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Sample records for fr16jy10r reasonable contract

  1. Domain-specific reasoning: social contracts, cheating, and perspective change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, G; Hug, K

    1992-05-01

    What counts as human rationality: reasoning processes that embody content-independent formal theories, such as propositional logic, or reasoning processes that are well designed for solving important adaptive problems? Most theories of human reasoning have been based on content-independent formal rationality, whereas adaptive reasoning, ecological or evolutionary, has been little explored. We elaborate and test an evolutionary approach. Cosmides' (1989) social contract theory, using the Wason selection task. In the first part, we disentangle the theoretical concept of a "social contract" from that of a "cheater-detection algorithm". We demonstrate that the fact that a rule is perceived as a social contract--or a conditional permission or obligation, as Cheng and Holyoak (1985) proposed--is not sufficient to elicit Cosmides' striking results, which we replicated. The crucial issue is not semantic (the meaning of the rule), but pragmatic: whether a person is cued into the perspective of a party who can be cheated. In the second part, we distinguish between social contracts with bilateral and unilateral cheating options. Perspective change in contracts with bilateral cheating options turns P & not-Q responses into not-P & Q responses. The results strongly support social contract theory, contradict availability theory, and cannot be accounted for by pragmatic reasoning schema theory, which lacks the pragmatic concepts of perspectives and cheating detection.

  2. The misrepresentation as a reason of rescission of contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes a person may enter into a contract as a result of a statement made to him which is false. If the statement is a term of the contract he will have a remedy for breach of contract. If the statement is not a term of the contract it is called a mere misrepresentation, and the consequence is rescission of contract. A misrepresentation is an untrue statement of fact which is one of the causes which induces the contract. A misrepresentation is statement, or conduct, which conveys a false or wrong impression. A contract may be rescined on the ground of misrepresentation even if innocent. An innocent misrepresentation is one made with reasonable ground for believing it to be true, as where an honest mistake is made. The types of misrepresentation are various. Acording to the Obligation Act it is not any misrepresentation cause the rescind of contract, but only the importance one. The importance misrepresentations are: the error in supstantia and error in personae if the contract is made bearing in mind intuit personae contract. This paper explanes different kinds of misrepresentation giving some proposal for legal interpretation of the provisions of the Obligation Act. The misrepresentation means an untrue statement of facts, made by one party to the other in the course of negotiating a contract, that induces the other party to enter into the contract. The person making the misrepresentation is called the representor, and the person whom it is made is the representee. A false of fraudulent misrepresentation is one made with knowledge of its falsehood, and intended to deceive. In the case of fraudulent misrepresentation representor did not honestly believe in the truth of his statement, which is not the same as saying that he knew it to be false. A negligent misrepresentation is one made with no reasonable grounds for believing in to be true. An innocent misrepresentation is one made with reasonable grounds for believing in to the true, as where

  3. A New Look at the Old Problem of a Reasonable Expectation: The Reasonableness of Repeated Renewals of Fixed Term Contracts as Opposed to Indefinite Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gericke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 (LRA regulates and protects the position of the employee who reasonably expects that a fixed-term contract will be renewed on the same or similar terms while the employer only offered to renew the contract on less favourable terms or in some instances was not prepared torenew the fixed-term contract at all. The LRA regards the latter conduct as a dismissal, as long as the employee can prove that the employer was responsible for creating the reasonable expectation of contractual renewal. In contrast to this position, the LRA does not regulate or protect the position of the employee whose fixed-term contract was repeatedly renewed on the same, similar or even improved terms, while the employer was in a position to offer the employee indefinite employment. The employer may even have created a reasonable expectation that repeated renewals would result in permanent employment. The exploitation and abuse of the fixed-term contract to the extent that an employee is deprived of employment security and the benefits linked to an employment relationship of indefinite duration have prompted a comparative investigation into this particular field of law.

  4. The Parties’ Consent– A Distinct Reason for the Termination of the Individual Employment Contract. A Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PĂDUCEL

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This thesis deals with the problematic of the termination of the individual employment contract by means of the parties’ consent as per Article 55 b of the Labor Code and Article 74 (1 b of the Sole Collective Labor Agreement at a national level for the years 2007-2010, no. 2895/2006. A distinction has been made between the initiative regarding the termination of the legal labor relationship by means of the parties’ consent (employee or employer and the fulfilment of the parties’ agreement. It has been argued that the reasons which may lead to the agreement fulfillment for the termination of the employment contract may be reasons which relate to the employee as a person or reasons which have nothing to do with the employee as a person.

  5. Reasons for contract changes in implementing Dutch transportation infrastructure projects: An empirical exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Verweij (Stefan); I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); I.A. Korthagen (Iris)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ An important contributor to cost overruns of infrastructure projects is contract changes after the construction contract has been concluded. Using mainly descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests, real project data were analyzed from forty-five Dutch

  6. FEDERAL CONTRACTING; Opportunities Exist to Increase Competition and Assess Reasons When Only One Offer Is Received

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    quickly. In the second example, at the Department of the Interior, the justification for a noncompetitive order on a GSA schedule contract to lease ...analysis and technical assistance support to provide a turnkey solution for operational support for services to the Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task

  7. Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the opening to the uterus through which the baby passes during delivery). The contractions tend to increase in the weeks ... experience cramps, contractions and discomfort for weeks before delivery. ... The feeling that the baby has settled lower in your belly. This can ...

  8. Heat contracting in the German housing sector. Instruments for reasonable regulation; Waermecontracting in der deutschen Wohnungswirtschaft. Instrumente fuer eine angemessene Regulierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhland, Johannes; Herud, Ralf [Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftsinformatik, Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    German residential leases and their associated fringe costs such as heating are subject to strict regulations. The Tenancy law regulates, for instance, which components of the total costs of heating tenants have to bear and to what degree lessors can amortise the costs for modernizing the heating system. Unfortunately these regulations provide only low incentives for modernization, so that many heating systems in operation are technically obsolescent. Contracting describes a service contract, in which a Contractor plans, builds up and also operates a new heating system. This service-form has been successfully established in many other economic sectors so far. Despite the great micro- and macroeconomic advantages that Contracting offers over self-administered modernizing, it does not yet prevail in the German housing market. Thus, deregulation seems to be indispensable in this sector. However, the analysis in this article on the basis of the New Institutional Economics shows that an unrestricted opening of the market is not reasonable. In fact a suitable level of regulation must be found. Therefore, this article identifies several effective instruments from an economic point of view. (orig.)

  9. On reasonable identification of service charge of general contract%谈总承包服务费的合理确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸽; 王灵光

    2012-01-01

    Combining with the factual engineering programs, the paper indicates the possible problems of the service charge of the general contract in the calculation process, analyzes the masons for the problems, and points out the two parities of the contract should adopt strategies in calculating the service charge of the general contract, so as to direct the cost management works.%结合实际工程项目,论述了总承包服务费在计取过程中可能发生的问题,并对其原因进行了分析,提出了承发包双方在计取总承包服务费时应采取的对策,以期指导造价管理工作。

  10. 26 CFR 1.101-1 - Exclusion from gross income of proceeds of life insurance contracts payable by reason of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.101-1 Exclusion from gross income of proceeds of life insurance... proceeds of life insurance policies, if paid by reason of the death of the insured, are excluded from the gross income of the recipient. Death benefit payments having the characteristics of life...

  11. The Value of Competitive Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Contract FAR authority citations (from GAO, 2010) A few other notable reasons why some agencies inhibit competition are the following: a. Lack of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT THE VALUE OF COMPETITIVE CONTRACTING By: Pamela A...

  12. Control over Administrative Contract Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Staničić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts in Croatian legislation represent a novelty introduced into the General Administration Procedure Act in 2010. This is a novelty which has not proved to be successful in practice. Control over administrative contract formation is inevitable and is very significant for a number of reasons. Firstly, public legal bodies which form them do so by exercising their own public powers which are without doubt subject to legality control; secondly, in forming administrative contracts, public funds are used which must be controlled; thirdly, forming administrative contracts often touches on using public goods. Due to the restrictive interpretation of administrative contracts in Croatian legislation, this institute is indisputably only regulated in the General Taxation Act. However, for more than two decades contracts which satisfy all presumptions have existed in our law in order to be considered as administrative contracts. It is for this reason that control over contracts will be dealt with for contracts considered by the author to be administrative contracts. These are contracts on concessions and contracts on public procurement. How inadequate today’s regulation of control of administrative contract formation is will be demonstrated, particularly regarding contracts on concession and public procurement. Legislative changes will be proposed which should result in a more quality system of control over administrative contract formation. How control over administrative contract formation cannot be considered as separate from control over administrative contract execution will also be shown.

  13. Flawed reasoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, M.W.; Owen, B.M.

    1993-07-15

    The FERC's failure to investigate the Entergy/GSU merger's effects on market power may force other agencies to examine electric utility mergers on their own. The competitive effects of the proposed merger Entergy and Gulf States Utilities (GSU) will not be further investigated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), according to a January 1993 order. The FERC's primary justification is that the [open quotes]open access[close quotes] transmission conditions offered by the merging parties eliminated concern over market power in transmission and bulk power. The FERC's reasoning is flawed. If the merger were to lead to an increase in market power, the proposed transmission conditions would not prevent the merged firm from exercising that power. The FERC also justifies its decision not to investigate the competitive effects of the merger on the grounds that no intervenor had demonstrated that present competition between the two systems is more than de minimis. This is not an appropriate standard. Intervenors demonstrated that Entergy's and GSU's transmission system offer alternative contract routes for bulk power between generators and customers. Even if Entergy and GSU both do not actually sell significant amounts of the same transmission-service, an antitrust evaluation should consider whether the availability of a second, independent route constrains the pricing of the first. The FERC's reasoning indicates that it has lost its way in carrying out its responsibilities to protect consumers. Open access to transmission systems may play an important role in increasing competition in bulk power markets. However, the FERC's goal should be to promote competition, not merely to open access for its own sake. In its enthusiasm to secure [open quotes]open access[close quotes], the FERC appears willing to ignore possible reductions in competition.

  14. Contract modularity in design by contract languages

    OpenAIRE

    Rebêlo, Henrique Emanuel Mostaert

    2014-01-01

    Design by Contract (DbC) is a popular technique for developing programs using behavioral specifications. In this context, researchers have found that the realization of DbC is crosscutting and fares better when modularized by Aspect-Oriented Programming. However, previous efforts aimed at supporting crosscutting contracts modularly actually compromised the main DbC principles. For example, in AspectJ-style, reasoning about the correctness of a method call may require a whole-pr...

  15. 编制外护士离职原因及再就业意向分析%Analysis of resignation reasons and reemployment intentions for junior contract nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建男; 王艳; 曹文学

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨编制外护士离职原因及再就业方向,为进一步完善聘用制护士管理制度及制订减少护士流失策略提供依据。方法采用自行设计的离职原因调查表及半结构访谈对某院82名离职护士进行调研。结果82名护士离职主要原因为忙于工作交友难占63.41%,不便照顾家人占58.54%,此外工作压力大超出负荷、职业生涯发展平台有限、医疗环境紧张也是离职重要因素。因“职业生涯发展平台有限”而离职的人员比例中,本科学历护士高于大专学历护士。护士离职后选择去离家近的二、三级医院继续从事临床护理工作占70.73% 。结论进一步探讨人性化管理措施、关注年轻护士个人和家庭问题、有效缓解工作压力、有效引导等措施,可提高编制外年轻护士对医院的忠诚度和认可度,降低护士离职意向。%Objective To explore the reasons for junior contract nurse′ s resignation and their reemployment intentions, and to provide a reference for the development of strategies to improve contract nurses′management. Methods A total of 82 nurses who resigned from the hospital were investigated with a self-designed questionnaire about the reasons of leaving, and they were interviewed by semi-structured questionnaire. Results The top two reasons for leaving were hardly to making friends (63. 41% ) and inconvenience of taking care family (58. 54% ). Besides, working stress, limited space for professional development, the intense medical environment were also the reasons for resignation. The nurses with a bachelor degree were more than those with an associated degree among those who resigned for limited space for professional development. After leaving, 70. 73% nurses would continue to do clinical nursing jobs in the second or the third degree hospitals where were near their home. Conclusions Further implementation of the humanity management measures, paying more

  16. Premature Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Premature Contractions - PACs and PVCs Updated:Dec 15,2016 ... You felt this more-forceful beat. Types of premature contractions Premature atrial contractions (PACs) start in the ...

  17. Pertinent reasoning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors venture beyond one of the fundamental assumptions in the non-monotonic reasoning community, namely that non-monotonic entailment is supra-classical. They investigate reasoning which uses an infra-classical entailment...

  18. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...... to foster students’ proportional reasoning. Classroom data revealed limited initial teacher knowledge and awareness of the pervasive nature of proportional reasoning required in the mathematics curriculum. Teacher capacity to seize teachable moments for building students’ proportional reasoning skills...... increased throughout the project. From this background, this paper presents an analysis of the proportional reasoning demands and opportunities of topics within the school mathematics curriculum in Australia. Implications for the study of whole number arithmetic (WNA) and other topics to promote...

  19. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    to foster students’ proportional reasoning. Classroom data revealed limited initial teacher knowledge and awareness of the pervasive nature of proportional reasoning required in the mathematics curriculum. Teacher capacity to seize teachable moments for building students’ proportional reasoning skills......Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...... increased throughout the project. From this background, this paper presents an analysis of the proportional reasoning demands and opportunities of topics within the school mathematics curriculum in Australia. Implications for the study of whole number arithmetic (WNA) and other topics to promote...

  20. Particular Reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Berker, Selim

    2007-01-01

    Moral particularists argue that because reasons for action are irreducibly context-dependent, the traditional quest in ethics for true and exceptionless moral principles is hopelessly misguided. In making this claim, particularists assume a general framework according to which reasons are the ground floor normative units undergirding all other normative properties and relations. They then argue that there is no cashing out in finite terms either (i) when a given non-normative feature gives ri...

  1. Sufficient reason and reason enough

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E

    2014-01-01

    I offer an analysis of the Principle of Sufficient Reason and its relevancy for the scientific endeavour. I submit that the world is not, and cannot be, rational - only some brained beings are. The Principle of Sufficient Reason is not a necessary truth nor a physical law. It is just a guiding metanomological hypothesis justified a posteriori by its success in helping us to unveil the mechanisms that operate in Nature.

  2. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  3. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  4. Verbal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-31

    Psicologia , 4(3), 183-198. 94 Guyote, M.J. and Sternberg, R.J. (1981). A transitive-chain theory of syllogistic reasoning. Cognitive Psychology, 13(4), 461...personal connections. Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 39-59. Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard

  5. Fuzzy contractibility

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNER, Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper, .rstly some fundamental concepts are included re- lating to fuzzy topological spaces. Secondly, the fuzzy connected set is intro- duced. Finally, de.ning fuzzy contractible space, it is shown that X is a fuzzy contractible space if and only if X is fuzzy homotopic equivalent with a fuzzy single-point space.

  6. Government Contract Law Textbook - 1982 Edition,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    consideration, the doctrine of promissory estoppel was created. The Restatement of Contracts, Section 90, states, "A promise which the promisor should...benefit upon another, he may recover the reasonable value of it in quasi-contract if, as between the two persons involved, it is otherwise unjust for...services anyway, there will not be any recovery in quasi- contract. The theory upon which quasi-contract is based is that of unjust enrichment. Quasi

  7. Construction Contract Provisions Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    bidding and contract docuents. These documents appear together in the bid package. After the bid, the IFB (or RFTP, RFP ) is extracted and the remainder...Corps personnel suggest that the original reason for the clause -- to prevent brokering - is anachronistic in the current construction market. However...amount of premiums paid for performance and payment * bonds (including coinsurance and reinsurance agreements, when applicable) after furnishing

  8. Diagrammatic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Stege Bjørndahl, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    of representational artifacts for purposes of thinking and communicating is discussed in relation to C.S. Peirce’s notion of diagrammatical reasoning. We propose to extend Peirce’s original ideas and sketch a conceptual framework that delineates different kinds of diagram manipulation: Sometimes diagrams...... are manipulated in order to profile known information in an optimal fashion. At other times diagrams are explored in order to gain new insights, solve problems or discover hidden meaning potentials. The latter cases often entail manipulations that either generate additional information or extract information...

  9. Inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  10. Heuristic reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    How can we advance knowledge? Which methods do we need in order to make new discoveries? How can we rationally evaluate, reconstruct and offer discoveries as a means of improving the ‘method’ of discovery itself? And how can we use findings about scientific discovery to boost funding policies, thus fostering a deeper impact of scientific discovery itself? The respective chapters in this book provide readers with answers to these questions. They focus on a set of issues that are essential to the development of types of reasoning for advancing knowledge, such as models for both revolutionary findings and paradigm shifts; ways of rationally addressing scientific disagreement, e.g. when a revolutionary discovery sparks considerable disagreement inside the scientific community; frameworks for both discovery and inference methods; and heuristics for economics and the social sciences.

  11. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  12. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  13. Contracts and Contracting: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Sandra M; Zimmerling, John

    2016-01-01

    The underlying guiding principles of case management services and practices of the Case Management Body of Knowledge include the following: "Case managers must possess the education, skills, knowledge, competencies, and experiences needed to effectively render appropriate, safe, and quality services to clients/support systems" and "Case management services are offered according to the clients' benefits as stipulated in their health insurance plans (http://www.cmbodyofknowledge.com/content/case-management-knowledge-2). Fulfilling these principles requires that the case manager engage in negotiating and contract execution.This article explores the concepts of negotiation and some of the many ways case managers contribute to the contracting process. Acute care hospitals, individual practice, managed care. Case managers can provide valuable information during the contracting process, in many settings. In the managed care arena, case management can help identify the types of services needed by the population the organization serves. The same understanding of data can assist during the payer contracting process in the acute care setting and ensure that the hospital is fairly reimbursed by third party payers. The independent practitioners will, undoubtedly, face the need to negotiate for themselves as well as their clients. The case manager, regardless of the setting, benefits from an understanding of the principles and processes associated with negotiation and contracting.

  14. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how...

  15. The Public Sector and Obligation to Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karsten Naundrup; Indén, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    of the freedom to contract which is a fundamental to market behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the fact that obligations to contract are also imposed on private entities. The paper takes Swedish and Danish regulations as a point of departure and provides an insight into regulations from these two countries...... imposing obligations to contract, offering a number of examples of such regulations. Moreover, since obligation to contract and freedom to contract are universal concepts, the paper is of relevance to all countries that have similar regulations including other EU Member States.......The paper concerns the situation where public sector bodies are forced to enter into contracts. These obligations to contract are analysed from two angles. First, the paper offers an analysis of the reasons for imposing such obligations to contract under Swedish and Danish law. Secondly the paper...

  16. Do contracts help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r. We show that if the team members can make only balanced transfers, then moral hazard affects stability adversely. However, if the team members cannot make......Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable team structure exists if teams produce public goods or if the quota is two. However, these existence results no longer hold if efforts are verifiable....

  17. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  18. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  19. Government Contract Law (9th Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    raising revenue was by consideration, the doctrine of promissory the intention, then the contract is not void and as estoppel was created. The...reasonable value of offer which asks for a promise in return as the it if it would be unjust for the recipient to retain agreed exchange for a promise is an...The reason for this is that quasi- acceptance prior to actual performance. If the contract is utilized only where it would be unjust offer is for a

  20. Domain-General Contributions to Social Reasoning: Theory of Mind and Deontic Reasoning Re-Explored

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Margaret C.; Moscovitch, Morris

    2007-01-01

    Using older adults and dual-task interference, we examined performance on two social reasoning tasks: theory of mind (ToM) tasks and versions of the deontic selection task involving social contracts and hazardous conditions. In line with performance accounts of social reasoning (Leslie, Friedman, & German, 2004), evidence from both aging and the…

  1. Domain-General Contributions to Social Reasoning: Theory of Mind and Deontic Reasoning Re-Explored

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Margaret C.; Moscovitch, Morris

    2007-01-01

    Using older adults and dual-task interference, we examined performance on two social reasoning tasks: theory of mind (ToM) tasks and versions of the deontic selection task involving social contracts and hazardous conditions. In line with performance accounts of social reasoning (Leslie, Friedman, & German, 2004), evidence from both aging and the…

  2. Relations between Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important open questions in reasoning research is how inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning are related. In an effort to address this question, we applied methods and concepts from memory research. We used 2 experiments to examine the effects of logical validity and premise-conclusion similarity on evaluation of arguments.…

  3. An Analysis of Army Contract Administration With Regard to Contracting Officers Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    and in writing; solving problems through reasoning; teamwork; self-management initiative; business ethics ; and effective COR and contract performance...leaders, and commanders of CORs, we found gaps and challenges that affect the completion of COR duties relating to Army service contracts. We identified...Landale, Lead Advisor Matthew Kremer, Support Advisor Brad Naegle Academic Associate Graduate School of Business and Public

  4. CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTOANETA CLAUDIA BUTUZA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main types of contractual arrangements used worldwide in construction: traditional contracts, cost reimbursable type contracts, management contracts and other contractual arrangements such as partnership, offering two-phase, contracts in series and turnkey contracts. Also, based on a comparison of the main types of contractual arrangements a number of recommendations are suggested for choosing the appropriate type of contract construction project to be realized.

  5. 24 CFR 983.303 - Reasonable rent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other comparable unassisted units. (2) In determining the reasonable rent, the PHA must consider factors... units in the private unassisted market, which may include comparable unassisted units in the premises or... determined, including major differences between the contract units and comparable unassisted units. (3)...

  6. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) By Mayo Clinic Staff Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are extra, abnormal heartbeats that begin in one of your heart's two ...

  7. Faculty Growth Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Peter

    Growth contracts, described as faculty plans for personal and professional growth proposed by each member of the faculty, are examined. The rationale for growth contracts is explained and a list of some institutions using growth contracts or variations of the concept is provided. Growth contract advantages, the role of the evaluation committee or…

  8. Contracts in distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoletti, Massimo; Zunino, Roberto; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.11

    2011-01-01

    We present a parametric calculus for contract-based computing in distributed systems. By abstracting from the actual contract language, our calculus generalises both the contracts-as-processes and contracts-as-formulae paradigms. The calculus features primitives for advertising contracts, for reaching agreements, and for querying the fulfilment of contracts. Coordination among principals happens via multi-party sessions, which are created once agreements are reached. We present two instances of our calculus, by modelling contracts as (i) processes in a variant of CCS, and (ii) as formulae in a logic. With the help of a few examples, we discuss the primitives of our calculus, as well as some possible variants.

  9. A Module Language for Typing by Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glouche, Yann; Talpin, Jean-Pierre; LeGuernic, Paul; Gautier, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Assume-guarantee reasoning is a popular and expressive paradigm for modular and compositional specification of programs. It is becoming a fundamental concept in some computer-aided design tools for embedded system design. In this paper, we elaborate foundations for contract-based embedded system design by proposing a general-purpose module language based on a Boolean algebra allowing to define contracts. In this framework, contracts are used to negotiate the correctness of assumptions made on the definition of a component at the point where it is used and provides guarantees to its environment. We illustrate this presentation with the specification of a simplified 4-stroke engine model.

  10. Determining Price Reasonableness in Federal ESPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2005-03-08

    This document reports the findings and implementation recommendations of the Price Reasonableness Working Group to the Federal ESPC Steering Committee. The working group was formed to address concerns of agencies and oversight organizations related to pricing and fair and reasonable price determination in federal energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs). This report comprises the working group's recommendations and is the proposed draft of a training curriculum on fair and reasonable price determination for users of federal ESPCs. The report includes: (1) A review of federal regulations applicable to determining price reasonableness of federal ESPCs (section 2), (2) Brief descriptions of the techniques described in Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) 15.404-1 and their applicability to ESPCs (section 3), and (3) Recommended strategies and procedures for cost-effectively completing price reasonableness determinations (sections 4). Agencies have struggled with fair and reasonable price determinations in their ESPCs primarily because this alternative financing vehicle is relatively new and relatively rare in the federal sector. The methods of determining price reasonableness most familiar to federal contracting officers (price competition based on the government's design and specifications, in particular) are generally not applicable to ESPCs. The regulatory requirements for determining price reasonableness in federal ESPCs have also been misunderstood, as federal procurement professionals who are inexperienced with ESPCs are further confused by multiple directives, including Executive Order 13123, which stresses life-cycle cost-effectiveness. Uncertainty about applicable regulations and inconsistent practice and documentation among agencies have fueled claims that price reasonableness determinations have not been sufficiently rigorous in federal ESPCs or that the prices paid in ESPCs are generally higher than the prices paid for similar goods and

  11. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  12. Reasoning: The Fourth 'R'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Curtis

    1978-01-01

    Discusses an experimental competency-based general education program developed at Piedmont Technical College, stressing two process skills of communication and reasoning. Definition of "reasoning" is discussed and content and method for teaching a reasoning-based program are presented. (DR)

  13. Teaching for Ethical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the importance of teaching for ethical reasoning. Much of our teaching is in vain if it is not applied to life in an ethical manner. The article reviews lapses in ethical reasoning and the great costs they have had for society. It proposes that ethical reasoning can be taught across the curriculum. It presents an eight-step…

  14. Inductive Reasoning and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Clay; Boyd, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Induction, properly understood, is not merely a game, nor is it a gimmick, nor is it an artificial way of explaining an element of reasoning. Proper understanding of inductive reasoning--and the various types of reasoning that the authors term inductive--enables the student to evaluate critically other people's writing and enhances the composition…

  15. Public Reason Renaturalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This article takes up recent discussions of nature and the sensorium in order to rethink public reason in deeply divided societies. The aim is not to reject the role of reason-giving but rather to infuse it with new meaning, bringing the reasonable back to its sensorially inflected circumstances....

  16. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  17. Fault in Contract Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eric A. Posner

    2009-01-01

    A promisor is strictly liable for breaching a contract, according to the standard account However, a negligence-based system of contract law can be given an economic interpretation, and this Article...

  18. Democratic contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will be that also for contract law a democratic basis is a necessary condition for legitimacy. A fully democratic basis may also be a sufficient condition for a legitimate and just contract law. However,...

  19. Teaching about Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  20. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Klijnsma

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is par

  1. 48 CFR 923.7003 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resources for enforcing the radiation protection standards. This is to assure reasonable consistency in the... Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational Safety Programs 923.7003 Contract clauses. (a) A... Execution, nor 952.223-72, Radiation Protection and Nuclear Criticality, is to be incorporated in the...

  2. The Fault That Lies within Our Contract Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George M. Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Scholars and courts typically describe and defend American contract law as a system of strict liability, or liability without fault Strict liability generally means that the reason for nonperformance...

  3. Learning clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Ralph; Welch, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Errors in clinical reasoning continue to account for significant morbidity and mortality, despite evidence-based guidelines and improved technology. Experts in clinical reasoning often use unconscious cognitive processes that they are not aware of unless they explain how they are thinking. Understanding the intuitive and analytical thinking processes provides a guide for instruction. How knowledge is stored is critical to expertise in clinical reasoning. Curricula should be designed so that trainees store knowledge in a way that is clinically relevant. Competence in clinical reasoning is acquired by supervised practice with effective feedback. Clinicians must recognise the common errors in clinical reasoning and how to avoid them. Trainees can learn clinical reasoning effectively in everyday practice if teachers provide guidance on the cognitive processes involved in making diagnostic decisions.

  4. FUZZY REASONING IN CYCLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立明

    1990-01-01

    By the similarity between the syllogism in logic and a path proposition in graph theory,a new concept,fuzzy reasoning graph G has been given in this paper. Transitive closure has been studied and used to do reasoning related to self-loop in G,and an algorithm has been designed to cope with reasoning in other cycles in G. Both approaches are applicable and efficient.

  5. Formalizing Default Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    Fuzzy set systems can be used to solve the problem with uncertain knowledge,and default logic can be used to solve the problem with incomplete knowledge,in some sense.In this paper,based on interval-valued fuzzy sets we introduce a method of inference which combines approximate reasoning an default ogic,and give the procedure of transforming monotonic reasoning into default reasoning.

  6. Metacognition and reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Logan; Carruthers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the cognitive architecture of human meta-reasoning: that is, metacognition concerning one's own reasoning and decision-making. The view we defend is that meta-reasoning is a cobbled-together skill comprising diverse self-management strategies acquired through individual and cultural learning. These approximate the monitoring-and-control functions of a postulated adaptive system for metacognition by recruiting mechanisms that were designed for quite other purposes.

  7. Metacognition and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Logan; Carruthers, Peter

    2012-05-19

    This article considers the cognitive architecture of human meta-reasoning: that is, metacognition concerning one's own reasoning and decision-making. The view we defend is that meta-reasoning is a cobbled-together skill comprising diverse self-management strategies acquired through individual and cultural learning. These approximate the monitoring-and-control functions of a postulated adaptive system for metacognition by recruiting mechanisms that were designed for quite other purposes.

  8. 48 CFR 2409.507-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational and Consultant... reason to believe that the nature of the proposed contract requirements may present an organizational... Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 2452.209-72, Organizational Conflicts of Interest, in all...

  9. Contracts in distributed systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bartoletti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a parametric calculus for contract-based computing in distributed systems. By abstracting from the actual contract language, our calculus generalises both the contracts-as-processes and contracts-as-formulae paradigms. The calculus features primitives for advertising contracts, for reaching agreements, and for querying the fulfilment of contracts. Coordination among principals happens via multi-party sessions, which are created once agreements are reached. We present two instances of our calculus, by modelling contracts as (i processes in a variant of CCS, and (ii as formulae in a logic. With the help of a few examples, we discuss the primitives of our calculus, as well as some possible variants.

  10. Study on contract%契约微言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤烈琴

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the category of civil law of contract. Through the study of contract, the contract itself causes, namely the contract are developed historical reason, the contract itself, the structural elements of the contract itself implication elements of research. Finally draw the conclusion that the contract results in rights.%本文旨在对民法范畴上的契约进行探讨。通过契约之成因、契约本身的研究,即契约的之所以发达动因;契约自身要素;契约意蕴等角度进行研究。最终以为,契约之本在权利。

  11. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  12. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  13. Model-Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Seel, Norbert M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, there will be a particular focus on mental models and their application to inductive reasoning within the realm of instruction. A basic assumption of this study is the observation that the construction of mental models and related reasoning is a slowly developing capability of cognitive systems that emerges effectively with proper…

  14. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  15. Approximate Qualitative Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Bettini, X. Wang, and S. Jajodia. A general framework for time granularity and its application to temporal reasoning. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial...Temporal representation and reasoning in artificial intelligence: Issues and approaches. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 28, 2000...Quantum mereotopology. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelli- gence, to appear. [42] A. C. Varzi. On the boundary between mereology and topology

  16. Intuition, Reason, and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Valerie A.; Prowse Turner, Jamie A.; Pennycook, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Dual Process Theories (DPT) of reasoning posit that judgments are mediated by both fast, automatic processes and more deliberate, analytic ones. A critical, but unanswered question concerns the issue of monitoring and control: When do reasoners rely on the first, intuitive output and when do they engage more effortful thinking? We hypothesised…

  17. Teaching to Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros Rotge, Hector G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Physics courses is that the students learn how to use what they know to solve problems in the real world (competencies), but no one learns to do that seeing as the professor think in the blackboard. The program of a course uses topics as examples of reasoning. Reasoning involves the ability to use their knowledge. If we precisely…

  18. Reasoning, logic, and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenning, Keith; van Lambalgen, Michiel

    2011-09-01

    We argue that reasoning has been conceptualized so narrowly in what is known as 'psychology of reasoning' that reasoning's relevance to cognitive science has become well-nigh invisible. Reasoning is identified with determining whether a conclusion follows validly from given premises, where 'valid' is taken to mean 'valid according to classical logic'. We show that there are other ways to conceptualize reasoning, more in line with current logical theorizing, which give it a role in psychological processes ranging from (verbal) discourse comprehension to (nonverbal) planning. En route we show that formal logic, at present marginalized in cognitive science, can be an extremely valuable modeling tool. In particular, there are cases in which probabilistic modeling must fail, whereas logical models do well. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 555-567 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.134 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  19. Contracting out local services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Houlberg, Kurt; Ring Christensen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Governments face a fundamental choice between in-house production and contracting out for the delivery of services to citizens. This article examines the importance of ideology, fiscal pressure, and size for contracting out in technical and social services. The analysis builds on a panel data set...... covering municipal spending on services in all 98 Danish municipalities. The authors find that contracting out is shaped by ideology in social services but not in technical services, which indicates that social services are the contemporary ideological battlefield of privatization. The analysis further...... reveals that economically prosperous municipalities are more likely to contract out social services, whereas contracting out of technical services is not influenced by economic affluence. Finally, larger municipalities contract out more in technical services but less in social services, demonstrating...

  20. New staff contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  1. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts. In this p......Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts....... In this paper we investigate under which circumstances a BOT outsourcing contract (i.e. a contract where the client firm exercises its call option) is beneficial, or the opposite, to the emerging market vendor firm. We draw on various theoretical literatures (transaction cost economics, real options, inter...

  2. Contracting with Private Rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Kirkegaard

    2015-01-01

    I extend the canonical moral hazard model to allow the agent to face endogenous and non-contractible uncertainty. The agent works for the principal and simultaneously pursues private rewards. I establish conditions under which the first-order approach remains valid. The model adds to the literature on intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. Specifically, to induce higher effort at work the contract may offer higher rewards but flatter incentives. The contract change makes the agent reevaluate ...

  3. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new......Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...

  4. Rethinking moral reasoning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, K M

    1989-01-01

    Many nursing studies on moral reasoning and ethics have used Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The body of knowledge that resulted from these studies indicated that nurses and nursing students had consistently lower than expected levels of moral reasoning. Educational offerings were developed to assist nurses to improve their moral reasoning. This article explores the cognitive-developmental theory of moral development as one way of determining the moral development of nurses. Since this theory of moral reasoning focuses on the rational thought of the individual and does not consider the impact of the environment, it is of limited applicability in nursing. A new theory of morality needs to be developed--a more holistic one that will include both universal principles and contextual tissues.

  5. Social Contract Theory Should Be Abandoned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I argue that social-contract theory cannot succeed because reasonable people may always disagree, and that social-contract theory is irrelevant to the problem of the legitimacy of a form of government or of a system of moral rules. I note the weakness of the appeal to implicit agreement, the conflation of legitimacy with stability, the undesirability of 'public justification' and the apparent blindness to the evolutionary critical-rationalist approach of Hayek and Popper. I employ that approach to sketch answers to the theoretical, historical and practical questions about the legitimacy of government or of systems of moral rules.

  6. Choreographies and Behavioural Contracts on the Way to Dynamic Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bravetti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We survey our work on choreographies and behavioural contracts in multiparty interactions. In particular theories of behavioural contracts are presented which enable reasoning about correct service composition (contract compliance and service substitutability (contract refinement preorder under different assumptions concerning service communication: synchronous address or name based communication with patient non-preemptable or impatient invocations, or asynchronous communication. Correspondingly relations between behavioural contracts and choreographic descriptions are considered, where a contract for each communicating party is, e.g., derived by projection. The considered relations are induced as the maximal preoders which preserve contract compliance and global traces: we show maximality to hold (permitting services to be discovered/substituted independently for each party when contract refinement preorders with all the above asymmetric communication means are considered and, instead, not to hold if the standard symmetric CCS/pi-calculus communication is considered (or when directly relating choreographies to behavioral contracts via a preorder, no matter the communication mean. The obtained maximal preorders are then characterized in terms of a new form of testing, called compliance testing, where not only tests must succeed but also the system under test (thus relating to controllability theory, and compared with classical preorders such as may/must testing, trace inclusion, etc. Finally, recent work about adaptable choreographies and behavioural contracts is presented, where the theory above is extended to update mechanisms allowing choreographies/contracts to be modified at run-time by internal (self-adaptation or external intervention.

  7. Energy service contracts in regional engineering center for small and medium businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil'manshin, I. R.; Kashapov, N. F.

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of the energy service contracts development in Russia is given in the article. The role of the Complex learning centres in the field of energy efficiency in the promotion of energy service contracts is described. The reasons of constraining the development of energy service contracts are described.

  8. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  9. Contracting for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Peter R.

    1975-01-01

    An organizational workshop for staff members focused on organizational change through identification of problems, one-to-one communication, and the writing of contracts for behavioral change. Contract forming assists members to agree on definition of problems, to involve and commit themselves, and to define processes for change. (EA)

  10. Whither Performance Contracting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman S.

    This report describes briefly performance contracts; discusses their shortcomings, pitfalls, and advantages; and gives some insight into the future development of this new concept. Two shortcomings of performance contracting include (1) teaching to the test and (2) board abdication of its responsibility for making final decisions about educational…

  11. Signaling in muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ivana Y; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2015-02-02

    Signaling pathways regulate contraction of striated (skeletal and cardiac) and smooth muscle. Although these are similar, there are striking differences in the pathways that can be attributed to the distinct functional roles of the different muscle types. Muscles contract in response to depolarization, activation of G-protein-coupled receptors and other stimuli. The actomyosin fibers responsible for contraction require an increase in the cytosolic levels of calcium, which signaling pathways induce by promoting influx from extracellular sources or release from intracellular stores. Rises in cytosolic calcium stimulate numerous downstream calcium-dependent signaling pathways, which can also regulate contraction. Alterations to the signaling pathways that initiate and sustain contraction and relaxation occur as a consequence of exercise and pathophysiological conditions.

  12. Contribution to contract theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom share the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for 2016, awarded to them by Sveriges Riksbank. They have been rewarded for their work in enhancing the design of contracts, i.e. arrangements connecting employers with employees or companies with clients, in other words, for their contribution to contract theory in the 1970s and 1980s. Their analysis of optimal contractual arrangements lays an intellectual foundation for designing policies and institutions in many areas, from bankruptcy legislation to political constitutions. Hart is an expert in contract theory, theory of the firm, corporate finance, and law and economics. His contribution to contract theory is exquisite when it comes to designing contracts which cover eventualities that cannot be precisely specified in advance.

  13. Causal reasoning in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written on the role of causal notions and causal reasoning in the so-called 'special sciences' and in common sense. But does causal reasoning also play a role in physics? Mathias Frisch argues that, contrary to what influential philosophical arguments purport to show, the answer is yes. Time-asymmetric causal structures are as integral a part of the representational toolkit of physics as a theory's dynamical equations. Frisch develops his argument partly through a critique of anti-causal arguments and partly through a detailed examination of actual examples of causal notions in physics, including causal principles invoked in linear response theory and in representations of radiation phenomena. Offering a new perspective on the nature of scientific theories and causal reasoning, this book will be of interest to professional philosophers, graduate students, and anyone interested in the role of causal thinking in science.

  14. Case-based reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodner, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closest cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions whe

  15. Properties of inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, E

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the main psychological phenomena of inductive reasoning, covering 25 years of experimental and model-based research, in particular addressing four questions. First, what makes a case or event generalizable to other cases? Second, what makes a set of cases generalizable? Third, what makes a property or predicate projectable? Fourth, how do psychological models of induction address these results? The key results in inductive reasoning are outlined, and several recent models, including a new Bayesian account, are evaluated with respect to these results. In addition, future directions for experimental and model-based work are proposed.

  16. Capsule contraction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut COŞKUN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsule contraction syndrome occurs after fibrous metaplasia of lens proteins that leads to capsular bag contraction. Excessive front capsular wrinkling is seen in capsule contraction syndrome and there is an imbalance between powers supplying capsular integrity. This situation leads to zonular weakness. Capsule contraction syndrome is associated with pseudoexfoliation, older age, uveitis, pars planitis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. In order to decrease the risk of capsule contraction syndrome, front capsulerhexis area should be open as 5.5-6 mm diameter and a curysoft intraocular lens should be used. In order to prevent lens epithelial proliferation and metaplasia, lens epithelial cells at inferior surface of front capsule should be aspirated carefully. If postoperative capsular contraction detected, front capsulotomy should be performed by Nd-YAG laser at postoperative 2 to 3 weeks. In patients that Nd-YAG laser is unsuccessful, capsular tension should be decreased by surgical microincisions. In present study, we evaluated etiology, prevention and management of capsule contraction syndrome in the light of actual literature knowledge.

  17. Speed of Reasoning and Its Relation to Reasoning Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhammer, Frank; Klein Entink, Rinke H.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates empirical properties of reasoning speed which is conceived as the fluency of solving reasoning problems. Responses and response times in reasoning tasks are modeled jointly to clarify the covariance structure of reasoning speed and reasoning ability. To determine underlying abilities, the predictive validities of two…

  18. Speed of reasoning and its relation to reasoning ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldhammer, F.; Klein Entink, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates empirical properties of reasoning speed which is conceived as the fluency of solving reasoning problems. Responses and response times in reasoning tasks are modeled jointly to clarify the covariance structure of reasoning speed and reasoning ability. To determine underlying ab

  19. Finding a Reasonable Foundation for Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bayer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Can world peace come about through a world federation of governments? Is growing agreement and appreciation for, throughout the world, the doctrine of equal human rights inevitable? Such questions are raised by Mortimer Adler in How to Think about War and Peace. Adler argues in this book that both are possible, and in doing so he argues that the insights of liberal contract thinkers, particularly Immanuel Kant, are essentially true. Kant argues that each person has the capacity to discover within himself the foundation for human rights because they are self-evident. It follows that over time inequalities and prejudices will disappear, and people will gain the freedom to advance the cause of peace. About this account of the possibility of world peace I ask the question: is it indeed reasonable? For if it is reasonable, it is not reasonable for the reasons that would have been advanced by Aristotle or Plato or their medieval followers. In older political philosophy it is agreement about the unchanging truth of things that can bring peace. To seek the unchanging truth of things, philosophical speculation about God and things divine, is the highest human activity. It is that end to which life in this world is directed, and upon which human flourishing depends. Freedom depends upon our openness to unchanging eternal truth, even more than self-evident rights; the exercise of speculative reasoning allows for political discourse and an open society.

  20. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    CERN Document Server

    Bocchi, Laura; Tuosto, Emilio; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.10

    2011-01-01

    Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent) ones.

  1. Public Reason Renaturalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    it is mobilized in a world of deep pluralism. The article concludes with a discussion of how a renaturalized conception of public reason might change the positioning of contemporary democratic theory vis-a-vis the struggle for empowerment and pluralization in an age of neo-liberalism and state-surveillance....

  2. Reason destroys itself

    CERN Multimedia

    Penrose, Roger

    2008-01-01

    "Do we know for certain that 2 lus 2 equals 4? Of course we don't. Maybe every time everybody in the whole world has ever done that calculation and reasoned it through, they've made a mistake." (1 page0

  3. Assessment as Evidential Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Joanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Principles of evidential reasoning have often been discussed in the context of educational and psychological measurement with respect to construct validity and validity arguments. More recently, Mislevy proposed the metaphor of assessment as an evidentiary argument about students' learning and abilities given their…

  4. Reasoning with Geometric Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Geometry belongs to branches of mathematics that develop students' visualisation, intuition, critical thinking, problem solving, deductive reasoning, logical argument and proof (Jones, 2002). It provides the basis for the development of spatial sense and plays an important role in acquiring advanced knowledge in science, technology, engineering,…

  5. Assessment as Evidential Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Joanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Principles of evidential reasoning have often been discussed in the context of educational and psychological measurement with respect to construct validity and validity arguments. More recently, Mislevy proposed the metaphor of assessment as an evidentiary argument about students' learning and abilities given their…

  6. Reason and Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod eGoel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider ourselves to be rational beings. We feel that our choices, decisions, and actions are selected from a flexible array of possibilities, based upon reasons. When we vote for a political candidate, it is because they share our views on certain critical issues. When we hire an individual for a job, it is be-cause they are the best qualified. However, if this is true, why does an analysis of the direction of shift in the timbre of the voice of political candidates during an exchange or debate, predict the winner of American presidential elections? Why is it that while only 3% of the American population consists of white men over 6'4 tall, 30% of the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies are white men over 6'4 tall? These are examples of instinctual biases affecting or modulating rational thought processes. I argue that existing theories of reasoning cannot substantively accommodate these ubiquitous, real-world phe-nomena. Failure to recognize and incorporate these types of phenomena into the study of human reasoning results in a distorted understanding of rationality. The goal of the article is to draw attention to these types of phenomena and propose an adulterated rationality account of reasoning to explain them.

  7. Design for reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2009-01-01

    with such applications comprises three forms of reasoning: deduction, induction and abduction. Based on the work of Gregory Bateson, it is suggested that the disciplines of interaction design and information architecture are complementary parts of information processes. To show that abduction, induction and deduction...

  8. Diagnostic reasoning in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1993-01-01

    of system failures; and in medicine, diagnosis is the basis for any patient treatment. The paper presents a discussion of the basic nature of causal reasoning as applied for diagnosis and the mental strategies applied when diagnosis is viewed as an integrated part of ''natural decision making...

  9. Reasoning about the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    In this extended abstract, we briefly recall the abstract (categorical) notion of bisimulation from open morphisms, as introduced by Joyal, Nielsen and Winskel. The approach is applicable across a wide range of models of computation, and any such bisimulation comes automatically with characterist...... of reasoning about the past....

  10. Training in Inductive Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Welko

    This study investigated the effects of K. J. Klauer's (1989) inductive reasoning training program of teaching children. Effects of training and the range of transfer of the training were assessed. The subjects were 34 third-grade Dutch children of average ability, matched on age, sex, and IQ. Children from the training condition (N=17) received…

  11. Representation and human reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Meulen, Alice G.B.

    2003-01-01

    Interpretation and reasoning are two sides of sharing information. Representations of the context and common ground must capture the rich content of what has been said, by linking to situations in the world as well as to what has been said before, common sense and to the presuppositions and entailme

  12. Ambiguity and reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, D.J.N. van; Jaspars, J.O.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, reasoning with ambiguous representations is explored in a formal way, with ambiguities at the level of propositions in propositional logic and predicate logic, and ambiguous representations of scopings in predicate logic as the main examples. First a version of propositional logic wit

  13. One reason, several logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  14. Contractual incentives in EPC contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Salvesen, Terje

    2011-01-01

    The Norwegian Oil Industry has through the years utilized several different Contract models for offshore projects. In the recent years, the big oil companies are using EPC Contracts to regulate deliveries in the industry. The main focus in the master thesis was the EPC Contract for offshore deliveries and the contractual incentives built into these Contract models. The first section presents the basics to the EPC contract format. Subjects are why the EPC Contract format is used...

  15. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp......Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when...... outcomes with the conception of being repaid later in accordance to reciprocity. Value - Seeing partnering as the willingness to renegotiate complete contracts can reduce the risk for the contractor and lead to lower prices for a given service. Keywords Partnering, Contracting, Pareto efficiency...

  16. The Grade Contract Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornscheuer, Joan H.

    1976-01-01

    Adaptations of and variations on the grade contract system are described with emphasis on individualized instruction, fair evaluation, and learner-oriented classes. The method used is described, and results are assessed. (Author/RM)

  17. Contracting the Facebook API

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Ben; 10.4204/EPTCS.35.6

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosive growth in the popularity of online social networks such as Facebook. In a new twist, third party developers are now able to create their own web applications which plug into Facebook and work with Facebook's "social" data, enabling the entire Facebook user base of more than 400 million active users to use such applications. These client applications can contain subtle errors that can be hard to debug if they misuse the Facebook API. In this paper we present an experience report on applying Microsoft's new code contract system for the .NET framework to the Facebook API.We wrote contracts for several classes in the Facebook API wrapper which allows Microsoft .NET developers to implement Facebook applications. We evaluated the usefulness of these contracts during implementation of a new Facebook application. Our experience indicates that having code contracts provides a better and quicker software development experience.

  18. Contracting the Facebook API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rubinger

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an explosive growth in the popularity of online social networks such as Facebook. In a new twist, third party developers are now able to create their own web applications which plug into Facebook and work with Facebook's "social" data, enabling the entire Facebook user base of more than 400 million active users to use such applications. These client applications can contain subtle errors that can be hard to debug if they misuse the Facebook API. In this paper we present an experience report on applying Microsoft's new code contract system for the .NET framework to the Facebook API.We wrote contracts for several classes in the Facebook API wrapper which allows Microsoft .NET developers to implement Facebook applications. We evaluated the usefulness of these contracts during implementation of a new Facebook application. Our experience indicates that having code contracts provides a better and quicker software development experience.

  19. Statutes and contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...... institutions, as well as in terms of the face redress required by the socio-pragmatic situation. Udgivelsesdato: JAN...

  20. Joint Contingency Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Cdr (Head of Contracting Activity - HCA)FISC - Sigonella 5th Fleet AOR NAVSUP FISC Site - Dubai FISC Det-Bahrain Bahrain Seychelles CJOA Afghanistan...Services’ individual approaches for the accession of COs (and contracting specialists) is inconsistent and creates disparities between the breadth...and temperatures ranging from 130 degrees to below freezing. J42 AAdmin Clerk (Navy E-5) J4221 Fuels Ops Officer Navy

  1. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  2. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  3. Design for reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to position interaction design and information architecture in relation to design of interfaces to ICT applications meant to serve the goal of supporting users’ reasoning, be it learning applications or self-service applications such as citizen self-service. Interaction...... with such applications comprises three forms of reasoning: deduction, induction and abduction. Based on the work of Gregory Bateson, it is suggested that the disciplines of interaction design and information architecture are complementary parts of information processes. To show that abduction, induction and deduction...... play together in an information process, the paper reviews three examples: Plato's Socratic dialogues, the sociology of inscriptions, the practice of police investigation. All three examples illustrate the main point of the paper: that interaction design and information architecture are different...

  4. Automation of Diagrammatic Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Jamnik, Mateja; Bundy, Alan; Green, Ian

    1997-01-01

    Theorems in automated theorem proving are usually proved by logical formal proofs. However, there is a subset of problems which humans can prove in a different way by the use of geometric operations on diagrams, so called diagrammatic proofs. Insight is more clearly perceived in these than in the corresponding algebraic proofs: they capture an intuitive notion of truthfulness that humans find easy to see and understand. We are identifying and automating this diagrammatic reasoning on mathemat...

  5. Deontic Reasoning with Emotional Content: Evolutionary Psychology or Decision Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perham, Nick; Oaksford, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the contrasting predictions of the evolutionary and decision-theoretic approaches to deontic reasoning. Two experiments embedded a hazard management (HM) rule in a social contract scenario that should lead to competition between innate modules. A 3rd experiment used a pure HM task. Threatening material was also…

  6. Deontic Reasoning with Emotional Content: Evolutionary Psychology or Decision Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perham, Nick; Oaksford, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the contrasting predictions of the evolutionary and decision-theoretic approaches to deontic reasoning. Two experiments embedded a hazard management (HM) rule in a social contract scenario that should lead to competition between innate modules. A 3rd experiment used a pure HM task. Threatening material was also…

  7. 48 CFR 1852.231-71 - Determination of compensation reasonableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Determination of compensation reasonableness. 1852.231-71 Section 1852.231-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Contract Act employees proposed that do not fail within the scope of any classification listed in...

  8. Calvin on Human Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas Vorster

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book The Unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory makes the statement that the Reformation replaced the teleological social ethics of Roman Catholicism based on virtue with formal social ethics based on rules and enforced by magistrates, because they regarded human reason as too depraved to acquire virtue. The result, according to Gregory, is that the relation between internalised values and rules were undermined. This article asks whether this accusation is true with regard to Calvin. The first section discusses the intellectual environment of Calvin’s day – something that inevitably influenced his theory on reason, whilst the second part analyses Calvin’s view on the created nature of reason. The third section investigates Calvin’s view on the effects of sin on reason; and the fourth section discusses Calvin’s perspective on the relation between grace and reason. The article concludes that Gregory’s accusation against the Reformation is not applicable to Calvin. Gregory fails to take into account Calvin’s modified position that the imago Dei was not totally destroyed by sin as well as his teaching on common grace that maintains that even non-believers are able to acquire virtue through the common grace of God.Calvyn oor Menslike Rede. In sy onlangse boek, The Unintended Reformation, maak Brad Gregory die stelling dat die Reformasie die substantiewe teleologiese deugde-etiek van die Rooms-Katolisisme vervang het met ‘n formele etiek gebaseer op reëls wat deur magistrate afgedwing moet word. Die Reformasie was, volgens Gregory, van mening dat die menslike rede sodanig deur sonde geskend is dat die mens nie langer deugde kan beoefen nie. Dit het tot ‘n skadelike skeiding tussen waardes en reëls gelei. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die vraag of Gregory se stelling op Calvyn van toepassing is. Die eerste afdeling bespreek die intellektuele omgewing waarin Calvyn gewerk het. Tweedens word Gregory se siening van die geskape

  9. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  10. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  11. Contract-oriented software development for internet services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giambiagi, Pablo; Owe, Olaf; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    COSoDIS (Contract-Oriented Software Development for Internet Services) develops novel approaches to implement and reason about contracts in service oriented architectures (SOA). The rationale is that system developers benefit from abstraction mechanisms to work with these architectures. Therefore...... the goal is to design and test system modeling and programming language tools to empower SOA developers to deploy highly dynamic, negotiable and monitorable Internet services....

  12. Contract-oriented software development for internet services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giambiagi, Pablo; Owe, Olaf; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    COSoDIS (Contract-Oriented Software Development for Internet Services) develops novel approaches to implement and reason about contracts in service oriented architectures (SOA). The rationale is that system developers benefit from abstraction mechanisms to work with these architectures. Therefore...... the goal is to design and test system modeling and programming language tools to empower SOA developers to deploy highly dynamic, negotiable and monitorable Internet services....

  13. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen:1.\tCandidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2.\tThe criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following:staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract;in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consid...

  14. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen: 1. Candidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2. The criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following: staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract; in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consideration fo...

  15. Reasoning about plans

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, James; Pelavin, Richard; Tenenberg, Josh

    1991-01-01

    This book presents four contributions to planning research within an integrated framework. James Allen offers a survey of his research in the field of temporal reasoning, and then describes a planning system formalized and implemented directly as an inference process in the temporal logic. Starting from the same logic, Henry Kautz develops the first formal specification of the plan recognition process and develops a powerful family of algorithms for plan recognition in complex situations. Richard Pelavin then extends the temporal logic with model operators that allow the representation to

  16. Quantitative Algebraic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash; Plotkin, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantitative analogue of equational reasoning which we call quantitative algebra. We define an equality relation indexed by rationals: a =ε b which we think of as saying that “a is approximately equal to b up to an error of ε”. We have 4 interesting examples where we have a quantitative...... equational theory whose free algebras correspond to well known structures. In each case we have finitary and continuous versions. The four cases are: Hausdorff metrics from quantitive semilattices; pWasserstein metrics (hence also the Kantorovich metric) from barycentric algebras and also from pointed...

  17. Reasoning about Unreliable Actions

    CERN Document Server

    White, Graham

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the philosopher Davidson's semantics of actions, using a strongly typed logic with contexts given by sets of partial equations between the outcomes of actions. This provides a perspicuous and elegant treatment of reasoning about action, analogous to Reiter's work on artificial intelligence. We define a sequent calculus for this logic, prove cut elimination, and give a semantics based on fibrations over partial cartesian categories: we give a structure theory for such fibrations. The existence of lax comma objects is necessary for the proof of cut elimination, and we give conditions on the domain fibration of a partial cartesian category for such comma objects to exist.

  18. Charisma and Moral Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Flanigan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Charisma is morally problematic insofar as it replaces followers’ capacity to engage in genuine moral reasoning. When followers defer to charismatic leaders and act in ways that are morally wrong they are not only blameworthy for wrongdoing but for failing in their deliberative obligations. Even when followers defer to charismatic leaders and do the right thing, their action is less praiseworthy to the extent that it was the result of charisma rather than moral deliberation. Therefore, effective charismatic leadership reliably undermines the praiseworthiness and amplifies the blameworthiness of follower’s actions.

  19. "Critique of intuitive reason"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrijević Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author displays and reexamines Hare’s "two-level theory" of normative moral thinking ("intuitive" level and "critical" level, including goals that are intended by its establishing. Given Hare’s holism, the met ethical level, considered as fundamental or the "third" level, has notable effect on process of normative reasoning, especially if it is taken as one of the determinant of the critical moral thin king. Central part of the analysis is examination of utilitarian character of the theory.

  20. Combinatorics and Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Maher, Carolyn A; Uptegrove, Elizabeth B

    2010-01-01

    "Combinatorics and Reasoning: Representing, Justifying and Building Isomorphisms" is based on the accomplishments of a cohort group of learners from first grade through high school and beyond, concentrating on their work on a set of combinatorics tasks. By studying these students, the editors gain insight into the foundations of proof building, the tools and environments necessary to make connections, activities to extend and generalize combinatoric learning, and even explore implications of this learning on the undergraduate level. This volume underscores the power of attending to b

  1. Combinatorics and Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Maher, Carolyn A; Uptegrove, Elizabeth B

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorics and Reasoning: Representing, Justifying and Building Isomorphisms is based on the accomplishments of a cohort group of learners from first grade through high school and beyond, concentrating on their work on a set of combinatorics tasks. By studying these students, the editors gain insight into the foundations of proof building, the tools and environments necessary to make connections, activities to extend and generalize combinatoric learning, and even explore implications of this learning on the undergraduate level. This volume underscores the power of attending to basic ideas i

  2. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  3. Asymptotics of Random Contractions

    CERN Document Server

    Hashorva, Enkelejd; Tang, Qihe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the asymptotic behaviour of random contractions $X=RS$, where $R$, with distribution function $F$, is a positive random variable independent of $S\\in (0,1)$. Random contractions appear naturally in insurance and finance. Our principal contribution is the derivation of the tail asymptotics of $X$ assuming that $F$ is in the max-domain of attraction of an extreme value distribution and the distribution function of $S$ satisfies a regular variation property. We apply our result to derive the asymptotics of the probability of ruin for a particular discrete-time risk model. Further we quantify in our asymptotic setting the effect of the random scaling on the Conditional Tail Expectations, risk aggregation, and derive the joint asymptotic distribution of linear combinations of random contractions.

  4. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  5. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  6. Contract Types: An Overview of the Legal Requirements and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    Ralph C. Nash, Jr., Formation of Government Contracts 1080 (3d ed. 1998). 21 See, e.g., J.A. Jones Constr . Co., ASBCA 43344, 96-2 BCA ¶ 28,517... Constr . Co. v. United States, 96 Ct. Cl. 1 (1942) (government could not deduct payments from a fixed-price contract when the number of yards of...W]e do not examine the reasonableness of the estimates in indefinite quantity contracts.”); Alta Constr . Co., PSCBA 1395, 87-2 BCA ¶ 19,720 (1987

  7. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  8. Consensus, contracts, and committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J D

    1991-08-01

    Following a brief account of the puzzle that ethics committees present for the Western Philosophical tradition, I will examine the possibility that social contract theory can contribute to a philosophical account of these committees. Passing through classical as well as contemporary theories, particularly Rawls' recent constructivist approach, I will argue that social contract theory places severe constraints on the authority that may legitimately be granted to ethics committees. This, I conclude, speaks more about the suitability of the theory to this level of analysis than about the ethics committee phenomenon itself.

  9. Conduct and Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony de Jasay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Political philosophy relies on three alternative types of theory to explain social order. The first, is order anarchy, built on the system of spontaneous Humean conventions. They are equilibria, self-enforcing or enforced by the participants' own contingent strategies and involve no central, specialised enforcer. The second type is contractarianism. This paper contends that its name is a misnomer hiding a redundancy. The third type is social contract theory, where there is unanimous commitment to submit to non-unanimous collective choices of certain kinds or reached by certain rules. The paper suggests that social contract theories serve mainly to render acquiescence in political obedience more palatable.

  10. Statutes and contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...... and commissive acts. The findings show that the language of the law characteristically selects patterns of regulative distinct from, for example, the patterns typically selected in everyday conversational English. The characteristics of the language of the law can be interpreted within the adherence to legal...

  11. A New Approach Regarding the Legal Contract Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sache Neculaescu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Why not agreeing upon a contract based on misbalanced services: because the party benefiting from an excessive service unlawfully exploited the precarious situation of the other party as a result of whom came to accept an unfair contract, or because contractual balance must be an essential feature of which and every contract with clearly established services? Which of the two reasons mentioned above is more important in terms of current contractual discipline? These are two questions which, no matter what answers will get, will involve an important matter of choice, in relation to which it will be possible to assess correctly the solutions proposed by the new Romanian Civil Code, as well as by the main bills on Europeancodification of contract law. The present study upholds the idea of misbalanced services only if it constitutes rather a remedy for a contractual problem, if it is oriented towards the legitimate interests of the most vulnerable party of that contract and less interested in sanctioning the guilty conduct of the person who tookadvantage from an excessive service. As a consequence, we support the objective perspective in what misbalanced services are concerned, a reason for which we shall be making a few comments on some of thenew legal provisions, by referring to the main bills on the European codification of contract law, and stating later on a few de lege ferenda proposals, in terms of contracts based on misbalanced services.

  12. 48 CFR 416.670 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 416.670 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall limit the Government's obligation under a time-and-materials...

  13. The Christological Ontology of Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2006-01-01

    Taking the startingpoint in an assertion of an ambiguity in the Lutheran tradition’s assessment of reason, the essay argues that the Kantian unreserved confidence in reason is criticised in Bonhoeffer. Based upon a Christological understanding of reason, Bonhoeffer endorses a view of reason which...... is treated in the essay. Here it is argued that Bonhoeffer may be appropriated in attempting to outline a Christological ontology of reason holding essential implications for the sources and conditions of public discourse....

  14. Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.

    1988-01-01

    Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away

  15. Logical Varieties of Instrumental Reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Spielthenner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental reasons play a central role in our practical deliberations because we apply the distinction between reasonable and unreasonable not only to beliefs, but to actions also. The question of what one has an instrumental reason to do is an important substantive question that is relevant to the general theory of practical reasoning and to ethics, too. It will be my object in the present study to show that we have different kinds of instrumental reasons, which depend solely on their logi...

  16. Impaired conditional reasoning in alcoholics: A negative impact on social interactions and risky behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, C; Delle-Vigne, D; Knittel, J; Nerincx, A; Campanella, S; Noel, X; Hanak, C; Verbanck, P; Ermer, E

    2011-01-01

    Aims To study the “social brain” in alcoholics by investigating social contract reasoning, theory of mind, and emotional intelligence. Design A behavioral study comparing recently detoxified alcoholics with normal, healthy controls. Setting Emotional intelligence and decoding of emotional non-verbal cues have been shown to be impaired in alcoholics. This study explores whether these deficits extend to conditional reasoning about social contracts. Participants 25 recently detoxified alcoholics (17 men and 8 women) were compared with 25 normal controls (17 men and 8 women) matched for sex, age, and education level. Measurements Wason Selection Task investigating conditional reasoning on three different rule types (social contract, precautionary, and descriptive), Revised Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (modified version), and additional control measures. Findings Conditional reasoning was impaired in alcoholics. Performance on descriptive rules was not above chance. Reasoning performance was markedly better on social contract and precautionary rules, but this performance was still significantly lower than in controls. Several emotional intelligence measures were lower in alcoholics compared to controls, but these were not correlated with reasoning performance. Conclusions Conditional reasoning and emotional intelligence appear impaired in alcoholics. Impairment was particularly severe on descriptive rules. Though alcoholics' performance was better on social contract and precautionary rules, overall reasoning performance was still low. Differential performance is consistent with distinct neurocognitive reasoning mechanisms and partial resilience of evolutionarily-relevant functions. Impairment in social contract reasoning might lead to misunderstandings and frustration in social interactions, and reasoning difficulties about precautionary rules might contribute to risky behaviors in this population. PMID:21205056

  17. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  18. Wittgenstein and Critical Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shusterman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In his paper Wittgenstein and Critical Reasoning, Richard Shusterman analyses the influence which Wittgensteinian aesthetics has had on contemporary criticism. Concentrating primarily on the second phase of Wittgenstein’s philosophy, Shusterman first demonstrates how the idea of language games and related concepts undermined both essentialist deductive and quasi-scientific inductive models of criticism. In place of these two approaches, Shusterman argues, Wittgensteinian aesthetics offers a new one, which he describes as perceptual-persuasive. In the next step, however, Shusterman observes that Wittgenstein’s followers often commit the very fallacy that Wittgenstein wanted to avoid, by imposing the perceptual persuasive model as the only valid solution for criticism. However, in order to be more in line with Wittgensteinian aesthetics, he argues, we should rather recognise the plurality of possibilities – perceptual-persuasive, deductive or inductive – whose choice depends on the language game currently played.

  19. Causal reasoning with forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Causal composition allows people to generate new causal relations by combining existing causal knowledge. We introduce a new computational model of such reasoning, the force theory, which holds that people compose causal relations by simulating the processes that join forces in the world, and compare this theory with the mental model theory (Khemlani et al., 2014) and the causal model theory (Sloman et al., 2009), which explain causal composition on the basis of mental models and structural equations, respectively. In one experiment, the force theory was uniquely able to account for people's ability to compose causal relationships from complex animations of real-world events. In three additional experiments, the force theory did as well as or better than the other two theories in explaining the causal compositions people generated from linguistically presented causal relations. Implications for causal learning and the hierarchical structure of causal knowledge are discussed. PMID:25653611

  20. Contracting As A Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    and even demands the development of operational definitions for terms ( Dubin , 1978). Contracting faces the same definitional problems that plague...Paradigms The underpinning of science is theory ( Dubin , 1978). Theories provide a logical ordering of observations used for simplifying decision... Dubin , 1978). Scientific laws should meet the following criteria: (1) generalized conditionals—if/then relationship; (2) empirical content—laws must

  1. Electricity supply contracts: Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, G.; Vezzoni, M.; Grassani, E. (Sistemi Integrati per il Risparmio Energetico, Pavia (Italy) Necchi Compressori, Pavia (Italy))

    1991-10-01

    This paper presents a computer program, ACEE (Electrical Energy Consumption Analysis), developed to assist industrial firms in Italy to determine their electrical power consumption, optimize it through production process interventions, and then utilize the results to draft up optimum electricity supply contracts with ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board). The program also allows the user to properly budget future allocations for electricity costs.

  2. Acting Out Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Describes a science activity that can be implemented into anatomy and physiology courses that demonstrates the interactions between action and myosin, the roles of sodium and calcium ions in the regulation of contraction, and the functions of the plasma membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (YDS)

  3. Social Yes; Contract No

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Hardin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social contract theory is incoherent and it does not work as desired. Among the most obvious disanalogies is that contracts are enforced by a third party, commonly the state. There is no such external enforcer for a constitution. Contractarian theorists typically ignore all such issues and use the metaphor of contract very loosely to ground a claim that citizens are morally obligated to defer to government by their consent, as the parties to a standard legal contract would be legally obligated. David Hume's term is acquiescence. He compellingly argues that actual citizens do not believe their own legal or political obligations depend on their having agreed to their social order. More often than not our interests are simply better served by acquiescing in the rules of that constitution than by attempting to change it. The forms of commitment that are important for constitutional and even for much of conventional social choice are those that derive from the difficulties of collective action to re-coordinate on new rules. They are inherent in the social structure of the conventions themselves, a structure that often more or less automatically exacts costs from anyone who runs against the conventions without anyone or any institution having to take action against the rule breaker. Establishing a constitution is itself a massive act of coordination that, if it is stable for a while, spawns conventions that depend for their maintenance on their self-generating incentives and expectations and that block alternatives.

  4. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... contributor to force transfer within muscular tissue....

  5. Quark Contraction Tool - QCT

    CERN Document Server

    Djukanovic, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    We present a Mathematica package for the calculation of Wick contractions in quantum field theories - QCT. Furthermore the package aims at automatically generating code for the calculation of physical matrix elements, suitable for numerical evaluation in a C++ program. To that end commonly used algebraic manipulations for the calculation of matrix elements in lattice QCD are implemented.

  6. The AORTA Reasoning Framework - Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    is a practical component (founded in logic) that enriches intelligent agents with organizational reasoning capabilities. We take the agent’s perspective by devising a component that integrates with the agent’s usual reasoning capabilities in a non-intrusive way. This results in agents that are both organization...... a generic framework that allows different kinds of agents to reason about different kinds of organizations. We present our results in three main parts. In the first part, we present the theoretical foundations for the AORTA framework, which consists of semantics of norms, an organizational metamodel......, and the AORTA reasoning component. The reasoning component is characterized by being completely decoupled from the cognitive agent, by its automated reasoning about norms and organizational options, and by the reasoning rules specified by the designer to act upon norms and options. We specify the reasoning...

  7. Social contract and deterring famine: first thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, A

    1996-09-01

    The links between certain kinds of political systems and protection against famine are investigated in this paper. The starting-point is a critique of Amartya Sen's observation that famines are unknown in countries with a free press and competitive elections. This holds true only in India because of a unique political history in which freedom from famine became a right, upon which political legitimacy was founded: an anti-famine 'social contract'. The rise and decline of anti-famine systems in Africa is charted. Major reasons for decay include neo-liberalism and the international humanitarian system, both of which undermine relationships of domestic political accountability that underpin effective famine prevention. A number of politically regressive tendencies in 'actually existing humanitarianism' are identified that work against any nascent anti-famine social contracts in Africa. This is possible because famine prevention has not been established as a right in Africa.

  8. Contract Negotiations Supported Through Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sérgio A.; Vaz, Marco A.; Souza, Jano M.

    Many clients often view software as a commodity; then, it is critical that IT sellers know how to create value into their offering to differentiate their service from all the others. Clients sometimes refuse to contract software development due to lack of technical understanding or simply because they are afraid of IT contractual commitments. The IT negotiators who recognize the importance of this issue and the reason why it is a problem will be able to work to reach the commercial terms they want. Therefore, this chapter aims to stimulate IT professionals to improve their negotiation skills and presents a computational tool to support managers to get the best out of software negotiations through the identification of contract risks.

  9. Preferential reasoning for modal logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...

  10. 48 CFR 1316.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-reimbursement contracts. (b) Insert a clause similar to 1352.216-71, Level of Effort (Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee, Term Contract), in Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee, Level of Effort contracts. ... CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1316.307 Contract clauses. (a) Insert a...

  11. Generalized Wellposedness and Multivalued Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    PRABACKAR, Arockia; UTHAYAKUMAR, Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the fixed point theorem for multivalued contraction. Also we prove that the generalized well posedness of the fixed point problem and continuity of multivalued contraction

  12. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  13. Reasons, reasonability and establishing conscientious objector status in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    This paper builds upon previous work in which I argue that we should assess a provider's reasons for his or her objection before granting a conscientious exemption. For instance, if the medical professional's reasoned basis involves an empirical mistake, an accommodation is not warranted. This article poses and begins to address several deep questions about the workings of what I call a reason-giving view: What standard should we use to assess reasons? What policy should we adopt in order to evaluate the reasons offered by medical practitioners in support of their objections? I argue for a reasonability standard to perform the essential function of assessing reasons, and I offer considerations in support of a policy establishing conscientious objector status in medicine.

  14. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law. An opportu......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... should consider tendering out PPP projects in the spirit of joint utility because joint utility can increase the concept of more value for money; the cornerstone of the PPP concept. This paper discusses the positive gains from negotiation and compares it with the upcoming possibilities in the EU public...

  15. Dupuytren's Contracture: Fibroblast Contraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbiani, Giulio; Majno, Guido

    1972-01-01

    In 6 cases of Dupuytren's disease and 1 of Ledderhose's disease, the nodules of the palmar and plantar aponeurosis were examined by light and electron microscopy. The cells composing these nodules, presumably fibroblasts, showed three significant ultrastructural features: (1) a fibrillar system similar to that of smooth muscle cells; (2) nuclear deformations such as are found in contracted cells, the severest being recognizable by light microscopy (cross-banded nuclei); (3) cell-to-cell and cell-to-stroma attachments. Based on these data and on recent information about the biology of the fibroblasts, it is suggested that these cells are fibroblasts that have modulated into contractile cells (myofibroblasts), and that their contraction plays a role in the pathogenesis of the contracture observed clinically. ImagesFig 10Fig 5Fig 11Fig 6 and 7Fig 8Fig 1Fig 2Fig 9Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:5009249

  16. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  17. Theory of mind broad and narrow: reasoning about social exchange engages ToM areas, precautionary reasoning does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Guerin, Scott A; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Miller, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    Baron-Cohen (1995) proposed that the theory of mind (ToM) inference system evolved to promote strategic social interaction. Social exchange--a form of co-operation for mutual benefit--involves strategic social interaction and requires ToM inferences about the contents of other individuals' mental states, especially their desires, goals, and intentions. There are behavioral and neuropsychological dissociations between reasoning about social exchange and reasoning about equivalent problems tapping other, more general content domains. It has therefore been proposed that social exchange behavior is regulated by social contract algorithms: a domain-specific inference system that is functionally specialized for reasoning about social exchange. We report an fMRI study using the Wason selection task that provides further support for this hypothesis. Precautionary rules share so many properties with social exchange rules--they are conditional, deontic, and involve subjective utilities--that most reasoning theories claim they are processed by the same neurocomputational machinery. Nevertheless, neuroimaging shows that reasoning about social exchange activates brain areas not activated by reasoning about precautionary rules, and vice versa. As predicted, neural correlates of ToM (anterior and posterior temporal cortex) were activated when subjects interpreted social exchange rules, but not precautionary rules (where ToM inferences are unnecessary). We argue that the interaction between ToM and social contract algorithms can be reciprocal: social contract algorithms requires ToM inferences, but their functional logic also allows ToM inferences to be made. By considering interactions between ToM in the narrower sense (belief-desire reasoning) and all the social inference systems that create the logic of human social interaction--ones that enable as well as use inferences about the content of mental states--a broader conception of ToM may emerge: a computational model embodying

  18. Reasoning Serves Argumentation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The argumentative theory of reasoning (Mercier & Sperber, in press) claims that reasoning evolved for argumentation: to find and evaluate arguments in dialogic contexts. The theory has drawn most of its supportive evidence from work with adults, leaving open the possibility that argumentive features of reasoning are in fact entirely learned.…

  19. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  20. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  1. Contracting for Complex Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    higher mutual payoff for both, but risks the suckers payoff (a payoff of 1 in Table 1) if the other player elects to pursue perfunctory performance...The size of the payoffs in Table 1 increases with the degree the contract is incomplete and the degree of asset specific lock-in problems. For...example, the seller receives the same payoff (three) under mutual cooperation with unfavorable circumstances as she receives under a suckers payoff

  2. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  3. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  4. An adjustable contracted CI method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育彬; 甘正汀; 苏克和; 文振翼

    1999-01-01

    A new contracted CI scheme——adjustable contracted CI scheme——is presented and programed. The efficiency of this scheme is tested by some example calculations. The result shows that the application of the new scheme is flexible and the correlation energy loss is lower than that of the original externally contracted CI method.

  5. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...... the pressure drop in a contraction are given....

  6. Teacher Contract Non-Renewal: Midwest, Rocky Mountains, and Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Andy; Dam, Margaret; Packard, Abbot L.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of probationary teachers' contracts. Principal survey results from three regions of the US (Midwest, Rocky Mountains, & Southeast) were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical procedures, while significance was tested applying a…

  7. 77 FR 67584 - Air Carrier Contract Maintenance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    .... Williams, Aircraft Maintenance Division, Air Carrier Maintenance Branch, AFS-330, Federal Aviation... fulfill contracts with air carriers to perform their aircraft maintenance. The reasons for this shift are... a maintenance provider. Often, the maintenance provider may also work on a competitor's aircraft...

  8. Information seeking about the psychological contract: The impact on newcomers’ evaluations of their employment relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, A; D. BUYENS

    2004-01-01

    Both socialization and psychological contract literature demonstrate that the first months of employment are critical for the development of a positive psychological contract with organizational newcomers (e.g. Bauer et al., 1994; Robinson et al., 1994; Thomas & Anderson, 1998). For this reason, it is the objective of this study to explicate newcomers’ psychological contract perceptions and evaluations during the socialization process, using information seeking as the central antecedent varia...

  9. Frustration of contract e impossibility of performance en el common law inglés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Félix Chamie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sumario: i. Premisa. Formación de la doctrina de la frustration of contract. ii. Implied term theory. iii. Just and reasonable solution theory. iv. Foundation of contract theory. v. Radical change in the obligation: The “Construction theory”. vi. Efectos de la aplicación de la doctrine of frustration. vii. Límites de la jurisprudencia a la aplicación de la doctrine of frustration of contract

  10. Labor Contract Law Vs. Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Liang; Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ In Oct 2005, an IT company in Beijing signed one-year labor contracts with several employees, and they renewed the contracts in Oct 2006. When the contracts came to the end in Oct 2007, the company rejected to renew the contracts, but asked the employees to contract with an as-sociated company. The employees rejected this, but the practical labor relationship continued. Meanwhile, the company was in arrears of em-ployees' salaries, and didn't make full pay of the mandatory social insurance forced by national laws, even peculated the housing fund withheld from employees' salaries.

  11. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2015-08-18

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  12. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2016-08-23

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  13. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

    2014-03-04

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  14. Critique of historical reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Richardson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque aquí desarrollado presupone una nueva visión del mundo civilizado (Weltanschauungen. La idea del historiador de los hechos históricos presupone una visión global del mundo, a excepción de las sociedades que carecen de un lenguaje escrito. Por eso, la razón histórica discutida aquí se limita al tipo de historia que trata de civilizaciones más elevadas. El análisis de visiones del mundo aquí utilizado presupone que los símbolos son muy importantes y que pierden su poder simbólico si se cristalizan en un único sentido. Como en la teoría de Jung, un símbolo tiene la capacidad de estar activo en la mente como un transformador de la conciencia, libre de asociarse con nuevas experiencias y pensamientos. Esta teoría presta especial atención al problema de Dilthey: es decir, el problema de la calidad racional de los hechos históricos. Las visiones del mundo, que dan un significado profundo a muchos hechos históricos, se componen de símbolos y metáforas, incluyendo ideas, imágenes, valores y emociones. Estos tipos de visiones son casi todos instintivos. Es cierto que los historiadores pueden haber formulado, consciente definiciones de estos tipos de visiones del mundo así como ocurrió por las civilizaciones griega y china. Dado que la actual Weltbilt es mucho más compleja e inconsciente, se necesita algo más que una definición lógica para entenderla. Este artículo indica la forma en que puede ser alcanzada una comprensión racional de estas visiones del mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The approach here entertained presupposes a fresh theory of world pictures (Weltanschauungen of higher civilizations. For the historian's idea of historical facts presupposes a world picture, except for societies which lack a written language. That is why the historical reason discussed here is limited to the kind of history which deals with higher civilizations. The analysis of world pictures used here itself presupposes that symbols are

  15. A Game-Theoretic Model for Distributed Programming by Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Starcke; Hvitved, Tom; Filinski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    We present an extension of the programming-by-contract (PBC) paradigm to a concurrent and distributed environment.  Classical PBC is characterized by absolute conformance of code to its specification, assigning blame in case of failures, and a hierarchical, cooperative decomposition model – none...... of which extend naturally to a distributed environment with multiple administrative peers. We therefore propose a more nuanced contract model based on quantifiable performance of implementations; assuming responsibility for success; and a fundamentally adversarial model of system integration, where each...... component provider is optimizing its behavior locally, with respect to potentially conflicting demands.  This model gives rise to a game-theoretic formulation of contract-governed process interactions that supports compositional reasoning about contract conformance....

  16. 48 CFR 49.603-1 - Fixed-price contracts-complete termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reasonable quantitative requirements of the terminated portion of the contract, and (iii) do not include any... termination of the contract and of all other demands and liabilities of the Contractor and the Government... defective certified cost or pricing data. (End of agreement) ...

  17. Shared energy savings (SES) contracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, D.R. Jr. [Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This paper discusses the use of a Shared Energy Savings (SES) contract as the procurement vehicle to provide, install, and maintain closed-loop ground-coupled heat pumps (CLGCHP`s) for 4,003 family-housing units at Fort Polk, Louisiana. In addition to the requirement relative to heat pumps, the contract allows the energy service company (ESCO) to propose additional projects needed to take full advantage of energy cost-saving opportunities that may exist at Fort Polk. The paper traces the development of the SES contract from feasibility study through development of the request for proposal (RFP) to contract award and implementation. In tracing this development, technical aspects of the project are set forth and various benefits inherent in SES contracting are indicated. The paper concludes that, due to the positive motivation inherent in the shared-savings, as well as partnering aspects of SES contracts, SES contracting is well suited to use as a procurement vehicle.

  18. Orchestrating with Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Martinez, Josu

    2012-01-01

    Our domain of interest is self-healing systems. We wish to reason about the behavior of statically and dynamically composed systems. The orchestration language Orc permits one to write programs that compose such systems. Unfortunately, Orc's semantics make no assumptions about the behavior...... of the units under composition. Orc is an executable language, and in the Orc system, units are realized as methods implemented in the Java programming language. Since Java methods' behavior can be formally specified with the Java Modeling Language (JML), then the behavior of an Orc program can be reasoned...

  19. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  20. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  1. Logic, Probability, and Human Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    3–6] and they underlie mathematics , science, and tech- nology [7–10]. Plato claimed that emotions upset reason - ing. However, individuals in the grip...Press 10 Nickerson, R. (2011) Mathematical Reasoning : Patterns, Problems, Conjectures, and Proofs, Taylor & Francis 11 Blanchette, E. and Richards, A...Logic, probability, and human reasoning P.N. Johnson-Laird1,2, Sangeet S. Khemlani3, and Geoffrey P. Goodwin4 1 Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

  2. To Bind or not to Bind: It’s in the Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    2015-01-01

    discusses, in a theoretical perspective, the legal reasoning behind the different partnering approaches, both from a historical and contract law perspective, and furthermore applies a game theoretical approach in evaluating binding versus non-binding partnering contracts. The analysis focuses on private......This article discusses the formalization of collaboration through partnering contracts in the construction industry in the USA, Great Britain and Denmark. The article compares the different types of collaborative partnering contracts in the three countries, and provides a conclusion on whether...... the collaborative partnering contract should be binding or non-binding, based on the three empirical contracts analyzed in this article. The partnering contracts in Great Britain and Denmark are legally binding, while in the USA the partnering agreements are non-binding charters or letters of intent. This article...

  3. Public policy, rationality and reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Canto Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.

  4. CONTRACTING OUT THE PENSIONS SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia DOGARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis, austerity measures and the new challenges of the 21st century have determined governments to adopt new tools of public actions in order to strengthen the policy capacity. A new paradigm was born, and its main feature is collaboration among government’s level (ministries and between government and private sector. It brings new tools of public policy among others, and contracting out used by policymakers at various stages of public policy cycle and for different sets of reasons. This paper explores theoretically how this new approach strengthens the public policy capacity and provides evidence occurring in Romanian government practice. While, Romania has a legalistic, a normative approach of policy processes and street-level bureaucracies are guided by managerial targets and law, it starts to contract out some tasks that traditionally belong to government. The main scientific objective of this paper is to contribute an overall understanding of contracting out in public policy-making in Romania, particular in pensions system, focused on the rationality of introducing that.From a methodological standpoint, the paper relies on comprehensive and systematic search of the literature and document analysis (among others Annual Reports, authorities’ data, resume, obtained by using free accession to information and statistics data processing (quantitative and qualitative interpretation of data from National Institute of Statistics.

  5. Psychiatric Aspects of Reason and Morality of Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reason allows us to arrive at knowledge of what is good and true and what is wrong and evil. Reason-ing is a process to reach a conclusion by taking all related factors into account if there are enough evidence and information. Humans who have reasoning skills must analyze new situation which are faced in all aspects, explore, make logical inferences, explain his thoughts, reach conclusions and protect his conclusions. Some thinkers argue that reason is the source of morality that makes the distinction between right and wrong behaviour. In this respect, everyone who has mind and will has morality responsibility for their actions. This paper aims to emphasize the importance of received education and subculture on the moral development that can be directly or indirectly influenced by genetic and environmental factors. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(1.000: 115-121

  6. Basic Conditional Reasoning: How Children Mimic Counterfactual Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Brian; Rafetseder, Eva; Perner, Josef

    2014-08-01

    Children approach counterfactual questions about stories with a reasoning strategy that falls short of adults' Counterfactual Reasoning (CFR). It was dubbed "Basic Conditional Reasoning" (BCR) in Rafetseder et al. (Child Dev 81(1):376-389, 2010). In this paper we provide a characterisation of the differences between BCR and CFR using a distinction between permanent and nonpermanent features of stories and Lewis/Stalnaker counterfactual logic. The critical difference pertains to how consistency between a story and a conditional antecedent incompatible with a nonpermanent feature of the story is achieved. Basic conditional reasoners simply drop all nonpermanent features of the story. Counterfactual reasoners preserve as much of the story as possible while accommodating the antecedent.

  7. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.237-70 entitled “Collective bargaining agreements—protective...

  8. 48 CFR 1517.204 - Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracts. 1517.204 Section 1517.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 1517.204 Contracts. The SCM may approve a contract...

  9. Medical professionalism and the social contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lynette

    2011-01-01

    Conceptions of professionalism in medicine draw on social contract theory; its strengths and weaknesses play out in how we reason about professionalism. The social contract metaphor may be a heuristic device prompting reflection on social responsibility, and as such is appealing: it encourages reasoning about privilege and responsibility, the broader context and consequences of action, and diverse perspectives on medical practice. However, when this metaphor is elevated to the status of a theory, it has well-known limits: the assumed subject position of contractors engenders blind spots about privilege, not critical reflection; its tendency to dress up the status quo in the trappings of a theoretical agreement may limit social negotiation; its attempted reconciliation of social obligation and self-interest fosters the view that ethics and self-interest should coincide; it sets up false expectations by identifying appearance and reality in morality; and its construal of prima facie duties as conditional misdirects ethical attention in particular situations from current needs to supposed past agreements or reciprocities. Using philosophical ideas as heuristic devices in medical ethics is inevitable, but we should be conscious of their limitations. When they limit the ethical scope of debate, we should seek new metaphors.

  10. 从“合理选择”走向“理性共识”:霍布斯契约论证中的内在逻辑%From “rational choice”to “reasonable consensus”:The inner logic of Hobbes's contract argument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟锐峰

    2016-01-01

    Hobbes's political philosophy can be understood as a reflection on the question:how to reach a consensus and estab-lish a kind of social order of peace and cooperation in the pursuit of different preferences of individuals competing for interests. From the point of view of the whole argument,Hobbes obviously believes that a stable social order is not built on believing in a set of moral concepts from religious theology or metaphysical teleology,but on those with different kinds of“reasonable choice”through various levels of rational analysis and reasoning for a rational consensus.Hobbes is on a non-religious and theological road to seek the solution of political and social issues,while from the individual based on the self-interest of“rational choice”he demonstrates the possibility and condition for people's cooperation and “rational consensus”.%霍布斯的政治哲学可以理解为对这一问题的思考:追求不同偏好的个体在相互竞争的利益争夺中如何能够达成共识并建立一种和平合作的社会秩序。从整个论证来看,霍布斯显然认为一个稳定的社会合作秩序的建立不是依靠信奉一套来自宗教神学或形而上学目的论的道德观念,而是依靠那些拥有不同“合理选择”的人通过理性层层辨析和推理所达成的“理性共识”。霍布斯是以一种非宗教神学的方式来寻求对政治和社会问题的解决之道,从个体人基于私利的“合理选择”论证了人们走向“理性共识”并建立合作的可能和条件。

  11. Mathematical Reasoning in Teachers' Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, Tomas; Lithner, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the opportunities presented to students that allow them to learn different types of mathematical reasoning during teachers' ordinary task solving presentations. The characteristics of algorithmic and creative reasoning that are seen in the presentations are analyzed. We find that most task solutions are based on…

  12. Assessing Understanding through Reasoning Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sally K.; Tayeh, Carla

    2010-01-01

    To focus on mathematical reasoning and what makes a good argument, the authors developed an assignment that requires college students to submit a book of mathematical reasoning as an assessment during the semester. To begin, the authors looked for questions and tasks that lend themselves to developing mathematical arguments and justifications and…

  13. Human reasoning and cognitive science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenning, K.; van Lambalgen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen—a cognitive scientist and a logician—argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the

  14. Accessing Students' Reasoning for Disengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Craig

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines what students can tell us about their strategic decision to engage or disengage from learning. A means of accessing student knowledge and experience about teaching and learning is explicated, along with a discussion of student reasoning for making an investment in learning. It is argued that disengagement is a reasoned decision…

  15. Proportional Reasoning as Essential Numeracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an aspect of a large research and development project that aimed to promote middle years school teachers' understanding and awareness of the pervasiveness of proportional reasoning as integral to numeracy. Teacher survey data of proportional reasoning across the curriculum were mapped on to a rich model of numeracy. Results…

  16. Mathematical Reasoning in Teachers' Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, Tomas; Lithner, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the opportunities presented to students that allow them to learn different types of mathematical reasoning during teachers' ordinary task solving presentations. The characteristics of algorithmic and creative reasoning that are seen in the presentations are analyzed. We find that most task solutions are based on…

  17. From Inductive Reasoning to Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical proof is an expression of deductive reasoning (drawing conclusions from previous assertions). However, it is often inductive reasoning (conclusions drawn on the basis of examples) that helps learners form their deductive arguments, or proof. In addition, not all inductive arguments generate more formal arguments. This article draws a…

  18. Inductive Reasoning: A Training Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Karl Josef; Phye, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have examined inductive reasoning to identify different cognitive processes when participants deal with inductive problems. This article presents a prescriptive theory of inductive reasoning that identifies cognitive processing using a procedural strategy for making comparisons. It is hypothesized that training in the use of the…

  19. Learning to reason from samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Zvi, Dani; Bakker, Arthur; Makar, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce the topic of learning to reason from samples, which is the focus of this special issue of Educational Studies in Mathematics on statistical reasoning. Samples are data sets, taken from some wider universe (e.g., a population or a process) using a particular p

  20. Learning to Reason from Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Dani; Bakker, Arthur; Makar, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce the topic of "learning to reason from samples," which is the focus of this special issue of "Educational Studies in Mathematics" on "statistical reasoning." Samples are data sets, taken from some wider universe (e.g., a population or a process) using a particular procedure…

  1. La gestión del servicio de entrenamiento personal ¿Cuáles son los motivos y objetivos de las mujeres que lo contratan? (The management of personal training, what are the reasons and objectives of the women who contract it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hernández-Mendo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo es determinar los motivos, objetivos principales y secundarios de las mujeres que solicitan el servicio de un entrenador personal, y comprobar la fiabilidad y generalizabilidad de la estructura de datos. Participaron 70 mujeres con edades comprendidas entre los 24 y los 68 años. Se utilizó un cuestionario ad hoc con preguntas abiertas. Al cabo de dos años se tomaron los datos del tiempo que las practicantes habían permanecido de forma continua vinculadas al programa de entrenamiento personal, y también el porcentaje de asistencia a las sesiones de entrenamiento programadas. Se realizo un análisis de asociación usando el Chi-cuadrado, el coeficiente de contingencia y la correlación de Spearman (pAbstract The aim is to determine the reasons, primary and secondary objectives of women who request the services of a personal trainer, and check the reliability and generalizability of the data structure. 70 women aged between 24 and 68 years participated. It was used an ad hoc questionnaire with open questions. After two years, it was taken the data of the time that the users had remained continuously linked to the personal training program, and also the percentage of attendance at scheduled training sessions. It was carried out an association analysis using the Chi-square, the contingency coefficient and the Spearman´s correlation (p

  2. Some ancestors of contraction analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    Contraction analysis is a recent tool for analyzing the convergence behavior of nonlinear systems in state-space form (see Lohmiller and Slotine [16] for the main reference). However, it seems that earlier results derived by mathematicians in the 1950s closely match some of the results of contrac...... of contraction analysis. In this paper, we review and place into perspective some references of this era, and relate them with contraction....

  3. Multilevel Contracts for Trusted Components

    CERN Document Server

    Messabihi, Mohamed; Attiogbé, Christian; 10.4204/EPTCS.37.6

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the design and the verification of trusted components and services. The contracts are declined at several levels to cover then different facets, such as component consistency, compatibility or correctness. The article introduces multilevel contracts and a design+verification process for handling and analysing these contracts in component models. The approach is implemented with the COSTO platform that supports the Kmelia component model. A case study illustrates the overall approach.

  4. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  5. Policy Changes Needed at Defense Contract Management Agency to Ensure Forward Pricing Rates Result in Fair and Reasonable Contract Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-09

    classroom and on the job training to improve the cost analyst skill set of the ACO community. Our Response The management comments to the recommendation...DCMA will receive a timely report from the auditor that addresses only the minimum essential supplementary information needed by the ACO to demonstrate...resources. It can also help the ACO conduct cost analyses while obtaining the minimum essential supplementary information required for the job

  6. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published in early April 2011. In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened this spring is available at the following address: Indefinite contract posts - spring 2011 A second exercise will take place in autumn 2011 and, as of 2012, the indefinite contract award procedure will only be held once a year, in autumn. For more information please consult: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp  

  7. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  8. Uterine Contraction Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Belfore, Lee A.; Shen, Yuzhong; Scerbo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Building a training system for medical personnel to properly interpret fetal heart rate tracing requires developing accurate models that can relate various signal patterns to certain pathologies. In addition to modeling the fetal heart rate signal itself, the change of uterine pressure that bears strong relation to fetal heart rate and provides indications of maternal and fetal status should also be considered. In this work, we have developed a group of parametric models to simulate uterine contractions during labor and delivery. Through analysis of real patient records, we propose to model uterine contraction signals by three major components: regular contractions, impulsive noise caused by fetal movements, and low amplitude noise invoked by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus. The regular contractions are modeled by an asymmetric generalized Gaussian function and least squares estimation is used to compute the parameter values of the asymmetric generalized Gaussian function based on uterine contractions of real patients. Regular contractions are detected based on thresholding and derivative analysis of uterine contractions. Impulsive noise caused by fetal movements and low amplitude noise by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus are modeled by rational polynomial functions and Perlin noise, respectively. Experiment results show the synthesized uterine contractions can mimic the real uterine contractions realistically, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. URGENSI STUDI TENTANG PROCUREMENT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Sogar Simamora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractualization is kind of goverment activity in acquiring goods, services and infrastructure as well. Procurement contract has several important function especially in enhancing economic development in a state. In Indonesia, this kind of contract also has function in empowering micro economic scale. Since the aim of procurement study is to provide equal protection between public fund interest in one hand and privat sector in the other hand, general principle of contract law must be taken into consideration together with transparency as the most important principle in government contract.

  10. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... the 1983 Danish fiscal reform. We use a structural VAR/event study methodology following Blanchard and Perotti (2002) that explicitly allows us to distinguish between normally marginal changes in fiscal policy and comprehensive fiscal reforms. We find that 'marginal changes' in fiscal policy (expenditure...... and tax changes) have the expected Keynesian effects on output and consumption. However, we find no evidence that the large fiscal consolidation in Denmark slowed the economy after controlling for a host of exogenous shocks and business cycle effects. Rather, we find some support for the hypothesis...

  11. Basic Conditional Reasoning: How Children Mimic Counterfactual Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Brian; Rafetseder, Eva; Perner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Children approach counterfactual questions about stories with a reasoning strategy that falls short of adults’ Counterfactual Reasoning (CFR). It was dubbed “Basic Conditional Reasoning” (BCR) in Rafetseder et al. (Child Dev 81(1):376-389, 2010). In this paper we provide a characterisation of the differences between BCR and CFR using a distinction between permanent and nonpermanent features of stories and Lewis/Stalnaker counterfactual logic. The critical difference pertains to how consistency between a story and a conditional antecedent incompatible with a nonpermanent feature of the story is achieved. Basic conditional reasoners simply drop all nonpermanent features of the story. Counterfactual reasoners preserve as much of the story as possible while accommodating the antecedent. PMID:25729114

  12. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contract so different from other contracts. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by these two concepts.

  13. A connectionist framework for reasoning: Reasoning with examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, D. [Weizmann Inst. of Science (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    We present a connectionist architecture that supports almost instantaneous deductive and abductive reasoning. The deduction algorithm responds in few steps for single rule queries and in general, takes time that is linear with the number of rules in the query. The abduction algorithm produces an explanation in few steps and the best explanation in time linear with the size of the assumption set. The size of the network is polynomially related to the size of other representations of the domain, and may even be smaller. We base our connectionist model on Valiant`s Neuroidal model (Val94) and thus make minimal assumptions about the computing elements, which are assumed to be classical threshold elements with states. Within this model we develop a reasoning framework that utilizes a model-based approach to reasoning (KKS93; KR94b). In particular, we suggest to interpret the connectionist architecture as encoding examples of the domain we reason about and show how to perform various reasoning tasks with this interpretation. We then show that the representations used can be acquired efficiently from interactions with the environment and discuss how this learning process influences the reasoning performance of the network.

  14. THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC RICE CONTRACT FARMING IN CAMBODIA: A LESSON LEARNED FOR INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betti Rosita Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  This study examines organic rice contract farming inCambodiaand its impact on farmers’ livelihood. The study’s objective is to gain a better insight of the terms and conditions of rice contract farming scheme inCambodia, and determine under what conditions contract farming could bring improvements to farmers’ livelihoods. This study contributes new research findings on contract farming practices and farmers’ livelihood due to organic-rice contract farming with a case study in Kampong Speu province,Cambodia.Rice contract farming is not widespread inCambodiaat present, but is expected to expand significantly in the near future. Contract farming can increase investment into agricultural and infrastructure in rural areas. Contract farming can also enable farmers to access credit, inputs, technical advice and information about market condition and pricing trends. Yet, the disadvantages of contract farming include loss of farmer bargaining power and a potential reduction in profit margins, increased emphasis on improving production quality, land consolidation in favor of participating contract farmers, and less secure livelihoods.In this study, the contract farming arrangements of Angkor Kasekam Rongroeung (AKR Company is studied. A survey of 16 contract farmers and 20 non-contract farmers in Kampong Speu province has been undertaken to examine the AKR contract farming scheme arrangements and to identify farmer’s motivations to participate in contract farming and its impact on farmers’ livelihood.AKR rice contract farming improves farmers’ livelihood because they get a higher income and rice yields. Higher price, good rice seed, and access to market are the main reasons for farmers to participate in AKR contract farming. However, strict requirements, heavy penalties, poor extension services, and lack of information about the contract terms and conditions reduce farmers’ long-term participation in contract farming. In addition

  15. Default Reasoning and Belief Revision: A Syntax-Independent Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东摩; 朱朝晖; 陈世福

    2000-01-01

    As an important variant of Reiter's default logic, Poole (1988) de veloped a nonmonotonic reasoning framework in the classical first-order language. Brewka and Nebel extended Poole's approach in order to enable a representation of priorities between defaults. In this paper a general framework for default reasoning is presented, which can be viewed as a generalization of the three approaches above. It is proved that the syntax-independent default reasoning in this framework is iden tical to the general belief revision operation introduced by Zhang et al. (1997). This result provides a solution to the problem whether there is a correspondence between belief revision and default logic for the infinite case. As a by-product, an answer to the question, raised by Mankinson and Gairdenfors (1991), is also given about whether there is a counterpart contraction in nonmonotonic logic.

  16. Outsourcing in public health: a case study of contract failure and its aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Outsourcing has been used in Australia as part of the new public management agenda with the aim of increasing efficiency and decreasing costs. In the public health sector its use has been problematic and the purpose of this paper is to explore the largest Australian health contract at the time; investigating the reasons, the processes and the outcomes. Specifically, it investigates why the contract failed and the lessons to be learned from its subsequent awarding. The paper uses a case study approach to investigate in depth the outsourcing decision. Alongside savings in costs, changes to work practices and reduction in union power, it was found that the outsourcing contract produced problems with service quality, sharing of culture, relationships between contract and internal staff, and in managing the contract and staff; and reductions in trust and morale of both internal and contract staff. Inadequate contract specifications and subsequent under pricing was the cause of contract termination, poor quality, and difficulties in contract management. The paper provides important lessons for decision makers when outsourcing in public health. The paper investigates the largest outsourcing contract in public health in Australia in the 1990s. It investigates the failure of the initial contract and its subsequent awarding to another vendor. The case study approach provides an in-depth analysis of this decision.

  17. Contracted Advisory and Assistance Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    SERVICES TO BE FU 1 Personnel: a. Contract project m person must be thoroughly familia contracting officer and may help n the contractor and the...event of litigation, any ambiguities could inst the Government. rformance oriented . The SOW should tell the contractor what is to be ithout dictating

  18. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  19. Trust, contract and relationship development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.; Hillebrand, B.; Nooteboom, B.

    2005-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on the relation between trust and control in the management of inter-organizational relations. More specifically, we focus on the question how trust and formal contract are related. While there have been studies on whether trust and contract are substitutes or

  20. Neural control of lengthening contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchateau, Jacques; Enoka, Roger M

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies over the last few decades have established that the control strategy employed by the nervous system during lengthening (eccentric) differs from those used during shortening (concentric) and isometric contractions. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge on the neural control of lengthening contractions. After a brief discussion of methodological issues that can confound the comparison between lengthening and shortening actions, the review provides evidence that untrained individuals are usually unable to fully activate their muscles during a maximal lengthening contraction and that motor unit activity during submaximal lengthening actions differs from that during shortening actions. Contrary to common knowledge, however, more recent studies have found that the recruitment order of motor units is similar during submaximal shortening and lengthening contractions, but that discharge rate is systematically lower during lengthening actions. Subsequently, the review examines the mechanisms responsible for the specific control of maximal and submaximal lengthening contractions as reported by recent studies on the modulation of cortical and spinal excitability. As similar modulation has been observed regardless of contraction intensity, it appears that spinal and corticospinal excitability are reduced during lengthening compared with shortening and isometric contractions. Nonetheless, the modulation observed during lengthening contractions is mainly attributable to inhibition at the spinal level.

  1. Trust, contract and relationship development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.; Hillebrand, B.; Nooteboom, B.

    2005-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on the relation between trust and control in the management of inter-organizational relations. More specifically, we focus on the question how trust and formal contract are related. While there have been studies on whether trust and contract are substitutes or

  2. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  3. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...

  4. Graded contractions of Virasoro algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kostyakov, I V; Kuratov, V V

    2001-01-01

    We describe graded contractions of Virasoro algebra. The highest weight representations of Virasoro algebra are constructed. The reducibility of representations is analysed. In contrast to standart representations the contracted ones are reducible except some special cases. Moreover we find an exotic module with null-plane on fifth level.

  5. Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

  6. Common Difficulties with Probabilistic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jack A.; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1983-01-01

    Several common errors reflecting difficulties in probabilistic reasoning are identified, relating to ambiguity, previous outcomes, sampling, unusual events, and estimating. Knowledge of these mistakes and interpretations may help mathematics teachers understand the thought processes of their students. (MNS)

  7. Choreography Synthesis as Contract Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a formal model for distributed systems, where each participant advertises its requirements and obligations as behavioural contracts, and where multiparty sessions are started when a set of contracts allows to synthesise a choreography. Our framework is based on the CO2 calculus for contract-oriented computing, and borrows concepts and results from the session type literature. It supports sessions where the number of participants is not determined beforehand, and keeps CO2's ability to rule out participants that are culpable if contracts are not fulfilled at runtime. We show that we have progress and session fidelity in CO2, as a result of the honesty of participants — i.e., their ability to always adhere to their contracts.

  8. Contracting and Performance in Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi; Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    , documentary and interview data. To measure the degree of performance as the degree of goal attainment, all agency contracts for 2008 as well as the subsequent ‘enterprise accounts’ defining the goal attainment have been collected. There were 62 agencies in 2008, 58 of which had a contract. Goal attainment...... is measured by linking each performance demand in each contract to the corresponding assessment in the enterprise accounts of whether the demand has been fulfilled, partly fulfilled or not fulfilled. The data on the experience of the contracting process were collected as the agency heads’ subjective......As part of New Public Management (NPM), contracting represents a supplement to the traditional hierarchical and rule-based managing of relations between actors in order to improve performance (Fortin and van Hassel 2000; Greve and Ejersbo 2002; Drewry et al. 2005; Verhoest 2005). To various degrees...

  9. Operational Reasoning and Denotational Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    form is correctly computed by the interpreter. This is used to justify an inference rule - called ’LISP-induction* - which formalises induction on... peper contains example,? of the use of operational reasoning to prove properties of a denotationai semantics. By "operational reasoning" is meant...programs. This rule - called "LISP-induction" - is induction on the length of computations on the interpreter. Because the interpreter is correct LISP

  10. Clinical reasoning in massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoon, Kim

    2008-08-20

    Clinical reasoning has long been a valuable tool for health care practitioners, but it has been under-researched in the field of massage therapy. Case reports have been a useful method for exploring the clinical reasoning process in various fields of manual therapy and can provide a model for similar research in the field of massage therapy. A diagnostically challenging case concerning a client with low back pain serves as a guideline for examining the clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist. A two-part methodology was employed: Client profileReflective inquiry The inquiry included questions pertaining to beliefs about health problems; beliefs about the mechanisms of pain; medical conditions that could explain the client's symptoms; knowledge of the client's anatomy, assessment, and treatment choices; observations made during treatment; extent of experience in treating similar problems; and ability to recognize clinical patterns. The clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist contributed to a differential diagnosis, which provided an explanation for the client's symptoms and led to a satisfactory treatment resolution. The present report serves as an example of the value of clinical reasoning in the field of massage therapy, and the need for expanded research into its methods and applications. The results of such research could be beneficial in teaching the clinical reasoning process at both the introductory and the advanced levels of massage therapy education.

  11. INFINITY construction contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  12. 48 CFR 16.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the clause at 52.216-8, Fixed Fee, in solicitations and contracts when a cost-plus-fixed-fee contract... at 52.216-9, Fixed-Fee—Construction, in solicitations and contracts when a cost-plus-fixed-fee..., Incentive Fee, in solicitations and contracts when a cost-plus-incentive-fee contract is contemplated. (e)(1...

  13. 40 CFR 35.970 - Contract enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.970 Contract... the enforcement of such contracts, including contract disputes which are the subject of either... technical or legal involvement in any contract dispute will not make EPA a party to any contract entered...

  14. A Real Options Approach to Valuing the Risk Transfer in a Multi-Year Procurement Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    total quantities. 3 That there is a reasonable expectation that throughout the contemplated contract period the head of the agency will request ...savings with the government. In fact, some might propose this last reason is the best reason for a contractor to seek an MYP. In addition to the... reinsurance . The government is actually one of the largest insurers providing many types of coverage against risks that many private insurers avoid

  15. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  16. Interweaving reason, action, and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennema, Claude L., Jr.

    1992-11-01

    In an attempt to understand and emulate intelligent behavior Artificial Intelligence researchers have, for the most part, taken a reductionist approach and divided their investigation into separate studies of reason, perception, and action. As a consequence, intelligent robots have been constructed using a coarse grained architecture; reasoning, perception, and action have been implemented as separate modules that interact infrequently. This paper describes an investigation into the effect of reducing this architecture granularity on the computational efficiency of the overall system. It demonstrates that introducing a fine grained integration or `interweaving' of these functions can result in significant complexity reduction. This paper introduces the `reason a little, move a little, look a little,' or RML paradigm, describes an RML navigation system, and discusses analytical and experimental results that quantify complexity reduction for planning and vision. The system details illustrate novel approaches to representation, planning, and vision. The environment is represented as a network that provides mechanisms for coping with positional uncertainty and focusing reasoning activities. Plans are constructed in three dimensions using a geometry-induced hierarchical decomposition. The approach to vision takes its lead from the way a blind man uses his cane: to verity that reason is consistent with reality.

  17. Beyond the Psychological Contract: Ideology and the Economic Social Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, George W.

    1997-01-01

    By combining normative philosophy and empirical social science, I craft a research framework for assessing differential expectations of economic justice within the economic social contract of the United States. I argue that distinct viewsof such a contract grounded in the tradition of individualism and communitarianism manifest in people's judgments about economic justice. We empirically test these hypotheses on a sample of 270 subjects, finding broad suppo...

  18. Contracting With the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    some cases, local national contractors are given priority in competition for contracts as a means of stimulating and rebuilding the local economy . A...contracts as a means of stimulating and rebuilding the local economy . A major risk associated with using local national contractors in contingency...support (OCS) has created greater economies of force for joint force commanders (JFCs) as a greater percentage of the troops deployed to contingency

  19. Contract Design, Supply Chain Complexity, and Accountability in Federal Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    limitations is coded 1 if the contract is a set aside (e.g., small business, economically disadvantaged business owned by women or veterans, disabled veteran...Contracts Adam Eckerd, Assistant Professor, University of Tennessee Amanda Girth, Assistant Professor, The Ohio State University Published April 30... University of Tennessee Amanda Girth, Assistant Professor, The Ohio State University An Approach for Modeling Supplier Resilience Kash Barker, Associate

  20. On CNC Commuting Contractive Tuples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Bhattacharyya; J Eschmeier; J Sarkar

    2006-08-01

    The characteristic function has been an important tool for studying completely non-unitary contractions on Hilbert spaces. In this note, we consider completely non-coisometric contractive tuples of commuting operators on a Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}$. We show that the characteristic function, which is now an operator-valued analytic function on the open Euclidean unit ball in $\\mathbb{C}^n$, is a complete unitary invariant for such a tuple. We prove that the characteristic function satisfies a natural transformation law under biholomorphic mappings of the unit ball. We also characterize all operator-valued analytic functions which arise as characteristic functions of pure commuting contractive tuples.

  1. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service... history. The Commission added International Business Reply Service Contract 1 to the competitive product... International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission...

  2. 78 FR 11699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... entered into an additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 negotiated... Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, February...-24), Order No. 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract...

  3. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  4. 48 CFR 42.1305 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of..., Government Delay of Work, in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price contract is contemplated for...

  5. 77 FR 54937 - International Mail Postal Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... (2) asks the Commission to include the new contract within the International Business Reply Service... Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Settlement... COMMISSION International Mail Postal Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  6. Race, Reason and Reasonableness: Toward an "Unreasonable" Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lissovoy, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Starting from the contemporary critical-theoretical notion of an "objective violence" that organizes social reality in capitalism, including processes of systemic racism, as well as from phenomenological inquiries into processes of race and identity, this article explores the relationship between racism and reasonableness in education…

  7. Modelling the dynamics of reasoning processes: reasoning by assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    To model the dynamics of cognitive processes, often the Dynamical Systems Theory (DST) is advocated. However, for higher cognitive processes such as reasoning and certain forms of natural language processing the techniques adopted within DST are not very adequate. This paper shows how an analysis of

  8. Logical Varieties in Normative Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Burgin, Mark; Mestdagh, de Vey

    2011-01-01

    Although conventional logical systems based on logical calculi have been successfully used in mathematics and beyond, they have definite limitations that restrict their application in many cases. For instance, the principal condition for any logical calculus is its consistency. At the same time, knowledge about large object domains (in science or in practice) is essentially inconsistent. Logical prevarieties and varieties were introduced to eliminate these limitations in a logically correct way. In this paper, the Logic of Reasonable Inferences is described. This logic has been applied successfully to model legal reasoning with inconsistent knowledge. It is demonstrated that this logic is a logical variety and properties of logical varieties related to legal reasoning are developed.

  9. Transformational leadership and moral reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nick; Barling, Julian; Epitropaki, Olga; Butcher, Vicky; Milner, Caroline

    2002-04-01

    Terms such as moral and ethical leadership are used widely in theory, yet little systematic research has related a sociomoral dimension to leadership in organizations. This study investigated whether managers' moral reasoning (n = 132) was associated with the transformational and transactional leadership behaviors they exhibited as perceived by their subordinates (n = 407). Managers completed the Defining Issues Test (J. R. Rest, 1990), whereas their subordinates completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (B. M. Bass & B. J. Avolio, 1995). Analysis of covariance indicated that managers scoring in the highest group of the moral-reasoning distribution exhibited more transformational leadership behaviors than leaders scoring in the lowest group. As expected, there was no relationship between moral-reasoning group and transactional leadership behaviors. Implications for leadership development are discussed.

  10. Logic, probability, and human reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction.

  11. 40 CFR 35.4235 - Are there specific provisions my group's contract(s) must contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Suspension and Debarment; (g) The following clauses from 40 CFR 30.48: (1) Remedies for breaches of contract...'s contract(s) must contain? 35.4235 Section 35.4235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... provisions my group's contract(s) must contain? Your group must include the following provisions in each...

  12. Darwin's "strange inversion of reasoning".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Daniel

    2009-06-16

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive "inversion of reasoning" (according to a 19th century critic): "to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it" [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own.

  13. Framework for Structuring Procurement Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Borg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new framework for structuring contract types and payment methods. Concerning procurement contracts, the first important new feature of this framework is a stepwise structure with three main steps in the contract design: (1 what will be procured—should the contract only include construction, or should it include both construction and operation/maintenance (2 who will do the detailed design of the premise and (3 how many contractors will the client use? The second important new feature of this framework is that both step 2 and step 3 include a continuum of alternatives. Concerning payment methods, the new framework is primarily based on how the specific risks of the project are shared. These frameworks can be useful for policy formulation in that they can help to avoid some problematic ways of formulating policies.

  14. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  15. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  16. A Note on Asymptotic Contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Arav

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide sufficient conditions for the iterates of an asymptotic contraction on a complete metric space X to converge to its unique fixed point, uniformly on each bounded subset of X.

  17. A Note on Asymptotic Contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Santos Francisco Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide sufficient conditions for the iterates of an asymptotic contraction on a complete metric space to converge to its unique fixed point, uniformly on each bounded subset of .

  18. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  19. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2013 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts to indefinite contracts) was officially launched last week.  The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 9 August 2013 for a period of four weeks (until 8 September 2013). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: Information on the location of these sessions will be provided in due course on the CERN announcements page. HR Department

  20. Bounded contractions for affine buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Bestvina, Mladen; Savin, Gordan

    2017-01-01

    We consider affine buildings with refined chamber structure. For each vertex in the refined chamber structure we construct a contraction, based at the vertex, that is used to prove exactness of Schneider-Stuhler resolutions of arbitrary depth.

  1. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The principles of contracting depend largely on the business outcomes .... North America tied with 15% each while Asia and .... as exploration, processing and marketing the final product .... in Ghana: Growth, Impact and Perspectives”,. Speech ...

  2. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2013 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts to indefinite contracts) was officially launched last week.  The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 9 August 2013 for a period of four weeks (until 8 September 2013). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: Information on the location of these sessions will be provided in due course on the CERN announcements page. HR Department

  3. US Forest Service Stewardship Contracting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the locations of activities within the Stewardship Contracting Project Boundary. Activities are implemented through stewardship...

  4. Delegated Contracting and Corporate Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Chongwoo; Park, In-Uck

    2004-01-01

    In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make decisions that set directions for the organization, employ subordinates and contract with external suppliers. This paper explains when such delegation of authority can be optimal, using a model of a firm with three parties: the principal, the manager and the worker. In centralization with two two-tier hierarchies, the principal designs contracts for both agents. In delegation with a three-tier hierarchy, the prin...

  5. Deepening Contractions and Collateral Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Ravn, Søren Hove; Santoro, Emiliano

    on the differential impact that occasionally non-binding constraints exert on the shape of expansions and contractions, we are also able to reconcile a more negatively skewed business cycle with a moderation in its volatility. Finally, our model can account for an intrinsic feature of economic downturns preceded...... by private credit build-ups: Financially driven expansions lead to deeper contractions, as compared to equally-sized non-financial expansions....

  6. Advanced Contract Administration. Second Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-14

    character education that we prepare for our children by demonstrating to the young people who join us in the adult world that we believe in and...5300.4(IB), except for off-the-shelf items. TABLE 46-1 CONTRACT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS GUIDE I.term Type of Contract Technical Decription Complexity...do is to teach our young to be virtuous." Throughout most of our history, certain basic, high ethical values were considered fundamental to the

  7. Contract grading in clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolcraft, V; Delaney, C

    1982-01-01

    The use of contracts in grading clinical performance has provided faculty with a solution to two important problems. One has been how to ensure that students are graded consistently among the various faculty who are grading the same clinical component of a course. The second has been to increase the opportunity for individualized attention to student learning needs. We have been pleased to see all the faculty members increase their input and involvement in the continuing modifications of the contract. Although we have taken the major responsibility for the semi-annual revisions of the contract, other faculty members have been increasingly more explicit in their evaluations and suggestions as their experience with the contract has expanded. Their confidence in this method of clinical evaluation has increased with each semester of use. We plan to continue in the refinement of the instrument and will develop materials for the use of other faculty groups who are interested in developing similar contracts. We are also designing a survey to attempt to discover how widespread is the use of contract grading in clinical areas.

  8. Invention Activities Support Statistical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carmen Petrick; Kenlan, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Students' experiences with statistics and data analysis in middle school are often limited to little more than making and interpreting graphs. Although students may develop fluency in statistical procedures and vocabulary, they frequently lack the skills necessary to apply statistical reasoning in situations other than clear-cut textbook examples.…

  9. Reasonable partiality in professional relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Brenda

    2005-04-01

    First, two aspects of the partiality issue are identified: (1) Is it right/reasonable for professionals to favour their clients' interests over either those of other individuals or those of society in general? (2) Are special non-universalisable obligations attached to certain professional roles? Second, some comments are made on the notions of partiality and reasonableness. On partiality, the assumption that only two positions are possible--a detached universalism or a partialist egoism--is challenged and it is suggested that partiality, e.g. to family members, lies between these two positions, being neither a form of egoism, nor of impersonal detachment. On reasonableness, it is pointed out that 'reasonable' is an ambiguous concept, eliding the notions of the 'morally right' and the 'rational.' Third, a series of practical examples are taken from counselling, medicine, law, education and religious practice and some common principles are abstracted from the cases and discussed. These include truth-telling, confidentiality, conflicts of interest between clients and particular others and between clients and society. It is concluded that while partiality can be justified as a useful tool in standard cases, particular circumstances can affect the final verdict.

  10. Spatial Reasoning for Image Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Areces, Carlos; Rijke, Maarten de

    1999-01-01

    Building upon the previously introduced description logic of concrete domains, we provide a system which is aimed at enhancing image retrieval with the ability to perform spatial reasoning. In this early stage of our research we focus on obtaining a formalism which is expressive enough to increase t

  11. Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.

  12. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special…

  13. Expert Causal Reasoning and Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    The relationship between cognitive psychologists and researchers in artificial intelligence carries substantial benefits for both. An ongoing investigation in causal reasoning in medical problem solving systems illustrates this interaction. This paper traces a dialectic of sorts in which three different types of causal resaoning for medical…

  14. Teachers Promoting Student Mathematical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Mary; Yankelewitz, Dina; Maher, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    During an informal, after-school, math program, a group of middle school students worked collaboratively on open-ended problems. The students co-constructed arguments, provided justifications for their solutions, and engaged in mathematical reasoning. This paper describes the specific teacher moves that promoted this phenomenon. The findings of…

  15. Combinatorial reasoning to solve problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom; Hof, Frits; Verhoef, Nellie

    2016-01-01

    This study reports combinatorial reasoning to solve problems. We observed the mathematical thinking of students aged 14-16. We study the variation of the students’ solution strategies in the context of emergent modelling. The results show that the students are tempted to begin the problem solving pr

  16. Invention Activities Support Statistical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carmen Petrick; Kenlan, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Students' experiences with statistics and data analysis in middle school are often limited to little more than making and interpreting graphs. Although students may develop fluency in statistical procedures and vocabulary, they frequently lack the skills necessary to apply statistical reasoning in situations other than clear-cut textbook examples.…

  17. Social Justice and Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic-Muller, Ksenija

    2015-01-01

    Ratio and proportional reasoning tasks abound that have connections to real-world situations. Examples in this article demonstrate how textbook tasks can easily be transformed into authentic real-world problems that shed light on issues of equity and fairness, such as population growth and crime rates. A few ideas are presented on how teachers can…

  18. Clinical reasoning as social deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I will challenge the individualistic model of clinical reasoning. I will argue that sometimes clinical practice is rather machine-like, and information is called to mind and weighed, but the clinician is not just calculating how to use particular means to reach fixed ends. Often...

  19. Algorithms for Simple Temporal Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, L.R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes research into new methods for automated temporal reasoning. For this purpose, several frameworks are available in literature. Chapter 1 presents a concise literature survey that provides a new overview of their interrelation. In the remainder of the dissertation, the f

  20. Team reasoning and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    The team reasoning approach explains cooperation in terms of group identification, which in turn is explicated in terms of agency transformation and payoff transformation. Empirical research in social psychology is consistent with the significance of agency and payoff transformation. However, it

  1. Ethical Reasoning in STEM Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekerek, Mehmet; Karakaya, Ferhat; Tekerek, Betül

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine ethical reasoning of lecturers in STEM disciplines in terms of several independent variables (gender, working another institution, age, academic title, academic discipline, service period). This study was designed as a survey research. Lecturers in STEM disciplines in Kahramanmaras Sutçuimam University were…

  2. Approximate Reasoning with Fuzzy Booleans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces, in analogy to the concept of fuzzy numbers, the concept of fuzzy booleans, and examines approximate reasoning with the compositional rule of inference using fuzzy booleans. It is shown that each set of fuzzy rules is equivalent to a set of fuzzy rules with singleton crisp ante

  3. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  4. Proportional Reasoning with a Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolo, Ami; Sinclair, Margaret; Whiteley, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Proportional reasoning pops up in math class in a variety of places, such as while making scaled drawings; finding equivalent fractions; converting units of measurement; comparing speeds, prices, and rates; and comparing lengths, areas, and volume. Students need to be exposed to a variety of representations to develop a sound understanding of this…

  5. Teaching Inductive Reasoning with Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Working with language-independent logic structures can help students develop both inductive and deductive reasoning skills. The Japanese publisher Nikoli (with resources available both in print and online) produces a treasure trove of language-independent logic puzzles. The Nikoli print resources are mostly in Japanese, creating the extra…

  6. Algorithms for Simple Temporal Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, L.R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes research into new methods for automated temporal reasoning. For this purpose, several frameworks are available in literature. Chapter 1 presents a concise literature survey that provides a new overview of their interrelation. In the remainder of the dissertation, the f

  7. Neural correlates of acoustic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangmeier, Thomas; Knauff, Markus

    2009-01-16

    We report an fMRI experiment on deductive reasoning with acoustically presented problems. Twelve volunteers received problems in which an acoustic stimulus came from the left or the right of another stimulus. The participants then heard a third stimulus coming from the left or the right of one of the proceeding stimuli. Their task was to determine the spatial relation between the two stimuli they never perceived together. In the psychology of reasoning, such problems are called transitive inferences or three-term-series problems. During the early phases of the inference, activity in primary and secondary acoustic areas and in the anterior prefrontal cortex was found. Further processing was accompanied by activity in medial frontal gyrus, the cingulate cortex, and in the parietal cortex. In the final phase, activity was found in the left frontal cortex, the right cerebellum, the right superior temporal gyrus, and in the parietal lobule. These results show that different brain areas are related to different phases of an inference. Based on these findings, we propose a three-stage-model of acoustic reasoning and identify the neural structures that are involved in the cognitive processes taking place in each phase. The results also show how acoustically presented reasoning problems differ from problems in which the problems are presented visually.

  8. Plausible Reasoning in Modular Robotics and Human Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Pozna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Present paper continues the researches on cognitive system design. The goal ofthe paper is to illustrate the variety of models which can be constructed using the Bayesianplausible reasoning theory. The first case study develops a classical inverse kinematicalmodel into a Bayesian model. The second case study models the human reasoningpresented by the famous story of Sun Tzu: ‘Advance to Chengang by a hidden path’.

  9. Exploring students' patterns of reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matloob Haghanikar, Mojgan

    As part of a collaborative study of the science preparation of elementary school teachers, we investigated the quality of students' reasoning and explored the relationship between sophistication of reasoning and the degree to which the courses were considered inquiry oriented. To probe students' reasoning, we developed open-ended written content questions with the distinguishing feature of applying recently learned concepts in a new context. We devised a protocol for developing written content questions that provided a common structure for probing and classifying students' sophistication level of reasoning. In designing our protocol, we considered several distinct criteria, and classified students' responses based on their performance for each criterion. First, we classified concepts into three types: Descriptive, Hypothetical, and Theoretical and categorized the abstraction levels of the responses in terms of the types of concepts and the inter-relationship between the concepts. Second, we devised a rubric based on Bloom's revised taxonomy with seven traits (both knowledge types and cognitive processes) and a defined set of criteria to evaluate each trait. Along with analyzing students' reasoning, we visited universities and observed the courses in which the students were enrolled. We used the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to rank the courses with respect to characteristics that are valued for the inquiry courses. We conducted logistic regression for a sample of 18courses with about 900 students and reported the results for performing logistic regression to estimate the relationship between traits of reasoning and RTOP score. In addition, we analyzed conceptual structure of students' responses, based on conceptual classification schemes, and clustered students' responses into six categories. We derived regression model, to estimate the relationship between the sophistication of the categories of conceptual structure and RTOP scores. However, the

  10. 75 FR 41599 - Reasonable Contract or Arrangement Under Section 408(b)(2)-Fee Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... accounting statement showing the Department's assessment of the benefits and costs associated with this...--Accounting Table Primary Period Category estimate Year dollar Discount rate covered Benefits Annualized... decisions and value, better enforcement tools to redress abuse, and harmonization with other EBSA rules...

  11. Reason, Consent and Contract The Difficult Least Common Denominator of Contractualist Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Schwember Augier Felipe Schwember Augier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Contractualism” refers to the diverse theories that maintain that the obligatory nature of norms rests on the consent of those bound by them. However, this general characterization overlooks crucial differences among the different contractualist theories. The article analyzes diverse typologies in order to highlight these differences and reach a more precise characterization of contractualism. It concludes that the distinction between hypothetical and ideal consent made by some of these versions makes it impossible to formulate a univocal definition of contractualism.

  12. Sharecropping Contract Experience in Delta State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert Ukaro Ofuoku

    2015-01-01

    Sharecropping has been an age long practice from ancient times. Some scholars saw the practice as being exploitative of the tenants, yet it is still being practiced. The reasons behind it continual practice need to be unveiled. This study was therefore conducted to examine the sharecropping contract experience in Delta State, Nigeria. The landlords decided to practice sharecropping as a result of emigration of their household members, farm size and cost of labours, some of them gave age and their primary occupation as factors for their decisions to opt for sharecropping arrangement. The yields were shared on the basis of 60% for the landlord to 40% for the tenant. The landlords provided all the equipment and inputs, while the tenant's carried out all the farm operations. They faced the constraints of stress, but were able to cope with them, because of hospitals and health centres nearby. The result of the test of hypothesis confirmed the reasons given for deciding on sharecropping arrangement. It was concluded that sharecropping was not exploitative. It was recommended that the practice of sharecropping should be encouraged and not diversified into other sources of livelihood should do so.

  13. Co-reference and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Clare R; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2004-01-01

    Co-reference occurs when two or more noun phrases refer to the same individual, as in the following inferential problem: Mark is kneeling by the fire or he is looking at the TV but not both. / Mark is kneeling by the fire. / Is he looking at the TV? In three experiments, we compared co-referential reasoning problems with problems referring to different individuals. Experiment 1 showed that co-reference improves accuracy. In Experiment 2, we replicated that finding and showed that co-reference speeds up both reading and inference. Experiment 3 showed that the effects of co-reference are greatest when the premises and the conclusion share co-referents. These effects led the participants to make illusory inferences--that is, to draw systematically invalid conclusions. The results are discussed in terms of the mental model theory of reasoning.

  14. Causal reasoning with mental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemlani, Sangeet S; Barbey, Aron K; Johnson-Laird, Philip N

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex.

  15. Causal reasoning with mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex.

  16. Mathematical Foundations of Qualitative Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Trave-Massuyes, Louise; Ironi, Liliana; Dague, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    We examine different formalisms for modeling qualitatively physical systems and their associated inferential processes that allow us to derive qualitative predictions from the models. We highlight the mathematical aspects of these processes along with their potential and limitations. The article then bridges to quantitative modeling, highlighting the benefits of qualitative reasoning-based approaches in the framework of system identification, and discusses open research issues.

  17. 14 CFR 314.5 - Major contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major contractions. 314.5 Section 314.5... REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM General § 314.5 Major contractions. A major contraction is a reduction...-month period, and includes an advance determination of major contraction as set forth in § 314.21....

  18. Covenant Violations and Dynamic Loan Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudenberg, Felix; Imbierowicz, Björn; Saunders, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic allocation of control rights in private debt contracts of firms. We show that a covenant violation in the prior loan contract implies a stigma for borrowers which results in stricter loan contract terms in subsequent new loan contracts. Our analyses reject potentia...

  19. 48 CFR 2446.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, whenever it is in the Government's interest. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clauses. 2446.710... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 2446.710 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The contracting...

  20. 48 CFR 970.1504 - Contract pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract pricing. 970.1504 Section 970.1504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504 Contract pricing....

  1. 7 CFR 250.53 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED STATES, ITS... Management Companies § 250.53 Contract provisions. (a) Required contract provisions in fixed-price contracts... recipient agency's fixed-price contract with a food service management company. Such provisions must also...

  2. 15 CFR 14.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... breaches the contract terms, and provide for such remedial actions as may be appropriate. (b) All contracts... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract provisions. 14.48 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.48 Contract provisions....

  3. 22 CFR 145.48 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... breaches the contract terms, and provide for such remedial actions as may be appropriate. (b) All contracts... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract clauses. 145.48 Section 145.48 Foreign... Contract clauses. The recipient shall include, in addition to clauses to define a sound and...

  4. 14 CFR 1274.509 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... breaches the contract terms, and provide for such remedial actions as may be appropriate. (b) All contracts... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract provisions. 1274.509 Section 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.509 Contract provisions. The recipient shall include,...

  5. 7 CFR 1780.75 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... all contracts. (a) Remedies. Contracts other than small purchases shall contain provisions or... violate or breach contract terms, and provide for such sanctions and penalties as may be appropriate. A... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract provisions. 1780.75 Section...

  6. 20 CFR 435.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... breaches the contract terms, and provide for such remedial actions as may be appropriate. (b) All contracts... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract provisions. 435.48 Section 435.48... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.48 Contract provisions. The recipient...

  7. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  8. Proposal for the Award of Two Contracts for Silicon Strip Detectors for the AMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of two contracts for the supply of silicon strip detectors for the AMS experiment. The work will be entirely financed by the University of Geneva and RWTH Aachen. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of two contracts with the firm COLIBRYS (CH) for the supply of silicon strip detectors for a total amount of 1 000 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision.

  9. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.

  10. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the awa...

  11. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the award of a...

  12. Using a Reasoned Action Approach to Examine US College Women's Intention to Get the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although at high risk of contracting the human papillomavirus (HPV), less than one-half of US college women have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to identify underlying factors influencing college women's intention to get the HPV vaccine via developing an instrument using the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA). Setting: Data…

  13. Venture Capital Contracting Under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Trester

    1993-01-01

    The author develops a model of venture capital contracting in which the entrepreneur and venture capitalist contract under symmetric information. A condition of asymmetric information may arise subsequent to the first contract. The author shows that this condition makes debt contracts infeasible and leads to the use of preferred equity contracts. The author notes that discussions of the relation between venture capital and capital structure are rare. This paper expands the literature by addre...

  14. Contracting and Performance in Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi; Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    As part of New Public Management (NPM), contracting represents a supplement to the traditional hierarchical and rule-based managing of relations between actors in order to improve performance (Fortin and van Hassel 2000; Greve and Ejersbo 2002; Drewry et al. 2005; Verhoest 2005). To various degrees...... to lower degrees of trust between contracting agencies and their parent ministry (2011: 795). Hence, there is no simple relationship between trust, dialogue, autonomy, control and performance in agencification in general or in the contractual relationships between departments and agencies in particular....... The ambition of this paper is to investigate the causal mechanism behind these complex relationships by investigating why and how the balancing of control, dialogue and autonomy in internal contracting in agencies leads to better performance? The research design in primarily explorative in the sense...

  15. Claims in civil engineering contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Speirs, N A

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers claims arising during civil engineering construction contracts. The meaning of the word 'claim' is considered and its possible implications for additional cost and time to completion. The conditions of the construction contract selected will influence the risk apportionment between contractor and client and the price offered by the contractor for the work. Competitive bidding constraints and profit margins in the construction industry, however, may also influence the price offered. This in turn can influence the likelihood of claims arising. The client from his point of view is concerned to complete the work within an agreed time and budget. The circumstances under which claims may arise are reviewed in relation to typical conditions of contract. These circumstances are then related to the CERN LHC civil works. Ways of avoiding claims, where this is possible, are considered. Finally, the means of evaluation of claims and their settlement are considered.

  16. Incentive contracts for development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  17. FIDUCIARY CONTRACT - A SHORT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina PARASCHIV

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study aims to highlight the novelty brought by the institution of fiduciary contract regulated by the New Civil Code. Design/methodology/approach – Using comparison method, the study empirically examines the institution of the fiduciary contract, the impact of this law institution on the business environment, the conditions of validity of this contract and its effects. Findings – The study demonstrates that the Fiducia is a progressive institution, a legal warranty instrument and a good business opportunity, but which is not widely used. Practical implications/originality/value – Taking into account that the Fiducia is a major innovation especially in banking practice, it is necessary to harmonize the regulations of the New Civil Code with other special regulations, to prevent negative interactions that Fiducia may have with insolvency law, banking law or corporate law.

  18. Contraction of the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, J. J.

    1984-10-01

    The concept of Roche limit is applied to the Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system to study the contraction of a spherical gas cloud (solar nebula). In the process of contraction of the solar nebula, it is assumed that the phenomenon of supersonic turbulent convection described by Prentice (1978) is operative. It is found that the radius of the contracting solar nebula follows Titius-Bode law Rp = R_sun; ap, where R_sun; is the radius of the present Sun and a = 1.442. The consequences of the relation are also discussed. The aim, here, is an attempt to explain, on the basis of the concept of Roche limit, the distribution of planets in the solar system and try to understand the physics underlying it.

  19. Assessing the remedy: the case for contracts in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sarah J L

    2011-04-01

    Current orthodoxy in research ethics assumes that subjects of clinical trials reserve rights to withdraw at any time and without giving any reason. This view sees the right to withdraw as a simple extension of the right to refuse to participate all together. In this paper, however, I suggest that subjects should assume some responsibilities for the internal validity of the trial at consent and that these responsibilities should be captured by contract. This would allow the researcher to impose a penalty on the subject if he were to withdraw without good reason and on a whim. This proposal still leaves open the possibility of withdrawing without penalty when it is in the subject's best interests to do so. Giving researchers recourse to legal remedy may now be necessary to protect the science, as existing methods used to increase retention are inadequate for one reason or another.

  20. The Contracting Parties' Ability To Conclude The Employment Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina NENU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study's main objective is to analyze certain effects produced by the changes of the Labor Code and by the entry into force of the current Romanian Civil Code. These effects refer to one of the fundamental conditions for the valid conclusion of the individual employment contract, that is, to the legal capacity of employers and employees. Thus, a complete analysis of legal regulations and of the correlations between different provisions on the legal capacity of parties to the individual employment contract is required to identify the existing noncompliance and to propose solutions. The research demonstrated that the current regulatory framework governing the legal capacity of the parties to an individual employment contract does not entirely correspond to the social reality. Therefore, only the employer benefits from a relatively comprehensive statutory regulation on the legal capacity to conclude an individual employment contract. The employee, however, does not benefit from the same attention from legislature. Considering the above, the study represents a significant scientific contribution, whose value lies in the proposed changes to modify legislature, so that the legal capacity of job holders would benefit from fair regulation, in accordance with the principle of legal protection of employee rights.

  1. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  2. 48 CFR 1316.601-70 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 1316.601-70 Contract clauses. Insert clause 1352.216-77, Ceiling Price, in all time-and-materials contracts....

  3. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reasoning on Schemata of Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Echenim, Mnacho

    2012-01-01

    A logic is presented for reasoning on iterated sequences of formulae over some given base language. The considered sequences, or "schemata", are defined inductively, on some algebraic structure (for instance the natural numbers, the lists, the trees etc.). A proof procedure is proposed to relate the satisfiability problem for schemata to that of finite disjunctions of base formulae. It is shown that this procedure is sound, complete and terminating, hence the basic computational properties of the base language can be carried over to schemata.

  5. The sightless eyes of reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    There is a gap between the aims of school geometry in terms of the teaching of spatial abilities to young children, and the dominance of a school geometry rooted in Euclid’s axioms and abstractions. Such gap is not to be explained in terms of a “misimplementation” of the curricular intentions. Ra...... geometry curriculum. We argue that school geometry fabricates the scientific minds of the future by training students to see not with the eyes of their bodies, but with the eyes of reason and logic...

  6. Inside case-based reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Riesbeck, Christopher K

    2013-01-01

    Introducing issues in dynamic memory and case-based reasoning, this comprehensive volume presents extended descriptions of four major programming efforts conducted at Yale during the past several years. Each descriptive chapter is followed by a companion chapter containing the micro program version of the information. The authors emphasize that the only true way to learn and understand any AI program is to program it yourself. To this end, the book develops a deeper and richer understanding of the content through LISP programming instructions that allow the running, modification, and

  7. Exchanging Reasons: responses to critics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Bermejo-Luque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available I provide responses to what I take to be the most salient aspects of John Biro, James Freeman, David Hitchcock, Robert Pinto, Harvey Siegel and Luis Vega’s criticisms to the normative model for argumentation that I have developed in Giving Reasons. Each response is articulated on a main question, i.e., the distinction between regulative and constitutive normativity within Argumentation Theory’s models, the semantic appraisal of argumentation, the concept of justification, the differences between Toulmin’s model and my model of argument and the analysis of the pragmatic dimension of argumentation.

  8. Probabilistic reasoning in data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirovich, Lawrence

    2011-09-20

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes, slides, and a student assignment for a lecture on probabilistic reasoning in the analysis of biological data. General probabilistic frameworks are introduced, and a number of standard probability distributions are described using simple intuitive ideas. Particular attention is focused on random arrivals that are independent of prior history (Markovian events), with an emphasis on waiting times, Poisson processes, and Poisson probability distributions. The use of these various probability distributions is applied to biomedical problems, including several classic experimental studies.

  9. Numeracy, frequency, and Bayesian reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen B. Chapman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that Bayesian reasoning performance is improved if uncertainty information is presented as natural frequencies rather than single-event probabilities. A questionnaire study of 342 college students replicated this effect but also found that the performance-boosting benefits of the natural frequency presentation occurred primarily for participants who scored high in numeracy. This finding suggests that even comprehension and manipulation of natural frequencies requires a certain threshold of numeracy abilities, and that the beneficial effects of natural frequency presentation may not be as general as previously believed.

  10. Clinical reasoning as social deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    the ends are contested. The clinician deliberates together with colleagues and patients if particular means should be used under these circumstances. Deliberation is a public process and is not just taking place in the mind of the individual decision maker. It is a social and dialogical negotiation......In this paper I will challenge the individualistic model of clinical reasoning. I will argue that sometimes clinical practice is rather machine-like, and information is called to mind and weighed, but the clinician is not just calculating how to use particular means to reach fixed ends. Often...

  11. Need for ex officio control of unfair terms in consumer contracts: comparative view of the Spanish system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Blanco García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available European authorities advocate for providing judges greater power to examine ex officio the abusive nature of the standard contract terms within a consumer contract.  This line of reasoning in case-law has been introduced in Spain, thus improving the protection of consumers’ rights and interests. However, countries like Uruguay do not consider this possibility, preventing judges from controlling contents unless it is requested by the parties, since the annulment of a contract would be questioned due to the legal nature of nullity. In this paper, the different regulations of unfair contract terms in the Spanish and Uruguayan systems are discussed.

  12. Geometric reasoning about assembly tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.

  13. Teaching moral reasoning through gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Ryan, Leanne; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-11-01

    Stem-cell research. Euthanasia. Personhood. Marriage equality. School shootings. Gun control. Death penalty. Ethical dilemmas regularly spark fierce debate about the underlying moral fabric of societies. How do we prepare today's children to be fully informed and thoughtful citizens, capable of moral and ethical decisions? Current approaches to moral education are controversial, requiring adults to serve as either direct ('top-down') or indirect ('bottom-up') conduits of information about morality. A common thread weaving throughout these two educational initiatives is the ability to take multiple perspectives - increases in perspective taking ability have been found to precede advances in moral reasoning. We propose gesture as a behavior uniquely situated to augment perspective taking ability. Requiring gesture during spatial tasks has been shown to catalyze the production of more sophisticated problem-solving strategies, allowing children to profit from instruction. Our data demonstrate that requiring gesture during moral reasoning tasks has similar effects, resulting in increased perspective taking ability subsequent to instruction. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v/gAcRIClU_GY. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Geometric Reasoning for Automated Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Knight, Russell L.; Broderick, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect of mission planning for NASA s operation of the International Space Station is the allocation and management of space for supplies and equipment. The Stowage, Configuration Analysis, and Operations Planning teams collaborate to perform the bulk of that planning. A Geometric Reasoning Engine is developed in a way that can be shared by the teams to optimize item placement in the context of crew planning. The ISS crew spends (at the time of this writing) a third or more of their time moving supplies and equipment around. Better logistical support and optimized packing could make a significant impact on operational efficiency of the ISS. Currently, computational geometry and motion planning do not focus specifically on the optimized orientation and placement of 3D objects based on multiple distance and containment preferences and constraints. The software performs reasoning about the manipulation of 3D solid models in order to maximize an objective function based on distance. It optimizes for 3D orientation and placement. Spatial placement optimization is a general problem and can be applied to object packing or asset relocation.

  15. Inductive reasoning in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E E; Rhee, J; Dennis, K; Grossman, M

    2001-12-01

    We evaluated knowledge of basic level and superordinate semantic relations and the role of cognitive resources during inductive reasoning in probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nineteen mildly demented AD patients and 17 healthy control subjects judged the truthfulness of arguments with a premise and a conclusion that contain familiar concepts coupled with "blank" predicates, such as "Spiders contain phosphatidylcholine; therefore all insects contain phosphatidylcholine." Like healthy control subjects, AD patients were relatively insensitive to the typicality of the premise category when judging the strength of arguments with a conclusion containing a basic-level concept, but were relatively sensitive to typicality during judgments of arguments containing a superordinate in the conclusion. Moreover, AD patients resembled control subjects in judging arguments with an immediate superordinate in the conclusion compared to arguments with a distant superordinate. AD patients differed from control subjects because they could not take advantage of two premises in an argument containing basic-level concepts. We conclude that semantic knowledge is sufficiently preserved in AD to support inductive reasoning, but that limited cognitive resources may interfere with AD patients' ability to consider the entire spectrum of information available during semantic challenges.

  16. 10 CFR 63.304 - Reasonable expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable expectation. 63.304 Section 63.304 Energy... Reasonable expectation. Reasonable expectation means that the Commission is satisfied that compliance will be achieved based upon the full record before it. Characteristics of reasonable expectation include that...

  17. 47 CFR 73.1944 - Reasonable access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable access. 73.1944 Section 73.1944... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1944 Reasonable access. (a) Section 312(a)(7) of the... or repeated failure to allow reasonable access to, or to permit purchase of, reasonable amounts...

  18. Goal Reasoning for an Autonomous Squad Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    2015 Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems: Workshop on Goal Reasoning Goal Reasoning for an Autonomous Squad Member Kellen...20375 USA Abstract Autonomous agents are beginning to play larger roles within team-oriented tasks and missions in various domains. Many reasoning ...present a goal reasoning system for this agent that integrates natural language processing, explanation generation, and plan recognition components

  19. Termination of Commercial Contracts by giving Notice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    or not the contract can be terminated by giving notice. The international UNIDROIT principles and the Lando Commission have included a rule allowing the parties to a contract which is for an indefinite period to give notice, but it can be very difficult to distinguish between indefinite and definite periods....... Furthermore, it is open to question whether the continuation of an expired contract is to be considered as a contract for an indefinite period, and whether contracts for definite periods are irrevocable. Even though these questions are not regulated, it is not recommended that new and more detailed principles......Some long-term contracts are brought to an end if one of the parties gives notice. Usually, such a step is not considered a breach of contract. It causes the contract to end in accordance with the contract. When no express rules cover the situation, it is often not entirely clear whether...

  20. Iterative Contracts as Proactive Law Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, René Franz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the use of proactive law in contracts illustrated by the use of a particular type of contract within the IT industry, the so-called iterative contract. This type of contract has its root in a special software development process called iterative....... This software development process has driven the need for a new contract design that supports the product life cycle better than the traditional contracts. As will be shown in the analysis, the iterative contracts represent important legal innovation and can be categorized as a proactive law instrument that has...... the potential to create more business success. However, empirical research still needs to be done in order to confirm that these types of contracts are better at securing business success than traditional contract forms....

  1. Army Contract Writing System (ACWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    the integration with Army Enterprise Resource Planning systems. As a financial feeder system, ACWS will meet the compliance requirements of the...Federal Financial Management Improvement Act of 1996. The system will meet the full scope of Army Contracting requirements, including those in secure and...business process efficiencies, support compliance with the Federal Financial Management Improvement Act of 1996, integrate with existing Enterprise

  2. Incomplete contract and divisional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Bao; Y. Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which differen

  3. Hybrid contractions with implicit relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. C. Gairola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove the existence of fixed points for two set-valued mappings and two single-valued mappings satisfying generalized contractive conditions by using the concept of weakly compatible mappings with control functions and implicit relations in complete metric spaces. Our results extend and generalize the corresponding result in Mehta and Joshi [21].

  4. Jazzing up the Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Nell Tabor

    2010-01-01

    Helping students and practitioners to understand and utilize the Psychological Contract is often a difficult task. Unlike fault-finding research, this paper presents the PC as a positive, vibrant and valuable tool. In an effort to make the concept less elusive, the paper draws upon the metaphor of jazz. The metaphor is an accepted tool of…

  5. The Strange Notion of Contract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lock, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    The notion of contract is not as unproblematic as might at first sight appear. Its theoretical basis in particular is very difficult to decipher. It is arguable that whereas the Middle Ages and 16th century produced an exceptionally subtle foundational account, the rise of modernity largely destroye

  6. Analyzing Valuation Practices through Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesnière, Germain; Labatut, Julie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper seeks to analyze the most recent changes in how societies value animals. We analyze this topic through the prism of contracts between breeding companies and farmers. Focusing on new valuation practices and qualification of breeding animals, we question the evaluation of difficult...

  7. CONTRACT DOCUMENTS AND PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First California Commission on School Construction Systems, Palo Alto.

    A SET OF EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATION DRAFTED BY THE FIRST CALIFORNIA COMMISSION ON SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS GIVES INFORMATION ON BIDDING PROCEDURES, A DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRENT CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM, PROCEDURES FOR SUBMITTING A PROPOSAL, DATA AND CONDITIONS RELATED TO THE DEVELOPMENT PHASE OF THE PROJECT, COMPONENT CONTRACTS, AND GENERAL…

  8. Construction contract revenue recording comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly traded companies prepare their consolidated accounts in conformity with the international accounting standards (IAS/IFRS in accordance with the Regulation No. 1606/2002. This is obliged for all publicly traded joint-stock companies in the Czech Republic. Other companies prepare financial statements in accordance with national accounting standards. There are Accounting Act No. 563/1991 of Coll. and Regulation No. 500/2002 of Coll., Czech Accounting Standards in the Czech Republic. Both systems are based on different principles so there are many differences. The Czech Accounting System (CAS is based on the rules while IAS/IFRS are based on principles (Kovanicová, 2005. These differences are mainly caused by the different philosophy. CAS prefers the fiscal policy to the economic substance while IAS/IFRS prefere the economic substance. One of the most significant dif­fe­ren­ces is in the field of revenue recording. There are two standards concerning the revenues recording (IAS 18 − Revenue, IAS 11 – Construction Contracts in IAS/IFRS. CAS 019 – Expenses and Revenue are dealing with the revenue recording in the Czech Republic. The paper is aimed at the comparison of the methodical approaches for revenue recording used by IAS/IFRS and by CAS. The most important differences are caused by the different approach to the long term contracts (construction contracts, software development contracts revenues recording.

  9. Advanced Contract Administration. First Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-14

    revenue," as used in this part, means amounts contract. All costs identified specifically with other final accrued or charged to customers, clients , and...Scheduled .. Finally, we must include an esti- &(BCWS) mate of the overhead (indirect) 4 charges which will be incurred. When all of these anticipated costo

  10. AGILE DRAFTING OF OUTSOURCING CONTRACTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Storgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    and in several parallel tracks using different competencies. By the use of an illustrative case-study, this paper explores how scrum can be applied to enhance the process of drafting outsourcing contracts. The analysis indicates that the use of an agile method, such as Scrum, can be beneficial in this context...

  11. The Non-effective Contract Should be an Independent Efficiency Type of Contract%未生效合同应作为一种独立的合同效力类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许中缘

    2015-01-01

    The non-effective contract is an evaluation to the statements of the declaration of will in the law. As a special type of contract,non-effective contract has its effect,and reasonable value to exist,also it owns the unique rule as an existing system. We should treat it as a type of contract which has independent efficiency. The non-effective contract is not like other types of contract,such as undecisive efficiency contract,the revocable contract and the invalid contract,those kinds of contract type have the natural defect when it applys to non-effective contract. The contract that needs essential approval or registration,the contract with additional conditions or term and the practice contract are typical type of non-effective contract.%未生效合同应作为独立的合同效力类型。未生效合同不同于效力待定、可撤销、无效合同类型。基于未生效合同中的生效条件与附条件合同的条件具有本质差异,不能将未生效合同解释为附条件合同。批准、登记生效的合同、附延缓条件合同与附始期合同、实践性合同是未生效合同的典型类型。

  12. Physical understanding through variational reasoning: electron sharing and covalent bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedenberg, Klaus; Schmidt, Michael W

    2009-03-12

    Energy changes of stationary states resulting from geometric parameter changes in the Hamiltonian can be understood by variational reasoning in terms of the physical attributes of the kinetic and the potential energy functionals. In atoms as well as molecules, the energy minimization determines the ground state as the optimal compromise between the potential pull of the nuclear attractions and the localization-resisting kinetic pressure of the electron cloud. This variational competition is analyzed for the exact ab initio ground-state wave function of the hydrogen molecule ion to elucidate the formation of the bond. Its electronic wave function is shown to differ from the ground-state wave function of the hydrogen atom by polarization, sharing, and contraction, and the corresponding contributions to the binding energy are examined in detail. All told, the critical feature is that a molecular orbital, contracting (in the variational context) toward two nuclei simultaneously, can lower its potential energy while maintaining a certain degree of delocalization. As a consequence, its kinetic energy functional has a lower value than that of an orbital contracting toward a single nucleus equally closely. By contrast, the potential energy functional is lowered equally effectively whether the orbital contracts toward one nucleus or simultaneously toward two nuclei. Because of this weaker kinetic energy pressure, the electrostatic potential pull of the nuclei in the molecule is able to attach the orbital more tightly to each of the nuclei than the pull of the single nucleus in the atom is able to do. The role of the virial theorem is clarified. Generalizations to other molecules are discussed.

  13. Optimal Remanufacturing Certification Contracts in the Electrical and Electronic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While remanufacturing is highly encouraged worldwide, some original equipment manufacturers (OEMs in the electrical and electronics industry are still not willing to embrace remanufacturing, for fear of expensive investment or the cannibalization of existing products. Meanwhile, third-party remanufacturers’ (TPRs remanufactured products are developing quickly. Due to quality reasons, consumers usually have a higher preference for OEM-certified remanufactured products than uncertified ones. As such, remanufacturing certification has become a strategy that OEMs can use to benefit from product remanufacturing. Our paper focuses on the remanufacturing certification contract between an OEM and a TPR. Once certified, the TPR makes payments to the OEM. These payment terms will affect their enthusiasm for participating in remanufacturing certification. By establishing game models among an OEM, a certified TPR, and an uncertified TPR, our paper explores three certification contracts, namely, the lump-sum payment, profit-sharing payment, and piece-rate payment. We identify the conditions for the OEM and certified TPR to reach a win-win outcome. Our results show that when TPRs have a high profit margin and there is no significant difference in consumers’ preferences between certified and non-certified remanufacturing channels, the profit-sharing payment contract yields the highest profit; otherwise, the piece-rate payment contract is best for the OEM.

  14. Some Contracting Controls at Mission and Installation Contracting Command, Fort Polk, Louisiana, Need Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-12

    performance work statements into the two contracts. This occurred because contracting staff were in a hurry to obligate expiring operations and...the Horton contract and the WB Construction task order were not effective because: • contracting staff were in a hurry to complete and issue a...contracting officials stated that the third contracting officer retired in March 2013, and the COR was on extended medical leave and unavailable to

  15. Open Graphs and Computational Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Dixon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a form of algebraic reasoning for computational objects which are expressed as graphs. Edges describe the flow of data between primitive operations which are represented by vertices. These graphs have an interface made of half-edges (edges which are drawn with an unconnected end and enjoy rich compositional principles by connecting graphs along these half-edges. In particular, this allows equations and rewrite rules to be specified between graphs. Particular computational models can then be encoded as an axiomatic set of such rules. Further rules can be derived graphically and rewriting can be used to simulate the dynamics of a computational system, e.g. evaluating a program on an input. Examples of models which can be formalised in this way include traditional electronic circuits as well as recent categorical accounts of quantum information.

  16. Verbal reasoning deficits in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohman, J R; Parsons, O A

    1987-04-01

    The Conceptual Level Analogies Test (CLAT), a well-constructed test of analogical reasoning, was given to groups of middle-aged male alcoholics and control subjects in two separate studies. As predicted, the alcoholics had lower CLAT scores than nonalcoholics in both studies. These results support the generalized-diffuse model of the neuropsychological effects of alcoholism. Contrary to prediction, alcoholics differed from control subjects as much on the easy analogies as they did on the hard analogies, which suggested that alcoholics differ both qualitatively and quantitatively from nonalcoholics in cognitive impairment. Finally, in two of three studies in our laboratory, familial alcoholics had significantly lower CLAT scores than nonfamilial alcoholics. These findings emphasize the importance of considering familial history of alcoholism when studying the neuropsychological functioning of alcoholics.

  17. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    preemptive air strike . In conclusion, there are significantly more legal burdens associated with the application of standard contracting processes...for the use of military force. Within that handbook, the Army JAG provides a justification for the preemptive use of military force...doctrine from anticipatory self-defense to preemption. This position was reinforced in the 2006 NSS, which reaffirmed the doctrine of preemptive self

  18. Demographics of the Contracting Workforce within the Army Contracting Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-25

    Empresas in Madrid. Dr. Reed retired from Active Military Service in 2008 after 21 years in the Air Force. Dr. Reed held various assignments in...and Local Government, business, and marketing applications, it focuses on human resource planning and the difficulties of expanding and contracting...requirements management, market research, negotiation and performance-based acquisition (FAI, 2009, p. 80). Table 30 displays the “business

  19. Legal relevance of the purpose of contract in German law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the French Civil code, the German Civil code belongs to the group of so-called anti-causalistic codifications, since it explicitly does not govern the issue of purpose (cause of contract. Due to this very reason, the delineation between abstract and causal juridical acts gains special importance in German law. The German Civil Code governs a number of juridical acts and other acts of legal importance that are abstract in their nature. Among them the abstract nature of the promise to fulfill an obligation (Schuldversprechung and the acknowledgement of a debt (Schuldannerkennung is traditionally considered the most prominent. However, the relation to the purpose for which they are concluded is not entirely interrupted, since in the case of frustration of their purpose, any asset given to the other party is subject to restitution under the rules of unjustified enrichment. The fact that the issue of purpose of contract is not explicitly governed in the German Civil Code, does not lead to the conclusion, though, that it is legally irrelevant. It gains legal relevance in two different aspects: as a licit and as an illicit purpose. On the one hand, juridical acts concluded with the aim to achieve illicit purposes are considered void, for which the Code's sections on the general confines of the principle of freedom of contract serve the statutory basis - such juridical acts infringe the institution of 'good customs' (gute Sitten, usually referred to as public policy, while the performance of other factual or legal acts in order to achieve illicit purposes are sanctioned under the rules of unjustified enrichment. On the other hand, lawful purposes of the parties gain legal relevance in relation to a range of various institutions. Concerning some of them the Code itself contains formulations implying the necessity to ascertain the purpose of contract, while in other cases the case law and the doctrine have come to such conclusion. The determination

  20. 48 CFR 1816.307-70 - NASA contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Estimated Cost and Fixed Fee, in cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts. (c) The contracting officer may insert the clause at 1852.216-75, Payment of Fixed Fee, in cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts. Modifications to the... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1816.307-70...

  1. 48 CFR 2439.107 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 2452.239-71, Information Technology Virus Security, in solicitations and contracts under which the contractor will provide information technology hardware, software or data products....

  2. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19.808 Section 19.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC....808 Contract negotiation....

  3. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619.808 Section 619.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Contract negotiation....

  4. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  5. Public works concession. Delimitation from other contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Georgeta MATEI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concession of public services without the concession of the related public works was viewed as an exception. The public services contract was considered to rank first among the administrative contracts. The European Court of Justice ruled that establishing of the nature of a contract – whether it is a public works contract or a public contract of a different nature – is made by identifying the main purpose of the contract that determines the applicable directive, including situations where the contract has elements regarding the concession of public works as well as other types of public contracts. Also, the concept of concession used in relation to both concession and PPP was deemed in Romania as a source of confusion and ambiguity regarding the confidence of both the public and private partner within the context of project development.

  6. The Translation of the International Trade Contracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYi

    2012-01-01

      With thedevelopment ofour foreigntrade, Chinesebusinessmen have morechances tocooperate withforeign businessmen. Internationaltrade contractscan protectthe benefitoftwo parties.Businessmen couldknowtheirrightsand dutiesclearly accordingto the international trade contracts. Thus the study of international trade contracts translation is ofgreat significance.

  7. Dynamic contracting mechanism for pavement maintenance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, H.C.; De Ridder, H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances, financial possibilities and changes of demands have increasingly affected the pavement maintenance environment for outsourcing in recent years. This induces complexity in the contracting methods of pavement maintenance activities. Despite the fact that current contracting pra

  8. 48 CFR 246.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 246.710 Contract clauses. (1) Use a... Construction (Germany), instead of the clause at FAR 52.246-21, Warranty of Construction, in solicitations and... Germany....

  9. Renewable Energy Contract Development Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides information on how available resources can help organizations effectively navigate the solar contract development process with the goal of RFP and contract transparency, completeness, and accountability of all involved parties.

  10. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  11. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  12. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  13. Rousseau’s social contract theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婧维

    2014-01-01

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau is one of the greatest philosophers in Enlightenment.His thoughts have a great effect on the European society.In this article,the author focuses on one of his ideas---social contract theory.At first,author introduces the details of social contract,and then sovereignty of the people and its relationship with social contract theory wil be presented, finaly,the author wil express her idea about social contract.

  14. Fiscal Law, Incremental Funding, and Conditional Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-22

    Contract Mgt. J. 71, 76 (1975); Whelan and Dunigan, Government Contracts:_Apparent Authority and Estoppel , 55 Geo. L. J. 830, 840-843 (1967); Frazier...obligation -- either fiscal or promissory -- arises under the contract until these events occur. However, if there is any possibility that the...held that any contract using annual funds that involved the government in "any type of obligation whether fiscal or promissory beyond the period of

  15. The Diction of International Business Contracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭嘉

    2008-01-01

    Generally speaking, the diction of international business contracts is formal and standard. The international business contracts have attributes of legal clauses and stipulate both parties' authorities and duties and other interrelated things. So as to both parties, the international business contracts have legal binding force. Therefore, the diction of international business contracts possesses characteristics of specialization,singleness and steadiness of legal terns or wording.

  16. Contract-based Internet Service Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giambiagi, Pablo; Owe, Olaf; Schneider, Gerardo

    -oriented architectures, but application developers are still left to their own devices when it comes to writing code that will comply with a contract. This paper surveys existing and proposes new language-based solutions to the above problem. Contracts are formalized as behavioral interfaces, and abstraction mechanisms...... may guide the developer in the production of contract-aware applications. We concentrate on contracts dealing with performance (real-time) and information flow (confidentiality)....

  17. Determinants of Service Contract Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    Management, Industrial Marketing Management, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, the Journal of Marketing Channels, Air Force Journal of...limited to applications of service quality in business-to-consumer (B2C) contexts. The five dimensions of service quality do not always fit B2B ...Buyers of customer-defined B2B services often state service expectations in requirement documents that are incorporated into contracts. Within public

  18. CONTRACT ASSIGNMENT – THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan NAZAT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to study in detail the theoretical aspects concerning the contract assignment, as provided by the relevant regulation, and the doctrine corresponding to old and current regulations. In this respect, this project aims to give the reader a comprehensive look on the institution in question, the regulation offered by the current Civil Code is reviewed taking into account the national and international doctrine.

  19. Contract Signature Using Quantum Information

    CERN Document Server

    De Sousa, P B M; Ramos, Rubens Viana; Sousa, Paulo Benicio Melo de

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how to perform contract signature in a fair way using quantum information. The protocol proposed permits two partners, users of a communication network, to exchange their signatures with non-repudiation. For this, we assume that there is a trustable arbitrator, responsible for the authentication of the signers and that performs a central task in a quantum teleportation protocol of the XOR function between two classical bits.

  20. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published as from the first week of July 2012.   In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened will soon be available at the following address: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/ListOfPosts-Autumn2012.pdf For more information please consult this page.

  1. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....

  2. Transverse contractions of moving bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramanti, D.

    1978-05-11

    One of the most important theoretical consequences of the principle of relativity, i.e. the absence of transverse Lorentz-Fitzgerald contractions in moving bodies, has never been subjected to direct experimental tests. The existing indirect evidence of this absence is discussed, and a simple experiment for testing it directly and with high accuracy is proposed. Some implications of a possible nonnull result of this experiment are also pointed out.

  3. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  4. A probe into reasons for international migration in Fujian Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the extent of international migration from China's Fujian Province and considers the reasons behind the migration. The most recent estimates place China's overseas population at 22.1 million, 19 million (88%) of which are concentrated in Southeast Asia. According to the author's calculations, at least 7 million of the Chinese overseas population are of Fujian descent. Indonesia alone holds some 3.3 million Fujianese. Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines account for most of the remaining Fujianese overseas population. Having established the extent of international migration from the Fujian Province, the author attempts to establish the reasons behind it. The author first considers the historical origins of Fujianese international migration, from its early states (end century B.C.-17th century) to modern times *18-early 20th century) to the current period (1949-present). The author then examines the reasons behind the migration, primarily the social environment and individual behavior. Finally, the author provides categories of international migration, stressing that these categories often overlap or coincide. Most of the early migration was "spontaneous" -- essentially, an unplanned occurrence. During the modern period, most migration was "forced" by the contract labor system instituted by colonialists. Political and social upheaval also prompted "provoked" international migration. And following the Chinese Revolution, "free" migration allowed many to return home or to join relative abroad.

  5. Spatial Reasoning in Tenejapan Mayans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peggy; Abarbanell, Linda; Gleitman, Lila; Papafragou, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Language communities differ in their stock of reference frames (coordinate systems for specifying locations and directions). English typically uses egocentrically defined axes (e.g., “left-right”), especially when describing small-scale relationships. Other languages such as Tseltal Mayan prefer to use geocentrically-defined axes (e.g., “north-south”) and do not use any type of projective body-defined axes. It has been argued that the availability of specific frames of reference in language determines the availability or salience of the corresponding spatial concepts. In four experiments, we explored this hypothesis by testing Tseltal speakers’ spatial reasoning skills. Whereas most prior tasks in this domain were open-ended (allowing several correct solutions), the present tasks required a unique solution that favored adopting a frame of reference that was either congruent or incongruent with what is habitually lexicalized in the participants’ language. In these tasks, Tseltal speakers easily solved the language-incongruent problems, and performance was generally more robust for these than for the language-congruent problems that favored geocentrically-defined coordinates. We suggest thatlisteners’ probabilistic inferences when instruction is open to more than one interpretation account for why there are greater cross-linguistic differences in the solutions to open-ended spatial problems than to less ambiguous ones. PMID:21481854

  6. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. 30 CFR 881.6 - Project contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... collective bargaining contract, provided that in no event shall the number of nonresident persons employed... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project contract. 881.6 Section 881.6 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.6 Project contract. (a...

  8. 14 CFR 145.217 - Contract maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract maintenance. 145.217 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.217 Contract maintenance. (a) A certificated repair station may contract a maintenance function pertaining to an article to...

  9. 48 CFR 1842.7202 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1842.7202 Section 1842.7202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES NASA Contractor Financial Management...

  10. 78 FR 10642 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... COMMISSION Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. The inventory includes service contract actions over...

  11. 75 FR 82095 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Doc No: 2010-32828] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0394] Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded...

  12. 77 FR 5280 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. The inventory includes service contract actions over...

  13. Incentive contracts with unobservable competence levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Keiding, Hans

    2008-01-01

    A contract where the agent is compensated ex post only upon satisfactory performance, often called a no-cureno- pay contract, can arise as under several circumstances. In this paper, we model the problem of contractual choice as a principal-agent contract which is modified due to hidden informati...

  14. 48 CFR 204.802 - Contract files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract files. 204.802 Section 204.802 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Files 204.802 Contract files. Official...

  15. 48 CFR 1404.802 - Contract files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract files. 1404.802 Section 1404.802 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Files 1404.802 Contract files. In addition to the requirements in FAR 4.802, files...

  16. 32 CFR 37.1330 - Procurement contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement contract. 37.1330 Section 37.1330... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1330 Procurement contract. A Federal Government procurement contract. It is a legal instrument which, consistent with 31...

  17. 48 CFR 936.7101 - Construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Inspection and Acceptance 936.7101 Construction contracts. (a) Inspection services may be performed by the architect-engineer responsible for the design. Inspection services may not be procured from a construction contractor with respect to its...

  18. 48 CFR 811.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules 811.404 Contract clause. When delivery is required by or on a particular date for f.o.b. destination contracts, the contracting officer must add a statement following the Time of Delivery clause in FAR 52.211-8 that the delivery date...

  19. Compositionality and Compatibility of Service Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    goal is to add a representation and support for the functional aspects of service contracts to the existing non-functional aspects. Further, we investigate how to analyze, verify and validate service contracts laying emphasis on the compositionality and compatibility of service contracts....

  20. 48 CFR 302.201 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 302.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions Clause 302.201 Contract clause. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in FAR 52.202-1, Definitions, in solicitations and contracts, except as cited below. This is...

  1. Practice Makes Perfect: Contracting Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how contract grading promotes quality writing as well as a larger quantity of writing. Considers how teachers can use contract grading to support and promote the behaviors, thinking skills, and writing skills they believe will help students create quality writing. Notes that contract grading leads students to write more, to have fewer…

  2. 48 CFR 819.709 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 819.709 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan Minimum Requirements, in solicitations and contracts that include FAR clause 52.219-9, Small Business...

  3. 48 CFR 24.104 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 24.104 Contract... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 24.104... accomplish an agency function, the contracting officer shall insert the following clauses in solicitations...

  4. 49 CFR 19.47 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration. 19.47 Section 19.47 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.47 Contract administration. A system for contract administration...

  5. 7 CFR 550.50 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... legal remedies in instances in which a contractor violates or breaches the contract terms, and provide... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract provisions. 550.50 Section 550.50 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.50 Contract provisions. The recipient shall include, in addition to provisions...

  6. 45 CFR 74.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... violates or breaches the contract terms, and provide for such remedial actions as may be appropriate. (b... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract provisions. 74.48 Section 74.48 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.48 Contract...

  7. 2 CFR 215.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... violates or breaches the contract terms, and provide for such remedial actions as may be appropriate. (b... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract provisions. 215.48 Section 215.48... Contract provisions. The recipient shall include, in addition to provisions to define a sound and...

  8. 36 CFR 1210.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... instances in which a contractor violates or breaches the contract terms, and provide for such remedial... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract provisions. 1210.48... § 1210.48 Contract provisions. The recipient shall include, in addition to provisions to define a...

  9. 7 CFR 3019.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instances in which a contractor violates or breaches the contract terms, and provide for such remedial... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract provisions. 3019.48 Section 3019.48... Standards § 3019.48 Contract provisions. The recipient shall include, in addition to provisions to define...

  10. 24 CFR 84.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a contractor violates or breaches the contract terms, and provide for such remedial actions as may... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract provisions. 84.48 Section....48 Contract provisions. The recipient shall include, in addition to provisions to define a sound...

  11. 34 CFR 74.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... remedies in instances in which a contractor violates or breaches the contract terms, and provide for... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract provisions. 74.48 Section 74.48 Education... Procurement Standards § 74.48 Contract provisions. The recipient shall include, in addition to provisions...

  12. 49 CFR 19.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... remedies in instances in which a contractor violates or breaches the contract terms, and provide for such... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract provisions. 19.48 Section 19.48... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.48 Contract provisions. The recipient shall include, in addition...

  13. 22 CFR 518.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... remedies in instances in which a contractor violates or breaches the contract terms, and provide for such... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Contract provisions. 518.48 Section 518.48... Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.48 Contract provisions. The recipient shall include, in addition...

  14. The Administrative Contract: Implications for Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kenneth T.; Murray, Barbara A.

    1999-01-01

    Although most principals and superintendents must be awarded annual or multiyear employment contracts by their school districts, such contracts offer little protection from reassignment to a lesser position or even from dismissal. Inadequate remedies for breach of employment contracts subject school administrators to working solely at their…

  15. Conditional Reasoning with False Premises Facilitates the Transition between Familiar and Abstract Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Abstract reasoning is critical for science and mathematics, but is very difficult. In 3 studies, the hypothesis that alternatives generation required for conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning is examined. Study 1 (n = 372) found that reasoning with false premises improved abstract reasoning in 12- to…

  16. The regulatory contract and restructuring: A modest proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, R.S. [Cambridge Economics Inc., MA (United States); Tabors, R. [Tabors Caramanis and Associates, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    History does not support the notion that the regulatory contract has treated utilities unfairly. But to the extent it is decided, for other reasons, that utilities should receive transition payments as the industry is pushed to a more competitive framework, there are four important principles to keep firmly in mind. To paraphrase the contemporary bumper sticker, `in the economic, social and/or romantic affairs of man and/or woman, unexpected events happen.` A more thoughtful interpretation of this notion would be that in economic and social interrelationships, individuals formulate behavioral plans based upon expectations about the state of the world and/or the behavior of other individuals. Should those expectations turn out to be incorrect, the individuals relying upon those expectations and their plans will be frustrated. The frustrated individuals may rail against their fate; they may accept their disappointment stoically. They may `take arms against a sea of troubles, and by opposing end them.` Alternatively and more likely in late twentieth century America, they may litigate (or threaten litigation) for breach of contract, claiming that some implicit or explicit, oral or written contract has been breached and that reliance upon that contract has consequently damaged them. The discussion of assets potentially stranded by the ongoing restructuring of the U.S. electric power industry has been characterized by the latter response. As some utilities have faced the possible economic obsolescence of particular generation assets in light of technological changes and altered regulatory rules, they have invoked the notion of a `regulatory contract` having governed their expectations, behavior and past capital investment. By implication, these utilities argue that they should be fully compensated for all cost incurred under good faith adherence to past regulatory processes and procedures.

  17. PDA establishes position statement on cola contracts in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruill, W T

    2000-01-01

    The soft drink industry promises that it will do everything possible to persuade even more Americans to drink even more soda pop more often. Parents and health-care providers need to recognize soft drinks for what they are--liquid candy--and do everything possible to return these beverages to their former, reasonable role as an occasional treat. School districts should not auction themselves off to the highest bidder for exclusive pouring rights contracts with soft drink companies. These deals profit the soft drink companies and, to a much lesser degree, the school districts at the expense of the students' health.

  18. Diversification or splitting-an explanation based on Contract Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Liang-zhong; SHI Zhan-zhong

    2005-01-01

    By inserting the variable of the exactness of corporate valuation into the classic model of Contract Theory, this paper,on the bases of the interaction of the variables of the veraciousness of corporate valuation, managerial incentives and operational risks, explores the deep-seated reasons for changes in corporate structures, and draws the conclusion that the divestment of the subsidiary is beneficial to shareholders when the parent corporate is undervalued and that the relation between the parent and the subsidiary is disordered, or vice versa. This conclusion is consistent with the motives of many divestiture cases in reality.

  19. Francis Bacon On Understanding, Reason and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Karl R.

    1971-01-01

    Bacon's views of the faculties of understanding and reason are presented and explained in reference to Baconian rhetoric. Understanding, Rhetoric, Insinuative and Imaginative Reason are defined. (Author/MS)

  20. Epimenides: Interoperability Reasoning for Digital Preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargakis, Yannis; Tzitzikas, Yannis; van Horik, M.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Epimenides, a system that implements a novel interoperability dependency reasoning approach for assisting digital preservation activities. A distinctive feature is that it can model also converters and emulators, and the adopted modelling approach enables the automatic reasoning

  1. Francis Bacon On Understanding, Reason and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Karl R.

    1971-01-01

    Bacon's views of the faculties of understanding and reason are presented and explained in reference to Baconian rhetoric. Understanding, Rhetoric, Insinuative and Imaginative Reason are defined. (Author/MS)

  2. 26 CFR 1.817-5 - Diversification requirements for variable annuity, endowment, and life insurance contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... account for a calendar quarter period if amounts received under the contract (or earnings thereon) are... holding of the interests is in connection with the creation or management of the investment company.... 12, did not apply by reason of the limited retroactive effect of such rulings. (iii) In...

  3. 48 CFR 3052.209-70 - Prohibition on contracts with corporate expatriates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts with corporate expatriates. As prescribed at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3009.104-75, insert the following... former shareholders of the domestic corporation by reason of holding stock in the domestic corporation... Revenue Code of 1986) shall be treated as a partnership. (e) Treatment of Certain Rights. (1)...

  4. Motor unit firing behaviour of soleus muscle in isometric and dynamic contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, Jouni; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the detailed control of human locomotion and balance can be improved, when individual motor units can be isolated and their firing rates followed in natural movement of large, fuctionally important muscles. For this reason the present study investigated the motor unit discharge rate...... (MUDR) in isometric and dynamic contractions of the soleus muscle....

  5. 77 FR 12336 - Public Availability of Office of Acquisitions and Contract Management FY 2011 Service Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Availability of Office of Acquisitions and Contract Management FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY.... L. 111-117), the Office of Acquisitions and Contract Management is publishing this notice to advise.... The information is organized by function to show how contracted resources are distributed...

  6. 78 FR 12106 - Public Availability of Office of Acquisitions and Contract Management FY 2012 Service Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Availability of Office of Acquisitions and Contract Management FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Office of Acquisitions and Contract Management (OACM), Peace Corps. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2012 Service Contract Inventories. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 743 of Division C of the...

  7. 48 CFR 227.7009-3 - Additional clauses-contracts except running royalty contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts except running royalty contracts. 227.7009-3 Section 227.7009-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—contracts except running royalty contracts. The following clauses are examples for use in patent release and settlement agreements, and license agreements not providing for payment by the Government of a...

  8. Air Force Operational Contracting Knowledge Assessment: Analyzing Explicit and Tacit Contracting Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Air Force Operational Contracting Knowledge Assessment...Analyzing Explicit and Tacit Contracting Knowledge By: Derek Aufderheide, Michael Corrigan, and Jeremy Maloy December 2011...SUBTITLE Air Force Operational Contracting Knowledge Assessment: Analyzing Explicit and Tacit Contracting Knowledge 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  9. Reasons for Plagiarism in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šprajc Polona

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The survey was performed to determine the reasons that lead students to possibly commit plagiarism during their studies. By doing so, we wanted to determine the main reason for the appearance of plagiarism and how, within this main reasons, various indicators of plagiarism are judged and, finally, how demographic data and student motivation for study are associated with the reasons for plagiarism.

  10. The role of psychological contract on employee commitment and organisational citizenship behaviour: A study of Indonesian young entrepreneurs in management action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ade I Anggraeni; Christantius Dwiatmadja; Ahyar Yuniawan

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: This study aims to analyse the entrepreneurship-driven reasons and characteristics of employee management of the young generation, by analysing the role of psychological contract on employee...

  11. What Characterises High Achieving Students’ Mathematical Reasoning?

    OpenAIRE

    Haavold, Per Øystein

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates high achieving students’ mathematical reasoning when given an unfamiliar trigonometric equation. The findings indicate that the students’ way of thinking is strongly linked with imitative reasoning and only when they received some form of guidance, were they able to display flexible and creative mathematical reasoning.

  12. 23 CFR 658.19 - Reasonable access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable access. 658.19 Section 658.19 Highways... AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.19 Reasonable access. (a) No State may enact or enforce any law denying reasonable access to vehicles with dimensions authorized...

  13. Causation, explanation and nonmonotonic temporal reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to reasoning about action and change using nonmonotonic logic. The approach is arrived at by applying Pearl's theory of causal networks to logical formalizations of temporal reasoning domains. It handles complicated reasoning domains involving concurrent actions, actions

  14. Teaching Inductive Reasoning in Primary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Els; Hamers, Jo H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Vermeer, Adri

    2002-01-01

    Used a three-phase teaching procedure based on the development of metacognition to extend emphasis on inductive reasoning in primary education to Grades 3 and 4. Found that teachers could apply the programs as intended, but needed support to shift attention from reasoning product to reasoning process. Program learning effects indicated that better…

  15. Advanced Concepts and Methods of Approximate Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    and L. Valverde. On mode and implication in approximate reasoning. In M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel, W. Bandler , J.B. Kiszka, editors, Approximate Reasoning and...190, 1981. [43] E. Trillas and L. Valverde. On mode and implication in approximate reasoning. In M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel, W. Bandler , J.B. Kiszka

  16. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, H; Richter, E A

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats......-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting muscle may only increase if glycogen...

  17. Review of laser micromachining in contract manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Glenn; Gu, Bo

    1998-06-01

    This paper explores the wide range of laser micromachining applications used in contract manufacturing. Contract manufacturing is used in several key industries such as microelectronics packaging, semiconductor, data storage, medical devices, communications, peripherals, automobiles and aerospace. Material types includes plastics, metals, ceramics, inorganics and composites. However laser micromachining is just one available technology for micromachining and other methods will be reviewed. Contract manufacturing offers two important glimpses of the future. Firstly prototype work for new applications often beings in contract manufacturing. Secondly, contract manufacturing can be an economic springboard to allow laser systems to be installed in a production environment.

  18. The Study on Privilege in Administrative Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于韬文

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous development of management methods, as the implementation means of administrative policy and social management ideal, the administrative contract has been widely accepted. Administrative areas contract to become the focus of people's attention. Administrative priority in administrative contract is to distinguish between private rights contract with the most critical characteristics of administrative contracts. But there are many problems of administrative priority in practice. In this paper, writer begins from the content of administrative priority and put forward myself proposals for the improvement of power supervision.

  19. 40 CFR 51.912 - What requirements apply for reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control measures (RACM) under the 8-hour NAAQS... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for... reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control measures (RACM) under the...

  20. Wess-Zumino term for the AdS superstring and generalized Inoenue-Wigner contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsuda, M

    2003-01-01

    We examine a Wess-Zumino term, written in a form of bilinear in superinvariant currents, for a superstring in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, and derive a procedure for obtaining the correct flat limit. The standard Inoenue-Wigner contraction does not give the correct flat limit but, rather, gives zero. This erroneous result originates from the fact that the fermionic metric of the super-Poincare group is degenerate. We propose a generalization of the Inoenue-Wigner contraction from which a 'nondegenerate' super-Poincare group is derived from the super-AdS group. For this reason, this contraction gives the correct flat limit of this Wess-Zumino term. We also discuss the M-algebra obtained using this generalized Inoenue-Wigner contraction from osp(1|32). (author)

  1. Afghan National Police Contract Requirements Were Not Clearly Defined but Contract Administration Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Document Access was accurate. The Paperless Contract Files database is a secure web-based, virtual contracting office application that works as...modifications. We reviewed all other contracting documents placed in the Paperless Contract Files database by the ACC-RI contracting officer and...Defense Office of Inspector General,4800 Mark Center Drive,Alexandria,VA,22350-1500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  2. ψ-Contraction and [Formula: see text]-contraction in Menger probabilistic metric space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengcheng; Guan, Jinyu; Tang, Yanxia; Xu, Yongchun; Su, Yongfu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the definition of [Formula: see text]-contractive mapping and to discuss the relation of [Formula: see text]-contractive mappings and [Formula: see text]-contractive mappings. Furthermore, the generalized [Formula: see text]-contraction mapping principle has been proved without the uniqueness condition. Meanwhile, the generalized [Formula: see text]-contraction mapping principle has been obtained by using an ingenious method.

  3. Management of transport and handling contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Rühl, I

    2004-01-01

    This paper shall outline the content, application and management strategies for the various contracts related to transport and handling activities. In total, the two sections Logistics and Handling Maintenance are in charge of 27 (!) contracts ranging from small supply contracts to big industrial support contracts. The activities as well as the contracts can generally be divided into four main topics "Vehicle Fleet Management"; "Supply, Installation and Commissioning of Lifting and Hoisting Equipment"; "Equipment Maintenance" and "Industrial Support for Transport and Handling". Each activity and contract requires different approaches and permanent adaptation to the often changing CERN's requirements. In particular, the management and the difficulties experienced with the contracts E072 "Maintenance of lifting and hoisting equipment", F420 "Supply of seven overhead traveling cranes for LHC" and S090/S103 "Industrial support for transport and handling" will be explained in detail.

  4. Contract policy for CERN staff members

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Public information meeting on Monday 28 September 2009 at 10.00 a.m. With effect from 1 August 2009, new provisions regarding staff employment contract policy have entered into force. These provisions are set out in: The Staff Rules and Regulations and Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 4). Further details are available in: Frequently Asked Questions. The new provisions are outlined below: Limited-duration contracts From 1 August 2009, limited-duration contracts will be awarded for a maximum period of five years (instead of four years previously) and no extensions beyond five years will be granted. Contracts for periods shorter than five years can be exceptionally awarded, e.g. for a project whose mission or financial resources are time-limited. Indefinite contracts : award procedure A number of changes have been introduced regarding the procedure for the award of indefinite contracts. From now on, posts leading to the award of an indefinite contract will be opened at le...

  5. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning. PMID:28750030

  6. Educational strategies for improving clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrer, William B; Sullivan, William M; Fleming, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    Clinical reasoning serves as a crucial skill for all physicians regardless of their area of expertise. Helping trainees develop effective and appropriate clinical reasoning abilities is a central aim of medical education. Teaching clinical reasoning however can be a very difficult challenge for practicing physicians. Better understanding of the different cognitive processes involved in physician clinical reasoning provides a foundation from which to guide learner development of effective reasoning skills, while pairing assessment of learner reasoning abilities with understanding of different improvement strategies offers the opportunity to maximize educational efforts for learners. Clinical reasoning errors often can occur as a result of one of four problems in trainees as well as practicing physicians; inadequate knowledge, faulty data gathering, faulty data processing, or faulty metacognition. Educators are encouraged to consider at which point a given learner's reasoning is breaking down. Experimentation with different strategies for improving clinical reasoning can help address learner struggles in each of these domains. In this chapter, various strategies for improving reasoning related to knowledge acquisition, data gathering, data processing, and clinician metacognition will be discussed. Understanding and gaining experience using the different educational strategies will provide practicing physicians with a toolbox of techniques for helping learners improve their reasoning abilities.

  7. Comparison of Ontology Reasoners: Racer, Pellet, Fact++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Li, W.; Yang, C.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we examine some key aspects of three of the most popular and effective Semantic reasoning engines that have been developed: Pellet, RACER, and Fact++. While these reasonably advanced reasoners share some notable similarities, it is ultimately the creativity and unique nature of these reasoning engines that have resulted in the successes of each of these reasoners. Of the numerous dissimilarities, the most obvious example might be that while Pellet is written in Java, RACER employs the Lisp programming language and Fact++ was developed using C++. From this and many other distinctions in the system architecture, we can understand the benefits of each reasoner and potentially discover certain properties that may contribute to development of an optimal reasoner in the future. The objective of this paper is to establish a solid comparison of the reasoning engines based on their system architectures, features, and overall performances in real world application. In the end, we expect to produce a valid conclusion about the advantages and problems in each reasoner. While there may not be a decisive first place among the three reasoners, the evaluation will also provide some answers as to which of these current reasoning tools will be most effective in common, practical situations.

  8. 48 CFR 246.202 - Types of contract quality requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 246.202 Types of contract quality requirements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of contract quality...

  9. Consequence Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Consequence reasoning is a major element for operation support system to assess the plant situations. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how Multilevel Flow Models can be used to reason about consequences of disturbances in complex engineering systems. MFM is a modelling methodology...... for representing process knowledge for complex systems. It represents the system by using means-end and part-whole decompositions, and describes not only the purposes and functions of the system but also the causal relations between them. Thus MFM is a tool for causal reasoning. The paper introduces MFM modelling...... syntax and gives detailed reasoning formulas for consequence reasoning. The reasoning formulas offers basis for developing rule-based system to perform consequence reasoning based on MFM, which can be used for alarm design, risk monitoring, and supervision and operation support system design....

  10. Reasoning in believers in the paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Emma; Peters, Emmanuelle

    2004-11-01

    Reasoning biases have been identified in deluded patients, delusion-prone individuals, and believers in the paranormal. This study examined content-specific reasoning and delusional ideation in believers in the paranormal. A total of 174 members of the Society for Psychical Research completed a delusional ideation questionnaire and a deductive reasoning task. The reasoning statements were manipulated for congruency with paranormal beliefs. As predicted, individuals who reported a strong belief in the paranormal made more errors and displayed more delusional ideation than skeptical individuals. However, no differences were found with statements that were congruent with their belief system, confirming the domain-specificity of reasoning. This reasoning bias was limited to people who reported a belief in, rather than experience of, paranormal phenomena. These results suggest that reasoning abnormalities may have a causal role in the formation of unusual beliefs. The dissociation between experiences and beliefs implies that such abnormalities operate at the evaluative, rather than the perceptual, stage of processing.

  11. Examining inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.

    2013-01-01

    Student-centered instruction can lead to strong gains in physics learning. However, even after targeted instruction, many students still struggle to systematically analyze unfamiliar situations. We have been identifying sequences of questions that allow for an in-depth examination of inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches. On these sequences, many students demonstrate that they possess the abilities to perform the required reasoning, yet they fail to apply this reasoning to arrive at a correct answer. In certain contexts, students tend to "abandon" suitable formal reasoning in favor of reasoning that was (perhaps) more intuitively appealing at that moment. In other cases, erroneous student reasoning approaches can be attributed to the relative salience of specific features of the problem. We present results from one sequence revealing inconsistencies in student reasoning in the context of capacitors. This sequence was administered in an introductory course in which Tutorials in Introductory Physics were implemented as interactive lectures.

  12. Incomplete Contract and Divisional Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, T.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which differentiate it from other works in the literature is that we add add an ex post bargaining phase in which the managers can agree on the project which maximize their joint private benefit. Our model shows...

  13. Contracting non-Joulian magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurav, Tanvir M.; Forst, Marcus L.; Boligitz, James A.; Chopra, Harsh Deep

    2017-05-01

    Recently, nonvolume conserving or non-Joulian magnetostriction has been reported in Fe-Ga alloys [H. D. Chopra and M. Wuttig, Nature (London) 521, 340 (2015), 10.1038/nature14459; H. D. Chopra and M. Wuttig, Nature (London) 538, 416 (2016), 10.1038/nature19064] that increase their volume by expanding in magnetic fields. Here, we report a complementary set of contracting non-Joulian crystals (Fe-Ge, Fe-Al) that decrease their volume. Results provide the critical compositional degree of freedom necessary for designing new alloys (beyond the initially reported Fe-Ga alloys) and establish this family of functional materials based on non-Joulian magnetostriction.

  14. Informal Institutions and Intergenerational Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Lilleør, Helene Bie

    , that informal institutions of social control, rooted in tribal affiliations, determine both the household's investment in schooling and the probability that it receives remittances from migrants. This is consistent with a framework in which households' expected returns in the form of remittances, which...... is determined partly by the prospects of social control over migrants, influence current investments in schooling.......This paper carries out a theoretical and empirical investigation of the role of informal institutions in facilitating intergenerational contracts governing investments in schooling and payments of pensions in the form of remittances. We show, using detailed household level data from rural Tanzania...

  15. Informal Institutions and Intergenerational Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Lilleør, Helene Bie

    This paper carries out a theoretical and empirical investigation of the role of informal institutions in facilitating intergenerational contracts governing investments in schooling and payments of pensions in the form of remittances. We show, using detailed household level data from rural Tanzania......, that informal institutions of social control, rooted in tribal affiliations, determine both the household's investment in schooling and the probability that it receives remittances from migrants. This is consistent with a framework in which households' expected returns in the form of remittances, which...... is determined partly by the prospects of social control over migrants, influence current investments in schooling....

  16. Range contractions of the world's large carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christopher; Ripple, William J

    2017-07-01

    The majority of the world's terrestrial large carnivores have undergone substantial range contractions and many of these species are currently threatened with extinction. However, there has been little effort to fully quantify the extent of large carnivore range contractions, which hinders our ability to understand the roles and relative drivers of such trends. Here we present and analyse a newly constructed and comprehensive set of large carnivore range contraction maps. We reveal the extent to which ranges have contracted since historical times and identify regions and biomes where range contractions have been particularly large. In summary, large carnivores that have experienced the greatest range contractions include the red wolf (Canis rufus) (greater than 99%), Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) (99%), tiger (Panthera tigris) (95%) and lion (Panthera leo) (94%). In general, the greatest range contractions occurred in Southeastern Asia and Africa. Motivated by the ecological importance of intact large carnivore guilds, we also examined the spatial extent of intact large carnivore guilds both for the entire world and regionally. We found that intact carnivore guilds occupy just 34% of the world's land area. This compares to 96% in historic times. Spatial modelling of range contractions showed that contractions were significantly more likely in regions with high rural human population density, cattle density or cropland. Our results offer new insights into how best to prevent further range contractions for the world's largest carnivores, which will assist efforts to conserve these species and their important ecological effects.

  17. Disease management contracting: key elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, D J

    1996-01-01

    Although the data at the outset of a contractual agreement can often be incomplete or inaccurate, and the analytical tools necessary to interpret these data are still being developed, partners about to enter a disease management (DM) arrangement can nonetheless take steps to ensure that the relationship will be sound and successful. Pharmaceutical firms (and other service providers) wishing to enter into DM relationships with managed-care organizations must consider several important factors of the contracting process to protect their financial interests and benefit from the partnership, particularly in the first 1 to 2 years of the arrangement. This paper provides recommendations for both general strategies and financial elements of DM contracting, and defines several contractual elements that can help to secure a harmonious and profitable partnership. These suggestions address concerns for various types of partnerships, including risk-sharing and fee-for-service plans. Early and careful consideration of the legal aspects of the DM business can protect companies from incurring significant, unanticipated losses.

  18. The distribution contracts: an Iberian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia de Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contracts of commercial distribution are indispensable legal instruments to the development of the economic activity. The distribution, since the industrial revolution, acquired autonomy, given the necessity of specialized intermediation to distribute good and products. In this process, the structural organization of the distribution process suffered mutations, starting to assume a set of activities aiming at adjusting demand to supply, including, among others, clients canvassing, after-sales services, financing and assumption of risks, advisory services, promotion and advertising. The insufficiency of traditional contracts of purchase and sales and commission to satisfy the distributive needs caused by the industrial revolution will justify the development of new contractual schemes, such us agency contract, commercial concession and franchising. The obligation of the distributer to ensure the interests of the producer and to promote the distribution of the goods and services of the producer, in the context of a lasting relation of cooperation between the parts, through which the distributer is incorporated, with greater or minor intensity, in the producer distribution network, allowed us to sustain, as affirmed in the Portuguese and European literature, that distribution contracts could be framed in the same legal category. These contracts, as contracts that were shaped by praxis, do not have, with exception of agency contract, a legal framework in Portugal and Spain. It has been discussed in literature if agency contract legal framework can be applied, by analogy, to the contracts that fit in the legal category of distribution contracts. This paper aims at analyzing the legal framework of contracts of distribution in these legal systems, with the purpose to discuss the analogical application of the agency contract to these contracts.

  19. 48 CFR 432.703-3 - Contracts crossing fiscal years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts crossing fiscal... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 432.703-3 Contracts crossing fiscal... fiscal years so long as the total amount for such contracts is obligated in the year for which the...

  20. 48 CFR 32.703-3 - Contracts crossing fiscal years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts crossing fiscal... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 32.703-3 Contracts crossing fiscal years. (a) A contract that is funded by annual appropriations may not cross fiscal years, except...

  1. The subject consumer service contract in Belarus Republic

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Currently, more attention is paid to construction contracts, and in particular the consumer service contract. The most important element of consumer service contract is its subject. Definition of the subject consumer service contract is important for the delimitation of the contract of domestic independent from adjacent to it contracts.

  2. Renorms and topological linear contractions on Hilbert spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施茂祥; 谭炳均; 陈国强

    1999-01-01

    Properties of and the relationships between (topological) proper contractions, (topological) strict contractions and (topological) contractions are investigated, Explicit renorms are constructed so that all operators in a (finite or countable) family or a semigroup simultaneously become proper contractions or strict contractions. Some results are obtained for operator weighted shifts or operator weighted continuous shifts to be topological strict contractions.

  3. 48 CFR 16.602 - Labor-hour contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 16.602 Labor-hour contracts. Description. A labor-hour contract is a variation of the time-and-materials contract, differing only in that materials are not supplied by the contractor. See 12.207(b),...

  4. 48 CFR 1316.601 - Time-and-materials contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 1316.601 Time-and-materials contracts. The designee authorized to approve a time-and-materials contract... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false...

  5. Studying the Possibility of Conclusion of Time Proportional Contracts via Definite Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Tabatabaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Time proportional contracts are such contracts in which the ownership of the property or itsprofits is transferred to the contracting party, proportional to time. This means that the partywill have the right to use or operate the property in determined portion of the year and will beable to intervene in the property permanently or alternately according to the terms of thecontract. This kind of contracts could be formed as a contract of rent, partnership in either theproperty or its profits, common sale conditional to partnership in profits, and the contract ofcompromise. Concerning the essence of such contracts, conclusion in the form of loan,exchange, and the right to benefit is impossible. Hereby, we will try to examine thepossibility of conclusion of time proportional contracts in the form of determined contracts.

  6. Analysis of the 918th Contracting Battalion and 410th Contracting Support Brigade Utilizing the Contract Management Maturity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    management . He was awarded the Combat Action Badge during deployments to both Iraq, and Afghanistan where he was earned the Bronze Star Medal...final payment, and documenting the contractor’s performance during the contract (Rendon, 2011). Effective contract management hinges on the...strive to achieve. At this level, all contract management processes are in place, and are periodically evaluated using “efficiency and effectiveness

  7. Proposal to negotiate a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply and installation of pipework for the new hostel

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate a contract for the supply and installation of new piping as preparatory work for the construction of a third on-site hostel. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve a contract with the SERVICES INDUSTRIELS DE GENEVE (SIG) (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply and installation of new piping for an amount not exceeding 700 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision.

  8. The ethical reasoning variations of personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a comparison of the ethical reasoning components of business managers and executives based on personal characteristics of working experiences, gender and age group. Data were collected in Malaysia within the small and medium sized industry in the form of questionnaires which contain vignettes of questionable ethical reasoning issues. Factor analysis was used to identify the major ethical reasoning dimensions which were then used as the basic comparison. Our study reviews that SMEs managers’ and executives’ ethical reasoning influenced by their years of working experiences. The gap analysis between male and female managers and executives revealed that the significant difference only occurs for ethical awareness in business management and business practices but not for other dimensions. Besides, there are indications that generally, business people tend to have higher ethical reasoning evaluation when they reach thirty six years old. Based on our results, recommendations are made to improve the ethical reasoning evaluation of business managers and executives.

  9. A Causal Model for Diagnostic Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guoqiang; CHENG Hu

    2000-01-01

    Up to now, there have been many methods for knowledge representation and reasoning in causal networks, but few of them include the research on the coactions of nodes. In practice, ignoring these coactions may influence the accuracy of reasoning and even give rise to incorrect reasoning. In this paper, based on multilayer causal networks, the definitions on coaction nodes are given to construct a new causal network called Coaction Causal Network, which serves to construct a model of neural network for diagnosis followed by fuzzy reasoning, and then the activation rules are given and neural computing methods are used to finish the diagnostic reasoning. These methods are proved in theory and a method of computing the number of solutions for the diagnostic reasoning is given. Finally, the experiments and the conclusions are presented.

  10. Contract-Based Cooperative Spectrum Sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Lingjie; Huang, Jianwei

    2011-01-01

    Providing proper economic incentives is essential for the success of dynamic spectrum sharing. Cooperative spectrum sharing is one effective way to achieve this goal. In cooperative spectrum sharing, secondary users (SUs) relay traffics for primary users (PUs), in exchange for dedicated transmission time for the SUs' own communication needs. In this paper, we study the cooperative spectrum sharing under incomplete information, where SUs' types (capturing their heterogeneity in relay channel gains and evaluations of power consumptions) are private information and not known by PUs. Inspired by the contract theory, we model the network as a labor market. The single PU is the employer who offers a contract to the SUs. The contract consists of a set of contract items representing combinations of spectrum accessing time (i.e., reward) and relaying power (i.e., contribution). The SUs are employees, and each of them selects the best contract item to maximize his payoff. We study the optimal contract design for both w...

  11. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case.

  12. Performance contracting in central government in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2015-01-01

    in organisational structure, tasks, culture and time with performance contracts is expected to affect the contract content, hypotheses on variation across agencies are deduced. The empirical basis of the paper is a study of all performance contracts between parent ministries and subordinate agencies in Danish......This paper looks into performance contracting in Danish central government. Management by Objectives and Results (MBOR) was adopted in central government in Denmark during the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1991, performance contracts between parent ministries and their agencies were introduced...... in Danish central government. Since their introduction, performance contracts have become central elements in the steering and management of agencies in central government in Denmark, and today they are nearly universally adopted in central government. In Denmark, the Ministry of Finance is responsible...

  13. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case. PMID:28099609

  14. Appreciating Reasons for Nonadherence in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Okonsky, Jennifer G.; Webel, Allison; Rose, Carol Dawson; Johnson, Mallory; Asher, Alice; Cuca, Yvette; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Hanson, Jan E; Portillo, Carmen J.

    2014-01-01

    Women aged 15–24 years have an HIV infection rate twice that of men the same age. This study examined reasons why HIV-infected women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) report missing HIV medications. Women (N= 206) on ART were 2.2 times more likely to endorse reasons pertaining to forgetfulness versus reasons pertaining to problems taking pills (OR= 2.2, 95% CI: 1.63, 2.94, p

  15. A New Method for Reasoning about Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰

    1996-01-01

    Reasoning about action is an important aspect of common sense reasoning and planning.It gives rise to three classical problems:the frame problem,the qualification problem and the ramification problem.Existing approaches cannot deal with these problems efficiently.This paper presents a new method which uses the stratified ATMS for reasoning about action to overcome the limitations of these approaches.

  16. Reasoning with Incomplete and Uncertain Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    the Bayesian and Confirmation theory approaches and to compare them with INFERNO , his proposed approach to uncertain inference [Qui83]. The...reasoning in medicine. Mathematical Biosciences, 23:351-379, 1975. [SBBG86] L. M. Sweet, P. P. Bonissone, A. L. Brown , and S. Gans. Reasoning with Incomplete...CA, October 1979. [SBBG86I L. M. Sweet, P. P. Bonissone, A. L. Brown , and S. Gans. Reasoning with Incomplete and Uncertain Information for Improved

  17. DEMPSTER-SHAFER THEORY BY PROBABILISTIC REASONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjib Mukherjee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic reasoning is used when outcomes are unpredictable. We examine the methods which use probabilistic representations for all knowledge and which reason by propagating the uncertainties can arise from evidence and assertions to conclusions. The uncertainties can arise from an inability to predict outcomes due to unreliable, vague, in complete or inconsistent knowledge. Some approaches taken in Artificial Intelligence system to deal with reasoning under similar types of uncertain conditions.

  18. A Probe into the Mortgage Rates of Land Contract Management Rights Based on Unified Annual Output Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongjun; YI

    2013-01-01

    The mortgage of land contract management rights has launched a pilot project in Ningxia,Hubei,Henan,Guizhou,Chongqing and other provinces,municipalities and autonomous regions,which provides a good solution to the problem of funds for rural development and plays a huge role in promoting local rural economic development.In the mortgage financing of land contract management rights implemented in various regions,how to determine a scientific,accurate and reasonable mortgage rate of land contract management rights becomes a difficulty troubling the mortgage financing of land.On the basis of unified annual output value of land,this article uses survey method,income capitalization method,and comparison method to analyze the value of land contract management rights,and finally determine the mortgage rates of land contract management rights.

  19. Primitives for Contract-based Synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoletti, Massimo; 10.4204/EPTCS.38.8

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how contracts can be used to regulate the interaction between processes. To do that, we study a variant of the concurrent constraints calculus presented in [1], featuring primitives for multi-party synchronization via contracts. We proceed in two directions. First, we exploit our primitives to model some contract-based interactions. Then, we discuss how several models for concurrency can be expressed through our primitives. In particular, we encode the pi-calculus and graph rewriting.

  20. Pointwise approximation by elementary complete contractions

    CERN Document Server

    Magajna, Bojan

    2009-01-01

    A complete contraction on a C*-algebra A, which preserves all closed two sided ideals J, can be approximated pointwise by elementary complete contractions if and only if the induced map on the tensor product of B with A/J is contractive for every C*-algebra B, ideal J in A and C*-tensor norm on the tensor product. A lifting obstruction for such an approximation is also obtained.