WorldWideScience

Sample records for fr16ap10p biorefinery assistance

  1. 76 FR 8403 - Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Agency will evaluate the lender's eligibility on a case- by-case basis given the risk of loss posed by... program requirements are not conducive to lenders, particularly in light of the inherent risks associated... identified potential benefits and costs of the Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loan Program to lenders...

  2. Microwave-Assisted Extraction for Microalgae: From Biofuels to Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Vijay Kapoore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The commercial reality of bioactive compounds and oil production from microalgal species is constrained by the high cost of production. Downstream processing, which includes harvesting and extraction, can account for 70–80% of the total cost of production. Consequently, from an economic perspective extraction technologies need to be improved. Microalgal cells are difficult to disrupt due to polymers within their cell wall such as algaenan and sporopollenin. Consequently, solvents and disruption devices are required to obtain products of interest from within the cells. Conventional techniques used for cell disruption and extraction are expensive and are often hindered by low efficiencies. Microwave-assisted extraction offers a possibility for extraction of biochemical components including lipids, pigments, carbohydrates, vitamins and proteins, individually and as part of a biorefinery. Microwave technology has advanced since its use in the 1970s. It can cut down working times and result in higher yields and purity of products. In this review, the ability and challenges in using microwave technology are discussed for the extraction of bioactive products individually and as part of a biorefinery approach.

  3. Microwave assisted acid and alkali pretreatment of Miscanthus biomass for biorefineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyuan Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus is a major bioenergy crop in Europe and a potential feedstock for second generation biofuels. Thermochemical pretreatment is a significant step in the process of converting lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. In this work, microwave energy was applied to facilitate NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments of Miscanthus. This was carried out at 180 ℃ in a monomode microwave cavity at 300 W. Our results show that H2SO4 pretreatment contributes to the breakdown of hemicelluloses and cellulose, leading to a high glucose yield. The maximum sugar yield from available carbohydrates during pretreatment is 75.3% (0.2 M H2SO4 20 Min, and glucose yield is 46.7% under these conditions. NaOH and water pretreatments tend to break down only hemicellulose in preference to cellulose, contributing to high xylose yield. Compared to conventional heating NaOH/H2SO4 pretreatment, 12 times higher sugar yield was obtained by using microwave assisted pretreatment within half the time. NaOH pretreatments lead to a significantly enhanced digestibility of the residue, because the effective removal of lignin and hemicellulose makes cellulose fibres more accessible to cellulases. Morphological study of biomass shows that the tightly packed fibres in the Miscanthus were dismantled and exposed under NaOH condition. We studied sugar degradation under microwave assisted H2SO4 conditions. The results shows that 6-8% biomass was converted into levulinic acid (LA during pretreatment, showing the possibility of using microwave technology to produce LA from biomass. The outcome of this work shows great potential for using microwave in the thermo-chemical pretreatment for biomass and also selective production of LA from biomass.

  4. Biorefineries: from concepts to reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagemann, K. [DECHEMA e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The concept of biorefineries addresses the conversion of plant biomass to fuels, materials and chemicals, waste streams being minimized and used for the production of electricity and heat. Four different types are presently discussed: - Sugar-based biorefineries - Whole-crop biorefineries - Green biorefineries - Lignocellulose biorefineries Besides the lack of existing technical solutions and limited land resources, competition with food production and, as a consequence, rising raw material prices considered. (orig.)

  5. Sugarcane-Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sílvio

    2017-03-17

    Concepts such as biorefinery and green chemistry focus on the usage of biomass, as with the oil value chain. However, it can cause less negative impact on the environment. A biorefinery based on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as feedstock is an example, because it can integrate into the same physical space, of processes for obtaining biofuels (ethanol), chemicals (from sugars or ethanol), electricity, and heat.The use of sugarcane as feedstock for biorefineries is dictated by its potential to supply sugars, ethanol, natural polymers or macromolecules, organic matter, and other compounds and materials. By means of conversion processes (chemical, biochemical, and thermochemical), sugarcane biomass can be transformed into high-value bioproducts to replace petrochemicals, as a bioeconomy model.

  6. Biorefinery Sustainability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. S. M. Silva, Carla; Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Gernaey, Krist

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with sustainability analysis of biorefinery systems in terms of environmental and socio-economic indicators . Life cycle analysis has methodological issues related to the functional unit (FU), allocation , land use and biogenic carbon neutrality of the reference system and of t......This chapter deals with sustainability analysis of biorefinery systems in terms of environmental and socio-economic indicators . Life cycle analysis has methodological issues related to the functional unit (FU), allocation , land use and biogenic carbon neutrality of the reference system...... and of the biorefinery-based system. Socio-economic criteria and indicators used in sustainability frameworks assessment are presented and discussed. There is not one single methodology that can aptly cover the synergies of environmental, economic, social and governance issues required to assess the sustainable...

  7. Recovery Act : Heterogeneous Feed Biorefinery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Richard [Enerkem Mississippi Biofuels LLC, Pontotoc, MS (United States)

    2015-03-15

    To overcome the hurdles associated with introducing a new technology, Enerkem applied to the US DOE for grant assistance with its Pontotoc, Mississippi, biorefinery under the DOE’s Demonstration of Integrated Biorefinery Operations FOA. Consistent with Enerkem’s strategic approach, the project proposed uses post sorted municipal solid waste blended with other forest residue. The proposed biorefinery is to be located within the boundaries of a working landfill, thus simplifying many aspects of environmental permitting while also reducing feedstock acquisition and transportation costs. An economic impact analysis was conducted using an adaptation of the US Department of Energy’s JEDI (Jobs and Economic Development Impact) model for an ethanol-producing biorefinery. The JEDI model, which does not have a thermochemical processing option, had to be configured to reflect a biomass feedstock and was thus adapted by Enerkem to account for the unique feedstock requirements and operations of the Project. According to this model, development, construction, and 2 years of operation of the biorefinery require an investment of approximately $140 million. Also, a construction period of 18 months will create significant direct and indirect employment. Indirect employment includes steel manufacturers, construction materials manufacturers, material shipping, equipment manufacturers and fabrication, etc. During the construction phase of the Project, 210 total jobs are expected to be created, including 145 direct jobs and 72 indirect or induced jobs. During the operating period, 131 jobs would be created, 95 of which are direct. It is anticipated that the project will create at least 10 new jobs (included in the above figures and in addition to the JEDI data) in the sorting and recycling sector, since the project will require operations in sorting MSW since valuable ferrous, nonferrous and recyclable plastic materials will be sorted from MSW as part of the process that isolates

  8. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) User Reference Guide: Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This guide -- the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model User Reference Guide -- was developed to assist users in operating and understanding the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model. The guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and data sources used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model estimates local (e.g., county- or state-level) job creation, earnings, and output from total economic activity for a given fast pyrolysis biorefinery. These estimates include the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the construction and operation phases of biorefinery projects.Local revenue and supply chain impacts as well as induced impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from the IMPLAN software program. By determining the local economic impacts and job creation for a proposed biorefinery, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model can be used to field questions about the added value biorefineries might bring to a local community.

  9. Vegetable Oil-Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudel, Frank; Wiesen, Sebastian

    2017-03-07

    Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products.

  10. Biorefinery plant design, engineering and process optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Before new biorefinery systems can be implemented, or the modification of existing single product biomass processing units into biorefineries can be carried out, proper planning of the intended biorefinery scheme must be performed initially. This chapter outlines design and synthesis approaches a...

  11. Engineering Cellulases for Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [Royal DSM, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-06-27

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  12. Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günerken, E; D'Hondt, E; Eppink, M H M; Garcia-Gonzalez, L; Elst, K; Wijffels, R H

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a potential source for various valuable chemicals for commercial applications ranging from nutraceuticals to fuels. Objective in a biorefinery is to utilize biomass ingredients efficiently similarly to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of products with higher value. Downstream processes in microalgae biorefineries consist of different steps whereof cell disruption is the most crucial part. To maintain the functionality of algae biochemicals during cell disruption while obtaining high disruption yields is an important challenge. Despite this need, studies on mild disruption of microalgae cells are limited. This review article focuses on the evaluation of conventional and emerging cell disruption technologies, and a comparison thereof with respect to their potential for the future microalgae biorefineries. The discussed techniques are bead milling, high pressure homogenization, high speed homogenization, ultrasonication, microwave treatment, pulsed electric field treatment, non-mechanical cell disruption and some emerging technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S

    2012-01-01

    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery.

  14. Design of an Optimal Biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Zondervan, Edwin; Woodley, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a biorefinery optimization model that can be used to find the optimal processing route for the production of ethanol, butanol, succinic acid and blends of these chemicals with fossil fuel based gasoline. The approach unites transshipment models with a superstructure...

  15. Novel renewable products for biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biorefinery integrates unit operations to convert biomass into a variety of biobased products, including fuels, chemicals, energy, and feed. Government policy initiatives over the last 1-2 decades have emphasized the production of biobased fuels, and consequently the number of dry-grind ethanol bi...

  16. Design of an Optimal Biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Zondervan, Edwin; Woodley, John

    In this paper we propose a biorefinery optimization model that can be used to find the optimal processing route for the production of ethanol, butanol, succinic acid and blends of these chemicals with fossil fuel based gasoline. The approach unites transshipment models with a superstructure...

  17. Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günerken, E.; Hondt, d' E.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Garcia-Gonzalez, L.; Elst, K.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a potential source for various valuable chemicals for commercial applications ranging from nutraceuticals to fuels. Objective in a biorefinery is to utilize biomass ingredients efficiently similarly to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of

  18. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario

    2015-01-01

    ecently, macroalgal biomass is gaining wide attention as an alternative in the production of biofuels (as bioetanol and biogas) and compounds with high added value with specific properties (antioxidants, anticoagulants, anti–inflammatories) for applications in food, medical and energy industries...... in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore...

  19. Biorefinery opportunities for the forest products industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie

    2013-01-01

    Wood residues offer biorefinery opportunities for new products in our industries including fuel and chemicals. But industry must have two capabilities to succeed with biorefineries. Most forest products companies already have the first capability: knowing where the resource is, how to get it, and how much it will cost. They will need to integrate the acquisition of...

  20. Integrated Biorefineries: Biofuels, Biopower, and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-06

    This fact sheet describes integrated biorefineries and the Program's work with them. A crucial step in developing the U.S. bioindustry is to establish integrated biorefineries capable of efficiently converting a broad range of biomass feedstocks into affordable biofuels, biopower, and other bioproducts.

  1. 75 FR 11840 - Biorefinery Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... 0570-0055. Nondiscrimination Statement USDA prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities..., sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic... of discrimination, write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW...

  2. 75 FR 20043 - Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... supervised to participate in order to manage Agency risk associated with this program. Although the lenders... and costs of the Section 9003 program to lenders, borrowers, and the Agency. The analysis contains..., the lender's analysis and credit evaluation, financial statements on the borrower, a feasibility study...

  3. Water-based woody biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Thomas E; Liu, Shijie

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of biomass into chemicals and energy is essential in order to sustain our present way of life. Fossil fuels are currently the predominant energy source, but fossil deposits are limited and not renewable. Biomass is a reliable potential source of materials, chemicals and energy that can be replenished to keep pace with our needs. A biorefinery is a concept for the collection of processes used to convert biomass into materials, chemicals and energy. The biorefinery is a "catch and release" method for using carbon that is beneficial to both the environment and the economy. In this study, we discuss three elements of a wood-based biorefinery, as proposed by the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry (ESF): hot-water extraction, hydrolysis, and membrane separation/concentration. Hemicelluloses are the most easily separable main component of woody biomass and thus form the bulk of the extracts obtained by hot-water extraction of woody biomass. Hot-water extraction is an important step in the processes of woody biomass and product generation, replacing alternative costly pre-treatment methods. The hydrolysis of hemicelluloses produces 5-carbon sugars (mainly xylose), 6-carbon sugars (mainly glucose and mannose), and acetic acid. The use of nano-filtration membranes is an efficient technology that can be employed to fractionate hot-water extracts and wood hydrolysate. The residual solid mass after hot-water extraction has a higher energy content and contains fewer easily degradable components. This allows for more efficient subsequent processing to convert cellulose and lignin into conventional products.

  4. Biofuels and the biorefinery concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Liquid fuels can be made by refining a range of biomass materials, including oil-rich and sugar-rich crops such as oil-seed rape and sugar beet, biomass that consists mainly of plant cell walls (second generation lignocellulosics), macro- and micro-alga, or material that would now be discarded as waste. This can include animal bi-products as well as waste wood and other resources. In the medium-term, plant cell (lignocellulosic) material is likely to be favoured as the feedstock for biorefineries because of its availability. The UK may make use of a number of these options because of its complex agricultural landscape. There are now a range of targets for biofuel use in the UK, although their environmental effects are disputed. The technology of refining these materials is well known. Possible outputs include biodiesel and bioethanol, both of which can be used as transport fuel. Other potential products include hydrogen, polymers and a wide range of value-added chemicals, making this technology important in a post-petrochemical world. Biorefineries could use cogeneration to produce electricity. The paper identifies a range of research and development priorities which must be met if this opportunity is to be exploited fully

  5. Biorefineries: Current activities and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the current refuel valorization facilities as well as the future importance of biorefineries. A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. Biorefineries combine the necessary technologies of the biorenewable raw materials with those of chemical intermediates and final products. Char production by pyrolysis, bio-oil production by pyrolysis, gaseous fuels from biomass, Fischer-Tropsch liquids from biomass, hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass, supercritical liquefaction, and biochemical processes of biomass are studied and concluded in this review. Upgraded bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis can be used in vehicle engines as fuel.

  6. Forest biorefinery : the next century of innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The concept of producing cel¬lulosic biofuel, bioproducts, and chemicals using ligno¬celluloses in a biorefinery has been around for over a century. Renewed interest in the biorefinery concept has more recently arisen from concerns about climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels. Much research and progress has been made in the last three decades in the area of...

  7. Toward a common classification approach for biorefinery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Wellisch, M.; Wilke, T.; Skiadas, I.; Ree, van R.; Jong, de E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a biorefinery classification approach developed within International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 42. Since production of transportation biofuels is seen as the driving force for future biorefinery developments, a selection of the most interesting transportation biofuels

  8. Field to fuel: developing sustainable biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Robin; Alles, Carina

    2011-06-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) can be used as a scientific decision support technique to quantify the environmental implications of various biorefinery process, feedstock, and integration options. The goal of DuPont's integrated corn biorefinery (ICBR) project, a cost-share project with the United States Department of Energy, was to demonstrate the feasibility of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery concept. DuPont used LCA to guide research and development to the most sustainable cellulosic ethanol biorefinery design in its ICBR project and will continue to apply LCA in support of its ongoing effort with joint venture partners. Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel which has the potential to provide a sustainable solution to the nation's growing concerns around energy supply and climate change. A successful biorefinery begins with sustainable removal of biomass from the field. Michigan State University (MSU) used LCA to estimate the environmental performance of corn grain, corn stover, and the corn cob portion of the stover, grown under various farming practices for several corn growing locations in the United States Corn Belt. In order to benchmark the future technology options for producing cellulosic ethanol with existing technologies, LCA results for fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are compared to alternative ethanol processes and conventional gasoline. Preliminary results show that the DuPont ICBR outperforms gasoline and other ethanol technologies in the life-cycle impact categories considered here.

  9. Biorefineries – factories of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołtuniewicz Andrzej B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts were made to demonstrate that in biorefineries it is possible to manufacture all the commodities required for maintaining human civilisation on the current level. Biorefineries are based on processing biomass resulting from photosynthesis. From sugars, oils and proteins, a variety of food, feed, nutrients, pharmaceuticals, polymers, chemicals and fuels can further be produced. Production in biorefineries must be based on a few rules to fulfil sustainable development: all raw materials are derived from biomass, all products are biodegradable and production methods are in accordance with the principles of Green Chemistry and Clean Technology. The paper presents a summary of state-of-the-art concerning biorefineries, production methods and product range of leading companies in the world that are already implemented. Potential risks caused by the development of biorefineries, such as: insecurities of food and feed production, uncontrolled changes in global production profiles, monocultures, eutrophication, etc., were also highlighted in this paper. It was stressed that the sustainable development is not only an alternative point of view but is our condition to survive.

  10. Liquefaction of Biorefinery Lignin for Fuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders

    Lignocellulosic biorefineries can be an important piece of the puzzle in fighting climate change. Present, biorefineries that produce ethanol from lignocellulose are challenged in working on market terms as the two product streams ethanol and lignin are low value products. The aim of this project...... has been to increase the value of the lignin stream. Recent regulations on shipping exhaust gasses in coastal waters dictate lower sulfur emissions which require ships to use low sulfur fuels for propulsion. This opens or expands a very large market for low sulfur fuels because a shift from...... traditional sulfur containing bunker fuel is needed. The lignin stream from lignocellulosic biorefineries could provide a source for the production of sulfur free fuels and this is what has been explored and demonstrated in this PhD project. The chemical reactions taking place in lignin during hydrothermal...

  11. Biorefinery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Das; Thomas T. Adams; Mark A. Eiteman; John Stickney; Joy Doran Peterson; James R. Kastner; Sudhagar Mani; Ryan Adolphson

    2012-06-12

    In this project we focused on several aspects of technology development that advances the formation of an integrated biorefinery. These focus areas include: [1] establishment of pyrolysis processing systems and characterization of the product oils for fuel applications, including engine testing of a preferred product and its pro forma economic analysis; [2] extraction of sugars through a novel hotwater extaction process, and the development of levoglucosan (a pyrolysis BioOil intermediate); [3] identification and testing of the use of biochar, the coproduct from pyrolysis, for soil applications; [4] developments in methods of atomic layer epitaxy (for efficient development of coatings as in fuel cells); [5] advancement in fermentation of lignocellulosics, [6] development of algal biomass as a potential substrate for the biorefinery, and [7] development of catalysts from coproducts. These advancements are intended to provide a diverse set of product choices within the biorefinery, thus improving the cost effectiveness of the system. Technical effectiveness was demonstrated in the pyrolysis biooil based diesel fuel supplement, sugar extraction from lignocelluose, use of biochar, production of algal biomass in wastewaters, and the development of catalysts. Economic feasibility of algal biomass production systems seems attractive, relative to the other options. However, further optimization in all paths, and testing/demonstration at larger scales are required to fully understand the economic viabilities. The various coproducts provide a clear picture that multiple streams of value can be generated within an integrated biorefinery, and these include fuels and products.

  12. Microalgae biorefinery: High value products perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Kit Wayne; Yap, Jing Ying; Show, Pau Loke; Suan, Ng Hui; Juan, Joon Ching; Ling, Tau Chuan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-04-01

    Microalgae have received much interest as a biofuel feedstock in response to the uprising energy crisis, climate change and depletion of natural sources. Development of microalgal biofuels from microalgae does not satisfy the economic feasibility of overwhelming capital investments and operations. Hence, high-value co-products have been produced through the extraction of a fraction of algae to improve the economics of a microalgae biorefinery. Examples of these high-value products are pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and anti-oxidants, with applications in cosmetics, nutritional and pharmaceuticals industries. To promote the sustainability of this process, an innovative microalgae biorefinery structure is implemented through the production of multiple products in the form of high value products and biofuel. This review presents the current challenges in the extraction of high value products from microalgae and its integration in the biorefinery. The economic potential assessment of microalgae biorefinery was evaluated to highlight the feasibility of the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biorefinery and Carbon Cycling Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, K. C., Adams; Thomas, T; Eiteman, Mark A; Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Adolphson, Ryan

    2012-06-08

    In this project we focused on several aspects of technology development that advances the formation of an integrated biorefinery. These focus areas include: [ 1] pretreatment of biomass to enhance quality of products from thermochemical conversion; [2] characterization of and development of coproduct uses; [3] advancement in fermentation of lignocellulosics and particularly C5 and C6 sugars simultaneously, and [ 4] development of algal biomass as a potential substrate for the biorefinery. These advancements are intended to provide a diverse set of product choices within the biorefinery, thus improving the cost effectiveness of the system. Technical effectiveness was demonstrated in the thermochemical product quality in the form of lower tar production, simultaneous of use of multiple sugars in fermentation, use ofbiochar in environmental (ammonia adsorption) and agricultural applications, and production of algal biomass in wastewaters. Economic feasibility of algal biomass production systems seems attractive, relative to the other options. However, further optimization in all paths, and testing/demonstration at larger scales are required to fully understand the economic viabilities. The coproducts provide a clear picture that multiple streams of value can be generated within an integrated biorefinery, and these include fuels and products.

  14. Lignin pyrolysis for profitable lignocellulosic biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de P.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based industries (pulp and paper and biorefineries) produce > 50 Mt/yr of lignin that results from fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass. Lignin is world's second biopolymer and a major potential source for production of performance materials and aromatic chemicals. Lignin valorization is

  15. Biorefinery: from biomass to chemicals and fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aresta, M; Dibenedetto, Angela; Dumeignil, Franck

    2012-01-01

    ... to end-user requirements) of advanced biorefineries. This concept attempts to integrate the different scientific and industrial communities with the expectation to achieve a breakthrough beyond the "business as usual" scenario. DG Research has been frequently requested to work in closer coordination between its different Themes in order to better answer ...

  16. Biorefinery of proteins from rubber plantation residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyarani, R.

    2016-01-01

    Biorefinery of rubber tree side streams could add economic value and income for farmers, who already grow the trees for latex production. The objective of this research was to design a process for the recovery of proteinaceous fractions from rubber tree. The aimed applications were expected to be

  17. 2009 Integrated Biorefinery Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) platform review meeting, held on February 18–19, 2009, at the Westin National Harbor, National Harbor, Maryland.

  18. Location-dependent optimal biorefinery synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Woodley, John M.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an extended framework for synthesis of biorefinery networks. The extension of the framework responds to the needs of: automatically generating problem-specific superstructures from an in-house database in an efficient and reliable way, as well as obtaining and analysing...

  19. Sapphire Energy - Integrated Algal Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Rebecca L. [Sapphire Energy, Inc., Columbus, NM (United States). Columbus Algal Biomass Farm; Tyler, Mike [Sapphire Energy, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-07-22

    Sapphire Energy, Inc. (SEI) is a leader in large-scale photosynthetic algal biomass production, with a strongly cohesive research, development, and operations program. SEI takes a multidiscipline approach to integrate lab-based strain selection, cultivation and harvest and production scale, and extraction for the production of Green Crude oil, a drop in replacement for traditional crude oil.. SEI’s technical accomplishments since 2007 have produced a multifunctional platform that can address needs for fuel, feed, and other higher value products. Figure 1 outlines SEI’s commercialization process, including Green Crude production and refinement to drop in fuel replacements. The large scale algal biomass production facility, the SEI Integrated Algal Biorefinery (IABR), was built in Luna County near Columbus, New Mexico (see fig 2). The extraction unit was located at the existing SEI facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico, approximately 95 miles from the IABR. The IABR facility was constructed on time and on budget, and the extraction unit expansion to accommodate the biomass output from the IABR was completed in October 2012. The IABR facility uses open pond cultivation with a proprietary harvesting method to produce algal biomass; this biomass is then shipped to the extraction facility for conversion to Green Crude. The operation of the IABR and the extraction facilities has demonstrated the critical integration of traditional agricultural techniques with algae cultivation knowledge for algal biomass production, and the successful conversion of the biomass to Green Crude. All primary unit operations are de-risked, and at a scale suitable for process demonstration. The results are stable, reliable, and long-term cultivation of strains for year round algal biomass production. From June 2012 to November 2014, the IABR and extraction facilities produced 524 metric tons (MT) of biomass (on a dry weight basis), and 2,587 gallons of Green Crude. Additionally, the IABR

  20. Chemistry in forest biorefineries II - BIORAFF II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Process Chemistry Centre), Email: mhupa@abo.fi; Auer, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Process Chemistry Centre), Email: mauer@abo.fi

    2010-10-15

    The biorefinery concept may be compared to an oil refinery and petrochemical plant, where fuels and numerous intermediates are produced for further processing into high-value and speciality materials. In biorefineries, the raw material instead of mineral oil is biobased material. Biorefinery development at the US and European level mostly covers the use of annual crops and other bio-based materials. However, in this project focus is on non-food materials primarily in industrial pulp and paper processes and this project is limited to forest-based biorefineries. The aim of the project is also to preserve the molecular structures created by the nature as much as possible, to explore new separation and purification methods and look at new applications in the areas such as: functional food, nutritional additives, functional additives in paper making, antioxidants, new biobased materials and biobased energy. As the area, in spite of efforts to limit it, is very large, we have selected to focus on a limited number of concretised projects, which to our knowledge are complementary with other efforts for promoting biorefinery concepts. As highlights about promising results are studies on extraction of wood and derivatisations of hemicelluloses. The goals here are twofold; we are looking for the additional functionalities for hemicelluloses and searching for new applications. Hemicelluloses in many applications would benefit from the modification of the structure, especially to improve compatibility and solubility in some applications. Research on metals in trees and fuels, release of elements in combustion, pyrolysis and sorption studies have produced new knowledge. (orig.)

  1. Chemistry in forest biorefineries II - BIORAFF II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Auer, M. (Aabo Akademi University, Turku (Finland), Process Chemistry Centre), e-mail: mhupa@abo.fi, e-mail: mauer@abo.fi

    2011-11-15

    The biorefinery concept may be compared to an oil refinery and petrochemical plant, where fuels and numerous intermediates are produced for further processing into high-value and speciality materials. In biorefineries, the raw material instead of mineral oil is bio-based material. Biorefinery development at the US and European level mostly covers the use of annual crops and other bio-based materials. However, in this project focus is on non-food materials primarily in industrial pulp and paper processes and this project is limited to forest-based biorefineries. The aim of the project is also to preserve the molecular structures created by the nature as much as possible, to explore new separation and purification methods and look at new applications in the areas such as: functional food, nutritional additives, functional additives in paper making, antioxidants, new biobased materials and biobased energy. As the area, in spite of efforts to limit it, is very large, we have selected to focus on a limited number of concretised projects, which to our knowledge are complementary with other efforts for promoting biorefinery concepts. As highlights about promising results are studies on extraction of wood and derivatisations of hemicelluloses. The goals here are twofold; we are looking for the additional functionalities for hemicelluloses and search of new applications. Hemicelluloses in many applications would benefit from the modification of the structure, especially to improve compatibility and solubility in some applications. Research on metals in trees and fuels, release of elements in combustion, pyrolysis and sorption studies have produced new knowledge. (orig.)

  2. From tiny microalgae to huge biorefineries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, L.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are an emerging research field due to their high potential as a source of several biofuels in addition to the fact that they have a high-nutritional value and contain compounds that have health benefits. They are also highly used for water stream bioremediation and carbon dioxide mitigation. Therefore, the tiny microalgae could lead to a huge source of compounds and products, giving a good example of a real biorefinery approach. This work shows and presents examples of experimental...

  3. Biorefineries. Prerequisite for the realization of a future bioeconomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagemann, K. [DECHEMA e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The current discussion on how to establish a bioeconomy aims in particular at a significant increase of the share of renewable raw materials in the feedstock pool for the production of chemicals and materials; this share currently is around 12%. Such products can be intermediate chemicals, presently already produced from petroleum. Other chemicals, which can be components of new value chains, are also being discussed. In addition materials like biopolymers are already used directly in consumer goods. These considerations imply a higher demand on renewable raw materials especially from plants. Biorefineries will play an important role in meeting this demand. The German Government has decided to draw up a roadmap being established by a group of independent experts from industry and academia. This roadmap describes in a systematic way status and perspectives of the different biorefinery concepts. It takes economic and ecological aspects into considerations and analyses the R and D demand. The following definition is taken as a basis for the analysis: 'A biorefinery is characterised by having a dedicated, integrative overall approach, using biomass as a versatile raw material source for the sustainable production of a spectrum of different intermediates and marketable products (chemicals, materials, bioenergy and food/feed co-products) by using the biomass components as complete as possible.' The analysis considers the following promising concepts: - Sugar biorefinery and Starch biorefinery; - Plant oil biorefinery including Algae lipid biorefinery; - Lignocellulose (Cellulose/Hemicellulose/Lignin) biorefinery including Green (green fibre/green juice) biorefinery; - Synthesis gas biorefinery; - Biogas biorefinery. The roadmap analyses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the different concepts. For several specific examples preliminary economical and ecological assessment were carried out. The lecture will also give examples how these

  4. Downstream processing of Isochrysis galbana: a step towards microalgal biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert-López, B.; Mendiola, J.A.; Fontecha, J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Sijtsma, L.; Cifuentes, A.; Herrero, M.; Ibáñez, E.

    2015-01-01

    An algae-based biorefinery relies on the efficient use of algae biomass through its fractionation of several valuable/bioactive compounds that can be used in industry. If this biorefinery includes green platforms as downstream processing technologies able to fulfill the requirements of green

  5. Waste Biorefinery: A New Paradigm for a Sustainable Bioelectro Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Butti, Sai Kishore; Amulya, K; Dahiya, Shikha; Modestra, J Annie

    2016-11-01

    A waste biorefinery is a means to valorize waste as a renewable feedstock to recover biobased materials and energy through sustainable biotechnology. This approach holistically integrates remediation and resource recovery. Here we discuss the various technologies employable to construct a waste biorefinery platform and its place in a biobased economy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomass supply chain optimisation for Organosolv-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Sara; Patel, Mayank; Shah, Nilay

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at providing a Mixed Integer Linear Programming modelling framework to help define planning strategies for the development of sustainable biorefineries. The up-scaling of an Organosolv biorefinery was addressed via optimisation of the whole system economics. Three real world case studies were addressed to show the high-level flexibility and wide applicability of the tool to model different biomass typologies (i.e. forest fellings, cereal residues and energy crops) and supply strategies. Model outcomes have revealed how supply chain optimisation techniques could help shed light on the development of sustainable biorefineries. Feedstock quality, quantity, temporal and geographical availability are crucial to determine biorefinery location and the cost-efficient way to supply the feedstock to the plant. Storage costs are relevant for biorefineries based on cereal stubble, while wood supply chains present dominant pretreatment operations costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Waste biorefineries: Enabling circular economies in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, A S; Rehan, M; Waqas, M; Naqvi, M; Ouda, O K M; Shahzad, K; Miandad, R; Khan, M Z; Syamsiro, M; Ismail, I M I; Pant, Deepak

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to examine the potential of waste biorefineries in developing countries as a solution to current waste disposal problems and as facilities to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added products. The waste in developing countries represents a significant source of biomass, recycled materials, chemicals, energy, and revenue if wisely managed and used as a potential feedstock in various biorefinery technologies such as fermentation, anaerobic digestion (AD), pyrolysis, incineration, and gasification. However, the selection or integration of biorefinery technologies in any developing country should be based on its waste characterization. Waste biorefineries if developed in developing countries could provide energy generation, land savings, new businesses and consequent job creation, savings of landfills costs, GHG emissions reduction, and savings of natural resources of land, soil, and groundwater. The challenges in route to successful implementation of biorefinery concept in the developing countries are also presented using life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Algal Biomass for Bioenergy and Bioproducts Production in Biorefinery Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina

    is becoming impellent. Macro- and microalgae have the ability to transform nutrients into valuable biomass. Being a good source of vitamins, minerals, lipids, proteins and pigments, they represent a promising source of various products. However these biomasses are still very little explored as biorefinery...... that can be obtained. In this thesis, micro- and macroalage were investigated as biorefinery feedstocks. The main aim of this work was developing different biorefinery strategies for the production of high value products, such as proteins or pigments, to be employed in the pharmaceutical or nutraceutical...... feedstocks. Biorefinery represents an important tool towards the development of a sustainable economy. Within the biorefinery framework several bioproducts, such as food, feed and biofuels, can be produced from biomass. The specific composition of the biomass feedstock determines the potential final product...

  9. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Laboratory; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Laboratory; Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Laboratory; Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Laboratory; Roni, MD S [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  10. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jason K.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.

    2015-07-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  11. Biorefinery Demonstration Project Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, David [University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc., Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-10-20

    In this project we focused on various aspects of biorefinery technology development including algal-biorefinery technology, thermochemical conversion of biomass to bio-oils and biochar; we tested characteristics and applications of biochars and evaluated nutrient cycling with wastewater treatment by the coupling of algal culture systems and anaerobic digestion. Key results include a method for reducing water content of bio-oil through atomized alcohol addition. The effect included increasing the pH and reducing the viscosity and cloud point of the bio-oil. Low input biochar production systems were evaluated via literature reviews and direct experimental work. Additionally, emissions were evaluated and three biochar systems were compared via a life cycle analysis. Attached growth systems for both algal cultivation and algal harvesting were found to be superior to suspended growth cultures. Nutrient requirements for algal cultivation could be obtained by the recycling of anaerobic digester effluents, thus experimentally showing that these two systems could be directly coupled. Twenty-two journal articles and six intellectual property applications resulted from the cumulative work that this project contributed to programmatically.

  12. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  13. Identifying the point of departures for the detailed sustainability assessment of biomass feedstocks for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Dalgaard, Tommy

    for biorefineries and potential impacts to the existing market. This study aims to assist in the sustainability assessment of straw conversion in the biochemical conversion routes to deliver bioethanol and other biobased products. For the comparison, conversion of straw to produce heat and electricity in a Combined...... Heat and Power (CHP) plant is analysed from a life cycle perspectives. We have found that straw conversion to heat and power in the CHP plant would lead to a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of −187 g CO2-eq, Acidification Potential (AP) 0.01 m2 UES (un-protected ecosystem), aquatic and terrestrial...

  14. To The Biorefinery: Delivered Forestland and Agricultural Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    It can be challenging and costly to transport biomass feedstock supplies from the roadside, or farmgate, to a biorefinery. Given the geographic dispersion and lowbulk density of cellulosic feedstocks, cost effective scaling of commercial biorefinery operations requires overcoming many challenges. The Biomass Research and Development Board’s Feedstock Logistics Interagency Working Group identified four primary barriers related to biorefinery commercialization: • Capacity and efficiency of harvest and collection equipment • High-moisture content leading to degradation of biomass • Variable biomass quality upon arrival at the biorefinery • Costly transportation options.1 Further, feedstock supply systems do not currently mitigate risks such as low crop yield, fire, or competition for resource use. Delivery and preprocessing improvements will allow for the development of a commercial-scale bioenergy industry that achieves national production and cost targets.

  15. Optimizing Biorefinery Design and Operations via Linear Programming Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, Michael; Batan, Liaw; Lamers, Patrick; Hartley, Damon; Biddy, Mary; Tao, Ling; Tan, Eric

    2017-03-28

    The ability to assess and optimize economics of biomass resource utilization for the production of fuels, chemicals and power is essential for the ultimate success of a bioenergy industry. The team of authors, consisting of members from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), has developed simple biorefinery linear programming (LP) models to enable the optimization of theoretical or existing biorefineries. The goal of this analysis is to demonstrate how such models can benefit the developing biorefining industry. It focuses on a theoretical multi-pathway, thermochemical biorefinery configuration and demonstrates how the biorefinery can use LP models for operations planning and optimization in comparable ways to the petroleum refining industry. Using LP modeling tools developed under U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (DOE-BETO) funded efforts, the authors investigate optimization challenges for the theoretical biorefineries such as (1) optimal feedstock slate based on available biomass and prices, (2) breakeven price analysis for available feedstocks, (3) impact analysis for changes in feedstock costs and product prices, (4) optimal biorefinery operations during unit shutdowns / turnarounds, and (5) incentives for increased processing capacity. These biorefinery examples are comparable to crude oil purchasing and operational optimization studies that petroleum refiners perform routinely using LPs and other optimization models. It is important to note that the analyses presented in this article are strictly theoretical and they are not based on current energy market prices. The pricing structure assigned for this demonstrative analysis is consistent with $4 per gallon gasoline, which clearly assumes an economic environment that would favor the construction and operation of biorefineries. The analysis approach and examples provide valuable insights into the usefulness of analysis tools for

  16. Techno-economic feasibility of waste biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahzad, Khurram; Narodoslawsky, Michael; Sagir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of industrial waste streams as input materials for bio-mediated production processes constitutes a current R&D objective not only to reduce process costs at the input side but in parallel, to minimize hazardous environmental emissions. In this context, the EU-funded project ANIMPOL...... elaborated a process for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers starting from diverse waste streams of the animal processing industry. This article provides a detailed economic analysis of PHA production from this waste biorefinery concept, encompassing the utilization of low......-quality biodiesel, offal material and meat and bone meal (MBM). Techno-economic analysis reveals that PHA production cost varies from 1.41 €/kg to 1.64 €/kg when considering offal on the one hand as waste, or, on the other hand, accounting its market price, while calculating with fixed costs for the co...

  17. Synthesis and design of optimal biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam

    process feasibility analysis is of a multidisciplinary nature, often limited and uncertain; (iii) Complexity challenge: this problem is complex requiring multi-criteria evaluation (technical, economic,sustainability). This PhD project aims to develop a decision support tool for identifying optimal...... biorefinery concepts at the early-stage of product-process development. To this end, asystematic framework has been developed, including a superstructure-based optimization approach, a comprehensive database of processing and conversion technologies, and model libraries to allow generation and comparison...... of a large numberof alternatives at their optimality. The result is the identification of the optimal rawmaterial, the product (single vs multi) portfolio and the corresponding process technology selection for a given market scenario. The economic risk of investment due to market uncertainties is further...

  18. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden

    2013-02-01

    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  19. 75 FR 20073 - Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    .... Succession and Control of Facilities and Production IV. Request for Comments I. Administrative Requirements A... performance of the functions of Rural Development, including whether the information will have practical... for any refund or related charges due under this program. P. Succession and Control of Facilities and...

  20. 76 FR 7915 - Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... resources; land use; historic and cultural resources, and greenhouse gas emissions affected by the... burden of helping green tech companies to cross into full-scale commercialization without the same... Middle East, China, Malaysia). In addition, as technology deployment costs are lower overseas, foreign...

  1. 77 FR 3379 - Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loans; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... credit risk analysis. The Agency will require an evaluation and either a credit rating or a credit... provisions as to what an applicant is to do in the event either an appraisal is not completed or a credit... Correction As published, the interim rule requires applicants to submit a ``credit rating'' with the...

  2. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper...

  3. Recovery Act: Alpena Biorefinery and Alpena Biorefinery Lignin Separation Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retsina, Theodora [American Process Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-12-19

    The Alpena Biorefinery (AB) was constructed in Alpena, Michigan, at the Decorative Panels International hardboard manufacturing facility. The goal of the AB was to demonstrate a modular, technically successful, and financially viable process of making cellulosic ethanol from woody biomass extract at wood processing facilities. At full capacity, the AB can produce 894,200 gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol and 696,000 gallons per year of aqueous potassium acetate, using extract from northern hardwood and aspen woodchips feedstock. The project objectives and the value proposition of AB promote the national goals of energy independence, greenhouse gas reduction, and green job creation and retention. A successful outcome of the Alpena Biorefinery project has been commercial sales of the first ever cellulosic ethanol RINS generated from woody biomass in the US, under the EPA’s Renewable Fuels Standard Program. We believe that American Process is also likely the first company in the world to produce commercial quantities of cellulosic ethanol from mixed forest residue. Life Cycle Analysis performed by Michigan Institute of Technology found that the entire life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from the plant’s cellulosic ethanol were only 25 percent that of petroleum-based gasoline. They found the potassium acetate runway de-icer coproduct generates up to 45 percent less greenhouse gases than the production of conventional potassium acetate. The Alpena Biorefinery project created 31 permanent jobs for direct employees and helped retain 200 jobs associated with the existing Decorative Panels International facility, by increasing its economic viability through significant savings in waste water treatment costs. The AB project has been declared a Michigan Center of Energy Excellence and was awarded a $4 million State of Michigan grant. The project also received New Market Tax Credit financing for locating in an economically distressed community. All other equity funds

  4. Laccases for biorefinery applications: a critical review on challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Simon; Spiess, Antje C

    2015-12-01

    Modern biorefinery concepts focus on lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for the production of next generation biofuels and platform chemicals. Lignocellulose is a recalcitrant composite consisting of several tightly packed components which are stuck together by the phenolic polymer lignin hampering the access to the carbohydrate compounds of biomass. Certain saprophytic organisms are able to degrade lignin by the use of an enzymatic cocktail. Laccases have been found to play a major role during lignin degradation and have therefore been intensively researched with regard to potential applications for biomass processing. Within this review, we go along the process chain of a third generation biorefinery and highlight the process steps which could benefit from laccase applications. Laccases can assist the pretreatment of biomass and promote the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by the oxidative modification of residual lignin on the biomass surface. In combination with mediator molecules laccases are often reported being able to catalyze the depolymerization of lignin. Studies with lignin model compounds confirm the chemical possibility of a laccase-catalyzed cleavage of lignin bonds, but the strong polymerization activity of laccase counters the decomposition of lignin by repolymerizing the degradation products. Therefore, it is a key challenge to shift the catalytic performance of laccase towards lignin cleavage by optimizing the process conditions. Another field of application for laccases is the detoxification of biomass hydrolyzates by the oxidative elimination of lignin-derived phenolics which inhibit hydrolytic enzymes and are toxic for fermentation organisms. This review critically discusses the potential applications for laccases in biorefinery processes and emphasizes the challenges and perspectives which go along with the use of this enzyme for the technical utilization of lignocellulose.

  5. Multitasking mesoporous nanomaterials for biorefinery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, Kapil [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    in microalgae biorefinery. Two different integrated biorefinery systems are highlighted. (i) OM-MSNs are used to harvest microalgae and selectively sequester free fatty acids (FFAs). (ii) OM-MSNs are shown to selectively sequester FFAs and convert them into diesel-range liquid hydrocarbon fuels. A similar MSN supported metal nanoparticle catalyst is demonstrated to transform FFAs into green diesel with even greater activity and selectivity. The incorporation of a different organic functional group into MSN provides a selective adsorbent for separation and purification of α-tocopherol from microalgae oil. The functional group with electron deficient aromatic rings demonstrated high sequestration capacity and selectivity of {alpha}-tocopherol.

  6. Multitasking mesoporous nanomaterials for biorefinery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Kapil

    in microalgae biorefinery. Two different integrated biorefinery systems are highlighted. (i) OM-MSNs are used to harvest microalgae and selectively sequester free fatty acids (FFAs). (ii) OM-MSNs are shown to selectively sequester FFAs and convert them into diesel-range liquid hydrocarbon fuels. A similar MSN supported metal nanoparticle catalyst is demonstrated to transform FFAs into green diesel with even greater activity and selectivity. The incorporation of a different organic functional group into MSN provides a selective adsorbent for separation and purification of alpha-tocopherol from microalgae oil. The functional group with electron deficient aromatic rings demonstrated high sequestration capacity and selectivity of alpha-tocopherol.

  7. The realm of cellulases in biorefinery development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Anuj K; Chandrasekhar, G; Silva, Messias Borges; Silvério da Silva, Silvio

    2012-09-01

    Geopolitical concerns (unstable supply of gasoline, environmental pollution, and regular price hikes), economic, and employment concerns have been prompting researchers, entrepreneurs, and policy makers to focus on harnessing the potential of lignocellulosic feedstock for fuel ethanol production and its commercialization. The carbohydrate skeleton of plant cell walls needs to be depolymerised into simpler sugars for their application in fermentation reactions as a chief carbon source of suitable ethnologic strains for ethanol production. The role of cellulolytic enzymes in the degradation of structural carbohydrates of the plant cell wall into ready-to-fermentable sugar stream is inevitable. Cellulase synergistically acts upon plant cell wall polysaccharides to release glucose into the liquid media. Cellulase predominantly dominates all the plant cell wall degrading enzymes due to their vast and diverse range of applications. Apart from the major applications of cellulases such as in detergent formulations, textile desizing, and development of monogastric feed for ruminants, their role in biorefinery is truly remarkable. This is a major area where new research tools based upon fermentation based formulations, biochemistry, and system biology to expedite the structure-function relationships of cellulases including cellulosomes and new designer enzymatic cocktails are required. In the last two decades, a considerable amount of research work has been performed on cellulases and their application in biomass saccharification. However, there are still technical and economic impediments to the development of an inexpensive commercial cellulase production process. Advancements in biotechnology such as screening of microorganisms, manipulation of novel cellulase encoding traits, site-specific mutagenesis, and modifications to the fermentation process could enhance the production of cellulases. Commercially, cheaper sources of carbohydrates and modified fermentation

  8. Sustainability Assessment of a Biorefinery Complex in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariyapat Nilsalab

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a biorefinery complex in Thailand was assessed vis-à-vis sustainability. The complex studied includes plantations of sugarcane and a biorefinery system composed of several units including, a sugar mill, power plant, ethanol factory and fertilizer plant. The assessment aimed at evaluating the environmental and socio-economic implications relating to molasses-based ethanol production and use, and maximized utilization of the biomass materials produced as part of the biorefinery complex. Global warming potential, human development index and total value added are the three indicators that were selected to perform the assessment. The results obtained revealed that the maximization of biomass utilization at the level of the biorefinery complex provide greenhouse gases emissions reduction benefits, enhanced living conditions for sugarcane farmers and employees of the biorefinery, and economic benefits, particularly with regard to profit and income generation. These results could serve as a first step to further improve and design indicators for sustainability assessment of biomass utilization.

  9. Modelling of the biorefinery scenarios - Bioscen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkanen, J.-P. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: juha-pekka.pitkanen@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the BioScen project was to develop quantitative modelling approaches for the future biomass based processes producing fuels and chemicals. The aim of the project was in developing methods to estimate the necessary material properties for phase and reaction equilibria, for the calculation of unit processes and their integration to biorefining production plant simulations. Additional focus was laid on model optimisation and product life cycle analysis. As the biorefining technologies possess an extensive range from thermal pyrolysis to biochemical processing at ambient temperatures, a most generic thermodynamically based approach was selected to enable usage of the methods to the wide variety of possible applications. The methods were then applied to a number of case studies including modelling of flash condensation of pyrolysis oil, hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass and its product recovery and the subsequent fermentation processes for bioethanol and biobutanol, for which also a comparative life cycle analysis was performed. Flowsheet process simulation was applied to a conceptual wood bark biorefinery. Metamodelling techniques were used for both model and parameter optimisation, including their sensitivity analysis.

  10. Biorefinery of instant noodle waste to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Lee, Sang Jun; Yoo, Hah Young; Choi, Han Suk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-05-01

    Instant noodle waste, one of the main residues of the modern food industry, was employed as feedstock to convert to valuable biofuels. After isolation of used oil from the instant noodle waste surface, the starch residue was converted to bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The maximum ethanol concentration and productivity was 61.1g/l and 1.7 g/lh, respectively. After the optimization of fermentation, ethanol conversion rate of 96.8% was achieved within 36 h. The extracted oil was utilized as feedstock for high quality biodiesel conversion with typical chemical catalysts (KOH and H2SO4). The optimum conversion conditions for these two catalysts were estimated; and the highest biodiesel conversion rates were achieved 98.5% and 97.8%, within 2 and 3h, respectively. The high conversion rates of both bioethanol and biodiesel demonstrate that novel substrate instant noodle waste can be an attractive biorefinery feedstock in the biofuels industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. From Current Algae Products to Future Biorefinery Practices: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppink, Michel H M; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Reith, Hans; van den Berg, Corjan; Barbosa, Maria J; Wijffels, Rene H

    2017-03-07

    Microalgae are considered to be one of the most promising next generation bio-based/food feedstocks with a unique lipid composition, high protein content, and an almost unlimited amount of other bio-active molecules. High-value components such as the soluble proteins, (poly) unsaturated fatty acids, pigments, and carbohydrates can be used as an important ingredient for several markets, such as the food/feed/chemical/cosmetics and health industries. Although cultivation costs have decreased significantly in the last few decades, large microalgae production processes become economically viable if all complex compounds are optimally valorized in their functional state. To isolate these functional compounds from the biomass, cost-effective, mild, and energy-efficient biorefinery techniques need to be developed and applied. In this review we describe current microalgae biorefinery strategies and the derived products, followed by new technological developments and an outlook toward future products and the biorefinery philosophy.

  12. Energy and environmental analysis of a rapeseed biorefinery conversion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Balzan, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    positive effects on the greenhouse gases (GHG) footprint of the biorefinery system, with improvements in the range of 9 % to 29 %, depending on the considered alternative. The mass and energy balances showed the potential for improvement of straw treatment processes (hydrothermal pre-treatment and dark......The need for biofuels is steadily increasing as a result of political strategies and the need for energy security. Biorefineries have the potential to improve the sustainability of biofuels through further recovery of valuable bioproducts and bioenergy. A life cycle assessment (LCA......)-based environmental assessment of a Danish biorefinery system was carried out to thoroughly analyze and optimize the concept and address future research. The LCA study was based on case-specific mass and energy balances and inventory data, and was conducted using consequential LCA approach to take into account market...

  13. Early stage design and analysis of biorefinery networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Recent work regarding biorefineries resulted in many competing concepts and technologies for conversion of renewable bio-based feedstock into many promising products including fuels, chemicals, materials, etc. The design of a biorefinery process requires, at its earlier stages, the selection...... of the process configuration which exhibits the best performances, for a given set of economical, technical and environmental criteria. To this end, we formulate a computer-aided framework as an enabling technology for early stage design and analysis of biorefineries. The tool represents different raw materials......, and the formulation and solution of an MINLP problem to identify the optimal processing route for multiple raw materials and products. Finally, economic, sustainability and LCA analysis are performed....

  14. UNCERTAINTY IN THE PROCESS INTEGRATION FOR THE BIOREFINERIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how the design approaches with high level of flexibility can reduce the additional costs of the strategies that apply overdesign factors to consider parameters with uncertainty that impact on the economic feasibility of a project. The elements with associate uncertainties and that are important in the configurations of the process integration under a biorefinery scheme are: raw material, raw material technologies of conversion, and variety of products that can be obtained. From the analysis it is obtained that in the raw materials and products with potentialities in a biorefinery scheme, there are external uncertainties such as availability, demands and prices in the market. Those external uncertainties can determine their impact on the biorefinery and also in the product prices we can find minimum and maximum limits that can be identified in intervals which should be considered for the project economic evaluation and the sensibility analysis due to varied conditions.

  15. Valorization of lignin from biorefineries for fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann

    substitute fossil fuel.In this Ph.D. study the direct liquefaction of a biorefinery lignin (hydrothermallypretreated enzymatic hydrolysis lignin) is explored. The goal is to provide a bio-crude which can substitute marine diesel as the engines found aboard large ships are adapted to more crude fuels. A novel...... process, which easily integrates with existing biorefinery infrastructure, is presented. The process yields a lignin-diesel oil (LDO) by noncatalyticsolvolysis in ethanol without hydrogen addition. The LDO is superior topyrolysis oil as it is non-acidic, stable and readily blends with fossil diesel...

  16. Biorefineries to integrate fuel, energy and chemical production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Bargiacchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The world of renewable energies is in fast evolution and arouses political and public interests, especially as an opportunity to boost environmental sustainability by mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This work aims at examining the possibilities related to the development of biorefineries, where biomass conversion processes to produce biofuels, electricity and biochemicals are integrated. Particular interest is given to the production processes of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, for which present world situation, problems, and perspectives are drawn. Potential areas for agronomic and biotech researches are also discussed. Producing biomass for biorefinery processing will eventually lead to maximize yields, in the non food agriculture.

  17. Optimal design of a multi-product biorefinery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zondervan, E.; Nawaz, Mehboob; de Haan, André B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a biorefinery optimization model that can be used to find the optimal processing route for the production of ethanol, butanol, succinic acid and blends of these chemicals with fossil fuel based gasoline. The approach unites transshipment models with a superstructure...

  18. Catalysis for biorefineries-performance criteria for industrial operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Past analyses of industrial processes for fuel and chemical manufacturing led to a few performance criteria that are critical for viable industrial operation. The present paper reviews these factors and provides a target window for each of them. It then illustrates their relevance for biorefineries

  19. Biomass Program 2007 Peer Review - Integrated Biorefinery Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Integrated Biorefinery Platform Review held on August 13-15, 2007 in Golden, Colorado.

  20. Sugar beet leaves: from biorefinery to techno-functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), which are a side stream of the sugar beets cultivation, are currently left unexploited after sugar beets have been harvested. The general aim of this thesis was to study the biorefinery of SBL, with a special focus on the isolation of proteins. To reach this aim the

  1. Dynamic Modeling, Optimization, and Advanced Control for Large Scale Biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail

    Second generation biorefineries transform agricultural wastes into biochemicals with higher added value, e.g. bioethanol, which is thought to become a primary component in liquid fuels [1]. Extensive endeavors have been conducted to make the production process feasible on a large scale, and recen......Second generation biorefineries transform agricultural wastes into biochemicals with higher added value, e.g. bioethanol, which is thought to become a primary component in liquid fuels [1]. Extensive endeavors have been conducted to make the production process feasible on a large scale......-time monitoring. The Inbicon biorefinery converts wheat straw into bioethanol utilizing steam, enzymes, and genetically modified yeast. The biomass is first pretreated in a steam pressurized and continuous thermal reactor where lignin is relocated, and hemicellulose partially hydrolyzed such that cellulose...... becomes more accessible to enzymes. The biorefinery is integrated with a nearby power plant following the Integrated Biomass Utilization System (IBUS) principle for reducing steam costs [4]. During the pretreatment, by-products are also created such as organic acids, furfural, and pseudo-lignin, which act...

  2. Techno-economical evaluation of protein extraction for microalgae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to scarcity of fossil feedstocks, there is an increasing demand for biobased fuels. Microalgae are considered as promising biobased feedstocks. However, microalgae based fuels are not yet produced at large scale at present. Applying biorefinery, not only for oil, but also for other

  3. BER-Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmorhun, Mark [Myriant Lake Providence, Inc., Lake Providence, LA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Myriant Corporation (Myriant) has successfully produced the bioproduct succinic acid by the fermentation of glucose at a commercial scale operation in Lake Providence, Louisiana. The MySAB facility (Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery) came on stream in May 2013 and has been producing product since then. The MySAB facility is a demonstration-scale plant, capable of utilizing sorghum grits and commercially available dextrose, to ferment glucose into succinic acid. A downstream processing train has demonstrated the ability to produce an industrial, a standard and a polymer grade product. It consists of cell separation, membrane filtration, continuous chromatography, polishing to remove ionic and color bodies impurities, and final evaporation and crystallization. A by-product of the process is ammonium sulfate which is sold as a liquid fertilizer product. Since 2007 when development work began in the Woburn, Massachusetts R&D laboratories, the succinic acid bio-process has evolved through: Process development (microbiology, fermentation, and downstream) – R&D development laboratories; Piloting efforts at Fermic S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, Mexico – upstream and downstream processes; Design, construction, commissioning, and commercial production operations at the MySAB facility Additionally, Myriant became a wholly-owned subsidiary of the PTT Global Chemical Plc., Thailand, in late 2015, their investment into and support of Myriant goes back to 2011. The support of PTT Global Chemical Plc. helped to improve the upstream and downstream processes, and produce significant metric ton quantities of high quality bio-based succinic acid. The product has gone into a number of commercial markets worldwide for customer applications, development and production. The experience base gained via operations at the MySAB facility since May 2013, along with continued R&D development efforts involving Microbiology, Fermentation, and Downstream processes, at both the Woburn, Massachusetts

  4. Cascade processing of wheat bran through a biorefinery approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celiktas, Melih Soner; Kirsch, Christian; Smirnova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • About 98% of total sugars were successfully converted and recovered from wheat bran. • LHW and effective enzyme-assisted extraction method is used to obtain total sugar. • Sequential treatment of various materials can be a great value to the industry. • High pressure and LHW can be a valuable treatment for the lignocellulosic materials. • Protein separation can be done with LHW. - Abstract: Structural characteristics of wheat bran such as surface area, crystallinity, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content significantly affect the yield of biorefinery products such as protein, fermentable sugar and lignin. The aim of the study was to use a sequence of high pressure extraction and hydrolysis processes in a cascade to create high potential value added products, namely, proteins, fermentable sugars and lignin. In the present study, four different sets of experiments were carried out step by step in a cascade sequence. The main experiments were the sequential extraction and hydrolysis which were optimized using design of experiments. Protein extraction from wheat bran was performed in a fixed bed reactor and was maximized to 1.976 g/L at the elicited optimum conditions which were 80 °C, pH 9.3 for a duration of 30 min. In the sequential experiment, process parameters such as temperature, flow rate and duration were optimized for liquid hot water (LHW) hydrolysis. The maximum reducing sugar concentration was 200 g/kg which corresponded to 34% per dry biomass obtained at a flow rate of 5 ml/min, temperature of 210 °C during a 45 min treatment. The following step was enzymatic hydrolysis to saccharify the cellulose under high pressure, where the independent variables were pressure, temperature and process time in order to ascertain the process conditions maximizing the reducing sugar content, where a positive correlation was observed between the solid–liquid loading ratio and reducing sugar yield. In the final step, the lignin content of

  5. Commercializing Biorefinery Technology: A Case for the Multi-Product Pathway to a Viable Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available While there may be many reasons why very interesting science ideas never reach commercial practice, one of the more prevalent is that the reaction or process, which is scientifically possible, cannot be made efficient enough to achieve economic viability. One pathway to economic viability for many business sectors is the multi-product portfolio. Research, development, and deployment of viable biorefinery technology must meld sound science with engineering and business economics. It is virtually axiomatic that increased value can be generated by isolating relatively pure substances from heterogeneous raw materials. Woody biomass is a heterogeneous raw material consisting of the major structural components, cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses, as well as minor components, such as extractives and ash. Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of D-glucopyrano-units with β-D(1®4 connections and is the wood component most resistant to chemical and biological degradation. Lignin is a macromolecule of phenylpropanoid units, second to cellulose in bio-resistance, and is the key component that is sought for removal from woody biomass in chemical pulping. Hemicelluloses are a collection of heteropolysaccharides, comprised mainly of 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Extractives, some of which have high commercial value, are a collection of low molecular weight organic and inorganic woody materials that can be removed, to some extent, under mild conditions. Applied Biorefinery Sciences, LLC (a private, New York, USA based company is commercializing a value-optimization pathway (the ABS Process™ for generating a multi-product portfolio by isolating and recovering homogeneous substances from each of the above mentioned major and minor woody biomass components. The ABS Process™ incorporates the patent pending, core biorefinery technology, “hot water extraction”, as developed at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY

  6. Application of CAPEC Lipid Property Databases in the Synthesis and Design of Biorefinery Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Cunico, Larissa; Gani, Rafiqul

    ]. The wide variety and complex nature of components in biorefineries poses a challenge with respect to the synthesis and design of these types of processes. Whereas physical and thermodynamic property data or models for petroleum-based processes are widely available, most data and models for biobased...... of biorefinery networks. The objective of this work is to show the application of databases of physical and thermodynamic properties of lipid components to the synthesis and design of biorefinery networks....

  7. Food waste biorefinery: Sustainable strategy for circular bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Shikha; Kumar, A Naresh; Shanthi Sravan, J; Chatterjee, Sulogna; Sarkar, Omprakash; Mohan, S Venkata

    2018-01-01

    Enormous quantity of food waste (FW) is becoming a global concern. To address this persistent problem, sustainable interventions with green technologies are essential. FW can be used as potential feedstock in biological processes for the generation of various biobased products along with its remediation. Enabling bioprocesses like acidogenesis, fermentation, methanogenesis, solventogenesis, photosynthesis, oleaginous process, bio-electrogenesis, etc., that yields various products like biofuels, platform chemicals, bioelectricity, biomaterial, biofertilizers, animal feed, etc can be utilized for FW valorisation. Integrating these bioprocesses further enhances the process efficiency and resource recovery sustainably. Adapting biorefinery strategy with integrated approach can lead to the development of circular bioeconomy. The present review highlights the various enabling bioprocesses that can be employed for the generation of energy and various commodity chemicals in an integrated approach addressing sustainability. The waste biorefinery approach for FW needs optimization of the cascade of the individual bioprocesses for the transformation of linear economy to circular bioeconomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Superstructure-based optimization of biorefinery networks: Production of biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Orsi, Albert; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    into account the available technologies, geographical location, future technological developments and global market changes. The problem of optimal design of biorefinery networks is solved in this work through three different stages: (i) synthesis stage, (ii) design stage, and (iii) innovation stage......]. The optimal synthesis of biorefinery networks problem is defined as: given a set of biomass derived feedstock and a set of desired final products and specifications, determine a flexible, sustainable and innovative processing network with the targets of minimum cost and sustainable development taking......, the selected processing network is simulated and analyzed and targets for improvement are identified. Finally, a more sustainable design is achieved at the innovation stage by generating innovative solutions that satisfy the targets from the design stage. The applicability of the proposed approach is shown...

  9. Synthesis of biorefinery networks using a superstructure optimization based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Anaya-Reza, Omar; Lopez-Arenas, Maria Teresa

    into account the available technologies, geographical location, future technological developments and global market changes. The problem of optimal design of biorefinery networks is solved in this work through three different stages: (i) synthesis stage, (ii) design stage, and (iii) innovation stage......, the selected processing network is simulated and analyzed and targets for improvement are identified. Finally, a more sustainable design is achieved at the innovation stage by generating innovative solutions that satisfy the targets from the design stage. This work is concerned with the first stage......]. The optimal synthesis of biorefinery networks problem is defined as: given a set of biomass derived feedstock and a set of desired final products and specifications, determine a flexible, sustainable and innovative processing network with the targets of minimum cost and sustainable development taking...

  10. Bio-refinery approach for spent coffee grounds valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Teresa M; Martins, António A; Caetano, Nídia S

    2018-01-01

    Although normally seen as a problem, current policies and strategic plans concur that if adequately managed, waste can be a source of the most interesting and valuable products, among which metals, oils and fats, lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, tannins, antioxidants, caffeine, polyphenols, pigments, flavonoids, through recycling, compound recovery or energy valorization, following the waste hierarchy. Besides contributing to more sustainable and circular economies, those products also have high commercial value when compared to the ones obtained by currently used waste treatment methods. In this paper, it is shown how the bio-refinery framework can be used to obtain high value products from organic waste. With spent coffee grounds as a case study, a sequential process is used to obtain first the most valuable, and then other products, allowing proper valorization of residues and increased sustainability of the whole process. Challenges facing full development and implementation of waste based bio-refineries are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biorefineries: Relocating Biomass Refineries to the Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Papendiek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The field for application of biomass is rising. The demand for food and feeding stuff rises while at the same time energy, chemicals and other materials also need to be produced from biomass because of decreasing fossil resources. However, the biorefinery ideas and concepts can help to use the limited renewable raw materials more efficiently than today. With biorefineries, valuable products, such as platform chemicals, can be produced from agricultural feedstock, which can subsequently be further processed into a variety of substances by the chemical industry. Due to the role they play as producers of biomass, rural areas will grow in importance in the decades to come. Parts of the biorefinery process can be relocated to the rural areas to bring a high added value to these regions. By refining biomass at the place of production, new economic opportunities may arise for agriculturists, and the industry gets high-grade pre-products. Additionally, an on-farm refining can increase the quality of the products because of the instant processing. To reduce competition with the food production and to find new possibilities of utilisation for these habitats, the focus for new agricultural biomass should be on grasslands. But also croplands can provide more renewable raw materials without endangering a sustainable agriculture, e.g. by implementing legumes in the crop rotation. To decide if a region can provide adequate amounts of raw material for a biorefinery, new raw material assessment procedures have to be developed. In doing so, involvement of farmers is inevitable to generate a reliable study of the biomass refinery potentials.

  12. Biorefinery concept in organic agriculture: combined bioethanol and biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Kádár, Zsófia; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Organic agriculture is one sustainable alternative to avoid the negative environmental effects often caused by conventional agriculture. BioConcens is an interdisciplinary project aims at developing new biorefinery concept and processes for co-production of bioethanol, biogas and animal feed based on resources from organic agriculture (clover grass, straw) and associated food processing (whey). Bioenergy produced in organic agriculture can reduce its dependency of fossil fuels and decrease gr...

  13. ClearFuels-Rentech Integrated Biorefinery Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Joshua [Project Director

    2014-02-26

    The project Final Report describes the validation of the performance of the integration of two technologies that were proven individually on a pilot scale and were demonstrated as a pilot scale integrated biorefinery. The integrated technologies were a larger scale ClearFuels’ (CF) advanced flexible biomass to syngas thermochemical high efficiency hydrothermal reformer (HEHTR) technology with Rentech’s (RTK) existing synthetic gas to liquids (GTL) technology.

  14. Assessing the environmental sustainability of ethanol from integrated biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falano, Temitope; Jeswani, Harish K; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the life cycle environmental sustainability of ethanol produced in integrated biorefineries together with chemicals and energy. Four types of second-generation feedstocks are considered: wheat straw, forest residue, poplar, and miscanthus. Seven out of 11 environmental impacts from ethanol are negative, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, when the system is credited for the co-products, indicating environmental savings. Ethanol from poplar is the best and straw the worst option for most impacts. Land use change from forest to miscanthus increases the GHG emissions several-fold. For poplar, the effect is opposite: converting grassland to forest reduces the emissions by three-fold. Compared to fossil and first-generation ethanol, ethanol from integrated biorefineries is more sustainable for most impacts, with the exception of wheat straw. Pure ethanol saves up to 87% of GHG emissions compared to petrol per MJ of fuel. However, for the current 5% ethanol-petrol blends, the savings are much smaller (ethanol from integrated biorefineries to the reduction of GHG emissions will be insignificant. Yet, higher ethanol blends would lead to an increase in some impacts, notably terrestrial and freshwater toxicity as well as eutrophication for some feedstocks. © 2014 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  15. Drivers and barriers for implementation of the biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, M.; Stuart, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discussed the barriers and drivers for the implementation of biorefinery technology in the forestry industry. A multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methodology was used by a panel of industry experts. The objective, drivers and barriers, and the decision structure and weighting procedure were established during a pre-panel phase. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was then applied to compare qualitative criteria. Pair-wise criteria were used to determine the importance of each driver and barrier. Drivers for the implementation of biorefineries included the opportunity to ensure short-term profitability; the provision of raw materials at competitive prices; potential financial incentives; and the opportunity to transform the forestry business model and increase its market value. Barriers included uncertainty in relation to government policies for biorefineries; high technology risks; the need for partnerships; and the fact that many industry members favour short-term decision-making. Results of the study showed that the most significant barrier was related to risk. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Drivers and barriers for implementation of the biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, M.; Stuart, P. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Design Engineering Chair

    2010-05-15

    This paper discussed the barriers and drivers for the implementation of biorefinery technology in the forestry industry. A multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methodology was used by a panel of industry experts. The objective, drivers and barriers, and the decision structure and weighting procedure were established during a pre-panel phase. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was then applied to compare qualitative criteria. Pair-wise criteria were used to determine the importance of each driver and barrier. Drivers for the implementation of biorefineries included the opportunity to ensure short-term profitability; the provision of raw materials at competitive prices; potential financial incentives; and the opportunity to transform the forestry business model and increase its market value. Barriers included uncertainty in relation to government policies for biorefineries; high technology risks; the need for partnerships; and the fact that many industry members favour short-term decision-making. Results of the study showed that the most significant barrier was related to risk. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. 76 FR 2096 - Record of Decision for the Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Abengoa Biorefinery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... municipal solid waste would be generated during the expected 30-year operating life of the biorefinery and... solid wastes generated during construction and operation of the biorefinery would be an irreversible and... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Record of Decision for the Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed...

  18. Physical pretreatment – woody biomass size reduction – for forest biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Physical pretreatment of woody biomass or wood size reduction is a prerequisite step for further chemical or biochemical processing in forest biorefinery. However, wood size reduction is very energy intensive which differentiates woody biomass from herbaceous biomass for biorefinery. This chapter discusses several critical issues related to wood size reduction: (1)...

  19. Sustainability assessment of sugarcane biorefinery and molasses ethanol production in Thailand using eco-efficiency indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Pongpat, Patcharaporn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugarcane biorefinery in Thailand is evaluated using the eco-efficiency concept. • Green cane along with cane trash use for electricity yields highest eco-efficiency. • Proposed biorefinery system increases eco-efficiency by 20–70%. - Abstract: The study aims to evaluate the sugarcane biorefinery and molasses ethanol production in Thailand using the combined environmental and economic sustainability indicator, so called “Eco-efficiency”. Four sugarcane biorefinery scenarios in Thailand are evaluated. The total output values (US$) and the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (kg CO 2 eq) are selected as the indicators for characterizing economic and environmental performance, respectively. The results show that the biorefinery system of mechanized farming along with cane trash utilization for power generation yields the highest eco-efficiency. The benefits come from the increased value added of the biorefinery together with the decreased GHG emissions of the biorefinery system. As compared to the base case scenario, the new systems proposed result in the eco-efficiency improvement by around 20–70%. The biorefinery concept induces reduction of GHG emissions attributed to molasses ethanol. Green cane production and harvesting results in further lowering of the GHG emissions. Integration of sugarcane biomass utilization across the entire sugarcane complex would enhance the sustainability of the sugarcane production system.

  20. Integrating separation and conversion - Conversion of biorefinery process streams to biobased chemicals and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph J. Bozell; Berenger Biannic; Diana Cedeno; Thomas Elder; Omid Hosseinaei; Lukas Delbeck; Jae-Woo Kim; C.J. O' Lenick; Timothy Young

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The concept of the integrated biorefinery is critical to developing a robust biorefining industry in the USA.Within this model, the biorefinery will produce fuel as a highvolume output addressing domestic energy needs and biobased chemical products (high-value organics) as an output providing necessary economic support for fuel production. This paper will...

  1. Biorefinery of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima for fuels and chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Blaauw, R.; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Wal, van der H.; Huijgen, W.J.J.; Hal, van J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Seaweeds (also called macroalgae) are considered a potential biomass feedstock for biorefineries for production of energy and chemicals. In this study, a biorefinery strategy for the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima is described. Fresh S. latissima harvested at the Irish coast contained glucose

  2. Microalgae based biorefinery: evaluation of oil extraction methods in terms of efficiency, costs, toxicity and energy in lab-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Darío González-Delgado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several alternatives of microalgal metabolites extraction and transformation are being studied for achieving the total utilization of this energy crop of great interest worldwide. Microalgae oil extraction is a key stage in microalgal biodiesel production chains and their efficiency affects significantly the global process efficiency. In this study, a comparison of five oil extraction methods in lab-scale was made taking as additional parameters, besides extraction efficiency, the costs of method performing, energy requirements, and toxicity of solvents used, in order to elucidate the convenience of their incorporation to a microalgae-based topology of biorefinery. Methods analyzed were Solvent extraction assisted with high speed homogenization (SHE, Continuous reflux solvent extraction (CSE, Hexane based extraction (HBE, Cyclohexane based extraction (CBE and Ethanol-hexane extraction (EHE, for this evaluation were used the microalgae strains Nannochloropsis sp., Guinardia sp., Closterium sp., Amphiprora sp. and Navicula sp., obtained from a Colombian microalgae bioprospecting. In addition, morphological response of strains to oil extraction methods was also evaluated by optic microscopy. Results shows that although there is not a unique oil extraction method which excels in all parameters evaluated, CSE, SHE and HBE appears as promising alternatives, while HBE method is shown as the more convenient for using in lab-scale and potentially scalable for implementation in a microalgae based biorefinery

  3. Designing optimal bioethanol networks with purification for integrated biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, Akshay U.; Shenoy, Uday V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical method is devised for bioethanol network integration with purification. • Minimum fresh bioethanol flow and pinch are found by the Unified Targeting Algorithm. • Optimal bioethanol networks are then synthesized by the Nearest Neighbors Algorithm. • Continuous targets and networks are developed over the purifier inlet flowrate range. • Case study of a biorefinery producing bioethanol from wheat shows large savings. - Abstract: Bioethanol networks with purification for processing pathways in integrated biorefineries are targeted and designed in this work by an analytical approach not requiring graphical constructions. The approach is based on six fundamental equations involving eight variables: two balance equations for the stream flowrate and the bioethanol load over the total network system; one equation for the above-pinch bioethanol load being picked up by the minimum fresh resource and the purified stream; and three equations for the purification unit. A solution strategy is devised by specifying the two variables associated with the purifier inlet stream. Importantly, continuous targeting is then possible over the entire purifier inlet flowrate range on deriving elegant formulae for the remaining six variables. The Unified Targeting Algorithm (UTA) is utilized to establish the minimum fresh bioethanol resource flowrate and identify the pinch purity. The fresh bioethanol resource flowrate target is shown to decrease linearly with purifier inlet flowrate provided the pinch is held by the same point. The Nearest Neighbors Algorithm (NNA) is used to methodically synthesize optimal networks matching bioethanol demands and sources. A case study of a biorefinery producing bioethanol from wheat with arabinoxylan (AX) coproduction is presented. It illustrates the versatility of the approach in generating superior practical designs with up to nearly 94% savings for integrated bioethanol networks, both with and without process

  4. Anaerobic digestion as final step of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2010-01-01

    In order to lower the costs for second generation bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass anaerobic digestion of the effluent from ethanol fermentation was implemented using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system in a pilot-scale biorefinery plant. Both thermophilic (538C......) and mesophilic (388C) operation of the UASB reactor was investigated. At an OLR of 3.5 kg- VS/(m3 day) a methane yield of 340 L/kg-VS was achieved for thermophilic operation (538C) while 270 L/kg-VS was obtained under mesophilic conditions (388C). For loading rates higher than 5 kg-VS/(m3 day) the methane yields...

  5. Synergistic Hydrogen Production in a Biorefinery via Bioelectrochemical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, A. P.; Hamilton, C. Y.; Schell, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells are devices that use biocatalysis and electrolysis for production of hydrogen from organic matter. Biorefinery process streams contain fermentation by products and inhibitors which accumulate in the process stream if the water is recycled. These molecules also affect biomass to biofuel yields if not removed from the recycle water. The presence of sugar- and lignin- degradation products such as furfural, vanillic acid and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde has been shown to reduce fermentation yields. In this work, we calculate the potential for hydrogen production using microbial electrolysis cells from these molecules as substrates. Conversion of these substrates to electricity is demonstrated in microbial fuel cells and will also be presented.

  6. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  7. Lignocentric analysis of a carbohydrate-producing lignocellulosic biorefinery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narron, Robert H; Han, Qiang; Park, Sunkyu; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan

    2017-10-01

    A biologically-based lignocellulosic biorefinery process for obtaining carbohydrates from raw biomass was investigated across six diverse biomasses (three hardwoods & three nonwoods) for the purpose of decoding lignin's influence on sugar production. Acknowledging that lignin could positively alter the economics of an entire process if valorized appropriately, we sought to correlate the chemical properties of lignin within the process to the traditional metrics associated with carbohydrate production-cellulolytic digestibility and total sugar recovery. Based on raw carbohydrate, enzymatic recovery ranged from 40 to 64% w/w and total recovery ranged from 70 to 87% w/w. Using nitrobenzene oxidation to quantify non-condensed lignin structures, it was found that raw hardwoods bearing increasing non-condensed S/V ratios (2.5-5.1) render increasing total carbohydrate recovery from hardwood biomasses. This finding indicates that the chemical structure of hardwood lignin influences the investigated biorefinery process' ability to generate carbohydrates from a given raw hardwood feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. UTILIZATION OF AGROINDUSTRIALES RESIDUES AS BIOFUELS AND BIOREFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyanira Muñoz-Muñoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of residues generated in the process agro-industrials are interest worldwide. At present, research is this in lignocellulosic biomass for energy, fuels, chemicals and biomaterials through clean technologies and closed systems that conserve the environment. In this research, based on the characteristics of the typical agro-industrial residues of Cauca Department, sugarcane bagasse, sisal dust, cassava bran and the mixtures, was evaluated use as biorefinery. Were determined the thermal, physical chemical and morphologic properties in seven samples of residues, were performed exploratory tests, were determined pretreatments and applications and the possible use were identified. We conclude that the sample M6 with 9,93 % moisture, 4,12% ash, 43,97% carbon, 5,86% hydrogen, 0,43% nitrogen, 15 MJ/kg of lower heating value and 22,25%of cellulose, 9,30% of hemicellulose and 4,56% lignin, presents characteristics appropriate to be used in furnaces and boilers less power for the rural sector by the amount of ash, which keeps the low heating power stable and reduces the emission of particulate matter. For the thermal, physical, chemical and morphological characteristics, all the samples of M1 to M7, they can be hydrolyzed, densified and taken advantage like biofuel and / or biorefinery

  9. Autotrophic biorefinery: dawn of the gaseous carbon feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butti, Sai Kishore; Mohan, S Venkata

    2017-10-02

    CO2 is a resource yet to be effectively utilized in the autotrophic biotechnology, not only to mitigate and moderate the anthropogenic influence on our climate, but also to steer CO2 sequestration for sustainable development and carbon neutral status. The atmospheric CO2 concentration has seen an exponential increase with the turn of the new millennia causing numerous environmental issues and also in a way feedstock crisis. To progressively regulate the growing CO2 concentrations and to incorporate the integration strategies to our existing CO2 capturing tools, all the influencing factors need to be collectively considered. The review article puts forth the change in perception of CO2 from which was once considered a harmful pollutant having deleterious effects to a renewable carbon source bearing the potential to replace the fossils as the carbon source through an autotrophic biorefinery. Here, we review the current methods employed for CO2 storage and capture, the need to develop sustainable methods and the ways of improving the sequestration efficiencies by various novice technologies. The review also provides an autotrophic biorefinery model with the potential to operate and produces a multitude of biobased products analogous to the petroleum refinery to establish a circular bioeconomy. Furthermore, fundamental and applied research niches that merit further research are delineated. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues Final Report – CRADA #PNNL/277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Fjare, K. A.; Dunn, B. C.; McDonald, S. L.; Dassor, G.

    2010-07-28

    This project was performed as a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the participants: Archer-Daniels-Midland Company (ADM), ConocoPhillips (COP), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Funding from the federal government was provided by the Office of the Biomass Program within the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy assistant secretariat as part of the Thermochemical Conversion Platform. The three-year project was initiated in August 2007 with formal signing of the CRADA (#PNNL/277) in March 3, 2008 with subsequent amendments approved in November of 2008 and August of 2009. This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL and the CRADA partners ADM and COP. It is considered Protected CRADA Information and is not available for public disclosure. The work conducted during this project involved developing process technology at PNNL for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of agricultural and biorefinery residues and catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) of the aqueous byproduct from the liquefaction step. Related work performed by the partners included assessment of aqueous phase byproducts, hydroprocessing of the bio-oil product and process analysis and economic modeling of the technology.

  11. Balance and saving of GHG emissions in thermochemical biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro, Pedro; Aracil, Cristina; Vidal-Barrero, Fernando; Ollero, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A simplified methodology for the balance and saving of GHG emissions is provided. • The GHG balance has a physical meaning and does not depend on the fossil reference. • The GHG saving depends on regulation of energy carriers. • The impact of Bio-CCS incorporation and multiproduction is analyzed. • The co-production of chemicals needs to be included in future regulation. - Abstract: In this study, a simplified methodology for the calculation of the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and corresponding saving compared with the fossil reference is presented. The proposed methodology allows the estimation of the anthropogenic GHG emissions of thermochemical biorefineries (net emitted to the atmosphere). In the calculation of the GHG balance, all relevant factors have been identified and analyzed including multiproduction, emissions from biogenic carbon capture and storage (Bio-CCS), co-feeding of fossil fuels (secondary feedstock) and possible carbon storage in biomass-derived products (chemicals). Therefore, it is possible to calculate the balance of GHG emissions of a hypothetical thermochemical biorefinery considering different alternatives of land-use, biomass feedstock, co-feeding of fossil fuels, Bio-CCS incorporation and final use of the products. The comparison of the estimated GHG balance with the corresponding fossil reference for each product is of special relevance in the methodology since it is the parameter used in European regulation for the fulfillment of sustainability criteria in biomass-derived fuels and liquids. The proposed methodology is tested using a previously assessed set of different process concepts of thermochemical biorefineries (techno-economic analysis). The resulting GHG balance and saving are analyzed to identify uncertainties and provide recommendations for future regulation. In all process concepts, the GHG savings are above the minimum requirement of GHG emissions for 2018. In the case of incorporating

  12. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, L.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; van Rossum, G.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Berruti, F.; Rehmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the

  13. Effect of shortening kraft pulping integrated with extended oxygen delignification on biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Chunyun; Hu, Huichao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of shortening kraft pulping (KP) process integrated with extended oxygen delignification (OD) on the biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus. Data showed that using kraft pulps with high kappa number could improve the delignification efficiency of OD, reduce hexenuronic acid formation in kraft pulps. Pulp viscosity for a target kappa number of ∼10 was comparable to that obtained from conventional KP and OD process. The energy and alkali consumption in the integrated biorefinery process could be optimized when using a KP pulp with kappa number of ∼27. The process could minimize the overall methanol formation, but greater amounts of carbonate and oxalate were formed. The information from this study will be helpful to the future implementation of short-time KP integrated with extended OD process in actual pulp mill applications for biorefinery, aiming at further improvement in the biorefinery effectiveness of hardwood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Partnering with Industry to Advance Biofuels, NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility and its availability to biofuels' industry partners who want to operate, test, and develop biorefining technology and equipment.

  15. Synthesis of Optimal Processing Pathway for Microalgae-based Biorefinery under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    MINLP) problem is formulated for determining the optimal biorefinery structure under given parameter uncertainties modelled as sampled scenarios. The solution to the sMINLP problem determines the optimal decisions with respect to processing technologies, material flows, and product portfolio in the presence...... decision making, we propose a systematic framework for the synthesis and optimal design of microalgae-based processing network under uncertainty. By incorporating major uncertainties into the biorefinery superstructure model we developed previously, a stochastic mixed integer nonlinear programming (s...

  16. Amyris, Inc. Integrated Biorefinery Project Summary Final Report - Public Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, David; Sato, Suzanne; Garcia, Fernando; Eppler, Ross; Cherry, Joel

    2014-03-12

    The Amyris pilot-scale Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) leveraged Amyris synthetic biology and process technology experience to upgrade Amyris’s existing Emeryville, California pilot plant and fermentation labs to enable development of US-based production capabilities for renewable diesel fuel and alternative chemical products. These products were derived semi-synthetically from high-impact biomass feedstocks via microbial fermentation to the 15-carbon intermediate farnesene, with subsequent chemical finishing to farnesane. The Amyris IBR team tested and provided methods for production of diesel and alternative chemical products from sweet sorghum, and other high-impact lignocellulosic feedstocks, at pilot scale. This enabled robust techno-economic analysis (TEA), regulatory approvals, and a basis for full-scale manufacturing processes and facility design.

  17. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from rapeseed plant in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Talebnia, Farid; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the utilization of the whole rapeseed plant (seed and straw) for multi-biofuels production in a biorefinery concept. Results showed that bioethanol production from straw was technically feasible with ethanol yield of 0.15 g ethanol/g dry straw after combined alkaline...... peroxide and stream pretreatment. The byproducts (rapeseed cake, glycerol, hydrolysate and stillage) were evaluated for hydrogen and methane production. In batch experiments, the energy yields from each feedstock for, either methane production alone or for both hydrogen and methane, were similar. However......, results from continuous experiments demonstrated that the two-stage hydrogen and methane fermentation process could work stably at organic loading rate up to 4.5 gVS/(L d), while the single-stage methane production process failed. The energy recovery efficiency from rapeseed plant increased from 20...

  18. Valorization of Sargassum muticum Biomass According to the Biorefinery Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena M. Balboa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The biorefinery concept integrates processes and technologies for an efficient biomass conversion using all components of a feedstock. Sargassum muticum is an invasive brown algae which could be regarded as a renewable resource susceptible of individual valorization of the constituent fractions into high added-value compounds. Microwave drying technology can be proposed before conventional ethanol extraction of algal biomass, and supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 was useful to extract fucoxanthin and for the fractionation of crude ethanol extracts. Hydrothermal processing is proposed to fractionate the algal biomass and to solubilize the fucoidan and phlorotannin fractions. Membrane technology was proposed to concentrate these fractions and obtain salt- and arsenic-free saccharidic fractions. Based on these technologies, this study presents a multipurpose process to obtain six different products with potential applications for nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Organosolv Fractionation of Softwood Biomass for Biofuel and Biorefinery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Nitsos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Softwoods represent a significant fraction of the available lignocellulosic biomass for conversion into a variety of bio-based products. Its inherent recalcitrance, however, makes its successful utilization an ongoing challenge. In the current work the research efforts for the fractionation and utilization of softwood biomass with the organosolv process are reviewed. A short introduction into the specific challenges of softwood utilization, the development of the biorefinery concept, as well as the initial efforts for the development of organosolv as a pulping method is also provided for better understanding of the related research framework. The effect of organosolv pretreatment at various conditions, in the fractionation efficiency of wood components, enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production yields is then discussed. Specific attention is given in the effect of the pretreated biomass properties such as residual lignin on enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the valorization of organosolv lignin via the production of biofuels, chemicals, and materials is also described.

  20. Early-Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Biorefinery Processes: A Comparative Study of Heuristic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkari, Mirela; Couturier, Jean-Luc; Kokossis, Antonis; Dubois, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-08

    Biorefineries offer a promising alternative to fossil-based processing industries and have undergone rapid development in recent years. Limited financial resources and stringent company budgets necessitate quick capital estimation of pioneering biorefinery projects at the early stages of their conception to screen process alternatives, decide on project viability, and allocate resources to the most promising cases. Biorefineries are capital-intensive projects that involve state-of-the-art technologies for which there is no prior experience or sufficient historical data. This work reviews existing rapid cost estimation practices, which can be used by researchers with no previous cost estimating experience. It also comprises a comparative study of six cost methods on three well-documented biorefinery processes to evaluate their accuracy and precision. The results illustrate discrepancies among the methods because their extrapolation on biorefinery data often violates inherent assumptions. This study recommends the most appropriate rapid cost methods and urges the development of an improved early-stage capital cost estimation tool suitable for biorefinery processes. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  1. Bioenergy production from sweet sorghum stalks via a biorefinery perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozari, Behzad; Mirmohamadsadeghi, Safoora; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2018-04-01

    Besides free sugars, sweet sorghum stalks contain cellulose and hemicellulose that can be used for biofuel production. The pretreatment of stalks without the extraction of free sugars is more complicated than typical lignocelluloses, because of the degradation of free sugars during most pretreatment processes. In this study, the bioconversion of sweet sorghum stalks into biogas and bioethanol was studied using an improved organosolv pretreatment within a biorefinery framework. The organosolv pretreatment was developed using an aqueous solution of ethanol (EtOH) and isopropanol (IPOH). The process was optimized to obtain a liquor containing free sugars with the least sugar degradations together with a highly degradable solid fraction. The liquor was subjected to anaerobic digestion for biomethane production, while the solid was used for ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The most influencing pretreatment parameters, i.e., temperature, time, alcohol to water ratio, EtOH to IPOH ratio, and the presence or absence of sulfuric acid (as a catalyst), were adjusted to achieve the highest yields of bioconversion. The maximum methane and ethanol production yields of 271.2 mL CH 4 /g VS and 87.8% (equal to the gasoline equivalent of 0.170 and 0.241 L/kg, respectively) were achieved from the liquor and pretreated solid, respectively; however, they were obtained at different optimum conditions. Considering the biorefinery perspective, the highest gasoline equivalent of 0.249 L/kg was efficiently obtained from the whole process after pretreatment at 140 °C for 30 min using 60:20 EtOH/IPOH ratio in the presence of 1% sulfuric acid. Further analyses, including enzymatic adsorption/desorption, compositional analysis, FTIR, and SEM, were conducted to investigate the effects of this newly developed pretreatment on the substrate.

  2. A comprehensive review on the implementation of the biorefinery concept in biodiesel production plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian David Botero Gutiérrez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a promising alternative to petroleum diesel and its production from various generations of feedstocks by using different technologies has been constantly growing globally. However, in spite of such large scale of production, serious considerations should be taken into account to ensure the long-term sustainability of biodiesel production. This issue becomes more of concern given the fact that some generations of feedstocks used for biodiesel production are in clear conflict with food security. The concept of biorefinery has been at the center of attention with an aim to address these challenges by promoting an integral use of biomass to allow the production of multiple products along with biodiesel. Such implementation has been extensively studied over the last years and is expected to lead to economic, environmental, and social advantages over individual processes. The current review first presented an overview on biodiesel, its different feedstocks, and production technologies. Subsequently, the biorefinery concept and its correct implementation was technically discussed. Biodiesel production under the biorefinery scheme was also presented. Finally, techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production under the biorefinery concept by considering palm oil-based biorefinery as case study was investigated.

  3. Sugarcane biorefineries: Case studies applied to the Brazilian sugar–alcohol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renó, Maria Luiza Grillo; Olmo, Oscar Almazán del; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo José

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced system of co-generation improves the energy performance of biorefineries. • Sugarcane straw as additional source of fuel in the biorefinery resulted positive. • The farming and transport of sugarcane cause the main environmental impacts. - Abstract: The use of biomasses is becoming increasingly appealing alternative, to give an partial solution lack of energy, with an ecofriendly approach, having on sugarcane a solid fundament; that receives the new and valuable complement of the innovative concept of the biorefineries it is productive installations, that can be summarized as to reach the higher overall yield from the raw materials, with the lowest environmental impact, at minimum energy input and giving the maximum of the energy output. The biorefinery is the true valuable option of a wide diversification, with by-products like the single cell protein and biogas from the distillery vinasse, new oxidants like methanol, second generation biofuels, biobutanol, etc. In this context this paper presents a study of five different configurations of biorefineries. Each case study being a system based on an autonomous distillery or sugar mill with an annexed distillery and coproduction of methanol from bagasse. The paper includes the use of sugarcane harvest residues (mainly straw) and a BIG–GT plant (Biomass Integrated Gasification–Gas Turbine) as alternatives to fulfill the energy demands of the complex

  4. Collection of information on biorefinery research funding and research organisations (projects). Task 2.3.2 Outside Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Oever, van den M.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an outlook on research into biorefineries in the US, Canada, Australia, China, India, Japan and Brazil. The results will be used for benchmarking or to indicate new opportunities. The most recent EU-funded Specific Support Action projects (Bioref-Integ, Biorefinery Euroview,

  5. Effects of Disruption Risks on Biorefinery Location Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Bai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While ever-growing bio-ethanol production poses considerable challenges to the bioenergy supply chain, the risk of refinery operation disruptions further compromises the efficiency and reliability of the energy supply system. This paper applies discrete and continuous reliable facility location models to the design of reliable bio-ethanol supply chains so that the system can hedge against potential operational disruptions. The discrete model is shown to be suitable for obtaining the exact optimality for small or moderate instances, while the continuous model has superior computational tractability for large-scale applications. The impacts of both site-independent and dependent disruptions (i.e., due to flooding are analyzed in empirical case study for the State of Illinois (one of the main biomass supply states in the U.S.. The reliable solution is compared with a deterministic solution under the same setting. It is found that refinery disruptions, especially those site-dependent ones, affect both optimal refinery deployment and the supply chain cost. Sensitivity analysis is also conducted to show how refinery failure probability and fixed cost (for building biorefineries affect optimal supply chain configuration and the total expected system cost.

  6. Zymomonas mobilis: a novel platform for future biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming Xiong; Wu, Bo; Qin, Han; Ruan, Zhi Yong; Tan, Fu Rong; Wang, Jing Li; Shui, Zong Xia; Dai, Li Chun; Zhu, Qi Li; Pan, Ke; Tang, Xiao Yu; Wang, Wen Guo; Hu, Qi Chun

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of liquid fuels and biomass-based building block chemicals from microorganisms have been regarded as a competitive alternative route to traditional. Zymomonas mobilis possesses a number of desirable characteristics for its special Entner-Doudoroff pathway, which makes it an ideal platform for both metabolic engineering and commercial-scale production of desirable bio-products as the same as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on consideration of future biomass biorefinery. Z. mobilis has been studied extensively on both fundamental and applied level, which will provide a basis for industrial biotechnology in the future. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of Z. mobilis for enhancing bio-ethanol production from biomass resources has been significantly promoted by different methods (i.e. mutagenesis, adaptive laboratory evolution, specific gene knock-out, and metabolic engineering). In addition, the feasibility of representative metabolites, i.e. sorbitol, bionic acid, levan, succinic acid, isobutanol, and isobutanol produced by Z. mobilis and the strategies for strain improvements are also discussed or highlighted in this paper. Moreover, this review will present some guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using Z. mobilis as a novel industrial platform for future biofineries.

  7. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-07-19

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs' biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels' production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs.

  8. Enzymatic cell disruption of microalgae biomass in biorefinery processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuez, Marie; Mahdy, Ahmed; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; González-Fernández, Cristina; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2015-10-01

    When employing biotechnological processes for the procurement of biofuels and bio-products from microalgae, one of the most critical steps affecting economy and yields is the "cell disruption" stage. Currently, enzymatic cell disruption has delivered effective and cost competitive results when compared to mechanical and chemical cell disruption methods. However, the introduction of enzymes implies additional associated cost within the overall process. In order to reduce this cost, autolysis of microalgae is proposed as alternative enzymatic cell disruption method. This review aims to provide the state of the art of enzymatic cell disruption treatments employed in biorefinery processes and highlights the use of endopeptidases. During the enzymatic processes of microalgae life cycle, some lytic enzymes involved in cell division and programmed cell death have been proven useful in performing cell lysis. In this context, the role of endopeptidases is emphasized. Mirroring these natural events, an alternative cell disruption approach is proposed and described with the potential to induce the autolysis process using intrinsic cell enzymes. Integrating induced autolysis within biofuel production processes offers a promising approach to reduce overall global costs and energetic input associated with those of current cell disruption methods. A number of options for further inquiry are also discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhan Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs’ biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels’ production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs.

  10. Dilute alkali pretreatment of softwood pine: A biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Ali; Karimi, Keikhosro; Shafiei, Marzieh

    2017-06-01

    Dilute alkali pretreatment was performed on softwood pine to maximize ethanol and biogas production via a biorefinery approach. Alkali pretreatments were performed with 0-2% w/v NaOH at 100-180°C for 1-5h. The liquid fraction of the pretreated substrates was subjected to anaerobic digestion. The solid fraction of the pretreatment was used for separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. High ethanol yields of 76.9‒78.0% were achieved by pretreatment with 2% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest biogas yield of 244mL/g volatile solid (at 25°C, 1bar) was achieved by the pretreatment with 1% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest gasoline equivalent (sum of ethanol and methane) of 197L per ton of pinewood and the lowest ethanol manufacturing cost of 0.75€/L was obtained after pretreatment with 1% NaOH at 180°C for 5h. The manufacturing cost of ethanol from untreated wood was 4.12€/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative assessment of selected sugarcane biorefinery-centered systems in Brazil: A multi-criteria method based on sustainability indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Alves, Catarina M; Pachón, Elia Ruiz; Vaskan, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    This work proposes a new sustainability assessment framework aiming to compare selected options of biorefineries subject to provide the same services to a community. At this end, a concept of biorefinery-centered system helps to develop a joint resources and policy-oriented comparison. When an option of biorefinery cannot provide the given amounts of certain services from its own production, it complements its supply portfolio by purchasing the lacking amounts from complementary and conventional production systems. The proposed sustainability assessment framework includes a multi-criteria method used to compare the selected biorefinery options resulting in identifying their respective weaknesses and strengths against categories of criteria. Finally, the methodology helps finding the non-dominated option. Application to selected sugarcane-based biorefineries shows promising results that match with those obtained in a previous work. However, the new methodology allows extended and richer analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological processes for advancing lignocellulosic waste biorefinery by advocating circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-09-01

    The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Opportunities and prospects of biorefinery-based valorisation of pulp and paper sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Haigh, Kate; Collard, François-Xavier; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann

    2016-09-01

    The paper and pulp industry is one of the major industries that generate large amount of solid waste with high moisture content. Numerous opportunities exist for valorisation of waste paper sludge, although this review focuses on primary sludge with high cellulose content. The most mature options for paper sludge valorisation are fermentation, anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis. In this review, biochemical and thermal processes are considered individually and also as integrated biorefinery. The objective of integrated biorefinery is to reduce or avoid paper sludge disposal by landfilling, water reclamation and value addition. Assessment of selected processes for biorefinery varies from a detailed analysis of a single process to high level optimisation and integration of the processes, which allow the initial assessment and comparison of technologies. This data can be used to provide key stakeholders with a roadmap of technologies that can generate economic benefits, and reduce carbon wastage and pollution load. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Market Price Uncertainties on the Design of Optimal Biorefinery Systems—A Systematic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a computer-aided decision support tool for identifying optimal biorefinery concepts for production of biofuels at an early design stage. To this end, a framework that uses a superstructure-based process synthesis approach integrated with uncertainty analysis...... is used. We demonstrate the application of the tool for generating optimal biorefinery concepts for a lignocellulosic biorefinery. In particular, we highlight the management of various sources of data, the superstructure (integrated thermochemical and biochemical conversion routes) needed to represent...... the design space, generic but simple models describing the processing tasks, and the formulation and solution of an MINLP problem under deterministic and stochastic conditions to identify the optimal processing route for multiple raw materials and products. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of market price...

  15. Upgrading of lignocellulosic biorefinery to value-added chemicals: Sustainability and economics of bioethanol-derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    of operating profit for biorefineries producing bioethanol-derived chemicals (247 MM$/a and 241 MM$/a for diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene, respectively). Second, the optimal designs for upgrading bioethanol (i.e. production of 1,3-butadiene and diethyl ether) performed also better with respect...... and 1,3-butadiene, respectively). The multi-product biorefinery presented a more robust and risk-aware upgrading strategy considering the uncertainties that are typical for a long-term investment horizon.......In this study, several strategies to upgrade lignocellulosic biorefineries for production of value-added chemicals are systematically generated and evaluated with respect to economic and sustainability objectives. A superstructure-based process synthesis approach under uncertainty integrated...

  16. BIOREFINE-2G — Result In Brief: Novel biopolymers from biorefinery waste-streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovicek, Vratislav; Chen, Xiao; Borodina, Irina

    Second generation biorefineries are all about creating value from waste, so it seems only right that the ideal plant should leave nothing behind. With this in mind, the BIOREFINE-2G project has developed novel processes to convert pentose-rich side-streams into biopolymers.......Second generation biorefineries are all about creating value from waste, so it seems only right that the ideal plant should leave nothing behind. With this in mind, the BIOREFINE-2G project has developed novel processes to convert pentose-rich side-streams into biopolymers....

  17. Identifying the point of departures for the detailed sustainability assessment of biomass feedstocks for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Dalgaard, Tommy

    In the light of sustainable development in the energy sector, biomasses have gained increasing attention, which have exacerbated competition among them. Biorefineries are increasing its hold in developed economies, since it facilitates the delivery of multiple products including food, feed...... (e.g. soil quality), (ii) to lower the undesired emissions at farming system level and processing, and (iii) optimize the biomass supply by integrating catch crops and examine the overall environmental loadings e.g. in the biorefinery value chains. Nevertheless, clustering the types of biomasses...

  18. Crop residues as raw materials for biorefinery systems - A LCA case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Our strong dependence on fossil fuels results from the intensive use and consumption of petroleum derivatives which, combined with diminishing oil resources, causes environmental and political concerns. The utilization of agricultural residues as raw materials in a biorefinery is a promising alternative to fossil resources for production of energy carriers and chemicals, thus mitigating climate change and enhancing energy security. This paper focuses on a biorefinery concept which produces bioethanol, bioenergy and biochemicals from two types of agricultural residues, corn stover and wheat straw. These biorefinery systems are investigated using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, which takes into account all the input and output flows occurring along the production chain. This approach can be applied to almost all the other patterns that convert lignocellulosic residues into bioenergy and biochemicals. The analysis elaborates on land use change aspects, i.e. the effects of crop residue removal (like decrease in grain yields, change in soil N 2 O emissions and decrease of soil organic carbon). The biorefinery systems are compared with the respective fossil reference systems producing the same amount of products/services from fossils instead of biomass. Since climate change mitigation and energy security are the two most important driving forces for biorefinery development, the assessment focuses on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cumulative primary energy demand, but other environmental categories are evaluated as well. Results show that the use of crop residues in a biorefinery saves GHG emissions and reduces fossil energy demand. For instance, GHG emissions are reduced by about 50% and more than 80% of non-renewable energy is saved. Land use change effects have a strong influence in the final GHG balance (about 50%), and their uncertainty is discussed in a sensitivity analysis. Concerning the investigation of the other impact categories, biorefinery systems

  19. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...

  20. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149 kg of EtOH and 115 kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1 ton of dry hemp....... Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery....

  1. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  2. Techno-economical evaluation of protein extraction for microalgae biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Y. W.; Sanders, J. P. M.; Bruins, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Due to scarcity of fossil feedstocks, there is an increasing demand for biobased fuels. Microalgae are considered as promising biobased feedstocks. However, microalgae based fuels are not yet produced at large scale at present. Applying biorefinery, not only for oil, but also for other components, such as carbohydrates and protein, may lead to the sustainable and economical microalgae-based fuels. This paper discusses two relatively mild conditions for microalgal protein extraction, based on alkali and enzymes. Green microalgae (Chlorella fusca) with and without prior lipid removal were used as feedstocks. Under mild conditions, more protein could be extracted using proteases, with the highest yields for microalgae meal (without lipids). The data on protein extraction yields were used to calculate the costs for producing 1 ton of microalgal protein. The processing cost for the alkaline method was € 2448 /ton protein. Enzymatic method performed better from an economic point of view with € 1367 /ton protein on processing costs. However, this is still far from industrially feasible. For both extraction methods, biomass cost per ton of produced product were high. A higher protein extraction yield can partially solve this problem, lowering processing cost to €620 and 1180 /ton protein product, using alkali and enzyme, respectively. Although alkaline method has lower processing cost, optimization appears to be better achievable using enzymes. If the enzymatic method can be optimized by lowering the amount of alkali added, leading to processing cost of € 633/ton protein product. Higher revenue can be generated when the residue after protein extraction can be sold as fuel, or better as a highly digestible feed for cattle.

  3. Impact of trucking network flow on preferred biorefinery locations in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy M. Young; Lee D. Han; James H. Perdue; Stephanie R. Hargrove; Frank M. Guess; Xia Huang; Chung-Hao Chen

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the trucking transportation network flow was modeled for the southern United States. The study addresses a gap in existing research by applying a Bayesian logistic regression and Geographic Information System (GIS) geospatial analysis to predict biorefinery site locations. A one-way trucking cost assuming a 128.8 km (80-mile) haul distance was estimated...

  4. Implications of silica on biorefineries – interactions with organic material and mineral elements in grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2015-01-01

    Biorefineries aim to convert low value biomasses into high value products. The feedstock biomasses are often high-silica agricultural waste products such as rice straw, wheat straw, corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, or empty fruit bunches. This causes challenges, since silica is problematic...

  5. Alternative use of grassland biomass for biorefinery in Ireland: a scoping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keeffe, S.

    2010-01-01

    The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependency on fossil fuels has been one of the main driving forces to use renewable resources for energy and chemicals. The integrated use of grassland biomass for the production of chemicals and energy, also known as Green Biorefinery (GBR), has

  6. Biorefinery methods for separation of protein and oil fractions from rubber seed kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyarani, R.; Ratnaningsih, E.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Biorefinery of rubber seeds can generate additional income for farmers, who already grow rubber trees for latex production. The aim of this study was to find the best method for protein and oil production from rubber seed kernel, with focus on protein recovery. Different pre-treatments and oil

  7. The Chemistry and Technology of Furfural Production in Modern Lignocellulose-Feedstock Biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcotullio, G.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation deals with biorefinery technology development, i.e. with the development of sustainable industrial methods aimed at the production of chemicals, fuels, heat and power from lignocellulosic biomass. This work is particularly focused on the production of furfural from

  8. Elemental analysis of various biomass solid fractions in biorefineries by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) of solid samples from a biorefinery process was performed to study the behaviour of mineral elements in a process involving hydrothermal pretreatment of biomass (wheat straw, corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, palm oil empty fruit bunches...

  9. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Paul; Krimpen, van Marinus M.; Wikselaar, van Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; Hal, van Jaap W.; Huijgen, Wouter J.J.; Cone, John W.; López-Contreras, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically

  10. Green compressed fluid technologies for downstream processing of Scenedesmus obliquus in a biorefinery approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Mendiola, José A.; Broek, van den Lambertus A.M.; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Sijtsma, Lolke; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The fractionation of algae biomass in several high-value compounds that can be used as ingredients in other applications sets the basis of the algae biorefinery approach. The present study aimed at the extraction and fractionation of bioactive compounds from the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, by

  11. Development of a biorefinery optimized biofuel supply curve for the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan Parker; Peter Tittmann; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson; Ken Skog; Anneliese Schmidt; Edward Gray; Bryan Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    A resource assessment and biorefinery siting optimization model was developed and implemented to assess potential biofuel supply across the Western United States from agricultural, forest, urban, and energy crop biomass. Spatial information including feedstock resources, existing and potential refinery locations and a transportation network model is provided to a mixed...

  12. Biorefinery of microalgal soluble proteins by sequential processing and membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safi, C.; Olivieri, G.; Pina Campos, Rui; Engelen-Smit, N.; Mulder, W.J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Sijtsma, L.

    2017-01-01

    A mild biorefinery process was investigated on the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana, to obtain an enriched fraction of water soluble proteins free from chlorophyll. After harvesting, a 100 g.L−1 solution of cells was first subjected to cell disruption by either high-pressure

  13. Technoeconomic analysis of biofuels: A wiki-based platform for lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Simmons, Blake A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a process model for a lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery that is open to the biofuels academic community. Beyond providing a series of static results, the wiki-based platform provides a dynamic and transparent tool for analyzing, exploring, and communicating the impact of process adva...

  14. The production of pigments and hydrogen through a Spirogyra sp. biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, R.; Ferreira, A.F.; Pinto, T.; Nobre, B.P.; Loureiro, D.; Moura, P.; Gouveia, L.; Silva, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugar content of microalgae must increase to increase H 2 yield. • Electrocoagulation and solar dryer reduce 90% the harvesting-drying energy demand. • Paddle wheels contribute 5% to culture energy demand when using ideal 0.1 kW/m 2 . • Pigment extraction increases 2 times the biorefinery economic benefits. • Pigment energy demand account for 62% and must be reduced significantly. - Abstract: This paper discusses the overall energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions when extracting pigments and producing hydrogen from Spirogyra sp. microalga biomass. The energy evaluation from the biomass leftovers was also included in this work. The influence of the functional unit and different allocation criteria on the biorefinery assessments is also shown. The study consists of laboratory tests showing Spirogyra sp. growth, harvesting, drying, pigment extraction and fermentation by Clostridium butyricum. Electrocoagulation and solar drying were tested and compared to conventional centrifugation and electrical dewatering in terms of their energy consumption for harvesting and dewatering, respectively. To discuss the biorefinery viability, the pigments and biohydrogen (bioH 2 ) retail costs are considered against operational costs according to electricity needs. The low yield of biochemical hydrogen and the high energy requirements for the pigment extraction were identified as main topics for further research. This research hopefully contributes to highlight the importance of energy and emission balances in order to decide on feasibility of the biorefinery

  15. Crude protein yield and theoretical extractable true protein of potential biorefinery feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solati, Zeinab; Manevski, Kiril; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2018-01-01

    for supplying biomass to biorefineries. Field experiments during 2013–2014 with perennial crops (pure grasses: cocksfoot, festulolium, reed canary, tall fescue, two miscanthus species and two grass-legume mixtures) and annual crops in optimized rotations (winter rye, sugar beet, maize, triticale, hemp and grass...

  16. Development of efficient, integrated cellulosic biorefineries : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Hecht, Ethan S.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Buffleben, George M.; Dibble, Dean C.; Lutz, Andrew E.

    2010-09-01

    Cellulosic ethanol, generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources such as grasses and trees, is a promising alternative to conventional starch- and sugar-based ethanol production in terms of potential production quantities, CO{sub 2} impact, and economic competitiveness. In addition, cellulosic ethanol can be generated (at least in principle) without competing with food production. However, approximately 1/3 of the lignocellulosic biomass material (including all of the lignin) cannot be converted to ethanol through biochemical means and must be extracted at some point in the biochemical process. In this project we gathered basic information on the prospects for utilizing this lignin residue material in thermochemical conversion processes to improve the overall energy efficiency or liquid fuel production capacity of cellulosic biorefineries. Two existing pretreatment approaches, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) and the Arkenol (strong sulfuric acid) process, were implemented at Sandia and used to generated suitable quantities of residue material from corn stover and eucalyptus feedstocks for subsequent thermochemical research. A third, novel technique, using ionic liquids (IL) was investigated by Sandia researchers at the Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), but was not successful in isolating sufficient lignin residue. Additional residue material for thermochemical research was supplied from the dilute-acid simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) pilot-scale process at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The high-temperature volatiles yields of the different residues were measured, as were the char combustion reactivities. The residue chars showed slightly lower reactivity than raw biomass char, except for the SSF residue, which had substantially lower reactivity. Exergy analysis was applied to the NREL standard process design model for thermochemical ethanol production and from a prototypical dedicated biochemical process, with process data

  17. The Civilisation Biorefinery - A Future Approach for Material and Energy Recovery from Regional Organic Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, I.

    2010-01-01

    The future shortage of energy and raw materials as well as the problems on climate protection are challenges for which a solution is imperative. For efficient utilizing organic liquid and solid wastes which are generated in a city, a city itself could become a civilisation biorefinery. The output will be various energetic and material products, which can be used in the city or in the surrounding of the city. Depending on the nature of the various urban input materials, they need to be fed in to biorefineries adapted to the substrate type. The separate substrate-specific biorefineries may be at central or decentralised locations within the city. Moreover, since the residues from one system can be used in others as input, mutual networking is of importance. To facilitate efficient valorification, bioresources and the type of biorefinery need to be optimally matched. That also means that at the collection stage already, the material properties of the bioresource must be taken into account and where appropriate, new collection systems introduced, or consideration should be given to technical processes for separation of mixtures of materials. Extremely differing cascades will be appropriate for the various regional situations. For this reason, the evaluation of alternative schemes will be seen as very significant. Additional important points are the suitability of new measures or processes for integration into existing regional structures, as well as the logistics aspects, including the question of whether bioconversion processes should be conducted centrally or in decentralised locations. In Germany, considerable amounts of biowaste are available today and in the future which, until now, were almost entirely composted. The possibilities of anaerobic fermentation are gaining more and more in importance. Aerobic and anaerobic treatments of biowaste are more and more combined within the scope of a win-win situation. These technologies will be important parts of a

  18. Maximizing biofuel production in a thermochemical biorefinery by adding electrolytic hydrogen and by integrating torrefaction with entrained flow gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Lasse R.

    2015-01-01

    In a “conventional” thermochemical biorefinery, carbon is emitted from the plant in the form of CO 2 to make the synthesis gas from the gasifier suitable for fuel production. The alternative to this carbon removal is to add hydrogen to the plant. By adding hydrogen, it is possible to more than double the biofuel production per biomass input by converting almost all of the carbon in the biomass feed to carbon stored in the biofuel product. Water or steam electrolysis can supply the hydrogen to the biorefinery and also the oxygen for the gasifier. This paper presents the design and thermodynamic analysis of two biorefineries integrating water electrolysis for the production of methanol. In both plants, torrefied woody biomass is supplied to an entrained flow gasifier, but in one of the plants, the torrefaction process occurs on-site, as it is integrated with the entrained flow gasification process. The analysis shows that the biorefinery with integrated torrefaction has a higher biomass to methanol energy ratio (136% vs. 101%) as well as higher total energy efficiency (62% vs. 56%). By comparing with two identical biorefineries without electrolysis, it is concluded that the biorefinery with integrated torrefaction benefits most from the integration of electrolysis. - Highlights: • Two thermochemical biorefineries are designed and analyzed by thermodynamic modeling. • Integration of water electrolysis in a thermochemical biorefinery is investigated. • Biomass to biofuel energy efficiencies of 101–136% are achieved. • Biomass + net electricity to biofuel energy efficiencies of 56–62% are achieved. • The pros and cons of integrated torrefaction and electrolysis are described

  19. Product diversification in the sugarcane biorefinery through algae growth and supercritical CO 2 extraction: Thermal and economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Albarelli, Juliana Q.; Santos, Diego T.; Ensinas, Adriano V.; Marechal, François; Cocero, María J.; Meireles, M. Angela A.

    2017-01-01

    The sugarcane sector in Brazil has undergone a major modernization in the last thirty years. Embracing the biorefinery concept, this sector is investigating bioproduct diversification and mostly putting a lot of effort and investment on second generation ethanol production. In this context, the investigation of the integration of a third generation biofuel production using microalgae to the sugarcane biorefinery seems an important starting point. This study evaluates the integration of microa...

  20. A biorefinery approach for the production of xylitol, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate from brewer’s spent grain

    OpenAIRE

    Javier A. Dávila; Carlos A. Cardona; Moshe Rosenberg

    2016-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) is one of the most important byproducts of the brewing industry and its composition offers opportunities for developing value-added products. The objective of the research was to investigate the application of the biorefinery approach for production of xylitol, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate from BSG. The techno-economic and environmental aspects of two biorefinery scenarios, with and without heat integration, were studied. Results indicated that a standalone prod...

  1. Background information and biorefinery status, potential and Sustainability: Task 2.1.2 Market and Consumers; Carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, H.L.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Annevelink, E.

    2010-01-01

    This report was produced to give an overview of present and future market for biorefinery products based on carbohydrates. Various studies show that there is a wealth of possible molecules and products that can be produced from carbohydrates. Carbohydrates already find significant application in starch products and cellulose plastics and fibres. However, for a biorefinery to operate in an economically sustainable way, applications for (preferably all) biomass ingredients need to be found. Pre...

  2. Hydrodynamic cavitation-assisted alkaline pretreatment as a new approach for sugarcane bagasse biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Dos Santos, Júlio César; Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Jeon, Seok Hwan; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Han, Jong-In

    2016-08-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was employed in order to improve the efficiency of alkaline pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize pretreatment parameters: NaOH concentration (0.1-0.5M), solid/liquid ratio (S/L, 3-10%) and HC time (15-45min), in terms of glucan content, lignin removal and enzymatic digestibility. Under an optimal HC condition (0.48M of NaOH, 4.27% of S/L ratio and 44.48min), 52.1% of glucan content, 60.4% of lignin removal and 97.2% of enzymatic digestibility were achieved. Moreover, enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated SCB resulted in a yield 82% and 30% higher than the untreated and alkaline-treated controls, respectively. HC was found to be a potent and promising approach to pretreat lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 24873 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... construction engineering firm. Biobased products. Is a product determined by the Secretary to be a commercial..., including crop residue; other vegetative waste material (including wood waste and wood residues); animal... calculations, and site plans, prepared by the construction engineering firm. All applicants must submit the...

  4. 76 FR 13349 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ..., Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-246). C. Definition of Terms. The definitions applicable to..., color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status...

  5. 76 FR 13351 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Biorefinery Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... 4279, subpart C and in 7 CFR Part 4287, subpart D. C. Definition of Terms. The definitions applicable... activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and, where applicable, sex, marital...

  6. 78 FR 60822 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Biorefinery Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... contained in 7 CFR Part 4279, subpart C and in 7 CFR Part 4287, subpart D. C. Definition of Terms. The definitions applicable to this Notice are published at 7 CFR 4279.202(a) and 7 CFR 4287.302. For the purposes..., national origin, age, disability, sex, gender identity, religion, reprisal, and where applicable, political...

  7. 77 FR 5232 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... biomass. B. Statutory Authority. This program is authorized under 7 U.S.C. 8104. C. Definition of Terms. The definitions applicable to this Notice are published at 7 CFR 4288.2. II. Award Information A..., age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion...

  8. 77 FR 4276 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) for the Biorefinery Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    .... Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of... status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal... TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination write to USDA...

  9. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Haugaard-Nielsen, H.; Petersson, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jensen, E.S. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    species interactions as a response to the actual growing conditions observed which is not achieved with sole cropping of one species/cultivar. It is also concluded that when growing pea as a sole cropping available soil mineral N reduce N{sub 2} fixation and the full potential of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is not exploited which is regarded as an overall inefficient use of N sources. Using clover-grass intercropping raw materials, as another potential species combination with equivalent field responses to e.g. pea-wheat intercropping, conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments show that wet oxidation is an efficient method for fractionating clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures into a convertible solid cellulose fraction and a soluble hemicellulose fraction. The highest yield of fermentable sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis is achieved in clover-grass (mixed 1:1) pretreated at 195 deg. C for 10 minutes using 12 bar oxygen. The optimum pretreatment conditions for clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures is not significantly different from that of wheat, which indicates that wheat straw and clover-grass (from intercropping) could be pretreated in one step. The produced sugars were converted into ethanol by Mucor indicus giving good ethanol yields Y{sub E/TS,Aerobic} = 0.37 and Y{sub E/TS,oxygen} {sub li} It is also concluded that fructans from unheated clover-grass juice can be co-converted into ethanol by natural enzymes and yeast increasing the ethanol production significantly. Using field data and biomass conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments a decentralized biorefinery concept for co-production of bioethanol and biogas is described with strong emphasis on sustainability, localness and recycling principles. (au)

  10. Optimal processing pathway selection for microalgae-based biorefinery under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Zaman, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.

    2015-01-01

    to the sMINLP problem determines the processing technologies, material flows, and product portfolio that are optimal with respect to all the sampled scenarios. The developed framework is implemented and tested on a specific case study. The optimal processing pathways selected with and without......We propose a systematic framework for the selection of optimal processing pathways for a microalgaebased biorefinery under techno-economic uncertainty. The proposed framework promotes robust decision making by taking into account the uncertainties that arise due to inconsistencies among...... and shortage in the available technical information. A stochastic mixed integer nonlinear programming (sMINLP) problem is formulated for determining the optimal biorefinery configurations based on a superstructure model where parameter uncertainties are modeled and included as sampled scenarios. The solution...

  11. Waste biorefinery models towards sustainable circular bioeconomy: Critical review and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Nikhil, G N; Chiranjeevi, P; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Rohit, M V; Kumar, A Naresh; Sarkar, Omprakash

    2016-09-01

    Increased urbanization worldwide has resulted in a substantial increase in energy and material consumption as well as anthropogenic waste generation. The main source for our current needs is petroleum refinery, which have grave impact over energy-environment nexus. Therefore, production of bioenergy and biomaterials have significant potential to contribute and need to meet the ever increasing demand. In this perspective, a biorefinery concept visualizes negative-valued waste as a potential renewable feedstock. This review illustrates different bioprocess based technological models that will pave sustainable avenues for the development of biobased society. The proposed models hypothesize closed loop approach wherein waste is valorised through a cascade of various biotechnological processes addressing circular economy. Biorefinery offers a sustainable green option to utilize waste and to produce a gamut of marketable bioproducts and bioenergy on par to petro-chemical refinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and Design of Biorefinery Processing Networks with Uncertainty and Sustainability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    solution obtained after the MINLP by using an in-house software (SustainPRO) that employs ICHEME sustainability metrics. Secondly, the sustainability analysis was included proactively as part of the MINLP optimization problem that is performed to find the optimal processing path with respect to multi......Chemical industries usually rely on fossil based feedstock, which is a limited resource. In view of increasing energy demands and the negative environmental and climate effects related to the use of fossil based fuels, this motivates the development of new and more sustainable technologies...... for processing renewable feedstocks, with the aim of bridging the gap for fuel, chemical and material production. This project is focusing on biorefinery network design, in particular for early stage design and development studies. Optimal biorefinery design is a challenging problem. It is a multi...

  13. Strategy and design of Innovation Policy Road Mapping for a waste biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Looming energy crisis, climate change concerns coupled with decreasing fossil fuel resources has garnered significant global attention toward development of alternative, renewable, carbon-neutral and eco-friendly fuels to fulfil burgeoning energy demands. Waste utilization and its management are being pursued with renewed interest due to the gamut of biobased products it can offer apart from providing enough energy to meet a major fraction of the world's energy demand. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy. Integrating all components of waste treatment culminating into biobased products and energy recovery in a single integrated waste biorefinery is self sufficient, highly sustainable and is very beneficial. Designing systematic innovation policies are essential for development and commercialization of new technologies in this important futuristic research area. This communication explores Innovation Policy Road Mapping (IPRM) methodology available in the literature and applies it to design integrated waste biorefinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Supply Chain Optimization of Integrated Glycerol Biorefinery: GlyThink Model Development and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Gernaey, Krist

    2017-01-01

    To further advance the development and implementation of glycerol-based biorefinery concepts, it is critical to analyze the glycerol conversion into high value-added products in a holistic manner, considering both production as well as the logistics aspects related to the supply chain structure....... To address the optimal design and planning of the glycerol-based biorefinery supply chain, in this work, we propose a multiperiod, multistage, and multiproduct Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization model, called GlyThink, based upon the maximization of the net present value (NPV). The proposed model...... to high value-added products. Existing countries with major production and consumption of biodiesel in Europe are considered as candidates for the facility sites and demand markets, and their spatial distribution is also carefully studied. The results showed that (i) the optimal solution that provides...

  15. Synthesis and Design of Biorefinery Processing Networks with Uncertainty and Sustainability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    Chemical industries usually rely on fossil based feedstock, which is a limited resource. In view of increasing energy demands and the negative environmental and climate effects related to the use of fossil based fuels, this motivates the development of new and more sustainable technologies...... for processing renewable feedstocks, with the aim of bridging the gap for fuel, chemical and material production. This project is focusing on biorefinery network design, in particular for early stage design and development studies. Optimal biorefinery design is a challenging problem. It is a multi......-objective decision-making problem not only with respect to technical and economic feasibility but also with respect to environmental impacts, sustainability constraints and limited availability & uncertainties of input data at the early design stage. It is therefore useful to develop a systematic methodology...

  16. Identification and genetic characterization of maize cell wall variation for improved biorefinery feedstock characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Markus [UC Berkeley; Hake, Sarah [USDA Albany

    2013-10-31

    The objectives of this program are to 1) characterize novel maize mutants with altered cell walls for enhanced biorefinery characteristics and 2) find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to biorefinery characteristics by taking advantage of the genetic diversity of maize. As a result a novel non-transgenic maize plant (cal1) has been identified, whose stover (leaves and stalk) contain more glucan in their walls leading to a higher saccharification yield, when subjected to a standard enzymatic digestion cocktail. Stacking this trait with altered lignin mutants yielded evene higher saccharification yields. Cal-1 mutants do not show a loss of kernel and or biomass yield when grown in the field . Hence, cal1 biomass provides an excellent feedstock for the biofuel industry.

  17. Scenario optimization modeling approach for design and management of biomass-to-biorefinery supply chain system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavna; Ingalls, Ricki G; Jones, Carol L; Huhnke, Raymond L; Khanchi, Amit

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scenario optimization model to address weather uncertainty in the Biomass Supply Chain (BSC). The modeling objective was to minimize the cost of biomass supply to biorefineries over a one-year planning period using monthly time intervals under different weather scenarios. The model is capable of making strategic, tactical and operational decisions related to BSC system. The performance of the model was demonstrated through a case study developed for Abengoa biorefinery in Kansas. Sensitivity analysis was done to demonstrate the effect of input uncertainty in yield, land rent and storage dry matter loss on the model outputs. The model results show that available harvest work hours influence major cost-related decisions in the BSC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Applications of Process Synthesis: Moving from Conventional Chemical Processes towards Biorefinery Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Zhihong; Chen, Bingzhen; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    be predicted to play a significant role in the design and commercialization of sustainable and cost-effective biorefinery processes. The main objective of this perspective paper is to elucidate the potential opportunities that biorenewables processing offers to optimal synthesis; challenges and future......Concerns about diminishing petroleum reserves, enhanced worldwide demand for fuels and fluctuations in the global oil market, together with climate change and national security have promoted many initiatives for exploring alternative, non-petroleum based processes. Among these initiatives......, biorefinery processes for converting biomass-derived carbohydrates into transportation fuels and chemicals are now gaining more and more attention from both academia and industry. Process synthesis, which has played a vital role for the development, design and operation of (petro) chemical processes, can...

  19. A short-term scheduling for the optimal operation of biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisi, E.F.; Yusta, J.M.; Khodr, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the inherent potentialities and characteristics of the sugarcane industries that produce sugar, bioethanol, biogas and bioelectricity and that are being described as 'Biorefineries'. These Biorefineries are capable of producing bio-energy under diverse forms, intended for their own internal consumption and for external sales and marketing. A complex model and simulation are carried out of the processes of a sugarcane industry, with the data characteristic as well as the production costs, prices of products and considerations on the energy demand by basic processes. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) optimization problem formulation and an analysis of optimal solutions in short-term operation are described, taking into account the production cost functions of each commodity and the incomes obtained from selling electricity and other products. The objective is to maximize the hourly plant economic profit in the different scenarios considered in a real case study.

  20. Comparative techno-economic assessment and LCA of selected integrated sugarcane-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Vaskan, Pavel; Pachón, Elia Ruiz

    2015-11-01

    This work addresses the economic and environmental performance of integrated biorefineries based on sugarcane juice and residues. Four multiproduct scenarios were considered; two from sugar mills and the others from ethanol distilleries. They are integrated biorefineries producing first (1G) and second (2G) generation ethanol, sugar, molasses (for animal feed) and electricity in the context of Brazil. The scenarios were analysed and compared using techno-economic value-based approach and LCA methodology. The results show that the best economic configuration is provided by a scenario with largest ethanol production while the best environmental performance is presented by a scenario with full integration sugar - 1G2G ethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  2. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  3. Life cycle assessment of castor-based biorefinery: a well to wheel LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Rafiee, Shahin; Tabatabaei, Meisam

    2017-01-01

    also considered as byproducts. Developed scenarios were also compared with a fossil reference system delivering the same amount of energy through the combustion of neat diesel. Materials and methods: Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to investigate the environmental consequences of castor biodiesel...... of their ability in converting biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and bioenergies. This study was aimed at developing different novel castor-based biorefinery scenarios for generating biodiesel and other co-products, i.e., ethanol and biogas. In these scenarios, glycerin, heat, and electricity were...... production and consumption with a biorefinery approach. All the input and output flows from the cultivation stage to the combustion in diesel engines as well as changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) were taken into account. Impact 2002+ method was used to quantify the environmental consequences. Results...

  4. Unconventional biomasses as feedstocks for production of biofuels and succinic acid in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi

    significantly improve the sustainability indicators of the overall biorefinery process. In this study, unconventional lignocellulosic- and aquatic biomasses were investigated as biorefinery feedstocks. The studied biomasses were Jerusalem artichoke, industrial hemp and macroalgae species Laminaria digitata...... composition and productivity of eleven different Jerusalem artichoke clones was examined at three harvest times. Yields of up to 35 t ha-1 of dry lignocellulose matter was reported, nonetheless the amount of cellulose in many cases was less than 50% of what was observed in e.g. hemp. However, the underground...... methods for pretreatment and saccharification of biomass were used depending on the type of biomass. L. digitata did not required any pretreatment before enzymatic hydrolysis other than milling and drying. Pretreatments using H2SO4, NaOH and H2O2 at different conditions were used to pretreat hemp prior...

  5. Biomass pre-extraction, hydrolysis and conversion process improvements fro an integrated biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Robert [Virdia, Inc., Danville, VA (United States)

    2014-12-23

    In this project, Virdia will show that it can improve the production of sugars suitable for the conversion into advanced biofuels from a range of woods. Several biomass feedstocks (Pine wood chips & Eucalyptus wood chips) will be tested on this new integrated biorefinery platform. The resultant drop-in biodiesel can be a cost-effective petroleum-replacement that can compete with projected market prices

  6. Integration of Colombians Forest Commercial Crops in Thermochemical Biorefinery Concepts: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Fernando Pérez Bayer; Rolando Barrera; Gloria Lucía Ramírez Córdoba

    2015-01-01

    The technical, energy, social and environmental benefits of the integration of commercial forest crops in Colombia under biorefinery concepts are evaluated. This concept is part of various programs and government policies that consider the energy use of biomass as an alternative source to the silvicultural potential of the country. In this paper we review some specific processes that can be evaluated as integration strategies with high potential to use the wood planted in Colombia under biore...

  7. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Luis; Westerhof, Roel; Van Rossum, Guus; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Kersten, Sascha; Berruti, Franco; Rehmann, Lars

    2014-06-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the products was used as the thermochemical process to obtain a pyrolysis-oil rich in anhydro-sugars (levoglucosan) and low in inhibitors. After hydrolysis of these anhydro-sugars, glucose was obtained which was successfully fermented, after detoxification, to obtain bioethanol. Ethanol yields comparable to traditional biochemical processing were achieved (41.3% of theoretical yield based on cellulose fraction). Additional benefits of the proposed biorefinery concept comprise valuable by-products of the thermochemical conversion like bio-char, mono-phenols (production of BTX) and pyrolytic lignin as a source of aromatic rich fuel additive. The inhibitory effect of thermochemically derived fermentation substrates was quantified numerically to compare the effects of different process configurations and upgrading steps within the biorefinery approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A New Proposal of Cellulosic Ethanol to Boost Sugarcane Biorefineries: Techno-Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Q. Albarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial simulator Aspen Plus was used to simulate a biorefinery producing ethanol from sugarcane juice and second generation ethanol production using bagasse fine fraction composed of parenchyma cells (P-fraction. Liquid hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies were evaluated. The processes were thermal and water integrated and compared to a biorefinery producing ethanol from juice and sugarcane bagasse. The results indicated that after thermal and water integration, the evaluated processes were self-sufficient in energy demand, being able to sell the surplus electricity to the grid, and presented water intake inside the environmental limit for São Paulo State, Brazil. The processes that evaluated the use of the bagasse fine fraction presented higher economic results compared with the use of the entire bagasse. Even though, due to the high enzyme costs, the payback calculated for the biorefineries were higher than 8 years for all cases that considered second generation ethanol and the net present value for the investment was negative. The reduction on the enzyme load, in a way that the conversion rates could be maintained, is the limiting factor to make second generation ethanol competitive with the most immediate uses of bagasse: fuel for the cogeneration system to surplus electricity production.

  9. Biorefinery production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate using waste office paper hydrolysate as feedstock for microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelamegam, Annamalai; Al-Battashi, Huda; Al-Bahry, Saif; Nallusamy, Sivakumar

    2018-01-10

    Waste paper, a major fraction of municipal solid waste, has a potential to serve as renewable feedstock for the biorefineries of fuels, chemicals and materials due to rich in cellulose and abundant at low cost. This study evaluates the possibility of waste office paper (WOP) to serve as a potential feedstock for the biorefinery production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate). In this study, the WOP was pretreated, enzymatically saccharified and the hydrolysate was used for PHB production. The hydrolysate mainly consists of glucose (22.70g/L) and xylose (1.78g/L) and the corresponding sugar yield was about 816mg/g. Ammonium sulphate and C/N ratio 20 were identified as most favorable for high yield of PHB. The batch fermentation of Cupriavidus necator using the pretreated WOP hydrolysate resulted in cell biomass, PHB production and PHB content of 7.74g/L, 4.45g/L and 57.52%, respectively. The volumetric productivity and yield achieved were 0.061g/L/h and 0.210g/g sugar, respectively. The results suggested that WOP could be a potential alternative feedstock for the biorefinery production of bioplastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. in a Biorefinery Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Johansson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals.

  11. Techno-economic and profitability analysis of food waste biorefineries at European level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jorge; Caldeira, Carla; Corrado, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-03-07

    Food waste represents a potential source to produce value-added materials replacing the use of virgin ones. However, the use of food waste as feedstock in biorefineries is still at an early stage of development and studies assessing its economic viability at large scale are lacking in the literature. This paper presents a techno-economic and profitability analysis of four food waste biorefineries that use wastes from tomato, potato, orange, and olive processing as feedstock. The study includes the assessment of potentially available quantities of those waste flows in Europe. Due to the low technology readiness level of this kind of biorefineries, a screening methodology to estimate the investment and manufacturing costs as well as two profitability ratios (the return on investment and the payback time) was adopted. Results show that not all the waste feedstocks have the same potential. The most profitable options are those related to implementing fewer plants, namely concentrating the production and capitalising on economies of scale while being at risk of increasing externalities, e.g. due to logistics of the feedstocks. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulating Pelletization Strategies to Reduce the Biomass Supply Risk at America’s Biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Shane Carnohan; Andrew Ford; Allyson Beall

    2014-07-01

    Demand for cellulosic ethanol and other advanced biofuels has been on the rise, due in part to federal targets enacted in 2005 and extended in 2007. The industry faces major challenges in meeting these worthwhile and ambitious targets. The challenges are especially severe in the logistics of timely feedstock delivery to biorefineries. Logistical difficulties arise from seasonal production that forces the biomass to be stored in uncontrolled field-side environments. In this storage format physical difficulties arise; transportation is hindered by the low bulk density of baled biomass and the unprotected material can decay leading to unpredictable losses. Additionally, uncertain yields and contractual difficulties can exacerbate these challenges making biorefineries a high-risk venture. Investors’ risk could limit business entry and prevent America from reaching the targets. This paper explores pelletizer strategies to convert the lignocellulosic biomass into a denser form more suitable for storage. The densification of biomass would reduce supply risks, and the new system would outperform conventional biorefinery supply systems. Pelletizer strategies exhibit somewhat higher costs, but the reduction in risk is well worth the extra cost if America is to grow the advanced biofuels industry in a sustainable manner.

  13. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, João R M; Fávaro, Léia C L; Quirino, Betania F

    2012-07-18

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a "waste-stream" instead of a valuable "coproduct". The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  14. Use of residual banana for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production: case of study in an integrated biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Javier M; Cardona, Carlos A; Higuita, Juan C

    2014-12-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate is a type of biopolymer that can be produced from hydrolyzed polysaccharide materials and could eventually replace polypropylene and polyethylene, being biodegradable, biocompatible and produced from renewable carbon sources. However, polyhydroxybutyrate is not still competitive compared to petrochemical polymers due to their high production costs. The improvement of the production processes requires a search for new alternative raw materials, design of the pretreatment technique and improvement in the fermentation and separation steps. In addition, if the polyhydroxybutyrate production is coupled into a multiproduct biorefinery it could increase the economic and environmental availability of the process through energy and mass integration strategies. In this work alternatives of energy and mass integrations for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate into a biorefinery from residual banana (an agro-industrial waste) were analyzed. The results show that the energetic integration can reduce up to 30.6% the global energy requirements of the process and the mass integration allows a 35% in water savings. Thus, this work demonstrates that energy and mass integration in a biorefinery is a very important way for the optimal use of energy and water resources hence decreasing the production cost and the negative environmental impacts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-11-01

    In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

  16. Carbon dioxide utilization in a microalga-based biorefinery: Efficiency of carbon removal and economic performance under carbon taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesberg, Igor Lapenda; Brigagão, George Victor; de Medeiros, José Luiz; de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia

    2017-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants are major stationary sources of carbon dioxide and environmental constraints demand technologies for abatement. Although Carbon Capture and Storage is the most mature route, it poses severe economic penalty to power generation. Alternatively, this penalty is potentially reduced by Carbon Capture and Utilization, which converts carbon dioxide to valuable products, monetizing it. This work evaluates a route consisting of carbon dioxide bio-capture by Chlorella pyrenoidosa and use of the resulting biomass as feedstock to a microalgae-based biorefinery; Carbon Capture and Storage route is evaluated as a reference technology. The integrated arrangement comprises: (a) carbon dioxide biocapture in a photobioreactor, (b) oil extraction from part of the produced biomass, (b) gasification of remaining biomass to obtain bio-syngas, and (c) conversion of bio-syngas to methanol. Calculation of capital and operational expenditures are estimated based on mass and energy balances obtained by process simulation for both routes (Carbon Capture and Storage and the biorefinery). Capital expenditure for the biorefinery is higher by a factor of 6.7, while operational expenditure is lower by a factor of 0.45 and revenues occur only for this route, with a ratio revenue/operational expenditure of 1.6. The photobioreactor is responsible for one fifth of the biorefinery capital expenditure, with footprint of about 1000 ha, posing the most significant barrier for technical and economic feasibility of the proposed biorefinery. The Biorefinery and Carbon Capture and Storage routes show carbon dioxide capture efficiency of 73% and 48%, respectively, with capture cost of 139$/t and 304$/t. Additionally, the biorefinery has superior performance in all evaluated metrics of environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modern microbial solid state fermentation technology for future biorefineries for the production of added-value products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaalbakri Abdul Manan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The promise of industrial biotechnology has been around since Chaim Weizmann developed acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation at the University of Manchester in 1917 and the prospects nowadays look brighter than ever. Today’s biorefinery technologies would be almost unthinkable without biotechnology. This is a growing trend and biorefineries have also increased in importance in agriculture and the food industry. Novel biorefinery processes using solid state fermentation (SSF technology have been developed as alternative to conventional processing routes, leading to the production of added-value products from agriculture and food industry raw materials. SSF involves the growth of microorganisms on moist solid substrate in the absence of free-flowing water. Future biorefineries based on SSF aim to exploit the vast complexity of the technology to modify biomass produced by agriculture and the food industry for valuable by-products through microbial bioconversion. In this review, a summary has been made of the attempts at using modern microbial SSF technology for future biorefineries for the production of many added-value products ranging from feedstock for the fermentation process and biodegradable plastics to fuels and chemicals.

  18. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass and Algal Residues via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, T. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Beginning in 2010, UOP, along with the Department of Energy and other project partners, designed a pathway for an integrated biorefinery to process solid biomass into transportation fuel blendstocks. The integrated biorefinery (IBR) would convert second generation feedstocks into pyrolysis oil which would then be upgraded into fuel blendstocks without the limitations of traditional biofuels.

  19. Techno-environmental assessment of the green biorefinery concept: Combining process simulation and life cycle assessment at an early design stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Andrea; Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Vega, Giovanna Croxatto

    2018-01-01

    The Green biorefinery (GBR) is a biorefinery concept that converts fresh biomass into value-added products. The present study combines a Process Flowsheet Simulation (PFS) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the technical and environmental performance of different GBR configurations...

  20. First workshop on the possibilities of biorefinery concepts for the industry : held at hotel "De Wageningse Berg", Wageningen, the Netherlands (16 June 2006) : official minutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Jong, de E.; Ree, van R.; Zwart, R.W.R.

    2006-01-01

    On June the 16th the first ¿workshop on the possibilities of biorefinery concepts for the industry¿ was held, bringing together different Dutch stakeholders, and addressing common as well as conflicting technical and market issues with regard to biorefinery opportunities. The first-of-akind workshop

  1. Biorefining in the prevailing energy and materials crisis: a review of sustainable pathways for biorefinery value chains and sustainability assessment methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current paper is to discuss the sustainability aspect of biorefinery systems with focus on biomass supply chains, processing of biomass feedstocks in biorefinery platforms and sustainability assessment methodologies. From the stand point of sustainability, it is important to optimize...... comparisons of alternatives. Life Cycle Assessment is regarded as one of the most relevant tools to assess the environmental hotspots in the biomass supply chains, at processing stages and also to support in the prioritization of any specific biobased products and the alternatives delivered from biorefineries....... a year-round supply of biomass and about 40–60% of the total operating cost of a typical biorefinery is related to the feedstocks chosen, and thus highlights on the careful prioritization of feedstocks mainly based on their economic and environmental loadings. Regarding the processing in biorefinery...

  2. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  3. Design methodology for integrated downstream separation systems in an ethanol biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh Rohani, Navid

    Energy security and environmental concerns have been the main drivers for a historic shift to biofuel production in transportation fuel industry. Biofuels should not only offer environmental advantages over the petroleum fuels they replace but also should be economically sustainable and viable. The so-called second generation biofuels such as ethanol which is the most produced biofuel are mostly derived from lignocellulosic biomasses. These biofuels are more difficult to produce than the first generation ones mainly due to recalcitrance of the feedstocks in extracting their sugar contents. Costly pre-treatment and fractionation stages are required to break down lignocellulosic feedstocks into their constituent elements. On the other hand the mixture produced in fermentation step in a biorefinery contains very low amount of product which makes the subsequent separation step more difficult and more energy consuming. In an ethanol biorefinery, the dilute fermentation broth requires huge operating cost in downstream separation for recovery of the product in a conventional distillation technique. Moreover, the non-ideal nature of ethanol-water mixture which forms an iseotrope at almost 95 wt%, hinders the attainment of the fuel grade ethanol (99.5 wt%). Therefore, an additional dehydration stage is necessary to purify the ethanol from its azeotropic composition to fuel-grade purity. In order to overcome the constraint pertaining to vapor-liquid equilibrium of ethanol-water separation, several techniques have been investigated and proposed in the industry. These techniques such as membrane-based technologies, extraction and etc. have not only sought to produce a pure fuel-grade ethanol but have also aimed at decreasing the energy consumption of this energy-intensive separation. Decreasing the energy consumption of an ethanol biorefinery is of paramount importance in improving its overall economics and in facilitating the way to displacing petroleum transportation fuel

  4. Maximizing biofuel production in a thermochemical biorefinery by adding electrolytic hydrogen and by integrating torrefaction with entrained flow gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    double the biofuel production per biomass input by converting almost all of the carbon in the biomass feed to carbon stored in the biofuel product. Water or steam electrolysis can supply the hydrogen to the biorefinery and also the oxygen for the gasifier. This paper presents the design and thermodynamic...... analysis of two biorefineries integrating water electrolysis for the production of methanol. In both plants, torrefied woody biomass is supplied to an entrained flow gasifier, but in one of the plants, the torrefaction process occurs on-site, as it is integrated with the entrained flow gasification process......In a "conventional" thermochemical biorefinery, carbon is emitted from the plant in the form of CO2 to make the synthesis gas from the gasifier suitable for fuel production. The alternative to this carbon removal is to add hydrogen to the plant. By adding hydrogen, it is possible to more than...

  5. Process design, supply chain, economic and environmental analysis for chemical production in a glycerol biorefinery: Towards the sustainable design of biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina

    business divisions, such as planning, manufacturing, distribution and corresponding environmental consequences and concerns, it is therefore vital to model these activities and to develop comprehensive and systematic methods to capture the synergies and the trade-offs within this complex system. Therefore...... of external economic uncertainties on the environmental objective function are analyzed and the trade-offs identified. In summary, this thesis covers the development of methods and tools for the modeling and optimization at the strategic and tactical level, along with detailed economic and environmental......Drivers such as our deep dependence on fossil fuels availability and price volatility, global concern about climate change and social distress, are steering the economy to be more sustainable and based on a greater use of renewable resources. Therefore, the concept of integrated biorefineries has...

  6. Roadmap biorefineries within the scope of action plans of the Federal Government for the material and energetic utilization of renewable raw materials; Roadmap Bioraffinerien im Rahmen der Aktionsplaene der Bundesregierung zur stofflichen und energetischen Nutzung nachwachsender Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    In order to determine the current status and the further energy demand of different biorefinery concepts, the Federal Government has announced the development of a 'Roadmap biorefineries' under involvement of business and science. This comprehensive overview on different technologies and on possibilities of realization now is available and includes the following aspects: (1) Biorefineries in te context of utilizing biomass; (2) Definition and systematics of biorefineries, state of the art and initial situation; (3) Technological description and analysis; (4) Economic and ecologic classification; (5) Challenges of the establishment of biorefineries - SWOT analysis; (6) need for action.

  7. Air Permitting Implications of a Biorefinery Producing Raw Bio-Oil in Comparison with Producing Gasoline and Diesel Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yi Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-01

    A biorefinery, considered a chemical process plant under the Clean Air Act permitting program, could be classified as a major or minor source based on the size of the facility and magnitude of regulated pollutants emitted. Our previous analysis indicates that a biorefinery using fast pyrolysis conversion process to produce finished gasoline and diesel blendstocks with a capacity of processing 2,000 dry metric tons of biomass per day would likely be classified as a major source because several regulated pollutants (such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide) are estimated to exceed the 100 tons per year (tpy) major source threshold, applicable to chemical process plants. Being subject to a major source classification could pose additional challenges associated with obtaining an air permit in a timely manner before the biorefinery can start its construction. Recent developments propose an alternative approach to utilize bio-oil produced via the fast pyrolysis conversion process by shipping it to an existing petroleum refinery, where the raw bio-oil can be blended with petroleum-based feedstocks (e.g., vacuum gas oil) to produce gasoline and diesel blendstocks with renewable content. Without having to hydro-treat raw bio-oil, a biorefinery is likely to reduce its potential-to-emit to below the 100 tpy major source threshold, and therefore expedite its permitting process. We compare the PTE estimates for the two biorefinery designs with and without hydrotreating of bio-oils and examine the air permitting implications on potential air permit classification and discuss the best available control technology requirements for the major source biorefinery utilizing hydrotreating operation. Our analysis is expected to provide useful information to new biofuel project developers to identify opportunities to overcome challenges associated with air permitting.

  8. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida João R M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a “waste-stream” instead of a valuable “coproduct”. The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  9. Biohydrogen, biomethane and bioelectricity as crucial components of biorefinery of organic wastes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Munoz-Paez, Karla M; Escamilla-Alvarado, Carlos; Robledo-Narváez, Paula N; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa; Calva-Calva, Graciano; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Estrada-Vázquez, Carlos; Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí F

    2014-05-01

    Biohydrogen is a sustainable form of energy as it can be produced from organic waste through fermentation processes involving dark fermentation and photofermentation. Very often biohydrogen is included as a part of biorefinery approaches, which reclaim organic wastes that are abundant sources of renewable and low cost substrate that can be efficiently fermented by microorganisms. The aim of this work was to critically assess selected bioenergy alternatives from organic solid waste, such as biohydrogen and bioelectricity, to evaluate their relative advantages and disadvantages in the context of biorefineries, and finally to indicate the trends for future research and development. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products, which means: energy, materials, chemicals, food and feed. Dark fermentation of organic wastes could be the beach-head of complete biorefineries that generate biohydrogen as a first step and could significantly influence the future of solid waste management. Series systems show a better efficiency than one-stage process regarding substrate conversion to hydrogen and bioenergy. The dark fermentation also produces fermented by-products (fatty acids and solvents), so there is an opportunity for further combining with other processes that yield more bioenergy. Photoheterotrophic fermentation is one of them: photosynthetic heterotrophs, such as non-sulfur purple bacteria, can thrive on the simple organic substances produced in dark fermentation and light, to give more H2. Effluents from photoheterotrophic fermentation and digestates can be processed in microbial fuel cells for bioelectricity production and methanogenic digestion for methane generation, thus integrating a diverse block of bioenergies. Several digestates from bioenergies could be used for bioproducts generation, such as cellulolytic enzymes and saccharification processes, leading to ethanol fermentation (another bioenergy), thus completing

  10. Multi-product biorefineries from lignocelluloses: a pathway to revitalisation of the sugar industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad, Somayeh; Mandegari, Mohsen Ali; Guo, Miao; Haigh, Kathleen F; Shah, Nilay; Görgens, Johann F

    2017-01-01

    Driven by a range of sustainability challenges, e.g. climate change, resource depletion and expanding populations, a circular bioeconomy is emerging and expected to evolve progressively in the coming decades. South Africa along with other BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) represents the emerging bioeconomy and contributes significantly to global sugar market. In our research, South Africa is used as a case study to demonstrate the sustainable design for the future biorefineries annexed to existing sugar industry. Detailed techno-economic evaluation and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were applied to model alternative routes for converting sugarcane residues (bagasse and trash) to selected biofuel and/or biochemicals (ethanol, ethanol and lactic acid, ethanol and furfural, butanol, methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, with co-production of surplus electricity) in an energy self-sufficient biorefinery system. Economic assessment indicated that methanol synthesis with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 16.7% and ethanol-lactic acid co-production (20.5%) met the minimum investment criteria of 15%, while the latter had the lowest sensitivity to market price amongst all the scenarios. LCA results demonstrated that sugarcane cultivation was the most significant contributor to environmental impacts in all of the scenarios, other than the furfural production scenario in which a key step, a biphasic process with tetrahydrofuran solvent, had the most significant contribution. Overall, the thermochemical routes presented environmental advantages over biochemical pathways on most of the impact categories, except for acidification and eutrophication. Of the investigated scenarios, furfural production delivered the inferior environmental performance, while methanol production performed best due to its low reagent consumption. The combined techno-economic and environmental assessments identified the performance-limiting steps in the 2G biorefinery design for

  11. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

    2009-11-03

    This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

  12. Optimal design of microalgae-based biorefinery: Economics, opportunities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have great potential as a feedstock for the production of a wide range of end-products under the broad concept of biorefinery. In an earlier work, we proposed a superstructure based optimization model to find the optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal...... biomass, and identified several challenges with the focus being on utilizing lipids extracted microalgal biomass for economic and environmentally friendly production of useful energy products. In this paper, we expand the previous optimization framework by considering the processing of microalgae residue...

  13. Knowledge management in a waste based biorefinery in the QbD paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag S; Chopda, Viki R; Gomes, James

    2016-09-01

    Shifting resource base from fossil feedstock to renewable raw materials for production of chemical products has opened up an area of novel applications of industrial biotechnology-based process tools. This review aims to provide a concise and focused discussion on recent advances in knowledge management to facilitate efficient and optimal operation of a biorefinery. Application of quality by design (QbD) and process analytical technology (PAT) as tools for knowledge creation and management at different levels has been highlighted. Role of process integration, government policies, knowledge exchange through collaboration, and use of databases and computational tools have also been touched upon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspectives on the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in biorefineries associated with the production of sugar and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiziana Ferreira; Taciro, Marilda Keico; Raicher, Gil; Piccoli, Rosane Aparecida Moniz; Mendonça, Thatiane Teixeira; Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera

    2014-11-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable and biocompatible bacterial thermoplastic polymers that can be obtained from renewable resources. The high impact of the carbon source in the final cost of this polymer has been one of the major limiting factors for PHA production and agricultural residues, mainly lignocellulosic materials, have gained attention to overcome this problem. In Brazil, production of 2nd generation ethanol from the glucose fraction, derived from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate has been studied. The huge amounts of remaining xylose will create an opportunity for the development of other bioprocesses, generating new products to be introduced into a biorefinery model. Although PHA production from sucrose integrated to a 1G ethanol and sugar mill has been proposed in the past, the integration of the process of 2G ethanol in the context of a biorefinery will provide enormous amounts of xylose, which could be applied to produce PHA, establishing a second-generation of PHA production process. Those aspects and perspectives are presented in this article. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Microalgae as substrates for fermentative biogas production in a combined biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussgnug, J H; Klassen, V; Schlüter, A; Kruse, O

    2010-10-01

    Most organic matter can be used for bioenergy generation via anaerobic fermentation. Today, crop plants like maize play the dominant role as substrates for renewable biogas production. In this work we investigated the suitability of six dominant microalgae species (freshwater and saltwater algae and cyanobacteria) as alternative substrates for biogas production. We could demonstrate that the biogas potential is strongly dependent on the species and on the pretreatment. Fermentation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was efficient with a production of 587 ml(±8.8 SE) biogas g volatile solids(-1) (VS(-1)), whereas fermentation of Scenedesmus obliquus was inefficient with only 287 ml(±10.1 SE) biogas g VS(-1) being produced. Drying as a pretreatment decreased the amount of biogas production to ca. 80%. The methane content of biogas from microalgae was 7-13% higher compared to biogas from maize silage. To evaluate integrative biorefinery concepts, hydrogen production in C. reinhardtii prior to anaerobic fermentation of the algae biomass was measured and resulted in an increase of biogas generation to 123% (±3.7 SE). We conclude that selected algae species can be good substrates for biogas production and that anaerobic fermentation can seriously be considered as final step in future microalgae-based biorefinery concepts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recent trends on techno-economic assessment (TEA of sugarcane biorefineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ali Mandegari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability challenges, e.g., climate change, resource depletion, and expanding populations, have triggered a swift move towards a circular bio-economy which is expected to evolve progressively in the coming decades. However, the transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy requires the exploitation of scientific innovations and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Biorefineries have been extensively investigated for biofuel production from first and second generation feedstocks, whereas some research activities have been conducted on production of biochemical and biopolymers from renewable resources. Techno-economic evaluation of diverse technologies for production of biofuels and biochemical is a crucial step for decision making in the development of bio-economy. This contribution focuses on the economic studies carried out on biorefineries converting sugarcane bagasse, due to its availability and importance in the South African context, into value-added products. Recent studies on biofuel production via biochemical pathway, e.g., ethanol, butanol, or thermochemical pathway, e.g., methanol and bio jet fuel as well as production of biochemicals with high market demands and diverse applications such as lactic acid, succinic acid, and xylitol have been briefly reviewed. In addition, an overview on the production of biopolymers such as polyl-lactic acid and bio-based monomers, i.e., butanediol, from sugarcane bagasse is reported.

  17. Integration of Colombians Forest Commercial Crops in Thermochemical Biorefinery Concepts: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez Bayer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The technical, energy, social and environmental benefits of the integration of commercial forest crops in Colombia under biorefinery concepts are evaluated. This concept is part of various programs and government policies that consider the energy use of biomass as an alternative source to the silvicultural potential of the country. In this paper we review some specific processes that can be evaluated as integration strategies with high potential to use the wood planted in Colombia under biorefinery concepts. The processes considered are low-middle power gasification, industrial scale gasification to high quality biofuel production, wood pretreatment to improve the solid biofuel and alternative methods for biochar production. Finally, we also review the value-added wood products market. To conclude we highlight the potential of Colombian forest in this industry, Through strategic alliances between universities, research centers and the forestry sector, more efficient and innovative development of new value-added products should be sought, taking advantage of the unexplored market opportunities in Colombia for bioenergy and bioproducts. This review aims to advance knowledge on the features and possible uses of forest species to produce bioenergy, biofuels, and bioproducts sustainably.

  18. Catalytic oxidation of biorefinery lignin to value-added chemicals to support sustainable biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruoshui; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Transforming plant biomass to biofuel is one of the few solutions that can truly sustain mankind's long-term needs for liquid transportation fuel with minimized environmental impact. However, despite decades of effort, commercial development of biomass-to-biofuel conversion processes is still not an economically viable proposition. Identifying value-added co-products along with the production of biofuel provides a key solution to overcoming this economic barrier. Lignin is the second most abundant component next to cellulose in almost all plant biomass; the emerging biomass refinery industry will inevitably generate an enormous amount of lignin. Development of selective biorefinery lignin-to-bioproducts conversion processes will play a pivotal role in significantly improving the economic feasibility and sustainability of biofuel production from renewable biomass. The urgency and importance of this endeavor has been increasingly recognized in the last few years. This paper reviews state-of-the-art oxidative lignin depolymerization chemistries employed in the papermaking process and oxidative catalysts that can be applied to biorefinery lignin to produce platform chemicals including phenolic compounds, dicarboxylic acids, and quinones in high selectivity and yield. The potential synergies of integrating new catalysts with commercial delignification chemistries are discussed. We hope the information will build on the existing body of knowledge to provide new insights towards developing practical and commercially viable lignin conversion technologies, enabling sustainable biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass to be competitive with fossil fuel. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery (>95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149kg of EtOH and 115kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1ton of dry hemp. Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Techno-economic analysis for brewer's spent grains use on a biorefinery concept: the Brazilian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussatto, Solange I; Moncada, Jonathan; Roberto, Inês C; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-11-01

    A techno-economic analysis for use of brewer's spent grains (BSG) on a biorefinery concept for the Brazilian case is presented. Four scenarios based on different levels of heat and mass integration for the production of xylitol, lactic acid, activated carbon and phenolic acids are shown. A simulation procedure using the software Aspen Plus and experimental yields was used. Such procedure served as basis for the techno-economic and environmental assessment according to the Brazilian conditions. Full mass integration on water and full energy integration was the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance. For this case, the obtained economic margin was 62.25%, the potential environmental impact was 0.012 PEI/kg products, and the carbon footprint of the processing stage represented 0.96 kg CO2-e/kg of BSG. This result served as basis to draw recommendations on the technological, economic and environmental feasibility for implementation of such type of biorefinery in Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermochemical hydrolysis of macroalgae Ulva for biorefinery: Taguchi robust design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Linzon, Yoav; Vitkin, Edward; Yakhini, Zohar; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Golberg, Alexander

    2016-06-13

    Understanding the impact of all process parameters on the efficiency of biomass hydrolysis and on the final yield of products is critical to biorefinery design. Using Taguchi orthogonal arrays experimental design and Partial Least Square Regression, we investigated the impact of change and the comparative significance of thermochemical process temperature, treatment time, %Acid and %Solid load on carbohydrates release from green macroalgae from Ulva genus, a promising biorefinery feedstock. The average density of hydrolysate was determined using a new microelectromechanical optical resonator mass sensor. In addition, using Flux Balance Analysis techniques, we compared the potential fermentation yields of these hydrolysate products using metabolic models of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type, Saccharomyces cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase and Clostridium acetobutylicum. We found that %Acid plays the most significant role and treatment time the least significant role in affecting the monosaccharaides released from Ulva biomass. We also found that within the tested range of parameters, hydrolysis with 121 °C, 30 min 2% Acid, 15% Solids could lead to the highest yields of conversion: 54.134-57.500 gr ethanol kg(-1) Ulva dry weight by S. cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase. Our results support optimized marine algae utilization process design and will enable smart energy harvesting by thermochemical hydrolysis.

  2. Design and analysis of biorefineries based on raw glycerol: addressing the glycerol problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, John A; Rincón, Luis E; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    Glycerol as a low-cost by-product of the biodiesel industry can be considered a renewable building block for biorefineries. In this work, the conversion of raw glycerol to nine added-value products obtained by chemical (syn-gas, acrolein, and 1,2-propanediol) or bio-chemical (ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, d-lactic acid, succinic acid, propionic acid, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) routes were considered. The technological schemes for these synthesis routes were designed, simulated, and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator, respectively. The techno-economic potential of a glycerol-based biorefinery system for the production of fuels, chemicals, and plastics was analyzed using the commercial Commercial Sale Price/Production Cost ratio criteria, under different production scenarios. More income can be earned from 1,3-propanediol and 1,2-propanediol production, while less income would be obtained from hydrogen and succinic acid. This analysis may be useful mainly for biodiesel producers since several profitable alternatives are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimal design and planning of glycerol-based biorefinery supply chains under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal design and planning of glycerol-based biorefinery supply chains is critical for the development and implementation of this concept in a sustainable manner. To achieve this, a decision-making framework is proposed in this work, to holistically optimize the design and planning of the gl......The optimal design and planning of glycerol-based biorefinery supply chains is critical for the development and implementation of this concept in a sustainable manner. To achieve this, a decision-making framework is proposed in this work, to holistically optimize the design and planning......-echelon mixed integer linear programming problem is proposed based upon a previous model, GlyThink. In the new formulation, market uncertainties are taken into account at the strategic planning level. The robustness of the supply chain structures is analyzed based on statistical data provided...... by the implementation of the Monte Carlo method, where a deterministic optimization problem is solved for each scenario. Furthermore, the solution of the stochastic multi-objective optimization model, points to the Pareto set of trade-off solutions obtained when maximizing the NPV and minimizing environmental...

  4. Amination of biorefinery technical lignins using Mannich reaction synergy with subcritical ethanol depolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Tian-Ying; Wang, Han-Min; Li, Han-Yin; Liu, Chuan-Fu; Wen, Jia-Long

    2018-02-01

    The alcoholic depolymerization and Mannich reaction were conducted to improve the chemical activity of biorefinery technical lignins and introduce amino groups into lignins, respectively. To understand the chemical structural transformations and examine the reaction mechanism, GPC and solution-state NMR techniques were performed. Element analysis was also used to quantify the amount of amine groups. The NMR characterization the depolymerized lignins indicated of the depolymerization, demethoxylation, and bond cleavage of linkages occurred during the depolymerization process. Results showed that the depolymerization temperature instead of the addition of capping reagents was the main factor for improving the reactivity of lignin under the given conditions. The Mannich reaction was very selective, primarily occurred at H 3,5 and G 5 positions, and the H units present a higher chemical reactivity. It is believed that the understanding of the fundamental chemistry of lignin during depolymerization and Mannich reaction process will contribute to the extension of high value-added applications of biorefinery lignin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical conversion of hemicellulose coproducts from forest biorefineries to polymers and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boluk, Y.; Jost, R. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Raw material is the basis of the chemical industry. This presentation discussed the chemical conversion of hemicellulose coproducts from forest biorefineries to polymers and chemicals. Biorefining pretreatment processes open up the biomass structure, release hemicelluloses and overcome the resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. Although hemicellulose is the second most abundant carbohydrate, it does not have many industrial applications. The state of released hemicellulose whether polymeric, oligomeric or monosaccharides depends primarily on the pretreatment process conditions. Physical pretreatment methods include high-pressure steaming and steam explosion; milling and grinding; extrusion; and high-energy radiation. The chemical pretreatment methods involve the use of alkali, acid, gas and oxidizing agents as well as solvents. The biological pretreatment methods involve the use of lignin consuming fungi and cellulose consuming fungi. A profitable use of C5 sugars in monomeric, oligomeric and polymeric forms is necessary for a viable wood to bioethanol process. Hemicellulose composition varies depending on the biomass source. It usually has a lower molecular weight than cellulose, contains branching, and is comprised of several different monosaccharides. The existing commercial chemical products include xylitol, mannitol, and furfural. The hemicellulose coproducts from a lignocellulosic biorefinery have the potential to become a feasible replacement for their fossil-based equivalents. tabs., figs.

  6. Cooking with Active Oxygen and Solid Alkali: A Promising Alternative Approach for Lignocellulosic Biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yetao; Zeng, Xianhai; Luque, Rafael; Tang, Xing; Sun, Yong; Lei, Tingzhou; Liu, Shijie; Lin, Lu

    2017-10-23

    Lignocellulosic biomass, a matrix of biopolymers including cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, has gathered increasing attention in recent years for the production of chemicals, fuels, and materials through biorefinery processes owing to its renewability and availability. The fractionation of lignocellulose is considered to be the fundamental step to establish an economical and sustainable lignocellulosic biorefinery. In this Minireview, we summarize a newly developed oxygen delignification for lignocellulose fractionation called cooking with active oxygen and solid alkali (CAOSA), which can fractionate lignocellulose into its constituents and maintain its processable form. In the CAOSA approach, environmentally friendly chemicals are applied instead of undesirable chemicals such as strong alkalis and sulfides. Notably, the alkali recovery for this process promises to be relatively simple and does not require causticizing or sintering. These features make the CAOSA process an alternative for both lignocellulose fractionation and biomass pretreatment. The advantages and challenges of CAOSA are also discussed to provide a comprehensive perspective with respect to existing strategies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Critical analysis of emerging forest biorefinery (FBR) technologies for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.; Janssen, M.; Chambost, V.; Stuart, P. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique. Design Engineering Chair in Process Integration

    2010-05-15

    This article provided a literature review of emerging technologies for ethanol production in Canada. A multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) panel was used to weigh critical metrics for evaluating the potential of emerging forest biorefinery technologies for bio-ethanol production. The 3-step methodology identified key factors for evaluating technology pathways. Key factors were applied to a group of selected technologies in order to collect data. All previous criteria were weighted through the MCDM panel in order to rank the technologies, which included biochemical pathway and thermochemical pathway production processes. Criteria included return on investment; feedstock flexibility; technology risk; energy and integration; products and revenue diversification; potential for additional products; and potential environmental impact. The study showed that techno-economic criteria are the most important barriers to the implementation of ethanol biorefineries. While thermochemical processes are economically feasible and provide greater flexibility, biochemical refining processes may provide for the development of other value-added products. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  8. Utilization of sweet sorghum juice for the production of astaxanthin as a biorefinery co-product by phaffia rhodozyma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-product generation in a biorefinery process is crucial to allow ethanol production from agricultural feedstocks to be economically viable. One feedstock that has underutilized potential in the U.S. is sweet sorghum. The stalks of sweet sorghum can be crushed to produce a juice rich in soluble sug...

  9. Butanol production in a first-generation Brazilian sugarcane biorefinery: technical aspects and economics of greenfield projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cunha, Marcelo P; Bonomi, Antonio; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    2013-05-01

    The techno-economics of greenfield projects of a first-generation sugarcane biorefinery aimed to produce ethanol, sugar, power, and n-butanol was conducted taking into account different butanol fermentation technologies (regular microorganism and mutant strain with improved butanol yield) and market scenarios (chemicals and automotive fuel). The complete sugarcane biorefinery with the batch acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process was simulated using Aspen Plus®. The biorefinery was designed to process 2 million tonne sugarcane per year and utilize 25%, 50%, and 25% of the available sugarcane juice to produce sugar, ethanol, and butanol, respectively. The investment on a biorefinery with butanol production showed to be more attractive [14.8% IRR, P(IRR>12%)=0.99] than the conventional 50:50 (ethanol:sugar) annexed plant [13.3% IRR, P(IRR>12%)=0.80] only in the case butanol is produced by an improved microorganism and traded as a chemical. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Algal biorefinery-based industry: an approach to address fuel and food insecurity for a carbon-smart world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadra, Bobban

    2011-01-15

    Food and fuel production are intricately interconnected. In a carbon-smart society, it is imperative to produce both food and fuel sustainably. Integration of the emerging biorefinery concept with other industries can bring many environmental deliverables while mitigating several sustainability-related issues with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel usage, land use change for fuel production and future food insufficiency. A new biorefinery-based integrated industrial ecology encompasses the different value chain of products, coproducts, and services from the biorefinery industries. This paper discusses a framework to integrate the algal biofuel-based biorefinery, a booming biofuel sector, with other industries such as livestock, lignocellulosic and aquaculture. Using the USA as an example, this paper also illustrates the benefits associated with sustainable production of fuel and food. Policy and regulatory initiatives for synergistic development of the algal biofuel sector with other industries can bring many sustainable solutions for the future existence of mankind. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Hydrothermal Treatment (HTT) of Microalgae: Evaluation of the Process As Conversion Method in an Algae Biorefinery Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Torri, C.; Samori, C.; van der Spek, J.J.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal treatment (HTT) technology is evaluated for its potential as a process to convert algae and algal debris into a liquid fuel, within a sustainable algae biorefinery concept in which, next to fuels (gaseous and liquid), high value products are coproduced, nutrients and water are

  12. A biorefinery approach for the production of xylitol, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate from brewer’s spent grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Dávila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain (BSG is one of the most important byproducts of the brewing industry and its composition offers opportunities for developing value-added products. The objective of the research was to investigate the application of the biorefinery approach for production of xylitol, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate from BSG. The techno-economic and environmental aspects of two biorefinery scenarios, with and without heat integration, were studied. Results indicated that a standalone production of fuel ethanol from BSG was not feasible, the production of polyhydroxybutyrate was feasible only with heat integration and that the production of xylitol was feasible either with or without heat integration. Results indicated a calculated total production cost of 0.35, 3.63 and 3.36 USD/kg for xylitol, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate, respectively. Results suggested that heat integration allowed reducing the energy consumption associated with manufacturing all of the products in the biorefinery by 43%. Results of the environmental assessment indicated that heat integration lowered the potential environmental impact of the BSG processing. Results of the study thus indicated the superiority of a biorefinery for BSG processing that includes heat integration, from both the techno-economic and environmental impact points of view.

  13. Integration of Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) in the Biorefinery for Production of Ethanol, H2 and Phenolics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Possemiers, Sam

    2010-01-01

    procedure is proposed in which the ethanol biorefinery is coupled with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), with the aim to further process and valorize the waste stream of bioethanol production. A MEC is an electrochemical system capable of oxidizing reducing equivalents, which results in hydrogen...

  14. Economic Analysis of an Integrated Annatto Seeds-Sugarcane Biorefinery Using Supercritical CO₂ Extraction as a First Step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarelli, Juliana Q; Santos, Diego T; Cocero, María José; Meireles, M Angela A

    2016-06-21

    Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been indicated to be utilized as part of a biorefinery, rather than as a stand-alone technology, since besides extracting added value compounds selectively it has been shown to have a positive effect on the downstream processing of biomass. To this extent, this work evaluates economically the encouraging experimental results regarding the use of SFE during annatto seeds valorization. Additionally, other features were discussed such as the benefits of enhancing the bioactive compounds concentration through physical processes and of integrating the proposed annatto seeds biorefinery to a hypothetical sugarcane biorefinery, which produces its essential inputs, e.g., CO₂, ethanol, heat and electricity. For this, first, different configurations were modeled and simulated using the commercial simulator Aspen Plus ® to determine the mass and energy balances. Next, each configuration was economically assessed using MATLAB. SFE proved to be decisive to the economic feasibility of the proposed annatto seeds-sugarcane biorefinery concept. SFE pretreatment associated with sequential fine particles separation process enabled higher bixin-rich extract production using low-pressure solvent extraction method employing ethanol, meanwhile tocotrienols-rich extract is obtained as a first product. Nevertheless, the economic evaluation showed that increasing tocotrienols-rich extract production has a more pronounced positive impact on the economic viability of the concept.

  15. Laminaria digitata as a potential carbon source for succinic acid and bioenergy production in a biorefinery perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Fotidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    to 298 and 285 NmL CH4 g− 1 VSadded, respectively. PHSR could potentially be used for: dietary food additive, fish feed, bioenergy production and added value products. This study opens possibility to conceive different biorefinery scenarios in which the efficient use of the macroalgal biomass fractions...... can provide numerous added-value bio-based products and energy....

  16. System visualization of integrated biofuels and high value chemicals developed within the MacroAlgaeBiorefinery (MAB3) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Hasler, Berit; Bastianoni, Simone

    growth in open seas absorbs considerable amount of nitrogen, phosphorus (limiting water eutrophication) and heavy metals. The modeled system aims to valorize all the biomass components produced in the biorefinery processes and internalize all positive and negative impacts of the services provided...

  17. Economic Analysis of an Integrated Annatto Seeds-Sugarcane Biorefinery Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction as a First Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Q. Albarelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE has been indicated to be utilized as part of a biorefinery, rather than as a stand-alone technology, since besides extracting added value compounds selectively it has been shown to have a positive effect on the downstream processing of biomass. To this extent, this work evaluates economically the encouraging experimental results regarding the use of SFE during annatto seeds valorization. Additionally, other features were discussed such as the benefits of enhancing the bioactive compounds concentration through physical processes and of integrating the proposed annatto seeds biorefinery to a hypothetical sugarcane biorefinery, which produces its essential inputs, e.g., CO2, ethanol, heat and electricity. For this, first, different configurations were modeled and simulated using the commercial simulator Aspen Plus® to determine the mass and energy balances. Next, each configuration was economically assessed using MATLAB. SFE proved to be decisive to the economic feasibility of the proposed annatto seeds-sugarcane biorefinery concept. SFE pretreatment associated with sequential fine particles separation process enabled higher bixin-rich extract production using low-pressure solvent extraction method employing ethanol, meanwhile tocotrienols-rich extract is obtained as a first product. Nevertheless, the economic evaluation showed that increasing tocotrienols-rich extract production has a more pronounced positive impact on the economic viability of the concept.

  18. Toward a Computer-Aided Synthesis and Design of Biorefinery Networks: Data Collection and Management Using a Generic Modeling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2014-01-01

    that are needed among others to support the superstructure-based optimization studies. To this end, we first formulate an integrated thermochemical and biochemical biorefinery superstructure and then use a generic modeling approach to represent each processing technology in the superstructure. The generic model...

  19. Background information and biorefinery status, potential and Sustainability: Task 2.1.2 Market and Consumers; Carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Annevelink, E.

    2010-01-01

    This report was produced to give an overview of present and future market for biorefinery products based on carbohydrates. Various studies show that there is a wealth of possible molecules and products that can be produced from carbohydrates. Carbohydrates already find significant application in

  20. Development of the Nordic Bioeconomy: NCM reporting: Test centers for green energy solutions - Biorefineries and business needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Lene; Björnsdóttir, Bryndís; Brandt, Asbjørn

    In 2014 the Nordic Council of Ministers initiated a new bioeconomy project: “Test centers for green energy solutions – Biorefineries and Busi-ness needs”. The purpose was to strengthen green growth in the area of the bioeconomy by analyzing and mapping the current status of the bio-economy...

  1. Sustainable intensification and extensification of cropping system for biorefinery in Denmark-what does the nitrogen balance say?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jørgensen, Uffe

    Establishing an environment-friendly industrial biorefinery production requires resource efficient agroecosystems with low losses to the environment, especially of nitrogen (N). This work reports the first field-based N losses and balances for agro-ecosystems optimised for biomass production...

  2. ESTIMATING WATER FOOTPRINT AND MANAGING BIOREFINERY WASTEWATER IN THE PRODUCTION OF BIO-BASED RENEWABLE DIESEL BLENDSTOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, May M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sawyer, Bernard M [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This analysis covers the entire biorefinery operation. The study focuses on net water consumed for the production of a unit of biofuel: blue, green, and grey water footprint. Blue water is defined as the water consumed in the biorefinery that is withdrawn from surface and ground water. Blue water footprint includes enzyme cultivation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, bioreactor, cooling system, boiler, fuel upgrading, combustor track, and on-site WWT. Grey water is defined as wastewater generated from the biorefinery and was evaluated based on the wastewater treatment plant design. Green water, defined as rainwater consumed for the production, is not required in the RDB process. Approximately 7–15 gal of water are required to produce a gallon of RDB when corn stover or non-irrigated perennial grasses, switchgrass and Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus), serve as the feedstock in the contiguous United States. Bioelectricity generation from the biorefinery resulted in a net water credit, which reduced the water footprint. The life cycle grey water footprint for nitrogen is primarily from nitrogen in the feedstock production stage because no wastewater is discharged into the environment in the RDB process. Perennial grasses-based RDB production shows a promising grey water footprint, while corn stover-based RDB production has a relatively low green water footprint. Results from the study can help improve our understanding of the water sustainability of advanced biofuel technology under development. Make-up water for cooling and boiling remains a major demand in the biorefinery. The work revealed a key issue or trade-off between achieving zero liquid discharge to maximize water resource use and potentially increasing cost of fuel production. Solid waste disposal was identified as a management issue, and its inverse relationship with wastewater management could affect economic sustainability.

  3. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  4. Biorefinery cascade processing for creating added value on tomato industrial by-products from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Schmidt, Lisa Marie; Reynolds, Wienke; Zammel, Ayachi; Zetzl, Carsten; Smirnova, Irina; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    In today's consumer perception of industrial processes and food production, aspects like food quality, human health, environmental safety, and energy security have become the keywords. Therefore, much effort has been extended toward adding value to biowastes of agri-food industries through biorefinery processing approaches. This study focused, for the first time, on the valorization of tomato by-products of a Tunisian industry for the recovery of value-added compounds using biorefinery cascade processing. The process integrated supercritical CO 2 extraction of carotenoids within the oil fractions from tomato seeds (TS) and tomato peels (TP), followed by a batch isolation of protein from the residues. The remaining lignocellulosic matter from both fractions was then submitted to a liquid hot water (LHW) hydrolysis. Supercritical CO 2 experiments extracted 5.79% oleoresin, 410.53 mg lycopene/kg, and 31.38 mg β-carotene/kg from TP and 26.29% oil, 27.84 mg lycopene/kg, and 5.25 mg β-carotene/kg from TS, on dry weights. Protein extraction yields, nearing 30% of the initial protein contents equal to 13.28% in TP and 39.26% in TS, revealed that TP and TS are a rich source of essential amino acids. LHW treatment run at 120-200 °C, 50 bar for 30 min showed that a temperature of 160 °C was the most convenient for cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis from TP and TS, while keeping the degradation products low. Results indicated that tomato by-products are not only a green source of lycopene-rich oleoresin and tomato seed oil (TSO) and of protein with good nutritional quality but also a source of lignocellulosic matter with potential for bioethanol production. This study would provide an important reference for the concept and the feasibility of the cascade fractionation of valuable compounds from tomato industrial by-products.Graphical abstractSchema of biorefinery cascade processing of tomato industrial by-products toward isolation of valuable fractions.

  5. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling

  6. Succinic acid production on xylose-enriched biorefinery streams by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Mohagheghi, Ali; Smith, Holly; Bradfield, Michael F A; Nicol, Willie; Black, Brenna A; Biddy, Mary J; Dowe, Nancy; Beckham, Gregg T

    2016-01-01

    Co-production of chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass alongside fuels holds promise for improving the economic outlook of integrated biorefineries. In current biochemical conversion processes that use thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, fractionation of hemicellulose-derived and cellulose-derived sugar streams is possible using hydrothermal or dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), which then offers a route to parallel trains for fuel and chemical production from xylose- and glucose-enriched streams. Succinic acid (SA) is a co-product of particular interest in biorefineries because it could potentially displace petroleum-derived chemicals and polymer precursors for myriad applications. However, SA production from biomass-derived hydrolysates has not yet been fully explored or developed. Here, we employ Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z to produce succinate in batch fermentations from various substrates including (1) pure sugars to quantify substrate inhibition, (2) from mock hydrolysates similar to those from DAP containing single putative inhibitors, and (3) using the hydrolysate derived from two pilot-scale pretreatments: first, a mild alkaline wash (deacetylation) followed by DAP, and secondly a single DAP step, both with corn stover. These latter streams are both rich in xylose and contain different levels of inhibitors such as acetate, sugar dehydration products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), and lignin-derived products (ferulate, p-coumarate). In batch fermentations, we quantify succinate and co-product (acetate and formate) titers as well as succinate yields and productivities. We demonstrate yields of 0.74 g succinate/g sugars and 42.8 g/L succinate from deacetylated DAP hydrolysate, achieving maximum productivities of up to 1.27 g/L-h. Moreover, A. succinogenes is shown to detoxify furfural via reduction to furfuryl alcohol, although an initial lag in succinate production is observed when furans are present. Acetate seems to be the

  7. Microbial electrolysis cells for waste biorefinery: A state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-09-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) is an emerging technology for energy and resource recovery during waste treatment. MECs can theoretically convert any biodegradable waste into H2, biofuels, and other value added products, but the system efficacy can vary significantly when using different substrates or are operated in different conditions. To understand the application niches of MECs in integrative waste biorefineries, this review provides a critical analysis of MEC system performance reported to date in terms of H2 production rate, H2 yield, and energy efficiency under a variety of substrates, applied voltages and other crucial factors. It further discusses the mutual benefits between MECs and dark fermentation and argues such integration can be a viable approach for efficient H2 production from renewable biomass. Other marketable products and system integrations that can be applied to MECs are also summarized, and the challenges and prospects of the technology are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated torrefaction vs. external torrefaction - A thermodynamic analysis for the case of a thermochemical biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2014-01-01

    Integrated and external torrefaction is analyzed and compared via thermodynamic modeling. In this paper, integrated torrefaction is defined as torrefaction integrated with entrained flow gasification. External torrefaction is defined as the decentralized production of torrefied wood pellets...... and centralized conversion of the pellets by entrained flow gasification. First, the syngas production of the two methods was compared. Second, the two methods were compared by considering complete biorefineries with either integrated torrefaction or external torrefaction. The first part of the analysis showed...... that the biomass to syngas efficiency can be increased from 63% to 86% (LHV-dry) when switching from external torrefaction to integrated torrefaction. The second part of the analysis showed that the total energy efficiency (biomass to methanol + net electricity) could be increased from 53% to 63% when switching...

  9. Characterization of biomasses from the north and northeast regions of Brazil for processes in biorefineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magale Karine Diel RAMBO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn search for renewable energy sources, the Brazilian residual biomasses stand out due to their favorable physical and chemical properties, low cost, and their being less pollutant. Therefore, they are likely to be used in biorefineries in the production of chemical inputs to substitute fossil fuels. This substitution is possible due to the high contents of carbohydrates (>40%, low contents of extractives (<20%, ashes (<8% and moisture (<8% found in these residual biomasses. High calorific values of all residues also offer them the chance to be used in combustion. A principal components analysis (PCA was performed for better understanding of the samples and their hysic-chemical properties. Thus, this study aimed to characterize biomasses from the north (babassu residues, such as mesocarp and endocarp; pequi and Brazil nut and northeast (agave and coconut regions of Brazil, in order to contribute to the preservation of the environment and strengthen the economy of the region.

  10. Integration of Biorefineries and Nuclear Cogeneration Power Plants - A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Sherrell R [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL

    2009-03-01

    Biomass-based ethanol and nuclear power are two viable elements in the path to U.S. energy independence. Numerous studies suggest nuclear power could provide a practical carbon-free heat source alternative for the production of biomass-based ethanol. In order for this coupling to occur, it is necessary to examine the interfacial requirements of both nuclear power plants and bioethanol refineries. This report describes the proposed characteristics of a small cogeneration nuclear power plant, a biochemical process-based cellulosic bioethanol refinery, and a thermochemical process-based cellulosic biorefinery. Systemic and interfacial issues relating to the co-location of either type of bioethanol facility with a nuclear power plant are presented and discussed. Results indicate future co-location efforts will require a new optimized energy strategy focused on overcoming the interfacial challenges identified in the report.

  11. Methodology for Optimization of Process Integration Schemes in a Biorefinery under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González-Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty has a great impact in the investment decisions, operability of the plants and in the feasibility of integration opportunitiesin the chemical processes. This paper, presents the steps to consider the optimization of process investment in the processes integration under conditions of uncertainty. It is shown the potentialities of the biomass cane of sugar for the integration with several plants in a biorefinery scheme for the obtaining chemical products, thermal and electric energy.  Among the factories with potentialities for this integration are the pulp and paper and sugar factories and other derivative processes. Theses factorieshave common resources and also havea variety of products that can be exchange between them so certain products generated in a one of them can be raw matter in another plant. The methodology developed guide to obtaining of feasible investment projects under uncertainty. As objective function was considered the maximization of net profitablevalue in different scenariosthat are generated from the integration scheme.

  12. Chemistry based on renewable raw materials: perspectives for a sugar cane-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

  13. BIOREFINERIES – NEW GREEN STRATEGY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF SMART AND INNOVATIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna A. PŁAZA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecological engineering or ecotechnology is defined as the design of sustainable production that integrate human society with the natural environment for the benefit of both. In order to reach the goal of sustainability therefore important that bioproduct production systems are converted from to natural cycle oriented. In natural cycles there are not waste, but products are generated at different stages of the cycle. The ecotechnology creates a sustainable bioeconomy using biomass in a smart and efficient way. The biorefining sector, which uses smart, innovative and efficient technologies to convert biomass feedstocks into a range of bio-based products including fuels, chemicals, power, food, and renewable oils, currently presents the innovative and efficient bio-based production can revitalize existing industries. The paper presents the concept of biorefinery as the ecotechnological approach for creating a sustainable bioeconomy using biomass in a smart and efficient way.

  14. Biorefinery based on olive biomass. State of the art and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, J M; Niño, L; Martínez-Patiño, C; Álvarez, C; Castro, E; Negro, M J

    2014-05-01

    With currently more than nine million hectares, olive tree cultivation has spread worldwide, table olives and olive oil as the main products. Moreover, a number of by-products and residues derived from both tree cultivation and the process of industrial olive oil production, most having no practical applications, are obtained yearly. This paper reviews the research regarding these by-products, namely biomass from olive tree pruning, olive stones, olive pomace and wastewaters obtained from the process of olive oil production. Furthermore, a wide range of compounds has been identified and can be produced using a broad definition of the term biorefinery based on olive tree biomass. As an example, this paper reviews ethanol production as one of the main proposed applications, as well as research on other value-added products. Finally, this paper also assesses recent technological advances, future perspectives and challenges in each stage of the process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation of degradation compounds from lignocellulosic biomass in the biorefinery: sugar reaction mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helena; Sørensen, Hanne R.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    -(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) and/or levulinic acid, formic acid and different phenolics at elevated temperatures. Correspondingly, xylose can follow different reaction mechanisms resulting in the formation of furan-2-carbaldehyde (furfural) and/or various C-1 and C-4 compounds. At least four routes......The degradation compounds formed during pretreatment when lignocellulosic biomass is processed to ethanol or other biorefinery products include furans, phenolics, organic acids, as well as mono- and oligomeric pentoses and hexoses. Depending on the reaction conditions glucose can be converted to 5......, several aldehydes and ketones and many different organic acids and aromatic compounds may be generated during hydrothermal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass. The reaction mechanisms are of interest because the very same compounds that are possible inhibitors for biomass processing enzymes...

  16. Potential of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) as a biorefinery crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Svensson, S.-E.; Johansson, E.

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of Jerusalem artichoke in a biorefinery context was not investigated so far. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of this plant as feedstock for production of bioethanol, protein and inulin. We investigated the biomass productivity and chemical composition...... biomass productivity was 88% higher in September than in December. Fresh tuber biomass productivity showed large variations between harvests, where the maximum average productivity in December was 3.4 times higher than in September. Inulin content in dry tubers was between 76 and 85% making the plant...... an excellent crop, for e.g. inulin extraction, production of high fructose syrup or fermentations. Less mature plants were shown to have degree of polymerization (DP) up to 14, which makes biomass useful as dietary fibre, while the inulin DP in tubers harvested later became as low as 6, showing lower potential...

  17. Biorefinery approach for cassava-based industrial wastes: Current status and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Li; Yin, Zhixuan; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhou, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Cassava, an important food crop, has been extensively employed as raw materials for various agri-industries to produce starch, bioethanol and other biobased products/chemicals. These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, and pose significant environmental issues. Their complex biochemical composition with high organic content endows them with a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via biorefinery thereby providing economic and environmental sustainability to cassava industries. This state-of-the-art review covers the source, composition and characteristics of cassava industrial wastes and residues, and their bioconversion into value-added products, mainly biofuels (ethanol and butanol), biogas, biosurfactant, organic acids and other valuable biochemicals among others. This paper also outlines future perspectives with respect to developing more effective and efficient bioconversion processes for converting the cassava wastes and residues into high-value products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Serrano, Maria; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    The production of bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas from wheat straw was investigated within a biorefinery framework. Initially, wheat straw was hydrothermally liberated to a cellulose rich fiber fraction and a hemicellulose rich liquid fraction (hydrolysate). Enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent....... Additionally, evaluation of six different wheat straw-to-biofuel production scenaria showed that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production were the energetically most efficient processes compared to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol when fermenting C6 sugars alone. Thus......, multiple biofuels production from wheat straw can increase the efficiency for material and energy and can presumably be more economical process for biomass utilization. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Assessing microalgae biorefinery routes for the production of biofuels via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Barreiro, Diego; Samorì, Chiara; Terranella, Giuseppe; Hornung, Ursel; Kruse, Andrea; Prins, Wolter

    2014-12-01

    The interest in third generation biofuels from microalgae has been rising during the past years. Meanwhile, it seems not economically feasible to grow algae just for biofuels. Co-products with a higher value should be produced by extracting a particular algae fraction to improve the economics of an algae biorefinery. The present study aims at analyzing the influence of two main microalgae components (lipids and proteins) on the composition and quantity of biocrude oil obtained via hydrothermal liquefaction of two strains (Nannochloropsis gaditana and Scenedesmus almeriensis). The algae were liquefied as raw biomass, after extracting lipids and after extracting proteins in microautoclave experiments at different temperatures (300-375°C) for 5 and 15min. The results indicate that extracting the proteins from the microalgae prior to HTL may be interesting to improve the economics of the process while at the same time reducing the nitrogen content of the biocrude oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solvent consumption in non-catalytic alcohol solvolysis of biorefinery lignin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. B.; Jensen, A.; Schandel, Christian Bækhøj

    2017-01-01

    of solvent consumption we studied solvolysis of biorefinery lignin in several primary alcohols. Lignin solvolysis in methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol performed similarly with respect to bio-oil composition; however, methanol gave much lower bio-oil yield. Solvent consumption increases...... with reaction temperature for all alcohols and from 10 wt% at 300 °C to 35 wt% at 400 °C when using ethanol. The mechanism for solvent consumption was found mainly to take place through three different reactions: direct decomposition to gas through decarbonylation, formation of light condensation products...... and incorporation of the alcohol into the bio-oil through covalent bonding. Incorporation of the alcohol into the depolymerised oil product by covalent bonding may be a desirable effect which contributes to increased oil yield, inhibition of repolymerisation, reduced oxygen content and elimination of acidity....

  1. Chapter 17: Adding Value to the Biorefinery with Lignin: An Engineer's Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-03

    There is a long-standing belief that 'you can make anything out of lignin...except money.' This chapter serves to highlight that opportunities for making money from biomass-derived lignin exist both with current technology in the production of steam and power to new emerging areas of R&D focused on value-added chemical and material coproducts from lignin. To understand and quantify the economic potential for lignin valorization, the techno-economic analysis methodology is first described in detail. As demonstrated in the provided case study, these types of economic evaluations serve not only to estimate the economic impacts that lignin conversion could have for an integrated biorefinery and outline drivers for further cost reduction but also identify data gaps and R&D needs for improving the design basis and reducing the risk for process scale-up.

  2. Fundamental understanding of distracted oxygen delignification efficiency by dissolved lignin during biorefinery process of eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huifang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xuejin

    2018-02-27

    In this work, a fundamental understanding of oxygen delignification distracted by dissolved lignin was investigated. In the new biorefinery model of shortening kraft pulping integrated with extended oxygen delignification process, increasing content of residual lignin in the original pulp could result in enhanced delignification efficiency, higher pulp viscosity and less carbonyl groups. However, the invalid oxygen consumption by dissolved lignin could be increased with the increase of process temperature and alkali dosage. The normalized ultraviolet absorbance (divided by absorbance at 280 nm) also showed that the content of chromophoric group in dissolved lignin decreased with oxygen delignification proceeded, both of which indicated that dissolved lignin could enhance the invalid oxygen consumption. Therefore, a conclusion that replacement of the liquor at the initial phase of oxygen delignification process would balance the enhancement of delignification efficiency and invalid oxygen consumption was achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Framework for Sustainable Design of Algal Biorefineries: Economic Aspects and Life Cycle Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    mathematically as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem, and is solved first to identify the optimal designs with respect to economic optimality. These optimal designs are then analyzed further in terms of environmental performance using life cycle analysis. For sustainability analysis, in total five......In this chapter, a framework for sustainable design of algal biorefineries with respect to economic and environmental objectives is presented. As part of the framework, a superstructure is formulated to represent the design space – describing technologies developed for processing various types...... of algae feedstock for the production of biodiesel and co-products. Relevant data and parameters for each process such as yield, conversion, operational cost is then collected using a standardized format (a generic model) and stored in a database. The sustainable design problem is then formulated...

  4. Process Simulation and Techno-Economic Evaluation of Alternative Biorefinery Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua Gonzalez, Carlos Ernesto

    A biorefinery is a complex processing facility that uses sustainably produced biomass as feedstock to generate biofuels and chemical products using a wide variety of alternative conversion pathways. The alternative conversion pathways can be generally classified as either biochemical or thermochemical conversion. A biorefinery is commonly based on a core biomass conversion technology (pretreatment, hydrolysis, pyrolysis, etc.) followed by secondary processing stages that determine the specific product, and its recovery. In this study, techno-economic analysis of several different lignocellulosic biomass conversion pathways have been performed. First, a novel biochemical conversion, which used electron beam and steam explosion pretreatments for ethanol production was evaluated. This evaluation include both laboratory work and process modeling. Encouraging experimental results are obtained that showed the biomass had enhanced reactivity to the enzyme hydrolysis. The total sugar recovery for the hardwood species was 72% using 5 FPU/g enzyme dosage. The combination of electron beam and steam explosion provides an improvement in sugar conversion of more than 20% compared to steam explosion alone. This combination of pretreatments was modeled along with a novel ethanol dehydration process that is based on vapor permeation membranes. The economic feasibility of this novel pretreatment-dehydration technology was evaluated and compared with the dilute acid process proposed by NREL in 2011. Overall, the pretreatment-dehydration technology process produces the same ethanol yields (81 gal/bdton). However, the economics of this novel process does not look promising since the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) to generate an internal rate of return of 10% is of 3.09 /gal, compared to 2.28 /gal for the base case. To enhance the economic potential of a biorefinery, the isolation of value-added co-products was incorporated into the base dilute acid biorefinery process. In this

  5. Solazyme Integrated Biorefinery (SzIBR): Diesel Fuels from Heterotrophic Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, David [Solazyme, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Under Department of Energy Award Number DE-EE0002877 (the “DOE Award”), Solazyme, Inc. (“Solazyme”) has built a demonstration scale “Solazyme Integrated Biorefinery (SzlBR).” The SzIBR was built to provide integrated scale-up of Solazyme’s novel heterotrophic algal oil biomanufacturing process, validate the projected commercial-scale economics of producing multiple algal oils, and to enable Solazyme to collect the data necessary to complete the design of its first commercial-scale facility. Solazyme’s technology enables it to convert a range of low-cost plant-based sugars into high-value oils. Solazyme’s renewable products replace or enhance oils derived from the world’s three existing sources—petroleum, plants, and animal fats. Solazyme tailors the composition of its oils to address specific customer requirements, offering superior performance characteristics and value. This report summarizes history and the results of the project.

  6. Bio-Refineries Bioprocess Technologies for Waste-Water Treatment, Energy and Product Valorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Cowan, A.

    2010-04-01

    Increasing pressure is being exerted on communities and nations to source energy from forms other than fossil fuels. Also, potable water is becoming a scarce resource in many parts of the world, and there remains a large divide in the demand and utilization of plant products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The most extensive user and manager of terrestrial ecosystems is agriculture which is also the de facto steward of natural resources. As stated by Miller (2008) no other industry or institution comes close to the comparative advantage held for this vital responsibility while simultaneously providing food, fiber, and other biology-based products, including energy. Since modern commercial agriculture is transitioning from the production of bulk commodities to the provision of standardized products and specific-attribute raw materials for differentiated markets, we can argue that processes such as mass cultivation of microalgae and the concept of bio-refineries be seen as part of a `new' agronomy. EBRU is currently exploring the integration of bioprocess technologies using microalgae as biocatalysts to achieve waste-water treatment, water polishing and endocrine disruptor (EDC) removal, sustainable energy production, and exploitation of the resultant biomass in agriculture as foliar fertilizer and seed coatings, and for commercial extraction of bulk commodities such as bio-oils and lecithin. This presentation will address efforts to establish a fully operational solar-driven microalgae bio-refinery for use not only in waste remediation but to transform waste and biomass to energy, fuels, and other useful materials (valorisation), with particular focus on environmental quality and sustainability goals.

  7. Development of an Energy Biorefinery Model for Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Morana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shells (CS are an agronomic waste generated from the peeling process of the chestnut fruit, which contain 2.7–5.2% (w/w phenolic compounds and approximately 36% (w/w polysaccharides. In contrast with current shell waste burning practices, this study proposes a CS biorefinery that integrates biomass pretreatment, recovery of bioactive molecules, and bioconversion of the lignocellulosic hydrolyzate, while optimizing materials reuse. The CS delignification and saccharification produced a crude hydrolyzate with 12.9 g/L of glucose and xylose, and 682 mg/L of gallic acid equivalents. The detoxification of the crude CS hydrolyzate with 5% (w/v activated charcoal (AC and repeated adsorption, desorption and AC reuse enabled 70.3% (w/w of phenolic compounds recovery, whilst simultaneously retaining the soluble sugars in the detoxified hydrolyzate. The phenols radical scavenging activity (RSA of the first AC eluate reached 51.8 ± 1.6%, which is significantly higher than that of the crude CS hydrolyzate (21.0 ± 1.1%. The fermentation of the detoxified hydrolyzate by C. butyricum produced 10.7 ± 0.2 mM butyrate and 63.9 mL H2/g of CS. Based on the obtained results, the CS biorefinery integrating two energy products (H2 and calorific power from spent CS, two bioproducts (phenolic compounds and butyrate and one material reuse (AC reuse constitutes a valuable upgrading approach for this yet unexploited waste biomass.

  8. Forest biorefinery: Potential of poplar phytochemicals as value-added co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Rakshit, Sudip K; Dekker, Robert F H

    2015-11-01

    The global forestry industry after experiencing a market downturn during the past decade has now aimed its vision towards the integrated biorefinery. New business models and strategies are constantly being explored to re-invent the global wood and pulp/paper industry through sustainable resource exploitation. The goal is to produce diversified, innovative and revenue generating product lines using on-site bioresources (wood and tree residues). The most popular product lines are generally produced from wood fibers (biofuels, pulp/paper, biomaterials, and bio/chemicals). However, the bark and other tree residues like foliage that constitute forest wastes, still remain largely an underexploited resource from which extractives and phytochemicals can be harnessed as by-products (biopharmaceuticals, food additives and nutraceuticals, biopesticides, cosmetics). Commercially, Populus (poplar) tree species including hybrid varieties are cultivated as a fast growing bioenergy crop, but can also be utilized to produce bio-based chemicals. This review identifies and underlines the potential of natural products (phytochemicals) from Populus species that could lead to new business ventures in biorefineries and contribute to the bioeconomy. In brief, this review highlights the importance of by-products/co-products in forest industries, methods that can be employed to extract and purify poplar phytochemicals, the potential pharmaceutical and other uses of >160 phytochemicals identified from poplar species - their chemical structures, properties and bioactivities, the challenges and limitations of utilizing poplar phytochemicals, and potential commercial opportunities. Finally, the overall discussion and conclusion are made considering the recent biotechnological advances in phytochemical research to indicate the areas for future commercial applications from poplar tree species. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Near-term deployment of carbon capture and sequestration from biorefineries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel L; Johnson, Nils; McCoy, Sean T; Turner, Peter A; Mach, Katharine J

    2018-04-23

    Capture and permanent geologic sequestration of biogenic CO 2 emissions may provide critical flexibility in ambitious climate change mitigation. However, most bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) technologies are technically immature or commercially unavailable. Here, we evaluate low-cost, commercially ready CO 2 capture opportunities for existing ethanol biorefineries in the United States. The analysis combines process engineering, spatial optimization, and lifecycle assessment to consider the technical, economic, and institutional feasibility of near-term carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Our modeling framework evaluates least cost source-sink relationships and aggregation opportunities for pipeline transport, which can cost-effectively transport small CO 2 volumes to suitable sequestration sites; 216 existing US biorefineries emit 45 Mt CO 2 annually from fermentation, of which 60% could be captured and compressed for pipeline transport for under $25/tCO 2 A sequestration credit, analogous to existing CCS tax credits, of $60/tCO 2 could incent 30 Mt of sequestration and 6,900 km of pipeline infrastructure across the United States. Similarly, a carbon abatement credit, analogous to existing tradeable CO 2 credits, of $90/tCO 2 can incent 38 Mt of abatement. Aggregation of CO 2 sources enables cost-effective long-distance pipeline transport to distant sequestration sites. Financial incentives under the low-carbon fuel standard in California and recent revisions to existing federal tax credits suggest a substantial near-term opportunity to permanently sequester biogenic CO 2 This financial opportunity could catalyze the growth of carbon capture, transport, and sequestration; improve the lifecycle impacts of conventional biofuels; support development of carbon-negative fuels; and help fulfill the mandates of low-carbon fuel policies across the United States. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, Paul; van Krimpen, Marinus M; van Wikselaar, Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; van Hal, Jaap W; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Cone, John W; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically feasible value chain. In this study, such a biorefinery approach is presented for the green seaweed Ulva lactuca containing 225 g protein ( N  × 4.6) kg -1 dry matter (DM). The sugars in the biomass were solubilised by hot water treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation resulting in a sugar-rich hydrolysate (38.8 g L -1 sugars) containing glucose, rhamnose and xylose, and a protein-enriched (343 g kg -1 in DM) extracted fraction. This extracted fraction was characterised for use in animal feed, as compared to U. lactuca biomass. Based on the content of essential amino acids and the in vitro N (85 %) and organic matter (90 %) digestibility, the extracted fraction seems a promising protein source in diets for monogastric animals with improved characteristics as compared to the intact U. lactuca . The gas production test indicated a moderate rumen fermentation of U. lactuca and the extracted fraction, about similar to that of alfalfa. Reduction of the high content of minerals and trace elements may be required to allow a high inclusion level of U. lactuca products in animal diets. The hydrolysate was used successfully for the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol and 1,2-propanediol by clostridial fermentation, and the rhamnose fermentation pattern was studied.

  11. Biorefinery Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Fact sheet summarizing NREL's techno-economic analysis and life-cycle assessment capabilities to connect research with future commercial process integration, a critical step in the scale-up of biomass conversion technologies.

  12. Co-generation of microbial lipid and bio-butanol from corn cob bagasse in an environmentally friendly biorefinery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Dong, Zhongshi; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-09-01

    Biorefinery process of corn cob bagasse was investigated by integrating microbial lipid and ABE fermentation. The effects of NaOH concentration on the fermentations performance were evaluated. The black liquor after pretreatment was used as substrate for microbial lipid fermentation, while the enzymatic hydrolysates of the bagasse were used for ABE fermentation. The results demonstrated that under the optimized condition, the cellulose and hemicellulose in raw material could be effectively utilized. Approximate 87.7% of the polysaccharides were converted into valuable biobased products (∼175.7g/kg of ABE along with ∼36.6g/kg of lipid). At the same time, almost half of the initial COD (∼48.9%) in the black liquor could be degraded. The environmentally friendly biorefinery process showed promising in maximizing the utilization of biomass for future biofuels production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetic study of solid phase demineralization by weak acids in one-step enzymatic bio-refinery of shrimp cuticles

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Regis; Socol, Marius; Arhaliass, A.; Bruzac, Sandrine; Le Roux, Karine; Del Pino, J. Rodriguez; Berge, Jean-pascal; Kaas, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We describe a one-step bio-refinery process for shrimp composites by-products. Its originality lies in a simple rapid (6 h) biotechnological cuticle fragmentation process that recovers all major compounds (chitins, peptides and minerals in particular calcium). The process consists of a controlled exogenous enzymatic proteolysis in a food-grade acidic medium allowing chitin purification (solid phase), and recovery of peptides and minerals (liquid phase). At a pH of between 3.5 and 4, protease ...

  14. Lignocellulosic biorefinery for waste-free manufacturing of phytoestrogens belonging to lignans, sugars for production of ethanol and growing medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Váchalová, R.; Marešová, I.; Kolář, L.; Váchal, J.; Tříska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2014), s. 593-604 ISSN 1336-4561 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11016 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Lignocellulosic biorefinery * lignans * hydrolysis * growing media * separated substance of digestates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2014

  15. Conversion of residual organics in corn stover-derived biorefinery stream to bioenergy via microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Schell, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2012-01-01

    A biorefinery process typically uses about 4-10 times as much water as the amount of biofuel generated. The wastewater produced in a biorefinery process contains residual sugars, 5-furfural, phenolics, and other pretreatment and fermentation byproducts. Treatment of the wastewater can reduce the need for fresh water and potentially add to the environmental benefits of the process. Use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for conversion of the various organics present in a post-fermentation biorefinery stream is reported here. The organic loading was varied over a wide range to assess removal efficiency, coulombic efficiency and power production. A coulombic efficiency of 40% was observed for a low loading of 1% (0.66 g/L) and decreased to 1.8% for the undiluted process stream (66.4 g/L organic loading). A maximum power density of 1180 mW/m2 was observed at a loading of 8%. Excessive loading was found to result in poor electrogenic performance. The results indicate that operation of an MFC at an intermediate loading using dilution and recirculation of the process stream can enable effective treatment with bioenergy recovery.

  16. Chemical analysis and biorefinery of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii for efficient production of glucose from residue of carrageenan extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarin, Fernando; Cedeno, Fernando Roberto Paz; Chavez, Eddyn Gabriel Solorzano; de Oliveira, Levi Ezequiel; Gelli, Valéria Cress; Monti, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Biorefineries serve to efficiently utilize biomass and their by-products. Algal biorefineries are designed to generate bioproducts for commercial use. Due to the high carbohydrate content of algal biomass, biorefinery to generate biofuels, such as bioethanol, is of great interest. Carrageenan is a predominant polysaccharide hydrocolloid found in red macroalgae and is widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we report the biorefinery of carrageenan derived from processing of experimental strains of the red macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii. Specifically, the chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of the residue produced from carrageenan extraction were evaluated to determine the conditions for efficient generation of carbohydrate bioproducts. The productivity and growth rates of K. alvarezii strains were assessed along with the chemical composition (total carbohydrates, ash, sulfate groups, proteins, insoluble aromatics, galacturonic acid, and lipids) of each strain. Two strains, brown and red, were selected based on their high growth rates and productivity and were treated with 6 % KOH for extraction of carrageenan. The yields of biomass from treatment with 6 % KOH solution of the brown and red strains were 89.3 and 89.5 %, respectively. The yields of carrageenan and its residue were 63.5 and 23 %, respectively, for the brown strain and 60 and 27.8 %, respectively, for the red strain. The residues from the brown and red strains were assessed to detect any potential bioproducts. The galactan, ash, protein, insoluble aromatics, and sulfate groups of the residue were reduced to comparable extents for the two strains. However, KOH treatment did not reduce the content of glucan in the residue from either strain. Glucose was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis for 72 h using both strains. The glucan conversion was 100 % for both strains, and the concentrations of glucose from the brown and red strains were 13.7 and 11.5 g L(-1

  17. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  18. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 - Countries report. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on biorefineries: Co-production of fuels, chemicals, power and materials from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Mandl, M. (Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2010-07-01

    This report has been developed by the members of IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery: Co-production of Fuels, Chemicals, Power and Materials from Biomass (www.biorefinery.nl/ieabioenergy-task42). IEA Bioenergy is a collaborative network under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) to improve international cooperation and information exchange between national bioenergy RD and D programs. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery covers a new and very broad biomass-related field, with a very large application potential, and deals with a variety of market sectors with many interested stakeholders, a large number of biomass conversion technologies, and integrated concepts of both biochemical and thermochemical processes. This report contains an overview of the biomass, bioenergy and biorefinery situation, and activities, in the Task 42 member countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The overview includes: national bioenergy production, non-energetic biomass use, bioenergy related policy goals, national oil refineries, biofuels capacity for transport purposes, existing biorefinery industries, pilot and demo plants, and other activities of research and development (such as main national projects and stakeholders). Data are provided by National Task Leaders (NTLs), whose contact details are listed at the end of the report. (author)

  19. Financial sustainability for a lignocellulosic biorefinery under carbon constraints and price downside risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Lingfeng; Anderson, C. Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Stochastic program determines production, risk management strategy for biorefinery. • Scheduled production commitment decreases as tiered carbon tax rate increases. • Risk averse producers prefer the forward contract as a mode of product sales. • Time varying forward prices and inventory enable producers to increase profits. • Inventory is beneficial to producers, below the threshold for inventory costs. - Abstract: The development of an environmentally sustainable and financially viable replacement for fossil fuels continues to elude industry investors even though the benefits of replacing them is undisputed. Biofuels are among the promising replacements for fossil fuels. However, the development and production process for bio-based fuels creates uncertainty for industry investors. In order to increase process profitability, financial tools can be implemented with current technology. This paper proposes the use of forward contracts to mitigate risk, and it also considers the impact of carbon tax constraints and price uncertainty. Specifically, a stochastic optimization approach is implemented to develop strategies, which increases the net present value (NPV) of a production facility through determination of an optimal production schedule, as well as the creation of a portfolio of forward contracts to reduce product price risk. Results of numerical case studies show that if the policymaker is risk averse, production is higher in the early planning period rather than the later period. This paper also investigates the ability to maintain inventory in order to create additional financial benefit.

  20. Emerging biorefinery technologies for Indian forest industry to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naman; Nainwal, Shubham; Jain, Shivani; Jain, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    The production of biofuels as alternative energy source over fossil fuels has gained immense interest over the years as it can contribute significantly to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and utilization. Also with rapidly increasing fuel price and fall in oil wells, the present scenario forces us to look for an alternative source of energy that will help us in the operation of industrial as well as the transportation sector. The pulp mills in India are one of the many options. The pulp mills in India can help us to produce bio-fuels by thermo-chemical/biochemical conversion of black liquor and wood residues. These technologies include extraction of hemi-cellulose from wooden chips and black liquor, lignin from black liquor, methanol from evaporator condensates, biogas production from waste sludge, syngas production from biomass using gasification and bio-oil production from biomass using pyrolysis. The objective of this paper is to overview these emerging bio-refinery technologies that can be implemented in Indian Forest Industry to get bio-fuels, bio-chemicals and bio-energy to reduce GHG emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Succinic Acid as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MBI International

    2007-12-31

    MBI endeavored to develop a process for succinic acid production suitable for integration into a corn-based ethanol biorefinery. The project investigated the fermentative production of succinic acid using byproducts of corn mill operations. The fermentation process was attuned to include raw starch, endosperm, as the sugar source. A clean-not-sterile process was established to treat the endosperm and release the monomeric sugars. We developed the fermentation process to utilize a byproduct of corn ethanol fermentations, thin stillage, as the source of complex nitrogen and vitamin components needed to support succinic acid production in A. succinogenes. Further supplementations were eliminated without lowering titers and yields and a productivity above 0.6 g l-1 hr-1was achieved. Strain development was accomplished through generation of a recombinant strain that increased yields of succinic acid production. Isolation of additional strains with improved features was also pursued and frozen stocks were prepared from enriched, characterized cultures. Two recovery processes were evaluated at pilot scale and data obtained was incorporated into our economic analyses.

  2. Cyanobacteria Biorefinery - Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) with Synechocystis salina and utilisation of residual biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, K; Kovalcik, A; Sykacek, E; Gruber-Brunhumer, M; Zeilinger, W; Markl, K; Haas, C; Fritz, I; Mundigler, N; Stelzer, F; Neureiter, M; Fuchs, W; Drosg, B

    2018-01-10

    This study evaluates a biorefinery concept for producing poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) with the cyanobacterial strain Synechocystis salina. Due to this reason, pigment extraction and cell disruption were investigated as pre-treatment steps for the harvested cyanobacterial biomass. The results demonstrated that at least pigment removal was necessary to obtain PHB with processable quality (weight average molecular weight: 569-988kgmol -1 , melting temperature: 177-182°C), which was comparable to heterotrophically produced PHB. The removed pigments could be utilised as additional by-products (chlorophylls 0.27-1.98mgg -1 TS, carotenoids 0.21-1.51mgg -1 TS, phycocyanin 0-127mgg -1 TS), whose concentration depended on the used nutrient source. Since the residual biomass still contained proteins (242mgg -1 TS), carbohydrates (6.1mgg -1 TS) and lipids (14mgg -1 TS), it could be used as animal feed or converted to biomethane (348 m n 3 t -1 VS) and fertiliser. The obtained results indicate that the combination of photoautotrophic PHB production with pigment extraction and utilisation of residual biomass offer the highest potential, since it contributes to decrease the environmental footprint of the process and because biomass could be used in a cascading way and the nutrient cycle could be closed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fully Integrated Lignocellulosic Biorefinery with Onsite Production of Enzymes and Yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [DSM Innovation, Incorporated, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-06-14

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  4. Integrated cellulosic enzymes hydrolysis and fermentative advanced yeast bioconversion solution ready for biomass biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [DSM Innovation, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2011-05-04

    These are slides from this conference. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  5. Vertical Integration of Biomass Saccharification of Enzymes for Sustainable Cellulosic Biofuel Production in a Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [DSM Innovation, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2011-05-09

    These are a set of slides from this conference. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  6. Sustainability of algal biofuel production using integrated renewable energy park (IREP) and algal biorefinery approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban G.

    2010-01-01

    Algal biomass can provide viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel. However, for a mature commercial industry to develop, sustainability as well as technological and economic issues pertinent to algal biofuel sector must be addressed first. This viewpoint focuses on three integrated approaches laid out to meet these challenges. Firstly, an integrated algal biorefinery for sequential biomass processing for multiple high-value products is delineated to bring in the financial sustainability to the algal biofuel production units. Secondly, an integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for amalgamating various renewable energy industries established in different locations. This would aid in synergistic and efficient electricity and liquid biofuel production with zero net carbon emissions while obviating numerous sustainability issues such as productive usage of agricultural land, water, and fossil fuel usage. A 'renewable energy corridor' rich in multiple energy sources needed for algal biofuel production for deploying IREPs in the United States is also illustrated. Finally, the integration of various industries with algal biofuel sector can bring a multitude of sustainable deliverables to society, such as renewable supply of cheap protein supplements, health products and aquafeed ingredients. The benefits, challenges, and policy needs of the IREP approach are also discussed.

  7. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for fermentative production of chemicals in biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baritugo, Kei-Anne; Kim, Hee Taek; David, Yokimiko; Choi, Jong-Il; Hong, Soon Ho; Jeong, Ki Jun; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, Jeong Chan; Park, Si Jae

    2018-03-20

    Bio-based production of industrially important chemicals provides an eco-friendly alternative to current petrochemical-based processes. Because of the limited supply of fossil fuel reserves, various technologies utilizing microbial host strains for the sustainable production of platform chemicals from renewable biomass have been developed. Corynebacterium glutamicum is a non-pathogenic industrial microbial species traditionally used for L-glutamate and L-lysine production. It is a promising species for industrial production of bio-based chemicals because of its flexible metabolism that allows the utilization of a broad spectrum of carbon sources and the production of various amino acids. Classical breeding, systems, synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering approaches have been used to improve its applications, ranging from traditional amino-acid production to modern biorefinery systems for production of value-added platform chemicals. This review describes recent advances in the development of genetic engineering tools and techniques for the establishment and optimization of metabolic pathways for bio-based production of major C2-C6 platform chemicals using recombinant C. glutamicum.

  8. A spent coffee grounds based biorefinery for the production of biofuels, biopolymers, antioxidants and biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Spent coffee grounds are composed of lipid, carbohydrates, carbonaceous, and nitrogen containing compounds among others. Using n-hexane and n-hexane/isopropanol mixture highest oil yield was achived during soxhlet extraction of oil from spent coffee grounds. Alternatively, supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as a green solvent for the extraction of oil. Using advanced chemical and biotechnological methods, spent coffee grounds are converted to various biofuels such as, biodiesel, renewable diesel, bioethanol, bioethers, bio-oil, biochar, and biogas. The in-situ transesterification of spent coffee grounds was carried out in a large scale (4 kg), which led to 80-83% biodiesel yield. In addition, a large number of value added and diversified products viz. polyhydroxyalkanoates, biosorbent, activated carbon, polyol, polyurethane foam, carotenoid, phenolic antioxidants, and green composite are obtained from spent coffee grounds. The principles of circular economy are applied to develop a sustanaible biorefinery based on valorisation of spent coffee grounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biorefinery of microalgal soluble proteins by sequential processing and membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, C; Olivieri, G; Campos, R P; Engelen-Smit, N; Mulder, W J; van den Broek, L A M; Sijtsma, L

    2017-02-01

    A mild biorefinery process was investigated on the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana, to obtain an enriched fraction of water soluble proteins free from chlorophyll. After harvesting, a 100g.L -1 solution of cells was first subjected to cell disruption by either high-pressure homogenization (HPH) or enzymatic treatment (ENZ). HPH resulted in a larger release of proteins (49%) in the aqueous phase compared to the Alcalase incubation (35%). In both cases, an ultrafiltration/diafiltration (UF/DF) was then performed on the supernatant obtained from cell disruption by testing different membrane cut-off (1000kDa, 500kDa and 300kDa). After optimising the process conditions, the combination of ENZ→UF/DF ended in a larger overall yield of water soluble proteins (24.8%) in the permeate compared to the combination of HPH→UF/DF (17.4%). A gel polarization model was implemented to assess the maximum achievable concentration factor during ultrafiltration and the mass transfer coefficient related to the theoretical permeation flux rate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Guo, Mond [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Lin, Kuan-ting [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Hebert, Vincent R. [Food and Environmental Laboratory, Washington State, University-TriCities, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Jinwen [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Wolcott, Michael P. [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Quintero, Melissa [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Chemical and Biological Process Development Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chen, Xiaowen [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Lab, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden CO 80127 USA; Zhang, Xiao [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  11. Analysis of Economic and Environmental Aspects of Microalgae Biorefinery for Biofuels Production: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Shir Reen; Chew, Kit Wayne; Show, Pau Loke; Yap, Yee Jiun; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Ling, Tau Chuan; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2018-01-22

    Microalgae are considered promising feedstock for the production of biofuels and other bioactive compounds, yet there are still challenges on commercial applications of microalgae-based products. This review focuses on the economic analysis, environmental impact, and industrial potential of biofuels production from microalgae. The cost of biofuels production remains higher compared to conventional fuel sources. However, integration of biorefinery pathways with biofuels production for the recovery of value-added products (such as antioxidants, natural dyes, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and so forth) could substantially reduce the production costs. It also paves the way for sustainable energy resources by significantly reducing the emissions of CO 2 , NO x , SO x , and heavy metals. Large-scale biofuels production has yet to be successfully commercialized with many roadblocks ahead and heavy competition with conventional fuel feedstock as well as technological aspects. One of the prominent challenges is to develop a cost-effective method to achieve high-density microalgal cultivation on an industrial scale. The biofuels industry should be boosted by Government's support in the form of subsidies and incentives, for addressing the pressing climate change issues, achieving sustainability, and energy security. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Design of marine macroalgae photobioreactor integrated into building to support seagriculture for biorefinery and bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemodanov, Alexander; Robin, Arthur; Golberg, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Seagriculture, which can provide offshore grown macroalgae biomass would play a significant role in bioeconomy. Nevertheless, seagriculture development has been hindered by the lack of laboratory photobioreactors that enable fundamental and pilot scale macroalgae research. In this work, a macroalgae photobioreactor (MPBR) was developed and integrated into the building. The MPBR operation was demonstrated for 6months with cultivation of Cladophora sp., Ulva compressa and Ulva rigida green macroalgae species isolated from 3 sites at the Eastern Mediterranean coast. The growth rate, protein, ash, specific energy density, rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, glucose, galactose and glucuronic acid content of the cultivated species were quantified. The maximum accumulated energy rates were 0.033WhL -1 d -1 for Cladophora sp., 0.081WhL -1 d -1 for U. compressa and 0.029WhL -1 d -1 for U. rigida. This work provides a detailed design of an indoor, urban photobioreactor for cultivation, maintenance and energy balance analysis of macroalgae biomass for biorefinery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovery and Utilization of Lignin Monomers as Part of the Biorefinery Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Davis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a substantial component of lignocellulosic biomass but is under-utilized relative to the cellulose and hemicellulose components. Historically, lignin has been burned as a source of process heat, but this heat is usually in excess of the process energy demands. Current models indicate that development of an economically competitive biorefinery system requires adding value to lignin beyond process heat. This addition of value, also known as lignin valorization, requires economically viable processes for separating the lignin from the other biomass components, depolymerizing the lignin into monomeric subunits, and then upgrading these monomers to a value-added product. The fact that lignin’s biological role is to provide biomass with structural integrity means that this heteropolymer can be difficult to depolymerize. However, there are chemical and biological routes to upgrade lignin from its native form to compounds of industrial value. Here we review the historical background and current technology of (thermo chemical depolymerization of lignin; the natural ability of microbial enzymes and pathways to utilize lignin, the current prospecting work to find novel microbial routes to lignin degradation, and some applications of these microbial enzymes and pathways; and the current chemical and biological technologies to upgrade lignin-derived monomers.

  14. Recovery Act – Integrated Pilot-Scale Biorefinery for Producing Ethanol from Hybrid Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legere, Ed [Algenol Biotech LLC, Ft. Myers, FL (United States); Roessler, Paul [Algenol Biotech LLC, Ft. Myers, FL (United States); Miller, Harlan [Algenol Biotech LLC, Ft. Myers, FL (United States); Belicka, Laura [Algenol Biotech LLC, Ft. Myers, FL (United States); Yuan, Yanhui [Algenol Biotech LLC, Ft. Myers, FL (United States); Chance, Ron [Algenol Biotech LLC, Ft. Myers, FL (United States); Dalrymple, Kofi [Algenol Biotech LLC, Ft. Myers, FL (United States); Porubsky, William [Algenol Biotech LLC, Ft. Myers, FL (United States); Coleman, John [Algenol Biotech LLC, Ft. Myers, FL (United States); Sweeney, Kevin [Algenol Biotech LLC, Ft. Myers, FL (United States); Ahlm, Pat [Algenol Biotech LLC, Ft. Myers, FL (United States); Ha, Quang [Algenol Biotech LLC, Ft. Myers, FL (United States)

    2017-05-26

    As a scientific and engineering endeavor, the Algenol IBR Biorefinery project has been a success by almost any measure. The vision for the system evolved significantly over the course of the project, always due to recognized opportunities for improved performance, lower energy consumption, and reduced costs. Our commitment to thorough, realistic, techno-economic and life cycle assessments has been an essential element for system innovation, technology guidance, and change management of the overall facility. The biological tools developed during this program for cyanobacteria are second to none, and are the primary reason for the remarkable improvements in organism performance. The breakthrough was the successful transformation of our most robust wild type organism (AB1) early in 2012. That was followed by a series of improvements over the next several years that produced strains wherein over 80% of the fixed carbon was converted into ethanol. At the same time, our expertise in cultivation, physiology, process engineering, CO2 management, and photobioreactor design and manufacturing grew at a comparable pace. We learned enormous amounts from the various upsets, weather variations, contamination events, and new technology related disappointments. We overcame those challenges to produce fuel grade ethanol with a low carbon footprint, and are within striking distance of economic viability even with the challenges of low fossil fuel prices.

  15. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Guo, Mond [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Lin, Kuan-ting [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Hebert, Vincent R. [Food and Environmental Laboratory, Washington State, University-TriCities, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Jinwen [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Wolcott, Michael P. [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Quintero, Melissa [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Chemical and Biological Process Development Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chen, Xiaowen [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Lab, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden CO 80127 USA; Zhang, Xiao [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer as well as its complex side chain structures, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) inclduing 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPCs yields obtained were 18% and 22% based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47%. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  16. Integration of succinic acid and ethanol production with potential application in a corn or barley biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Hicks, Kevin B; Johnston, David B

    2010-11-01

    Production of succinic acid from glucose by Escherichia coli strain AFP184 was studied in a batch fermentor. The bases used for pH control included NaOH, KOH, NH(4)OH, and Na(2)CO(3). The yield of succinic acid without and with carbon dioxide supplied by an adjacent ethanol fermentor using either corn or barley as feedstock was examined. The carbon dioxide gas from the ethanol fermentor was sparged directly into the liquid media in the succinic acid fermentor without any pretreatment. Without the CO(2) supplement, the highest succinic acid yield was observed with Na(2)CO(3), followed by NH(4)OH, and lowest with the other two bases. When the CO(2) produced in the ethanol fermentation was sparged into the media in the succinic acid fermentor, no improvement of succinic acid yield was observed with Na(2)CO(3). However, several-fold increases in succinic acid yield were observed with the other bases, with NH(4)OH giving the highest yield increase. The yield of succinic acid with CO(2) supplement from the ethanol fermentor when NH(4)OH was used for pH control was equal to that obtained when Na(2)CO(3) was used, with or without CO(2) supplementation. The benefit of sparging CO(2) from ethanol fermentation on the yield of succinic acid demonstrated the feasibility of integration of succinic acid fermentation with ethanol fermentation in a biorefinery for production of fuels and industrial chemicals.

  17. Impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on composition and hydrolysability in a sugar platform biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaurs, L. P.; Heaven, S.; Banks, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a widely available large volume source of lignocellulosic material containing a waste paper/cardboard mixture which can be converted into fermentable sugars via cellulolytic enzyme hydrolysis in a sugar platform biorefinery. Thermal pretreatments are generally applied to MSW to facilitate the extraction of the lignocellulosic material from recyclable materials (plastics, metals etc.) and improve the paper pulp conversion to sugars. Applying high temperature might enhance food waste solubilisation but may collapse cellulose fibre decreasing its hydrolysability. Low temperature pre-treatment will reduce the energy demand but might result in highly contaminated pulp. Preliminary results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis performances were dependent on the MSW origins. Using 8 different samples, the impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on pulp composition and hydrolysability was assessed in this work. Low pre-treatment temperature produced pulp which contained less lignocellulosic material but which hydrolysed to a higher degree than MSW treated at high temperatures. High temperature pre-treatment could have exposed more of the inhibiting lignin to cellulase. This information would have a significant economic impact on a commercial plant as expensive autoclave could be advantageously replaced by a cheaper process. Glucan conversions were also found to vary depending on the region, the recycling rate possibly because of the lower recycling rate resulting in the use of less paper additive in the material or the difference in paper production technology (chemical VS mechanical pulping). This could also be explained by the differences in paper composition.

  18. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries. Pathway #1: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass-to-Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars-to-Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the sugars-to-hydrocarbon (HC) biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the sugars-to-HC biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the sugars-to-HC biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  19. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries, Pathway #2: Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the fast pyrolysis biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the fast pyrolysis biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the fast pyrolysis biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  20. Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Claire M; Loveridge, E Joel; Donnison, Iain S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL(-1) and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L(-1)) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL(-1) and 4.78 [±0.10] g L(-1), respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4.

  1. Biorefineries in the context of a future bioeconomy; Bioraffinerien im Kontext der Ueberlegungen zu einer zukuenftigen Biooekonomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagemann, K. [Dechema e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The storage compounds of plants - vegetable oils, starch and sugar - account for by far the largest share of renewable raw materials for the chemical industry. In addition, attention is focusing on lignocelluloses: wood straw and other (largely) non-edible plant waste, composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Of these, cellulose, one of the major structural components of plants, is used by the chemical industry. To date, hemicellulose and lignin have not played a significant role. The current discussion on how to establish a bioeconomy is primarily oriented towards significantly increasing the share of renewable resources in the feedstock pool for the production of chemicals and materials; this share is presently around 12 %. Such products include intermediate chemicals, which are already produced from petroleum. Other chemicals, which could be the components of new value chains, are also under discussion. Additionally materials, such as biopolymers, are already used directly in consumer goods. These considerations imply a higher demand on renewable raw materials, especially those from plants. Biorefineries will play a crucial part in meeting this demand. The German Government has invited a group of independent experts from industry and academia to drawup a roadmap. The rationale for this document is to provide a systematic description of the status and perspectives of the different biorefinery concepts, taking into account economic and ecological aspects and analysing the R and D demand. The following definition is the basis for the analysis: 'A biorefinery is an integrative, holistic processing facility, using biomass as a versatile raw material source for the sustainable production of a spectrum of different intermediates and marketable products (chemicals, materials, bioenergy and food/ feed co-products) and utilising the biomass components as fully as possible.' The analysis considers the following promising concepts. (orig.)

  2. Valorization of pyrolysis water: a biorefinery side stream, for 1,2-propanediol production with engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Julian; Müller, Felix; Bernecker, Kerstin; Dahmen, Nicolaus; Takors, Ralf; Blombach, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    A future bioeconomy relies on the efficient use of renewable resources for energy and material product supply. In this context, biorefineries have been developed and play a key role in converting lignocellulosic residues. Although a holistic use of the biomass feed is desired, side streams evoke in current biorefinery approaches. To ensure profitability, efficiency, and sustainability of the overall conversion process, a meaningful valorization of these materials is needed. Here, a so far unexploited side stream derived from fast pyrolysis of wheat straw-pyrolysis water-was used for production of 1,2-propanediol in microbial fermentation with engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum . A protocol for pretreatment of pyrolysis water was established and enabled growth on its major constituents, acetate and acetol, with rates up to 0.36 ± 0.04 h -1 . To convert acetol to 1,2-propanediol, the plasmid pJUL gldA expressing the glycerol dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli was introduced into C. glutamicum . 1,2-propanediol was formed in a growth-coupled biotransformation and production was further increased by construction of C. glutamicum Δ pqo Δ aceE Δ ldhA Δ mdh pJUL gldA . In a two-phase aerobic/microaerobic fed-batch process with pyrolysis water as substrate, this strain produced 18.3 ± 1.2 mM 1,2-propanediol with a yield of 0.96 ± 0.05 mol 1,2-propanediol per mol acetol and showed an overall volumetric productivity of 1.4 ± 0.1 mmol 1,2-propanediol L -1  h -1 . This study implements microbial fermentation into a biorefinery based on pyrolytic liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass and accesses a novel value chain by valorizing the side stream pyrolysis water for 1,2-PDO production with engineered C. glutamicum . The established bioprocess operated at maximal product yield and accomplished the so far highest overall volumetric productivity for microbial 1,2-PDO production with an engineered producer strain. Besides, the results highlight the

  3. Maximizing biofuel production in a thermochemical biorefinery by adding electrolytic hydrogen and by integrating torrefaction with entrained flow gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    In a "conventional" thermochemical biorefinery, carbon is emitted from the plant in the form of CO2 to make the synthesis gas from the gasifier suitable for fuel production. The alternative to this carbon removal is to add hydrogen to the plant. By adding hydrogen, it is possible to more than double the biofuel production per biomass input by converting almost all of the carbon in the biomass feed to carbon stored in the biofuel product. Water or steam electrolysis can supply the hydrogen to ...

  4. Recovery Act. Demonstration of a Pilot Integrated Biorefinery for the Efficient, Direct Conversion of Biomass to Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetzle, Dennis [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Tamblyn, Greg [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Caldwell, Matt [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Hanbury, Orion [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Schuetzle, Robert [Greyrock Energy, Sacramento, CA (United States); Rodriguez, Ramer [Greyrock Energy, Sacramento, CA (United States); Johnson, Alex [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Deichert, Fred [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Jorgensen, Roger [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Struble, Doug [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-12

    The Renewable Energy Institute International, in collaboration with Greyrock Energy and Red Lion Bio-Energy (RLB) has successfully demonstrated operation of a 25 ton per day (tpd) nameplate capacity, pilot, pre-commercial-scale integrated biorefinery (IBR) plant for the direct production of premium, “drop-in”, synthetic fuels from agriculture and forest waste feedstocks using next-generation thermochemical and catalytic conversion technologies. The IBR plant was built and tested at the Energy Center, which is located in the University of Toledo Medical Campus in Toledo, Ohio.

  5. Uncertainties in early-stage capital cost estimation of process design – a case study on biorefinery design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    robust decision-making under uncertainties. One of the results using order-of-magnitude estimates shows that the production of diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene are the most promising with the lowest economic risks (among the alternatives considered) of 0.24 MM$/a and 4.6 MM$/a, respectively....... is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is indeed found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable...

  6. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  7. Quality evaluation of dissolving pulp fabricated from banana plant stem and its potential for biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Ohi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-20

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dissolving pulp of Musa sapientum L. (banana) plant stem and its potential for biorefinery. Introduction of pre-hydrolysis prior to any alkaline pulping process helps to reduce the content of hemicellulose and consequently produce acceptably high content of cellulose pulp. Water pre-hydrolysis was done at 150°C for 90min. The amount of lignin, xylan and glucan in the extracted pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was 1.6, 4.9 and 1.6%, respectively. Pulping of pre-extracted chips was done following soda-AQ, alkaline sulfite and kraft process. The ratio of chip to liquor was 1:7 for both pre-hydrolysis and pulping. The kraft pulping process with 20% active alkali and 25% sulfidity at 150°C for 90min showed the best result. The lowest kappa number was 26.2 with a considerable pulp yield of 32.7%. The pulp was bleached by acidic NaClO2 and the consistency was 10% based on air-dried pulp. The lowest amount of 7% NaClO2 was used for the bleaching sequence of D0ED1ED2. After D0ED1ED2 bleaching, the pulp showed that α-cellulose, brightness and ash were 91.9, 77.9 and 1.6% respectively. The viscosity was 19.9cP. Hence, there is a possibility to use banana plant stem as a raw material for dissolving grade pulp and other bioproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flexible biorefinery for producing fermentation sugars, lignin and pulp from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Kiran L; Chin, Chim Y; Brown, Lawrence W

    2008-05-01

    A new biorefining process is presented that embodies green processing and sustainable development. In the spirit of a true biorefinery, the objective is to convert agricultural residues and other biomass feedstocks into value-added products such as fuel ethanol, dissolving pulp, and lignin for resin production. The continuous biomass fractionation process yields a liquid stream rich in hemicellulosic sugars, a lignin-rich liquid stream, and a solid cellulose stream. This paper generally discusses potential applications of the three streams and specifically provides results on the evaluation of the cellulose stream from corn stover as a source of fermentation sugars and specialty pulp. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this relatively pure cellulose stream requires significantly lower enzyme loadings because of minimal enzyme deactivation from nonspecific binding to lignin. A correlation was shown to exist between lignin removal efficiency and enzymatic digestibility. The cellulose produced was also demonstrated to be a suitable replacement for hardwood pulp, especially in the top ply of a linerboard. Also, the relatively pure nature of the cellulose renders it suitable as raw material for making dissolving pulp. This pulping approach has significantly smaller environmental footprint compared to the industry-standard kraft process because no sulfur- or chlorine-containing compounds are used. Although this option needs some minimal post-processing, it produces a higher value commodity than ethanol and, unlike ethanol, does not need extensive processing such as hydrolysis or fermentation. Potential use of low-molecular weight lignin as a raw material for wood adhesive production is discussed as well as its use as cement and feed binder. As a baseline application the hemicellulosic sugars captured in the hydrolyzate liquor can be used to produce ethanol, but potential utilization of xylose for xylitol fermentation is also feasible. Markets and values of these applications are

  9. A biorefinery concept using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the coproduction of bioethanol and biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Yahmed, Nesrine; Jmel, Mohamed Amine; Ben Alaya, Monia; Bouallagui, Hassib; Marzouki, M. Nejib; Smaali, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chaetomorpha linum was used as sustainable feedstock for co-production of bioethanol and biomethane. • An eco-friendly process was developed, only generating 0.3 ± 0.01 g/g of waste. • Ethanol yield obtained was 0.41 g/g reducing sugar. • Methane yield obtained was 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. - Abstract: An innovative integrated biorefinery approach using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum was investigated in the present study for the co-production of bioethanol and biogas. Among three pretreatments of C. linum biomass, consisting of acidic, neutral and alkali ones, 3% NaOH pretreatment gave the best result in terms of thallus disintegration, biomass recovery and enzymatic digestibility as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and saccharification tests. The hydrolysis of C. linum feedstock with a crude specific enzyme preparation, locally produced from fermentation of Aspergillus awamori, at 45 °C, pH 5 for 30 h gave the maximum yield of fermentable sugar of 0.22 ± 0.02 g/g dry substrate. An ethanol yield of 0.41 g/g reducing sugar corresponding to about 0.093 g/g pretreated algae was obtained after alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the integrated proposed process, mycelium issued from the fungal fermentation, liquid issued from alkali pretreatment, residual from the non-hydrolysable biomass and all effluents and co-products represent a heterogeneous substrate that feed an anaerobic digester for biogas production. GC-analysis of this later showed that the biomethane yield reached 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. This study presents therefore an eco-friendly biorefining process, which efficiently coproduce bioethanol and biomethane and generate only a single waste (0.3 ± 0.01 g/g) allowing an almost complete conversion of the algal biomass.

  10. Conversion of lignocellulosic agave residues into liquid biofuels using an AFEX™-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Gómez, Carlos A; Escamilla Silva, Eleazar M; Zhong, Cheng; Dale, Bruce E; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh

    2018-01-01

    Agave-based alcoholic beverage companies generate thousands of tons of solid residues per year in Mexico. These agave residues might be used for biofuel production due to their abundance and favorable sustainability characteristics. In this work, agave leaf and bagasse residues from species Agave tequilana and Agave salmiana were subjected to pretreatment using the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process. The pretreatment conditions were optimized using a response surface design methodology. We also identified commercial enzyme mixtures that maximize sugar yields for AFEX-pretreated agave bagasse and leaf matter, at ~ 6% glucan (w/w) loading enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the pretreated agave hydrolysates (at a total solids loading of ~ 20%) were used for ethanol fermentation using the glucose- and xylose-consuming strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST), to determine ethanol yields at industrially relevant conditions. Low-severity AFEX pretreatment conditions are required (100-120 °C) to enable efficient enzymatic deconstruction of the agave cell wall. These studies showed that AFEX-pretreated A. tequilana bagasse, A. tequilana leaf fiber, and A. salmiana bagasse gave ~ 85% sugar conversion during enzyme hydrolysis and over 90% metabolic yields of ethanol during fermentation without any washing step or nutrient supplementation. On the other hand, although lignocellulosic A. salmiana leaf gave high sugar conversions, the hydrolysate could not be fermented at high solids loadings, apparently due to the presence of natural inhibitory compounds. These results show that AFEX-pretreated agave residues can be effectively hydrolyzed at high solids loading using an optimized commercial enzyme cocktail (at 25 mg protein/g glucan) producing > 85% sugar conversions and over 40 g/L bioethanol titers. These results show that AFEX technology has considerable potential to convert lignocellulosic agave residues to bio-based fuels and chemicals in a biorefinery.

  11. LCA of 1,4-Butanediol Produced via Direct Fermentation of Sugars from Wheat Straw Feedstock within a Territorial Biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Annachiara; Zucaro, Amalia; Basosi, Riccardo; Fierro, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The bio-based industrial sector has been recognized by the European Union as a priority area toward sustainability, however, the environmental profile of bio-based products needs to be further addressed. This study investigated, through the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, the environmental performance of bio-based 1,4-butanediol (BDO) produced via direct fermentation of sugars from wheat straw, within a hypothetical regional biorefinery (Campania Region, Southern Italy). The aim was: (i) to identify the hotspots along the production chain; and (ii) to assess the potential environmental benefits of this bio-based polymer versus the reference conventional product (fossil-based BDO). Results identified the prevailing contribution to the total environmental load of bio-based BDO in the feedstock production and in the heat requirement at the biorefinery plant. The modeled industrial bio-based BDO supply chain, showed a general reduction of the environmental impacts compared to the fossil-based BDO. The lowest benefits were gained in terms of acidification and eutrophication, due to the environmental load of the crop phase for feedstock cultivation. PMID:28773687

  12. Biological potential of microalgae in China for biorefinery-based production of biofuels and high value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Jay J; Mos, Michal; Daroch, Maurycy

    2015-12-25

    Microalgae abundance and diversity in China shows promise for identifying suitable strains for developing algal biorefinery. Numerous strains of microalgae have already been assessed as feedstocks for bioethanol and biodiesel production, but commercial scale algal biofuel production is yet to be demonstrated, most likely due to huge energy costs associated with algae cultivation, harvesting and processing. Biorefining, integrated processes for the conversion of biomass into a variety of products, can improve the prospects of microalgal biofuels by combining them with the production of high value co-products. Numerous microalgal strains in China have been identified as producers of various high value by-products with wide application in the medicine, food, and cosmetics industries. This paper reviews microalgae resources in China and their potential in producing liquid biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and high value products in an integrated biorefinery approach. Implementation of a 'high value product first' principle should make the integrated process of fuels and chemicals production economically feasible and will ensure that public and private interest in the development of microalgal biotechnology is maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. LCA of 1,4-Butanediol Produced via Direct Fermentation of Sugars from Wheat Straw Feedstock within a Territorial Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annachiara Forte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The bio-based industrial sector has been recognized by the European Union as a priority area toward sustainability, however, the environmental profile of bio-based products needs to be further addressed. This study investigated, through the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA approach, the environmental performance of bio-based 1,4-butanediol (BDO produced via direct fermentation of sugars from wheat straw, within a hypothetical regional biorefinery (Campania Region, Southern Italy. The aim was: (i to identify the hotspots along the production chain; and (ii to assess the potential environmental benefits of this bio-based polymer versus the reference conventional product (fossil-based BDO. Results identified the prevailing contribution to the total environmental load of bio-based BDO in the feedstock production and in the heat requirement at the biorefinery plant. The modeled industrial bio-based BDO supply chain, showed a general reduction of the environmental impacts compared to the fossil-based BDO. The lowest benefits were gained in terms of acidification and eutrophication, due to the environmental load of the crop phase for feedstock cultivation.

  14. Uncertainties in Early Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Process Design – A case study on biorefinery design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkan eSin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early stage design is a challenging task. This is especially important in biorefinery research, where available information and experiences with new technologies is limited. A systematic methodology for uncertainty analysis of cost data is proposed that employs (a Bootstrapping as a regression method when cost data is available and (b the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data is not available. Four well-known models for early stage cost estimation are reviewed an analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early stage process design is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable robust decision making under uncertainties. One of the results using an order-of-magnitude estimate shows that the production of diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene are the most promising with economic risks of 0.24 MM$/a and 4.6 MM$/a due to uncertainties in cost estimations, respectively.

  15. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  16. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Xiao, Ting T.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results. PMID:26200774

  17. Design of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system through bio-inspired metaheuristic optimization considering multiple types of feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba, Isidoro

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers significant potential to mitigate climate change by reducing life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions relative to fossil fuels. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supplying future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. This thesis is motivated by the urgent need of advancing knowledge and understanding of the highly complex biofuel supply chain. While corn ethanol production has increased fast enough to keep up with the energy mandates, production of biofuels from different types of feedstocks has also been incremented. A number of pilot and demonstration scale advanced biofuel facilities have been set up, but commercial scale facilities are yet to become operational. Scaling up this new biofuel sector poses significant economic and logistical challenges for regional planners and biofuel entrepreneurs in terms of feedstock supply assurance, supply chain development, biorefinery establishment, and setting up transport, storage and distribution infrastructure. The literature also shows that the larger cost in the production of biomass to ethanol originates from the logistics operation therefore it is essential that an optimal logistics system is designed in order to keep low the costs of producing ethanol and make possible the shift from

  18. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ce...

  19. Where to implement local biotech innovations? A framework for multi-scale socio-economic and environmental impact assessment of Green Bio-Refineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Stefaniak, Irena; Madsen, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Green Bio-Refineries (GBRs) have economic and environmental potentials through changing land use from cereals to grass production and provision of grass-based protein feed for livestock production and other valuable byproducts. However, the potentials are dependent on local conditions of the GBRs...

  20. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  1. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assisted living is for adults who need help with everyday tasks. They may need help with dressing, bathing, ... don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement communities. Others are ...

  2. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  3. Accounts Assistant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHITRA

    (Not more than three months old). Annexure 1. Indian Academy of Sciences. C V Raman Avenue, Bengaluru 560 080. Application for the Post of: Accounts Assistant / Administrative Assistant Trainee / Assistant – Official Language. Implementation Policy / Temporary Copy Editor and Proof Reader / Social Media Manager. 1.

  4. Integrating biorefinery and farm biogeochemical cycles offsets fossil energy and mitigates soil carbon losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Paul R; Mitchell, James G; Pourhashem, Ghasideh; Spatari, Sabrina; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Parton, William J

    2015-06-01

    Crop residues are potentially significant sources of feedstock for biofuel production in the United States. However, there are concerns with maintaining the environmental functions of these residues while also serving as a feedstock for biofuel production. Maintaining soil organic carbon (SOC) along with its functional benefits is considered a greater constraint than maintaining soil erosion losses to an acceptable level. We used the biogeochemical model DayCent to evaluate the effect of residue removal, corn stover, and wheat and barley straw in three diverse locations in the USA. We evaluated residue removal with and without N replacement, along with application of a high-lignin fermentation byproduct (HLFB), the residue by-product comprised of lignin and small quantities of nutrients from cellulosic ethanol production. SOC always decreased with residue harvest, but the decrease was greater in colder climates when expressed on a life cycle basis. The effect of residue harvest on soil N2O emissions varied with N addition and climate. With N addition, N2O emissions always increased, but the increase was greater in colder climates. Without N addition, N2O emissions increased in Iowa, but decreased in Maryland and North Carolina with crop residue harvest. Although SOC was lower with residue harvest when HLFB was used for power production instead of being applied to land, the avoidance of fossil fuel emissions to the atmosphere by utilizing the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of crop residue to produce ethanol (offsets) reduced the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because most of this residue carbon would normally be lost during microbial respiration. Losses of SOC and reduced N mineralization could both be mitigated with the application of HLFB to the land. Therefore, by returning the high-lignin fraction of crop residue to the land after production of ethanol at the biorefinery, soil carbon levels could be maintained along with the functional benefit of

  5. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Rong-Gang, E-mail: rc@envs.au.dk; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1 ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96 € before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO{sub 3}-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N{sub 2}O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. - Highlights: • We explore potentials of grass protein from GBR to substitute cereals in pig feed. • Life-cycle analysis is combined with cost-benefit analysis to analyze the effects. • Using grass protein can be economically feasible

  6. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1 ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96 € before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO 3 -N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N 2 O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. - Highlights: • We explore potentials of grass protein from GBR to substitute cereals in pig feed. • Life-cycle analysis is combined with cost-benefit analysis to analyze the effects. • Using grass protein can be economically feasible for both

  7. Environmental impacts of producing bioethanol and biobased lactic acid from standalone and integrated biorefineries using a consequential and an attributional life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Birkved, Morten; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Corona, Andrea; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2017-11-15

    This study evaluates the environmental impacts of biorefinery products using consequential (CLCA) and attributional (ALCA) life cycle assessment (LCA) approaches. Within ALCA, economic allocation method was used to distribute impacts among the main products and the coproducts, whereas within the CLCA system expansion was adopted to avoid allocation. The study seeks to answer the questions (i) what is the environmental impacts of process integration?, and (ii) do CLCA and ALCA lead to different conclusions when applied to biorefinery?. Three biorefinery systems were evaluated and compared: a standalone system producing bioethanol from winter wheat-straw (system A), a standalone system producing biobased lactic acid from alfalfa (system B), and an integrated biorefinery system (system C) combining the two standalone systems and producing both bioethanol and lactic acid. The synergy of the integration was the exchange of useful energy necessary for biomass processing in the two standalone systems. The systems were compared against a common reference flow: "1MJ EtOH +1kg LA ", which was set on the basis of products delivered by the system C. Function of the reference flow was to provide service of both fuel (bioethanol) at 99.9% concentration (wt. basis) and biochemical (biobased lactic acid) in food industries at 90% purity; both products delivered at biorefinery gate. The environmental impacts of interest were global warming potential (GWP 100 ), eutrophication potential (EP), non-renewable energy (NRE) use and the agricultural land occupation (ALO). Regardless of the LCA approach adopted, system C performed better in most of the impact categories than both standalone systems. The process wise contribution to the obtained environmental impacts also showed similar impact pattern in both approaches. The study also highlighted that the recirculation of intermediate materials, e.g. C 5 sugar to boost bioethanol yield and that the use of residual streams in the energy

  8. Investigation of uncertainties associated with the production of n-butanol through ethanol catalysis in sugarcane biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas G; Dias, Marina O S; MacLean, Heather L; Bonomi, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the viability of n-butanol production integrated within a first and second generation sugarcane biorefinery. The evaluation included a deterministic analysis as well as a stochastic approach, the latter using Monte Carlo simulation. Results were promising for n-butanol production in terms of revenues per tonne of processed sugarcane, but discouraging with respect to internal rate of return (IRR). The uncertainty analysis determined there was high risk involved in producing n-butanol and co-products from ethanol catalysis. It is unlikely that these products and associated production route will be financially attractive in the short term without lower investment costs, supportive public policies and tax incentives coupled with biofuels' production strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On a novel strategy for water recovery and recirculation in biorefineries through application of forward osmosis membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalafatakis, Stavros; Braekevelt, Sylvie; Carlsen, Vilhelmsen

    2017-01-01

    A great amount of research has been performed during the last 10 years focusing on forward osmosis (FO)processes. The main driving force is to find an effective and low energy demanding methodology for water recovery as well as up-concentration of valuable products. Nevertheless, the energetic...... and financial benefits of this technology can be undermined from the fact that FO should be usually coupled with reverse osmosis (RO) for subsequent water purification and draw solution regeneration. Hence, a different approach was applied in order to omit the RO step. Crude glycerol and enzymatically...... pretreated wheat straw, which are common 2nd generation biorefinery feedstocks, have been evaluated as possible draw solution. In this way, water can be directly recovered and transferred back into the fermentation loop without further purification. Applying the Aquaporin InsideTM Forward Osmosis system...

  10. Environmental life cycle assessments of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass and winter wheat straw for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass, and straw from winter wheat as biomass feedstocks for biorefinery. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method included the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100......-chemicals production. The PBD, expressed as Potentially Disappeared Fraction (PDF) showed the highest adverse impact to biodiversity in maize, followed by straw, whereas the results showed relatively lower impact for ryegrass and grass-clover. The PFWTox (CTUe/t DM), at farm level was highest for straw, followed...... by maize, whereas the values were significantly lower for grass-clover and ryegrass. These variations in ranking of the different biomasses productions using different impact categories for environmental performance showed that it is important to consider a wider range of impact categories for assessing...

  11. Legumes for mitigation of climate change and the provision of feedstock for biofuels and biorefineries. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Peoples, Mark B.; Boddey, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    it is the high fossil energy use in the synthesis, transport, and application of N fertilizers that often negates much of the net C benefits of many other bioenergy sources. The use of legume biomass for biorefineries needs careful thought as there will be significant trade-offs with the current role of legumes...... of climate change by reducing fossil fuel use or by providing feedstock for the emerging biobased economies where fossil sources of energy and industrial raw materials are replaced in part by sustainable and renewable biomass resources. The aim of this review was to collate the current knowledge regarding...... for energy in the face of dwindling reserves of fossil energy and uncertainties about future reliability of supply. Legumes deliver several important services to societies. They provide important sources of oil, fiber, and protein-rich food and feed while supplying nitrogen (N) to agro-ecosystems via...

  12. Descriptive and predictive assessment of enzyme activity and enzyme related processes in biorefinery using IR spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas

    Enzyme technology provides key strategies to green chemistry as many processes have undergone re-design to serve increasing demands towards being sustainable. While the population is rapidly increasing on our planet it is leading to accumulative problems in terms of production of waste, depletion...... industries. However, as biorefinery concepts are implemented in many industrial processes an increasing demand for Process Analytical Technology (PAT) evolves to monitor, understand and steer processes optimally. Biomasses can be very diverse and are usually of complex chemical nature. Conventional......-order calibration advantage (reference Theory of Analytical chemistry). As PAPER 3 illustrates the method is universally applicable without the need of any external standards and was exemplified by performing quantitative enzyme activity determinations for glucose oxidase, pectin lyase and a cellolytic enzyme blend...

  13. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Manzanares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB, extracted olive pomace (EOP and olive leaves (OL that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  14. An integrated biorefinery concept for conversion of sugar beet pulp into value-added chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Bawn, Maria; Hamley-Bennett, Charlotte; Bharat, Penumathsa K V; Subrizi, Fabiana; Suhaili, Nurashikin; Ward, David P; Bourdin, Sarah; Dalby, Paul A; Hailes, Helen C; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Leak, David J; Shah, Nilay; Sheppard, Tom D; Ward, John M; Lye, Gary J

    2017-09-21

    Over 8 million tonnes of sugar beet are grown annually in the UK. Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the main by-product of sugar beet processing which is currently dried and sold as a low value animal feed. SBP is a rich source of carbohydrates, mainly in the form of cellulose and pectin, including d-glucose (Glu), l-arabinose (Ara) and d-galacturonic acid (GalAc). This work describes the technical feasibility of an integrated biorefinery concept for the fractionation of SBP and conversion of these monosaccharides into value-added products. SBP fractionation is initially carried out by steam explosion under mild conditions to yield soluble pectin and insoluble cellulose fractions. The cellulose is readily hydrolysed by cellulases to release Glu that can then be fermented by a commercial yeast strain to produce bioethanol at a high yield. The pectin fraction can be either fully hydrolysed, using physico-chemical methods, or selectively hydrolysed, using cloned arabinases and galacturonases, to yield Ara-rich and GalAc-rich streams. These monomers can be separated using either Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) or ultrafiltration into streams suitable for subsequent enzymatic upgrading. Building on our previous experience with transketolase (TK) and transaminase (TAm) enzymes, the conversion of Ara and GalAc into higher value products was explored. In particular the conversion of Ara into l-gluco-heptulose (GluHep), that has potential therapeutic applications in hypoglycaemia and cancer, using a mutant TK is described. Preliminary studies with TAm also suggest GluHep can be selectively aminated to the corresponding chiral aminopolyol. The current work is addressing the upgrading of the remaining SBP monomer, GalAc, and the modelling of the biorefinery concept to enable economic and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA).

  15. Biomass to levulinic acid: A techno-economic analysis and sustainability of biorefinery processes in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoni, V; Kumbang, D; Sharratt, P N; Khoo, H H

    2018-05-15

    Aligned with Singapore's commitment to sustainable development and investment in renewable resources, cleaner energy and technology (Sustainable Singapore Blueprint), we report a techno-economic analysis of the biorefinery process in Southeast Asia. The considerations in this study provide an overview of the current and future challenges in the biomass-to-chemical processes with life-cycle thinking, linking the land used for agriculture and biomass to the levulinic acid production. 7-8 kg of lignocellulosic feedstock (glucan content 30-35 wt%) from agriculture residues empty fruit bunches (EFB) or rice straw (RS) can be processed to yield 1 kg of levulinic acid. Comparisons of both traditional and "green" alternative solvents and separation techniques for the chemical process were modelled and their relative energy profiles evaluated. Using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF) as the process solvent showed to approx. 20 fold less energy demand compared to methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) or approx. 180 fold less energy demand compared to direct distillation from aqueous stream. Greenhouse gases emissions of the major operations throughout the supply chain (energy and solvent use, transport, field emissions) were estimated and compared against the impact of deforestation to make space for agriculture purposes. A biorefinery process for the production of 20 ktonne/year of levulinic acid from two different types of lignocellulosic feedstock was hypothesized for different scenarios. In one scenario the chemical plant producing levulinic acid was located in Singapore whereas in other scenarios, its location was placed in a neighboring country, closer to the biomass source. Results from this study show the importance of feedstock choices, as well as the associated plant locations, in the quest for sustainability objectives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Top chemical opportunities from carbohydrate biomass: a chemist's view of the Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusselier, Michiel; Mascal, Mark; Sels, Bert F

    2014-01-01

    Cheap fossil oil resources are becoming depleted and crude oil prices are rising. In this context, alternatives to fossil fuel-derived carbon are examined in an effort to improve the security of carbon resources through the development of novel technologies for the production of chemicals, fuels, and materials from renewable feedstocks such as biomass. The general concept unifying the conversion processes for raw biomass is that of the biorefinery, which integrates biofuels with a selection of pivot points towards value-added chemical end products via so-called "platform chemicals". While the concept of biorefining is not new, now more than ever there is the motivation to investigate its true potential for the production of carbon-based products. A variety of renewable chemicals have been proposed by many research groups, many of them being categorized as drop-ins, while others are novel chemicals with the potential to displace petrochemicals across several markets. To be competitive with petrochemicals, carbohydrate-derived products should have advantageous chemical properties that can be profitably exploited, and/or their production should offer cost-effective benefits. The production of drop-ins will likely proceed in short term since the markets are familiar, while the commercial introduction of novel chemicals takes longer and demands more technological and marketing effort.Rather than describing elaborate catalytic routes and giving exhaustive lists of reactions, a large part of this review is devoted to creating a guideline for the selection of the most promising (platform) chemicals derived via chemical-catalytic reaction routes from lignocellulosic biomass. The major rationale behind our recommendations is a maximum conservation of functionality, alongside a high atom economy. Nature provides us with complex molecules like cellulose and hemicellulose, and it should be possible to transform them into chemical products while maintaining aspects of their

  17. Conceptual Biorefinery Design and Research Targeted for 2022: Hydrothermal Liquefacation Processing of Wet Waste to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seiple, Timothy E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billing, Justin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Albrecht, Karl O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Samuel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maupin, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-12-28

    represents a goal case for the pathway, targeting performance that is anticipated to be achievable by 2022 with further research and development. The year 2022 is BETO’s target year for verification of hydrocarbon biofuel pathways. As this analysis represents a goal case, assumed values of several design parameters represent improvements in the technology relative to what has currently been demonstrated in the laboratory. While HTL is fairly well developed and may therefore be ready for commercialization prior to 2022, there are specific advancements addressed in this analysis that are necessary to enhance performance compared to what has been demonstrated to date. In addition, an important aspect to the pathway is the upgrading of biocrude to fuel blendstock, an area that has received much less attention and requires significant research to validate the goal case performance parameters. The estimated plant gate minimum fuel selling price for fuel blendstock from sludge HTL and upgrading is $3.46/gasoline gallon equivalent (gge). This price is within the tolerance (+$0.49/gge) of BETO’s $3/gge programmatic cost target and illustrates that fuel blendstocks generated from HTL of sludge and centralized biocrude upgrading have the potential to be competitive with fossil fuels. This analysis illustrates the feasibility of HTL for point-of-generation conversion of waste feedstock at a scale 1/20th that of the standard lignocellulosic biorefinery scale typically used in BETO design cases. The relevance of this work reaches beyond wastewater treatment sludge to lay the groundwork for application to other distributed wet wastes and blends that together represent a significant resource of underutilized biomass.

  18. Conversion of levulinic acid into γ-valerolactone using Fe3(CO)12: mimicking a biorefinery setting by exploiting crude liquors from biomass acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Gustavo; Burtoloso, Antonio C B

    2015-09-28

    The conversion of biomass-derived levulinic acid (LA) into gamma-valerolactone (GVL) using formic acid (FA) and Fe3(CO)12 as the catalyst precursor was achieved in 92% yield. To mimic a biorefinery setting, crude liquor (containing 20% LA) from the acid hydrolysis of sugarcane biomass in a pilot plant facility was directly converted into GVL in good yield (50%), without the need for isolating LA.

  19. Techno-economic assessment of a wood-based biorefinery concept for the production of polymer-grade ethylene, organosolv lignin and fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Roy; Budzinski, Maik; Gröngröft, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose biorefineries are distinguished by an explicitly integrative, multi-functional concept that transforms biomass into multiple products, using a variety of conversion and separation processes. This study focuses on the technical design and economic evaluation of a lignocellulose biorefinery, that converts 400,000tDM/a (≙250MW) of beech wood into chemicals and fuel. A model was simulated with Aspen Plus® including the process steps pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, alcoholic fermentation, dehydration and biogas generation and upgrading. Mass and energy balances showed that 61,600t/a polymer-grade ethylene, 58,520tDM/a organosolv lignin, 38,400t/a biomethane and 90,800tDM/a hydrolysis lignin can be produced with a total energy efficiency of 87.1%. A discounted cash flow analysis indicated that the heat integrated biorefinery concept is not yet profitable. However, the economic results are greatly sensitive regarding various assumptions, in particular in terms of the prices for beech wood, ethylene and organosolv lignin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Project Independence: Construction of an Integrated Biorefinery for Production of Renewable Biofuels at an Existing Pulp and Paper Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Douglas

    2012-06-01

    Project Independence proposed to construct a demonstration biomass-to-liquids (BTL) biorefinery in Wisconsin Rapids, isconsin. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage Wisconsin System Incorporated’s Wisconsin Rapids Mill, and when in full operation would both generate renewable energy for Wisconsin Rapids Mill and produce liquid fuels from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for BTL production using forest residuals and wood waste, providing a basis for proliferating BTL conversion technologies throughout the United States. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with biomass being harvested, sized, conditioned and fed into a ThermoChem Recovery International (TRI) steam reformer where it is converted to high quality synthetic gas (syngas). The syngas is then cleaned, compressed, scrubbed, polished and fed into the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic reactors where the gas is converted into two, sulfur-free, clean crude products which will be marketed as revenue generating streams. Additionally, the Fischer-Tropsch products could be upgraded for use in automotive, aviation and chemical industries as valuable products, if desired. As the Project Independence project set out to prove forest products could be used to commercially produce biofuels, they planned to address and mitigate issues as they arose. In the early days of the Project Independence project, the plant was sized to process 500 dry tons of biomass per day but would

  1. 75 FR 11841 - Repowering Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... biorefineries to encourage the use of renewable biomass as a replacement fuel source for fossil fuels used to... discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability...

  2. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  3. Retrofitting hetrotrophically cultivated algae biomass as pyrolytic feedstock for biogas, bio-char and bio-oil production encompassing biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Omprakash; Agarwal, Manu; Naresh Kumar, A; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    Algal biomass grown hetrotrophically in domestic wastewater was evaluated as pyrolytic feedstock for harnessing biogas, bio-oil and bio-char. Freshly harvested microalgae (MA) and lipid extracted microalgae (LEMA) were pyrolysed in packed bed reactor in the presence and absence of sand as additive. MA (without sand additive) depicted higher biogas (420 ml/g; 800 °C; 3 h) and bio-oil (0.70 ml/g; 500 °C; 3 h). Sand addition enhanced biogas production (210 ml/g; 600 °C; 2 h) in LEMA operation. The composition of bio-gas and bio-oil was found to depend on the nature of feedstock as well as the process conditions viz., pyrolytic-temperature, retention time and presence of additive. Sand additive improved the H2 composition while pyrolytic temperature increment caused a decline in CO2 fraction. Bio-char productivity increased with increasing temperature specifically with LEMA. Integration of thermo-chemical process with microalgae cultivation showed to yield multiple resources and accounts for environmental sustainability in the bio-refinery framework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterisation of Authentic Lignin Biorefinery Samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Determination of the Chemical Formula for Lignin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Damgaard Nielsen, Anders; Sørensen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    samples in situ with no prior purification and minimal sample preparation. Lignin chemical formulas and lignin Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were extracted from mixed spectra by filtering out signals from residual carbohydrates and minerals. From estimations of C, H and O and adjustment...... for cellulose and hemicelluloses contents, the average chemical formula of lignin was found to be C9H10.2O3.4 with slight variations depending on the biomass feedstock and processing conditions (between C9H9.5O2.8 and C9H11.1O3.6). Extracted FTIR lignin spectra showed many of the same characteristic peaks...... as organosolv and kraft lignin used as benchmark samples. Some variations in the lignin spectra of biorefinery lignin residue samples were found depending on biomass feedstock (wheat straw, corn stover or poplar) and on pretreatment severity, especially in the absorbance of bands at 1267 and 1032 cm−1 relative...

  5. Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Production: Combine Effluent Treatment with Energy Generation in UASB Reactor as Biorefinery Annex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Berni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of residues and industrial effluents represents an unprecedented environmental challenge in terms of recovery, storage, and treatment. This work discusses the perspectives of treating effluents through anaerobic digestion as well as reporting the experience of using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor as biorefinery annex in a pulp and paper industrial plant to be burned in the boilers. The performance of the reactors has shown to be stable under considerable variations in load and showed a significant potential in terms of biogas production. The reactors UASB treated 3600.00 m3 of effluent daily from a production of 150.00 tons. The biogas generation was 234.000 kg/year/mill, equivalent in combustible oil. The results of methane gas generated by the anaerobic system UASB (8846.00 kcal/m3 dislocate the equivalent of 650.0 kg of combustible oil (10000.00 kcal/kg per day (or 234.000 kg/year. The production of 8846.00 Kcal/m3 of energy from biogas can make a run at industrial plant for 2 hours. This substitution can save US$ 128.700 annually (or US$ 550.0 of fuel oil/tons. The companies are invested in the use of the biogas in diesel stationary motors cycle that feed the boilers with water in case of storage electricity.

  6. A biorefinery for Nannochloropsis: Induction, harvesting, and extraction of EPA-rich oil and high-value protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Elvis T; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae have been studied as biofactories for almost four decades. Yet, even until today, many aspects of microalgae farming and processing are still considered exploratory because of the uniqueness of each microalgal species. Thus, it is important to develop the entire process of microalgae farming: from culturing to harvesting, and down to extracting the desired high-value products. Based on its rapid growth and high oil productivities, Nannochloropsis sp. is of particular interest to many industries for the production of high-value oil containing omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but also several other products. This review compares the various techniques for induction, harvesting, and extraction of EPA-rich oil and high-value protein explored by academia and industry to develop a multi-product Nannochloropsis biorefinery. Knowledge gaps and opportunities are discussed for culturing and inducing fatty acid biosynthesis, biomass harvesting, and extracting EPA-rich oil and high-value protein from the biomass of Nannochloropsis sp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chitosan Derivatives as Important Biorefinery Intermediates. Quaternary Tetraalkylammonium Chitosan Derivatives Utilized in Anion Exchange Chromatography for Perchlorate Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeela Sayed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There has recently been great interest in the valorization of biomass waste in the context of the biorefinery. The biopolymer chitosan, derived from chitin, is present in large quantities of crustacean waste. This biomass can be converted into value-added products with applications in energy, fuel, chemicals and materials manufacturing. The many reported applications of this polymer can be attributed to its unique properties, such as biocompatibility, chemical versatility, biodegradability and low toxicity. Cost effective water filters which decontaminate water by removal of specific impurities and microbes are in great demand. To address this need, the development of ion exchange resins using environmentally friendly, renewable materials such as biopolymers as solid supports was evaluated. The identification and remediation of perchlorate contaminated water using an easy, inexpensive method has come under the spotlight recently. Similarly, the use of a low cost perchlorate selective solid phase extraction (SPE cartridge that can be rapidly employed in the field is desirable. Chitosan based SPE coupled with colorimetric analytical methods showed promise as a renewable anion exchange support for perchlorate analysis or removal. The polymers displayed perchlorate retention comparable to the commercial standard whereby the quaternized iron loaded polymer TMC-Fe(III displayed the best activity.

  8. Chitosan derivatives as important biorefinery intermediates. Quaternary tetraalkylammonium chitosan derivatives utilized in anion exchange chromatography for perchlorate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Shakeela; Jardine, Anwar

    2015-04-23

    There has recently been great interest in the valorization of biomass waste in the context of the biorefinery. The biopolymer chitosan, derived from chitin, is present in large quantities of crustacean waste. This biomass can be converted into value-added products with applications in energy, fuel, chemicals and materials manufacturing. The many reported applications of this polymer can be attributed to its unique properties, such as biocompatibility, chemical versatility, biodegradability and low toxicity. Cost effective water filters which decontaminate water by removal of specific impurities and microbes are in great demand. To address this need, the development of ion exchange resins using environmentally friendly, renewable materials such as biopolymers as solid supports was evaluated. The identification and remediation of perchlorate contaminated water using an easy, inexpensive method has come under the spotlight recently. Similarly, the use of a low cost perchlorate selective solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge that can be rapidly employed in the field is desirable. Chitosan based SPE coupled with colorimetric analytical methods showed promise as a renewable anion exchange support for perchlorate analysis or removal. The polymers displayed perchlorate retention comparable to the commercial standard whereby the quaternized iron loaded polymer TMC-Fe(III) displayed the best activity.

  9. GHG sustainability compliance of rapeseed-based biofuels produced in a Danish multi-output biorefinery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels are likely to play an increasingly important role in the transportation sector in the coming decades. To ensure the sustainability of the biofuel chain, regulatory criteria and reduction targets for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions have been defined in different legislative frameworks (e.g. the European Renewable Energy Directive, RED). The provided calculation methods, however, leave room for interpretation regarding methodological choices, which could significantly affect the resulting emission factors. In this study, GHG reduction factors for a range of biofuels produced in a Danish biorefinery system were determined using five different emission allocation principles. The results show that emission savings ranged from −34 % to 71 %, indicating the need for a better definition of regulatory calculation principles. The calculated emission factors differed significantly from default values provided in the literature, suggesting that case-specific local conditions should be taken into consideration. A more holistic LCA-based approach proved useful in overcoming some of the issues inherent in the regulatory allocation principles. On this basis, indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions were shown to have the same magnitude as the direct emissions, thus indicating that the overall system should be included when assessing biofuel sustainability criteria. - Highlights: • Fulfillment of the GHG compliance criteria may depend on the calculation criteria. • Default factors may not be representative of local conditions. • Zero burden approach should be excluded. • ILUC should not be neglected

  10. Life cycle environmental impacts of a prospective palm-based biorefinery in Pará State-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delivand, Mitra Kami; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2013-12-01

    The availability of about 18 million hectares of grassland in Pará State, Brazil, and the possibility of increasing the livestock density display a good perspective for the oil palm expansion in pasture land. A life cycle assessment is performed for a prospective palm-based biorefinery to view two regional and one global environmental impact and the consequences of the land-use change in terms of GHG emissions. Oil palm cultivation in an area of ∼110,000 hectares of land can annually produce ∼39,000 tons of bioethanol, ∼340,000 tons of biodiesel, ∼268 GW h net electricity and other co-products. The life cycle GHG emissions reduction for biodiesel and bioethanol as compared to fossil diesel and gasoline would be 76.9-79.3% and 83.7-88.6%. The advantage of grassland rehabilitation by oil palm plantation is the removal of ∼188 t CO2/ha from the atmosphere during the plant lifetime. The entire inflows and outflows for the conversion processes are schemed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors affecting public support for forest-based biorefineries: A comparison of mill towns and the general public in Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, James A.; Lilieholm, Robert J.; Teisl, Mario F.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Neupane, Binod

    2014-01-01

    Community views toward the risks and benefits of emerging renewable energy technologies are important factors in facility siting decisions and their eventual success. While the actual socioeconomic and biophysical impacts of proposed industrial developments are fraught with uncertainty, understanding public perceptions is critical in managing costs and benefits to local citizens. Here, we explore the social acceptability of forest-based biorefineries in Maine using random utility modeling to identify how project attributes and citizen characteristics interact to affect level of support. Using a statewide sample (Statewide) and a subsample of mill towns (Mill Towns), we found that: (1) in both samples, individual characteristics had similar coefficients and significance levels except for pro-environment attitudes; (2) the coefficients related to the industry’s negative attributes were notably different between the two samples, while positive attributes were not; (3) in both samples, positive industry attributes such as “producing products from a sustainable resource” and “increased economic development” were the most influential variables in determining the level of support for a new biorefinery in an individual’s community; and (4) in general, Mill Town respondents were more accepting of potential negative attributes such as increased levels of truck traffic, odor, noise, and air and water pollution. - Highlights: • We examined social views of bioproducts processing in mill towns and statewide. • Environmental sustainability was a major concern expressed by both samples. • Views were affected by proximity to processing, and by respondent characteristics. • Public concerns should be considered along the entire supply chain. • Views toward biorefineries may be influenced by views of related industries

  12. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Foreign assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that providing energy assistance to developing countries remains a relatively low priority of the Agency for International Development. AID is helping some developing countries meet their energy needs, but this assistance varies substantially because of the agency's decentralized structure. Most AID energy funding has gone to a handful of countries-primarily Egypt and Pakistan. With limited funding in most other countries, AID concentrates on providing technical expertise and promoting energy policy reforms that will encourage both energy efficiency and leverage investment by the private sector and other donors. Although a 1989 congressional directive to pursue a global warming initiative has had a marginal impact on the agency's energy programming, many AID energy programs, including those directed at energy conservation, help address global warming concerns

  14. Product quality optimization in an integrated biorefinery: Conversion of pistachio nutshell biomass to biofuels and activated biochars via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Işıtan, Seçil; Ceylan, Selim; Topcu, Yıldıray; Hintz, Chloe; Tefft, Juliann; Chellappa, Thiago; Guo, Jicheng; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis temperature key variable in manipulating biofuel quality. • Pyrolysis temperature does not impact activated biochar surface area. • Activation temperature key variable to optimize surface area of pistachio biochar. • Statistical model accurately predicts surface area of biochar, especially above 600 m 2 /g. - Abstract: An economically viable transition to a renewable, sustainable energy future hinges on the ability to simultaneously produce multiple high value products from biomass precursors. Though there is considerable literature on the thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels and biochars, there are few holistic examinations that seek to understand trade-offs between biofuel quality and the associated pyrolysis conditions on activated carbons made from the resulting biochars. Using an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis, this study probes the impact of pyrolysis and activation temperature on surface areas and pore volumes for 28 carbon dioxide-activated carbons. Activation temperature has the largest single impact of any other variable; increasing the temperature from 800 to 900 °C leads to an increase in surface area of more than 300 m 2 /g. Contrary to some prior results, pyrolysis temperature has minimal effect on the resulting surface area and pore volume, suggesting that optimizing the temperature at which biofuels are extracted will have little impact on carbon dioxide-activated carbons. Increasing pyrolysis temperature increases methane formation but decreases gaseous hydrocarbons. Bio-oil obtained at lower pyrolysis temperatures shows fewer oxygenated compounds, indicating a greater stability, but higher pyrolysis temperatures maximize production of key biorefinery intermediaries such as furans. By analyzing data in such a holistic manner, it may be possible to optimize the production of biofuels and activated carbons from biomass by minimizing the amount of raw materials and energy necessary to maximize

  15. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Assisted Vaginal Delivery Home For Patients Search FAQs Assisted Vaginal Delivery ... Delivery FAQ192, February 2016 PDF Format Assisted Vaginal Delivery Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What is assisted ...

  16. Development and Piloting of Sustainability Assessment Metrics for Arctic Process Industry in Finland—The Biorefinery Investment and Slag Processing Service Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope Husgafvel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Regionally, there has been a lot of focus on the advancement of sustainable arctic industry and circular economy activities within process industry in the Finnish Lapland. In this study, collaboration between university and industry was established facilitated by regional development actors to develop and pilot test a sustainability assessment approach taking into account previous work in this field. The industry partners in this study were a biorefinery investment in the first case and a slag processing service in the second case. As a result of the joint efforts, novel sets of environmental and economic sustainability assessment indicators and associated sub-indicators were developed and the existing set of social indicators was updated. Moreover, environmental and social sustainability assessments were implemented in the biorefinery case accompanied by a separate evaluation of regional economic impacts. In the slag processing case, environmental, economic and social sustainability were assessed. The results of the sustainability assessments indicated very good level of overall performance in both cases. However, specific elements that contributed to lower level of performance included lack of specific sustainability management and reporting approaches and need for better performance in supply chain sustainability, monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions, life cycle thinking and circular economy training. The expected effects of the planned investment on the regional economy were very positive based on the results of the evaluation.

  17. Economic and environmental assessment of n-butanol production in an integrated first and second generation sugarcane biorefinery: Fermentative versus catalytic routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.G.; Dias, M.O.S.; Mariano, A.P.; Maciel Filho, R.; Bonomi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Financial and environmental impacts of n-butanol production were investigated. • Analysis showed promising economic results for ABE fermentation scenarios. • Ethanol catalysis to butanol presented discouraging figures. • n-Butanol use as fuel demonstrated favorable GHG emissions results. - Abstract: n-Butanol produced from renewable resources has attracted increasing interest, mostly for its potential use as liquid biofuel for transportation. Process currently used in the industry (Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol fermentation – ABE) faces major technical challenges, which could be overcome by an alternative production through ethanol catalysis. In this study, both routes are evaluated by means of their financial viabilities and environmental performance assessed through the Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery methodological framework. Comparative financial analysis of the routes integrated to a first and second generation sugarcane biorefinery shows that, despite the drawbacks, ABE process for fermentation of the pentoses liquor is more attractive than the catalysis of ethanol to n-butanol and co-products. n-Butanol use as fuel demonstrated favorable environmental results for climate change as figures showed over 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared with gasoline.

  18. Microwave-Assisted γ-Valerolactone Production for Biomass Lignin Extraction: A Cascade Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tabasso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The general need to slow the depletion of fossil resources and reduce carbon footprints has led to tremendous effort being invested in creating “greener” industrial processes and developing alternative means to produce fuels and synthesize platform chemicals. This work aims to design a microwave-assisted cascade process for a full biomass valorisation cycle. GVL (γ-valerolactone, a renewable green solvent, has been used in aqueous acidic solution to achieve complete biomass lignin extraction. After lignin precipitation, the levulinic acid (LA-rich organic fraction was hydrogenated, which regenerated the starting solvent for further biomass delignification. This process does not requires a purification step because GVL plays the dual role of solvent and product, while the reagent (LA is a product of biomass delignification. In summary, this bio-refinery approach to lignin extraction is a cascade protocol in which the solvent loss is integrated into the conversion cycle, leading to simplified methods for biomass valorisation.

  19. Microwave-Assisted γ-Valerolactone Production for Biomass Lignin Extraction: A Cascade Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasso, Silvia; Grillo, Giorgio; Carnaroglio, Diego; Calcio Gaudino, Emanuela; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2016-03-26

    The general need to slow the depletion of fossil resources and reduce carbon footprints has led to tremendous effort being invested in creating "greener" industrial processes and developing alternative means to produce fuels and synthesize platform chemicals. This work aims to design a microwave-assisted cascade process for a full biomass valorisation cycle. GVL (γ-valerolactone), a renewable green solvent, has been used in aqueous acidic solution to achieve complete biomass lignin extraction. After lignin precipitation, the levulinic acid (LA)-rich organic fraction was hydrogenated, which regenerated the starting solvent for further biomass delignification. This process does not requires a purification step because GVL plays the dual role of solvent and product, while the reagent (LA) is a product of biomass delignification. In summary, this bio-refinery approach to lignin extraction is a cascade protocol in which the solvent loss is integrated into the conversion cycle, leading to simplified methods for biomass valorisation.

  20. Analytical Approaches to Understanding the Role of Non-carbohydrate Components in Wood Biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskinen, Timo Ensio

    This dissertation describes the production and analysis of wood subjected to a novel electron beam-steam explosion pretreatment (EB-SE) pretreatment with the aim to evaluate its suitability for the production of bioethanol. The goal of these studies was to: 1) develop analytical methods for the investigation of depolymerization of wood components under pretreatments, 2) analyze the effects of EB-SE pretreatment on the pretreated biomass, 3) define how lignin and extractive components affect the action of enzymes on cellulosic substrates, and 4) examine how changes in lignin structure impact its isolation and potential conversion into value added chemicals. The first section of the work describes the development of a size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) methodology for molecular weight analysis for native and pretreated wood. The selective analysis of carbohydrates and lignin from native wood was made possible by the combination of two selective derivatization methods, ionic liquid assisted benzoylation of the carbohydrate fraction and acetobromination of the lignin in acetic acid media. This method was then used to examine changes in softwood samples after the EB-SE pretreatment. The methodology was shown to be effective for monitoring changes in the molecular weight profiles of the pretreated wood. The second section of the work investigates synergistic effects of the EB-SE pretreatment on the molecular level structures of wood components and the significance of these alterations in terms of enzymatic digestibility. The two pretreatment steps depolymerized cell wall components in different fashion, while showing synergistic effects. Hardwood and softwood species responded differently to similar treatment conditions, which was attributed to the well-known differences in the structure of their lignin and hemicellulose fractions. The relatively crosslinked lignin in softwood appeared to limit swelling and subsequent depolymerization in comparison to hardwood

  1. A visionary and conceptual macroalgae-based third-generation bioethanol (TGB) biorefinery in Sabah, Malaysia as an underlay for renewable and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Lee, Keat Teong [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    Several biofuel candidates were proposed to displace fossil fuels in order to eliminate the vulnerability of energy sector. Biodiesel and bioethanol produced from terrestrial plants have attracted the attention of the world as potential substitute. However, due to food vs. fuel competition as well as land consumption of these biofuel, they have brought much controversy and debate on their sustainability. In this respect, cultivation of macroalgae such as seaweed at sea water which does not expend arable land and fertilizers provides a possible solution for this energy issue. Carbohydrates derived from seaweeds contain hexose sugars which are suitable materials for fermentation to produce ethanol. Therefore, it is possible to produce fuel ethanol from seaweeds. The potential and prospective of seaweeds to play the role as a sustainable energy provider are demonstrated in this paper. This study offers a conceivable picture of macroalgae-based third-generation bioethanol biorefinery to stimulate the initiation of the exploration in the related field. (author)

  2. Environmental implications of the use of agro-industrial residues for biorefineries: application of a deterministic model for indirect land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    .1 t CO2-eq.ha-1demanded y-1 corresponding to 1.2-1.5 t CO2 t-1 dry biomass used for energy. Only bioenergy from straw and wild grass was shown to perform better than the alternative use, as no competition with the feed sector was involved. Biogas for heat-and-power production was the best performing......Biorefining agro-industrial biomass residues for bioenergy production represents an opportunity for both sustainable energy supply and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation. Yet, is bioenergy the most sustainable use for these residues? To assess the importance of the alternative use...... of these residues, a consequential life-cycle assessment (LCA) of 32 energy-focused biorefinery scenarios was performed based on eight selected agro-industrial residues and four conversion pathways (two involving bioethanol and two biogas). To specifically address indirect land-use changes (iLUC) induced...

  3. Environmental implications of the use of agro-industrial residues for biorefineries: application of a deterministic model for indirect land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    of these residues, a consequential life-cycle assessment (LCA) of 32 energy-focused biorefinery scenarios was performed based on eight selected agro-industrial residues and four conversion pathways (two involving bioethanol and two biogas). To specifically address indirect land-use changes (iLUC) induced.......1 t CO2-eq.ha-1demanded y-1 corresponding to 1.2-1.5 t CO2 t-1 dry biomass used for energy. Only bioenergy from straw and wild grass was shown to perform better than the alternative use, as no competition with the feed sector was involved. Biogas for heat-and-power production was the best performing...... pathway, in a short-term context. Focusing on transport fuels, bioethanol was generally preferable to biomethane considering conventional biogas upgrading technologies. Based on the results, agro-industrial residues cannot be considered burden-free simply because they are a residual biomass and careful...

  4. Integrated 1st and 2nd generation sugarcane bio-refinery for jet fuel production in Brazil: Techno-economic and greenhouse gas emissions assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Catarina I.; Silva, Constança C.; Mussatto, Solange I.

    2017-01-01

    technological improvements may help to further reduce the MJSP either marginally (2%, by using 1G sugars for succinic acid production) or significantly (30%, by increasing the operation time). Thus, the lowest MJSP here calculated is 1725 US $.ton−1 (with 1G sugars to biojet fuel via ethanol, and bagasse......This study presents a techno-economic analysis and an environmental assessment, of the whole production chain (biomass production, sugar extraction, biomass pretreatment, sugars fermentation, and products recovery and purification), of a fully autarkic sugarcane-based biorefinery for biojet fuel...... from sugars (i.e. ethanol to jet and direct fermentation); one biojet fuel production route from biomass (i.e. fast pyrolysis); two biojet fuel production routes from lignin obtained after biomass pretreatment (i.e. fast pyrolysis and gasification Fischer- Tropsch); and one alternative use for lignin...

  5. A biorefinery for mobility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacca, S; Moreira, J R

    2011-11-15

    Biofuels are considered as a carbon neutral alternative to hydrocarbons in the transport sector and this approach has triggered concerns about the impact the production of biofuels might have on land usage. Another option that might also lead to reduced emissions in the transport sector is electricity based on renewable energy sources such as biomass. Below, we assess the benefits and drawbacks of the joint production of ethanol and electricity in a sugar cane based refinery, and the use of both energy forms in privately owned automobiles. In this analysis, we have considered technology for energy production that is currently available and cost competitive. The results show that the amount of land that is required to power our current automobile use needs is less than what is typically stated. According to our results that are based on 2010 values, 2 million ha of land are sufficient to power the Brazilian automobile fleet, 25 million ha are enough to satisfy the needs of the U.S. fleet, and 67 million ha are sufficient to cover the global autofuel requirements. When minor efficiency gains are considered, 19 million ha will be enough to satisfy the fuel needs of the U.S. fleet in 2030, whereas land required to supply the Brazilian and global fleet remain basically unchanged. Our analysis shows that the harvested energy density of sugar cane is 306 GJ/ha/yr, which is 1.7 times the value usually reported in the literature for biofuels. As a result, taking advantage of the primary energy potential of sugar cane, only 4% of the world's available cropland area would be sufficient to produce fuels that would power the global car fleet.

  6. Fulton Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumait, Necy [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Cuzens, John [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Klann, Richard [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    Final report on work performed by BlueFire on the deployment of acid hydrolysis technology to convert cellulosic waste materials into renewable fuels, power and chemicals in a production facility to be located in Fulton, Mississippi.

  7. NORD's Patient Assistance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ctx@rarediseases.org Fax: 1-203-517-0978 Cushing’s Disease | Accepting Applications Medical Assistance Co-Pay Assistance Premium Assistance Medication Assistance Contact: 1-855-864-4018 Email: cushings@rarediseases.org Fax: 1-203-517-0978 Cutaneuos ...

  8. Partnership for Prescription Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may use our name without our permission. The Partnership for Prescription Assistance will help you find the ... Events Blog Facebook Twitter Start living better. The Partnership for Prescription Assistance helps qualifying patients without prescription ...

  9. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) ART refers to treatments and procedures that ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2015). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved May 31, 2016, ...

  10. Institutionalizing Security Force Assistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binetti, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    .... It looks at the manner in which security assistance guidance is developed and executed. An examination of national level policy and the guidance from senior military and civilian leaders highlights the important role of Security Force Assistance...

  11. ForeignAssistance.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  12. Assisted delivery with forceps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000509.htm Assisted delivery with forceps To use the sharing features on ... called vacuum assisted delivery . When is a Forceps Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...

  13. Vacuum-assisted delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm Vacuum-assisted delivery To use the sharing features on this page, ... through the birth canal. When is Vacuum-assisted Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...

  14. Perspectives on the integration of a supercritical fluid extraction plant to a sugarcane biorefinery: thermo-economical evaluation of CO2 recycle systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Q. ALBARELLI

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, the software Aspen Plus® was used to analyse two different systems for CO2 recycle in a SFE process for extraction of more polar compounds using ethanol as co-solvent, the most common co-solvent used due to its environment-friendly nature. The extraction process of β-ecdysone from Brazilian ginseng roots was considered as example in the computational simulations. The first CO2 recycle system, named Recycle A, considered the compression of the CO2 separated in the second flash to the recycle pressure assumed at the first flash tank, its cooling to 25 °C and recirculation, while the second recycle system, named Recycle B, considered the cooling and pumping of the CO2 separated in the second flash, its heating to 25 °C and recirculation. The best techno-economic condition to operate the recycling step would be using Recycle A at 40 bar and 30 °C considering a stand-alone SFE process; and using Recycle B at 40 bar and 40 °C, considering this process in close proximity of a hypothetical sugarcane biorefinery. Therefore, these results suggest that the selection where would be located the SFE plant should be taken into account during the first steps of the process design.

  15. Pretreatment and Fractionation of Wheat Straw for Production of Fuel Ethanol and Value-added Co-products in a Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated process has been developed for a wheat straw biorefinery. In this process, wheat straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA, which extensively removed lignin but preserved high percentages of the carbohydrate fractions for subsequent bioconversion. The pretreatment conditions included 15 wt% NH4OH, 1:10 solid:liquid ratio, 65 oC and 15 hours. Under these conditions, 48% of the original lignin was removed, whereas 98%, 83% and 78% of the original glucan, xylan, and arabinan, respectively, were preserved. The pretreated material was subsequently hydrolyzed with a commercial hemicellulase to produce a solution rich in xylose and low in glucose plus a cellulose-enriched solid residue. The xylose-rich solution then was used for production of value-added products. Xylitol and astaxanthin were selected to demonstrate the fermentability of the xylose-rich hydrolysate. Candida mogii and Phaffia rhodozyma were used for xylitol and astaxanthin fermentation, respectively. The cellulose-enriched residue obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated straw was used for ethanol production in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. In this process, a commercial cellulase was used for hydrolysis of the glucan in the residue and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is the most efficient commercial ethanol-producing organism, was used for ethanol production. Final ethanol concentration of 57 g/l was obtained at 27 wt% total solid loading.

  16. Evaluation of lignins from side-streams generated in an olive tree pruning-based biorefinery: Bioethanol production and alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José I; Fillat, Úrsula; Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, María E; Negro, María J; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Ibarra, David

    2017-12-01

    In modern lignocellulosic-based biorefineries, carbohydrates can be transformed into biofuels and pulp and paper, whereas lignin is burned to obtain energy. However, a part of lignin could be converted into value-added products including bio-based aromatic chemicals, as well as building blocks for materials. Then, a good knowledge of lignin is necessary to define its valorisation procedure. This study characterized different lignins from side-streams produced from olive tree pruning bioethanol production (lignins collected from steam explosion pretreatment with water or phosphoric acid as catalysts, followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process) and alkaline pulping (lignins recovered from kraft and soda-AQ black liquors). Together with the chemical composition, the structure of lignins was investigated by FTIR, 13 C NMR, and 2D NMR. Bioethanol lignins had clearly distinct characteristics compared to pulping lignins; a certain number of side-chain linkages (mostly alkyl-aryl ether and resinol) accompanied with lower phenolic hydroxyls content. Bioethanol lignins also showed a significant amount of carbohydrates, mainly glucose and protein impurities. By contrast, pulping lignins revealed xylose together with a dramatical reduction of side-chains (some resinol linkages survive) and thereby higher phenol content, indicating rather severe lignin degradation during alkaline pulping processes. All lignins showed a predominance of syringyl units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assistance Focus: Africa (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  18. Can farmers mitigate environmental impacts through combined production of food, fuel and feed? A consequential life cycle assessment of integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Birkved, Morten

    2018-01-01

    (Sys-II). Processing of grass-clover to produce feed protein was considered in Sys-II, particularly to substitute the imported soybean meal. Waste generated from the livestock and GBR systems were considered for the conversion to biomethane (Sys-IV). Digestate produced therefrom was assumed......This study evaluates environmental impacts of an integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery (GBR). System integration included production of feed crops and green biomasses (Sys-I) to meet the demand of a livestock system (Sys-III) and to process green biomasses in a GBR system...

  19. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. ARRA support for this project and to the PNNL Joint Global Change Research Institute enabled us to create an advanced computing infrastructure to execute millions of simulations, conduct post-processing calculations, store input and output data, and visualize results. These computing resources included two components installed at the Research Data Center of the University of Maryland. The first resource was 'deltac': an 8-core Linux server, dedicated to county-level and state-level simulations

  20. Assisted suicide and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Several countries have adopted laws that regulate physician assistance in dying. Such assistance may consist of providing a patient with a prescription of lethal medication that is self-administered by the patient, which is usually referred to as (physician) assistance in suicide, or of administering lethal medication to a patient, which is referred to as euthanasia. The main aim of regulating physician assistance in dying is to bring these practices into the open and to provide physicians with legal certainty. A key condition in all jurisdictions that have regulated either assistance in suicide or euthanasia is that physicians are only allowed to engage in these acts upon the explicit and voluntary request of the patient. All systems that allow physician assistance in dying have also in some way included the notion that physician assistance in dying is only accepted when it is the only means to address severe suffering from an incurable medical condition. Arguments against the legal regulation of physician assistance in dying include principled arguments, such as the wrongness of hastening death, and arguments that emphasize the negative consequences of allowing physician assistance in dying, such as a devaluation of the lives of older people, or people with chronic disease or disabilities. Opinion polls show that some form of accepting and regulating euthanasia and physician assistance in suicide is increasingly supported by the general population in most western countries. Studies in countries where physician assistance in dying is regulated suggest that practices have remained rather stable in most jurisdictions and that physicians adhere to the legal criteria in the vast majority of cases. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bio-refinery system in a pulp mill for methanol production with comparison of pressurized black liquor gasification and dry gasification using direct causticization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) for bio-fuel or electricity production at the modern pulp mills is a field in continuous evolution and the efforts are considerably driven by the climate change, fuel security, and renewable energy. This paper evaluates and compares two BLG systems for methanol production: (i) oxygen blown pressurized thermal BLG; and (ii) dry BLG with direct causticization, which have been regarded as the most potential technology candidates for the future deployment. A key objective is to assess integration possibilities of BLG technologies with the reference Kraft pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) pulp/day replacing conventional recovery cycle. The study was performed to compare the systems’ performance in terms of potential methanol production, energy efficiency, and potential CO 2 reductions. The results indicate larger potential of black liquor conversion to methanol from the pressurized BLG system (about 77 million tonnes/year of methanol) than the dry BLG system (about 30 million tonnes/year of methanol) utilizing identical amount of black liquor available worldwide (220 million tDS/year). The potential CO 2 emissions reduction from the transport sector is substantially higher in pressurized BLG system (117 million tonnes/year CO 2 reductions) as compared to dry BLG system (45 million tonnes/year CO 2 reductions). However, the dry BLG system with direct causticization shows better results when considering consequences of additional biomass import. In addition, comparison of methanol production via BLG with other bio-refinery products, e.g. hydrogen, dimethyl ether (DME) and bio-methane, has also been discussed.

  2. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  3. Steering and evasion assist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.; Desens, J.; Franke, U.; Gavrila, D.; Schäfers, L.; Ziegler, W.; Eskandarian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Steering and evasion assistance defines a new and future class of driver assistance systems to avoid an impending collision with other traffic participants. Dynamic and kinematic considerations reveal that an evasive steering maneuver has high potential for collision avoidance in many driving

  4. Competition for Assistance Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is EPA policy to promote competition in the award of assistance agreements to the maximum extent practicable.When assistance agreements are awarded competitively, it is EPA policy that the competitive process be fair and open & that no applicant receive

  5. Assistive Technology (Moldinclud)

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Slides of the seminar "Assistive Technology" taught at the Institul de Stat de Instruire Continua (Chisinau, Moldova) in november 2011. Transparencias del seminario "Assistive Technology" impartido en el Institul de Stat de Instruire Continua (Chisinau, Moldavia) en noviembre 2011. Tempus project: MOLDINCLUD, Teaching Training Centre for Inclusive Education (TEMPUS 158980-2009).

  6. Plus 10 million tons plan. Feasible increased Danish production of sustainable biomass for bio-refineries; + 10 mio. tons planen - muligheder for en oeget dansk produktion af baeredygtig biomasse til bioraffinaderier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylling, M.; Scott Bentsen, N.; Felby, C.; Kvist Johannsen, V. (Koebenhavns Univ., Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Joergensen, Uffe; Kristensen, Inge T.; Dalgaard, T. (Aarhus Univ., Aarhus (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    The desire to create sustainable solutions in the energy sector has led researchers at the University of Copenhagen, Aarhus University and research and development staff from DONG Energy to enter into a cooperation agreement that will start concrete initiatives in research and education in green energy. An important part of the collaboration is a study of how we can produce more biomass compared to today without compromising food production, feed production or the environment. The present study shows that it can be done through a total commitment to sustainable technology and biology. The report also describes the effects of the establishment of a Danish supplied bio-refinery sector. In order to achieve this required additional research and development is required, particularly in agriculture and forestry but also in biological and chemical conversion of biomass. The initiative supports the BioRefining Alliance, which brings together Danish companies, public partners and organizations with world-class knowledge and technologies for bio-refinery. (LN)

  7. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA)....

  8. Robotic assisted laparoscopic colectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pandalai, S

    2010-06-01

    Robotic surgery has evolved over the last decade to compensate for limitations in human dexterity. It avoids the need for a trained assistant while decreasing error rates such as perforations. The nature of the robotic assistance varies from voice activated camera control to more elaborate telerobotic systems such as the Zeus and the Da Vinci where the surgeon controls the robotic arms using a console. Herein, we report the first series of robotic assisted colectomies in Ireland using a voice activated camera control system.

  9. Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Methodology for developing a computer assisted instruction (CAI) lesson (scripting, programing, and testing) is reviewed. A project done by Informatics Education Ltd. (IEL) for the Department of National Defense (DND) is used as an example. (JT)

  10. Pathways to Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Mary M.; Perkins, Molly M.; Hollingsworth, Carole; Whittington, Frank J.; King, Sharon V.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how race and class influence decisions to move to assisted living facilities. Qualitative methods were used to study moving decisions of residents in 10 assisted living facilities varying in size and location, as well as race and socioeconomic status of residents. Data were derived from in-depth interviews with 60 residents, 43 family members and friends, and 12 administrators. Grounded theory analysis identified three types of residents based on their decision-making control: proactive, compliant, and passive/resistant. Only proactive residents (less than a quarter of residents) had primary control. Findings show that control of decision making for elders who are moving to assisted living is influenced by class, though not directly by race. The impact of class primarily related to assisted-living placement options and strategies available to forestall moves. Factors influencing the decision-making process were similar for Black and White elders of comparable socioeconomic status. PMID:19756172

  11. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  12. Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Fertility and Sterility Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics Ethics Committee Opinions and Webinars Practice ... Donate copyright 1996 - 2018 ASRM, American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All Rights Reserved. ASRM Non Discrimination Policy ...

  13. Preparing Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrus, J. L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the offering of a special one-credit course in teacher training for the teaching assistants of the chemistry department of the University of Idaho, involving the films used, micro-teaching assignments, and course evaluation questionnaires. (CC)

  14. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  15. Event Logic Assistant (Elan)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bickford, Mark

    2008-01-01

    .... This report describes the design of an Event Logic Assistant (Elan) that provides powerful automated support for applying event logic to the design and implementation of high-assurance distributed protocols...

  16. Computer assisted roentgenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajkova, N.; Velkova, K.

    1999-01-01

    This is a report on the potentials and superiorities of computer tomography (CT), assumed as an up-to-date imaging examination method in medicine. The current trend in the development of computer assisted roentgenology consists in the implementation of new computer and communication systems promoting diagnostic and therapeutic activities. CT-study application is discussed with special reference to diagnosis and treatment of brain, lung, mediastinal and abdominal diseases. The new trends in the particular implementation of CT are presented, namely: CT-assisted biopsy, CT-assisted abscess drainage, drug administration under CT control, as well as the wide use of CT in orthopaedic surgery, otorinolaryngology etc. Also emphasis is laid on the important role played by three-dimensional technologies in computer-assisted surgery, leading to qualitatively new stage in the surgical therapeutic approach to patients

  17. Financial Assistance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Financial Assistance Information Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding ...

  18. Dental Assisting Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the dental assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  19. Computer assisted radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, H.U.; Jaffe, C.C.; Felix, R.

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the CAR'93 symposium present the 126 oral papers and the 58 posters contributed to the four Technical Sessions entitled: (1) Image Management, (2) Medical Workstations, (3) Digital Image Generation - DIG, and (4) Application Systems - AS. Topics discussed in Session (1) are: picture archiving and communication systems, teleradiology, hospital information systems and radiological information systems, technology assessment and implications, standards, and data bases. Session (2) deals with computer vision, computer graphics, design and application, man computer interaction. Session (3) goes into the details of the diagnostic examination methods such as digital radiography, MRI, CT, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, digital angiography, and multimodality imaging. Session (4) is devoted to computer-assisted techniques, as there are: computer assisted radiological diagnosis, knowledge based systems, computer assisted radiation therapy and computer assisted surgical planning. (UWA). 266 figs [de

  20. Relative Sustainability of Natural Gas Assisted High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Production from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yi Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-11-01

    Biomass-derived hydrocarbon fuel technologies are being developed and pursued for better economy, environment, and society benefits underpinning the sustainability of transportation energy. Increasing availability and affordability of natural gas (NG) in the US can play an important role in assisting renewable fuel technology development, primarily in terms of economic feasibility. When a biorefinery is co-processing NG with biomass, the current low cost of NG coupled with the higher NG carbon conversion efficiency potentially allow for cost competitiveness of the fuel while achieving a minimum GHG emission reduction of 50 percent or higher compared to petroleum fuel. This study evaluates the relative sustainability of the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of biomass (and with NG co-feed) through methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates. The sustainability metrics considered in this study include minimum fuel selling price (MFSP), carbon conversion efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions, life cycle water consumption, fossil energy return on investment (EROI), GHG emission avoidance cost, and job creation. Co-processing NG can evidently improve the MFSP. Evaluation of the relative sustainability can shed light on the biomass-NG synergistic impacts and sustainability trade-offs associated with the IDL as high-octane gasoline blendstock production.

  1. Assisted Dying & Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Christopher A

    2017-07-01

    This article explores at least two dominant critiques of assisted dying from a disability rights perspective. In spite of these critiques, I conclude that assisted dying ought to be permissible. I arrive at the conclusion that if we respect and value people with disabilities, we ought to permit assisted dying. I do so in the following manner. First, I examine recent changes in legislation that have occurred since the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel on End-of-Life Decision-Making report, published in this journal. I suggest that these changes are likely to only strengthen opposition to assisted dying from disability rights activists and people with disabilities. Second, I focus on respect for people with disabilities and in particular, respect for their autonomy and decision-making abilities. Third, I explore the opposition to assisted dying that focuses on risk and the vulnerability of people with disabilities. Here I suggest that this risk ought not to be of special concern. Ultimately, I conclude that upholding respect for the disabled requires the legalization of assisted dying, rather than the denial of access in a misguided effort to protect people with disabilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Groundwork for integration of hot water extraction as a potential pre-process in a biorefinery for downstream conversion and nano-fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui

    The economic competitiveness of biofuels production is highly dependent on feedstock cost, which constitutes 35-50 % of the total biofuels production cost. Economically viable feedstock pre-process has a significant influence on all the subsequent downstream processes in the biorefinery supply chain. In this work, hot water extraction (HWE) was exploited as a pre-process to initially fractionate cell wall structure of softwood Douglas fir, which is considerably more recalcitrant compared to hardwoods and agricultural feedstocks. A response surface model was developed and the highest hemicellulose extraction yield (HEY) was obtained when the temperature is 180 °C and the time is 79 min. HWE process partially removed hemicelluloses, reduced the moisture absorption and improved the thermal stability of wood. To investigate the effects of HWE pre-process on sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL), a series of SPORL with reduced combined severity factor (CSF) were conducted using HWE treated Douglas fir. Sugar analysis after enzymatic hydrolysis indicated that SPORL can be conducted at lower temperature (145 °C), shorter time (80 min), and lower acid volume (3 %), while still maintaining considerably high enzymatic digestibility ( 55-60%). Deriving valuable co-products would increase the overall revenue and improve the economics of the biofuels supply chain. The feasibility of extracting cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from HWE treated Douglas fir by ultrasonication and CNFs' reinforcing potentials in nylon 6 matrix were evaluated. Morphology analysis indicated that finer fibrils can be obtained by increasing ultrasonication time and/or amplitude. CNFs was found to have higher crystallinity and maintained the thermal stability compared to untreated fiber. A method of fabricating nylon 6/CNFs as-spun nanocomposite filaments using a combination of extrusion, compounding and capillary rheometer to minimize thermal degradation of CNFs was

  3. Valorization of lignin and cellulose in acid-steam-exploded corn stover by a moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment based on an integrated biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Yue; Yue, Wen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yun-Yan; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unsustainable consumption of fossil resources, great efforts have been made to convert lignocellulose into bioethanol and commodity organic compounds through biological methods. The conversion of cellulose is impeded by the compactness of plant cell wall matrix and crystalline structure of the native cellulose. Therefore, appropriate pretreatment and even post-treatment are indispensable to overcome this problem. Additionally, an adequate utilization of coproduct lignin will be important for improving the economic viability of modern biorefinery industries. The effectiveness of moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment on the bioconversion efficiency of cellulose in the acid-steam-exploded corn stover was investigated in this study. Results showed that an increase of the alcoholic sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration from 0.05 to 4% led to a decrease in the lignin content in the post-treated samples from 32.8 to 10.7%, while the cellulose digestibility consequently increased. The cellulose conversion of the 4% alcoholic NaOH integrally treated corn stover reached up to 99.3% after 72 h, which was significantly higher than that of the acid steam exploded corn stover without post-treatment (57.3%). In addition to the decrease in lignin content, an expansion of cellulose I lattice induced by the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment played a significant role in promoting the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. More importantly, the lignin fraction (AL) released during the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment and the lignin-rich residue (EHR) remained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treated acid-steam-exploded corn stover were employed to synthesize lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resins. The plywoods prepared with the resins exhibit satisfactory performances. An alkaline ethanol system with an appropriate NaOH concentration could improve the removal of lignin and modification of the crystalline structure of cellulose in acid

  4. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). PMID:23241637

  5. Operation Bali assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Gregory V; Cook, Steven P; Frederiksen, Steven R

    Operation Bali Assist was the Australian Defence Force evacuation of injured Australians and other foreign nationals after the Bali terrorist bombing. This operation was the largest Australian aeromedical evacuation since the Vietnam War. It relied on military and civilian cooperation to move the critically injured initially from Denpasar to Darwin, and then on to specialist units around Australia.

  6. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss

  7. Families and Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Kane, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on assisted living (AL) as a residential care option for older adults, the social ramifications of residents' transitions to AL are relatively unexplored. This article examines family involvement in AL, including family structures of residents, types of involvement from family members living outside the AL…

  8. Dementia and Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Joan; Perez, Rosa; Forester, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents an overview of what is known about dementia services in assisted living settings and suggests areas for future research. Design and Methods: We undertook a search of Medline, the "Journals of Gerontology," and "The Gerontologist." We then organized publications dealing with the target subject into 10 topic areas and…

  9. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-18

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Africa.

  10. Assistive Technologies for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Tiece M.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

  11. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  12. Integrated Biorefinery for Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Gabriel [Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER), New York, NY (United States)

    2011-09-02

    This project has focused on very low grade fats, oil and greases found in municipal, commercial and industrial facilities around the country. These wastes are often disposed in landfills, wastewater treatment plants or farm fields or are blended illegally into animal feeds. Using any of these waste fatty materials that are unfit for human or animal nutrition as a clean alternative fuel makes good sense. This project defines the aforementioned wastes in terms of quality and prevalence in the US, then builds on specific promising pathways for utilizing these carbon neutral wastes. These pathways are discussed and researched at bench-scale, and in one instance, at pilot-scale. The three primary pathways are as follows: The production of Renewable Diesel Oil (RDO) as a stand-alone fuel or blended with standard distillate or residual hydrocarbons; The production of RDO as a platform for the further manufacture of Biodiesel utilizing acid esterification; The production of RDO as a platform for the manufacture of an ASTM Diesel Fuel using one or more catalysts to effect a decarboxylation of the carboxylics present in RDO This study shows that Biodiesel and ASTM Diesel produced at bench-scale (utilizing RDO made from grease trap waste as an input) could not meet industry specifications utilizing the technologies that were selected by the investigators. Details of these investigations are discussed in this report and will hopefully provide a starting point for other researchers interested in these pathways in future studies. Although results were inconclusive in finding ways to utilize RDO technology, in effect, as a pretreatment for commonly discussed technologies such as Biodiesel and ASTM Diesel, this study does shed light on the properties, performance and cost of utilizing waste greases directly as a retail liquid fuel (RDO). The utilization as a retail RDO as a boiler fuel, or for other such applications, is the most important finding of the study.

  13. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...... for efficient hydrolysis, enzyme stability, and the detrimental interaction between enzyme and lignin. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various methods for enzyme recovery and recycling, for example recycling of free enzymes, readsorption to fresh material, recycling of solids, membrane...

  14. Syngas Biorefinery and Syngas Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tissera, Sashini; Köpke, Michael; Simpson, Sean D; Humphreys, Christopher; Minton, Nigel P; Dürre, Peter

    2017-06-20

    Autotrophic acetogenic bacteria are able to capture carbon (CO or CO 2 ) through gas fermentation, allowing them to grow on a spectrum of waste gases from industry (e.g., steel manufacture and oil refining, coal, and natural gas) and to produce ethanol. They can also consume syn(thesis) gas (CO and H 2 ) made from the gasification of renewable/sustainable resources, such as biomass and domestic/agricultural waste. Acetogenic gas fermentation can, therefore, produce ethanol in any geographic region without competing for food or land. The commercialization of the process is now at an advanced stage. The real potential of acetogens, however, resides in their capacity to produce chemicals and fuels other than ethanol. This requires the redesign and implementation of more efficient metabolic pathways, adapting them to high performing manufacturing processes. Respective species, their bioenergetics, the genetic tools developed for their metabolic engineering, culture techniques and fermenter set-ups, as well as the commercialization, are comprehensively described and discussed in this chapter.

  15. National Center for Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Briefing AHCA/NCAL Convention and NCAL Day National Assisted Living Week® Independent Owners Conference Quality Summit Webinars Quality ... Trend Tracker The Quality Initiative National PSO for Assisted Living Performance Measures Lists Art for the Ages Part ...

  16. Defense Security Assistance Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... $10 billion Foreign Military Sales Program. As envisioned, it will replace 13 automated information systems used by the Military Departments and Defense Security Assistance Agency and will provide standardized and improved security assistance...

  17. Atomic assistance in 1961

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    More than 100 experts provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency will be working in different parts of the world this year, assisting the Agency's Member States in building up their national programs of peaceful atomic development. The total allocation of EPTA funds to the Agency for the two-year period 1961-62 is $1 393 600 (of which approximately half is available in 1961), and is meant not only for the provision of experts and equipment but also for training fellowships and regional projects. The countries which will receive Agency assistance in the form of experts and equipment this year are: Afghanistan, Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Burma, Ceylon, Chile, the Republic of China, Denmark, Greece, Guatemala, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Pakistan, the Philippines, Senegal, the Sudan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, the United Arab Republic, Vietnam and Yugoslavia

  18. Sources of technical assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper shows examples of technical assistance programmes within bilateral cooperation agreements between the Federal Republic of Germany and a number of developing countries of very different characteristics and summarizes the possibilities of technical assistance granted by international organizations, such as IAEA, UNDP, etc. A basic requirement for a successful transfer of technology is a high knowledge level of the indigenous scientists and engineers. Therefore, programmes for training and education and for information exchange are presented. Based on these, the means and methods of planning, performance and quality assurance are explained by practical examples and are related to the progress achieved in the use of nuclear energy and in establishing a national industry in the developing countries. (orig.) [de

  19. Virtual personal assistant

    OpenAIRE

    Imrie, Peter; Bednar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This report discusses ways in which new technology could be harnessed to create an intelligent Virtual Personal Assistant (VPA) with a focus on user-based information. It will look at examples of intelligent programs with natural language processing that are currently available, with different categories of support, and examine the potential usefulness of one specific piece of software as a VPA. This engages the ability to communicate socially through natural language processing, hol...

  20. Virtual Reality Lab Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Hrishikesh; Palmer, Timothy A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality Lab Assistant (VRLA) demonstration model is aligned for engineering and material science experiments to be performed by undergraduate and graduate students in the course as a pre-lab simulation experience. This will help students to get a preview of how to use the lab equipment and run experiments without using the lab hardware/software equipment. The quality of the time available for laboratory experiments can be significantly improved through the use of virtual reality technology.

  1. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  2. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from Africa are featured here.

  3. Assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jack Yu Jen; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) encompass fertility treatments, which involve manipulations of both oocyte and sperm in vitro. This chapter provides a brief overview of ART, including indications for treatment, ovarian reserve testing, selection of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols, laboratory techniques of ART including in vitro fertilization (IVF), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), embryo transfer techniques, and luteal phase support. This chapter also discusses potential complications of ART, namely ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple gestations, and the perinatal outcomes of ART.

  4. The Orientation and Mobility Assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of recommendations of a position paper on training Orientation Mobility (OM) assistants is considered with suggestions concerning the roles of the OM specialist and OM assistant, specific skill areas for training, the role of the agency or school, and a preparation program for the mobility assistant leading to certification. (DB)

  5. Heparin for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad A; Sur, Shyamaly; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar; Thornton, Jim G; Quenby, Siobhan

    2013-08-17

    Heparin as an adjunct in assisted reproduction (peri-implantation heparin) is given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer during assisted reproduction. Heparin has been advocated to improve embryo implantation and clinical outcomes.  It has been proposed that heparin enhances the intra-uterine environment by improving decidualisation with an associated activation of growth factors and a cytokine expression profile in the endometrium that is favourable to pregnancy. To investigate whether the administration of heparin around the time of implantation (peri-implantation heparin) improves clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. A comprehensive and exhaustive search strategy was developed in consultation with the Trials Search Co-ordinator of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG). The strategy was used in an attempt to identify all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, and in progress). Relevant trials were identified from both electronic databases and other resources (last search 6 May 2013). All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included where peri-implantation heparin was given during assisted reproduction. Peri-implantation low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during IVF/ICSI was given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer in the included studies. Live birth rate was the primary outcome. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials and extracted relevant data. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE methods. Three RCTs (involving 386 women) were included in the review.Peri-implantation LMWH administration during assisted reproduction was associated with a significant improvement in live birth rate compared with placebo or no LMWH (odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 2.90, three studies, 386 women, I(2) = 51%, very low quality evidence with high

  6. Solar-assisted hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, John W M; Perkins, Anthony; Tjipto, Alwie

    2012-02-01

    Hemodialysis resource use-especially water and power, smarter processing and reuse of postdialysis waste, and improved ecosensitive building design, insulation, and space use-all need much closer attention. Regarding power, as supply diminishes and costs rise, alternative power augmentation for dialysis services becomes attractive. The first 12 months of a solar-assisted dialysis program in southeastern Australia is reported. A 24-m(2), 3-kWh rated solar array and inverter-total cost of A$16,219-has solar-assisted the dialysis-related power needs of a four-chair home hemodialysis training service. All array-created, grid-donated power and all grid-drawn power to the four hemodialysis machines and minireverse osmosis plant pairings are separately metered. After the grid-drawn and array-generated kilowatt hours have been billed and reimbursed at their respective commercial rates, financial viability, including capital repayment, can be assessed. From July of 2010 to July of 2011, the four combined equipment pairings used 4166.5 kWh, 9% more than the array-generated 3811.0 kWh. Power consumption at 26.7 c/kWh cost A$1145.79. Array-generated power reimbursements at 23.5 c/kWh were A$895.59. Power costs were, thus, reduced by 76.5%. As new reimbursement rates (60 c/kWh) take effect, system reimbursements will more than double, allowing both free power and potential capital pay down over 7.7 years. With expected array life of ∼30 years, free power and an income stream should accrue in the second and third operative decades. Solar-assisted power is feasible and cost-effective. Dialysis services should assess their local solar conditions and determine whether this ecosensitive power option might suit their circumstance.

  7. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  8. Scaffolding in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.

  9. 44 CFR 206.62 - Available assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Emergency Assistance § 206.62 Available... threat of a catastrophe; (b) Coordinate all disaster relief assistance (including voluntary assistance... Stafford Act; and (g) Assist State and local governments in the distribution of medicine, food, and other...

  10. DOEGO85004_1: Final Non-proprietary Technical Report, Generating Process and Economic Data for Preliminary Design of PureVision Biorefineries DOEGO85004_2: One Original Final Proprietary Technical Report to be mailed to DOE Golden.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, Kiran L., Ph.D; Lehrburger, Ed

    2008-01-17

    The overall objective of the project was to define a two-stage reactive fractionation process for converting corn stover into a solid cellulose stream and two liquid streams containing mostly hemicellulosic sugars and lignin, respectively. Toward this goal, biomass fractionation was conducted using a small continuous pilot unit with a nominal capacity of 100 pounds per day of dry biomass to generate performance data using primarily corn stover as feedstock. In the course of the program, the PureVision process was optimized for efficient hemicellulose hydrolysis in the first stage employing autohydrolysis and delignification in the second stage using sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. The remaining cellulose was deemed to be an excellent substrate for producing fermentation sugars, requiring 40% less enzymes for hydrolysis than conventional pretreatment systems using dilute acid. The fractionated cellulose was also determined to have potential higher-value applications as a pulp product. The lignin coproduct was determined to be substantially lower in molecular weight (MW) compared to lignins produced in the kraft or sulfite pulping processes. This low-MW lignin can be used as a feed and concrete binder and as an intermediate for producing a range of high-value products including phenolic resins. This research adds to the understanding of the biomass conversion area in that a new process was developed in the true spirit of biorefineries. The work completed successfully demonstrated the technical effectiveness of the process at the pilot level indicating the technology is ready to advance to a 2–3 ton per day scale. No technical showstoppers are anticipated in scaling up the PureVision fractionation process to commercial scale. Also, economic feasibility of using the PureVision process in a commercial-scale biorefinery was investigated and the minimum ethanol selling price for the PureVision process was calculated to be $0.94/gal ethanol vs. $1.07/gal ethanol for the

  11. Employee Assistance Program Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettleman, Alan G.; McGuire, William

    1999-01-01

    Employee Assistance Program (EAP) officers, as well as personnel in other disciplines from eight NASA Centers, attended this breakout session. Ms. Brenda Blair, MA, CEAP, a guest speaker at the conference, also attended as a consultant. Representatives from the NASA Centers introduced themselves and spoke briefly about their programs. In a discussion related to the conference theme on benchmarking, quality control issues within the EAP community and adequate documentation of cases were addressed. Disposition and provision for quality assurance checks for EAP providers in single person offices were also discussed. Ms. Blair presented methods for consulting with other NASA personnel in single person EAP offices as a quality control measure. EAP intervention in critical incidents was discussed. The question of whether EAP assistance is an asset or a potential liability in those situations was addressed. Suggestions were made of topics for future EAP video-teleconference topics. A program on EAP ethics was planned for a September video teleconference. Each person was asked to provide intake forms they use to Mr. Gettleman or Ms. Blair. Ms. Blair said she would review the forms to ensure that adequate notification is provided to the client for confidentiality. She would also review them to ensure they have adequate limits of confidentiality--a topic for future video teleconferencing. Mr. Gettleman described the NASA initiative to reduce stresses in the workplace, and the activities of an ad-hoc EAP group that will make recommendations to NASA senior management. Alternative training methods were discussed for reaching target audiences such as employees at risk, supervisors, and others. Pfc. David A. Pendleton, Victim Assistance Coordinator, U.S. Capitol Police. U.S. House of Representatives made a special presentation. Pfc. Pendleton was on duty during the tragic shooting of two Federal guards at the U.S. Capitol. He related the events immediately after the incident. He

  12. Training assessments and assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager has established an independent Training Assessment Program, the intent of which is to evaluate, exclusively, transportation and packaging training activities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) community. The results generated from an application of the Training Assessment Program are intended to be utilized as a management tool for maintaining compliance with applicable regulatory-driven training requirements. In addition, the Transportation Assessment Program can be employed to evaluate training methodologies and, through a pre-arranged, cooperative, technical assistance effort, provide each Department of Energy (DOE) site with the means necessary to enhance it's overall transportation and packaging training capabilities

  13. 'Supermentoring' of assistant professors' teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Ole

    Aarhus University offers a mandatory pedagogical training program for assistant professors, required in order to obtain tenure at a Danish university. At Business and Social Sciences, this program is supplemented by voluntary observation and (first of all formative) supervision of the assistant...

  14. Computer Assisted Advising Tool (CAAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen, Marie E.

    Lane Community College's Computer Assisted Advising Tool (CAAT) is used by counselors to assist students in developing a plan for the completion of a degree or certificate. CAAT was designed to facilitate student advisement from matriculation to graduation by comparing degree requirements with the courses completed by students. Three major sources…

  15. Robot-assisted endoscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruurda, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    During the last three years, robot-assisted surgery systems are increasingly being applied in endoscopic surgery. They were introduced with the objective to overcome the challenges of standard endoscopic surgery. With the improvements in manipulation and visualisation that robotic-assistance offers,

  16. The Ethics of Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Jay

    1994-01-01

    From social work perspective, considers ethics of assisted suicide. Discusses traditional social work value of client self-determination and identifies tensions in this ideal and conflicts with value of client well-being. Finds assisted suicide unethical, arguing that studies have shown judgment of most suicidal people to be impaired as result of…

  17. The CALO Meeting Assistant system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tur, G.; Stolcke, A.; Voss, L.; Peters, S.; Hakkani-Tür, D.; Dowding, J.; Favre, B.; Fernández, R.; Frampton, M.; Frandsen, M.; Frederickson, C.; Graciarena, M.; Kintzing, D.; Leveque, K.; Mason, S.; Niekrasz, J.; Purver, M.; Riedhammer, K.; Shriberg, E.; Tien, J.; Vergyri, D.; Yang, F.

    2010-01-01

    The CALO Meeting Assistant (MA) provides for distributed meeting capture, annotation, automatic transcription and semantic analysis of multiparty meetings, and is part of the larger CALO personal assistant system. This paper presents the CALO-MA architecture and its speech recognition and

  18. Assistive and Rehabilitation Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Abrudean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A short introduction concerning the content of Assistive Technology and Rehabilitation Engineering is followed by a study of robotic systems which combine two or more assistive functions. Based on biomechanical aspects, a complex robotic system is presented, starting with the study of functionality and ending with the practical aspects of the prototype development.

  19. The future for physician assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, J F; Ott, J E; DeAtley, C A

    1983-06-01

    Physician assistants were intended to be assistants to primary care physicians. Physicians in private practice have only moderately responded to the availability of these professionals. Cutbacks in the numbers of foreign medical graduates entering American schools for graduate medical education, concern for overcrowding in some specialties, and the economic and clinical capabilities of physician assistants have lead to new uses for these persons. Physician assistants are employed in surgery and surgical subspecialties; in practice settings in institutions such as medical, pediatric, and surgical house staff; and in geriatric facilities, occupational medicine clinics, emergency rooms, and prison health systems. The projected surplus of physicians by 1990 may affect the use of physician assistants by private physicians in primary care.

  20. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Jorge; Campo, Julián; Bonilla, Elena; Colmenero, César

    2012-02-01

    The use of orthodontic treatment in adult patients is becoming more common and these patients have different requirements specially regarding duration of treatment and facial and dental aesthetics. Alveolar corticotomy is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic treatment. This literature revision include an historical background, biological and orthodontic fundamentals and the most significant clinical applications of this technique. Orthodontic treatment time is reduced with this technique to one-third of that in conventional orthodontics. Alveolar bone grafting of labial and palatal/lingual surfaces ensures root coverage as the dental arch is expanded. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontics has been reported in a few clinical cases, and seems to be a promising adjuvant technique, indicated for many situations in the orthodontic treatment of adults without active periodontal pathology. Its main advantages are reduction of treatment time and postorthodontic stability. Further controlled prospective and histological studies are needed to study tooth movement, post-retention stability, and microstructural features of teeth, periodontium, and regenerated bone after using this procedure. Key words:Corticotomy, osteotomy, accelerated orthodontics.

  1. Computer Assisted Audit Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iancu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the modern point of view, audit takes intoaccount especially the information systems representingmainly the examination performed by a professional asregards the manner for developing an activity by means ofcomparing it to the quality criteria specific to this activity.Having as reference point this very general definition ofauditing, it must be emphasized that the best known segmentof auditing is the financial audit that had a parallel evolutionto the accountancy one.The present day phase of developing the financial audithas as main trait the internationalization of the accountantprofessional. World wide there are multinational companiesthat offer services in the financial auditing, taxing andconsultancy domain. The auditors, natural persons and auditcompanies, take part at the works of the national andinternational authorities for setting out norms in theaccountancy and auditing domain.The computer assisted audit techniques can be classified inseveral manners according to the approaches used by theauditor. The most well-known techniques are comprised inthe following categories: testing data techniques, integratedtest, parallel simulation, revising the program logics,programs developed upon request, generalized auditsoftware, utility programs and expert systems.

  2. Nanoparticle-Assisted Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and harnessing the interactions between nanoparticles and biological molecules is at the forefront of applications of nanotechnology to modern biology. Metabolomics has emerged as a prominent player in systems biology as a complement to genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. Its focus is the systematic study of metabolite identities and concentration changes in living systems. Despite significant progress over the recent past, important challenges in metabolomics remain, such as the deconvolution of the spectra of complex mixtures with strong overlaps, the sensitive detection of metabolites at low abundance, unambiguous identification of known metabolites, structure determination of unknown metabolites and standardized sample preparation for quantitative comparisons. Recent research has demonstrated that some of these challenges can be substantially alleviated with the help of nanoscience. Nanoparticles in particular have found applications in various areas of bioanalytical chemistry and metabolomics. Their chemical surface properties and increased surface-to-volume ratio endows them with a broad range of binding affinities to biomacromolecules and metabolites. The specific interactions of nanoparticles with metabolites or biomacromolecules help, for example, simplify metabolomics spectra, improve the ionization efficiency for mass spectrometry or reveal relationships between spectral signals that belong to the same molecule. Lessons learned from nanoparticle-assisted metabolomics may also benefit other emerging areas, such as nanotoxicity and nanopharmaceutics.

  3. Magnetic Launch Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    With the ever-increasing cost of getting to space and the need for safe, reliable, and inexpensive ways to access space, NASA is taking a look at technologies that will get us there. One of these technologies is Magnetic Launch Assist (MagLev). This is the concept of using both magnetic levitation and magnetic propulsion to provide an initial velocity by using electrical power from ground sources. The use of ground based power can significantly reduce operational costs over the consumables necessary to attain the same velocity. The technologies to accomplish this are both old and new. The concept of MagLev has been around for a long time and several MagLev Trains have already been made. Where NASA's MagLev diverges from the traditional train is in the immense power required to propel this vehicle to 600 feet per second in less than 10 seconds. New technologies or the upgrade of existing technologies will need to be investigated in areas of energy storage and power switching. Plus the separation of a very large mass (the space vehicle) and the aerodynamics of that vehicle while on the carrier are also of great concern and require considerable study and testing. NASA's plan is to mature these technologies in the next 10 years to achieve our goal of launching a full sized space vehicle off a MagLev rail.

  4. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Computer assisted audit techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Danić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to point to the possibilities of more efficient auditing. In the encirclement of more and more intensive use of computer techniques that help to CAAT all the aims and the volume of auditing do not change when the audit is done in the computer-informatics environment. The computer assisted audit technique (CAATs can improve the efficiency and productivity of audit procedures. In the computerized information system, the CAATs are the ways in which an auditor can use computer to gather or as help in gathering auditing evidence. There are more reasons why the auditors apply computer techniques that help in auditing. Most often, they do it to achieve improvement of auditing efficiency when the data volume is large. It depends on several factors whether the auditors will apply the computer techniques that help auditing and to what degree respectively. If they do it, the most important are the computer knowledge, professional skill, experience of auditors, and availability of computer technique, and adequacy of computer supports, infeasibility of hand tests, efficiency and time limit. Through several examples from practice, we showed the possibilities of ACL as one of the CAAT tools.

  6. Exoskeleton plantarflexion assistance for elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, S; Derave, W; Bossuyt, F; Calders, P; Malcolm, P; De Clercq, D

    2017-02-01

    Elderly are confronted with reduced physical capabilities and increased metabolic energy cost of walking. Exoskeletons that assist walking have the potential to restore walking capacity by reducing the metabolic cost of walking. However, it is unclear if current exoskeletons can reduce energy cost in elderly. Our goal was to study the effect of an exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion during push-off on the metabolic energy cost of walking in physically active and healthy elderly. Seven elderly (age 69.3±3.5y) walked on treadmill (1.11ms 2 ) with normal shoes and with the exoskeleton both powered (with assistance) and powered-off (without assistance). After 20min of habituation on a prior day and 5min on the test day, subjects were able to walk with the exoskeleton and assistance of the exoskeleton resulted in a reduction in metabolic cost of 12% versus walking with the exoskeleton powered-off. Walking with the exoskeleton was perceived less fatiguing for the muscles compared to normal walking. Assistance resulted in a statistically nonsignificant reduction in metabolic cost of 4% versus walking with normal shoes, likely due to the penalty of wearing the exoskeleton powered-off. Also, exoskeleton mechanical power was relatively low compared to previously identified optimal assistance magnitude in young adults. Future exoskeleton research should focus on further optimizing exoskeleton assistance for specific populations and on considerate integration of exoskeletons in rehabilitation or in daily life. As such, exoskeletons should allow people to walk longer or faster than without assistance and could result in an increase in physical activity and resulting health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of mechanical brake assist; Mechanical brake assist no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, M.; Shingyoji, S.; Nakamura, I.; Tagawa, T.; Saito, Y.; Ishihara, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Yoshida, M. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have recognized that there are drivers who cannot apply strong brake pedal force , in spite of the necessity of hard braking in emergencies. We have developed a `mechanical brake assist system` which assists drivers appropriately, according to the drivers` characteristics based on studying the characteristic`s of conditions of drivers applying the brake pedal force in emergency conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Dental Assistant Specialty, AFS 981X0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    EXAMINATION AND TREATMENT PLANNING SECTION 12M(2). ASSIST IN ORTHODONTIC PROCEDURES 12N(2). ASSIST IN PERIODONTIC PROCEDURES 63 TABLE 18 (CONTINUED) STS...oral hygiene tasks, (2) assisting dental officers in treatment of patients, (3) exposing and processing dental X-ray films, (4) performing dental...GRP588, N=37) E. Prosthodontic Assistants (GRP453, N=35) F. Preventive Dentistry-Operative Assistants (GRP486, N=15) G. Orthodontic Assistants (GRP477, N

  9. Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) in the 1950s to make DOE resources and expertise available to organizations...

  10. NASA Worldwide Emergency Medical Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, George A.; Tipton, David A.; Long, Irene D.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to maintain employee health and welfare, ensure customer satisfaction, and to deliver high quality emergency medical care when necessary to employees located overseas, NASA has instituted a new contract with International SOS Assistance INC. International SOS Assistance INC. will provide civil servants and contractors engaged in official NASA business with many services upon request during a medical or personal emergency. Through the years, International SOS Assistance INC. has developed the expertise necessary to provide medical service in all remote areas of the world. One phone call connects you to the SOS network of multilingual staff trained to help resolve travel, medical, legal, and security problems. The SOS network of critical care and aeromedical specialists operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year from SOS Alarm Centers around the world. This exhibit illustrates the details of the NASA-International SOS Assistance INC. agreement.

  11. Security Assistance and International Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The Department of the Treasury established the Security Assistance and International Programs deposit account on September 26, 1996, in response to a request from the Defense Finance and Accounting...

  12. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  13. FEMA Housing Assistance Renters - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Renters The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  14. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Children with mental disorders like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often experience challenges in school as they struggle to maintain their attention. Based on empirical studies conducted in school contexts and together with teachers and ADHD domain professionals, we identified...... design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2...

  15. Hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, W. A.; de Wit, L. T.; Busch, O. R.; Gouma, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy is performed routinely in patients with small and moderately enlarged spleens at specialized centers. Large spleens are difficult to handle laparoscopically and hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy might facilitate the procedure through enhanced vascular control, easier

  16. S-Chip Technical Assistance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The page will provide access to reports and other published products designed to assist states with complicated S-Chip technical issues. The reports and products...

  17. Efficient Cleavage of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes and Ultrafast Extraction of Lignin Oligomers from Wood Biomass by Microwave-Assisted Treatment with Deep Eutectic Solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongzhuang; Chen, Wenshuai; Xia, Qinqin; Guo, Bingtuo; Wang, Qingwen; Liu, Shouxin; Liu, Yixing; Li, Jian; Yu, Haipeng

    2017-04-22

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for the production of biobased value-added fuels, chemicals, and materials, but its effective exploitation by an energy-efficient and environmentally friendly strategy remains a challenge. Herein, a facile approach for efficiently cleaving lignin-carbohydrate complexes and ultrafast fractionation of components from wood by microwave-assisted treatment with deep eutectic solvent is reported. The solvent was composed of sustainable choline chloride and oxalic acid dihydrate, and showed a hydrogen-bond acidity of 1.31. Efficient fractionation of lignocellulose with the solvent was realized by heating at 80 °C under 800 W microwave irradiation for 3 min. The extracted lignin showed a low molecular weight of 913, a low polydispersity of 1.25, and consisted of lignin oligomers with high purity (ca. 96 %), and thus shows potential in downstream production of aromatic chemicals. The other dissolved matter mainly comprised glucose, xylose, and hydroxymethylfurfural. The undissolved material was cellulose with crystal I structure and a crystallinity of approximately 75 %, which can be used for fabricating nanocellulose. Therefore, this work promotes an ultrafast lignin-first biorefinery approach while simultaneously keeping the undissolved cellulose available for further utilization. This work is expected to contribute to improving the economics of overall biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  19. [Active euthanasia, or assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2016-10-01

    Both active euthanasia and assisted suicide are legal in The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and, most recently, in Canada. Examination of national legislations of countries where both active euthanasia and assisted suicide are legal. The number of accomplished active euthanasia cases and that of assisted suicide cases. Analysis of national statistical data. Comparison of statistical data before and after 2010. Comparison of the related practices in the surveyed countries. The number of active euthanasia cases markedly predominates over the number of assisted suicide cases. Cancer is a main reason for active euthanasia, or assisted suicide. In countries with a larger population, the number of active euthanasia cases is higher than that in countries with a smaller population. Regarding the fact that the applicants for active euthanasia withdraw their requests in a smaller number than the applicants for assisted suicide, patients prefer the choice of active euthanasia. Since the related legislative product is too recent in Canada at present, it may be only presumed that a certain preference will also develop in the related practices in Canada. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(40), 1595-1600.

  20. Robot-assisted general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazey, Jeffrey W; Melvin, W Scott

    2004-06-01

    With the initiation of laparoscopic techniques in general surgery, we have seen a significant expansion of minimally invasive techniques in the last 16 years. More recently, robotic-assisted laparoscopy has moved into the general surgeon's armamentarium to address some of the shortcomings of laparoscopic surgery. AESOP (Computer Motion, Goleta, CA) addressed the issue of visualization as a robotic camera holder. With the introduction of the ZEUS robotic surgical system (Computer Motion), the ability to remotely operate laparoscopic instruments became a reality. US Food and Drug Administration approval in July 2000 of the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) further defined the ability of a robotic-assist device to address limitations in laparoscopy. This includes a significant improvement in instrument dexterity, dampening of natural hand tremors, three-dimensional visualization, ergonomics, and camera stability. As experience with robotic technology increased and its applications to advanced laparoscopic procedures have become more understood, more procedures have been performed with robotic assistance. Numerous studies have shown equivalent or improved patient outcomes when robotic-assist devices are used. Initially, robotic-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy was deemed safe, and now robotics has been shown to be safe in foregut procedures, including Nissen fundoplication, Heller myotomy, gastric banding procedures, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These techniques have been extrapolated to solid-organ procedures (splenectomy, adrenalectomy, and pancreatic surgery) as well as robotic-assisted laparoscopic colectomy. In this chapter, we review the evolution of robotic technology and its applications in general surgical procedures.

  1. 34 CFR 300.105 - Assistive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistive technology. 300.105 Section 300.105 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.105 Assistive technology. (a) Each public agency must ensure that assistive technology devices or assistive technology services, or both, as those terms...

  2. 13 CFR 113.430 - Financial assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial assistance. 113.430 Section 113.430 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs Or Activities Prohibited § 113.430 Financial assistance...

  3. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H

    2016-03-28

    Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.

  4. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349

  5. [Robot-assisted pancreatic resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssle, B; Distler, M; Weitz, J; Welsch, T

    2017-06-01

    Although robot-assisted pancreatic surgery has been considered critically in the past, it is nowadays an established standard technique in some centers, for distal pancreatectomy and pancreatic head resection. Compared with the laparoscopic approach, the use of robot-assisted surgery seems to be advantageous for acquiring the skills for pancreatic, bile duct and vascular anastomoses during pancreatic head resection and total pancreatectomy. On the other hand, the use of the robot is associated with increased costs and only highly effective and professional robotic programs in centers for pancreatic surgery will achieve top surgical and oncological quality, acceptable operation times and a reduction in duration of hospital stay. Moreover, new technologies, such as intraoperative fluorescence guidance and augmented reality will define additional indications for robot-assisted pancreatic surgery.

  6. Nuclear quantum-assisted magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häberle, Thomas; Oeckinghaus, Thomas; Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Pfender, Matthias; de Oliveira, Felipe Fávaro; Momenzadeh, Seyed Ali; Finkler, Amit; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic sensing and imaging instruments are important tools in biological and material sciences. There is an increasing demand for attaining higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, with implementations using a single qubit offering potential improvements in both directions. In this article we describe a scanning magnetometer based on the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond as the sensor. By means of a quantum-assisted readout scheme together with advances in photon collection efficiency, our device exhibits an enhancement in signal to noise ratio of close to an order of magnitude compared to the standard fluorescence readout of the nitrogen-vacancy center. This is demonstrated by comparing non-assisted and assisted methods in a T1 relaxation time measurement.

  7. Justice-based social assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Armando

    2016-01-01

    What are the main objectives of social protection institutions in developing countries? What should be their scope and reach? What is the source of their legitimacy? Finding appropriate answers to these questions is essential to understanding, and shaping, the emergence of welfare institutions in low- and middle-income countries. Most available answers rely on instrumental arguments. Few make reference to normative principles. This article draws on three concepts from Rawls – social justice as regulating cooperation, the social minimum, and the need for a freestanding political notion of social justice – to develop a coherent argument for grounding social assistance on social justice. In line with this argument, it identifies some parameters for a justice-based social assistance. This article then discusses, with examples, the tensions existing between a social justice-based social minimum and ‘real’ social assistance institutions emerging in developing countries. PMID:27708544

  8. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  9. Assisted suicide and assisted voluntary euthanasia: Stransham-Ford ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whether persons wishing to have doctor-assisted suicide or voluntary active euthanasia may make a court application based on their rights in the Constitution has not been answered by the Appeal Court. Therefore, if Parliament does not intervene beforehand, such applications can be made – provided the applicants have ...

  10. Assisted suicide and assisted voluntary euthanasia: Stransham-Ford ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decision in Stransham-Ford v Minister of Justice and Correctional. Services and Others[1] by the North Gauteng High Court held that a terminally ill patient with intractable suffering was entitled to commit suicide with the assistance of his doctor, whose conduct would not be unlawful. The evidence was that the applicant ...

  11. Proust: A Nano Proof Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Ragde

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Proust is a small Racket program offering rudimentary interactive assistance in the development of verified proofs for propositional and predicate logic. It is constructed in stages, some of which are done by students before using it to complete proof exercises, and in parallel with the study of its theoretical underpinnings, including elements of Martin-Lof type theory. The goal is twofold: to demystify some of the machinery behind full-featured proof assistants such as Coq and Agda, and to better integrate the study of formal logic with other core elements of an undergraduate computer science curriculum.

  12. Engagement of Students Teaching Assistants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Brandt, Charlotte J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports from five years experiences of engaging young student teaching assistants into the continuously development of a course by involving them in research on pedagogical as well as other themes from the course. The purpose of the paper is to pave the road for a more engaged and inte......This paper reports from five years experiences of engaging young student teaching assistants into the continuously development of a course by involving them in research on pedagogical as well as other themes from the course. The purpose of the paper is to pave the road for a more engaged...

  13. Genomic imprinting and assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaillet J Richard

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Imprinted genes exhibit a parent-of-origin specific pattern of expression. Such genes have been shown to be targets of molecular defects in particular genetic syndromes such as Beckwith-Wiedemann and Angelman syndromes. Recent reports have raised concern about the possibility that assisted reproduction techniques, such as in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, might cause genomic imprinting disorders. The number of reported cases of those disorders is still too small to draw firm conclusions and the safety of these widely used assisted reproduction techniques needs to be further evaluated.

  14. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  15. Vacuum assisted closure in coloproctology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure has earned its indications in coloproctology. It has been described with variable results in the treatment of large perineal defects after abdominoperineal excision, in the treatment of stoma dehiscence and perirectal abscesses. The most promising indication for

  16. Dental Assistant. Health Occupations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Dollie

    This curriculum is comprised of 31 instructional units divided into eight subject areas: orientation (6 units), anatomy and physiology (6 units), dental histology (1 unit), microbiology and bacteriology (2 units), pharmacology (2 units), chairside assistance (9 units), roentgenology (2 units), and practice administration (3 units). Each…

  17. Tritium-assisted fusion breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1983-08-01

    This report undertakes a preliminary assessment of the prospects of tritium-assisted D-D fuel cycle fusion breeders. Two well documented fusion power reactor designs - the STARFIRE (D-T fuel cycle) and the WILDCAT (Cat-D fuel cycle) tokamaks - are converted into fusion breeders by replacing the fusion electric blankets with 233 U producing fission suppressed blankets; changing the Cat-D fuel cycle mode of operation by one of the several tritium-assisted D-D-based modes of operation considered; adjusting the reactor power level; and modifying the resulting plant cost to account for the design changes. Three sources of tritium are considered for assisting the D-D fuel cycle: tritium produced in the blankets from lithium or from 3 He and tritium produced in the client fission reactors. The D-D-based fusion breeders using tritium assistance are found to be the most promising economically, especially the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium mode of operation in which the 3 He exhausted from the plasma is converted, by neutron capture in the blanket, into tritium which is in turn fed back to the plasma. The number of fission reactors of equal thermal power supported by Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium fusion breeders is about 50% higher than that of D-T fusion breeders, and the profitability is found to be slightly lower than that of the D-T fusion breeders

  18. Microwave-assisted Chemical Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in developing sustainable chemistries utilizing green chemistry principles. Since the first published report in 1986 by Gedye and Giguere on microwave assisted synthesis in household microwave ovens, the use of microwaves as...

  19. Therapeutic balloon-assisted enteroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Aktas (Huseyin); P.B.F. Mensink (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSince the introduction of the first balloon-based enteroscopic technique in 2001, therapeutic balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) using either the single or double balloon enteroscopy technique (respectively SBE and DBE) has evolved rapidly. Argon plasma coagulation (APC), polypectomy,

  20. Physician assistant education in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dierks; L. Kuilman; C. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    The first physician assistant (PA) program in Germany began in 2005. As of 2013 there are three PA programs operational, with a fourth to be inaugurated in the fall of 2013. The programs have produced approximately 100 graduates, all with a nursing background. The PA model of shifting tasks from

  1. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2011-02-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  2. The Personal Information Security Assistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, Roeland Hendrik,Pieter

    The human element is often found to be the weakest link in the information security chain. The Personal Information Security Assistant project aims to address this by improving the privacy and security awareness of end-users and by aligning the user's personal IT environment to the user's security

  3. Optimizing equine assisted reproductive technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onstein, W.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833525

    2018-01-01

    Application of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is more common in the horse breeding industries, but there is still room for improvement. Embryo recovery rate after embryo flushing, embryo production rate after ovum pick-up (OPU) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryopreservation

  4. Weatherization Assistance Program Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy e ciency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety. The Program supports 8,500 jobs and provides weatherization services to approximately 35,000 homes every year using DOE funds.

  5. Relocation assistance and advisory services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    This brochure provides general information about relocation assistance provided by the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) for those individuals who may be required to move as a result of a highway project. It is not intended to be a legal docume...

  6. Technical assistance in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteiza-Quirno, A.

    1976-01-01

    As in the other regions, nuclear technology development in Latin America reflects mainly the degree of technological development already existing in each country. It is quite significant that in nearly all countries in Latin America the medical profession has been the first to show interest in using nuclear techniques. As a result, a country such as Uruguay has become a source of recruitment for technical assistance experts in nuclear medicine to other developing countries, while at the same time it continues to receive assistance for new sophisticated techniques from the IAEA. Part of this assistance, in turn, comes from the neighbouring countries, Argentina and Brazil. For example, an expert from Uruguay is currently assigned under an Agency programme to Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala, and experts from Argentina and Brazil have been sent to Uruguay. This is an example of 'horizontal' development, meaning mutual assistance between developing countries under programmes supported by the United Nations Agencies, which is now being emphasized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Still in the field of nuclear medicine, another significant model is provided by Bolivia. With assistance from the IAEA, and thanks to the availability of a good professional infrastructure in that country, a net of nuclear medicine services has been started, consisting of a well-developed nuclear medicine centre in La Paz and regional centres in Cochabamba, Sucre and Santa Cruz. Because of its great variations in altitude, Bolivia is in the position of being able to conduct research on the adaptation of man to diverse environmental conditions. The Agency has contributed, and continues to do so, to these programmes by sending experts, providing for training abroad of Bolivian doctors under its fellowship programmes, and providing basic equipment for all four centres. Independently of the cases described above, the IAEA has implemented or is implementing a considerable

  7. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  8. Can farmers mitigate environmental impacts through combined production of food, fuel and feed? A consequential life cycle assessment of integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Birkved, Morten

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluates environmental impacts of an integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery (GBR). System integration included production of feed crops and green biomasses (Sys-I) to meet the demand of a livestock system (Sys-III) and to process green biomasses in a GBR system (Sys-II). Processing of grass-clover to produce feed protein was considered in Sys-II, particularly to substitute the imported soybean meal. Waste generated from the livestock and GBR systems were considered for the conversion to biomethane (Sys-IV). Digestate produced therefrom was assumed to be recirculated back to the farmers' field (Sys-I). A consequential approach of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of a combined production of suckler cow calves (SCC) and Pigs, calculated in terms of their live weight (LW). The functional unit (FU) was a basket of two products "1kg LW -SCC+1kg LW -Pigs", produced at the farm gate. Results obtained per FU were: 19.6kg CO 2 eq for carbon footprint; 0.11kg PO 4 eq for eutrophication potential, -129MJ eq for non-renewable energy use and -3.9 comparative toxicity units (CTU e ) for potential freshwater ecotoxicity. Environmental impact, e.g. greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was primarily due to (i) N 2 O emission and diesel consumption within Sys-I, (ii) energy input to Sys-II, III and IV, and (iii) methane emission from Sys-III and Sys-IV. Specifically, integrating GBR with the mixed crop-livestock system contributed 4% of the GHG emissions, whilst its products credited 7% of the total impact. Synergies among the different sub-systems showed positive environmental gains for the selected main products. The main effects of the system integration were in the reductions of GHG emissions, fossil fuel consumption, eutrophication potential and freshwater ecotoxicity, compared to a conventional mixed crop-livestock system, without the biogas conversion facility and the GBR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  9. Evolutionary design assistants for architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Onur Sönmez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In its parallel pursuit of an increased competitivity for design offices and more pleasurable and easier workflows for designers, artificial design intelligence is a technical, intellectual, and political challenge. While human-machine cooperation has become commonplace through Computer Aided Design (CAD tools, a more improved collaboration and better support appear possible only through an endeavor into a kind of artificial design intelligence, which is more sensitive to the human perception of affairs. Considered as part of the broader Computational Design studies, the research program of this quest can be called Artificial / Autonomous / Automated Design (AD. The current available level of Artificial Intelligence (AI for design is limited and a viable aim for current AD would be to develop design assistants that are capable of producing drafts for various design tasks. Thus, the overall aim of this thesis is the development of approaches, techniques, and tools towards artificial design assistants that offer a capability for generating drafts for sub-tasks within design processes. The main technology explored for this aim is Evolutionary Computation (EC, and the target design domain is architecture. The two connected research questions of the study concern, first, the investigation of the ways to develop an architectural design assistant, and secondly, the utilization of EC for the development of such assistants. While developing approaches, techniques, and computational tools for such an assistant, the study also carries out a broad theoretical investigation into the main problems, challenges, and requirements towards such assistants on a rather overall level. Therefore, the research is shaped as a parallel investigation of three main threads interwoven along several levels, moving from a more general level to specific applications. The three research threads comprise, first, theoretical discussions and speculations with regard to both

  10. Why not Commercial Assistance for Suicide? On the Question of Argumentative Coherence of Endorsing Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipke, Roland

    2015-09-01

    Most people who endorse physician-assisted suicide are against commercially assisted suicide - a suicide assisted by professional non-medical providers against payment. The article questions if this position - endorsement of physician-assisted suicide on the one hand and rejection of commercially assisted suicide on the other hand - is a coherent ethical position. To this end the article first discusses some obvious advantages of commercially assisted suicide and then scrutinizes six types of argument about whether they can justify the rejection of commercially assisted suicide while simultaneously endorsing physician-assisted suicide. The conclusion is that they cannot provide this justification and that the mentioned position is not coherent. People who endorse physician-assisted suicide have to endorse commercially assisted suicide as well, or they have to revise their endorsement of physician-assisted suicide. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Versatile Manipulation for Assistive Free-Flyers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Assistive Free-Flyers (AFFs) are flying robots designed to share the living space with human astronauts in orbit. These robots have shown the potential to assist...

  12. Assisted living captures profitable market niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarito, K

    1995-05-08

    The $15 billion assisted-living industry has captured a profitable market niche and created a star on Wall Street. Sunrise Retirement Home of Falls Church (Va.), right, is a facility of the nation's largest assisted-living provider.

  13. Operations Monitoring Assistant System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Logic. Artificial Inteligence 25(1)::75-94. January.18. 41 -Nils J. Nilsson. Problem-Solving Methods In Artificli Intelligence. .klcG raw-Hill B3ook...operations monitoring assistant (OMA) system is designed that combines operations research, artificial intelligence, and human reasoning techniques and...KnowledgeCraft (from Carnegie Group), and 5.1 (from Teknowledze). These tools incorporate the best methods of applied artificial intelligence, and

  14. Robotic assisted laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Augmentation ileocystoplasty is a common treatment in adults with low capacity bladders due to neurogenic bladder dysfunction. We describe here our technique for robotic assisted laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in an adult with a low capacity bladder due to neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Materials and Methods: The patient is a 35 years-old man with neurogenic bladder due to a C6 spinal cord injury in 2004. Cystometrogram shows a maximum capacity of 96cc and Pdet at maximum capacity of 97cmH2O. He manages his bladder with intermittent catheterization and experiences multiple episodes of incontinence between catheterizations. He experiences severe autonomic dysreflexia symptoms with indwelling urethral catheter. He has previously failed non operative management options of his bladder dysfunction. Our surgical technique utilizes 6 trocars, of note a 12mm assistant trocar is placed 1cm superior to the pubic symphysis, and this trocar is solely used to pass a laparoscopic stapler to facilitate the excision of the ileal segment and the enteric anastomosis. Surgical steps include: development of the space of Retzius/dropping the bladder; opening the bladder from the anterior to posterior bladder neck; excision of a segment of ileum; enteric anastomosis; detubularizing the ileal segment; suturing the ileal segment to the incised bladder edge. Results: The surgery had no intraoperative complications. Operative time was 286 minutes (4.8 hours. Estimated blood loss was 50cc. Length of hospital stay was 8 days. He did experience a postoperative complication on hospital day 3 of hematemesis, which did not require blood transfusion. Cystometrogram at 22 days post operatively showed a maximum bladder capacity of 165cc with a Pdet at maximum capacity of 10cmH2O. Conclusions: As surgeon comfort and experience with robotic assisted surgery grows, robotic surgery can successfully be applied to less frequently performed procedures

  15. Microwave-assisted ADMET polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Jiménez, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-assisted ADMET polymerization is reported on a series of α,ω-diene monomers, both polar and non-polar. Investigations indicate that of the multiple microwave modes possible, constant power is the most advantageous, providing polymers up to M‾w=31,000g/mol. Molecular weight values are nearly triple in comparison with conventional oil bath heating. Polymers are characterized by NMR, GPC, TGA, and DSC. Microwave irradiation provides a highly controllable and energy efficient ADMET poly...

  16. Smart assistants for smart homes

    OpenAIRE

    Rasch, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The smarter homes of tomorrow promise to increase comfort, aid elderly and disabled people, and help inhabitants save energy. Unfortunately, smart homes today are far from this vision – people who already live in such a home struggle with complicated user interfaces, inflexible home configurations, and difficult installation procedures. Under these circumstances, smart homes are not ready for mass adoption. This dissertation addresses these issues by proposing two smart assistants for smart h...

  17. Development assistance and climate finance

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Channing

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between development assistance and climate finance is driven by an optic of compensation largely derived from the 'polluter pays' principle. For practical as well as conceptual reasons, this principle provides a weak basis for climate finance. The distinction also cuts against the need to holistically consider developmental, adaptation, and mitigation policies and naturally focuses on government-to-government flows despite the manifest need to catalyse non-official sources of ...

  18. Biorefinery Technologies for Biomass Conversion Into Chemicals and Fuels Towards Zero Emissions (Review) / Nulles Emisiju Princips Biomasas Konversijas Tehnoloģijās Aizstājot Fosilos Resursus (Pārskata Raksts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitis, J.; Abolins, J.

    2013-10-01

    Exhausting of world resources, increasing pollution, and climate change are compelling the shift of the world economy from continuous growth to a kind of economy based on integration of technologies into zero emissions production systems. Transition from non-renewable fossil resources to renewable resources provided by solar radiation and the current processes in biosphere is seen in the bio-refinery approach - replacing crude oil refineries by biomass refineries. Biotechnology and nano-technologies are getting accepted as important players along with conventional biomass refinery technologies. Systems design is a significant element in the integration of bio-refinery technologies in clusters. A number of case-studies, steam explosion auto-hydrolysis (SEA) in particular, are reviewed to demonstrate conversion of biomass into value-added chemicals and fuels. Analysis of energy flows is made as part of modelling the SEA processes, the eMergy (energy memory) approach and sustainability indices being applied to assess environmental impacts. Resursu izsīkums, vides piesārņojums un globāla mēroga klimatiskās izmaiņas ir civilizācijas izdzīvošanai būtiski faktori, kas virza pasaules ekonomikas pārmaiņas, atsakoties no nepārtrauktas izaugsmes idejas par labu tādai ekonomikai, kas balstās uz atjaunojošamies resursiem un dažādu tehnoloģiju integrācijemisiju principam atbilstošās ražošanas sistēmās. Saules radiācijas ierosinātajos planētas biosfērā notiekošajos procesos radīto organisko vielu pārstrādes kompleksi, kas operē ievērojot sabalansētu nulles emisiju principu, tiek uzlūkoti kā tās ekonomiskās (ražošanas) struktūras, kurām jānodrošina pāreja uz atjaunojošos resursu izmantošanu, aizstājot esošās fosilo resursu (naftas, ogļu) pārstrādes rūpnīcas. Līdzās jau apgūtajām biomasas rafinēšanas tehnoloģijām svarīga un pieaugoša loma ekonomiskās sistēmas resursu bāzes nomaiņā ir bio- un nanotehnolo

  19. Development of Power Assisting Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keijiro; Ishii, Mineo; Hyodo, Kazuhito; Yoshimitsu, Toshihiro; Matsuo, Takashi

    In order to realize a wearable power assisting suit for assisting a nurse to carry a patient in her arms, the power supply and control systems of the suit have to be miniaturized, and it has to be wireless and pipeline-less. The new wearable suit consists of shoulders, arms, back, waist and legs units to be fitted on the nurse's body. The arms, waist and legs have new pneumatic rotary actuators driven directly by micro air pumps supplied by portable Ni-Cd batteries. The muscle forces are sensed by a new muscle hardness sensor utilizing a sensing tip mounted on a force sensing film device. An embedded microcomputer is used for the calculations of control signals. The new wearable suit was applied practically to a human body and a series of movement experiments that weights in the arms were held and taken up and down was performed. Each unit of the suit could transmit assisting torque directly to each joint verifying its practicability.

  20. Job satisfaction of nursing assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Nancy; Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Flynn, Linda

    2011-11-01

    This secondary data analysis explored factors influencing job satisfaction in a sample of nursing assistants employed in Maryland skilled nursing facilities. Multiple factors have been shown to affect job satisfaction and turnover in nursing assistants (NAs), but the problem of turnover persists in skilled nursing facility environments affecting quality of care. An existing data set of 556 nursing assistants from 12 Maryland skilled nursing facilities was used. To explore factors found to influence job satisfaction from other studies, a multiple regression analysis was performed. Nine dependent variables previously shown to affect job satisfaction were used. Of these variables, only years of experience (β = .230) and performance of restorative care (β = .095) were found to be positively associated with job satisfaction. Self-esteem (β = -.094) was found to be negatively associated with job satisfaction. Only length of experience and exemplary care as evidenced by the performance of restorative care were associated with job satisfaction. These results mirror results found in other studies. Self-esteem was negatively associated with job satisfaction in this population, a finding needing further study. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins