareholders' meeting etc.. Any action deviating from this standard is unlawful if the unequal treatment is not justified on the facts. If the principle of equal treatment is violated by general meeting resolution, such resolution may be annulled by the court.
Kempf, Elisabeth; Manconi, Alberto; Spalt, Oliver
Investor attention matters for corporate actions. Our new identification approach constructs firm-level shareholder "distraction" measures, by exploiting exogenous shocks to unrelated parts of institutional shareholders' portfolios. Firms with "distracted" shareholders are more likely to announce
Strand, Therese; Poulsen, Thomas; Thomsen, Steen
The article discusses the development of a voting power theory that is applied to a unique data set on Swedish shareholder meetings. The authors hypothesize that there is a positive relationship between shareholder activism and the largest shareholder's sensitivity to greater participation by small...... shareholders. It is shown that firms' amenability to small shareholder influence results in more proposals by nomination committees that are dominated by large shareholders, but fewer proposals by other shareholders. The importance of local institutions are highlighted and a call for more research regarding...... shareholder activism in alternative institutional settings is mad...
Full Text Available Democracy and participation of shareholders or the demand for their active participation in the meetings of the Assemblyhas increasingly gained in importance in modern conditions. This is because, negative trends of passivation, the limitations of democratic potential of shareholders and shareholders' rights abuse by the management body, especially in the work control and compensation policy of shareholders, have been observed in a detailed analysis of the application and results of the Shareholder Rights Directive. The passivity of shareholders, as one of the most striking features of their position in the joint stock company today, is the biggest problem and threat to democratic processes within the company. If we bear in mind that the most common definition of shareholder democracy is 'ability of shareholders to influence the management of the company', we can notice a clear picture of the seriousness and importance of the lack of shareholder participation. This is the reason why the author of this paper gradually examines the causes and consequences of the passivity of shareholders, the proposed changes in this context in the Law of the European Union and the practical implications of such solutions in practice. In addition, the author examines contemporary forms and conditions for shareholder democracy and the legal framework in the European Union and the Republic of Serbia. In this way, we analyze the situation in this area and point out shortcomings of certain solutions, as well as the implications they cause in practice. The main thesis from which starts the scientific work and which will be gradually proven through theoretical and practical analysis is that the wider social processes directly reflect on the state of the joint-stock companies, or the state of corporate governance. This means that the negative trends of modern democracy (in the constitutional sense are almost mirrored in economic capital (EC and our attempt in this paper
Souma, Wataru; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Aoyama, Hideaki
The Japanese shareholding network existing at the end of March 2002 is studied empirically. The network is constructed from 2,303 listed companies and 53 non-listed financial institutions. We consider this network as a directed graph by drawing edges from shareholders to stock corporations. The lengths of the shareholder lists vary with the companies, and the most comprehensive lists contain the top 30 shareholders. Consequently, the distribution of incoming edges has an upper bound, while that of outgoing edges has no bound. The distribution of outgoing degrees is well explained by the power law function with an exponential tail. The exponent in the power law range is γ = 1.7. To understand these features from the viewpoint of a company's growth, we consider the correlations between the outgoing degree and the company's age, profit, and total assets.
Uche, C.; Adegbite, E.; Jones, M.
The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Abstract Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to investigate institutional shareholder activism in Nigeria. It addresses the paucity of empirical research on institutional shareholder activism in sub-Saharan Africa. Design/Methodology-This study employs agency theory to understand the institutional shareholder approach to shareholde...
The probability for shareholder litigation is studied and how corporate governance characteristics and other factors explain it. Shareholder litigation results from failure of corporate governance. Thus a better quality of corporate governance is hypothesized to decrease the litigation probability. Corporate governance index is constructed based on principal components. It is found to be a significant predictor of shareholder litigation.
Assaf Hamdani; Yishay Yafeh
We examine the link between minority shareholders' rights and corporate governance by studying institutional investors' voting patterns in a concentrated ownership environment. Institutions rarely vote against insider-sponsored proposals even when the law empowers the minority. Institutions vote against compensation-related proposals more often than against related party transactions even when minority shareholders cannot influence outcomes. Potentially conflicted institutions are more likely...
... ``smaller reporting companies'' (as defined in 17 CFR 240.12b-2) as of the effective date of the final rules...: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final rule; notice of stay of effective and compliance dates...''), the effective and compliance dates of amendments to the federal proxy and related rules that the...
Pennings, J.M.E.; Wansink, B.; Hoffmann, A.O.I.
A conceptual marketing-finance framework is proposed which links channel contracting in agriculture and the use of financial facilitating services (e.g., financial derivatives) to (shareholder) value creation. The framework complements existing literature by explicitly including channel contract
Eding, Erwin; Scholtens, Bert
We study how corporate social responsibility relates to investors, firms, and shareholder proposals. We examine shareholder proposals on environmental, social, and governance issues at the annual general meeting of shareholders with US Fortune 250 firms during 2011-2014. We find that the probability
Eding, Erwin; Scholtens, Bert
We study how corporate social responsibility relates to investors, firms, and shareholder proposals. We examine shareholder proposals on environmental, social, and governance issues at the annual general meeting of shareholders with US Fortune 250 firms during 2011-2014. We find that the probability
Liang, H.; Renneboog, Luc
Do corporate donations enhance shareholder wealth or reflect agency problems? We address this question for a global sample of firms whereby we distinguish between charitable and political donations, as well as between donations in cash and in kind. We find that charitable donations are positively
There can be no reasonable doubt that the EU’s initiatives in the field of shareholders’ fundamental rights in listed companies are among the successful, relevant and necessary provisions under EU corporate and stock exchange law. This also holds true for the main Directive 2007/36. When consider......There can be no reasonable doubt that the EU’s initiatives in the field of shareholders’ fundamental rights in listed companies are among the successful, relevant and necessary provisions under EU corporate and stock exchange law. This also holds true for the main Directive 2007/36. When...... considering the whole spirit and idea of the EU and its competences, the field of basic shareholders’ rights, including cross-border shareholding, is to be regarded as a welcome initiative that has facilitated the exercise of fundamental rights also in cross-border shareholding. The success is further...... emphasized by the fact that some countries, including Denmark, have regarded a number of the fundamental rights vested in the directive as being so well formulated that the countries have chosen to gold-plate their own legislation by introducing rights which are similar to those in the directive also for non...
This paper incorporates the agency problem with a risk-sharing argument for corporate shareholding. With a unilateral investment model, we findconditions for a positive stock investment : (1)the manager is risk averse; (2)her managerial reward is linked with the value of the firm she manages; and (3)the operating profits of investing and invested companies is negatively correlated. Corporate investment is larger if the invested company's operating profit is less vo1atile and/or if the covaria...
Financial information from Imperial Oil Limited and a review of operations during 1998 was presented for the benefit of shareholders. Imperial is Canada`s largest producer of crude oil, a major producer of natural gas, and the largest refiner and marketer of petroleum products sold mostly under the Esso brand. Imperial is also a major producer of petrochemicals. Revenue and expenditure statements are summarized by source. Financial highlights for 1998 show that Imperial Oil`s earnings totaled a record $554 million. Return on shareholders` equity for the year was 12.9 per cent, down from 18.9 per cent in 1997. The continued weakness in international crude oil markets was the most significant factor affecting Imperial`s business results in 1998. All in all, the company was successful in maintaining its four major priorities of flawless execution, growth in profitable sales volumes, best-in-class cost structure, and improved productivity in asset mix. Imperial remains concerned over issues regarding Canada`s response to potential climate change. The company considers this to be the most important economic public policy issue facing Canada today. tabs., figs.
Financial information from Imperial Oil Limited and a review of operations during 1998 was presented for the benefit of shareholders. Imperial is Canada's largest producer of crude oil, a major producer of natural gas, and the largest refiner and marketer of petroleum products sold mostly under the Esso brand. Imperial is also a major producer of petrochemicals. Revenue and expenditure statements are summarized by source. Financial highlights for 1998 show that Imperial Oil's earnings totaled a record $554 million. Return on shareholders' equity for the year was 12.9 per cent, down from 18.9 per cent in 1997. The continued weakness in international crude oil markets was the most significant factor affecting Imperial's business results in 1998. All in all, the company was successful in maintaining its four major priorities of flawless execution, growth in profitable sales volumes, best-in-class cost structure, and improved productivity in asset mix. Imperial remains concerned over issues regarding Canada's response to potential climate change. The company considers this to be the most important economic public policy issue facing Canada today. tabs., figs
During 2005, the Carbon Trust worked with Cairneagle Associates to develop a methodology for analysing shareholder value at risk from climate change. The model developed offers a robust, replicable, top-down approach to analysing such value at risk. In addition to a company's own energy linked ('direct' and electricity linked 'indirect') carbon emissions, it looks further along the value chain and considers broader potential risk. In calculating the financial impact, the analysis quantifies the potential impact on profits, using the shape of the business in 2004, but applying a potential 2013 emissions regulatory regime. 2013 was chosen as the first year after the end of the 2008-2012 Kyoto compliance period (which also equates to Phase Two in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme). A major uncertainty is to what extent countries not currently regulated by the Kyoto Protocol (particularly the USA, India and China) will be brought into committed emission reduction targets from 2013. 2013 therefore represents the earliest year under this uncertain, but likely tougher, regulatory regime. However, although this report focuses on 2013, it needs to be recognised that, for many sectors, financial impacts will be seen significantly before this time. Ten 'case study companies' have been studied, from a range of sectors. In some cases, the 'case study company' analysed is strictly linked to a single company within that sector. In others, just a single corporate division has been reviewed, and in others yet again, characteristics from several companies have been combined to produce a more representative example. In order to enable analysis on a strictly like-for-like basis, the research has been based entirely upon public sources of information. This analysis illustrates what a determined shareholder (or other onlooker) could derive about value at risk from climate change, based upon what companies disclose today. A summary of the analysis for each sector case study is given, with
Amani Khaled Bouresli
Full Text Available This paper examines the variables that affect vote outcome in shareholder proposals. We found that sponsor identity, proposal type, and board composition play a significant role in determining vote outcome. Furthermore, we found that the interaction between the prior performance with board composition is significant and has a negative coefficient. We conducted nonparametric tests to investigate changes in board’s major characteristics before and after targeting. The results indicate that some changes in management and boards occur after shareholder proposals. These changes, however, are unrelated to variables that impact vote outcome. We conclude that shareholders proposals are not effective at changing company behavior or corporate governance
Esso Imperial is Canada's largest producer of crude oil and a major producer of natural gas. It is also the largest refiner and marketer of petroleum products, including petrochemicals, with a coast-to-coast supply network. Due mainly to higher energy prices and strong refining margins, in 2000 the Company had the highest earnings in its 120-year history. Return on equity also rose to the highest level in two decades; returns to shareholders have exceeded 20 per cent per year compounded, over the last five years. Net earnings were $1.42 billion, or $3.40 per share, compared with $510 million and $1.18 per share in 1999. During the year the Company continued to adhere to its four guiding principles -- flawless execution of day-to-day fundamentals of all aspects of the business, growth in profitable sales volumes, best-in-class cost structure, and improved productivity of asset mix. Some operating highlights from the year 2000 include: (1) expansion of the Moncton, NB-based Customer Service and Support Centre, (2) significant reduction in the number of hazardous incidents, (3) increased production of natural gas, in part as a result of new production from the Sable Offshore Energy project, (4) beginning of production from the new Aurora Mine at Syncrude, (5) start of construction on the next three phases of development at Cold Lake, (6) commissioning further conceptual engineering work and initiation of baseline biophysical data collection in the Mackenzie Delta as part of the study of the feasibility of bringing northern gas to southern markets, (7) achieving best-in-class cost structure in some of the Company's business units, despite upward pressure on operating expenses from the increased cost of energy to run plants and facilities, (8) anticipated capital expenditures of over one billion dollars, and (9) reaching agreement with ExxonMobil Canada to share common business and support services in natural resources operations, and to jointly pursue new oil
Full Text Available Shareholders' right to appraisal represents a controversial topic of corporation law, which is why a relatively small number of countries accept it. In this article, the authors analyze the goals that are supposed to be achieved with the introduction of shareholders' appraisal rights. In this respect, traditional and modern explanations for the introduction or maintaining of this right have been presented. In the second part of this article, shareholders' right to appraisal has been critically examined, mostly from corporations' perspective. Afterwards, several potential causes of inefficiency of using this right have been identified. Perceiving pros and cons of shareholders' right to appraisal is of particular importance for Serbia, in order to draw a conclusion about harmonization of our legislative solutions with the theoretical foundations of this right.
Executives have developed tunnel vision in their pursuit of shareholder value, focusing on short-term performance at the expense of investing in long-term growth. It's time to broaden that perspective and begin shaping business strategies in light of the competitive landscape, not the shareholder list. In this article, Alfred Rappaport offers ten basic principles to help executives create lasting shareholder value. For starters, companies should not manage earnings or provide earnings guidance; those that fail to embrace this first principle of shareholder value will almost certainly be unable to follow the rest. Additionally, leaders should make strategic decisions and acquisitions and carry assets that maximize expected value, even if near-term earnings are negatively affected as a result. During times when there are no credible value-creating opportunities to invest in the business, companies should avoid using excess cash to make investments that look good on the surface but might end up destroying value, such as ill-advised, overpriced acquisitions. It would be better to return the cash to shareholders in the form of dividends and buybacks. Rappaport also offers guidelines for establishing effective pay incentives at every level of management; emphasizes that senior executives need to lay their wealth on the line just as shareholders do; and urges companies to embrace full disclosure, an antidote to short-term earnings obsession that serves to lessen investor uncertainty, which could reduce the cost of capital and increase the share price. The author notes that a few types of companies--high-tech start-ups, for example, and severely capital-constrained organizations--cannot afford to ignore market pressures for short-term performance. Most companies with a sound, well-executed business model, however, could better realize their potential for creating shareholder value by adopting the ten principles.
Full Text Available The main aim is to discuss shareholder rights protection in Ukraine and Germany, which have the same Civil law legal system. Our contribution outlines, systemizes and accesses approaches how critical and weak issues in the area of shareholder protection are resolved in both countries using the mechanisms of corporate governance. Using Germany as a benchmark, the paper identifies that the most important and efficient mechanisms of shareholders rights protection, which can be implemented in Ukrainian companies are the following: principle of equal treatment and duty of loyalty which should be fixed in the legislation; enhancing the role of the National Securities and Stock Market Commission; introduction of the derivative suit system.
... AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2001 Notice of shareholders' meetings. A national bank must... notice of the shareholder's meeting. The articles of association, bylaws, or law applicable to a national...
Chiraz Ben Ali
Full Text Available This study examines whether auditors are employed as a monitoring mechanism to mitigate agency problems arising from different types of controlling shareholders. In a context of concentrated ownership and poor investor protection, controlling shareholders can easily expropriate wealth from minority shareholders and profit from private benefits of control. However, this agency conflict has been rarely studied, as the most commonly assumed agency conflict occurs between managers and shareholders. Using an audit fee model derived from Simunic (1980, we study the impact of the nature of controlling shareholders on audit fees in French listed firms. Our results show: (1 a negative relationship between audit fees and government shareholdings; (2 a positive relationship between audit fees and institutional shareholdings; and (3 no relationship between audit fees and family shareholdings. These results illustrate the mixed effects of the nature of ownership on audit fees.
Urzua Infante, F.; Larrain, B.
We examine market timing in the equity issuance of firms controlled by large shareholders using a hand-collected data set of controlling shareholders' ownership stakes in Chile between 1990 and 2009. When a firm issues shares, the controlling shareholder can either maintain or change his ownership
Renneboog, Luc; Szilagyi, P.G.; Cziraki, Peter; Bratton, W.; McCahery, J.
This paper is the first to investigate the corporate governance role of shareholderinitiated proxy proposals in European firms. While proposals in the US are nonbinding even if they pass the shareholder vote, they are legally binding in the UK and most of Continental Europe. Nonetheless, submissions
Renneboog, L.D.R.; Szilagyi, P.G.
This paper provides evidence on the corporate governance role of shareholder-initiated proxy proposals. Previous studies debate over whether activists use proxy proposals to discipline firms or to simply advance their self-serving agendas, and whether proxy proposals are effective at all in
This doctoral thesis focuses on two topics that have received considerable attention from academics, regulators, and the business press over the past decades: insider trading, and shareholder activism. The first chapter evaluates proxy proposals as a corporate governance device in Europe. The second
Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Clausen, Nis Jul
Even though the rules on disclosure of major shareholdings in listed companies has been partly harmonised in the EU large difference remains. This is documented in the article and it is further debated whether these difference are acceptable, especially in light of the ongoing efforts to harmonise...
Clifford G. Holderness; Dennis P. Sheehan
Corporate managers who own a majority of the common stock in their company or who represent another firm owning such an interest appear to be less constrained than managers of diffusely held firms, yet their power to harm minority shareholders must be circumscribed by some organizational or legal arrangements. Empirical investigations reveal that boards of directors in majority-owned firms are little different from firms with diffuse stock ownership. Another source of constraints on a majorit...
Lee, Edward; Powell, Ronan
We examine the determinants of corporate cash holdings in Australia and the impact on shareholder wealth of holding excess cash. Our results show that a trade-off model best explains the level of a firm’s cash holdings in Australia. We find that 'transitory' excess cash firms earn significantly higher risk-adjusted returns compared to 'persistent' excess cash firms, suggesting that the market penalises firms that hoard cash. The marginal value of cash also declines with larger cash balances, ...
Full Text Available As one of the more progressive facets of the socially responsibleinvestment (SRI movement, shareholder activism isgenerally recommended or justified on the grounds that itcan create social change. But how effective are differentkinds of activist campaigns likely to be in this regard? Thisarticle outlines the full range of different ways in whichshareholder activism could make a difference by carefullygoing through, first, all the more specific lines of actiontypically included under the shareholder activismumbrella and, second, all of the different ways in which ithas been suggested that these could influence the activitiesof commercial companies. It is argued that – althoughmuch more empirical research is needed in the area – thereare at least theoretical reasons for thinking that it will bedifficult to influence companies through the standardactions of filing or voting on shareholder resolutions.However, some alternative strategies open to activists mayallow them to increase their efficacy. It is specificallyargued that even individual investors could be able to pushfor corporate change through devising a radically selfsacrificialcampaign that manages to get the attention ofpowerful forces outside the corporate sphere.
Ekholm, Bo-Göran; Wallin, Jan
There has been considerable discussion in the literature about the relative merits of shareholder value management and stakeholder value management, but relatively little empirical research has been reported concerning the relationship between these types of management and financial performance. The present study puts forward a hypothesis that true shareholder value management also encompasses stakeholder value management. This combination of shareholder/stakeholder value management is hypoth...
With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating stakeholder-owner. Maximization of shareholder value is a special case of owner-maximization, and only under quite re-strictive assumptions shareholder maximization is larger or equal to stakeholder-owner...
...) Termination of shareholder's interest in corporation during taxable year. If a shareholder terminates his or... termination of the shareholder's interest in the corporation. (3) Multiple indebtedness. If a shareholder..., immediately prior to the termination of the shareholder's interest in the corporation, the reduction in basis...
The Annual General Meeting of Shareholders (‘AGM’) is widely considered as playing a vital and pivotal role in the corporate governance framework in business across Europe, but issues such as shareholder absenteeism and a lack of internal dialogue mean that the AGM’s effectiveness in company
....815-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions to Shareholders § 1.815-2 Distributions to shareholders. (a) In general. Section 815 provides that every stock life insurance company subject to the tax imposed by...
Renneboog, L.D.R.; Szilagyi, P.G.
This paper reopens the debate on the substitutability of dividends and shareholder control in mitigating free cash flow concerns, by examining dividend behavior when shareholder control is restricted in the firm.We consider the stakeholder-oriented governance regime of the Netherlands, where
Sørensen, Karsten Engsig
The contribution discuss how the harmonisation in the EU has been directed at either preventing or solving conflicts between shareholders.......The contribution discuss how the harmonisation in the EU has been directed at either preventing or solving conflicts between shareholders....
Gassman, A S
This article is the second in a series addressing the structuring of group medical entities, shareholder relationships, and general representation factors. In this article, a number of the legal and business considerations for entering into shareholder and partnership agreements are discussed, and various types of practice structures and recommended group practice agreement provisions are described.
Full Text Available The recodification of commercial and civil law in the Czech Republic has resulted in a new concept for the legislation relating to securities. Significant changes have also been made to the legislation covering shares. The new legislation concerns not only the actual form of shares, but also their circulation. The aim of this article is to highlight the most important changes in the legislation relating to bearer shares, especially bearer shares in paper form, and to assess these changes from the viewpoint of their impact on the transparency of joint stock companies and uncontrolled circulation of shares. This assessment will be based on an appraisal of the importance of bearer shares for capital business in the Czech Republic and the effects the new legislation is expected to bring about. The article will also consider possible alternatives in the behavior of shareholders (investors who prefer to remain anonymous.
Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Clausen, Nis Jul
This article analysis the present regulation of disclosure of shareholdings whereby the identity of a shareholder and the size of his/her shareholding is made know to the public. The focus is on the directive on disclose of major shareholdings, and how it has been implemented in the Member States...
AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... been circumvented through the system of voting adopted especially in the election ... cumulative voting system and electronic participation of shareholders or their ...
The relationship between ownership structure and performance has received considerable attention in the literature. This paper focuses on the relationship between ownership structure and risk management. Specifically, the paper addresses the relationship between (1) the identity and influence...... of the largest shareholder and (2) whether risk management decisions are made in order to satisfy shareholders in particular or stakeholders in general. Covering a sample of Danish, non-financial companies a statistically significant, negative relationship is found between personal ownership and the likelihood...... that the aim of risk management is to satisfy shareholders in particular. No significant relationship is found for foundation-owned companies. Furthermore, a positive relationship is found between the size of the company and the tendency to satisfy shareholders in particular. The finding in relation...
Inherent in corporate governance is the conflict between satisfying stakeholders in general and satisfying shareholders in particular. This empirical study of Danish non-financial companies enhances the understanding of the interaction between corporate risk management and corporate governance...
in this thesis is the relative power of shareholders embedded in the structure of share ownership in public firms. It is particularly important to understand the effect of concentrated share ownership, given that this is the dominant ownership structure for both public and private firms around the world....... This interest in the power of large shareholders is the animating theme of this thesis, which consists of three self-contained research papers. The aim is to analyze how the power of large shareholders varies with different structures of share ownership and through that increase our awareness of how this may...... affect firms' operations. Such an analysis calls for some kind of measure of influence. The game-theoretic idea of power indices is a useful quantitative tool to model influence within the group of shareholders. Therefore, the purpose is to investigate the effect of ownership structure...
... PAYMENTS § 111.4 Election of shareholders. An Indian holding equal rights in two or more tribes can share... enrolled and to relinquish in writing his claims to payments to the other. In the case of a minor the...
Haan, Marco; Riyanto, Yohanes
We study the role of takeover threats as a corporate control mechanism using Aghion and Tirole's (1997) model of formal and real authority. Shareholders do not monitor the manager's actions, since ownership is widely dispersed. A corporate raider may monitor, and steps in if a profit opportunity exists. In our model, a takeover threat decreases the manager's effort and does not benefit shareholders. The effect of a takeover threat on the expected value of the firm is ambiguous. It is in the i...
Schneider, G.; Schaltegger, S.; Rechsteiner, R.; Figge, F.; Kuhn, R; Biedermann, D.
In its function as a purely financial concept for company assessment, does shareholder value promote short-term thinking or can an enterprise's orientation towards shareholder value be sustainable? What contradictions exist between the yield, security and liquidity of an asset and ethically and ecologically correct behaviour? One of the authors shows why effective environmental protection and a simultaneous increase in shareholder value are both possible and sensible. Especially when the assessment of the future economic chances of an enterprise in a changing ecological frame of reference are being examined, the shareholder value approach is well suited as a conceptional basis - provided it is correctly used. Can shareholders replace environmental policy? This question is asked by another of the authors. Is a 'green' strategy good, simply because it generates more profit? Can green capitalism rescue the world? According to another contributor there is no real contradiction between the shareholder value approach and the stake holder concept. The shareholder value approach is primarily a method for looking at an enterprise from the capital investor's point of view. The stake holder concept can, on the other hand, be assigned to the strategic management category. It shows that enterprises must take account of stake holder requirements in order to permanently be able to reach their goals. A further contribution addresses the role played by pension funds. What responsibility is carried by a pension fund when it invests its assets? What are its objectives? Which role do socially and ecologically-oriented investments play? Is there really a contradiction between economy and ecology? How does a pension fund deal with possible conflicting objectives? Another contributor presents an investment foundation's integrated approach to socially responsible investment: First of all, investments should be made in those enterprises and countries that make exceptional contributions to
The relationship between ownership structure and performance has received considerable attention in the literature. This paper focuses on the relationship between ownership structure and risk management. Specifically, the paper addresses the relationship between (1) the identity and influence of the largest shareholder and (2) whether risk management decisions are made in order to satisfy shareholders in particular or stakeholders in general. Covering a sample of Danish, non-financial compani...
Ibrahim, Mohammed Yussoff; Ahmad, Ayoib Che; Khan, Muhammad Anees
This paper proposes to investigate the postulations of renowned agency theory and shareholder value (SHV) in relation to Corporate Governance (CG) attributes. Shareholder value is of a great concern to the shareholders of firms. Shareholder value have been investigated by numerous studies of corporate governance but with inconsistent empirical evidence. This study will focus on investigating the impact of CG attributes on Shareholder value measured by Tobin’s Q or return on both equity and as...
Maizatul A. Musa
Not many studies have been undertaken on shareholder activism in emerging economies, including Malaysia. Shareholder activism in emerging economies is on the rise. This paper seeks to comprehend the elements of this activism that are unique to Malaysia, specifically with respect to how the agency problem is controlled through shareholder activism in improving corporate governance practices within target companies. Through shareholder activism, shareholders make contact with a target company t...
Full Text Available Board members may well be responsible for dissension between themselves and shareholders since they are simultaneously the setters and receivers of both board remuneration and dividends. They may act out of their own personal interests at the expense of external shareholders. We investigate the impact of ownership structure, board structure and control deviation on payment asymmetry, where excessively high remuneration is paid to board members but considerably lower dividends are distributed to shareholders. We find strong evidence confirming that the smaller the shareholdings of board members and outside blockholders are, the more asymmetric the payments are. With controlling family members on the board and a higher percentage of seats held by independent board members, there is a slight reduction in the likelihood and severity of payment asymmetry. In addition, it is abundantly clear that the larger the board seat-control deviation is, the greater is the likelihood and severity of payment asymmetry. While prior research has primarily focused on board-manager agency issues, the board-shareholder perspective could be even more important in that it is the board that is the most directly delegated agent of shareholders, not the managers
Full Text Available The concept of Net Present Value (NPV is a widely accepted tool for verification of financial rationality of planned investment projects. Projects with positive NPV increase a company's value. Similarly, those with negative NPV lead to a decline in the value of a business. This article attempts to answer the question: are projects with negative NPV always disadvantageous in terms of maximization of shareholder value and when should an NPV-negative project be considered justified? The authors discuss the issues of project valuation depending on different conditions. First, they briefly summarize the main idea of valuation - the aim of every company is to maximize shareholder value. Contemporary professional texts say that the way to achieve this goal is through projects that can generate a positive Net Present Value. When there are no such investments within reach, the company should pay dividends to its owners. The authors claim that some circumstances justify investments with a negative Net Present Value, as they still produce maximum possible shareholder value. The three model situations where this takes place are: (1 tax on dividends; (2 shareholders' perception of risk; and (3 temporary inefficiency of the markets. Taxes on dividends reduce cashflows for shareholders from distributed dividends. Therefore, they act exactly as an investment with a negative NPV. The authors conclude that this creates an opportunity to maximize shareholder value by comparing this loss with available alternate projects with negative NPV. If the loss of worth, caused by such taxes, is bigger that the negative NPV of possible investments it will be more rational to invest instead of paying dividends. And, according to the authors, a project with a negative NPV leads to maximized shareholder value. In the second situation, the authors point out that some projects may have negative fundamental (intrinsic value when valuated by the market (diversified owners because
Arsić Zoran V.
Full Text Available Company Act of Republic of Serbia includes mechanism for the compulsory acquisition of the shareholdings of minority shareholders. Technically this procedure is effected on the basis of the shareholders assembly resolution. Buyer is shareholder who has at least 90% of share capital and at least 90% of votes. Shares owned by entity under his dominant influence will be treated as shares of that shareholder provided that dominant influence exists at least one year. Company's own shares, and shares subject o a pledge do not represent shares of other shareholders. There are several actions which may be treated as abuse of right of compulsory acquisition of shares.
Financial information from Esso Imperial Oil, one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil and natural gas, was presented and a review of their 2003 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. In 2003, the total return on Imperial shares including capital appreciation and dividends was more than 30 per cent (TSX), and about 58 per cent (AMEX). In the past decade, the total return on Imperial's shares has averaged more than 18 per cent per year. Dividend payments have been paid every year for more than a century, and regular dividend payments have increased in each of the past 9 years. Since 1995, nearly 220 million shares have been purchased, reducing the number of outstanding shares by 38 per cent, representing a total distribution to shareholders of about $6 billion over this period. Major projects in natural resources have included expansion at Syncrude, increased production at Cold Lake, progress in the project to develop natural gas resources in the Mackenzie Delta, and plans to develop Kearl oil sands properties near Fort McMurray, Alberta. There were also promising exploration opportunities off Canada's east coast. Employee safety performance in 2003 was the best on record. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information. This included the accounts of Imperial Oil Inc. and its subsidiaries and the company's proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs
Shrikant Krupasindhu Panigrahi
Full Text Available In this paper, the author investigated the influence of management decisions like capital structure, dividend policies, remunerations, credit policy decisions and investment decisions on shareholder wealth maximization. To achieve the objective, portfolio theory, capital asset pricing model and modern financial theory providing evidence on the linkage between management decisions to shareholder’s value. Shareholders are only concerned about the value of shares of the company and the amount of return in the form of dividend paid. Thus in order to meet the demands of the shareholders of the company, managers needs to increase their abilities and skills to overcome the organizational goals. Thus the main goal of this paper is to discuss on the role of management decisions towards increasing shareholder’s wealth and meet organizational goals.
Crespi, R.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
This paper investigates whether voting coalitions are formed by shareholders in order to discipline incumbent management. Shapley values capturing the relative power of shareholder coalitions by category of owner, outperform models with percentage ownership stakes and models measuring the relative
Chin Fei Goh
Full Text Available This article explores the economic incentives of dominant controlling shareholders with regard to the expropriation of minority shareholders, on the one hand, and the monitoring role of non-dominant large shareholders in family firms, on the other. The authors argue that family controlling shareholders (or family owners do not share common interests with other shareholders. Drawing on 141 family firms in the manufacturing sector that were listed on Bursa Malaysia (the Malaysian stock exchange from 2003 to 2006, the article finds an inverted U-shaped relationship between excess control rights and a firm's market performance. The findings also show that both the cash flow rights (i.e. claims on cash payouts of family controlling shareholders and the presence of non-dominant large shareholders with the ability to contest control of the firm have a positive relationship with market performance. This study contributes to the literature by indicating that family owners are unlikely to collude with other large shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders. Furthermore, low levels of excess family-owner control rights are beneficial for market performance because firms may benefit from group affiliations and receive patronage from wealthy owners. However, high levels of excess control rights are understood to be an economic incentive for family owners to expropriate minority shareholders during non-crisis periods.
... for shareholders that constructively own interests in certain foreign corporations. The temporary... to their PFIC interests. The temporary regulations also affect certain shareholders that rely on a... that most small entities do not own an interest in a PFIC, and the fact that PFIC shareholders...
Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.
As institutional investors are the largest shareholders in most listed UK firms, one expects them to monitor the firms they invest in. However, there is mounting empirical evidence which suggests that they do not perform any monitoring. This paper provides a new test on whether UK institutional
There is ample evidence today that demanding best practice standards of good corporate governance and convincing enforcement processes lead to higher market valuations of enterprises in free capital markets. This paper contains the following headings: key prerequisites for success with non-controlling shareholders; institutional investors have a fiduciary duty to act convincingly in the in...
Haan, Marco; Riyanto, Yohanes
We study the role of takeover threats as a corporate control mechanism using Aghion and Tirole's (1997) model of formal and real authority. Shareholders do not monitor the manager's actions, since ownership is widely dispersed. A corporate raider may monitor, and steps in if a profit opportunity
Haan, Marco; Riyanto, Yohanes
Abstract We study the role of takeover threats as a corporate control mechanism using Aghion and Tirole's (1997) model of formal and real authority. Shareholders do not monitor the manager's actions, since ownership is widely dispersed. A corporate raider may monitor, and steps in if a prot
... shall, upon notice by the Internal Revenue Service that the regulated investment company has failed to... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to shareholders. 1.854-2 Section 1.854-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED...
... respect to the holders of interest in the unit investment trust, it shall so notify the Internal Revenue... Internal Revenue Service that the regulated investment company has failed to comply with the agreement... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to shareholders. 1.853-3 Section 1.853-3...
Cziraki, P.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Szilagyi, P.G.
This paper is the first to investigate the corporate governance role of shareholderinitiated proxy proposals in European firms. While proposals in the US are nonbinding even if they pass the shareholder vote, they are legally binding in the UK and most of Continental Europe. Nonetheless, submissions
...) Avoidance of Federal income tax. Section 302(c)(2)(B) provides that section 302(c)(2)(A) shall not apply— (1... one of its principal purposes the avoidance of Federal income tax merely because the transferee is in... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Recipients § 1.302-4 Termination of shareholder's interest...
Inherent in corporate governance is the conflict between satisfying stakeholders in general versus satisfying shareholders in particular. This empirical study of Danish non-financial companies finds that companies which state that their aim is to satisfy stakeholders in general ("stakeholder...
Donelli, M.; Urzua Infante, F.; Larrain, B.
We study the empirical determinants of corporate ownership dynamics in a market where large shareholders are prevalent. We use a unique, hand-collected 20-year dataset on the ownership structure of Chilean companies. Controllers’ blockholdings are on average high -as in continental Europe, for
Full Text Available Law on Business Organizations from 2011 has significantly improved the regulation of shareholders' right to ask questions in Serbia. In contrast to the previous law from 2004, that has completely transferred regulation to companies which is why there was no guarantee for exercising this right, new law contains detailed norms in this respect. They are written under the dominant influence of German law and are completely harmonized with the Shareholders' Rights Directive. All important issues of shareholders' right to ask questions have been regulated mostly with imperative norms (subject of the right, conditions for exercising this right, debtor of this obligation, court protection, etc.. Corporations have a lot of freedom to adjust exercising this right to their needs, but only by giving more rights to shareholders. Limiting the scope of this right is possible only in certain, precisely defined areas. Although the general impression of the new regulation is very positive, there are certain aspects which can be criticized. Some of them can be cured by adequate judicial interpretation, while others cannot be cured without changes to the law. In the area of conditions for exercising this right, the most important deficiency is the fact that the law has not determined when the right to ask questions can be exercised, and that stands in obvious disharmony with the adopted conception to regulate all important aspects of this right. Contrary to conditions, which basically have been properly formulated, other aspects of legislation regarding this shareholders' right contain more profound obscurities that go beyond the scope of this paper.
Kaličanin Đorđe M.
Full Text Available The pressure of financial markets, which is a consequence of shareholder revolution, directly affects the solution to the following dilemma: is the mission of corporations to maximize shareholders' wealth or to satisfy interests of other stakeholders? The domination of shareholder theory has caused the appearance of the valuebased management concept. Value-based management is a relevant concept and a process of management in modern environment. The importance of shareholder value requires transformation of traditional enterprise into value driven enterprise. This paper addresses theoretical base, shareholder revolution and the main characteristics of value-based management.
With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating...... including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... not traded on the mar-ket, and therefore there is no possibility for practical application. Broad stakeholder maximization instead in practical applications becomes satisfying certain stakeholder demands, so that the practical application will be stakeholder-owner maximization un-der constraints defined...
Full Text Available We investigate relation between board structure (size and composition and bank performance in 18 Serbian commercial banks with a dominant shareholder in 2006-2010. We analyze this relation using OLS regression analysis on an unbalanced panel dataset of 75 observations. We find no significant relation between proportion of independent directors on the board and bank performance. We also find no significant relation between bank market performance and board size. We find that bank profitability, measured by ROA and ROE, increase as the number of directors on the board decreases. This result is statistically significant after controlling for endogenous variables and unobserved macroeconomic effects. We conclude that Serbian banks with dominant shareholder should put limits on board size. The relation between bank performance and ownership concentration ratio is always negative, but significant only in case of ROA and ROE.
Full Text Available This paper challenges the notion of “universalist” or “one-size-fits-all” approach to corporate govern¬ance. It considers different perspective of understanding organization (corporations which in turn generate alter¬nate paradigms concerning the issue of corporate governance and the way one could govern the corporation. It looks more closely of various assumptions and theoretical frameworks underpinning the governance concepts. The main proposition of this paper is that different perspectives in theory and paradigms result in different diagno¬ses of and the solutions to the problems of corporate governance in practice. Hence, it might be argued that there should be varies model of governance that should be considered based on specific characteristics of organization -and of different context- in order for such model to be effective.Keywords: shareholding, stakeholding, corporate governance, shareholder rights, corporate efficiency
Large differences in the classes of shareholders of these eclectic central banks and differences in their approaches to dividend payments are highlighted in the paper. The conclusions reached are, firstly, that investment only in the shares of the central banks of Belgium and Greece (albeit only for residents in the latter instance can be regarded as growth investments. Secondly, shareholding in the Italian central bank has been used to recapitalise ailing commercial banks. Thirdly, shareholders play no role in the formulation and implementation of monetary policy. Lastly, the shareholding structure of these banks contributes to improved governance in the case of the central banks of Belgium, Greece, Italy, South Africa, Switzerland and Turkey, but no evidence can be found that central banks with shareholders in any way outperform central banks without shareholders.
Estrin, Saul; Tian, Lihui
The role of government shareholding in corporate performance is central to an understanding of China’s newly privatized large firms and the stock market. In this paper, we analyse shareholders as agents that can both harm and benefit companies. We examine the ownership structure of 826 listed corporations and find that government shareholding is surprisingly large. Its effect on corporate value is found to be negative, but non-monotonic. Up to a certain threshold, corporate value decreases as...
Young, Brigitte; Hegelich, Simon
'Das Konzept des Shareholder Value ist durch die jüngsten Entwicklungen im Unternehmenssektor, vor allem durch die Bilanz- und Betrugsskandale von TNC's und die damit verbundene Vernichtung von Arbeitsplätzen in die Kritik geraten. In den politischen Debatten über Shareholder Value wird ein Systemunterschied zwischen dem 'Stakeholder-Ansatz' (wie im rheinischen Kapitalismus) und dem mit der Liberalisierung der Finanzmärkte Ende der 70er Jahre in den USA entwickelten Begriff Shareholder Value ...
Ekholm, Bo-Göran; Wallin, Jan
There has been considerable discussion in the literature about the relative merits of shareholder value management and stakeholder value management, but relatively little empirical research has been reported concerning the relationship between these types of management and financial performance. The present study puts forward a hypothesis that true shareholder value management also encompasses stakeholder value management. This combination of shareholder/stakeholder value management is hypoth...
Full Text Available Managers working in South Africa, Peru and the United States were classified as stakeholder- and/or shareholder-oriented along the Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility (PRESOR scale. The relationship between stakeholder/shareholder orientation and perceptions of organisational performance was further explored. In South Africa and overall, respondents with both high stakeholder and low shareholder orientations reported the greatest performance satisfaction. In Peru, managers with a high stakeholder orientation reported the greatest satisfaction with organisational performance. A significant link between stakeholder or shareholder orientation and performance satisfaction was not found in the United States, however. Directions for future research are outlined.
Brownstein, A R; Panner, M J
Populist fervor in an election year has transformed executive compensation from a business issue into a political one. Critics, led by Graef Crystal, author of In Search of Excess: The Overcompensation of American Executives, charge that CEOs are ripping off shareholders with their outrageous salaries while running U.S. corporations into the ground. Politicians claim overpaid CEOs are the root cause of the U.S. competitiveness problem. Add a recessionary business climate to the fact that some CEOs earn 130 times more than their lowest paid employees, and you have the makings of a populist rebellion. In a bid to appease voters, Congress is considering several bills that would limit the deductibility of "excessive executive salaries," the SEC has opened the issue to shareholder comment, and the Financial Accounting Standards Board is looking at new accounting standards for granting stock options to executives as part of company compensation schemes. Andrew R. Brownstein and Morris J. Panner say it's time to put the debate back where it belongs--in a business context. The real question is not are executives paid too much, but are shareholders getting their money's worth. Most U.S. corporations use stock compensation to link company long-term performance to executive salaries. And because of the staggering market performance of U.S. corporations in the 1980s, an overwhelming majority of CEOs are actually paid in line with their performance. Rather than cut executive pay, Brownstein and Panner suggest that corporations extend incentive-based compensation plans to all employees, thus narrowing the salary gap and establishing pay for performance at every level of the organization.
Stoft, S.; Eto, J.; Kito, S.
This report reviews recent DSM shareholder incentive designs and performance at 10 US utilities identifies opportunities for regulators to improve the design of DSM shareholder incentive mechanisms to increase the procurement of cost-effective DSM resources. We develop six recommendations: (1) apply shared-savings incentives to DSM resource programs; (2) use markup incentives for individual programs only when net benefits are difficult to measure, but are known to be positive; (3) set expected incentive payments based on covering a utility's open-quotes hidden costs,close quotes which include some transitional management and risk-adjusted opportunity costs; (4) use higher marginal incentives rates than are currently found in practice, but limit total incentive payments by adding a fixed charge; (5) mitigate risks to regulators and utilities by lowering marginal incentive rates at high and low performance levels; and (6) use an aggregate incentive mechanism for all DSM resource programs, with limited exceptions (e.g., information programs where markups are more appropriate)
This study investigates an important but under-researched topic in Europe, the small shareholder turnout decision. We assess which factors contribute to (small) shareholder participation using a hand-collected panel dataset with information about turnout rates, voting behaviour, and ownership
... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified shareholder stock ownership test... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.883-4T Qualified shareholder stock... the stock; (D) If the individual directly owns an interest in a corporation, partnership, trust...
... Basis of Indebtedness of S Corporations to Their Shareholders; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal... Revenue Code; relating to basis of indebtedness of S corporations to their shareholders. DATES: The public... rulemaking and notice of public hearing instructed those interested in testifying at the public hearing to...
Schulze, C.; Skiera, B.; Wiesel, T.
Customers are the most important assets of most companies, such that customer equity has been used as a proxy for shareholder value. However, linking customer metrics to shareholder value without considering debt and non-operating assets ignores their effects on relative changes in customer equity
A.M. Passes (Alessio)
markdownabstractThis paper looks at shareholder activism from the perspective of the revision of the EU Shareholder Rights Directive, which was approved by the European Parliament on 14 March 2017. The main findings are as follows. First, the effective engagement of institutional investors in
Osinga, Ernst C.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Srinivasan, Shuba; Wieringa, Jaap E.
Marketing managers increasingly recognize the need to measure and communicate the impact of their actions on shareholder returns. This study focuses on the shareholder value effects of pharmaceutical direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) and direct-to-physician (DTP) marketing efforts. Although DTCA
... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies. 1.852-4 Section 1.852-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Investment Trusts § 1.852-4 Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies. (a...
... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts. 1.857-6 Section 1.857-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...-6 Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts. (a) Ordinary income. Except...
... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign tax credit allowed to shareholders. 1....853-1 Foreign tax credit allowed to shareholders. (a) In general. Under section 853, a regulated... paid by it pursuant to any income tax convention, as either a credit (under section 901) or as a...
Brounen, Dirk; Kok, N.; Ling, D.C.
The shareholder composition of listed property companies has changed from the fragmented, retail ownership, to more concentrated, institutional ownership over the past decade. In this paper, we first document significant variation in the composition of the shareholder base across the world's five
... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxes of shareholder paid by corporation. 1.164...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.164-7 Taxes of shareholder paid by corporation. Banks and other corporations paying taxes assessed...
Lawson, J.M.; Berry, M.; Milligan, V.; Yates, J.
This paper argues that sustainable and affordable finance provides a crucial pillar to support the provision of affordable housing in the long term. This finance can take on a variety of forms, comprising grants, public loans, commercial loans as well as shareholder equity. It can be facilitated by
Full Text Available The present analyses, based on a case study show the influence on the financial balance of the loans from shareholders , taking into account the accounting treatment of loans. We do not know that the Romanian economic literature to be treated that aspect. That is why we consider the study as being useful to managers, members, shareholders, and all business partners to form the economic decisions. The purpose of this financial analysis is to examine critically the accounting and financial information ofered by the companies to assess their performance and their financial position (Laurence Le Gallo. The financial position of firms is assessed based on the financial structure and financial balance. In a same time the financial balance is approached from a static perspective based on the: net situation, working capital, necessary of working capital, net treasury. The present analyses deals with financial balance in a static manner based on these four indicators listed. The sources of data for the analysis of financial balance are offered mainly in the financial statement. This document has been used data from a company that is engaged in the carriage of goods. Analysis was made over a period of five years. The present analysis showed that financial balance is influenced by the way that the shareholders loans to the company are treated by including them in long-term debt or short-term. Reprocessing of loans and their inclusion in long-term debt, changes the perspective on financial balance showing that on the long-term company has a stable balance. These aspects require preparation of loan agreements with associates as loans work in reality. The contracts must to highlight the progress of the loan on the long term and not to be extended or remodeled the short-term contracts. Of course, there are always solutions to improve the financial balance and in this way the financial position and the performance of the company. However, the proposed solutions
... individual for the purposes of determining principal shareholder status. (2) Related interest means: (i) Any... executive officers and principal shareholders. 215.9 Section 215.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... SHAREHOLDERS OF MEMBER BANKS (REGULATION O) § 215.9 Disclosure of credit from member banks to executive...
Full Text Available Purpose – This paper’s objective is to present the dynamics involving an organizational restructuring process conducted in a Brazilian subsidiary of a centenary American industrial corporation which claimed to be seeking, by means of this process, to increase the value of the company’s shares, but, which results reveal the distance between the promises and outcomes of this process, unveiling the symbolic-performative nature of such a process. Methodology – The chosen research method was the case study. The data collection involved the participant observation of a company manager (2010-2015; the conduction of non-structured interviews to the company’s managers, directors and CFO (2013-2015; documental research to the company’s internal and public sources (2010-2015; and bibliographical research to scientific papers, business press, market analysts and specialized media (2010-2015. Results – The narratives of success found in the company’s reports portray the restructuring myth as a continuous strategy, through which the company reinforces its efforts in delivering good results to shareholders. And, despite the outcomes of the case study not supporting these narratives, its performative nature legitimize the company’s commitment to the SHV management ideology towards stakeholders of the capital market, even in face of the adoption of antishareholders’ postures, such as anti-takeovers measures, the merging of the CEO and Chairman positions, its CEO perks, etc. Contributions – Paradoxically, although the researched company operates under the cold logic of finances, and under pressure to create shareholder value, it revealed to be subject to the dynamics in which the search for symbolic legitimacy plays a decisive role in maintaining its position within the hierarchy of the socially constructed field of the Management in face of other stakeholders present in the field, reinvigorating the precepts of Bourdieu’s Field Theory and
.... However, the shareholder is also liable for interest on the amount due, pursuant to section 6601.... person that is a shareholder of a section 1297(e) PFIC. 1.1297-3 Section 1.1297-3 Internal Revenue... by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a section 1297(e) PFIC. (a) In general. A shareholder (as...
Aerts, Walter; Yan, Beibei
Purpose Using composite style measures of the letter to shareholders, we elaborate dominant rhetorical profiles and qualify them from an impression management perspective. In addition, we examine how institutional differences affect rhetorical profiles by comparing intensity and contingencies of
... shareholders. A registered management investment company, other than a small business investment company... and procedures specified therefor, of reports on Form N-CSR (§§ 249.331 and 274.128 of this chapter...
Hanousek, Jan; Bena, Jan
-, č. 556 (2006), s. 1-38 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/06/1293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rent extraction * large shareholders * dividend policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics
Colonnello, Stefano; Efing, Matthias; Zucchi, Francesca
Credit derivatives give creditors the possibility to transfer debt cash flow rights to other market participants while retaining control rights. We use the market for credit default swaps (CDSs) as a laboratory to show that the real effects of such debt unbundling crucially hinge on shareholder bargaining power. We find that creditors buy more CDS protection when facing strong shareholders to secure themselves a valuable outside option in distressed renegotiations. After the start of CDS trad...
Gallen, B. L.
Factors that have a bearing on determining whether a particular merger created shareholder value were examined with the caveat that since there are a large number of factors that impact upon stock prices, it is not possible to attribute any one factor as the most significant determinant responsible for the current price of a stock. Cash flow is perhaps the most important measure of growth, however, per share growth is increasingly being recognized as important, particularly on the international scene. Mergers can also be rated by what was paid in dollars for every barrel of oil equivalent in reserves. Another indicator of value may be the price to cash flow comparison of each company involved in the transaction. Expensive paper of a company trading at a higher price/cash flow multiple exchanged for the assets of the cheaper paper of a company trading at a lower price/cash flow multiple will, in general, receive a higher multiple than it had before. This is especially true if the purchase includes good, growing assets, preferably complementary to the acquiring company's current holdings. The likelihood of success is also increased by the absence of personnel conflict, especially at the top. All of these indicators are useful, but no substitutes for caution and prudence in today's industry environment
Rodrigo Vicente Prazeres
Full Text Available This paper aimed to investigate the influence of controlling shareholder identity over earnings informativeness and to contribute empirically on the advance on the understanding of the agency conflict between controlling shareholders and minority investors through the lens of value relevance. The research sample considered 104 shares of non-financial firms negotiated on BM&FBovespa from 2011 to 2016. The methodology was conducted through panel data regression analysis. As results, this paper concludes with the following findings: i the higher the control/vote power of controlling shareholder (ownership concentration and the lower the stock liquidity, the less informative are the earnings and the greater is the probability of entrenchment and wealth expropriation by controlling shareholders; ii larger firms and highly leveraged firms have more informative earnings; iii the stock prices reflect the controlling shareholder identity; iv Firms controlled by financial institutions, nonfinancial institutions and the government are much more likely to expropriate minority investors wealth and have less informative earnings; v family firms are positively priced by the market.
Full Text Available Two prominent normative theories of business ethics are stakeholder and shareholder theory. Business ethicists generally favor the former, while business people prefer the latter. If the purpose of business ethics is “to produce a set of ethical principles that can be both expressed in language accessible to and conveniently applied by an ordinary business person” (Hasnas 1998, then it is important to examine this dichotomy.While superficially attractive, the normative version of stakeholder theory contains numerous limitations. Since balancing multiple stakeholder preferences is difficult, competing claims often become tests of political strength rather than justice. Furthermore, stakeholder theory has significant normative weaknesses.Although less attractive to academic ethicists, shareholder theory may provide superior results for society. The shareholder model focuses companies on meeting society’s material needs. Wise owners often balance other stakeholders’ views well since it is necessary for the business’s long-term success. Finally, shareholder theory has a strong normative basis in autonomy.In light of this analysis, it is incumbent upon academic business ethicists to emphasize the value of shareholder theory when teaching business ethics courses.
Hatipkarasulu, Yilmaz; Gill, James H
The increasing number of companies providing internet services and auction tools helped popularize the online reverse auction trend for purchasing commodities and services in the last decade. As a result, a number of owners, both public and private, accepted the online reverse auctions as the bidding technique for their construction projects. Owners, while trying to minimize their costs for construction projects, are also required to address their ethical responsibilities to the shareholders. In the case of online reverse auctions for construction projects, the ethical issues involved in the bidding technique directly reflects on the owner's ethical and social responsibilities to their shareholders. The goal of this paper is to identify the shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects by analyzing the ethical issues for the parties involved in the process. The identification of the ethical issues and responsibilities requires clear definition and understanding of professional ethics and the roles of the involved parties. In this paper, first, the concept of professional ethics and social responsibility is described in a general form. To illustrate the ethical issues and responsibilities, a sample case of bidding for a construction project using online reverse auction techniques is presented in which the shareholders were actively involved in questioning the ethical issues. The issues involved in the bidding process and their reflection on the shareholder responsibilities are described and analyzed for each stage of the process. A brief discussion of the overall process is also included to address the general ethical issues involved in online reverse auctions.
Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.
Integrated resource planning (IRP) seeks to identify the mix of resources that can best meet the future energy-service needs of customers. These resources include new sources, types, and owners of power plants plus demand-side management (DSM) programs. However, little explicit attention is given to utility shareholders in the typical resource-planning proceeding. Because of the complexity of state regulatory practices and tax policies, it seems unlikely that different resources that provide comparable services to customers will yield comparable returns to shareholders. This study examines a typical US investor-owned utility's financial operations and performance using a spreadsheet model we developed for this project. The model simulates an electric utility's financial operations, and produces an annual income statement, balance sheet, and cash-flow statement. We calculated the net present value of realized (cash) return on equity as the primary factor used to represent shareholder interests. We examined shareholder returns for these resources as functions of public utility commission regulation, taxes, and the utility's operating environment. Given the increasingly competitive nature of electricity markets, we examined shareholder returns for these resources in an environment where the utility competes with other suppliers solely on the basis of electricity price. (author)
Anthony O. Nwafor
Full Text Available Company directors owe duty of loyalty to the company which prohibits them from fraudulent dealings in the course of conducting the affairs of the company. Although the shareholders could, in the exercise of their voting powers, grant relieves to the directors from liabilities arising from a breach of duty that amounts to fraud, the extent and capacity in which the shareholders could exercise such powers is confounded by the elusive attempts by the courts in defining fraud. The paper argues that without a definite meaning ascribed to fraud, the power and capacity in which the shareholders could ratify a breach of duty arising from self-dealing and expropriation of corporate opportunities by directors cannot be predetermined, but that each case would be based on the peculiarities of its own facts.
Rafael Felipe Schiozer
Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of asset allocation on the net flow of fixed income funds in the Brazilian market, by exploiting the exogenous variation in the risk perception of bank liabilities (CDs caused by the financial turmoil that followed Lehman Brothers’ demise in September 2008. The central hypothesis is that the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis impacts negatively the fund’s net flow. We find that, for mutual funds, the larger proportion of assets negatively affected by the crisis the larger the net outflow of resources, indicating that shareholders monitor asset allocation and exert disciplining power on fund managers by withdrawing their resources. In exclusive (fundos exclusivos, i.e., funds with a single shareholder, for which the shareholder is presumed to exert more influence on asset reallocation, we find no significant relationship between the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis and net flows.
Full Text Available The purpose of corporate governance mechanisms is to prevent opportunistic behaviour by managers, in order to align the interests of owners and managers. Following from this, our research topic is the analysis of ownership concentration as an internal mechanism to protect the interests of shareholders. In the study of the interdependence between ownership concentration and shareholder protection, particular importance needs to be given to the relationship between ownership structure, the role of the board, and strategic decision-making. Starting from this interdependence, our research aim is to examine the impact of ownership concentration on the protection of shareholders’ interests and the board’s responsibility for firm strategy. This paper presents the results of an empirical, pilot study in the Republic of Serbia. The research confirms the interdependence of corporate governance mechanisms and strategic decision-making. Our findings indicate that ownership concentration protects majority shareholder interests and leads to lower board responsibility for strategic decision-making.
Full Text Available One of the most urgent problems of post-privatization period in Russia is considered in the article. This is process of forming new property relation formed as a joint-stock company with employees-shareholders (people’s company. Contradictions in low basis and in activity of people’s companies are determined. Trends of future improvement of this process are also offered. We believe that such analysis of joint-stock companies with employees-shareholders forming will be useful not only for researchers, studying problems of property and new forms of business, but also for government authority.
Siala Bouaziz Souha
Full Text Available This study deals with the major determinants of company shareholder activism investigated with according to a set of SBF 120 listed firms. Based on a sample of 77 companies, observed over the period 2008–2012, we are led to conclude that some firm governance characteristics do appear to affect shareholding activism. In addition, it has been revealed that the presence of institutional investors, ownership concentration, leaders’ presence in the capital, control structure, leadership change, firm growth as well as leverage level appear to have a significant influence on the probability of activism to take place.
Business Strategy Formulation By Shareholders and Company Management using The Analytical Network Process (ANPBusiness Strategy Formulation by Shareholders and Company Management Using Analytical Network Process (ANP
Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the business strategy formulation by the shareholders and the management of the company. Ten companies were selected to be the objects of this research. Those companies were the information technology, telecommunication, printing, mining, construction and chemical companies in Indonesia. The research was conducted by using the Analytical Network Process (ANP and considering the chosen respondents as the decision makers (experts of those companies. The respondents were chosen by using the non-probabilitty sampling method. The result shows that the roles of the company managements are considered m ore influental (0,57143 than the roles of the shareholders (0,28571. From the output of stakeholder’s condition, the best-stratified priority strategies are differentiation (0,600515, cost of leadership (0,230754 and focus (0,168731.
Modern perceptions of good corporate governance assume that the general meeting has a meaningful role in the governance of listed companies and that shareholders make responsible use of their voting rights. Assessments after the financial crisis, however, indicate that institutional investors by and
... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information required in returns of shareholders. 1.852-7 Section 1.852-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment...
... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information required in returns of shareholders. 1.857-9 Section 1.857-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-9 Information required...
... made elections under section 1295 or 1296 with respect to the PFIC stock, generally are required to... regimes for shareholders that own stock of a PFIC: (i) the excess distribution rules under section 1291... mark to market (``MTM'') rules under section 1296. In general, section 1291 imposes a special tax and...
... Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. This form shall be used by registered management investment... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified... Form N-CSR, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified... Required Under Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 § 249.331 Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. This form shall be used by registered management investment companies to file reports...
van der Elst, Christoph; Lafarre, Anne
The Netherlands adopted shareholders’ say on pay over a decade ago. The general meeting of shareholders must approve the remuneration policy and any amendments to it. This Dutch approach offers fruitful insights into how say on pay works in practice. In the light of the recent European proposal to
Bena, Jan; Hanousek, Jan
-, č. 291 (2006), s. 1-45 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/06/1293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rent extraction * large shareholders * corporate governance Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp291.pdf
... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of DISC income to shareholders. 1.995...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.995-1 Taxation of DISC... to taxation on the earnings and profits of the DISC in accordance with the provisions of chapter 1 of...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-113350-13] RIN 1545-BL56 Taxation of U.S. Persons That Are Shareholders of Section 1291 Funds AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Partial withdrawal of notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This document withdraws a...
Die Studie zeigt, was unter Stakeholder Value verstanden werden kann, wie Shareholder Value und Stakeholder Value gemessen werden können und welche Verbindung zwischen beiden Konzepten besteht. In dieser Studie wird erstmals die Wertbeitragsanalyse von Stakeholderbeziehungen vorgestellt. Anhand der Stakeholder Value Matrix lässt sich zeigen, welche Stakeholdergruppen zusammen positiv zum Unternehmenswert beitragen.
... election to expense certain depreciable business expenses (section 179); medical, dental, etc., expenses... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1366-1... used in the trade or business and involuntary conversions), grouped by applicable holding periods, by...
Ramdani, D.; van Witteloostuijn, A.
We examine the impact on firm bribery of two corporate governance devices heavily studied in corporate governance research—i.e., separation of ownership and control, and equity share of the largest shareholder. In addition, we investigate the impact of the principal–owner’s gender on firm bribery.
Beckers, Sander F.M.; van Doorn, Jenny; Verhoef, Peter C.
In today’s connected world, customer engagement behaviors are very important. Many companies launch initiatives to stimulate customer engagement. However, despite evidence that customer engagement behavior also matters to share-holders, academic research on the firm value consequences of customer
Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Yan, LiLi
Two-mode and multi-mode networks represent new directions of simulating a complex network that can simulate the relationships among the entities more precisely. In this paper, we constructed two different levels of networks: one is the two-mode primitive networks of the energy listed companies and their shareholders on the basis of the two-mode method of complex theory, and the other is the derivative one-mode holding-based network based on the equivalence network theory. We calculated two different topological characteristics of the two networks, that is, the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network (9003 nodes) and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network (619,766 edges), and we analyzed the distribution features of both of the two topological characteristics. In this paper, we define both the weighted and un-weighted Shareholding Similarity Coefficient, and using the data of the worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders as empirical study subjects, we calculated and compared both the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies. The result of the analysis indicates that (1) both the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network follow a power-law distribution; (2) there are significant differences between the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies, and the weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is of greater regularity than the un-weighted one; (3) there are a vast majority of shareholders who hold stock in only one or a few of the listed energy companies; and (4) the shareholders hold stock in the same listed energy companies when the value of the un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is between 0.4 and 0.8. The study will be a helpful tool to analyze the relationships of the nodes of the one-mode network, which is constructed based
In January 2004 British-Dutch oil concern Dutch-Shell admitted that its tally of oil reserves contains the overrated entries. The financial market immediately responded to the report of this company, shareholders and competitor also responded. Shareholders united and applied a group complaint; a competitor precipitously proclaimed that a competitor does not have overrated the reserves. A revision of the stocks caused that original 13-14 years stocks have fallen to 10-11 years. Shell has also sold its 50 percent share in West Indian oil field only for 7.25 million USD. The estimations of Sairn Energy Company, which has bought this oil field, tell about the stocks on the level from 450 million to 1.1 billion barrels
This article analyses the Dutch group settlement model from a company law and capital market law perspective. The author considers the WCAM procedure primarily as a forum and an instrument for companies in Europe and shareholders claiming damage caused by the company’s insufficient information to...... to the market. The article focuses on important questions for the Dutch settlement model, i.e. questions of jurisdiction, notification, and legal effect of the settlement. The author develops some important perspectives for European procedural and company law.......This article analyses the Dutch group settlement model from a company law and capital market law perspective. The author considers the WCAM procedure primarily as a forum and an instrument for companies in Europe and shareholders claiming damage caused by the company’s insufficient information...
Full Text Available Based on characteristics of the nonlife joint-stock insurance company, this paper presents a compound binomial risk model that randomizes the premium income on unit time and sets the threshold for paying dividends to shareholders. In this model, the insurance company obtains the insurance policy in unit time with probability and pays dividends to shareholders with probability when the surplus is no less than . We then derive the recursive formulas of the expected discounted penalty function and the asymptotic estimate for it. And we will derive the recursive formulas and asymptotic estimates for the ruin probability and the distribution function of the deficit at ruin. The numerical examples have been shown to illustrate the accuracy of the asymptotic estimations.
Armour, J.; Deakin, S.; Konzelmann, Suzanne J.
Core institutions of UK corporate governance, in particular the City Code on Takeovers and Mergers, the Combined Code on Corporate Governance and the law on directors’ duties, are strongly orientated towards the norm of shareholder primacy. Beyond the core, however, stakeholder interests are better represented, in particular at the intersection of insolvency and employment law. This reflects the influence of European Community laws on information and consultation of employees. In addition, th...
One of the oft-quoted theorems of finance is that decision making based on net present value will lead to the maximisation of shareholder value. The study analyses the reality background of this theorem within the disciplinary borders of business economics. Since finance is based directly on the bases of microeconomics, the study touches upon the presentation of the different disciplinary frames of business economics and microeconomics. The paper demonstrates that the economic content of shar...
Bena, J.; Hanousek, Jan
Roč. 58, 3-4 (2008), s. 106-130 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/06/1293; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : rent extraction * large shareholders * dividend policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1125_str_106_130--bena-hanousek.pdf
Aznan, H.; Harith Amir Hasan Al Timimi
This study examines the concept of corporate governance in shareholding companies and the legal perspective in comparison with the position of Shari’ah. The purpose of governance is to instil confidence among the stakeholders that the Boards of Directors are applying a diligent legal and administrative framework, to avoid potential administrative and financial failures and corruption. The study has proceeded by defining the concept of governance from linguistics, accounting, administrat...
Nordlind, Felix; Lucki Racana, Samuel
Prior research on conservative accounting and bondholder-shareholder conflict show that firms with higher degree of conservatism experience less austere conflict and lower cost of debt. However, since the implementation of IFRS in 2005, conservatism has been widely reduced in favor of fair value principles. This study sets out to examine if accounting conservatism still mitigates the conflict and reduces cost of debt. We regress two measures of conservatism on three conflict proxies and debt ...
Full Text Available The Author of the article presents the results of research devoted to the forms of transfer of profit to shareholders of the companies quoted at Warsaw Stock Exchange in the period 2009–2013. The Author concluded that there are features in the group of dividend companies and another group – that of dividend companies which additionally execute share redemption and cancellation – which make them different.
Abstract Mergers and acquisitions have gained enormous popularity in the recent past. There have been five trends in the previous century alone. There is however, a conflict in the literature regarding the impacts of such financial activities. While some researchers support mergers due to the financial profits associated with them, others argue against them as not being very favourable for the shareholders of the companies. This research therefore aims at calculating any abnormal returns ...
David Levy; Mark Mitschow
Two prominent normative theories of business ethics are stakeholder and shareholder theory. Business ethicists generally favor the former, while business people prefer the latter. If the purpose of business ethics is “to produce a set of ethical principles that can be both expressed in language accessible to and conveniently applied by an ordinary business person” (Hasnas 1998), then it is important to examine this dichotomy.While superficially attractive, the normative version of stakeholder...
Colonnello, Stefano; Efing, Matthias; Zucchi, Francesca
Credit derivatives allow creditors to transfer debt cash flow rights to other market participants while retaining control rights. Theory predicts that this transfer can create empty creditors that do not fully internalize liquidation costs and liquidate borrowers excessively often. This empty creditor problem is concentrated in firms whose creditors would face powerful shareholders in distressed debt renegotiations. Consistent with this prediction, we show that (1) creditors buy more CDS prot...
Michelle M. Arthur; Alison Cook
This study examines share price reactions to 231 work-family human resource policies adopted by Fortune 500 companies and announced in the Wall Street Journal between 1971 and 1996. Consistent with past research, the results suggest that firm announcements of work-family initiatives positively affected shareholder return. The authors also empirically test three hypotheses concerning how the timing of work-family initiatives influences shareholder reaction. They find that a pioneering company ...
This paper examines, using a global M&A data set, the relationship between the target firm’s minority shareholders’ returns and a country’s stock market development in deals in which large shareholders increase their ownership stakes. For the purpose of this study, we use two measures of stock market development: (1) turnover over GDP, and (2) turnover over market capitalization. We provide evidence supporting the view that minority shareholders in target firms gain significantly more in coun...
Full Text Available Because environmental reporting remains voluntary on an international scale, there are major difference in terms of quality and quantity of environmental information, reported by entities from varied sectors and countries. The literature identifies factors like public exposure, entities legitimacy, laws and regulation, characteristics of the company (management, size, profitability etc, culture as the main factors that could determine environmental reporting (Lee and Hutchinso, 2005. Within this study, I have focused on environmental reporting and I have analyses factors related to corporate governance characteristics, such as shareholder structure, in order to identify the existence of certain associations between the shareholder structure and the level of environmental reporting. The paper represent an empirical analyzes on how shareholder structure might explain the level of environmental reporting in the case of Romanian companies listed at Bucharest Stock Exchange. The sample consist in 64 entities listed at Bucharest Stock Exchange in the first, second and third tier from 10 areas of activity that may impact the environment: agriculture, forestry and fishing; the extractive industry; the manufacture industry; production and supply of electricity, thermal energy, gas, water; water distribution, sanitation, managing waste, recyclable materials recovery activities; construction; transport and storage; food industry, hotels, restaurants; the repair, retail, maintenance and installation of machinery and equipment; printing and reproduction of recorded media. I suggest a model comprising shareholder structure: percentage owned by families, percentage owned by institutional investors, percentage owned by private investors, percentage owned by foreign investors, percentage owned by board members, percentage owned by management members as factors that could explain environmental reporting. As future research we will test this model on companies
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the possibilities of Economic Value Added index usage in the conditions of Czech food-processing industry and is trying to provide independent empirical evidence on the indicator’s qualities. The EVA proponents attach to it a superiority compared to other common performance measures. The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between Economic Value Added, traditional performance measures (ROA and ROE and ability of creation of shareholder wealth for food-processing firms in the Czech Republic. The way of intended comparison is not dissimilar to the main world studies, which are quoted in this paper. A critical point of the EVA’s application in the conditions of Czech economy is a lack of good quality information from capital market, which at the same time, serve as an exogenous criterion for assessing the quality of the examined measures in the mentioned studies. In the absence of quality capital market information, a criterion for assessing the information content of performance measures suitable for conditions of Czech economy is developed in this paper. This also shows how to circumvent the handicap of the available data.The intent of this article is fulfilled by providing a simple regression test of the hypothesis, that the EVA measure is more associated with improved shareholder wealth than traditional performance measures ROA and ROE. The results of regression analysis show higher quality information content of EVA indicator in the relationship to the ability of shareholder wealth creation than traditional performance measures. This fact supports the tested hypothesis as well as the conclusions of corporate finance theory, that from the theoretical point of view EVA is seen as a superior performance metric.
Kjær, Poul F.
to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...
João Luis Nogueira Matias
Full Text Available The brazilian limited company, in line with the principles of the Constitution, is not treated as partners's subject. There is the recognition of outside's interest. New standards are set in the internal relations with the protection of the rights of the minority. The partners can shape the limited company governance, however, the brazilian civil code put cogent norms that limit the abuse of management. In this paper will be analyzed the administration typology; agency conflicts; conflicts of interests between direction and the limited company and the management control. It is verified that the restrictions on brazilian limited company administration provides protection to shareholders.
Stathopoulos, Konstantinos; Voulgaris, Georgios
Manuscript Type: Review\\ud Research Question/Issue: This study focuses on the role of Say-on-Pay as a mechanism that aims to promote the efficiency of corporate governance by providing an additional channel for the expression of shareholder “voice”. Initially introduced in the UK, Say-on-Pay has subsequently been adopted in a large number of countries and it has recently received significant attention from regulators, media and the general public. The purpose of this study is to review prior ...
The aim of this study is to examine the implications of corporate spin-offs on company performance and shareholder value. The study uses both event study and accounting-based study methodologies to assess the stock price response of parent companies to the announcement of spin-offs, and to analyse the long-run operating performance of spin-offs for both parent and subsidiary companies. The study focuses on UK and US firms between 2001 and 2011. Evidence collected from the ev...
Full Text Available From Affective Shareholding to OUR Walmart: Organizing Labor in a Post-Union World, by Christine Labuski and Nick Copeland. This essay examines OUR Walmart (Organization United for Respect at Walmart, a group of current and former Walmart employees who are fighting for improved working conditions within the company. We situate OUR Walmart's emergence within the breakdown of management strategies that substitute affective and symbolic inclusion for material benefits. We also show how OUR Walmart shames the company over social media by contrasting workers’ precarious lives with the extreme wealth of the Walton family, and redefines respect to include collective and material rights.
Gatzert, Nadine; Bohnert, Alexander; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte
surplus appropriation schemes on the company’s shortfall risk and the shareholders’ fair risk charge. The range of products comprises temporary life annuities and endowment insurance contracts with varying surplus appropriation schemes that are modeled actuarially. We thereby also account for mortality...... risk and ensure a fair situation for shareholders. Our findings emphasize that management decisions can have a substantial impact on the company’s shortfall risk, and that their effectiveness in risk reduction varies substantially depending on the surplus appropriation scheme offered to the customer...
Full Text Available Systemic risk events constitute an important issue in current financial systems. A leading course of action used to mitigate such events is identification of systemically important agents in order to implement the prudential policies in a financial system. In this paper, a bi-level cross-shareholding network of the stock market is considered according to direct and integrated ownership structure. Furthermore, different systemic risk indices are applied to identify systemically important companies in an early warning system. Results of application of these indices on cross-shareholding data from Tehran Stock Exchange show that integrated network indices produce more reliable results. Moreover, results of statistical analysis of the networks indicated the existence of scale-free characteristics in the TSE cross-shareholding network.
the resulting need for a redefinition of library competence. In doing this, I primarily address the first two questions from Chapter 1 and how they relate to the public’s informal, leisure-time activities in a networked society. In particular, I focus on the skills of reflexive self-perception and informed...... opinion formation. Further, I point out the significance which these informal leisure-time activities have for public library staff’s cultural dissemination skills. In this way, I take on the question of the skills required for facilitating the learning of a participatory public (cf. Chapter 1......), exemplifying with the competence required of library staff. My discussion will proceed by way of a literature review. In the next section, I shall explain how and what sources were chosen and section three and four present the theoretical framework and how the applied theories are related. In the fifth section...
Kjær, Poul F.
Departing from the paradox that globalisation has implied an increase, rather than a decrease, in contextual diversity, this paper re-assesses the function, normative purpose and location of Regulatory Governance Frameworks in world society. Drawing on insights from sociology of law and world...... society studies, the argument advanced is that Regulatory Governance Frameworks are oriented towards facilitating transfers of condensed social components, such as economic capital and products, legal acts, political decisions and scientific knowledge, from one legally-constituted normative order, i.......e. contextual setting, to another. Against this background, it is suggested that Regulatory Governance Frameworks can be understood as schemes which act as ‘rites of passage’ aimed at providing legal stabilisation to social processes characterised by liminality, i.e ambiguity, hybridity and in-betweenness....
Full Text Available The land tenure reform is the key to sustainable development in rural China. Without challenging the collective ownership of land, the land shareholding cooperative (LSC system came into being and is being strongly endorsed by the authority: It re-collectivizes the contracted land from peasants and enables better regional planning and large-scale modern agricultural production. This paper studies a specific LSC (Shanglin LSC in the Sunan region of the Yangtze River Delta based on our fieldwork. We found that the LSC system is a bottom-up institutional innovation towards sustainable land use in China. Both village cadres and ordinary peasants’ decision making contributes to its successful establishment and development. This shareholding system increases peasants’ income through dividends and employment opportunities. The concentrated land enables ecological farming. Acting as a quasi-government agency, the LSC also provides public service and social security to the village community. On the other hand, the LSCs’ success depends on certain prior conditions and the LSCs’ multiple missions may contradict each other from time to time, and lead to loss of efficiency. We argue that this approach to land tenure reform may not be universally applied to any regions in China.
Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical analysis of how career concerns and shareholder monitoring affect chief executive officer (CEO agency costs. We investigate investment efficiency prior to CEO retirement based on a sample of Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs during the 1999–2007 period and find that there is a significant decline in investment efficiency prior to CEO retirement, relative to other periods, and that this decline becomes less significant under stronger shareholder supervision. Our research furthers understanding of the significance of SOE incentive and monitoring mechanisms.
... its stock in the former PFIC for its fair market value on the termination date, as defined in... sale election, the shareholder's stock with respect to which the election was made under this paragraph... the deemed dividend election, the shareholder's stock with respect to which the election was made...
... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Taxation of U.S. persons that are shareholders of PFICs that are not pedigreed QEFs. 1.1291-1 Section 1.1291-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1291-1 Taxation of U.S. persons that are shareholders of PFICs that...
.... Pursuant to section 951(a)(1)(A)(ii) and the regulations thereunder, a United States shareholder of a... countries at the close of the taxable year, minus (ii) The amount (if any) by which recognized losses on...) The sum of the controlled foreign corporation's earnings and profits (or deficit in earnings and...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans by savings associations to their... § 563.43 Loans by savings associations to their executive officers, directors and principal shareholders...) that is a savings and loan holding company. A company has control over a saving association if it...
Full Text Available This article analyses the problems that can arise when implementing the rights of shareholders in private limited liability companies to purchase the shares of another shareholder being for sale in priority to others and the possible legal remedies for violated rights. According to the practice of the Lithuanian Supreme Court, the rights of the buyer cannot be assigned to a private limited liability company shareholder whose pre-emption right to purchase the shares being for sale has been breached. However, in this article it is being argued that perhaps in certain exceptional cases, in order to create fair business practice and ensure a “tangible” result for the plaintiff in relation to the judgment, the court could (should take advantage of the freedom to maneuver and, by implementing justice, change the method of restitution (pertaining to the subject – assign the shares to the plaintiff (an aggrieved shareholder simultaneously creating an obligation on the same person to settle properly with the last owner of the disputed shares.
Prasad, Anshuman; Mir, Raza
Uses the methodology of critical hermeneutics to analyze Chief Executive Officers' letters to shareholders in the United States petroleum industry during the 1970s and 1980s. Suggests these letters were deployed to produce a certain attitude toward OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) among their readers that deflected attention of…
Ryals, Lynette; Knox, Simon
The calculations which underlie efforts to balance marketing spending on customer acquisition and customer retention are usually based on either single- period customer profitability or forecasts of customer lifetime value (CLTV). This paper argues instead for risk-adjusted CLTV, which is termed the economic value (EV) of a customer, as the means for marketing to assess both customer profitability and shareholder value gains.
Angenandt, P.P.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
This paper unveils the diversity in lock-in agreements of firms listed on the Nouveau Marche stock exchange in France.We give the main economic reasons why shareholders adopt lock-in agreements that are more stringent than legally required.We relate the abnormal returns and the abnormal volume at
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of private benefits of control on minority shareholders. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model is established. The empirical analysis includes hand-collected data from a wide range of data sources. OLS and 2SLS regression analysis are applied with Huber-White standard errors. Findings: The theoretical model shows that, while private benefits are generally harmful to minority shareholders, the overall effect depends on the size of large shareholder ownership. The empirical evidence from government ownership is consistent with theoretical analysis. Research limitations/implications: The empirical evidence is based on a small number of hand-collected data sets of government ownership. Further studies can be expanded to other types of ownership, such as family ownership and financial institutional ownership. Originality/value: This study is the first to theoretically analyse and empirically test the effect of private benefits. In general, this study significantly contributes to the understanding of the effect of large shareholder and corporate governance.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate empirically whether there is a positive correlation between debt levels and total shareholder return (TSR of platinum JSE-listed companies. The study field comprised annual analyses for 12 companies listed under the Platinum and Precious Metals sector on the JSE Ltd for the 14-year period 2000 to 2013. The results of the study were inconclusive as a statistically significant positive correlation between changes in debt levels and changes in TSR could only be found in two of these years. The core audience of the study will be the management of South African platinum companies considering changes in their capital structure, and investors considering investment in a listed platinum company. The contribution of the study is therefore to add to the body of literature on capital structure decisions from a South African platinum mine context
Leonardo Cunha da Silva
Full Text Available The company's decision on reinvesting profits started from the premise that the return on invested capital will exceed the opportunity cost, creating, consequently, shareholder value. Thus, wealth generation of the entity will be influenced by the level of retained earnings. Therefore, in this work we seek to examine how retained profit affect the value creation of 223 Brazilian companies, from 2008 to 2014, the control used was investment opportunity. Therefore we used descriptive statistics and panel data models. As main results we found that there is a high level of retained profit in the sample, however, a small part of the companies created value in the period. Still, the negative relationship between the level of capitalization of profits and created value is highlighted. Besides, it was observed that the companies that belonged to groups of higher levels of profit distribution ended up generating more wealth for investors.
Usually the safety of nuclear power plants is regarded as a technical question. Thereby humans only as a part of the man-machine system play a safety-relevant role usually. On this picture, the national regulation of this safety, the 'nuclear supervision' is designed. An innovative investigation of the Yale School of Management has concerned with the incidents around the so-called Millstone reactors in Waterford, Connecticut, and the economic collapse of the regional supplier Northeast Utilities (NU). The change of the corporate culture of the operator of the nuclear power station to a shareholder value orientation has released this 'enterprise disaster'. This investigation permits a first insight into the changed requirements on supervision, which goes beyond the nuclear supervision and which includes the price control in view of this change of the corporate culture
This annual report presents financial information of Esso Imperial Oil to its shareholders, as well as a review of its 2004 operations. In 2004, the total return on shares was more than 25 per cent (TSX) and has averaged almost 20 per cent a year for the past 10 years. The highest earnings in the company's history were achieved in 2004, $2,052 million, a significant increase from the record $1,705 million earnings in 2003. In 2004, total distributions to shareholders were almost $1.2 billion, including $872 million to buy back around 14 million shares. Debt as a percentage of total capital was below 20 per cent. At year end, the balance of cash was $1,279 million. Capital expenditures for 2004 were $1,445 million. Investments included advancing major upstream projects and funding significant refinery upgrades to reduce sulphur levels in diesel fuel. Operating highlights included substantial progress on upstream projects with a focus on developing oil-sands leases in Alberta, natural gas in the Mackenzie Delta region of the Northwest Territories and offshore resources on Canada's East Coast. Total research expenditure in Canada was $38 million, with 3 new patents and 180 new or reformulated products commercialized. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included accounts of Imperial Oil Inc., and its subsidiaries, as well as the company's proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs.
This annual report presents financial information of Esso Imperial Oil to its shareholders, as well as a review of its 2004 operations. In 2004, the total return on shares was more than 25 per cent (TSX) and has averaged almost 20 per cent a year for the past 10 years. The highest earnings in the company's history were achieved in 2004, $2,052 million, a significant increase from the record $1,705 million earnings in 2003. In 2004, total distributions to shareholders were almost $1.2 billion, including $872 million to buy back around 14 million shares. Debt as a percentage of total capital was below 20 per cent. At year end, the balance of cash was $1,279 million. Capital expenditures for 2004 were $1,445 million. Investments included advancing major upstream projects and funding significant refinery upgrades to reduce sulphur levels in diesel fuel. Operating highlights included substantial progress on upstream projects with a focus on developing oil-sands leases in Alberta, natural gas in the Mackenzie Delta region of the Northwest Territories and offshore resources on Canada's East Coast. Total research expenditure in Canada was $38 million, with 3 new patents and 180 new or reformulated products commercialized. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included accounts of Imperial Oil Inc., and its subsidiaries, as well as the company's proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs
Full Text Available While the cost of printing and sending out annual reports to shareholders by companies keep increasing and arguments have been made for cheaper and cost-effective ways of carrying out financial disclosure obligations by companies including electronic method, Companies’ Acts maintain that shareholders remain the ultimate decision-maker in the question whether electronic means of publishing annual reports is to be adopted as the primary means of publishing and disseminating annual reports among shareholders. This line of reasoning by legislation is given impetus by the staple assumption that shareholders take the form of owners of the companies of which they are members and the question of what mode of publication and dissemination of annual reports, whether electronic or hard copy remains their exclusive preserve. However, a case is made for a more cost-effective means of carrying out companies’ disclosure obligation through the vehicle of social media and electronic means.
While the cost of printing and sending out annual reports to shareholders by companies keep increasing and arguments have been made for cheaper and cost-effective ways of carrying out financial disclosure obligations by companies including electronic method, Companies’ Acts maintain that shareholders remain the ultimate decision-maker in the question whether electronic means of publishing annual reports is to be adopted as the primary means of publishing and disseminating annual reports among...
Yin, Zhujia; Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Haidong; Wen, Fengming
Based on the database data of Chinese industrial enterprises from 2000 to 2007 and the LP method, this paper measures the total factor productivity of enterprises and investigates the effect of different mixed ownership forms on enterprises' efficiency and the effect of heterogeneous ownership balance on the mixed ownership enterprises' efficiency. The state-owned enterprise and mixed ownership enterprise are identified by the enterprise's paid-up capital. The results show that, on the whole, for the mixed ownership enterprise, the higher the diversification degree of the shareholders is, the higher the efficiency becomes, and in different types of industries, the mixed forms of shareholders have different effects on the efficiency of enterprises. The heterogeneous ownership balance and the enterprise efficiency show nonlinear U-type relationships. Both the higher and lower heterogeneous ownership balance degrees will promote the enterprise's efficiency. However, when the ownership balance degree is in the range of [0.2 0.5], the increase in ownership balance will lead to the decline of enterprise efficiency. Therefore, when introducing non-state-owned capital, state-owned enterprises should take full account of their own characteristics by rationally controlling the shareholding ratio of non-state-owned capital and play the positive role of a mixed ownership structure in corporate governance with appropriate ownership balances.
Full Text Available The European legislative framework of cross-border mergers is a result of a long process of identifying the needs of the common market, domestic laws and national businesses and bringing them closer together. From virtual impossibility of merging across national borders, to a transfer of seat, to the Cross-Border Mergers Directive private and public limited companies can now engage in a cross-border merger transaction under best harmonised rules to date. However, the diversity of national company laws leaves gaps that are not resolved on a European level - there is no harmonising instrument in the area of creditor protection and the protection of dissenting minority shareholders, among others. The CBM Directive contains a framework provision referencing the need of protection of minority members, whereas specific mechanisms are left for the Member States to implement. The question that arises is whether the status quo of minority protection is sufficient to ensure smooth functioning of the cross-border mergers framework or whether further harmonisation is required.
Full Text Available Este artículo aborda las implicaciones de la responsabilidad limitada de las empresas en la doctrina de Milton Friedman acerca de la responsabilidad social corporativa y la obligación fiduciaria de los directivos con los shareholders. Desde que la responsabilidad limitada permite a las empresas privatizar sus beneficios mientras socializa sus pérdidas, atribuye ilegítimamente a los ejecutivos la capacidad de imponer impuestos. Esta atribución amenaza la propiedad privada y el intercambio voluntario, supuestos en los que Friedman basa su sistema. Por tanto, Friedman rechaza la responsabilidad limitada o reconsidera estos supuestos, aceptando sus consecuencias. Basándonos en sus ideas libertarias, y después de revisar toda la obra de Friedman así como la literatura relevante, se explica como la responsabilidad limitada modificaría el concepto de propiedad, obligando al directivo a incorporar el interés de todos los stakeholders en la dirección de la empresa, presentando el modelo stakeholder como la respuesta coherente y ética a la presencia de la responsabilidad limitada en las economías modernas.
Odem, Nathan; Blanck, Peter
This article examines the application of Americans with Disabilities Act requirements to professional associations like physician practice groups. In general, employers with 15 or more full-time employees must comply with the Act. However, the definition of an employee is sometimes unclear, especially as applied to business entities commonly used by physician practice groups. A recent case decided by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that physician-shareholders of a professional corporation are employees for Americans with Disabilities Act coverage purposes. Analogous cases in other federal circuits have held differently, likening the "owners" of professional corporations to partners in a partnership, who are not considered employees. Similar questions arise for popular business entities, such as Limited Liability Companies and Limited Liability Partnerships. This article discusses the nature of the business forms commonly used by physician practice groups and how their characteristics impact employee status for Americans with Disabilities Act coverage. It then suggests that examination is useful beyond business formation characteristics to the purpose of the Americans with Disabilities Act and other employment antidiscrimination statutes.
Kitchener, Martin; O'Meara, Janis; Brody, Ab; Lee, Hyang Yuol; Harrington, Charlene
Objective To analyze corporate governance arrangements and quality and financial performance outcomes among large multi-facility nursing home corporations (chains) that pursue stakeholder value (profit maximization) strategies. Study Design To establish a foundation of knowledge about the focal phenomenon and processes, we conducted an historical (1993–2005) case study of one of the largest chains (Sun Helathcare Inc.) that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data sources. Data Sources Two main sets of information were compared: (1) corporate sources including Sun's Security Exchange Commission (SEC) Form 10-K annual reports, industry financial reports, and the business press; and (2) external sources including, legal documents, press reports, and publicly available California facility cost reports and quality data. Principal Findings Shareholder value was pursued at Sun through three inter-linked strategies: (1) rapid growth through debt-financed mergers; (2) labor cost constraint through low nurse staffing levels; and (3) a model of corporate governance that views sanctions for fraud and poor quality as a cost of business. Conclusions Study findings and evidence from other large nursing home chains underscore calls from the Institute of Medicine and other bodies for extended oversight of the corporate governance and performance of large nursing home chains. PMID:18454781
Pecora, Nicolò; Spelta, Alessandro
In this paper we analyze the topological properties of the network of the Euro Area banking market network, with the primary aim of assessing the importance of a bank in the financial system with respect to ownership and control of other credit institutions. The network displays power law distributions in both binary and weighted degree metrics indicating a robust yet fragile structure and a direct link between an increase of control diversification and a rise in the market power. Therefore while in good time the network is seemingly robust, in bad times many banks can simultaneously go into distress. This behavior paves the way for Central bank's actions. In particular we investigate whether the Single Supervisory Mechanism introduced by the European Central Banks and based on banks' total asset is a good proxy to quantify their systemic importance. Results indicate that not all the financial institutions with high valued total assets are systemically important but only few of them. Moreover the network structure reveals that control is highly concentrated, with few important shareholders approximately controlling a separate subset of banks.
Kitchener, Martin; O'Meara, Janis; Brody, Ab; Lee, Hyang Yuol; Harrington, Charlene
To analyze corporate governance arrangements and quality and financial performance outcomes among large multi-facility nursing home corporations (chains) that pursue stakeholder value (profit maximization) strategies. To establish a foundation of knowledge about the focal phenomenon and processes, we conducted an historical (1993-2005) case study of one of the largest chains (Sun Healthcare Inc.) that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data sources. Two main sets of information were compared: (1) corporate sources including Sun's Security Exchange Commission (SEC) Form 10-K annual reports, industry financial reports, and the business press; and (2) external sources including, legal documents, press reports, and publicly available California facility cost reports and quality data. Shareholder value was pursued at Sun through three inter-linked strategies: (1) rapid growth through debt-financed mergers; (2) labor cost constraint through low nurse staffing levels; and (3) a model of corporate governance that views sanctions for fraud and poor quality as a cost of business. Study findings and evidence from other large nursing home chains underscore calls from the Institute of Medicine and other bodies for extended oversight of the corporate governance and performance of large nursing home chains.
Full Text Available This study examines the concept of corporate governance in shareholding companies and the legal perspective in comparison with the position of Shari’ah. The purpose of governance is to instil confidence among the stakeholders that the Boards of Directors are applying a diligent legal and administrative framework, to avoid potential administrative and financial failures and corruption. The study has proceeded by defining the concept of governance from linguistics, accounting, administrative, and legal perspectives. The study also discusses the stands of international organisations on the issue of corporate governance. Then, it is proceeded by discussing the concept of corporate governance from Shari’ah point of view. The study found that even with the absence of the term “company governance” in Islamic Law, the concept of corporate governance is in line with the Shari’ah and that their scholars have clearly referred to it in their literature. The study has used the descriptive, analytical, inductive and comparative methodology in analyzing the subject matter.
Full Text Available The complex nature of the interlacement of economic actors is quite evident at the level of the Stock market, where any company may actually interact with the other companies buying and selling their shares. In this respect, the companies populating a Stock market, along with their connections, can be effectively modeled through a directed network, where the nodes represent the companies, and the links indicate the ownership. This paper deals with this theme and discusses the concentration of a market. A cross-shareholding matrix is considered, along with two key factors: the node out-degree distribution which represents the diversification of investments in terms of the number of involved companies, and the node in-degree distribution which reports the integration of a company due to the sales of its own shares to other companies. While diversification is widely explored in the literature, integration is most present in literature on contagions. This paper captures such quantities of interest in the two frameworks and studies the stochastic dependence of diversification and integration through a copula approach. We adopt entropies as measures for assessing the concentration in the market. The main question is to assess the dependence structure leading to a better description of the data or to market polarization (minimal entropy or market fairness (maximal entropy. In so doing, we derive information on the way in which the in- and out-degrees should be connected in order to shape the market. The question is of interest to regulators bodies, as witnessed by specific alert threshold published on the US mergers guidelines for limiting the possibility of acquisitions and the prevalence of a single company on the market. Indeed, all countries and the EU have also rules or guidelines in order to limit concentrations, in a country or across borders, respectively. The calibration of copulas and model parameters on the basis of real data serves as an
Financial information from Esso Imperial Oil, one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil and natural gas, was presented and a review of their 2002 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Some of the highlights of 2002 are: the total return on Imperial shares including capital appreciation and dividends was 3 per cent, compared with a net loss of 12 per cent for the Standard and Poors/TSX composite index; in the past decade, the total return on Imperial's shares have averaged 17 per cent a year, compounded; regular dividend payments increased to 84 cents a share, the eighth consecutive year of dividend growth; and, the company has purchased more than 200 million shares for $5.2 billion since 1995, reducing the number outstanding by 35 per cent. Progress in key priority areas for 2002 included a second-best year for safety performance, a successful $1.6 billion capital investment program, the expansion of the Cold Lake oil sands project, an increase of 15 per cent in polyethylene production, an increase of 3.5 per cent in retail sales of Esso gasoline, and advancement of the Mackenzie gas project. Other achievements included the development of a 170 megawatt cogeneration plant at Cold Lake that will reduce costs and greenhouse gas emissions. A 95 megawatt unit was also constructed at the Sarnia manufacturing facility. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information including the accounts of Imperial Oil Inc. and its subsidiaries and the company's proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs
Bjerrum, Torben Cæsar Bisgaard; Andersen, Troels Christian; Aagaard, Annabeth
. The businesses interdisciplinary capabilities come into play in the BMI process, where knowledge from the facilitation strategy and knowledge from phases of the BMI process needs to be present to create new knowledge, hence new BMs and innovations. Depending on the environment and shareholders, this also exposes......This paper aims to understand the barriers that businesses meet in understanding their current business models (BM) and in their attempt at innovating new data driven business models (DDBM) using data. The interdisciplinary challenge of knowledge exchange occurring outside and/or inside businesses......, that gathers knowledge is of great importance. The SMEs have little, if no experience, within data handling, data analytics, and working with structured Business Model Innovation (BMI), that relates to both new and conventional products, processes and services. This new frontier of data and BMI will have...
J. H.v.H De Wet
Full Text Available Background: The introduction of a secondary tax on companies (STC and the lowering of the normal income tax rate in 1993 constituted a dramatic change in the tax structure of South African organisations. The original intention of these changes was to encourage organisations to re-invest profits to make use of capital investment opportunities. It was also anticipated that these tax changes would lower the cost of capital of organisations. Problem investigated: Announcements during the 2007 budget again raised questions about how the proposed changes in STC would affect the value of organisations. The impact of these tax changes has been the topic of some speculation in the absence of concrete research results to date. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of these tax changes and all subsequent changes since 1993 on the cost of capital and shareholder value. Approach: A model of a hypothetical company, representing the 'average' listed South African organisation was used to determine the effect of the introduction of STC and the changes to the STC and company tax rate on the cost of capital and the value of the organisation. Findings: The study found that, contrary to expectations, the tax changes actually caused the cost of capital to go up. Overall, the combined effect of the higher cost of capital and the lower company tax rate caused the theoretical value of organisations to increase, constituting an improvement of shareholder value. Value of research: It is the first local study that endeavoured to analyse and quantify the impact of the introduction of STC and the lowering of the company tax rate on the cost of capital and the value of organisations. Conclusion: The introduction of STC in and the lowering of the company tax rate in 1993, as well as changes to these two forms of taxes since then, seem to have been justified in terms of shareholder value creation.
Hernando, Yolanda; Colwell, Kaela; Wright, Brian D
Using the example of Merck's donations of ivermectin, to show how tax incentives and non-profit collaborators can make corporate largesse consistent with obligations to maximise returns to shareholders. We obtained information from publicly available data and estimated Merck's tax deductions according to the US Internal Revenue Code. Reviews of Merck-Kitasato contracts and personal interviews provided additional information regarding key lessons from this collaboration. Our best estimate of the direct cost to Merck of the ivermectin tablets donated during 2005-2011 is around US$ 600 million, well below the stated value of US$ 3.8 billion. Our calculation of tax write-offs reduces the net cost to around US$ 180 million in that period. Indirect market benefits and effects on goodwill further enhanced the compatibility of Merck's donation programme with the company's profit-maximising objective. The case offers lessons for effective management of collaborations with public and non-profit organisations. Merck's role in the donation of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis is widely and justly acknowledged as a prime example of corporate largesse in the public interest. It is nevertheless important to note that several public and non-profit collaborators, and United States taxpayers, played significant roles in increasing Merck's incentives, and indeed ability, to conduct the donation programme that changed so many lives in poor countries, while meeting its responsibilities to shareholders. Overall, the record indicates responsible corporate management of Merck's ivermectin programme and demonstrates the feasibility of socially responsible policies in a manner compatible with obligations to shareholders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
the first (pre-crisis) and second (during crisis) periods differ from each other mainly with respect to the themes discussed in light of the developments in external circumstances and the bank’s financial performance, the latter (post-crisis) period reflects a more fundamental shift in genre, manifested......The present study investigates changes in themes and linguistic strategies in letters to shareholders from a large Danish bank’s annual reports published before, during and after the financial crisis. It draws mainly on genre theory and uses corpus linguistics as the primary method for collecting...
Eugênio Duarte Vasques
Full Text Available The scope of this essay is to analyze aspects of individual limited liability company in the Brazilian legal system, which raises the issue of the requirement of minimum capital contribution to the company’s constitution. Therefore, we seek to expose initially the historical responsibility of the individual entrepreneur, and then the current context of Portuguese single shareholder private companies. After these considerations, we focus on addressing the situation of the individual entrepreneur in Brazil and the creation of a new species of corporation that guarantees the limitation of liability to the individual entrepreneur in a manner similar to the Portuguese experience.
Luciana Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to concurrently test the explanatory power of the attention-based view (ABV of the firm and of the resource dependence theory (RDT. We propose a conceptual model of attention to shareholders based on assumptions of both ABV and RDT. We test these hypotheses using a unique dataset, consisting of contentanalyzed data on attention allocation for 313 firms from 24 different countries. Our research findings highlight the complementary nature of the RDT and ABV and add to the literature about attention, providing empirical evidence and theoretical explanation for the scarcely explored relationship between firm performance and organizational attention.
PSI Energy, a predominately coal-burning Indiana electric utility, is very concerned about the environment and is using demand-side management (DSM) as part of a strategy to balance the sometimes conflicting interests of the environment, the economy, customers and shareholders. Faced with slow growth within its service territory, an abundance of low-cost, high sulfur coal burning baseload capacity, massive future expenditures for acid rain mitigation and a weakened financial state due to a cancelled nuclear project, PSI Energy has taken a novel approach to preserving value for customers, shareholders, the economy and environment. To accomodate Indiana's goal of least cost utility planning, PSI initiated an all-source bidding program in which it solicited bids for peaking capacity or the equivalent. Four parallel but separate solicitations were pursued: combustion turbine manufacturers for PSI owned and operated capacity, other utilities and non-utility generators for purchased power and third parties for demand-side management. PSI's philosophy with respect to bidding can be expressed as: simplicity, flexibility, creativity, partnerships, expeditious and fairness. There is a minimum bid of 5 MW of summer peak demand reduction, and the minimum contract length is 10 years. The entire 550 MW capacity block available to be filled in the program is open to demand-side resources. The ten major evaluation criteria involved in the program are: price, sponsor qualifications, operational impact, marketing plan, technology, financing plan, verification and measurement, form of security, project management plan, and project cost estimates
Adrian Doru BÎGIOI
Full Text Available Respecting shareholders’ rights represents one of the fundamental principles of corporate governance, underpinning the establishment of economic entities, as a form of association of individuals and / or legal entities in order to carry out profit-oriented activities. However, there are situations in which the management, the other shareholders, or even the authorities, do not respect certain shareholders’ rights, leading to a number of negative effects, such as the closing of companies. Based on these considerations, in this paper, we set as research objective to analyze the circumstances, which may affect shareholders’ rights. To meet the research objectives, we analyzed the case-specific jurisprudence published by the courts of law till 31st of December 2015. The results of the study show that the shareholders’ rights, which are not respected, include: the property right, the right to receive dividends, the right to participate and vote in the general assemblies of shareholders, the right to be elected in the governing bodies, and not the least, the most important one in accounting terms, the right to be informed.
Gubbi, Sathyajit R.; Aulakh, Preet S.; Ray, Sougata; Sarkar, M. B.; Chittoor, Raveendra
While overseas acquisitions by emerging-economy firms are gaining increased attention from the business press, our understanding of whether and why this inorganic mode of international expansion creates value to acquirer firms is limited. We argue that international acquisitions facilitate
Palus, Charles J
Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne
This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology deplo....... By connecting the literature, the authors’ and engineering students’ reflections on facilitator skills, this paper adds value to existing academic and practical discussions on learning facilitating leadership....
... section 951(a)(1)(A)(iii) and the regulations thereunder, a United States shareholder of such controlled... (ii) The amount (if any) by which recognized losses on sales or exchanges by such corporation during... sum of (1) the controlled foreign corporation's earnings and profits (or deficit in earnings and...
... corporate, shareholder, and income information for the foreign personal holding company's annual accounting... 898), the taxable year of such corporation shall be treated as its annual accounting period. (2) General corporate information. The general foreign personal holding company information required by this...
Full Text Available The author utilizes a case study of Montenegrin regulatory concept of shareholder derivative suits in order to demonstrate, by comparing its features with such concepts in other legal systems and features marked as favorable factors in legal theory, that its failure, as well as the failure of derivative suits in other countries cannot be a priori considered as result of inadequate approach of the legislator. Along with some other important legal systems, shareholder derivative litigation in United States is also analyzed, since its track record shows that it is virtually the single at least relatively successful system of derivative suits so far. This analysis is made so as to distinguish the particular and in many ways unique features of the shareholder derivative litigation concept in United States that enabled the relative success of it. As result of the research conducted and analyses made, the author argues that there is an inherent flaw in the very foundation of the concept of shareholder derivative suits, which generally hinders the use of this legal mechanism. Finally, the author finds that this flaw is deeply rooted in what is known today in theory of company law as the first agency problem.
Makkonen, Teemu; Merisalo, Maria; Inkinen, Tommi
: are they containers, facilitators or innovators? This is investigated here through empirical material derived from 27 interviews with top departmental management in three Finnish cities (Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa). The results show that local city governments (LCGs) consider cities as facilitators of innovation...
Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian
At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...
股东关联贷款对商业银行发展的影响与银行贷款危机密不可分。文中分析了股东关联贷款与银行贷款危机之间的关系，着重就股东关联贷款对商业银行影响进行研究，并提出了防范和降低商业银行股东关联贷款风险的政策建议。%The shareholder loans of commercial banks related development impact of the crisis and bank loans are inseparable.This article analyzes association between the shareholder loans and the crisis of bank loan,focusing on shareholder loans of commercial banks association,and proposed to prevent and reduce the risk of commercial bank lending policies related shareholder proposals.
Ioanna Sapfo Pepelasis
Full Text Available This paper focuses on an unexplored aspect of the history of international business in Greece, the presence of international shareholders in Greek Joint stock company start-ups. Our main findings are that these investors participated in numerous such firms usually as minority shareholders in capital and or knowledge intensive firms. Rarely did they opt for the exclusive international ownership of a joint stock company in Greece and the dividing line between foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment was not always clear. It is also the case that international capital inflow into the nascent corporate sector involved a mosaic of collaborating actors including not only the foreign but also the diasporic.
Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyse the influence of information about economic and financial problems of strategic shareholders upon the market value of commercial banks operating in the Polish banking sector. The analysis included fourteen such cases from the years 2007-2014. The results clearly indicate that investors consider the foundations of the operation of commercial banks in Poland to be very solid. Problems of strategic shareholders led to only slight depreciation of the banks’ securities quoted at the Warsaw Stock Exchange in the period directly after publication of the information. Investors decided that problems of parent companies were unlikely to threaten the stability of banks operating in the Polish banking sector.
Full Text Available This paper presents a study to measure the effects of return on investment, sales growth rate, volatility investment, cash flow and structure of institutional shareholders on the ratio of debt to equities. The study selects 102 firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange and, using regression technique with Panel data, examines five different hypotheses over the period 2008-2012. The results indicate that there was a negative and meaningful relationship between return of investment and the ratio of debt to equities and a positive and meaningful relationship between sales growth and the ratio of debt to equities. Moreover, there were positive and meaningful relationships between volatility of investment as well as cash flow and the ratio of debt to equities. Finally, the survey has indicated that there was a negative and meaningful relationship between the structure of institutional shareholders and the ratio of debt to equities.
There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself
Olausson, Jonas; Löfgren, Christoffer
Corporate cash holdings is a topic constantly under review, companies hoarding cash are criticized by shareholders who rather have companies using their cash for new investments or dividend payouts. Recent academic research has discovered that levels of cash holding are high in times when risk is deemed to be high and found that levels of corporate cash holdings are substantially higher than they used to, making more coverage and a better understanding of the phenomenon crucial. This thesis i...
Hinrichsen, Anna Verena
The present dissertation deals with selected aspects of corporate governance and personnel management and provides an in-depth analysis of capital markets’ perception of these issues and the effects on shareholder wealth. Subjects of the investigation are the role and effects of gender diversity on corporate boards and female leadership, CEO overconfidence and corporate layoff decisions. Chapter 2 offers a comprehensive overview of existing research on the effects of an increased female ...
This paper examines the shareholders wealth effects in short run of U.S. domestic public target acquirers using alternative payment methods from 2001 to 2005, providing insights into what can learn from the stock abnormal returns to public target acquirers when they announcing an acquisition. At a first level the study documents that, in short run, public target acquirers significantly lose value. This result is robust after controlling for acquirer firm size (large/small) and bidder’s book-t...
Ma, Yuan-yuan; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Li, Ling-xuan
Enterprises are the core power and the carriers to promote the country's economy developing sustainably and rapidly; the listed enterprises are the outstanding companies which can represent the economic level at the places where the enterprises are located, so we establish the cross-shareholding networks of the listed companies between 2002 and 2009, and then analyze the mutual investment at company-level, province-level and region-level. We have researched the overall trend of economic development and the overall tendency of capital flow of China in the recent 8 years based on the cross-shareholding networks, the influence of a global economic crisis on the stock markets and the overall economics of China in 2008 and the recovery of the economy after the economic crisis. Moreover, we analyze the variations of the cross-shareholding networks and the influence of the state-owned large and medium enterprises listing frequently on Chinese stock markets. We divide the provinces of China into 3 main categories according to their industrial situations. Though the analysis, we find that the wealth gap between the different areas is not significantly reduced even though the government has carried out strategies such as the Development of the West Regions and the Rejuvenation of Old Industrial Bases in Northeastern China. We analyze the cumulative distribution function of the degree of the vertices and use large amounts of data to do empirical analysis. The methods used include the hierarchical cluster analysis, regression analysis, etc.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the determinants of the differential pricing of equity classes (the so-called dual-class premium [DCP] in Brazil from 1995 to 2006 with a focus on two specific corporate governance aspects: i the granting of tag along rights, a mandatory bid rule that extends to minority shareholders the right to sell their shares in case of a control transfer; and ii the identity of the controlling shareholders, with an emphasis on family control. We examined 87 Brazilian listed firms throughout the period, resulting in a sample of 3,287 observations. We found empirical evidence that changes in Corporate Law decreased (increased the advantage of voting shares in terms of tag along rights reduced (incremented DCP. However, we did not find empirical evidence that the voluntary granting of tag along rights altered DCP. We also found evidence suggesting that family control is positively associated with DCP level. Overall, our results indicate that regulations regarding shareholders’ rights and the identity of controlling shareholders are the two relevant corporate governance variables for DCP level in environments characterized by concentrated ownership structures.
Roxana - Mihaela CATEA
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief analysis of the legal framework regarding the procedural and substantial dispositions governing the claim for the annulment of the resolutions of the general meeting of shareholders. The main objective is to render a practical tool both to stakeholders and third parties who are interested in the legal means available for blocking the implementation of any measures which are contrary to the company’s interest. Further to the amendments brought through the New Civil Procedural Code, the claim for annulment of the resolutions of the general assembly must be analyzed from a procedural point of view, as well as from a substantial standpoint. The shareholders must be aware of the grounds for challenging a general assembly's resolution to properly safeguard their rights. One common issue which is invoked as grounds for annulment is the abuse of majority of the majority shareholder. However, the difficulty of alleging such a reason is left to practitioners. Therefore, its application, although not wide, is highly imaginative.
Full Text Available Intangible assets are difficult to measure, but nowadays the value of the shares of firms in the stock exchange market contains a high percentage of intangible capital and customers are one of the main intangible assets which should be evaluated. This paper presents and discusses some tools to measure the value of customers. But first, it is mandatory to define and clarify the relationships among the concepts of Customer Equity (CE, Life Time Value (LTV and Customer Relationship Management (CRM. LTV is the best financial outcome to measure customer value, so the paper reviews the literature on some mathematical models to calculate LTV. We propose an equation for LTV in order to apply it in a business-to-business market, and an analysis of the influence factors involved in it is made, focusing especially in the link between LTV and shareholder value. Finally, we propose as future lines of research, the relational equity approach as the perfect complement to the customer equity analysis and a way to estimate LTV for actual cases of publicly traded firms using published information.
Zhang, Jianhua; Debets, A.J.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Zwaan, B.J.; Schoustra, S.E.
Understanding the occurrence and spread of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is crucial for public health. It has been hypothesized that asexual sporulation, which is abundant in nature, is essential for phenotypic expression of azole resistance mutations in A. fumigatus facilitating
Karlsson, Mikael R.; Erlandson, Peter
This is part of a larger ethnographical study concerning how school development in a local educational context sets cultural and social life in motion. The main data "in this article" consists of semi-structural interviews with teachers (facilitators) who have the responsibility of carrying out a project about formative assessment in…
Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…
de Graaff, Erik
A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching...
so doing, it attempts to examine how Ethiopia's WTO Accession and trade facilitation ... the more expensive imports, exports and production becomes rendering. Ethiopian ..... can reserve the right to refuse requests of importers for the fifth valuation method to ..... units may find it easier to deal with post clearance audit. In the ...
Full Text Available Development of novel vaccine deliveries and vaccine adjuvants is of great importance to address the dilemma that the vaccine field faces: to improve vaccine efficacy without compromising safety. Harnessing the specific effects of laser on biological systems, a number of novel concepts have been proposed and proved in recent years to facilitate vaccination in a safer and more efficient way. The key advantage of using laser technology in vaccine delivery and adjuvantation is that all processes are initiated by physical effects with no foreign chemicals administered into the body. Here, we review the recent advances in using laser technology to facilitate vaccine delivery and augment vaccine efficacy as well as the underlying mechanisms.
Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen
The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...... and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes...
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon
In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...
Pye, M.; McKane, A.
This paper describes a more compelling case for industry to promote the non-energy benefits of energy efficiency investments. They do this in two ways to actively appeal to chief executive officers' (CEOs') and chief financial officers' (CFOs') primary responsibility: to enhance shareholder value. First, they describe the use of a project-by-project corporate financial analysis approach to quantify a broader range of productivity benefits that stem from investments in energy-efficient technologies, including waste reduction and pollution prevention. Second, and perhaps just as important, they present such information in corporate financial terms. These standard, widely accepted analysis procedures are more credible to industry than the economic modeling done in the past because they are structured in the same way corporate financial analysts perform discounted cashflow investment analyses on individual projects. Case studies including such financial analyses, which quantify both energy and non-energy benefits from investments in energy-efficient technologies, are presented. Experience shows that energy efficiency projects' non-energy benefits often exceed the value of energy savings, so energy savings should be viewed more correctly as part of the total benefits, rather than the focus of the results. Quantifying the total benefits of energy efficiency projects helps companies understand the financial opportunities of investments in energy-efficient technologies. Making a case for investing in energy-efficient technologies based on energy savings alone has not always proven successful. Evidence suggests, however, that industrial decision makers will understand energy efficiency investments as part of a broader set of parameters that affect company productivity and profitability
Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.
This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....
Holdt Christensen, Peter
knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... distinct situations of exchange denominated organizational exchange yielding extrinsic rewards, organizational exchange yielding intrinsic rewards, financial exchange, and social exchange. The paper argues that each situation of exchange has distinct assumptions about individual behaviour...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...
Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos
, and empirically supports the claim that facilitation skills can be taught to participants to enable them to self-facilitate workshops. Differences were also found, which led to the introduction of a new dimension—‘internal versus external’ facilitation. The implications of our findings for effective training...
’ agreements”) cannot bind the company within the sense of company law under the new state of law, and voting rights agreements, agreements on right of pre-emption etc. will therefore only apply at the level of contract law between the parties to the agreement. This article for European Business Law Review......The article warns that with effect from 1 March 2010, the new Danish Companies Act (on public and private limited companies) has seriously weakened the effect of shareholders’ agreements which have been entered into on Danish companies. These agreements (in the act’s new terminology: “owners...... analyses the consequences of this. Rights and duties in the owners’ agreements must now be reiterated to the greatest possible extent in the company’s articles of association so that the precepts become binding on the company and its management. Whether the parties to the owners’ agreement can be required...
Norli, Øyvind; Ostergaard, Charlotte; Schindele, Ibolya
This is the authors’ accepted, refereed and final manuscript to the article Blockholders' incentives to intervene in corporate governance are weakened by free-rider problems and high costs of activism. Theory suggests activists may recoup expenses through informed trading of target rms' stock when stocks are liquid. We show that stock liquidity increases the probability of activism but does less so for potentially overvalued rms for which privately informed blockholders may h...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.
Full Text Available Choreoathetoid movement secondary to cocaine use is a well-documented phenomenon better known as “crack dancing.” It consists of uncontrolled writhing movements secondary to excess dopamine from cocaine use. We present a 32-year-old male who had been using cocaine for many years and was recently started on paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI for worsening depression four weeks before presentation. He had been doing cocaine every 2 weeks for the last three years and had never “crack danced” before this episode. The authors have conducted a thorough literature review and cited studies that suggest “crack dancing” is associated with excess dopamine. There has never been a documented case report of an SSRI being linked with “crack dancing.” The authors propose that the excess dopaminergic effect of the SSRI lowered the dopamine threshold for “crack dancing.” There is a communication with the Raphe Nucleus and the Substantia Nigra, which explains how the SSRI increases dopamine levels. This is the first documented case of an SSRI facilitating the “crack dance.”
Alfredo Sarlo Neto
concentration and the shareholders agreement, are associated with the conditional conservatism proposed by Basu (1997. This association was founded on the effects of entrenchment and enforcement. Considering that the degree of conservatism of a firm is tied to the incentives arising from mechanisms that reduce the informational risk to stakeholders, this study was developed on the following research question: What is the influence of both the voting rights concentration and shareholders agreement on the degree of conservatism in the companies listed on Bovespa? The main goal of this work is to deal with factors not yet considered in the (national and international literature produced in this line of research, and provides evidence about the influence of ownership structure on conservatism in the Brazilian market, which is marked by a, agency conflict between controlling shareholders (controller and minority shareholders. The sample of the paper comprises 617 observations of non-financial companies traded on Bovespa during the period from 2000 to 2008. Alternatively, another sample was selected, disregarding the observations for 2008, as a means to remove the effects of the financial crisis registered that year. The evidences indicate that the voting rights concentration contributes to decrease the degree of conservatism, while, on the other hand, the stockholders agreement contributes to an increase. Alternatively, the results considered in the global crisis year distort the Basu model (1997. The researchers hope this study contributes for investors, regulators, researchers and analysts to understand the function of accounting information in companies' governance process.
Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi
We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement...
Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.
of root architecture, exudation of growth stimulating substances, and biofumigation. Facilitative root interactions are most likely to be of importance in nutrient poor soils and in low-input agroecosystems due to critical interspecific competition for plant growth factors. However, studies from more...... nitrogen transfer between legumes and non-leguminous plants, exploitation of the soil via mycorrhizal fungi and soil-plant processes which alter the mobilisation of plant growth resources such as through exudation of amino acids, extra-cellular enzymes, acidification, competition-induced modification......Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...
Opportunities for novices to facilitate Problem Structuring Methods (PSMs) workshops are limited, especially because of a lack of access to real-world interventions and confidence in their capabilities. Novices are usually young academics building their careers through publishing. Publishing...... is challenging if facilitation and opportunities for data collection are limited. To address this challenge, this paper suggests autoethnography as a framework for addressing difficulties that novices face in conducting research and publishing on PSMs. This suggestion grows out of a literature study...
O'Shea, Anne; Matheson, Laura
Session summary: Brainstorming, problem-solving, team-building and group communication – all of these things can be made easier through facilitation! Come to this fun, interactive workshop to learn techniques and exercises to boost your group meetings. Taught by two information professionals with formal facilitation training and experience, this workshop will give you theory, hands-on practice time and feedback. What participants will learn: Participants will learn techniques to he...
Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie
This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning.
Kliman, Gilbert; And Others
This paper discusses case studies of children psychologically disturbed by the death of parents or siblings. Illustrations of mourning facilitation were mainly gathered from 16 orphaned children, ages 3-14. Some techniques used in helping children mourn include: discussing physical details of the illness, discussing previous deaths of animals and…
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon
Gennem de senere år er mindfulness gået fra udelukkende at være en eksistentiel praksis til også at være en behandlingsform og senest til også at blive brugt som et praktisk redskab i erhvervslivet. Denne artikel viser, at mindfulness også kan anvendes i forbindelse med facilitering. Facilitering...... er et værktøj, som bruges i arbejdslivet fx til møder og konferencer, hvor en gruppe mennesker er samlet for at lære eller udrette noget sammen. Det nye ved at kombinere mindfulness med facilitering er, at fokus hermed ændres fra individet, som er centrum for den eksistentielle fordybelse eller det...... terapeutiske forløb, til gruppen, som er udgangspunktet i facilitering. Artiklen viser, hvordan mindfulness konkret kan bruges på gruppeniveau og diskuterer samtidig hvilke problemer, der kan være forbundet hermed. Baseret på vores egne erfaringer, diskuterer vi, hvordan mindfulness kan påvirke en gruppes...
Madsen, Mona Toft
-based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...
Wagner Moura Lamounier
Full Text Available The objective of this article was of to measure and to analyze the creation of value for the shareholder through comparisons among each level of corporate governance segmented in BOVESPA, accomplishing an empiric study with interest of proving the existence of different averages regarding the one of creation of value in the different segments. The research was guided through a descriptive analysis which makes possible to establish relationships among the analyzed variables and to lift hypotheses or possibilities to explain those relationships. The found results didn't demonstrate statistical evidences that the level of corporate governance, in that certain company is inserted at the market, brings differentiation in the process of creation of value for the shareholders. The found conclusions thwarted the null hypothesis of this study, which mentioned that in agreement with the level of classification of the companies there would be a differentiation in the creation of value for the shareholder. It is pointed out that that conclusion not to be generalized by the fact that the sample used to obtain her, in spite of being representative, it was obtained in a limited temporary space, existing the possibility that increasing the space of time here the conclusions presented they can suffer alterations. For future researches it is suggested that this study is accomplished with a larger sample of companies, and with given quarterly with the intention of explaining the studied variables better.
Given the specialty of the global security account products and trading rules, and based on a research on the principles of the calculation of shareholder assets in the joint account in the global market, the presentation of common asset account data and the calculation of shareholder assets, the program is written calculate shareholders assets in Joint account in the global market with C# and SQL SERVER. The principles and methods concerned and analyzed in this paper can be used as a reference point by the global financial and investment institutions such as QFII, QDII.%通过综合考虑全球证券账户产品特点和交易规则，对全球市场联名账户股东资产计算的原理、共同资产账户数据的表示以及股东资产的计算进行了研究，并使用C^#、SQLServer编写了能完成全球市场联名账户股东资产的计算程序．所论述的计算原理和算法可以供QFII、QDII等投资全球的金融机构计算客户资产参考．
Ouyang, Long; Boroditsky, Lera; Frank, Michael C
Computational models have shown that purely statistical knowledge about words' linguistic contexts is sufficient to learn many properties of words, including syntactic and semantic category. For example, models can infer that "postman" and "mailman" are semantically similar because they have quantitatively similar patterns of association with other words (e.g., they both tend to occur with words like "deliver," "truck," "package"). In contrast to these computational results, artificial language learning experiments suggest that distributional statistics alone do not facilitate learning of linguistic categories. However, experiments in this paradigm expose participants to entirely novel words, whereas real language learners encounter input that contains some known words that are semantically organized. In three experiments, we show that (a) the presence of familiar semantic reference points facilitates distributional learning and (b) this effect crucially depends both on the presence of known words and the adherence of these known words to some semantic organization. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru
In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.
Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Waldorff, Frans Boch
facilitation visits in 13 practice settings and had interviews and focus groups with facilitators. We applied an explorative approach in data collection and analysis, and conducted an inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The facilitators mainly enacted four facilitator roles: teacher, super user, peer...
Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Waldorff, Frans Boch
facilitation visits in 13 practice settings and had interviews and focus groups with facilitators. We applied an explorative approach in data collection and analysis, and conducted an inductive thematic analysis. Results: The facilitators mainly enacted four facilitator roles: teacher, super user, peer...
Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.
on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home......-based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...
The method of treatment of suffering in patients, including through surgery and the administration of therapeutic drugs, are essential features of medical professionalism. Few, if any practitioners committed to developing the core professional virtue of loyalty to relief of patient suffering through consistently implementing the basic principles of medical ethics, would consider that such beneficial methods of practice are, or should be, the subject of a patent--requiring the practitioner utilising them to pay a royalty or risk infringement proceedings. Indeed a formal opinion of the American Medical Association declares "the use of patents, trade secrets, confidentiality agreements, or other means to limit the availability of medical procedures places significant limitation on the dissemination of medical knowledge, and is therefore unethical". Yet this could be the direction in which Australian patent law is heading. The decision of the High Court of Australia in Apotex Pty Ltd v Sanofi-Aventis Australia Pty Ltd  HCA 50, upholding a patent over a method of using a known drug to prevent or treat psoriasis, may ultimately force practitioners to re-consider whether their basic ethical obligations to patients are secondary to a requirement to maximise profit for shareholders in companies holding medical patents. This column reviews this decision and its possible implications for health practitioners. It places it in context of other recent court decisions that have expanded the intrusion of corporate-owned intellectual property monopolies into Australian medical practices, and how legislative restrictions upon them in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) places practitioners and patients at risk of more costly, ineffective or restricted health care. This column concludes by cautioning that Australia's scope to address policy problems caused by this case may be limited should it sign up to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, particularly if that preferential trade
Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.
Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude
Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.
This thesis contributes an identification of a key mechanism and its constituent qualities, for facilitating shared understandings of risk. Globalisation and the pace of technological change increases the uncertainties of decision making within many design and innovation practices. Accordingly......, the focus of participatory workshops has expanded towards addressing broader questions of strategy, business models and other organizational and inter-organisational issues. To develop effective partnerships across the boundaries separating companies, I argue that is necessary for those involved to gain...... or proxy for absent others, 4) an incomplete comic with which children could contribute sketched ideas to a design process 5) a table top tool kits for discussing business relationship issues and 5) a number of bespoke interactive sculpture-like artifacts for provoking insights concerning business dilemmas...
Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V
The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.
Veith, Anne; Assaf, Albert; Josiassen, Alexander
will also lead to a high rewards. According to postmodern consumerism theory, consumers are intrinsically motivated to participate (Arnould et al., 2006; Borghini & Caru, 2008; Etgar, 2008; Fisher & Smith, 2011), but may also be extrinsic motivated by, for instance, appraisal and 'autonomy' (Etgar, 2008......). Therefore, for instance, being part of the process is a key incentive for consumers. Postmodern consumers' search for unique experiences calls for individualization, personalization, etc. Although Prahalad & Ramaswamy (2004), Karpen et al. (2008), and Karpen et al. (2011) have presented S-D Logic...... as a middle range theory it is still difficult for organizations to operationalize their co-creation efforts. This paper argues that postmodern consumerism can be used to guide the operationalization of the co-creation process by identifying the key facilitators of co-creation for the postmodern consumer...
Wilson Iván Morgestein Sánchez
Full Text Available By the present article, an exposition is made of what some label as the modern approaches to the concept of “social interest”: The theories of the “shareholder value” and of the “stakeholders”, which are a contribution of the American doctrine to the problem posed by the management of the corporations of our time. A study is offered here of their antecedents, conception, evolution and relation to the listed corporation to determine the consequences of applying one or another in the management of the great society of capitals.
Moore, E.B. Jr.
Information on design features, special equipment, and construction methods useful in the facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors is presented. A wide range of facilitation methods - from improved documentation to special decommissioning tools and techniques - is discussed. In addition, estimates of capital costs, cost savings, and radiation dose reduction associated with these facilitation methods are given
Evans, Sherryn Maree; Ward, Catherine; Reeves, Scott
The use of online media to deliver interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming more prevalent across health professions education settings. Facilitation of IPE activities is known to be critical to the effective delivery of IPE, however, specifics about the nature of online IPE facilitation remains unclear. To explore the health professions education literature to understand the extent, range and nature of research on online IPE facilitation. Scoping review methodology was used to guide a search of four electronic databases for relevant papers. Of the 2095 abstracts initially identified, after screening of both abstracts and full-text papers, 10 studies were selected for inclusion in this review. Following abstraction of key information from each study, a thematic analysis was undertaken. Three key themes emerged to describe the nature of the IPE facilitation literature: (1) types of online IPE facilitation contributions, (2) the experience of online IPE facilitation and (3) personal outcomes of online IPE facilitation. These IPE facilitation themes were particularly focused on facilitation of interprofessional student teams on an asynchronous basis. While the included studies provide some insight into the nature of online IPE facilitation, future research is needed to better understand facilitator contributions, and the facilitation experience and associated outcomes, both relating to synchronous and asynchronous online environments.
Geralyn E Stephens
Full Text Available Demonstrating the ability to collaborate effectively is essential for students moving into 21st century workplaces. Employers are expecting new hires to already possess group-work skills and will seek evidence of their ability to cooperate, collaborate, and complete projects with colleagues, including remotely or at a distance. Instructional activities and assignments that provide students with a variety of ways to engage each other have a direct and immediate effect on their academic performance. This paper shares the Facilitating Collaboration in Online Groups (FCOG instructional planning strategy. The strategy is designed for faculty use and familiarizes students with the process and technology necessary to collaborate effectively in online classroom groups. The strategy utilizes proven teaching techniques to maximize student-student and student-content relationships. Each of the four (4 sequential phases in the FCOG instructional planning strategy are discussed: 1 Creating Groups, 2 Establishing Expectations, 3 Communication Tools, and 4 Assignments and Activities. The discussion also contains implementation suggestions as well as examples of instructional assignments and activities that provide students with a variety of ways to collaborate to reach the learning outcomes.
Using a unique data set, I study how stock markets react to positive and negative events concerned with a firm's corporate social responsibility (CSR). I show that investors respond strongly negatively to negative events and weakly negatively to positive events. I then show that investors do value "offsetting CSR", that is positive CSR news concerning firms with a history of poor stakeholder relations. In contrast, investors respond negatively to positive CSR news which is more likely to resu...
van Damme, E.E.C.
Abstract: This paper is a comment on Ronald Gilson and Alan Schwarz “Constraints on Private Benefits of Control: Ex Ante Control Mechanisms versus Ex Post Transaction Review”. Together with that paper it will appear in the Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 169 (1) in 2013, in a
van Damme, E.E.C.
This paper is a comment on Ronald Gilson and Alan Schwarz “Constraints on Private Benefits of Control: Ex Ante Control Mechanisms versus Ex Post Transaction Review”. Together with that paper it will appear in the Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 169 (1) in 2013, in a special issue
Lin Peng; Ailsa Röell
The paper examines the impact of executive compensation on private securities litigation. We find that incentive pay in the form of options increases the probability of securities class action litigation, holding constant a wide range of firm characteristics. We further document that there is abnormal upward earnings manipulation during litigation class periods and that insiders exercise more options and sell more shares during class periods, but that this activity is largely driven by pre-ex...
management in listed firms and other traditional remedies. The theoretical insightsare applied on a case from the Danish Supreme Court (Louis Poulsen A/S) where theinterests of the stakeholders were decisive. However, it is shown that the verdict mayinstead harm the relevant stakeholders illustrating how...
Heterogeneity of Foreign Shareholders,Nature of Enterprises and Efficiency of Corporate Governance--Empirical Evidence Based on the Empirical Study of the Chinese Listed Companies%境外股东异质性、企业性质与公司治理效率基于中国上市公司的实证检验
依据2014年一直有境外股东持股的沪深 A股上市公司样本数据,考量不同类型外资持股的治理效应进行实证检验。结果表明：境外股东持股能够提升公司治理效率,不同性质的境外投资者对公司治理的影响存在差异。外资基金和非金融类外资股东的治理效应是显著的,QFII未能对上市公司经营者形成有效监督和制约,外资银行、保险、证券公司反而一定程度上加重了上市公司的代理冲突。此外,外资持股在民营企业中的治理效应优于国有企业。%Based on the data of listed companies with foreign shareholders throughout 2014 in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock markets,this study empirically examines the corporate governance effect by different types of foreign shareholders.We find that the foreign shareholders on the whole can effectively promote corporate governance efficiency,and different types of foreign shareholders have different effects on corporate governance.Foreign funds and the non-financial institutes have significantly positive effects on corporate governance.QFII can not supervise and restrict the management of the listed companies effectively,while shareholders of foreign banks, insurance companies and securities companies even aggravate the agency conflicts of the listed companies.In addition,the governance effect of foreign shareholders in private enterprises is bet-ter than that of state owned enterprises.
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The MCC-supported Land Title Facilitation Activity (LTF) in Ghana was designed to increase investment and productivity by strengthening property rights. In Ghana,...
... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or refuge...
Turnbull, Ann P.; Pereira, Lourdes; Blue-Banning, Martha
This article highlights three teachers who were actively involved as friendship facilitators by illuminating their use of a friendship-facilitator framework with three students with moderate/severe disabilities. The framework includes three strategies: finding opportunities to bring children and youth together, acknowledging individual strengths…
Smith, Melissa K.; Lewis, Marilyn
In TESOL teacher mentoring, giving advice can be conceptualized as a continuum, ranging from directive to facilitative feedback. The goal, over time, is to lead toward the facilitative end of the continuum and specifically to catalytic interventions that encourage self-reflection and autonomous learning. This study begins by examining research on…
Full Text Available The article discussed the idea of skilled helping in relation to what has been put forward as practical theological facilitation. It has been argued that various helping relationships, amongst which the author refers to coaching, facilitation, and therapy has more in common than what differentiates them if epistemology is viewed as a unifying concept. As such the scope of practical theology in terms of the contexts and themes in which it might be involved is said to widen. The public dimension of the organisational context, more so than the congregational context, has been put forward as an important habitus of practical-theological facilitation. The organisational involvement of the practical-theological facilitator in terms of professional-vocational skilled helping takes on an actual role through facilitation and other helping modalities.
Full Text Available Letters to shareholders (i. e. the first part of a company's Annual Report represent an interesting genre for the analysis of epistemic modal expressions. They serve the function to present a short overview of the company's main achievements as well as an outlook into the future. They additionally serve a more marketing-oriented goal: to inspire confidence in the company. Epistemic modal expressions (e. g. may, perhaps, probably are used in texts for two main reasons: Firstly, speakers can signal with these markers that they have content-based reasons to be unsure about the states of affairs they are talking about. This type of use can be expected to be typical in the context of predictions of future developments. Secondly, speakers can use them for interpersonal reasons, to open up the discursive space for alternative positions, leaving the readers their right to form their own opinion. This type of use can be expected in positive evaluations of one’s own company, which are thus presented in a mitigated way, avoiding the impression of boasting.It is in particular the second type of use that can be expected to be highly sensitive to cultural differences. The present paper analyzes to what extent US-English and German letters to shareholders differ in the use of these markers, and how these differences are reflected in English-German translations. Our quantitative analysis of the distribution of all epistemic modal markers in a multilingual corpus comes to the conclusion that there are notable differences between English and German original texts. Unlike in other studies on English-German translations (e. g. Kranich/House/Becher 2012, however, we arrive at the conclusion that the English-German translations are very closely adapted to the target-language conventions and show little interference from the English originals.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller
In 2008 University of Aarhus, Denmark, issued a report concerning student experience with the study environment. Among the university's eight faculties, the Danish School of Education (DPU) held the sad record of having the lowest student well-being. This led to an action research project...... 'Facilitating study environment' at one of DPU's educations in spring 2009. The pilot project consisted of three elements: Facilitated study groups, a student bar with facilitated activities, and academic identity events. Subsequently, we have studied students' experiences with the project. This paper outlines...... the preliminary results from the facilitated study groups. After one term (February-May), student satisfaction with both the social and the disciplinary environment had increased. The project shows how academic and social integration can be achieved with minimum faculty member involvement. This is done by relying...
Newton, Jennifer M
Effective facilitation has been identified in the literature as one of three elements, along with context and evidence, that have a dynamic and coexisting relationship to enable the successful uptake of evidence into practice. This paper presents an overview of the concept of facilitation within the context of practice development, ahead of a personal and professional reflective account of a 'developing facilitator'. In the summer of 2001, the author was instrumental in organising the first Practice Development School in Melbourne. Thrown in at the deep end, she found herself co-facilitating with an experienced practice developer from the United Kingdom. Having never facilitated in the arena of an action learning group, nor worked in the field of practice development, there was initially a sense of impending overload and drowning in the new knowledge and skills that needed to be acquired. Drawing upon the work of narrative inquiry the author shares her experiences in the anticipation that in telling her story it will assist others in their journey of becoming a facilitator.
Full Text Available Compared to the vast literature linking competitive interactions and speciation, attempts to understand the role of facilitation for evolutionary diversification remain scarce. Yet, community ecologists now recognize the importance of positive interactions within plant communities. Here, we examine how facilitation may interfere with the mechanisms of ecological speciation. We argue that facilitation is likely to (1 maintain gene flow among incipient species by enabling cooccurrence of adapted and maladapted forms in marginal habitats and (2 increase fitness of introgressed forms and limit reinforcement in secondary contact zones. Alternatively, we present how facilitation may favour colonization of marginal habitats and thus enhance local adaptation and ecological speciation. Therefore, facilitation may impede or pave the way for ecological speciation. Using a simple spatially and genetically explicit modelling framework, we illustrate and propose some first testable ideas about how, when, and where facilitation may act as a cohesive force for ecological speciation. These hypotheses and the modelling framework proposed should stimulate further empirical and theoretical research examining the role of both competitive and positive interactions in the formation of incipient species.
Lindström, Björn R; Bohlin, Gunilla
The effect of emotional stimulus content on working memory performance has been investigated with conflicting results, as both emotion-dependent facilitation and impairments are reported in the literature. To clarify this issue, 52 adult participants performed a modified visual 2-back task with highly arousing positive stimuli (sexual scenes), highly arousing negative stimuli (violent death) and low-arousal neutral stimuli. Emotional stimulus processing was found to facilitate task performance relative to that of neutral stimuli, both in regards to response accuracy and reaction times. No emotion-dependent differences in false-alarm rates were found. These results indicate that emotional information can have a facilitating effect on working memory maintenance and processing of information.
Caring is a difficult nursing activity that involves a complex nature of a human being in need of complex decision-making and problem solving through the critical thinking process. It is mandatory that critical thinking is facilitated in general and in nursing education particularly in order to render care in diverse multicultural patient care settings. This paper aims to describe how argumentation can be used to facilitate critical thinking in learners. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design that is contextual was used. Purposive sampling method was used to draw a sample and Miles and Huberman methodology of qualitative analysis was used to analyse data. Lincoln and Guba's strategies were employed to ensure trustworthiness, while Dhai and McQuoid-Mason's principles of ethical consideration were used. Following data analysis the findings were integrated within literature which culminated into the formulation of guidelines that can be followed when using argumentation as a methodology to facilitate critical thinking.
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne; Jacobsen, Peter
Project management can be seen as a profession, discipline and conceptual framework. It has been developed from different fields, including military engineering, mechanical engineering, social sciences and construction. During recent decades, there has been a number of challenges as to its efficacy...... cooperation, mediated by interconnected and diversified systems, is becoming more and more common. These relatively new forms of interaction imply new demands on skills and methods facilitating project cooperation within and among various organizations. Given the pervasiveness of these demands, project...... managers are frequently finding themselves in situations where using facilitating skills is not an option, but a requirement. Facilitation is to be viewed as a process of ‘obstetric’ aid to meet the challenges of coping with the changing conditions for project management described briefly above...
Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.
We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following......: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...
Acklin, M W
The psychoanalytic theory of religion has been seriously limited in its development, largely owing to Freud's emphasis on religion's neurotic elements and an overemphasis on the infantile origins of religious development. This paper offers a conceptual framework and advances the thesis, based on contemporary psychoanalytic, developmental theory, that 1) Erikson's concept of epigenesis has applicability across the life span; 2) that beyond-the-self identity is constituent to human maturation and self-completion; 3) that successful adult maturation requires a mirroring-facilitating environment; and 4) that religious values, meanings, images, and communities play an essential role-as-elements of the facilitating environment of later life.
Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie
This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.
Gan, Lydia L; Frederick, James R
The study identified which of the four facilitators (themselves, agents, insurers, or doctors) consumers are most likely to use when they travel for various medical procedures. A survey conducted between 2011 and 2014 yielded 964 responses. The multinomial logistic regression results showed that being 51-64 years old was positively related to going on their own or using agents to arrange for knee replacements. Having a high school education or less was positively linked to using both agents and insurers to facilitate knee replacements, whereas having a bachelor's degree was negatively associated with going on their own for stem cell therapy.
McHugh, Megan; Brown, Tiffany; Liss, David T; Walunas, Theresa L; Persell, Stephen D
Practice facilitation is a promising approach to helping practices implement quality improvements. Our purpose was to describe practice facilitators' and practice leaders' perspectives on implementation of a practice facilitator-supported quality improvement program and describe where their perspectives aligned and diverged. We conducted interviews with practice leaders and practice facilitators who participated in a program that included 35 improvement strategies aimed at the ABCS of heart health (aspirin use in high-risk individuals, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation). Rapid qualitative analysis was used to collect, organize, and analyze the data. We interviewed 17 of the 33 eligible practice leaders, and the 10 practice facilitators assigned to those practices. Practice leaders and practice facilitators both reported value in the program's ability to bring needed, high-quality resources to practices. Practice leaders appreciated being able to set the schedule for facilitation and select among the 35 interventions. According to practice facilitators, however, relying on practice leaders to set the pace of the intervention resulted in a lower level of program intensity than intended. Practice leaders preferred targeted assistance, particularly electronic health record documentation guidance and linkages to state smoking cessation programs. Practice facilitators reported that the easiest interventions were those that did not alter care practices. The dual perspectives of practice leaders and practice facilitators provide a more holistic picture of enablers and barriers to program implementation. There may be greater opportunities to assist small practices through simple, targeted practice facilitator-supported efforts rather than larger, comprehensive quality improvement projects. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; O´Connor, Rory
"This paper describes an approach to facilitate interaction between students and industrial companies in a problem based learning environment. The approach is adapted from a methodology developed at the LEGO Company and relies on an improved ability to communicate complex problems when using...
Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip
This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…
Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert
and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...
PACER Center, 2004
To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…
This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner's 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as…
The emerging concept of illicit financial flows has become a crosscutting issue on the international agenda in recent years. This umbrella term refers to money illegally earned, transferred, or used. With the development of digital technologies, the use of information and communications networks as a tool for facilitating illicit financial flows is rising as one of the key challenges in ta...
Baumeister, Alfred A.; Kistler, Doris
This study attempted to determine if white noise (an arousing stimulus), when presented at the time of recall, facilitates performance of second and fifth grade students, and if this effect generalizes across different kinds of learning tasks. Findings indicate that white noise produces improvements in performance in both age groups. (GO)
Gaber-Katz, Elaine; Zettel, Kathryn
This resource guide, for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) literacy facilitators, reviews a variety of resources for ESL literacy. The guide contains three sections. The first section cites four books that provide a theoretical context for literacy work: "Ah-Hah! A New Approach to Popular Education" (Gatt-Fly); "Approaches and Methods in Language…
Facilitating community-based interprofessional education and collaborative practice in a health sciences faculty: Student perceptions and experiences. ... It became apparent that students need to be prepared to work in interprofessional groups. The overall intervention was perceived positively, allowing students to become ...
Harkness, John E.
A prose text in veterinary medicine can be arranged and supplemented to facilitate efficient and effective acquisition into short-term memory. Methods include: variation in textual format; relating new information to previous knowledge and future goals; providing specific, test-relevant objectives or introductions, describing mnemonic devices; and…
Barriga, Patricio; And Others
This paper describes the concept, training, and experiences of community facilitators as change agents in a nonformal education project in rural Ecuador. Presently, the social, economic, and political context of the rural Ecuadorian consists of poverty, racial prejudice, economic exploitation, and psychological dependency. The project attempted to…
In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on integrating the teaching of arithmetic and algebra in primary school classrooms. This requires teachers to develop links between arithmetic and algebra and use pedagogical actions that facilitate algebraic reasoning. Drawing on findings from a classroom-based study, this paper provides an…
Facilitation of online discussions presents a challenge to online learning instructors. Unlike in face-to-face courses, students in online learning do not have physical contacts with instructors. They might view instructors as authoritarian figures and perceive instructor's comments as impersonal. This article details the author's personal…
The study ascertained how teachers facilitate the creativity skills of the Pupils as an outcome of professional development. 450 primary school pupils and 50 Basic science teachers in the primary schools were sampled. The study adopted the Solomon four group design. The Torrance Test for Creative thinking (TTCT) and ...
Mehling, Lena-Maria; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wang, Xin
A very serious case of DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault) is presented, in which a six-year-old girl died following sedation with γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). She had been sexually abused by a relative. Samples of cardiac blood, bile, vitreous humour, liver, kidney, brain tissues and hair were...
Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.; Sherwood, Catherine M.
Peer education, facilitation, and counseling programs are commonly utilized in primary and secondary prevention programs within colleges and universities. In addition, peer-based human sexuality discussions have been used as an adjunct to traditional human sexuality pedagogic programs over the last 20 years. Whereas ample evidence suggests that…
Kuada, John Ernest; Sørensen, Olav Jull
Since the mid-1980s, aid agencies have endorsed the need to support private enterprise development in developing countries as an instrument for overall economic development and poverty reduction. Facilitation of collaboration between developed and developing country firms has become one of the mo...
Marsick, Victoria J.; Watkins, Karen E.
This book offers advice to facilitators and change agents who wish to build systems-level learning to create knowledge that can be used to gain a competitive advantage. Chapter 1 describes forces driving companies to build, sustain, and effectively use systems-level learning and presents and links a working definition of the learning organization…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which forum theatre interventions can support non-hierarchical approaches to learning, development and change management initiatives in organisations. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with theatre consultancies, actors/facilitators,…
Roberts, David H; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M
The current, so-called "Millennial" generation of learners is frequently characterized as having deep understanding of, and appreciation for, technology and social connectedness. This generation of learners has also been molded by a unique set of cultural influences that are essential for medical educators to consider in all aspects of their teaching, including curriculum design, student assessment, and interactions between faculty and learners. The following tips outline an approach to facilitating learning of our current generation of medical trainees. The method is based on the available literature and the authors' experiences with Millennial Learners in medical training. The 12 tips provide detailed approaches and specific strategies for understanding and engaging Millennial Learners and enhancing their learning. With an increased understanding of the characteristics of the current generation of medical trainees, faculty will be better able to facilitate learning and optimize interactions with Millennial Learners.
Mahr, Tristan; McMillan, Brianna T M; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Edwards, Jan
Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries. Previous research has shown that adults can use phonetic cues from anticipatory coarticulation during word recognition. We asked whether 18-24 month-olds (n=29) used coarticulatory cues on the word "the" when recognizing the following noun. We performed a looking-while-listening eyetracking experiment to examine word recognition in neutral vs. facilitating coarticulatory conditions. Participants looked to the target image significantly sooner when the determiner contained facilitating coarticulatory cues. These results provide the first evidence that novice word-learners can take advantage of anticipatory sub-phonemic cues during word recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Nation, Kate
An experiment investigated whether exposure to orthography facilitates oral vocabulary learning. A total of 58 typically developing children aged 8-9 years were taught 12 nonwords. Children were trained to associate novel phonological forms with pictures of novel objects. Pictures were used as referents to represent novel word meanings. For half of the nonwords children were additionally exposed to orthography, although they were not alerted to its presence, nor were they instructed to use it. After this training phase a nonword-picture matching posttest was used to assess learning of nonword meaning, and a spelling posttest was used to assess learning of nonword orthography. Children showed robust learning for novel spelling patterns after incidental exposure to orthography. Further, we observed stronger learning for nonword-referent pairings trained with orthography. The degree of orthographic facilitation observed in posttests was related to children's reading levels, with more advanced readers showing more benefit from the presence of orthography.
Maria do Carmo de Lima Bezerra
Full Text Available The article discusses the relevance of the architectural space as a facilitator of teaching and learning processes. It adopts an analytical methodology based on the architecture and pedagogy literature to know the view of these areas on the subject, and identifies relevant spatial attributes to facilitate education. Research has shown that there are recurrences pointing disciplinary fields of environmental comfort, ergonomics and environmental psychology, which were the subject of this conceptual research about the positive and negative impacts on the school design facility by each attribute of these disciplines. As result, it presents a framework of attributes, characteristics and relevance to teaching and learning to be used as support to the space needs assessment, ie: during the first stage of an architectural design process.
Todd M. Super
Full Text Available Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group.
Cowie, Martin R.; Blomster, Juuso I.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, J?rg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P.; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis
Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the pr...
Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent
Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...
Donald, L.; Clark, M.
Mentoring has been occurring in organizations for many, many years through a natural pairing process of people wanting to help one another. The numerous benefits of mentoring to both the protege and the mentor are widely known. In this paper we describe a Facilitated Mentoring Pilot Program for engineers, successfully completed in June, 1993. This career development tool can help make ``Every Engineer a Leader.``
ABSTRACT. The doctoral thesis of Ilze Šūmane in pedagogy science, school pedagogy sub-discipline ”Learning environment facilitating educational achievements of teenagers” was worked out in the Department of Pedagogy, Faculty of Pedagogy, Psychology and Arts, University of Latvia, under the supervision of Dr.paed., professor Rudīte Andersone from2001 till 2011. The topicality of the research determined by the necessity to improve quality learning and education. During an effective study ...
Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew
Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:26514583
Machado, Denis Jacob
The number and size of tree topologies that are being compared by phylogenetic systematists is increasing due to technological advancements in high-throughput DNA sequencing. However, we still lack tools to facilitate comparison among phylogenetic trees with a large number of terminals. The "YBYRÁ" project integrates software solutions for data analysis in phylogenetics. It comprises tools for (1) topological distance calculation based on the number of shared splits or clades, (2) sensitivity analysis and automatic generation of sensitivity plots and (3) clade diagnoses based on different categories of synapomorphies. YBYRÁ also provides (4) an original framework to facilitate the search for potential rogue taxa based on how much they affect average matching split distances (using MSdist). YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees and outperforms competing software in terms of usability and time efficiency, specially for large data sets. The programs that comprises this toolkit are written in Python, hence they do not require installation and have minimum dependencies. The entire project is available under an open-source licence at http://www.ib.usp.br/grant/anfibios/researchSoftware.html .
Kelley, Matthew R; Parasiuk, Yuri; Salgado-Benz, Jennifer; Crocco, Megan
Cole, Reysen, and Kelley [2013. Part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1615-1620] reported robust part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information using snap circuits (a colour-coded electronics kit designed for children to create rudimentary circuit boards). In contrast, Drinkwater, Dagnall, and Parker [2006. Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(3), 645-653] and Watkins, Schwartz, and Lane [1984. Does part-set cuing test for memory organization? Evidence from reconstructions of chess positions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 38(3), 498-503] showed no influence of part-set cuing for spatial information when using chess boards. One key difference between the two procedures was that the snap circuit stimuli were explicitly connected to one another, whereas chess pieces were not. Two experiments examined the effects of connection type (connected vs. unconnected) and cue type (cued vs. uncued) on memory for spatial information. Using chess boards (Experiment 1) and snap circuits (Experiment 2), part-set cuing facilitation only occurred when the stimuli were explicitly connected; there was no influence of cuing with unconnected stimuli. These results are potentially consistent with the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, as well as the two- and three-mechanism accounts of part-set cuing.
Full Text Available Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive fatigue, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, twenty-three young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT following the induction of high or low levels of cognitive fatigue, in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive fatigue was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual's optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement showed more of a benefit from the sequential components than from motor. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of cognitive fatigue on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms.
Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos
There is limited research on the use of scripts by novice facilitators (novices) in Facilitated Modelling (FM) workshops. To address this gap, this paper illustrates how novices—supported by scripts—switch between and combine facilitation skills and competencies to successfully manage FM workshops...... and achieve outcomes. This illustration is based on a micro-level analysis of a transcript from a Viable System Model workshop held in a food cooperative in Copenhagen, Denmark. Through our findings we identify two distinct script-supported FM behaviours and related script-supported facilitation practices...... that enable novices to (a) acquire skills and competencies; and (b) switch between and combine skills and competencies to successfully manage workshops and achieve outcomes. Our study links micro-level considerations to a meta-level framework that relates the script-supported FM behaviours and practices...
Munch, Anna; Boholt, Marianne
Abstract The topic of this thesis is the relatively new consultancy tool of graphic facilitation (GF). GF is a method that combines hand-drawn images and big picture thinking. A graphic facilitator leads a group through a process that results in visual output such as a poster or pamphlet. Our thesis analyses this management tool from a power perspective in an attempt to determine the power relations inherent in its practice. Our theoretical basis is French philosopher Michel Foucault’s theory...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of conveners and facilitators. 600.752..., by consensus. The facilitator may be the same person as the convener used under paragraph (a) of this... facilitator, the FNP shall select, by consensus, a person to serve as facilitator. A person designated to...
Møller, Laura; Goduscheit, René Chester
facilitation may be employed as a method to support organisational development processes. The article unfolds the concept of facilitation, identifies the processes that merit facilitation and demonstrates how facilitation work may be approached. The first step in the process is acknowledgement of the need...
Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner’s 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as multiple intelligences by online education systems and then suggests a framework of the advanced form of learning analytics i.e., multimodal learning analytics for tracing and facilitating multiple intelligences while they are engaged in online ubiquitous learning. As multimodal learning analytics is still an evolving area, it poses many challenges for technologists, educationists as well as organizational managers. Learning analytics make machines meet humans, therefore, the educationists with an expertise in learning theories can help technologists devise latest technological methods for multimodal learning analytics and organizational managers can implement them for the improvement of online education. Therefore, a careful instructional design based on a deep understanding of students’ learning abilities, is required to develop teaching plans and technological possibilities for monitoring students’ learning paths. This is how learning analytics can help design an adaptive instructional design based on a quick analysis of the data gathered. Based on that analysis, the academicians can critically reflect upon the quick or delayed implementation of the existing instructional design based on students’ cognitive abilities or even about the single or double loop learning design. The researcher concludes that the online education is multimodal in nature, has the capacity to endorse multiliteracies and, therefore, multiple intelligences can be tracked and facilitated through multimodal learning analytics in an online mode. However, online teachers’ training both in technological implementations and
Gresham Cathy R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and
Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S; Rydtoft, Louise M; Mortensen, Martin B; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J
Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.
Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise
Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed...... that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...
Pattison, Jill; Kline, Theresa
The purpose of this paper is to identify managerial and organizational characteristics and behaviors that facilitate the fostering of a just and trusting culture within the healthcare system. Two studies were conducted. The initial qualitative one was used to identify themes based on interviews with health care workers that facilitate a just and trusting culture. The quantitative one used a policy-capturing design to determine which factors were most likely to predict outcomes of manager and organizational trust. The factors of violation type (ability vs integrity), providing an explanation or not, blame vs no blame by manager, and blame vs no blame by organization were all significant predictors of perceptions of trust. Limitations to the generalizability of findings included both a small and non-representative sample from one health care region. The present findings can be useful in developing training systems for managers and organizational executive teams for managing medical error events in a manner that will help develop a just and trusting culture. A just and trusting culture should enhance the likelihood of reporting medical errors. Improved reporting, in turn, should enhance patient safety. This is the first field study experimentally manipulating aspects of organizational trust within the health care sector. The use of policy-capturing is a unique feature that sheds light into the decision-making of health care workers as to the efficaciousness of particular managerial and organizational characteristics that impact a just and trusting culture.
Spencer, Kevin M; Nestor, Paul G; Valdman, Olga; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W
While attentional functions are usually found to be impaired in schizophrenia, a review of the literature on the orienting of spatial attention in schizophrenia suggested that voluntary attentional orienting in response to a valid cue might be paradoxically enhanced. We tested this hypothesis with orienting tasks involving the cued detection of a laterally presented target stimulus. Subjects were chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ) and matched healthy control subjects (HC). In Experiment 1 (15 SZ, 16 HC), cues were endogenous (arrows) and could be valid (100% predictive) or neutral with respect to the subsequent target position. In Experiment 2 (16 SZ, 16 HC), subjects performed a standard orienting task with unpredictive exogenous cues (brightening of the target boxes). In Experiment 1, SZ showed a larger attentional facilitation effect on reaction time than HC. In Experiment 2, no clear sign of enhanced attentional facilitation was found in SZ. The voluntary, facilitatory shifting of spatial attention may be relatively enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy individuals. This effect bears resemblance to other relative enhancements of information processing in schizophrenia such as saccade speed and semantic priming. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew
Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.
Samson, Andre L; Alwis, Imala; Maclean, Jessica A A; Priyananda, Pramith; Hawkett, Brian; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Jackson, Shaun P
Clot retraction refers to the process whereby activated platelets transduce contractile forces onto the fibrin network of a thrombus, which over time increases clot density and decreases clot size. This process is considered important for promoting clot stability and maintaining blood vessel patency. Insights into the mechanisms regulating clot retraction at sites of vascular injury have been hampered by a paucity of in vivo experimental models. By pairing localized vascular injury with thrombin microinjection in the mesenteric circulation of mice, we have demonstrated that the fibrin network of thrombi progressively compacts over a 2-hour period. This was a genuine retraction process, as treating thrombi with blebbistatin to inhibit myosin IIa-mediated platelet contractility prevented shrinkage of the fibrin network. Real-time confocal analysis of fibrinolysis after recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) administration revealed that incomplete proteolysis of fibrin polymers markedly facilitated clot retraction. Similarly, inhibiting endogenous fibrinolysis with tranexamic acid reduced retraction of fibrin polymers in vivo. In vitro clot retraction experiments indicated that subthreshold doses of tPA facilitated clot retraction through a plasmin-dependent mechanism. These effects correlated with changes in the elastic modulus of fibrin clots. These findings define the endogenous fibrinolytic system as an important regulator of clot retraction, and show that promoting clot retraction is a novel and complementary means by which fibrinolytic enzymes can reduce thrombus size. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.
Full Text Available Practical skills constitute essential knowledge in occupational therapy. The knowledge is situation- and experience-based, generated from within the situation. In a particular program for educating Palestinian Occupational Therapists in Gaza, facilitating such knowledge proved to be difficult. Due to travel restrictions and an unstable political situation, teachers and students were separated. Educational communication technology (ECT like videoconferences, internet and videos became new and necessary tools. This article is based on results from an action research project which followed the process of using flexible forms of learning and developing an internet based learning programme named Ergonet. The learning process of the students using it was examined with the aim of answering the following research question: How can flexible forms of learning be developed and used to facilitate practical knowledge in Occupational Therapy education? The development and implementation of Ergonet as a supporting device in students’ learning of practical skills is described through the experience of the teachers involved. The results indicate how rote-learning and lack of reflective and critical thinking, firmly established among Palestinian students, have been challenged and changed by the didactic use of Ergonet.
Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R
The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thoms, George; Yu, Siyuan; Kang, Yucheng; Li, Chen
When negotiating cluttered terrains such as grass-like beams, cockroaches and legged robots with rounded body shapes most often rolled their bodies to traverse narrow gaps between beams. Recent locomotion energy landscape modeling suggests that this locomotor pathway overcomes the lowest potential energy barriers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that body vibrations induced by intermittent leg-ground contact facilitate obstacle traversal by allowing exploration of locomotion energy landscape to find this lowest barrier pathway. To mimic a cockroach / legged robot pushing against two adjacent blades of grass, we developed an automated robotic system to move an ellipsoidal body into two adjacent beams, and varied body vibrations by controlling an oscillation actuator. A novel gyroscope mechanism allowed the body to freely rotate in response to interaction with the beams, and an IMU and cameras recorded the motion of the body and beams. We discovered that body vibrations facilitated body rolling, significantly increasing traversal probability and reducing traversal time (P locomotor pathways in complex 3-D terrains.
Wu, Q D
Tumor cell extravasation plays a key role in tumor metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms by which tumor cells migrate through normal vascular endothelium remain unclear. In this study, using an in vitro transendothelial migration model, we show that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) assist the human breast tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 to cross the endothelial barrier. We found that tumor-conditioned medium (TCM) downregulated PMN cytocidal function, delayed PMN apoptosis, and concomitantly upregulated PMN adhesion molecule expression. These PMN treated with TCM attached to tumor cells and facilitated tumor cell migration through different endothelial monolayers. In contrast, MDA-MB-231 cells alone did not transmigrate. FACScan analysis revealed that these tumor cells expressed high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but did not express CD11a, CD11b, or CD18. Blockage of CD11b and CD18 on PMN and of ICAM-1 on MDA-MB-231 cells significantly attenuated TCM-treated, PMN-mediated tumor cell migration. These tumor cells still possessed the ability to proliferate after PMN-assisted transmigration. These results indicate that TCM-treated PMN may serve as a carrier to assist tumor cell transendothelial migration and suggest that tumor cells can exploit PMN and alter their function to facilitate their extravasation.
Full Text Available A key feature of group facilitation is motivating and coordinating people to perform their joint work. This paper focuses on group coordination which is a prerequisite to group effectiveness, especially in complex tasks. Decision-making in groups is a complex task that consequently needs to be coordinated by explicit rather than implicit coordination mechanisms. Based on the embedded definition that explicit coordination does not just happen but is purposely executed by individuals, we argue that individual coordination intentions and mechanisms should be taken into account. Thus far, the subjective perspective of coordination has been neglected in coordination theory, which is understandable given the difficulties in defining and measuring subjective aspects of group facilitation. We therefore conducted focused interviews with eight experts who either worked as senior managers or as experienced group facilitators and analysed their approaches to group coordination using methods of content analysis. Results show that these experts possess sophisticated mental representations of their coordination behaviour. These subjective coordination theories can be organised in terms of coordination schemes in which coordination-releasing situations are facilitated by special coordination mechanisms that, in turn, lead to the perception of specific consequences. We discuss the importance of these subjective coordination theories for effectively facilitating group decision-making and minimising process losses. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901287
Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles
The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.
Kristian W Sanggaard
Full Text Available Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.
profession, but at the same time it becomes very difficult to identify where and how the design is created since form-giving now becomes a group effort. So as a way to ease the transition from highly framed and facilitated high school learning context to university self-driven learning context a small...... given to two set of students; one set that received the survival kit in 2011 and 2012 and one set that did not. The questionnaire inquires the students’ attitude towards 4 aspects: 1.General level of preparedness for team and problem based project work 2.Level of information of expectations from...... supervisors and programme 3.Reflection of the role in a team, problem based project work 4.The level of information of special expectations from the Industrial Design program towards team and problem based project work. Results indicates that Class receiving the “Survival Kit” improved in the calibration...
Baldwin, Carryl L
Seventeen participants performed a tone-pattern-matching task at different presentation levels while concurrently engaged in a simulated-driving task. Presentation levels of 60, 65, and 70 dBC (SPL) were combined factorially with tone-matching delays of 2, 3, and 4 sec. Intensity had no effect on performance in single-task conditions and short-delay conditions. However, when the participants were engaged concurrently in the driving task, a significant interaction between presentation level and delay was observed. In the longest delay condition, the participants performed the tone-pattern-matching task more efficiently (more quickly and without additional errors) as presentation intensity increased. These findings demonstrate the interaction between sensory and cognitive processes and point to a direct-intensity relationship where intensity affects the persistence of echoic memory. Implications for facilitating auditory processing and improving auditory interfaces in complex systems (i.e., transportation environments), particularly for older and hearing-impaired listeners, are discussed.
Tanasova, Marina; Fedie, Joseph R
Facilitative carbohydrate transporters-Gluts-have received wide attention over decades due to their essential role in nutrient uptake and links with various metabolic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Endeavors directed towards understanding the mechanisms of Glut-mediated nutrient uptake have resulted in a multidisciplinary research field spanning protein chemistry, chemical biology, organic synthesis, crystallography, and biomolecular modeling. Gluts became attractive targets for cancer research and medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of new approaches to cancer diagnostics and providing avenues for cancer-targeting therapeutics. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the molecular interactions behind Glut-mediated sugar uptake, Glut-targeting probes, therapeutics, and inhibitors are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.
Kierzek, Elzbieta; Kierzek, Ryszard; Turner, Douglas H; Catrina, Irina E
Determining RNA secondary structure is important for understanding structure-function relationships and identifying potential drug targets. This paper reports the use of microarrays with heptamer 2'-O-methyl oligoribonucleotides to probe the secondary structure of an RNA and thereby improve the prediction of that secondary structure. When experimental constraints from hybridization results are added to a free-energy minimization algorithm, the prediction of the secondary structure of Escherichia coli 5S rRNA improves from 27 to 92% of the known canonical base pairs. Optimization of buffer conditions for hybridization and application of 2'-O-methyl-2-thiouridine to enhance binding and improve discrimination between AU and GU pairs are also described. The results suggest that probing RNA with oligonucleotide microarrays can facilitate determination of secondary structure.
Nielsen, Louise Møller
experiences and expertise to guide the students’ decisions in relation to the design project. This paper focuses on project supervision in the context of design education – and more specifically on how this supervision is unfolded in a Problem Based Learning culture. The paper explores the supervisor......’s balance between the roles: 1) Design Project Supervisor – and 2) Learning Facilitator – with the aim to understand when to apply the different roles, and what to be aware of when doing so. This paper represents the first pilot-study of a larger research effort. It is based on a Lego Serious Play workshop......In design there is a long tradition for apprenticeship, as well as tradition for learning through design projects. Today many design educations are positioned within the University context, and have to be aligned with the learning culture and structure, which they represent. This raises a specific...
Hardy, E; Duarte, G A; Osis, M J; Arce, X E; Possan, M
A multi-centered qualitative study was conducted in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to assess the acceptability of emergency contraception both among potential users and possible providers, authorities, and opinion-makers, and to identify (according to participants' perceptions) factors facilitating or hindering the method's use and the most appropriate strategies to disseminate information and provide the method. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, group interviews, and discussion groups, which were tape-recorded and transcribed. A thematic analysis of this material was conducted. Acceptability of emergency contraception was high among participants, who also felt that there were no barriers towards its acceptance by the population. Participants felt that the method's acceptability would be greater if it were included in reproductive health programs, emphasizing its prescription for emergency situations. Participants highlighted that strategic components in Brazil would be training of providers and inclusion of the method in family planning services.
Rasmussen, Mette Apollo
participants in varied ways come to grasp the meaning of networking. The dissertation draws on insights from the Service-Dominant (S-D) Logic to explain how networks can be seen as spheres for value co-creation. Co-creation as a theoretical construct has evolved from varied streams of service marketing...... of networking. The concept of “imaginative value” (Beckert, 2011) is used to explain the oscillating behaviors observed in the two networks. Imaginative value can be defined as symbolic value that actors ascribe to an object, in this case the network. I argue that the group practices in the networks led......The dissertation investigates through two ethnographic case studies how value co-creation takes place in inter-organizational networks that have been facilitated by a municipality. The contribution of the study to business network research is the emphasis on development phases of networks...
Berg, Otto G; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan
The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction–diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general. (paper)
Full Text Available Background: Coordination is a critical factor in successful organization and appropriate response to disasters. In this regard, a centralized coordination mechanism is the first step towards an effective, efficient, and sustainable response in order to be ensured of the short- and long-term recovery. Thus, this study aimed to identify and prioritize the barriers and facilitators of coordination in disasters. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted in 2016. The participants comprised 22 experts in field of disaster. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire according to the analytical hierarchy process approach. For data analysis, we used Expert Choice software. Results: Based on the results, “dominance of organizational approach instead of national points of view when addressing the health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.344 among the barriers. Furthermore, among the facilitators, “having a processive and organizational view in health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.374. Conclusion: To increase the effective coordination in health area, we should develop infrastructure and structural measures, which include bolstering authorities’ belief about the health system’s role in the response to disasters, reinforcing the national approach rather than organizational approach in the field of health at disasters, implementing the coordination requirements, attending sufficiently and specifically to public participation, reducing the organizational friction in the health field for sharing resources and information, raising the level of readiness with a focus on people and training programs, and finally creating an evolutionary process in the health field at disasters.
Beer, Anton L; Vartak, Devavrat; Greenlee, Mark W
Perceptual learning is a special type of non-declarative learning that involves experience-dependent plasticity in sensory cortices. The cholinergic system is known to modulate declarative learning. In particular, reduced levels or efficacy of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine were found to facilitate declarative memory consolidation. However, little is known about the role of the cholinergic system in memory consolidation of non-declarative learning. Here we compared two groups of non-smoking men who learned a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). One group received chewing tobacco containing nicotine for 1 h directly following the TDT training. The other group received a similar tasting control substance without nicotine. Electroencephalographic recordings during substance consumption showed reduced alpha activity and P300 latencies in the nicotine group compared to the control group. When re-tested on the TDT the following day, both groups responded more accurately and more rapidly than during training. These improvements were specific to the retinal location and orientation of the texture elements of the TDT suggesting that learning involved early visual cortex. A group comparison showed that learning effects were more pronounced in the nicotine group than in the control group. These findings suggest that oral consumption of nicotine enhances the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings further suggest that enhanced efficacy of the cholinergic system facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning (and possibly other types of non-declarative learning). In that regard acetylcholine seems to affect consolidation processes in perceptual learning in a different manner than in declarative learning. Alternatively, our findings might reflect dose-dependent cholinergic modulation of memory consolidation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by
Due, Tina Drud; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Waldorff, Frans Boch
of the visited practices to gain a more detailed understanding of how peer facilitation influenced practices and how they valued the facilitation. METHODS: The facilitation intervention was conducted in general practice in the Capital Region of Denmark with the purpose of supporting the implementation of chronic...... visits had increased their knowledge and skills as well as their motivation and confidence to change. These positive influences were ascribed to a) the facilitation approach b) the credibility and know-how associated with the facilitators' being peers c) the recurring visits providing protected time...... and invoking a sense of commitment. Despite these positive influences, both the facilitation and the change process were impeded by several challenges, e.g. competing priorities, heavy workload, problems with information technology and in some cases inadequate facilitation. CONCLUSION: Practice facilitation...
Eakin, William L.
As Total Quality Management teams work to improve organizational processes, several types of facilitators emerge: the director, the workhorse, and the cheerleader. Experience at the University of Kansas illustrates how different facilitator styles can affect team learning. (MSE)
Full Text Available This conference presentation discusses the authors' duties as the facilitators of the POL-SABINA Natural Products Virtual Research Environment. In summary, they facilitated the use and content population of the Natural Products Virtual Research...
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Harman, Robert L.
If counselors are to be facilitators of client growth, it would seem essentail that they become familiar with the concept of growth and ways to facilitate it. The author defines growth from a gestalt therapy point of view and provides techniques and examples of ways to facilitate client growth. (Author)
Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Thorsen, Thorkil
The use of facilitators for quality improvement in general practice has accelerated during the past decade. As general practitioners (GPs) or pharmacists have typically been used as facilitators, there is a lack of knowledge of how other professionals function as facilitators. This article explores...
Corbett, Jennifer E; Melcher, David
Observers represent the average properties of object ensembles even when they cannot identify individual elements. To investigate the functional role of ensemble statistics, we examined how modulating statistical stability affects visual search. We varied the mean and/or individual sizes of an array of Gabor patches while observers searched for a tilted target. In "stable" blocks, the mean and/or local sizes of the Gabors were constant over successive displays, whereas in "unstable" baseline blocks they changed from trial to trial. Although there was no relationship between the context and the spatial location of the target, observers found targets faster (as indexed by faster correct responses and fewer saccades) as the global mean size became stable over several displays. Building statistical stability also facilitated scanning the scene, as measured by larger saccadic amplitudes, faster saccadic reaction times, and shorter fixation durations. These findings suggest a central role for peripheral visual information, creating context to free resources for detailed processing of salient targets and maintaining the illusion of visual stability.
Full Text Available If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo words and complex non phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2 that was followed by a two alternative forced choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo words were better detected than non phonological stimuli (complex sounds, presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.
Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T
Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.
Badea Elena Codruta
Full Text Available The classroom is the magic active scenery where many educational things take place simultaneously.Intellectual, emotional, socio-cultural, motivational and curricular factors corroborate their influence onclassroom environments, whether we deal with traditional models of teaching or with the constructivistapproaches. The growing demand for language teachers, English in particular, has determined a new vision oflanguage teaching strategies. The cutting-edge technology has created a fertile ground which successfullyfosters the teacher –student communication, emphasizing the teacher’s role to guide students and to generate achange in their learning approach and in eliciting useable knowledge. This way, the teacher has a larger abilityto convert knowledge into practical information that is of real help and value to students. Students are involvedin a continuous educational scheme and are tested on what they have learned. This ensures they can alwaysenjoy the benefits of active learning from expert teachers. The present paper deals with a brief analysis of therole of teacher as learning facilitator and its importance for student acquisition process, eliciting some strategiesin support of collaborative and student-centered learning.
Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent
Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.
Sandhu, M S; Lee, K Z; Gonzalez-Rothi, E J; Fuller, D D
Doxapram is a respiratory stimulant used to treat hypoventilation. Here we investigated whether doxapram could also trigger respiratory neuroplasticity. Specifically, we hypothesized that intermittent delivery of doxapram at low doses would lead to long-lasting increases (i.e., facilitation) of phrenic motor output in anesthetized, vagotomized, and mechanically-ventilated rats. Doxapram was delivered intravenously in a single bolus (2 or 6mg/kg) or as a series of 3 injections (2mg/kg) at 5min intervals. Control groups received pH-matched saline injections (vehicle) or no treatment (anesthesia time control). Doxapram evoked an immediate increase in phrenic output in all groups, but a persistent increase in burst amplitude only occurred after repeated dosing with 2mg/kg. At 60min following the last injection, phrenic burst amplitude was 168±24% of baseline (%BL) in the group receiving 3 injections (Pphrenic response to doxapram (2mg/kg) was reduced by 68% suggesting that at low doses the drug was acting primarily via the carotid chemoreceptors. We conclude that intermittent application of doxapram can trigger phrenic neuroplasticity, and this approach might be of use in the context of respiratory rehabilitation following neurologic injury. © 2013.
Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.
The existence of cooperation demands explanation since cooperation is costly to the actor. Reciprocity has long been regarded as a potential explanatory mechanism for the existence of cooperation. Reciprocity is a mechanism wherein a cooperator responds to an opponent's behavior by switching his/her own behavior. Hence, a possible problematic case relevant to the theory of reciprocity evolution arises when the mechanism is such that the information regarding an opponent's behavior is imperfect. Although it has been confirmed also by previous theoretical studies that imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity, this argument is based on the assumption that there are no mistakes in behavior. And, a previous study presumed that it might be expected that when such mistakes occur, reciprocity can more readily evolve in the case of imperfect information than in the case of perfect information. The reason why the previous study considers so is that in the former case, reciprocators can miss defections incurred by other reciprocators' mistakes due to imperfect information, allowing cooperation to persist when such reciprocators meet. However, contrary to this expectation, the previous study has shown that even when mistakes occur, imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity. Nevertheless, the previous study assumed that payoffs are linear (i.e., that the effect of behavior is additive and there are no synergetic effects). In this study, we revisited the same problem but removed the assumption that payoffs are linear. We used evolutionarily stable strategy analysis to compare the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is imperfect with the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is perfect. Our study revealed that when payoffs are not linear, imperfect information can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity when mistakes occur; while when payoffs are linear
Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.
Many in the economic geology community concern themselves with details of ore formation at the deposit scale, whether tallying fluid inclusion data to get at changes in ore-forming fluids or defining structures that aid and abet mineralization. These compilations are generally aimed at interpretation of events at the site of ore formation, with the goal being assignment of the deposit to a sanctioned ore deposit model. While providing useful data, this approach is incomplete and does not, by itself, serve present-day requirements for true interdisciplinary science. The ore-forming environment is one of chaos and disequilibrium at nearly all scales (Stein, 2014). Chaos and complexity are documented by variably altered rocks, veins or disseminated mineralization with multi-generational fluid histories, erratic and unusual textures in host rocks, and the bitumen or other hydrocarbon products entwined within many ore deposits. This should give pause to our drive for more data as a means to find "the answer". The answer lies in the kind of data collected and more importantly, in the way we interpret those data. Rather than constructing an ever-increasing catalog of descriptive mutations on sanctioned ore deposit models (e.g., IOGC or Iron-Oxide Copper Gold deposits), the way forward is to link source and transport of metals, sulfur, and organic material with regional and ultimately whole Earth chemical evolution. Important experimental work provides chemical constraints in controlled and behaved environments. To these data, we add imagination and interpretation, always tying back to field observations. In this paper, several key points are made by way of ore deposit examples: (1) many IOCG deposits are outcomes of profound changes in the chemistry of the Earth's surface, in the interplay of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere; (2) the redox history of Fe in deep earth may be ultimately expressed in the ore-forming sequence; and (3) the formation of many giant Cu-Mo-Au ore deposits may be arrested when the surface is catastrophically breached, as multiple km-scale breccia pipes empty their volatile and metal contents into the atmosphere. The new equation for studying ore geology should be one that reconstructs ore formation from beginning to end, that is, from source, release, and transport, to breach. Of course, detailed measurements and mapping of ore bodies remains essential, but a full understanding of metal migration and budgets can only be achieved if we model what might have been left behind in deeper Earth, and what may have been lost to the atmosphere. To do this, we need to understand much more than the geology at our ore deposit of interest. Stein, H.J. (2014) Dating and Tracing the History of Ore Formation. Treatise on Geochemistry 13: 87-118. Elsevier. Support for time to think - CHRONOS, funded by a consortium of Norwegian petroleum companies.
M. McDonald; B.D. Smith; K. Ward
Written for marketing and finance directors, CEOs, and strategists, as well as MBA students, this practical book explains the principles and practice behind rigorous due diligence in marketing. It connects marketing plans and investment to the valuation of the firm and how it can contribute to increasing stakeholder value. Completely revised and updated throughout, the Second Edition features new case examples as well as a completely new first chapter containing the results of new research in...
) organizational rights, (2) financial rights, and (3) rights of disposal, or in plainer words, the corporate (1) power, (2) money, and (3) exit. If a shareholders’ agreement is thoroughly kept and respected by all parties, both in the way they vote at general assemblies and in the way they act when wishing....... The substantial elements in many agreements are clauses on (1) voting for board candidates, (2) voting for dividends of certain proportions, and (3) first refusal rights, respectively, call options for shares in the company. Such clauses are at the very roots of corporate law, dealing with the shareholders’ (1......Section 82 of the Danish Company Act, in force from 1 March 2010, provides that ‘Shareholders’ agreements are neither binding on the company nor on decisions taken by the general assembly’. This has far-reaching consequences for shareholders’ agreements, also for already existing agreements...
Renneboog, L.D.R.; Szilagyi, P.G.
This paper provides evidence on the corporate governance role of shareholderinitiated proxy proposals. Previous studies debate over whether activists use proxy proposals to discipline firms or to simply advance their self-serving agendas, and whether proxy proposals are effective at all in
Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.
The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS MandO 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data
Yuri da Cunha Ferreira
Full Text Available Global operations are subject to considerable uncertainties. Due to the Trade Facilitation Agreement that became effective in February 2017, the study of measures to streamline customs controls is urgent. This study aims to assess the impact of trade facilitation measures on import flows. An experimental study was performed in the largest cargo airport in South America through discrete-event simulation and design of experiments. Operation impacts of three trade facilitation measures are assessed on import flow by air. We shed light in the following trade facilitation measures: the use of X-ray equipment for physical inspection; increase of the number of qualified companies in the trade facilitation program; performance targets for customs officials. All trade facilitation measures used indicated potential to provide more predictability, cost savings, time reduction, and increase in security in international supply chain.
Meerkerk, Ingmar; Edelenbos, Jurian
textabstractThis article examines the impact of two facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behaviour in urban governance networks. While research on boundary spanning is growing, there is little attention for antecedents. Combining governance network literature on project management and organizational literature on facilitative and servant leadership, we examine two potential conditions: a facilitative project management style and executive support. We conducted survey research among p...
Berta, Whitney; Cranley, Lisa; Dearing, James W; Dogherty, Elizabeth J; Squires, Janet E; Estabrooks, Carole A
Facilitation is a guided interactional process that has been popularized in health care. Its popularity arises from its potential to support uptake and application of scientific knowledge that stands to improve clinical and managerial decision-making, practice, and ultimately patient outcomes and organizational performance. While this popular concept has garnered attention in health services research, we know that both the content of facilitation and its impact on knowledge implementation vary. The basis of this variation is poorly understood, and understanding is hampered by a lack of conceptual clarity. In this paper, we argue that our understanding of facilitation and its effects is limited in part by a lack of clear theoretical grounding. We propose a theoretical home for facilitation in organizational learning theory. Referring to extant literature on facilitation and drawing on theoretical literature, we discuss the features of facilitation that suggest its role in contributing to learning capacity. We describe how facilitation may contribute to generating knowledge about the application of new scientific knowledge in health-care organizations. Facilitation's promise, we suggest, lies in its potential to stimulate higher-order learning in organizations through experimenting with, generating learning about, and sustaining small-scale adaptations to organizational processes and work routines. The varied effectiveness of facilitation observed in the literature is associated with the presence or absence of factors known to influence organizational learning, since facilitation itself appears to act as a learning mechanism. We offer propositions regarding the relationships between facilitation processes and key organizational learning concepts that have the potential to guide future work to further our understanding of the role that facilitation plays in learning and knowledge generation.
Giorgi, Robert G; Soong, Grace P; Woods, Russell L; Peli, Eli
Foveal detection of a Gabor patch (target) is facilitated by collinear, displaced high-contrast flankers. Polat and Sagi reported that the same phenomenon occurred in the periphery, but no data were presented [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91 (1994) 1206]. Others have found no facilitation in a limited number of conditions tested. To resolve this apparent conflict, we measured lateral facilitation in the near-periphery using a range of stimulus parameters. We found facilitation for a range of target-flanker distances for peripheral eccentricities up to 6 degrees , but the magnitude of the effect was less than found in central vision. Facilitation varied across subjects and with spatial frequency. Flanker contrast had no effect over the range evaluated (10-80%). Equal facilitation was found for two global arrangements of the stimulus pattern. Facilitation was found using a temporal, but not a spatial two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, accounting for the different results among previous studies. This finding supports previous indications of the role of attention in altering such facilitation. The value of facilitation from lateral interactions for persons with central vision impairment, who have to shift their attention to a peripheral locus constantly, needs to be examined.
A interveniência do controlador societário em contratos de concessão do serviço público de distribuição de energia elétrica: disposições e inovações contratuais à luz do direito reflexivo / The Intervention of the Controlling Shareholder in Concession Contracts in the Public Service of Electricity Distribution: Provisions and Contractual Innovations in the Light of Reflexive Law
Acácio Alessandro Rêgo do Nascimento
Full Text Available Purpose – It analyzes to what extent the intervention of the controlling shareholder and its inherent provisions in power distribution utilities contracts are validated in the light of reflexive law constructs. Methodology/approach/design – The dogmatic and socio-legal approach is applied, based on the theory of autopoiesis and reflexive law. It proceeds with the normative selection, tabulation and comparison of the contractual clauses related to the controlling shareholder, constant in the contracts of the ten most prominent power distribution utilities with the largest number of consumers and power distribution in 2013. It performs the critical examination of reflexivity of selected rules. Findings – It concludes that the intervention of the controlling shareholder at the investigated contracts is strongly embodied as reflexive strategies, notwithstanding contractual clauses have few reinforcement mechanisms for regulatory effectiveness. Practical implications – The application of theoretical principles disclosed in the article and the suggestions offered can be applied in new power distribution utilities contracts, with the purpose of increasing the regulatory effectiveness of the clauses.
Saturated packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) at different pore water velocities (0.22-2.2 cm min–1), solution pH (6.2-9.0), and fraction of Fe oxide coating on grain surfaces (', 0-0.36). The facilitated tr...
Iding, Marie K.
Examines the effectiveness of using questions to facilitate processing of diagrams in science texts. Investigates three different elements in experiments on college students. Finds that questions about illustrations do not facilitate learning. Discusses findings with reference to cognitive load theory, the dual coding perspective, and the…
Stel, Mariëlle; van Dijk, Eric; van Baaren, Rick B.
Although people tend to mimic others automatically, mimicry is facilitated or attenuated depending on the specific context. In the current paper, the authors discuss when mimicry is facilitated and attenuated depending on characteristics of situations, targets, and observers. On the basis of the
The Early Childhood Development Manager in Mpumalanga is faced with the problem of providing evidence-based guidance of the best facilitation approach in the Grade R context. An investigation on the effect of facilitation, i.e. play-based or formal instruction, on Grade R performance scores in English Additional ...
Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.
The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…
The prime objective of this paper is to create awareness on the presence of the handicapped in Nigeria and the need to facilitate creative potentials in handicapped and non-handicapped children. Various factors that could facilitate creativity and other factors that could inhibit creativity were discussed. The implications for ...
This study investigates peer supervision. The criterion used was counselor trainees' growth in facilitative functioning. The study sought to ascertain whether the facilitative counselor trainee was also the effective peer supervisor, to provide information on evaluating peer-supervisory experience, and to shed light on the most effective…
Ming, Norma; Baumer, Eric
Facilitating class discussions effectively is a critical yet challenging component of instruction, particularly in online environments where student and faculty interaction is limited. Our goals in this research were to identify facilitation strategies that encourage productive discussion, and to explore text mining techniques that can help…
Range, Bret G.; Pijanowski, John C.; Duncan, Heather; Scherz, Susan; Hvidston, David
This study examines the perspectives of Wyoming instructional facilitators, concerning three coaching constructs--namely, their instructional leadership roles, teachers' instructional practices, and the support that they receive from principals and teachers. Findings suggest that instructional facilitators were positive about their instructional…
von Below, Bernhard; Hellquist, Gunilla; Rödjer, Stig; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wahlqvist, Mats
Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences.In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1-4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators.The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator
Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences. In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Methods Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results Sixty students (70% and 15 facilitators (71% completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. Conclusion In this project, a new Early
Gastelurrutia, Miguel A; Benrimoj, S I Charlie; Castrillon, Carla C; de Amezua, María J Casado; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Faus, Maria J
To identify and prioritise facilitators for practice change in Spanish community pharmacy. Spanish community pharmacies. Qualitative study. Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacists (n = 15) and pharmacy strategists (n = 18), and the results were examined using the content analysis method. In addition, two nominal groups (seven community pharmacists and seven strategists) were formed to identify and prioritise facilitators. Results of both techniques were then triangulated. Facilitators for practice change. Twelve facilitators were identified and grouped into four domains (D1: Pharmacist; D2: Pharmacy as an organisation; D3: Pharmaceutical profession; D4: Miscellaneous). Facilitators identified in D1 include: the need for more clinical education at both pre- and post-graduate levels; the need for clearer and unequivocal messages from professional leaders about the future of the professional practice; and the need for a change in pharmacists' attitudes. Facilitators in D2 are: the need to change the reimbursement system to accommodate cognitive service delivery as well as dispensing; and the need to change the front office of pharmacies. Facilitators identified in D3 are: the need for the Spanish National Professional Association to take a leadership role in the implementation of cognitive services; the need to reduce administrative workload; and the need for universities to reduce the gap between education and research. Other facilitators identified in this study include: the need to increase patients' demand for cognitive services at pharmacies; the need to improve pharmacist-physician relationships; the need for support from health care authorities; and the need for improved marketing of cognitive services and their benefits to society, including physicians and health care authorities. Twelve facilitators were identified. Strategists considered clinical education and pharmacists' attitude as the most important, and
Leverett, Lindsay D
A single plant can interact both positively and negatively with its neighbors through the processes of facilitation and competition, respectively. Much of the variation in the balance of facilitation and competition that individuals experience can be explained by the degree of physical stress and the sizes or ages of plants during the interaction. Germination phenology partly controls both of these factors, but its role in defining the facilitation-competition balance has not been explicitly considered. I performed an experiment in a population of the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) to test whether germinating during physically stressful periods leads to facilitation while germinating during periods that promote growth and reproduction leads to competition. I manipulated germination and neighbor presence across two years in order to quantify the effects of the local plant community on survival, fecundity, and total fitness as a function of germination phenology. Neighbors increased survival when germination occurred under conditions that were unsuitable for survival, but they reduced fecundity in germinants that were otherwise the most fecund. Later germination was associated with facilitation in the first year but competition in the second year. These episodes of facilitation and competition opposed each other, leading to no net effect of neighbors when averaged over all cohorts. These results indicate that variation in germination timing can explain some of the variation in the facilitation-competition balance in plant communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.
Tavella, Elena; Franco, L. Alberto
by which models are jointly developed with group members interacting face-to-face, with or without computer support. The models produced are used to inform negotiations about the nature of the issues faced by the group, and how to address them. While the facilitated modelling literature is impressive......, the workshop. Drawing on the knowledge-perspective of group communication, we conducted a micro-level analysis of a transcript of a facilitated modelling workshop held with the management team of an Alternative Food Network in the UK. Our analysis suggests that facilitated modelling interactions can take...
Azimi, Farideh; Kamali, Mohammad Bagher
This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitatorsâ€™ role in participatory rural development in Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have a better insight into the facilitatorsâ€™ role and employ inquiry as a learning forum for bringing about changes for all participants, they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciative inquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting the facilitatorsâ€™ role into two main categories: driving factors...
Naber, A.C.; Enserink, B.
Social media are web-based and mobile technologies that facilitate interaction between organizations, communities and individuals. Important characteristics are that the technologies are ubiquitous, communication instantaneous and that they enable the creation and exchange of user-generated content.
It ascertained the perception of the gender groups on the organizational, job related and ... and ensure balanced working conditions for both men and women facilitators in the NFDP III. This will help to ultimately improve their job performance.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine Olesen; Madsen, Lene Møller
In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified...... and institutionalized. The project did not change the teaching format, but introduced facilitated study-groups using peer learning. Itwas successful in increasing students’ well-being. While peer learning and study groups are well-known in higher education, facilitation is a different and novel tool. We argue...... that facilitation makes study groups more inclusive, and they provide the potential for deep learning by structuring the learning situation...
Mitten, Carolyn; Jacobbe, Tim; Jacobbe, Elizabeth
Formative assessment is so important to inform teachers' planning. A discussion of the benefits of using technology to facilitate formative assessment explains how four primary school teachers adopted three different apps to make their formative assessment more meaningful and useful.
Moore, Susan; And Others
The ability of eight adults with mental retardation (and in some cases cerebral palsy) to communicate using facilitated communication was assessed by a multidisciplinary team. Not one of the subjects demonstrated an ability to communicate using the technique. (JDD)
Case studies are presented of three individuals with severe communication impairments who had been judged to be intellectually impaired but revealed unexpected achievements after training in nonspeech communication. The communication training used facilitation to circumvent hand function impairments. (JDD)
Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W
Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.
Teacher participation in facilitating beliefs and values in life orientation programmes: ... strategies of belief and value orientations in a multicultural education system. ... and religious backgrounds of learners represented in participating schools.
Facilitating critical thinking within the nursing process framework: A literature review. ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 4 (2007) > ... critical clinical decisions and also make astute clinical judgment that are logical to solve health related problems.
Brown, Karen M; Rode, Jennifer L
Baccalaureate nursing graduates must possess leadership skills, yet few opportunities exist to cultivate leadership abilities in a clinical environment. Peer-facilitated learning may increase the leadership skills of competence, self-confidence, self-reflection, and role modeling. Facilitating human patient simulation provides opportunities to develop leadership skills. With faculty supervision, senior baccalaureate students led small-group simulation experiences with sophomore and junior peers and then conducted subsequent debriefings. Quantitative and qualitative descriptive data allowed evaluation of students' satisfaction with this teaching innovation and whether the experience affected students' desire to take on leadership roles. Students expressed satisfaction with the peer-facilitated simulation experience and confidence in mastering the content while developing necessary skills for practice. Peer-facilitated simulation provides an opportunity for leadership development and learning. Study results can inform the development of nursing curricula to best develop the leadership skills of nursing students. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(1):53-57.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Mc Goldrick, G. J.
Inflatable bladder facilitates the removal of heavy, highly finished metal parts from tote boxes or shipping containers. The proposed concept permits removal without danger of damage to the parts or injury to handling personnel.
Landreth, Garry L.
Presents Carl Rogers' views on facilitating groups, as expressed in a telephone dialogue seminar with graduate students in counselor education at North Texas State University. Discusses extended group marathons, cocounseling, nonverbal group exercises and the future of group work. (JAC)
During 2000 the annual Facilitator Customer Satisfaction Survey was ... the forecasting model is successful concerning the CSI value and a high positive linear ... namely that of human behaviour to incorporate other influences than just the ...
Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; John F. McCarthy' Peter C. Lichtner; John M. Zachara
The main purpose of this project was to advance the basic scientific understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated Cs transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone. We focused our research on the hydrological and geochemical conditions beneath the leaking waste tanks at the USDOE Hanford reservation. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the lability and thermodynamic stability of colloidal materials, which form after reacting Hanford sediments with simulated Hanford Tank Waste, (2) to characterize the interactions between colloidal particles and contaminants, i.e., Cs and Eu, (3) to determine the potential of Hanford sediments for in situ mobilization of colloids, (4) to evaluate colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through sediments under unsaturated flow, (5) to implement colloid-facilitated contaminant transport mechanisms into a transport model, and (6) to improve conceptual characterization of colloid-contaminant-soil interactions and colloid-facilitated transport for clean-up procedures and long-term risk assessment
VMMC) among adolescent boys in KwaZulu–Natal, South Africa. ... Individual cognitive factors facilitating uptake included the belief that VMMC reduced the risk of HIV infection, led to better hygiene and improvement in sexual desirability and ...
Educational Inequality and Academic Achievement in England and. France. ... the process of symbol learning for young children with disabilities. Introduction ... mains an important issue in facilitating integration and participation in society.
A influência da orientação à geração de valor ao acionista nas práticas de gestão de pessoas no ambiente da produção Influence of shareholder value on people management practices in the production environment
Full Text Available Este trabalho procura ampliar os conhecimentos a respeito da influência do enfoque na geração do valor aos acionistas sobre as práticas de gestão de pessoas, com ênfase no ambiente da produção. Inicialmente, o trabalho resgata as origens e os fundamentos da concepção financeira e da concepção da geração de valor ao acionista das empresas, em que o principal foco é a valorização do preço das ações. Em seguida, é analisada a interface que estas concepções possuem com as práticas de gestão de pessoas, explorando o caráter bidirecional desta interface, uma vez que a função recursos humanos não só é influenciada pelas diretrizes das empresas, mas também é tida como uma das principais formas para ajudar a difundi-las, tendo em vista seu papel de agente de mudança de comportamento nas empresas. Neste sentido, são aprofundados três principais elementos que compõem, segundo a literatura, esta interface: a remuneração variável, a gestão de desempenho e a autonomia no trabalho. Por fim, é apresentado um estudo de casos múltiplos que busca verificar como a concepção financeira das empresas vem influenciando, de fato, estas práticas relacionadas à gestão de pessoas no nível da produção de organizações que atuam no Brasil, assim como o quanto estas práticas têm contribuído para a difusão da mentalidade de geração de valor ao acionista. O resultado deste estudo indica que, no plano conceitual, a influência da orientação à geração de valor ao acionista sobre as práticas de gestão de pessoas é nítida, mas que, na prática, ainda é pouco efetivada, apesar de mudanças já estarem ocorrendo nesta direção.This paper aims to add to the body of knowledge about the influence of the shareholder value on people management practices, with emphasis on the production environment. The paper begins with an overview of the origins and fundaments of finance and value generation concepts for company
This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perceptions, participation has become a popular means of bringing about social and technical change. Across the globe, whether in agricultural devel...
Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Zachara, John M.; McCarthy, John F.; Lichtner, Peter C.
This project seeks to improve the basic understanding of the role of colloids in facilitating the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. We focus on three major thrusts: (1) thermodynamic stability and mobility of colloids formed by reactions of sediments with highly alkaline tank waste solutions, (2) colloid-contaminant interactions, and (3) in-situ colloid mobilization and colloid facilitated contaminant transport occurring in both contaminated and uncontaminated Hanford sediments
Wright, Jeffrey T; Gribben, Paul E
Ecosystem engineers facilitate communities by providing a structural habitat that reduces abiotic stress or predation pressure for associated species. However, disturbance may damage or move the engineer to a more stressful environment, possibly increasing the importance of facilitation for associated communities. In this study, we determined how disturbance to intertidal boulders (i.e., flipping) and the subsequent movement of a structural ecosystem engineer, the tube-forming serpulid worm Galeolaria caespitosa, from the bottom (natural state, low abiotic stress) to the top (disturbed state, high abiotic stress) surface of boulders influenced the importance of facilitation for intertidal communities across two intertidal zones. Theory predicts stronger relative facilitation should occur in the harsher environments of the top of boulders and the high intertidal zone. To test this prediction, we experimentally positioned boulders with the serpulids either face up or face down for 12 months in low and high zones in an intertidal boulder field. There were very different communities associated with the different boulders and serpulids had the strongest facilitative effects on the more stressful top surface of boulders with approximately double the species richness compared to boulders lacking serpulids. Moreover, within the serpulid matrix itself there was also approximately double the species richness (both zones) and abundance (high zone only) of small invertebrates on the top of boulders compared to the bottom. The high relative facilitation on the top of boulders reflected a large reduction in temperature by the serpulid matrix on that surface (up to 10°C) highlighting a key role for modification of the abiotic environment in determining the community-wide facilitation. This study has demonstrated that disturbance and subsequent movement of an ecosystem engineer to a more stressful environment increased the importance of facilitation and allowed species to
Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I; Crozier, Suzanne
The provision of inter professional learning (IPL) within undergraduate programmes is now well established within many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). IPL aims to better equip nurses and other health professionals with effective collaborative working skills and knowledge to improve the quality of patient care. Although there is still ambiguity in relation to the optimum timing and method for delivering IPL, effective facilitation is seen as essential. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed for their role adequacy as IPL facilitators. Data was collected using semi structured interviews with nine participants who were theoretically sampled from a range of professional backgrounds, with varied experiences of education and involvement in facilitating IPL. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate four data categories: creating and sustaining an IPL group culture through transformational IPL leadership (core category), readiness for IPL facilitation, drawing on past interprofessional learning and working experiences and role modelling an interprofessional approach. The grounded theory generated from this study, although propositional, suggests that role adequacy for IPL facilitation is dependent on facilitator engagement in a process of 'transformational interprofessional learning leadership' to create and sustain a group culture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kingston, Dawn; Austin, Marie-Paule; Heaman, Maureen; McDonald, Sheila; Lasiuk, Gerri; Sword, Wendy; Giallo, Rebecca; Hegadoren, Kathy; Vermeyden, Lydia; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Kingston, Joshua; Jarema, Karly; Biringer, Anne
Access to mental health services during pregnancy is most commonly mobilized through formal mental health screening. However, few studies to date have identified barriers and facilitators that affect pregnant women's responses to mental health screening. The objective was to identify barriers and facilitators that influence pregnant women's responses to the screening process and factors associated with their identification. This multi-site, cross-sectional survey recruited pregnant women >16 years of age who spoke/read English in Alberta, Canada. Main outcomes were barriers and facilitators of mental health screening. Descriptive statistics were generated to identify the most common barriers and facilitators and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to determine factors associated with barriers and facilitators. Study participation rate was 92% (460/500). Women's most common barriers were: significant others normalizing their emotional difficulties; desiring to handle mental health problems on their own; preferring to discuss feelings with significant others; and not knowing what emotions were 'normal'. Women who identified these barriers were more likely not to have been treated previously for mental illness, were primiparous, and could not be completely honest with their provider. Main facilitators were provider characteristics (sensitive, interested), reassurance that mental healthcare is a part of routine prenatal care, hearing that other women have emotional problems during pregnancy and knowing that help was available. The sample comprised largely Caucasian, well-educated, and partnered women, which limits generalizability of the findings. Personal and stigma-related barriers influence pregnant women's responses to mental health screening. Efforts to minimize barriers and enhance facilitators should be explored as potential strategies for optimizing prenatal mental health screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Julia X; James, Karin H
Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing 2 hypotheses: that handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5-year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: 3 involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and 3 involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the 6 conditions (N = 72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.
Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913
Haro, Juan; Ferré, Pilar
It is not clear whether multiple unrelated meanings inhibit or facilitate word recognition. Some studies have found a disadvantage for words having multiple meanings with respect to unambiguous words in lexical decision tasks (LDT), whereas several others have shown a facilitation for such words. In the present study, we argue that these inconsistent findings may be due to the approach employed to select ambiguous words across studies. To address this issue, we conducted three LDT experiments in which we varied the measure used to classify ambiguous and unambiguous words. The results suggest that multiple unrelated meanings facilitate word recognition. In addition, we observed that the approach employed to select ambiguous words may affect the pattern of experimental results. This evidence has relevant implications for theoretical accounts of ambiguous words processing and representation.
van de Mortel, Thea; Silberberg, Peter; Ahern, Christine
Capacity for teaching in general practice clinics is limited. Shared learning sessions are one form of vertically integrated teaching that may ameliorate capacity constraints. This study sought to understand the perceptions of general practitioner supervisors, learners and practice staff of the facilitators of shared learning in general practice clinics. Using a grounded theory approach, semistructured interviews were conducted and analysed to generate a theory about the topic. Thirty-five stakeholders from nine general practices participated. Facilitators of shared learning included enabling factors such as small group facilitation skills, space, administrative support and technological resources; reinforcing factors such as targeted funding, and predisposing factors such as participant attributes. Views from multiple stakeholders suggest that the implementation of shared learning in general practice clinics would be supported by an ecological approach that addresses all these factors.
This paper presents initial research results of an intervention into higher educational teaching and studying practices from facilitators‘ point of view. The intervention was implemented into an international Master’s level online course mediated by landscapes of social media tools and services. In this course more emphasis was put on a shift of control from a facilitator to a student or a group of students in the following aspects: setting up one’s study goals, choosing activities, selecting appropriate resources, including technology and defining one’s evaluation criteria. The initial analysis showed that the facilitators gained a lot in terms of understanding the benefits of exploiting social media tools and services for their teaching practices, perceiving a need of having a different role as well as the shortages and problems while being a facilitator in such a course.
Full Text Available Networks with continuous set of attractors are considered to be a paradigmatic model for parametric working memory, but require fine-tuning of connections and are thus structurally unstable. Here we analyzed the network with ring attractor, where connections are not perfectly tuned and the activity state therefore drifts in the absence of the stabilizing stimulus. We derive an analytical expression for the drift dynamics and conclude that the network cannot function as working memory for a period of several seconds, a typical delay time in monkey memory experiments. We propose that short-term synaptic facilitation in recurrent connections significantly improves the robustness of the model by slowing down the drift of activity bump. Extending the calculation of the drift velocity to network with synaptic facilitation, we conclude that facilitation can slow down the drift by a large factor, rendering the network suitable as a model of working memory.
Bang, Anne Louise
This is a report from an ongoing research project and as such it is work in progress. The paper proposes an exploratory approach in order to enable end-users to contribute with their experiences of emotional values of fabrics in use. It is suggested that the textile designer with her repertoire...... of (experiential, implicit and tacit) textile design knowledge should facilitate the articulation process. The paper specifically draws on a series of workshops conducted within the collaborating company inviting all employees to participate. The series of workshops were based on a game-like setting and introduced...... - being a textile designer herself, who functioned as the facilitator. This paper uses two examples from the series of workshops to exemplify a facilitated articulation of implicit knowledge in textile design. From the examples the following themes are synthesised as being important for articulation...
Eden, Karen B; Totten, Annette M; Kassakian, Steven Z; Gorman, Paul N; McDonagh, Marian S; Devine, Beth; Pappas, Miranda; Daeges, Monica; Woods, Susan; Hersh, William R
We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing facilitators and barriers to use of health information exchange (HIE). We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library databases between January 1990 and February 2015 using terms related to HIE. English-language studies that identified barriers and facilitators of actual HIE were included. Data on study design, risk of bias, setting, geographic location, characteristics of the HIE, perceived barriers and facilitators to use were extracted and confirmed. Ten cross-sectional, seven multiple-site case studies, and two before-after studies that included data from several sources (surveys, interviews, focus groups, and observations of users) evaluated perceived barriers and facilitators to HIE use. The most commonly cited barriers to HIE use were incomplete information, inefficient workflow, and reports that the exchanged information that did not meet the needs of users. The review identified several facilitators to use. Incomplete patient information was consistently mentioned in the studies conducted in the US but not mentioned in the few studies conducted outside of the US that take a collective approach toward healthcare. Individual patients and practices in the US may exercise the right to participate (or not) in HIE which effects the completeness of patient information available to be exchanged. Workflow structure and user roles are key but understudied. We identified several facilitators in the studies that showed promise in promoting electronic health data exchange: obtaining more complete patient information; thoughtful workflow that folds in HIE; and inclusion of users early in implementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
H. Elmo Pienaar
Full Text Available The article furthered an epistemology of facilitation. It was created through bringing into focus broad movements in Julian M�ller�s theoretical academic development. Rather than explaining at length the epistemological concepts characterising M�ller�s theoretical development � rightly because of the importance of narrative in Julian M�ller�s work � the article sought to link a social psychological dimension of both M�ller and the author to these concepts. Resulting from M�ller�s work, the author regarded a narrative approach, social constructionism and postfoundationalism as important epistemological conversational partners in practical theological facilitation.
Adaba, Godfried; Rusu, Lazar; El-Mekawy, Mohamed
In the information age, no organization can thrive without harnessing the power of IT. The effective deployment of IT to achieve business goals and gain competitive advantage requires the alignment of business and IT strategies of organizations. Using the Strategic Alignment Maturity model, this paper evaluates strategic alignment maturity of Customs Excise Preventive service, a frontline public organization charged with trade facilitation in Ghana. Strategic alignment maturity is at level 3; which implies the existence of an established process to leverage IT for efficiency and effectiveness. Efforts are required to strengthen alignment and fully harness the potential of IT to facilitate trade in Ghana.
Watson, Sunnie Lee
This case study examines the design and facilitation of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) that focused on attitudinal learning about the topic of animal behaviour and welfare. Findings showed that a team of instructors worked together collaboratively towards realising learning goals and found the experience rewarding. While learners had mixed…
Chan, Tak Cheung; Petrie, Garth
Examines how school design facilitates learning by complementing how the brain learns. How the brain learns is discussed and how an artistic environment, spaciousness in the learning areas, color and lighting, and optimal thermal and acoustical environments aid student learning. School design suggestions conclude the article. (GR)
Shaharum bin Ramli
Nuclear Malaysia level quality manuals need to be shared with all divisions. A manual is usually distributed in the form of an electronic document that contains all procedures. Navigation from one heading or procedure to another should be facilitated by providing bookmarks or similar. This paper shows how to do it for Microsoft Word and PDF documents. (author)
Many clinicians are involved in medical education, with small group teaching (SGT) forming a significant part of their work. Most facilitate these sessions by experience and common sense: less than one-third of them have received formal training in SGT. Evidence suggests small group productivity depends on good facilitation rather than on topic knowledge. Applying the fundamental concepts of SGT will lead to improvements in the quality of clinicians' teaching and in student learning. Good SGT creates the perfect environment for learning and discussion, without the need for didactic teaching. SGT emphasises the role of students in sharing and discussing their ideas in a safe learning environment, without domination by the tutor. This article provides clinicians with basic requirements for effective session design and planning, explains how to encourage student participation, how to manage students as a group, how to manage student learning, and how to recognise and deal with problems. Active facilitation and group management is the key to success in SGT, and consequently better learning outcomes. Improving the facilitation skills of clinical teachers makes teaching more effective, stimulating, and enjoyable for both tutors and students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Murphy, Karen L.; Mahoney, Sue E.; Chen, Chun-Ying; Mendoza-Diaz, Noemi V.; Yang, Xiaobing
This case study of an online graduate course determines the message characteristics of the instructor, volunteer teaching assistants, and students in online discussions, and proposes a mentoring, coaching, and facilitating model for online discussions. The researchers developed a coding system based on the literature of mentoring, coaching, and…
Asher, Asha; Nichols, Joy D.
The article uses a case study to illustrate transdisciplinary perspectives on facilitating emergent literacy skills of Elsa, a primary grade student with autism. The study demonstrates how a professional learning community implemented motor, sensory, and speech/language components to generate a classroom model supporting emergent literacy skills.…
harvestingelectrical power directly from waste and renewable biomass and thus represent a promising technology for sustainable energy production.1−5 Central...cell membrane (Figure 3e), serving as a porous semiconducting “ shell ” to facilitate the charge transport at bacteria/electrode or bacteria/bacteria
The development of a strategy for the facilitation of income-generating projects in rural communities: an insider account. ... helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the ...
Full Text Available As believed by many researchers (Dörnyei & Murphey 2003, Hadfield 1992, classroom climate is strongly determined by the dynamics of the learning group and its development over time. For this reason, the role of the teacher in facilitating group processes seems to be of primary importance since it is the teacher who has long been regarded as the group leader in both teacher-centred and learner-centred classrooms.The presentation focuses not only on positive but also on negative forms of classroom dynamics together with management techniques for dealing with conflicts, educational alienation and psychological defensiveness. This, in turn, leads to the concept of facilitator style based on Heron’s (2006 model of facilitation, which consists of six dimensions and three modes. In the paper particular emphasis is placed on the presentation and comparison of various theories of leadership, namely Heron’s system of facilitation, Hersey and Blanchard’s situational-leadership theory (1982 and Bass and Avolio’s transactional versus transformational leadership theory (1984.
The global prioritisation of the inclusion of learners with disabilities, and of vulnerable young people's resilience, means that teachers worldwide require insight into how best to facilitate the resilience of adolescents made vulnerable by intellectual disability (ID). To provide such insight, we conducted a secondary data ...
Wagstaff, William Quinn
A study was conducted to develop a technical skills assessment tool for the training and development of challenge course facilitators. Researchers accessed two professional on-line listserves to collect a sample size of twenty-seven currently used technical skills assessment tools. The assessment tools were critically analysed by three independent…
Haberstroh, Shane; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta; Morgan-Fleming, Barbara; Gee, Robert
To address the need for research regarding online counseling, the authors explore the experiences of 4 female and 2 male Caucasian counseling students who facilitated 5 chat-based online counseling sessions. Conducting semistructured interviews based in grounded theory methods, the authors discuss technological barriers, counseling without visual…
Parrott, Heather Macpherson; Cherry, Elizabeth
We have created a new teaching tool--process memos--to improve student writing. Process memos are guided reflections submitted with scaffolded assignments that facilitate a written dialogue between students and instructors about the process of writing. Within these memos, students critically assess available teaching tools, discuss their writing…
This article seeks to publish the results of nurse educators with regard to how reflective thinking of learners can be facilitated in clinical nursing education. The results were obtained through a perception survey using an agenda focus group in the second phase of an original study whose aim was to develop a model to ...
Hollings, Rick; Berghoff, Beth K.
This document presents a workbook and facilitator's notes designed for use with small groups or with individual students in secondary schools to help them cope with troubling events related to the Gulf War. The material contained in the workbook is designed to help students deal with each of seven stages that the mastery model sees individuals…
The facilitation of inherent affective and mental resourcefulness and resilience was the main concept of the model. Step two comprised the definition and classification of central and related concepts. Step three provides a description of the model. The model operates in three phases namely the dependent phase, partially ...
an open and participatory policy and decision -making at the lower .... people who are open minded and who believe in the success of change ..... Figure 3: Policy Task Force Critical Triangle. Source: Adapted form Catacutan et al. (2001). Farmers and local organisations. R&D Facilitators. Decentralized local government.
This study examines how radical front end innovation can be actively facilitated through selected and targeted HR practices and bundles of HR practices. The empirical field is an explorative case study of front end innovation and HR practices in the pharmaceutical industry, with an in-depth case ...
Heath, C.; Kamperman Sanders, A.W.J.
With reports from all major jurisdictions where the responsibility of facilitators and intermediaries for copyright and trade mark infringement have been litigated, this very useful book is the first comprehensive global survey of the liability regime that intermediaries may face when assisting
Paris, Tim; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris
Auditory-visual (AV) events often involve a leading visual cue (e.g. auditory-visual speech) that allows the perceiver to generate predictions about the upcoming auditory event. Electrophysiological evidence suggests that when an auditory event is predicted, processing is sped up, i.e., the N1 component of the ERP occurs earlier (N1 facilitation). However, it is not clear (1) whether N1 facilitation is based specifically on predictive rather than multisensory integration and (2) which particular properties of the visual cue it is based on. The current experiment used artificial AV stimuli in which visual cues predicted but did not co-occur with auditory cues. Visual form cues (high and low salience) and the auditory-visual pairing were manipulated so that auditory predictions could be based on form and timing or on timing only. The results showed that N1 facilitation occurred only for combined form and temporal predictions. These results suggest that faster auditory processing (as indicated by N1 facilitation) is based on predictive processing generated by a visual cue that clearly predicts both what and when the auditory stimulus will occur. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Holmgren, M.; Scheffer, M.
1. The idea that the role of facilitative interactions increases as environmental conditions become more stressful has become a ruling paradigm in ecology. Here, we review three reasons why positive interactions may actually be more prominent than generally thought under moderately stressful rather
This article shares the author's research focusing on the facilitation of acting students with dyslexia in actor-training. For some individuals with dyslexia the translation of the written text into image-based symbols using technological modalities can play a crucial role to access and make concrete the meaning of the words; in this case…
McNair, Simon; Feeney, Aidan
People often struggle when making Bayesian probabilistic estimates on the basis of competing sources of statistical evidence. Recently, Krynski and Tenenbaum (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 430-450, 2007) proposed that a causal Bayesian framework accounts for peoples' errors in Bayesian reasoning and showed that, by clarifying the causal relations among the pieces of evidence, judgments on a classic statistical reasoning problem could be significantly improved. We aimed to understand whose statistical reasoning is facilitated by the causal structure intervention. In Experiment 1, although we observed causal facilitation effects overall, the effect was confined to participants high in numeracy. We did not find an overall facilitation effect in Experiment 2 but did replicate the earlier interaction between numerical ability and the presence or absence of causal content. This effect held when we controlled for general cognitive ability and thinking disposition. Our results suggest that clarifying causal structure facilitates Bayesian judgments, but only for participants with sufficient understanding of basic concepts in probability and statistics.
Mailey, Emily L; Huberty, Jennifer; Dinkel, Danae; McAuley, Edward
The transition to parenthood is consistently associated with declines in physical activity. In particular, working parents are at risk for inactivity, but research exploring physical activity barriers and facilitators in this population has been scarce. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine perceptions of physical activity among working parents. Working mothers (n = 13) and fathers (n = 12) were recruited to participate in one of four focus group sessions and discuss physical activity barriers and facilitators. Data were analyzed using immersion/crystallization in NVivo 10. Major themes for barriers included family responsibilities, guilt, lack of support, scheduling constraints, and work. Major themes for facilitators included being active with children or during children's activities, being a role model for children, making time/prioritizing, benefits to health and family, and having support available. Several gender differences emerged within each theme, but overall both mothers and fathers reported their priorities had shifted to focus on family after becoming parents, and those who were fitting in physical activity had developed strategies that allowed them to balance their household and occupational responsibilities. The results of this study suggest working mothers and fathers report similar physical activity barriers and facilitators and would benefit from interventions that teach strategies for overcoming barriers and prioritizing physical activity amidst the demands of parenthood. Future interventions might consider targeting mothers and fathers in tandem to create an optimally supportive environment in the home.
Schomaker, J; Meeter, M
Novel stimuli reliably attract attention, suggesting that novelty may disrupt performance when it is task-irrelevant. However, under certain circumstances novel stimuli can also elicit a general alerting response having beneficial effects on performance. In a series of experiments we investigated whether different aspects of novelty--stimulus novelty, contextual novelty, surprise, deviance, and relative complexity--lead to distraction or facilitation. We used a version of the visual oddball paradigm in which participants responded to an occasional auditory target. Participants responded faster to this auditory target when it occurred during the presentation of novel visual stimuli than of standard stimuli, especially at SOAs of 0 and 200 ms (Experiment 1). Facilitation was absent for both infrequent simple deviants and frequent complex images (Experiment 2). However, repeated complex deviant images did facilitate responses to the auditory target at the 200 ms SOA (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that task-irrelevant deviant visual stimuli can facilitate responses to an unrelated auditory target in a short 0-200 millisecond time-window after presentation. This only occurs when the deviant stimuli are complex relative to standard stimuli. We link our findings to the novelty P3, which is generated under the same circumstances, and to the adaptive gain theory of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005), which may explain the timing of the effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background: Borderline personality disorder is characterised by a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affects and marked impulsivity. Objective: The objective is to define the central concept of “facilitation of self- empowerment”. Method: Analysis and synthesis reasoning methods as indicated by ...
Hord, Shirley M.
Based on a study of change facilitation in eight high schools, this article debunks three common myths concerning administrative organization as an obstacle to managing high school change. Tentative guidelines are provided to help determined managers cure stagnation and thwart bureaucratic intransigency. (MLH)
teachers worldwide require insight into how best to facilitate the resilience of adolescents made vulnerable by intellectual disability (ID). .... vidual's well-being, it is the individual's responsi- bility to steer towards, and make good use of these .... Formal ID diagnosis; Financial disadvantage (Mother unemployed with ID);.
Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Veenvliet, Karel; Broenink, Johannes F.
As its name implies, the aim of Systems Design and Engineering: Facilitating Multidisciplinary Development Projects is to help systems engineers develop the skills and thought processes needed to successfully develop and implement engineered systems. Such expertise typically does not come through
Erikson Institute's Fussy Baby Network® (FBN) is a national model prevention program known for its approach to family engagement called the FAN (Gilkerson & Gray, 2014; Gilkerson et al., 2012). The FAN is both a conceptual framework and a practical tool to facilitate attunement in helping relationships and promote reflective practice. This…
Houtsma, A.J.M.; Keuning - van Oirschot, H.; Westwood, J.D.; Haluck, R.S.
This study investigates facilitation of a manual target acquisition task by the application of appropriate force feedback through the control device (e.g., mouse, joystick, trackball). Typical manual movements with these devices were measured, and models of such movements were used to predict an
Kosanovich, Marcia; Jordan, Georgia; Arndt, Elissa; VanSciver, Mary; Wahl, Michelle; Rissman, Lila
This "Facilitator's Guide" has been prepared for presenters of the Reviewing a Reading Program professional development training. It is one of three pieces comprising a suite of materials on reviewing reading programs: this "Guide", the "Reviewing a Reading Program Participant's Guide" and the "Reviewing a Reading Program" Professional Development…
School psychologists' views on challenges in facilitating school development through intersectoral collaboration. ... In the Western Cape, the context of this study, school psychologists are assigned to circuit teams, where they are expected to work collaboratively with other professionals to provide support to schools.
Stones, Thomas P.
This article describes a transcription task cycle that was designed to facilitate the development of skills for the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) speaking test at a language school in Japan. The cycle involved practice test, transcription, student correction, teacher correction, and retrial of the original test and…
Strack, Juliane; Esteves, Francisco
The present study examined why people differ in how they appraise the same stressful situation (an approaching exam). We explored whether interpreting anxiety as a facilitative emotion can affect the type of stress appraisal people make. One hundred and three undergraduate students took part in this study, which lasted for 10 days (leading up to an exam). The students completed a daily self-reported evaluation of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, and stress experienced. The findings suggest a process by which a stressful time can be experienced as motivating rather than threatening or emotionally exhausting. For example, interpreting anxiety as facilitative moderated the relationship between anxiety and stress appraisals. When interpreting their anxiety as facilitative, individuals showed a higher tendency to make challenge stress appraisals and a lower tendency to appraising the stressor as a threat. These differences were especially visible with high levels of anxiety. Furthermore, interpreting anxiety as facilitative was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion, but positively associated with the academic performance. These findings suggest an explanation why people differ in how they appraise the same stressor: how people interpret their anxiety may to a large part affect how they appraise difficult events and situations.
The purpose of this study was to formulate guidelines to facilitate the internalisation of professional values in student nurses in order to enable them to become caring registered nurses. To realise this goal, the researcher followed a quantitative, qualitative, descriptive, exploratory and contextual approach. In Phase One of ...
Brian R Silliman
Full Text Available Understanding the factors that generate and maintain biodiversity is a central goal in ecology. While positive species interactions (i.e., facilitation have historically been underemphasized in ecological research, they are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Dominant habitat-forming species (foundation species buffer environmental conditions and can therefore facilitate myriad associated species. Theory predicts that facilitation will be the dominant community-structuring force under harsh environmental conditions, where organisms depend on shelter for survival and predation is diminished. Wind-swept, arid Patagonian rocky shores are one of the most desiccating intertidal rocky shores ever studied, providing an opportunity to test this theory and elucidate the context-dependency of facilitation.Surveys across 2100 km of southern Argentinean coastline and experimental manipulations both supported theoretical predictions, with 43 out of 46 species in the animal assemblage obligated to living within the matrices of mussels for protection from potentially lethal desiccation stress and predators having no detectable impact on diversity.These results provide the first experimental support of long-standing theoretical predictions and reveal that in extreme climates, maintenance of whole-community diversity can be maintained by positive interactions that ameliorate physical stress. These findings have important conservation implications and emphasize that preserving foundation species should be a priority in remediating the biodiversity consequences of global climate change.
Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Voydanoff, P.
The study examines whether home life influences inrole and extrarole job performance in positive or negative ways. We hypothesized that home resources would have a direct positive effect on job performance, and an indirect relationship through home-work facilitation (HWF). Home demands were
Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation is a professional journal of the Association of Psychology in Sport and Human Behaviour. It publishes a wide variety of original articles and reports relevant to cultural and sport behaviour, theoretical propositions, research outcomes ...
Simon, Elliott W.; And Others
This study of an adolescent with multiple disabilities, including moderate mental retardation, who was reported to engage in validated facilitated communication (FC) found he did not engage in validated FC; performance was equivalent whether food or nonfood reinforcers were used; and the Picture Exchange Communication System was a valid and…
Ockene, Judith K.; Milner, Robert J.; Thorndyke, Luanne E.; Congdon, John; Cain, Joanna M.
The promotion process is challenging, particularly for non-tenure track faculty in academic medicine. To address this challenge, we implemented a facilitated peer mentoring program that included a structured curriculum with regular meetings, guided by two senior faculty mentors. Participants expressed satisfaction with the program, showed…
Atasoy, P.; Bekker, M.M.; Lu, Y.; Brombacher, A.C.; Eggen, J.H.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.
Design and innovation workshops are common practices to match diverse stakeholders to initiate collaboration for innovation. Due to the complex and multi-faceted processes in such a collaboration workshop, not only the toolkits but also the facilitation of the process needs to be taken into account.
Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.
Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.
Yuan, Rui; Lee, Icy
While Action Research (AR) is promoted as a powerful route for teachers' professional development, different contextual challenges may arise during the process; teachers may be helped to overcome these challenges with the guidance of external facilitators. Drawing on data from interviews and the teachers' AR reports, this article explores how two…
Stark Education Partnership, 2015
This study, with funding from the Jennings Foundation, sought to answer the following broad research question: Do facilitated online dual credit courses result in deep learning? The answer to this question is key to addressing barriers many students face in bridging from high school to college. This report includes a descriptive case study that…
To accommodate these needs, SANC in line with the SAQA Act, advocated the development of teaching and learning strategies to balance theory and practice opportunities together with an outcome-based, studentcentred approach and appropriate clinical supervision. This resulted in a positive outcome to facilitate the ...
The study investigated the extent of counsellor's identification of the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the counselling strategies the counsellors use to facilitate learning for such learners. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was survey. The area of the ...
Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Ter Doest, Laura; Dijkstra, Arie; Maes, Stan; Garnefski, Nadia; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Kraaij, Vivian
In a sample of 1,287 adolescents, it appeared that weekly exercise facilitates a variety of goals; particularly those related to being or remaining healthy, feeling relaxed, not being bored, feeling physically good, not being stressed, and attaining high achievements were endorsed. Sedentary and
Ronald Beckers; Theo van der Voordt
Literature shows that ‘new ways of learning’ cause a shift in learning settings with a growing attention to facilitating autonomy, interaction and knowledge exploration anytime, anywhere. These trends show evident similarities with developments in office environments known for as ‘new ways of
Beckers, R.; van der Voordt, D.J.M.
Literature shows that ‘new ways of learning’ cause a shift in learning settings with a growing attention to facilitating autonomy, interaction and knowledge exploration anytime, anywhere. These trends show evident similarities with developments in office environments known for as ‘new ways of
Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard
While problem solving is a relatively well understood process, problem framing is less well understood, particularly with regard to supporting students to learn as they frame problems. Project-based learning classrooms are an ideal setting to investigate how teachers facilitate this process. Using participant observation, this study investigated…
Asserts that, although technological advances afford opportunities for reclaiming sexual functioning, even among individuals with chronic illness or devastating injury, they cannot ensure that sexual outlet will facilitate intimacy in a committed relationship. Explains how sex therapy addresses dysfunction in an essential relational context, and…
Dr. J. de Lange; E. Deusing; I.F.M. van Asch; J. Peeters; M. Zwaanswijk; A.M. Pot; A.L. Francke
To obtain insight into facilitating factors for case management in dementia care, we conducted a qualitative study with 13 online focus groups (OFGs). Participants were professionals involved in dementia case management (N = 99). We used mind-maps and the method of constant comparison for analysis.
Ou, C.X.J.; Davison, R.M.; Leung, D.
The instant messenger (IM) is frequently encountered as a facilitator of communication in both social and working contexts. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the extent to which IMs bring organizational benefits, thereby overcoming interruptions to work. In this study, we focus on how IM tools
Safar, Ammar H.; Jafer,Yaqoub J.; Alqadiri, Mohammad A.
This study explored the perceptions, attitudes, and willingness of pre-service science teachers in the College of Education at Kuwait University about using concept/mind maps and its related application software as facilitative tools, for teaching and learning, in science education. The first level (i.e., reaction) of Kirkpatrick's/Phillips'…
Harris, Alex H. S.
Uses Kegan's theory of the evolving self as an example of the utility of life-span theories in facilitating career happiness. Suggests how to use culturally appropriate developmental theories to help clients understand their life-stage position and discover ways to achieve self-other balance for life and career satisfaction. (SK)
Zaidi, Zareen; Vyas, Rashmi; Verstegen, Danielle; Morahan, Page; Dornan, Tim
To analyze educators' experiences of facilitating cultural discussions in two global health professions education programs and what these experiences had taught them about critical consciousness. A multicultural research team conducted in-depth interviews with 16 faculty who had extensive experience facilitating cultural discussions. They analyzed transcripts of the interviews thematically, drawing sensitizing insights from Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony. Collaboration and conversation helped the team self-consciously examine their positions toward the data set and be critically reflexive. Participant faculty used their prior experience facilitating cultural discussions to create a "safe space" in which learners could develop critical consciousness. During multicultural interactions they recognized and explicitly addressed issues related to power differentials, racism, implicit bias, and gender bias. They noted the need to be "facile in attending to pain" as learners brought up traumatic experiences and other sensitive issues including racism and the impact of power dynamics. They built relationships with learners by juxtaposing and exploring the sometimes-conflicting norms of different cultures. Participants were reflective about their own understanding and tendency to be biased. They aimed to break free of such biases while role modeling how to have the courage to speak up. Experience had given facilitators in multicultural programs an understanding of their responsibility to promote critical consciousness and social justice. How faculty without prior experience or expertise could develop those values and skills is a topic for future research.
Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Andersen, Hanne Møller; King, Heather
This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire and inte......This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire...... and interview data. The implementation of design principles resulted in a variety of exhibits which variously prompted reflection and discussion on the part of visitors. Exhibits with narratives, for example, here defined as both personal and expert narratives, were found to be effective in facilitating...... personal reflection but also prompted discussion. Participation, defined as including both physical interaction with exhibits, and dialogic interaction between visitors, facilitated the sharing of ideas and feelings between visitors. Exhibits with elements of curiosity and challenge were found to attract...
The use of heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation for the treatment of landfill leachate was investigated in this study. The photocatalytic degradation studies were carried out using Zinc oxide (ZnO) as photocatalyst and the process was facilitated by ultra violet radiation (UV) from sunlight. Characterisation of the raw ...
Christensen, Dorthe; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah
The paper sets focus on the notion of sustainable development as the challenge of creating self-referential systems that are continually learning how to persist in a complex and ever-changing environment. For this learning to be accomplished, facilitating it with a systemic perspective may...... be an option available to an organisation....
Ritter, S.M.; Ferguson, S.
Creativity can be considered one of the key competencies for the twenty-first century. It provides us with the capacity to deal with the opportunities and challenges that are part of our complex and fast-changing world. The question as to what facilitates creative cognition - the ability to come up
Physics when taught with models, realia and charts. The results also indicated that the facilitating effect of instructional materials on students' attitude towards Physics is not the same at all levels of gender. It is recommended that charts should be used together with models/realia materials for the main lesson, revision and ...
Ma, Yuxin; Williams, Doug; Prejean, Louise
Advocates of electronic educational games often cite the work on motivation to support the use of games in education. However, motivation alone is inadequate to facilitate learning. Many of the educational games that focused their game design solely on the motivational effect failed to be either educational or entertaining. Theory and research is…
The goal of this thesis was to investigate the combination of ultrasound and microbubbles (USMB) for intracellular delivery of (model) drugs in vitro. We have focused on clinically approved drugs, i.e. cisplatin, and microbubbles, i.e. SonoVue™, to facilitate clinical translation. In addition, model
Pasternak, T.; Glancy, J.; Goldman, L.; Swartz, J.
Several studies have been performed recently to identify and analyze light water reactor (LWR) features that, if incorporated into the facility design, would facilitate the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. This paper presents results and conclusions of these studies. 2 refs
Vedel, Cathrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Mahmood, Badar
BACKGROUND: Teaching basic clinical skills to student peers and residents by medical students has previously been shown effective. This study examines if medical students can facilitate laparoscopic procedural tasks to residents using a virtual reality simulator. METHODS: This was a retrospective...... practicing on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator....
Everyone takes notes daily for various reasons. Note taking is very popular in school settings and generally recognized as an effective learning strategy. Further, note taking is a complex process because it requires understanding, selection of information and writing. Some new technological tools may facilitate the note taking process. Among such…
The study explores the process of facilitation in professional development for educators. The study relies on discourse analysis of interaction among K-12 teachers and administrators in a Midwestern U.S. state during a semester-long professional development program especially designed for educators working with English language learners (ELLs).…
Hanson, Alan L; Bruskiewitz, Ruth H; Demuth, James E
To reevaluate facilitators of and barriers to pharmacists' participation in lifelong learning previously examined in a 1990 study. A survey instrument was mailed to 274 pharmacists who volunteered to participate based on a prior random sample survey. Data based on perceptions of facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning, as well as self-perception as a lifelong learner, were analyzed and compared to a similar 1990 survey. The response rate for the survey was 88%. The top 3 facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning from the 2003 and the 1990 samples were: (1) personal desire to learn; (2) requirement to maintain professional licensure; and (3) enjoyment/relaxation provided by learning as change of pace from the "routine." The top 3 barriers were: (1) job constraints; (2) scheduling (location, distance, time) of group learning activities; and (3) family constraints (eg, spouse, children, personal). Respondents' broad self-perception as lifelong learners continued to be highly positive overall, but remained less positive relative to more specific lifelong learning skills such as the ability to identify learning objectives as well as to evaluate learning outcomes. Little has changed in the last decade relative to how pharmacists view themselves as lifelong learners, as well as what they perceive as facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning. To address factors identified as facilitators and barriers, continuing education (CE) providers should focus on pharmacists' time constraints, whether due to employment, family responsibilities, or time invested in the educational activity itself, and pharmacists' internal motivations to learn (personal desire, enjoyment), as well as external forces such as mandatory CE for relicensure.
Saccone, Patrick; Pagès, Jean-Philippe; Girel, Jacky; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Michalet, Richard
*Here, we analysed the role of direct and indirect plant interactions in the invasion process of Acer negundo along a natural successional gradient in the Middle Rhone floodplain (France). We addressed two questions: What are the responses of the invasive Acer seedlings to native communities' effects along the successional gradient? What are the effects of the invasive Acer adult trees on the native communities? *In the three communities (Salix, Acer and Fraxinus stands) we transplanted juveniles of the invasive and juveniles of the natives within the forest and in experimental gaps, and with and without the herb layer. We also quantified changes in understory functional composition, light, nitrogen and moisture among treatments. *Acer seedlings were directly facilitated for survival in the Salix and Acer communities and indirectly facilitated for growth by adult Acer through the reduction of the abundance of highly competitive herbaceous competitors. *We conclude that direct facilitation by the tree canopy of the native pioneer Salix is very likely the main biotic process that induced colonization of the invasive Acer in the floodplain and that indirect facilitation by adult conspecifics contributed to population establishment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation, with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline
Cuttone, Andrea; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg
In this paper we discuss how to facilitate the process of reflection in Personal Informatics and Quantified Self systems through interactive data visualizations. Four heuristics for the design and evaluation of such systems have been identified through analysis of self-tracking devices and apps....... Dashboard interface paradigms in specific self-tracking devices (Fitbit and Basis) are discussed as representative examples of state of the art in feedback and reflection support. By relating to existing work in other domains, such as event related representation of time series multivariate data...... in financial analytics, it is discussed how the heuristics could guide designs that would further facilitate reflection in self-tracking personal informatics systems....
Faebo Larsen, Rikke; Ravnholt, Mette Moesgård; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi
Aim: To discuss the potentials and barriers of establishing a course in facilitating journal clubs among non-medical health professionals (NMHP). Background: NMHPs and managers had a wish to offer journal clubs. To accomplish this, there was a need of enhancingcompetences among NMHPs...... with developmental responsibility, both by education and practice in order to establish journalclub in their own department. Methods: A journal club facilitation course was offered to hospital employed NMHPs. Participants were asked to fill outquestionnaires prior to, at midterm, 4 months, and 18 months after......, course participation. At the 18-month follow-up, theirmanagers were asked to fill out questionnaires. Results are discussed in an analytic framework inspired from research onconducting journal clubs and learning transfer. Findings: After 18 months, only three journal clubs were established. Participants...
Snyder, Cyndy R; Frogner, Bianca K; Skillman, Susan M
Racial and ethnic diversity in the health workforce can facilitate access to healthcare for underserved populations and meet the health needs of an increasingly diverse population. In this study, we explored 1) changes in the racial and ethnic diversity of the health workforce in the United States over the last decade, and 2) evidence on the effectiveness of programs designed to promote racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S. health workforce. Findings suggest that although the health workforce overall is becoming more diverse, people of color are most often represented among the entry-level, lower-skilled health occupations. Promising practices to help facilitate diversity in the health professions were identified in the literature, namely comprehensive programs that integrated multiple interventions and strategies. While some efforts have been found to be promising in increasing the interest, application, and enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities into health profession schools, there is still a missing link in understanding persistence, graduation, and careers.
Full Text Available In several papers, Gentner has shown that relational language facilitates spatial analogical reasoning tasks. In this work we set this question in the context of the development of cognitive flexibility, understood not just as at the representation level, but also at the executive one. To this extent, we modify the design by Ratterman & Gentner (1988 by including order of presentation of the elements as a variable, to increase the executive demands of the task so that the elements to be mentally ordered, which also allows to exclude that the successful answer is based on perceptual appearance. Our results confirm the facilitatory effect of relational language on the development of cognitive flexibility. They also point that a disordered presentation also facilitates correct responses.
Full Text Available Sensory integration and the ability to discriminate target objects from distractors are critical to survival, yet the developmental trajectories of these abilities are unknown. This study investigated developmental changes in 9- (n=18 and 11-year-old (n=20 children, adolescents (n=19 and adults (n=22 using an audiovisual object discrimination task with uni- and multisensory distractors. Reaction times (RTs were slower with visual/audiovisual distractors, and although all groups demonstrated facilitation of multisensory RTs in these conditions, children’s and adolescents’ responses corresponded to fewer race model violations than adults’, suggesting protracted maturation of multisensory processes. Multisensory facilitation could not be explained by changes in RT variability, suggesting that tests of race model violations may still have theoretical value at least for familiar multisensory stimuli.
Kelley, Matthew R; Parihar, Sushmeena A
The present study explored the influence of part-set cues in semantic memory using tests of "free" recall, reconstruction of order, and serial recall. Nine distinct categories of information were used (e.g., Zodiac signs, Harry Potter books, Star Wars films, planets). The results showed part-set cueing impairment for all three "free" recall sets, whereas part-set cueing facilitation was evident for five of the six ordered sets. Generally, the present results parallel those often observed across episodic tasks, which could indicate that similar mechanisms contribute to part-set cueing effects in both episodic and semantic memory. A novel anchoring explanation of part-set cueing facilitation in order and spatial tasks is provided.
Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo
by subconscious (subliminal) augmented visual feedback on motor performance. To test this, 45 subjects participated in the experiment, which involved learning of a ballistic task. The task was to execute simple ankle plantar flexion movements as quickly as possible within 200 ms and to continuously improve...... by the learner, indeed facilitated ballistic motor learning. This effect likely relates to multiple (conscious versus unconscious) processing of visual feedback and to the specific neural circuitries involved in optimization of ballistic motor performance.......). It is a well- described phenomenon that we may respond to features of our surroundings without being aware of them. It is also a well-known principle, that learning is reinforced by augmented feedback on motor performance. In the present experiment we hypothesized that motor learning may be facilitated...
H. Elmo Pienaar
Full Text Available Since the 1970s along with the resurgence in practical philosophy new possibilities opened up in our understanding of the place for and purpose of practical theology. The repositioning of practical theology as a fully worthy discipline was important to find its voice amongst theological peer disciplines. Against this background, it was argued that the full measure of what the discipline can contribute, especially outside of the ministry context, has not yet been fully developed or practiced. Towards this end the presentation’s main contention was put forward, in that it is vital for the practical theologian to take up a role of an inscribed facilitator. It signifies a shift from practical theology to practical theologian and is exemplified by the practice of a facilitative approach in, and to practical theology.
Meroz, Yasmine; Klafter, Joseph; Eliazar, Iddo
Facilitated diffusion is a fundamental search process used to describe the problem of a searcher protein finding a specific target site over a very large DNA strand. In recent years macromolecular crowding has been recognized to affect this search process. In this paper, we bridge between two different modelling methodologies of facilitated diffusion: the physics-oriented kinetic approach, which yields the reaction rate of the search process, and the probability-oriented stochastic approach, which yields the probability distribution of the search duration. We translate the former approach to the latter, ascertaining that the two approaches yield coinciding results, both with and without macromolecular crowding. We further show that the stochastic approach markedly generalizes the kinetic approach by accommodating a vast array of search mechanisms, including mechanisms having no reaction rates, and thus being beyond the realm of the kinetic approach.
Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A
Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.
Dale, Ann Marie; Jaegers, Lisa; Welch, Laura; Barnidge, Ellen; Weaver, Nancy; Evanoff, Bradley A.
Background Rates of musculoskeletal disorders in construction remain high. Few studies have described barriers and facilitators to the use of available ergonomic solutions. This paper describes these barriers and facilitators and their relationship to the level of adoption. Methods Three analysts rated 16 proposed ergonomic solutions from a participatory ergonomics study and assessed the level of adoption, six adoption characteristics, and identified the category of adoption from a theoretical model. Results Twelve solutions were always or intermittently used and were rated positively for characteristics of relative advantage, compatibility with existing work processes, and trialability. Locus of control (worker vs. contractor) was not related to adoption. Simple solutions faced fewer barriers to adoption than those rated as complex. Conclusions Specific adoption characteristics can help predict the use of new ergonomic solutions in construction. Adoption of complex solutions must involve multiple stakeholders, more time, and shifts in culture or work systems. PMID:28195660
Brooks, Katherine C; Maia, Rafael; Duffy, J Emmett; Hultgren, Kristin M; Rubenstein, Dustin R
Evidence from insects and vertebrates suggests that cooperation may have enabled species to expand their niches, becoming ecological generalists and dominating the ecosystems in which they occur. Consistent with this idea, eusocial species of sponge-dwelling Synalpheus shrimps from Belize are ecological generalists with a broader host breadth and higher abundance than non-eusocial species. We evaluate whether sociality promotes ecological generalism (social conquest hypothesis) or whether ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality (social transition hypothesis) in 38 Synalpheus shrimp species. We find that sociality evolves primarily from host generalists, and almost exclusively so for transitions to eusociality. Additionally, sponge volume is more important for explaining social transitions towards communal breeding than to eusociality, suggesting that different ecological factors may influence the independent evolutionary origins of sociality in Synalpheus shrimps. Ultimately, our results are consistent with the social transition hypothesis and the idea that ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Dyck, Mary J; Kim, Myoung Jin
The purpose of the study was to determine the continuing education needs for nursing home nurses in rural central Illinois and to determine any potential facilitators or barriers to obtaining continuing education. Data were collected using the Educational Needs Assessment questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were computed to examine continuing education preferences, facilitators, and barriers among nursing home nurses. Independent samples t tests were used to compare preferences between administrative and staff nurses. The sample included 317 nurses from 34 facilities. The five top needs were related to clinical problems. Administrative nurses had greater needs for professional issues, managerial skills, and quality improvement than staff nurses. Barriers included rural settings, need for vacation time for programs, and inadequate staffing. Continuing education needs of nursing home nurses in Illinois are similar to previous studies conducted in Arizona and North Carolina. Continuing education barriers were mostly organizational, rather than personal. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2018;49(1):26-33. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.