WorldWideScience

Sample records for fr13se10p proposed flood

  1. 78 FR 52956 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... 77662. City of Pinehurst Pinehurst City Hall, 2497 Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Orange, TX 77630. City... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register (78 FR 36220-36222) a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous...

  2. 75 FR 5925 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... 2,300 None +260 Unincorporated Areas of feet downstream of Hot Spring County. Martin Luther King Boulevard. Approximately 1,300 None +263 feet downstream of Martin Luther King Boulevard. Town Creek... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations...

  3. 76 FR 39063 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... City Hall, 100 North Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue, Waukegan, IL 60085. City of Zion Maps are available... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... make determinations of BFEs and modified BFEs for each community listed below, in accordance...

  4. 76 FR 19007 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    .... Williamsburg County. Approximately 0.4 mile None +21 upstream of the Big Dam Swamp confluence. Smith Swamp At... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These.... Sec. 67.4 2. The tables published under the authority of Sec. 67.4 are proposed to be amended...

  5. 75 FR 43479 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These.... Sec. 67.4 2. The tables published under the authority of Sec. 67.4 are proposed to be amended as... Street. Summet Brook (Backwater effects from Approximately 2,800 None +363 Town of Shrewsbury. Big...

  6. 78 FR 78995 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth... Beverly Shores Town Hall, 500 South Broadway, Beverly Shores, IN 46301. Town of Burns Harbor Building Department, 1240 North Boo Road, Burns Harbor, IN 46304. Town of Chesterton Building Department, 726 Broadway...

  7. 77 FR 46994 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ..., it addresses the following flooding sources: Jones Bayou, Mississippi River, and Porter Bayou. DATES... Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Jones Bayou, Mississippi River, and Porter Bayou.... Approximately 8.1 miles None +162 upstream of the Arkansas River confluence. Porter Bayou Approximately 0.8 mile...

  8. 76 FR 26980 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Lake Michigan and White Ditch in La Porte County, Indiana. The City of Michiana Shores should have been... Porte County, Indiana, and Incorporated Areas'' addressed several flooding sources, including...

  9. 78 FR 8089 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and modified elevations, and... the floodplain management criteria required by 44 CFR 60.3, are the minimum that are required. They... Creek, and Muncy Creek. Those tables contained inaccurate information as to the location of...

  10. 76 FR 61649 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Planning and Review. This proposed rule is not a significant regulatory action under the criteria of... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above State City/town/county... City of Lubbock......... Playa System E1 At the intersection of Avenue T and 40th Street +3208 +3206 At...

  11. 77 FR 67324 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 73537. The... In the proposed rule published at 76 FR 73537, in the November 29, 2011, issue of the Federal... +787 +783 Township of Davidson, Tributary 1 confluence. Township of Shrewsbury. Approximately 0.76...

  12. Proposal of global flood vulnerability scenarios for evaluating future potential flood losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Y.; Tanoue, M.; Watanabe, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is one of the most hazardous and damaging natural disasters causing serious economic loss and casualties across the world (Jongman et al., 2015). Previous studies showed that the global temperature increase affects regional weather pattern, and several general circulation model (GCM) simulations suggest the increase of flood events in both frequency and magnitude in many parts of the world (Hirabayashi et al., 2013). Effective adaptation to potential flood risks under the warming climate requires an in-depth understanding of both the physical and socioeconomic contributors of the flood risk. To assess the realistic future potential flood risk, future sophisticated vulnerability scenarios associated with the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are necessary. In this study we propose a new future vulnerability scenarios in mortality. Our vulnerability scenarios are constructed based on the modeled flood exposure (population potentially suffered by flooding) and a past from 1980 to 2005. All the flood fatality data were classified according to four income levels (high, mid-high, mid-low and low). Our proposed scenarios have three pathways regarding to SSPs; High efficiency (HE) scenario (SSP1, SSP4 (rich country) and SSP5), Medium efficiency (ME) scenario (SSP2), and Low efficiency (LE) scenario (SSP3 and SSP4 (poor country)). The maximum mortality protection level on each category was detected by applying exponential curve fitting with offset term. Slopes in the HE scenario are assumed to be equal to slopes estimated by regression analysis in each category. The slope in the HE scenario is defined by the mean value of all countries' slope value that is approximately -0.33 mortality decreases per year. The EM-DAT mortality data shows a decreasing trend in time in almost all of the countries. Although mortalities in some countries show an increasing trend, this is because these countries were affected by once-in-hundred-years floods after 1990's. The slope in

  13. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  14. A proposal for mitigation of floods in main colombian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado, L. D.; Bravo, E.; Ortiz, R. O.

    2012-04-01

    Floods are naturally produced by rainfall and are a worldwide threat, which cannot be controlled. The effects of the floods are not proportional to the magnitude of the events in different parts of the world. It is due to the local risk management and the reduction of the vulnerability. This research looks for the reduction of the effects of the heavy rainfall in the Magdalena River. Two main effects are detected: intensity of the rainfall and residence time of the flow in the river. Several factors were detected to increase the vulnerability of the Magdalena Valley. Those are the increase of sediment load caused by deforestation, mining and the lack of sustainable urban drainage systems. Unfortunately, the majority of the Colombian actions have been aimed to the construction of public works for "controlling" the effects of the floods and reducing the territory vulnerability without any technical reason but private interests. All the investments are done with no planning or management. In a continue review of all the dikes and walls to avoid river floods, we appreciate that the failure of this elements increased the territory vulnerability, generating false expectation of security. We propose some non-structural solutions in combination of structural ones for reducing costs of investments and emergency attention. The main conclusion of this work is based on the fact that natural hazards are unavoidable but they can be mitigated reducing the residence time of the water on the channels with the reactivation of old natural channels and constructing cutoff channels in the meandering valley.

  15. 78 FR 28779 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All... sources in Armstrong County, Pennsylvania. Because FEMA has or ] will be issuing a Revised...

  16. 78 FR 78808 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Pierce County, Washington, and Incorporated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Pierce County, Washington, and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... its proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Pierce County, Washington... sources in Pierce County, Washington. On April 16, 2012, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 77 FR...

  17. Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  18. 77 FR 23270 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, National Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... collect information from insurance agents who will offer the ability to purchase flood insurance, as well... information to be collected; and (d) minimize the burden of the collection of information on those who are to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

  19. The Proposal Of Hybrid Intrusion Detection For Defence Of Sync Flood Attack In Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Bhatnagar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Data security is a huge responsibility for sensor network as there are various ways in which security can be breached, enabling hackers to access sensitive data. Threats to wireless sensor networks are numerous and potentially devastating. Security issues ranging from session hijacking to Denial of Service (DOS can plague a WSN. To aid in the defense and detection of these potential threats, WSN employ a security solution that includes an intrusion detection system (IDS. Different neural methods have been proposed in recent years for the development of intrusion detection system. In this paper, we surveyeddenial of service attacks that disseminate the WSN such a way that it temporarily paralyses a network and proposed a hybrid Intrusion Detection approach based on stream flow and session state transition analysis that monitor and analyze stream flow of data, identify abnormal network activity, detect policy violations against sync flood attack.

  20. Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeltzer, J. S.; Millier, J. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

  1. 77 FR 71404 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Flood Risk Management Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Proposed Flood Risk Management Study for the Blanchard River Watershed Including Communities of Findlay and... Management Study. The Buffalo District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) will be the lead agency in... Study in the Blanchard River Watershed including the communities of the City of Findlay in...

  2. Flood Adaptation Measures Applicable in the Design of Urban Public Spaces: Proposal for a Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Matos Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assuming the importance of public space design in the implementation of effective adaptation action towards urban flooding, this paper identifies and systematizes a wide range of flood adaptation measures pertinent to the design of public spaces. It presents findings from both a systematic literature review and an empirical analysis retrieved from concrete public space design precedents. It concludes with the presentation of a conceptual framework that organizes the identified measures in accordance to their main, and secondary, infrastructural strategies. The intention behind the disclosed framework is to aid a multitude of professionals during the initial exploratory phases of public space projects that incorporate flooding adaptation capacities.

  3. Lessons learnt from past Flash Floods and Debris Flow events to propose future strategies on risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Angels; Velasco, Marc; Escaler, Isabel

    2010-05-01

    Floods, including flash floods and debris flow events, are one of the most important hazards in Europe regarding both economic and life loss. Moreover, changes in precipitation patterns and intensity are very likely to increase due to the observed and predicted global warming, rising the risk in areas that are already vulnerable to floods. Therefore, it is very important to carry out new strategies to improve flood protection, but it is also crucial to take into account historical data to identify high risk areas. The main objective of this paper is to show a comparative analysis of the flood risk management information compiled in four test-bed basins (Llobregat, Guadalhorce, Gardon d'Anduze and Linth basins) from three different European countries (Spain, France and Switzerland) and to identify which are the lessons learnt from their past experiences in order to propose future strategies on risk management. This work is part of the EU 7th FP project IMPRINTS which aims at reducing loss of life and economic damage through the improvement of the preparedness and the operational risk management of flash flood and debris flow (FF & DF) events. The methodology followed includes the following steps: o Specific survey on the effectivity of the implemented emergency plans and risk management procedures sent to the test-bed basin authorities that participate in the project o Analysis of the answers from the questionnaire and further research on their methodologies for risk evaluation o Compilation of available follow-up studies carried out after major flood events in the four test-bed basins analyzed o Collection of the lessons learnt through a comparative analysis of the previous information o Recommendations for future strategies on risk management based on lessons learnt and management gaps detected through the process As the Floods Directive (FD) already states, the flood risks associated to FF & DF events should be assessed through the elaboration of Flood Risk

  4. 78 FR 45936 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection...-16; Cause of Loss and Subrogation Report; 086-0-17; Manufactured (Mobile) Home/Travel...

  5. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  6. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal), Class I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05

    This project outlines a proposal to improve the recovery of light oil from waterflooded fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoir through a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) flood. The site is the Port Neches Field in Orange County, Texas. The field is well explored and well exploited. The project area is 270 acres within the Port Neches Field.

  7. Flooding and Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  8. Assessment of Potential Flood Events and Impacts at INL's Proposed Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter

    2010-09-01

    Rates, depths, erosion potential, increased subsurface transport rates, and annual exceedance probability for potential flooding scenarios have been evaluated for the on-site alternatives of Idaho National Laboratory’s proposed remote handled low-level waste disposal facility. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of flood impacts are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE-O 435.1), its natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95), and the Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) guidance in addition to being required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental assessment (EA). Potential sources of water evaluated include those arising from (1) local precipitation events, (2) precipitation events occurring off of the INL (off-site precipitation), and (3) increased flows in the Big Lost River in the event of a Mackay Dam failure. On-site precipitation events include potential snow-melt and rainfall. Extreme rainfall events were evaluated for the potential to create local erosion, particularly of the barrier placed over the disposal facility. Off-site precipitation carried onto the INL by the Big Lost River channel was evaluated for overland migration of water away from the river channel. Off-site precipitation sources evaluated were those occurring in the drainage basin above Mackay Reservoir. In the worst-case scenarios, precipitation occurring above Mackay Dam could exceed the dam’s capacity, leading to overtopping, and eventually complete dam failure. Mackay Dam could also fail during a seismic event or as a result of mechanical piping. Some of the water released during dam failure, and contributing precipitation, has the potential of being carried onto the INL in the Big Lost River channel. Resulting overland flows from these flood sources were evaluated for

  9. Optimal strategies for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijgenraam, Carel; Brekelmans, Ruud; den Hertog, Dick; Roos, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flood prevention policy is of major importance to the Netherlands since a large part of the country is below sea level and high water levels in rivers may also cause floods. In this paper we propose a dike height optimization model to determine economically efficient flood protection standards. We i

  10. Flood Impact Modelling and Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; ODonnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    Local implementation of Natural Flood Management methods are now being proposed in many flood schemes. In principal it offers a cost effective solution to a number of catchment based problem as NFM tackles both flood risk and WFD issues. However within larger catchments there is the issue of which subcatchments to target first and how much NFM to implement. If each catchment has its own configuration of subcatchment and rivers how can the issues of flood synchronisation and strategic investment be addressed? In this study we will show two key aspects to resolving these issues. Firstly, a multi-scale network water level recorder is placed throughout the system to capture the flow concentration and travel time operating in the catchment being studied. The second is a Flood Impact Model (FIM), which is a subcatchment based model that can generate runoff in any location using any hydrological model. The key aspect to the model is that it has a function to represent the impact of NFM in any subcatchment and the ability to route that flood wave to the outfall. This function allows a realistic representation of the synchronisation issues for that catchment. By running the model in interactive mode the user can define an appropriate scheme that minimises or removes the risk of synchornisation and gives confidence that the NFM investment is having a good level of impact downstream in large flood events.

  11. Assessing Flood Risk Using Reservoir Flood Control Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Fu; Yadong Mei; Zhihuai Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The application of conventional flood operation regulation is restricted due to insufficient description of flood control rules for the Pubugou Reservoir in southern China. Based on the require-ments of different flood control objects, this paper proposes to optimize flood control rules with punish-ment mechanism by defining different parameters of flood control rules in response to flood inflow fore-cast and reservoir water level. A genetic algorithm is adopted for solving parameter optimization problem. The failure risk and overflow volume of the downstream insufficient flood control capacity are assessed through the reservoir operation policies. The results show that an optimised regulation can provide better performance than the current flood control rules.

  12. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-08-05

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation.

  13. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal - Appendix)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05

    The main objective of the Port Neches Project was to determine the feasibility and producibility of CO2 miscible flooding techniques enhanced with horizontal drilling applied to a Fluvial Dominated Deltaic reservoir. The second was to disseminate the knowledge gained through established Technology Transfer mechanisms to support DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing domestic oil production and reducing abandonment of oil fields.

  14. Health impacts of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerard Joseph; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Floods are the most common hazard to cause disasters and have led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The impact of floods on the human community is related directly to the location and topography of the area, as well as human demographics and characteristics of the built environment. The aim of this study is to identify the health impacts of disasters and the underlying causes of health impacts associated with floods. A conceptual framework is developed that may assist with the development of a rational and comprehensive approach to prevention, mitigation, and management. This study involved an extensive literature review that located >500 references, which were analyzed to identify common themes, findings, and expert views. The findings then were distilled into common themes. The health impacts of floods are wide ranging, and depend on a number of factors. However, the health impacts of a particular flood are specific to the particular context. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites. Health risks also are associated with the evacuation of patients, loss of health workers, and loss of health infrastructure including essential drugs and supplies. In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation are indirect effects of flooding. In the long-term, chronic disease, disability, poor mental health, and poverty-related diseases including malnutrition are the potential legacy. This article proposes a structured approach to the classification of the health impacts of floods and a conceptual framework that demonstrates the relationships between floods and the direct and indirect health consequences.

  15. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Tatano, H.

    2015-08-01

    Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  16. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  17. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    ... river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image...

  18. Flooding On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding as water levels in the country's huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued. As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage areas of the Yangtze River had exceeded 50 mm,after three rounds of rainstorms,said Cai Qihua,Deputy Director of the Yangtze River Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters.

  19. Evaluating flood potential with GRACE in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodtsova, Tatiana; Molodtsov, Sergey; Kirilenko, Andrei; Zhang, Xiaodong; VanLooy, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Reager and Famiglietti (2009) proposed an index, Reager's Flood Potential Index (RFPI), for early large-scale flood risk monitoring using the Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly (TWSA) product derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). We evaluated the efficacy of the RFPI for flood risk assessment over the continental USA using multi-year flood observation data from 2003 to 2012 by the US Geological Survey and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. In general, we found a good agreement between the RFPI flood risks and the observed floods on regional and even local scales. RFPI demonstrated skill in predicting the large-area, long-duration floods, especially during the summer season.

  20. Combating Floods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    In summer and autumn of 1998, the river vatleys of the Changjiang, Songhua and Nenjiang rivers were stricken by exceptionally serious floods, As of the, 22nd of August, the flooded areas stretched over 52.4 million acres. More than 223 million people were affected by the flood. 4.97 million houses were ruined, economic losses totaled RMB 166 billion, and most tragically, 3,004 people lost their byes. It was one of the costliest disasters in Chinese history. Millions of People’s Liberation Army soldiers and local people joined hands to battle the floodwaters. Thanks to their unified efforts and tenacious struggle, they successfully withstood the rising, water, resumed production and began to rebuild their homes.

  1. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  2. Lateral Flooding Associated to Wave Flood Generation on River Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.

    2016-06-01

    This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico) defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  3. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general proc...

  4. Flooding On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding aswater levels in the country’s huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued.As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage

  5. The Global Flood Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  6. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-08-14

    With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system.

  7. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system.

  8. Flood risk assessment: concepts, modelling, applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tsakiris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards have caused severe consequences to the natural, modified and human systems, in the past. These consequences seem to increase with time due to both higher intensity of the natural phenomena and higher value of elements at risk. Among the water related hazards flood hazards have the most destructive impacts. The paper presents a new systemic paradigm for the assessment of flood hazard and flood risk in the riverine flood prone areas. Special emphasis is given to the urban areas with mild terrain and complicated topography, in which 2-D fully dynamic flood modelling is proposed. Further the EU flood directive is critically reviewed and examples of its implementation are presented. Some critical points in the flood directive implementation are also highlighted.

  9. Tsunami flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric; Jones, Henry; McBride, Mark; Fedors, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Panel 5 focused on tsunami flooding with an emphasis on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) as derived from its counterpart, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) that determines seismic ground-motion hazards. The Panel reviewed current practices in PTHA and determined the viability of extending the analysis to extreme design probabilities (i.e., 10-4 to 10-6). In addition to earthquake sources for tsunamis, PTHA for extreme events necessitates the inclusion of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides, and treatment of the large attendant uncertainty in source characterization and recurrence rates. Tsunamis can be caused by local and distant earthquakes, landslides, volcanism, and asteroid/meteorite impacts. Coastal flooding caused by storm surges and seiches is covered in Panel 7. Tsunamis directly tied to earthquakes, the similarities with (and path forward offered by) the PSHA approach for PTHA, and especially submarine landslide tsunamis were a particular focus of Panel 5.

  10. Socio-hydrological flood models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendrecht, Marlies; Viglione, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Long-term feedbacks between humans and floods may lead to complex phenomena such as coping strategies, levee effects, call effects, adaptation effects, and poverty traps. Such phenomena cannot be represented by traditional flood risk approaches that are based on scenarios. Instead, dynamic models of the coupled human-flood interactions are needed. These types of models should include both social and hydrological variables as well as other relevant variables, such as economic, environmental, political or technical, in order to adequately represent the feedbacks and processes that are of importance in human-flood systems. These socio-hydrological models may play an important role in integrated flood risk management by exploring a wider range of possible futures, including unexpected phenomena, than is possible by creating and studying scenarios. New insights might come to light about the long term effects of certain measures on society and the natural system. Here we discuss a dynamic framework for flood risk and review the models that are presented in literature. We propose a way forward for socio-hydrological modelling of the human-flood system.

  11. Analysis of water surface and flow distribution for the design flood at a proposed highway crossing of the Sabine River near Tatum, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J.J.; Myers, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The hydraulic effects of the proposed Texas Highway 43 crossing of the Sabine River near Tatum, Texas, were determined on the basis of results from a two-dimensional finite-element surface-water-flow model. In planning the replacement crossing by the Texas State Department of Highways and Public Transportation, approximations of apportionment of flow among the openings and velocities within the openings were of concern. The model was used to simulate flow in the river floodplain system for the proposed design, an alternate design, and for the natural condition. The proposed bridge design by the State Department of Highways and Public Transportation consisted of a 320-foot main channel opening, four left overflow bridges with widths of 120, 320, 320, and 280 feet, and one right overflow opening with a width of 440 feet. The alternate design consisted of a 950-foot main channel opening, three left overflow bridges with widths of 320, 320, and 280 feet, and one right overflow opening with a width of 200 feet. Preliminary one-dimensional computations were used as an aid in establishing the boundary conditions for the two-dimensional analysis.

  12. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  13. From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    concerns, water-resistant materials, vulnerability assessment ? Flood resilient system (FReS) concept has been proposed as a new framework to address flood situations. Such systems intend to better approach such situations from a holistic point of view. FReS encompass ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. FReS design and implementation conditions have been addressed by the FP7 SMARTeST (Smart Resilience Technology, Systems and Tools) project. The focus of this Project on the use of available and innovative communication, forecasting and flood protection technologies leads to an original contribution which highlights both the scope and the limits of this technology driven approach. These reflexions contribute to the elaboration of guidelines for the design of FReS.

  14. Using LiDAR surveys to document floods: A case study of the 2008 Iowa flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Krajewski, Witold F.; Goska, Radek; Young, Nathan

    2017-10-01

    Can we use Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), an emergent remote sensing technology with wide applications, to document floods with high accuracy? To explore the feasibility of this application, we propose a method to extract distributed inundation depths from a LiDAR survey conducted during flooding. This method consists of three steps: (1) collecting LiDAR data during flooding; (2) classifying the LiDAR observational points as flooded water surface points and non-flooded points, and generating a floodwater surface elevation model; and (3) subtracting the bare earth Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from the flood surface elevation model to obtain a flood depth map. We applied this method to the 2008 Iowa flood in the United States and evaluated the results using the high-water mark measurements, flood extent extracted from SPOT (Small Programmable Object Technology) imagery, and the near-simultaneously acquired aerial photography. The root mean squared error of the LiDAR-derived floodwater surface profile to high-water marks was 30 cm, the consistency between the two flooded areas derived from LiDAR and SPOT imagery was 72% (81% if suspicious isolated ponds in the SPOT-derived extent were removed), and LiDAR-derived flood extent had a horizontal resolution of ∼3 m. This work demonstrates that LiDAR technology has the potential to provide calibration and validation reference data with appreciable accuracy for improved flood inundation modeling.

  15. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... without causing collapse, displacement, or other structural damage to the elevated portion of the building...) The elevated portion of the building and supporting foundation system shall not be subject to collapse... proposed building sites will be reasonably safe from flooding. If a proposed building site is in a flood...

  16. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse.

  17. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Madhavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the malicious node, the neighbor node is not able to process other packets. The functioning of the legitimate node is diverted and destroys the networking operation. Absence of hello packet during the periodical hello interval may lead to wrong assumption that the neighbor node has moved away. So one of the intermediate neighbor nodes sends Route Error (RERR message and the source node reinitiates the route discovery process. In a random fashion the hello interval values are changed and convey this information to other nodes in the network in a secured manner. This study identifies and prevents the flooding attack. This methodology considers the performance parameters such as packet delivery ratio, delay and throughput. This algorithm is implemented in Secure AODV and tested in ad hoc environment. The result of the proposed algorithm decreases the control overhead by 2%.

  18. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  19. Flood Mitigation of Nyando River Using Duflow Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joleha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Duflow surface water hydrodynamic model has been applied using a case study from Nyando catchment in the western part of Kenya in Africa to simulate various extreme flood behaviours and their retardation levels by using selected structural measures as flood mitigation techniques. The objective of this case study was to establish a design flood recommendable for mitigation, and to identify the most cost effective flood mitigation structure. Various design flows are simulated against the different proposed structures hence, the optimal structure can be recommended when economical, social and environmental constraints are considered in the decision making process. The proposed four flood mitigation structures flood plain extension, embankment (dykes, channel by-pass, and green-storage were simulated for 20-year recurrence interval flood to determine their individual responses in storing excess water. The result shows that building a green-storage is the best and optimal structure for flood mitigation.

  20. Flooding and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  1. What are the hydro-meteorological controls on flood characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nied, Manuela; Schröter, Kai; Lüdtke, Stefan; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Merz, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Flood events can be expressed by a variety of characteristics such as flood magnitude and extent, event duration or incurred loss. Flood estimation and management may benefit from understanding how the different flood characteristics relate to the hydrological catchment conditions preceding the event and to the meteorological conditions throughout the event. In this study, we therefore propose a methodology to investigate the hydro-meteorological controls on different flood characteristics, based on the simulation of the complete flood risk chain from the flood triggering precipitation event, through runoff generation in the catchment, flood routing and possible inundation in the river system and floodplains to flood loss. Conditional cumulative distribution functions and regression tree analysis delineate the seasonal varying flood processes and indicate that the effect of the hydrological pre-conditions, i.e. soil moisture patterns, and of the meteorological conditions, i.e. weather patterns, depends on the considered flood characteristic. The methodology is exemplified for the Elbe catchment. In this catchment, the length of the build-up period, the event duration and the number of gauges undergoing at least a 10-year flood are governed by weather patterns. The affected length and the number of gauges undergoing at least a 2-year flood are however governed by soil moisture patterns. In case of flood severity and loss, the controlling factor is less pronounced. Severity is slightly governed by soil moisture patterns whereas loss is slightly governed by weather patterns. The study highlights that flood magnitude and extent arise from different flood generation processes and concludes that soil moisture patterns as well as weather patterns are not only beneficial to inform on possible flood occurrence but also on the involved flood processes and resulting flood characteristics.

  2. Calibration of stormwater management model using flood extent data

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Kunyeun; Kim, YoungJoo; Kim, Byunhyun; Famiglietti, James S.; Sanders, Brett F.

    2014-01-01

    The Seogu (western) portion of Daegu, Korea experiences chronic urban flooding and there is a need to increase flood detention and storage to reduce flood impacts. Since the site is densely developed, use of an underground car park as a cistern has been proposed. The stormwater management model (SWMM) is applied to study alternative hydraulic designs and overall performance, and it is shown that by linking SWMM to a two-dimensional flood inundation model, SWMM parameters can be calibrated fro...

  3. 76 FR 59960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ..., Arizona, and Incorporated Areas Agua Caliente Split Flow Approximately 1,500 +2584 +2583 Unincorporated... +2593 downstream of the Agua Caliente Wash divergence. Agua Caliente Spur Flow Approximately 0.5 mile... mile +2623 +2624 upstream of East Tanque Verde Road. Agua Caliente Wash Approximately 130 feet...

  4. 77 FR 29678 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ....bakeraecom.com/index.php/florida/sumter-2/ City of Bushnell Code Compliance Division, 117 East Joe P... at: http://www.bakeraecom.com/index.php/south-dakota/mccook/ City of Salem City Hall, 400 North...

  5. 78 FR 72920 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... regarding the SRP process can be found online at http://floodsrp.org/pdfs/srp_fact_sheet.pdf . The... Department, 121 Southwest Flagler Avenue, Stuart, FL 34994. Town of Jupiter Island Town Hall, 2...

  6. 78 FR 14578 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Earth Band of Minnesota Chippewa White Earth Tribal Indian. Administration, 35500 Eagle View Road, Ogema... Secretary's Office, 1705 Maple Street, Homestead, PA 15120. Borough of White Oak Borough Municipal Building, 2280 Lincoln Way, White Oak, PA 15131. Borough of Whitehall Whitehall Borough Complex, 100 Borough...

  7. 76 FR 23528 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Outlet and Snell Creek confluence. Lake Marion Creek Outlet At the Lake Marion None +67 Unincorporated Areas of Creek and Snell Creek Polk County. confluence. At the Lake Marion None +68 confluence. Lake...--ICPR Node 28W91. Polk County. Snell Creek At the Lake Marion None +67 Unincorporated Areas of Creek and...

  8. 75 FR 23642 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Havana. Approximately 600 feet north of Hurst Street/ East boundary: Approximately 125 feet west of... 330 feet east of Pearl Street extended. Ponding North boundary: None +460 City of Havana... Street and Hurst Street. Ponding North boundary: None +460 City of Havana. Approximately 100 feet south...

  9. 76 FR 5769 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... +1249 City of Rogers. feet downstream of Willow Ridge Way. At the upstream side of None +1313 Mills Lane... Street. Unnamed Tributary to Puppy Creek.... Approximately 370 feet None +1273 City of Lowell. upstream... Township of Allegheny. upstream of Mill Road. Approximately 0.69 mile None +1141 upstream of Mill...

  10. 75 FR 62061 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ..., these elevations, once finalized, will be used by insurance agents and others to calculate appropriate... Cecil County. Egypt Road. Approximately 977 feet +259 +260 downstream of Elbow Road. Dogwood Run At...

  11. 75 FR 68744 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... the Gilmer County Courthouse, 1 Broad Street, Ellijay, GA 30540. La Porte County, Indiana, and..., Unincorporated Areas of La Porte County. Lake Michigan Entire shoreline within +587 +585 Town of Long Beach... Shores, City of Drive. Michigan City, Unincorporated Areas of La Porte County. Approximately 1,840...

  12. 75 FR 62048 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. ** BFEs to be changed include the listed... the I-35 Polk County. crossing. Approximately 1.6 mile +831 +833 upstream of the I-35 crossing... Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. ** BFEs to be changed include the listed downstream...

  13. 75 FR 67304 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Street, Rockvale, CO 81244. Town of Williamsburg Maps are available for inspection at 1 John Street..., City of Lambertville, Township of Alexandria, Township of Delaware, Township of Holland, Township of.... Musconetcong River At the confluence with +158 +159 Township of Holland. the Delaware River. Approximately 1...

  14. 75 FR 75945 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ..., these elevations, once finalized, will be used by insurance agents and others to calculate appropriate... 2nd Street and of Skagit County. 3rd Street. At the intersection of 1 +39 Freeway Drive and Cameron...

  15. 75 FR 61377 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ..., these elevations, once finalized, will be used by insurance agents and others to calculate appropriate... Cameron Ditch At the confluence with +1007 +1009 City of Blair. the Missouri River. Just downstream of...

  16. 75 FR 29219 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ..., these elevations, once finalized, will be used by insurance agents and others to calculate appropriate... South Van Dorn Street. Approximately +94 +95 600 feet upstream of South Van Dorn Street. Cameron Run... +84 +90 of I-395. Hooffs Run At the +11 +12 confluence with Cameron Run. Approximately None +18 260...

  17. 76 FR 45485 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...Gilligan Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River), Ohio River, Phelps Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River), Phelps Creek Tributary 2 (backwater effects from Ohio River), Sandy Creek (backwater effects... (backwater effects from Ohio River), McGilligan Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River), Phelps...

  18. 78 FR 48703 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ..., Pittsburgh, PA 15205. Borough of Dravosburg Borough Building, 226 Maple Avenue, Dravosburg, PA 15034. Borough.... Borough of Etna Etna Borough Office, 437 Butler Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15223. Borough of Forest Hills Forest Hills Borough Building, 2071 Ardmore Boulevard, Pittsburgh, PA 15221. Borough of Fox Chapel Fox...

  19. 76 FR 50443 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... feet downstream of the Maple Street Bridge. Matfield River At the Bridge Street None +33 Town of East... Forest Road Bridge. At the Hockomock River None +63 confluence. Tributary A Just upstream of the None +71...

  20. 75 FR 29238 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    .... Approximately 125 feet None +1,412 downstream of Forest Avenue. West Branch Susquehanna River... Maple Pierce County. Avenue (County Highway S). At Maple Avenue (County None +833 Highway S). * National...

  1. 76 FR 73537 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Pelham, Unincorporated Forest Circle. Areas of Shelby County. Approximately 730 feet None +499 upstream... Newnan. confluence. Approximately 700 feet +931 +928 upstream of Maple Drive. Tributary 2 to Wahoo Creek...

  2. 75 FR 28511 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    .... approximately 340 feet upstream of Forest Oak Church Road. Cypress Creek (Backwater effects From approximately 0... Maple Street. Approximately 1,500 None +764 feet upstream of Maple Street. Shiawassee River...

  3. 76 FR 20606 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Yakima. Walmart Overflow 1. Creek confluence. Approximately 1,307 None +1158 feet upstream of South 64th Avenue. Shaw Creek--Wide Hollow Creek At the Wide Hollow None +1149 City of Yakima. Walmart Overflow...

  4. 77 FR 76998 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... River), Tallow Branch (backwater effects from Green River), Welch Creek (backwater effects from Green... effects from Green River), Tallow Branch (backwater effects from Green River), Welch Creek (backwater... Butler County. to approximately 0.6 mile upstream of the confluence with Tallow Branch. Little...

  5. 75 FR 31368 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Old Unincorporated Areas Tucson Road. of Santa Cruz County. Approximately 100 feet +3873 +3872... Main Street, Danville, KY 40422. ] Logan County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas Proctor Branch Approximately 400 feet None +525 City of Russellville, upstream of Bismarck Unincorporated Areas Lane. of...

  6. 76 FR 70386 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... feet +226 +225 City of Montgomery. effects from Camp Creek). upstream of the Camp Creek confluence... that the community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect in order to... None +196 City of Montgomery. (backwater effects from Baldwin confluence. Slough). At the...

  7. 76 FR 50960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... 1.5 miles None +65 upstream of Beaman Old Creek Road. Cow Branch At the Nahunta Swamp +61 +60 Unincorpo rated Areas confluence. of Greene County. Approximately 2.1 miles None +114 upstream of Cow Branch... County. Approximately 0.4 mile None +54 upstream of Jolly Road. Indian Well Swamp Approximately 0.8 mile...

  8. 76 FR 46705 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Saffron None +45 Unincorporated Areas of Avenue to the north, Lake County. State Route 44 to the east, and... west. Multiple Ponding Areas Area bound by Saffron None +48 Unincorporated Areas of Avenue to the north... Ponding Areas Area bound by Saffron None +49 Unincorporated Areas of Avenue to the north, Lake...

  9. 76 FR 26968 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376.... Approximately 0.5 mile None +860 downstream of North Home Avenue. Holmes Creek At the Fishing River +770 +763... +865 +863 upstream of County Road BB. Old Maids Creek Approximately 980 feet None +896 City...

  10. 78 FR 5826 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ..., 26 Corte Madera Avenue, Mill Valley, CA 94941. City of San Rafael Public Works Department, 111..., CA 94920. Town of Corte Madera Engineering Department, 233 Tamalpais Drive, Corte Madera, CA 94976...

  11. 75 FR 55515 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... feet None +1098 Town of Lehman. downstream of Shady Lane. Approximately 410 feet None +1099 downstream... downstream of I-81. Pikes Creek Approximately 815 feet None +1127 Town of Lehman. downstream of State Route... inspection at City Hall, 40 East Market Street, Wilkes-Barre, PA 18711. Town of Lehman Maps are available...

  12. 75 FR 67317 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... County Courthouse, 208 Main Street, Newport, AR 72112. Hernando County, Florida, and Incorporated Areas... Unincorporated Areas Pond Road (at Junction of Hernando County. 1NP0170). Approximately 100 feet None +236... +56 City of Brooksville, downstream of Unincorporated Areas Weatherly Road (at of Hernando...

  13. 78 FR 58334 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... preliminaryfloodhazarddata City of Au Gres City Hall, 124 West Huron Road, Au Gres, MI 48703. City of Omer City Hall, 201... 48658. Township of Arenac Township Office, 2596 State Road, Standish, MI 48658. Township of Au Gres Township Office, 1865 Swenson Road, Au Gres, MI 48703. Township of Clayton Township Office, 1057 Dobler...

  14. 78 FR 28888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Harmony Town Hall, 520 Church Street, New Harmony, IN 47631. Unincorporated Areas of Posey County... Posey... Inspection Online at: www.starr-team.com/starr/RegionalWorkspaces/RegionVII/HowardCounty/SitePages/Home.aspx... Inspection Online at:...

  15. 76 FR 21693 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Grove. Approximately 30 feet None +771 downstream of Durand Avenue (State Highway 11). Unnamed Tributary... Plaines River. Racine County. Approximately 2,750 None +762 feet upstream of Durand Avenue (State Highway... Hall, 6126 Durand Avenue, Racine, Wisconsin 53406. Village of Sturtevant Maps are available...

  16. 75 FR 31347 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... +336 upstream of the Brono Road bridge. Resurrection River At the confluence with +17 +16 City of Seward, Kenai Resurrection Bay. Peninsula Borough. Approximately 1.6 mile +75 +74 upstream of the Alaskan... +17 +16 City of Seward, Kenai Resurrection Bay. Peninsula Borough. At the confluence with None +189...

  17. 78 FR 36220 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., Groves, TX 77619. City of Nederland Inspections Department, 1903 Atlanta Avenue, Nederland, TX 77627... Department, 324 North Memorial Freeway, Nederland, TX 77627. Unincorporated Areas of Jefferson...

  18. 75 FR 62057 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    .... feet downstream of the Access Road Bridge. Approximately 100 feet None +647 downstream of the Access Road Bridge. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above... Brooklyn Branch At the confluence with None +457 City of Forney. Mustang Creek. Approximately 1,382 None...

  19. 76 FR 8965 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Unincorporated Areas of feet downstream of Platte County. Water Treatment Plant Road. Approximately 1,400 None +822 feet downstream of Water Treatment Plant Road. Walnut Creek At the Rush Creek +764 +768 City of... Road. Hunter Branch At the South Fork None +235 Unincorporated Areas of Edisto River Aiken County...

  20. 75 FR 55507 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Shore Road Village of Blasdell. culvert. At the upstream Village None +591 of Blasdell/City of... Approximately 260 feet None +1,220 Township of Rose. upstream of the confluence with Sandy Lick Creek... mile None +1,212 downstream of White Street. Sandy Lick Creek Approximately 0.28 mile None +1,216...

  1. 75 FR 68738 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    .... Township of Hopewell. Approximately 0.4 mile +47 +46 upstream of State Route 29 (River Road). Miry Run At... within None +605 City of Bayfield, City community. of Washburn, Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa... Maps are available for inspection at 119 Washington Avenue, Washburn, WI 54891. Red Cliff Band of...

  2. 75 FR 5909 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... City of Crossett. feet downstream of Main Street. Approximately 1,200 None +131 feet downstream of Main...., Washington, DC 20472. ADDRESSES City of Crossett Maps are available for inspection at City Hall, Main Street, Crossett, AR 71635. Hempstead County, Arkansas, and Incorporated Areas Black Branch Approximately 0.60...

  3. 78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1330, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  4. 78 FR 36217 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1325, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  5. 77 FR 56669 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other pertinent sciences established to...

  6. 78 FR 36222 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1326, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  7. 78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1309, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  8. 78 FR 20343 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1304, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other pertinent sciences established to...

  9. 77 FR 39721 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... support of the appeal resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology,...

  10. 77 FR 55856 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1266, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  11. 78 FR 8181 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1281, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other pertinent sciences established to...

  12. 78 FR 43908 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1334, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  13. 78 FR 36215 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1321, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  14. 77 FR 58560 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1270, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  15. 78 FR 43909 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1333, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  16. 78 FR 29768 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1311, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  17. 77 FR 73490 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1275, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  18. 78 FR 43907 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1336, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  19. 78 FR 20344 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1300, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other pertinent sciences established to...

  20. 78 FR 36213 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1329, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  1. 77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1259, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of ] experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  2. 78 FR 58338 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1347, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  3. 78 FR 8177 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1293, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other pertinent sciences established to...

  4. 77 FR 31372 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1255, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  5. 77 FR 27076 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1254, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  6. 77 FR 50709 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1263, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  7. 77 FR 76501 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... support of the appeal resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology,...

  8. 78 FR 28891 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1312, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  9. 78 FR 43910 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1339, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  10. 78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1344, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  11. 77 FR 58562 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1267 to Luis ] Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  12. 78 FR 14584 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1296, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other pertinent sciences established to...

  13. 77 FR 40627 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1258, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  14. 77 FR 21791 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1247, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other pertinent sciences established to...

  15. 78 FR 8179 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1284, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other pertinent sciences established to...

  16. 78 FR 20339 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1301, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other pertinent sciences established to...

  17. 78 FR 36212 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1323, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... resolution process. SRPs are independent panels of experts in hydrology, hydraulics, and other...

  18. 77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Inspection Online at: http://www.rampp-team.com/nm.htm City of Clovis Administrative Office, 321 North Connelly Street, Clovis, NM 88101. Unincorporated Areas of Curry County... Curry County Administrative Office, 700 North Main Street, Clovis, NM 88101. Orangeburg County, South Carolina, and...

  19. 78 FR 20939 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ..., 130 South Laurel Street, Springfield, GA 31329. Town of Guyton City Hall, 310 Central Boulevard, Guyton, GA 31312. Unincorporated Areas of Effingham Effingham County Administrative County. Complex, 601...

  20. 76 FR 1121 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Falls, confluence. City of Seaforth, City of Vesta, Unincorporated Areas of Redwood County... Seaforth Maps are available for inspection at 205 Oak Street, Seaforth, MN 56287. City of Vesta Maps are available for inspection at 150 Front Street West, Vesta, MN 56292. Unincorporated Areas of Redwood...

  1. 77 FR 46104 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    .... City of McKinney Engineering Department, 221 North Tennessee Street, McKinney, TX 75069. City of Plano City Hall, Engineering Department, 1520 Avenue K, Plano, TX 75074. City of Richardson Civic...

  2. 75 FR 31377 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ..., Bozeman, MT 59771. ] Lincoln County, New Mexico, and Incorporated Areas Brady Canyon At the confluence... Unincorporated Areas Sugar Grove Road. of Fairfield County. Approximately 650 None +886 feet upstream of...

  3. 76 FR 36044 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... County. Approximately 1.0 mile None +606 upstream of Ghost Creek Road. Little River Tributary 1 At the.... Approximately 0.6 mile None +670 upstream of Pamela Lane. Shell Creek Approximately 1,330 None +541 City...

  4. 76 FR 8984 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... downstream of Trinity Drive. Fritz Cove At the southern end of None 23 City and Borough of Mendenhall... of the Juneau. intersection of Engineers Cutoff Road and Mendenhall Peninsula Road. Approximately 0.5... miles None 106 upstream of Glacier Highway. Mendenhall River Approximately 1.14 None 23 City and Borough...

  5. 77 FR 73394 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... + 1226 downstream of the intersection of Craig Street and Garden Avenue. Approximately 0.2 mile None + 1226 downstream of the intersection of Craig Street and Garden Avenue. Approximately 0.38 mile None.... * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean...

  6. 78 FR 22222 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... downstream of the intersection of Craig Street and Garden Avenue. Approximately 0.2 mile None +1226 downstream of the intersection of Craig Street and Garden Avenue. Approximately 0.38 mile None +1226.... * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean...

  7. 76 FR 13572 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... County. Road and Calhoun Road. Approximately 400 feet 3 +30 south of the levee between Moores Garden Road... Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to...

  8. 75 FR 59181 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Philipstown. downstream of U.S. Route 9. Approximately 1.6 mile None +517 upstream of Briars Road. Croton.... Croton Falls Reservoir Entire shoreline....... None +311 Town of Carmel, Town of Southeast. East Branch Croton River At the confluence with +311 +310 Town of Southeast, the Croton Falls Village of...

  9. 77 FR 67016 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... change any existing ordinances that are more stringent in their floodplain management requirements. The... Osage County, Oklahoma, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: http://riskmap6... 39232. City of Jackson Department of Public Works, 200 South President Street, Jackson, MS 39205....

  10. 77 FR 50668 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Creek Tributary M-C.2, Wiggins Creek, and Willow Creek. DATES: Comments are to be submitted on or before... Creek Tributary M-C.2, Wiggins Creek, and Willow Creek. That table contained inaccurate information as... Old Bullard Road. Wiggins Creek At the downstream side None +327 Unincorporated Areas of of...

  11. 75 FR 31361 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Incorporated Areas Church House Branch Approximately 0.5 mile None +211 City of Wiggins. downstream of East 5th... feet None +171 City of Wiggins, downstream of Unincorporated Areas Clubhouse Drive. of Stone County... None +174 City of Wiggins. Flint Creek. Approximately 350 feet None +254 upstream of Annis Lane....

  12. 77 FR 73393 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ..., Hazel Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River), Humphrey Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River..., Hazel Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River), Humphrey Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River... upstream of confluence with Shawnee Creek Slough. Hazel Creek (backwater effects from From the confluence...

  13. 76 FR 54415 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... River), Mud Camp Creek (backwater effects from Cumberland River), Otter Creek (backwater effects from... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal....rodriguez1@dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management...

  14. 78 FR 57646 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1343, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal... (email) Luis.Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief... Avenue, 3rd Floor, Houston, TX 77002. City of Jacinto City Jacinto City City Hall, 1301 Mercury...

  15. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    .... Village of Hartland Village Hall, 210 Cottonwood Avenue, Hartland, WI 53029. Village of Merton Village Hall, N67W28343 Sussex Road, Merton, WI 53056. Village of Nashotah Village Hall, N44W32950...

  16. 78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... of Madison City Hall, 210 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, Room 403, Madison, WI 53703. City of.... Unincorporated Areas of Dane County.... City County Building, 210 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, Room 116... Land County. Use and Planning, 1600 Southeast 190th Avenue, Portland, OR 97214. King County,...

  17. 75 FR 29268 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... the Buchanan County, confluence with Village of Lewis And Blacksnake Creek. Clark. Mitchell Avenue... Street, St. Joseph, MO 64501. Village of Lewis And Clark Maps are available for inspection at the Village.... Anderson County. Approximately 2,900 None +620 feet upstream of Gene Forester Road. Canoe Creek Tributary 6...

  18. 75 FR 59184 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... by None *31 City of Deltona. Leland Drive to the north and west, Fisher Drive to the south, and..., Parma Drive to the west, Lake Helen Osteen Road to the south, and Snow Drive to the east. Ponding Area... Boulevard to the south, and Lake Helen Osteen Road to the east. Ponding Area 33 Ponding area bounded by...

  19. 76 FR 58436 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... to Cole County. River). approximately 0.58 mile upstream of State Route 179. Moreau River (backwater... approximately 750 feet downstream of Missouri Pacific Railroad. Moreau River Tributary 6 At the upstream side...

  20. 78 FR 78993 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... location and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in the table below. Additionally, the..., together with the floodplain management criteria required by 44 CFR 60.3, are the minimum that are required... each community are available for inspection at both the online location and the respective...

  1. 75 FR 61373 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... inspection at the Old Shawneetown Village Hall, 332 Washington Street, Shawneetown, IL 62984. ] Hardin County... upstream of IL-1. Hardin County. Approximately 1.92 mile None +366 upstream of IL-1. Ohio River... (River of Hardin County, Mile 894). Village of Elizabethtown. Approximately 1.97 mile +358 +359...

  2. 76 FR 8978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Unincorpora (backwater Doxies ted Areas effects from Creek of Chariton Missouri River). confluence County. to... ly 225 feet downstream of U.S. Route 24 Doxies Creek From +633 +631 Unincorpora (backwater...

  3. 77 FR 74859 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Keystone Heights City Hall, 555 South Lawrence Boulevard, Keystone Heights, FL 32656. Town of Orange Park Town Hall, Economic and Community Development Department, 2042 Park Avenue, Orange Park, FL 32073. Town... Rensselaer Street, Rensselaer, IN 47978. Town of DeMotte Town Hall, 112 Carnation Street SE., DeMotte,...

  4. 75 FR 29290 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... with the floodplain management criteria required by 44 CFR 60.3, are the minimum that are required... rule is not a significant regulatory action under the criteria of section 3(f) of Executive Order 12866.... ] Approximately 0.57 mile None +166 upstream of Disney Road. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North...

  5. 75 FR 81957 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... the confluence with Shaver Creek. Juniata River Approximately 1.72 miles None +638 Township of Porter... are available for inspection at the Logan Township Building, 7228 Diamond Valley, Alexandria, PA 16611..., Huntingdon, PA 16652. Township of Porter Maps are available for inspection at the Porter Township...

  6. 75 FR 29253 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    .... Washington County. Approximately 100 feet None +109 downstream of State Road 77. Flat Creek At the confluence... Elevation in meters (MSL) Existing Modified City of Hampton, Virginia Virginia City of Hampton... ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. ** BFEs to be changed include the...

  7. 76 FR 46701 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Town Hall, 6 Holland Street, Moultonborough, NH 03254. Town of Ossipee Maps are available for..., Mitigation, Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency. BILLING CODE 9110-12-P ...

  8. 75 FR 6600 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Andrew County, City Buchanan County of Amazonia. boundary. Approximately 1,200 *831 +833 feet downstream... Street, SW., Washington, DC 20472. ADDRESSES City of Amazonia Maps are available for inspection at 441 Spring Street, Amazonia, MO 64421. ] Unincorporated Areas of Andrew County Maps are available...

  9. 77 FR 25495 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Livermore Falls Town Office, 2 Main Street, Livermore Falls, ME 04254. Town of Mechanic Falls Town Office, 108 Lewiston Street, Mechanic Falls, ME 04256. Town of Minot Town Office, 329 Woodman Hill Road,...

  10. 77 FR 44651 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ....bakeraecom.com/index.php/florida/manatee/ City of Anna Maria City Hall, 10005 Gulf Drive, Anna Maria, FL....php/montana/ravalli/ City of Hamilton 202 South 3rd Street, Hamilton, MT 59840. City of...

  11. Characterization of remarkable floods in France, a transdisciplinary approach applied on generalized floods of January 1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudou, Martin; Lang, Michel; Vinet, Freddy; Coeur, Denis

    2014-05-01

    The 2007 Flood Directive promotes the integration and valorization of historical and significant floods in flood risk management (Flood Directive Text, chapter II, and article 4). Taking into account extreme past floods analysis seems necessary in the mitigation process of vulnerability face to flooding risk. In France, this aspect of the Directive was carried out through the elaboration of Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment (PFRA) and the establishment of a 2000 floods list. From this first list, a sample of 176 floods, considered as remarkable has been selected. These floods were compiled in discussion with local authorities in charge of flood management (Lang et al., 2012) and have to be integrated in priority in local risk management policies. However, a consideration emerges about this classification: how a remarkable flood can be defined? According which criteria can it be considered as remarkable? To answer these questions, a methodology has been established by building an evaluation grid of remarkable floods in France. The primary objective of this grid is to analyze the remarkable flood's characteristics (hydrological and meteorological characteristics, sociological- political and economic impacts), and secondly to propose a classification of significant floods selected in the 2011 PFRA. To elaborate this evaluation grid, several issues had to be taken into account. First, the objective is to allow the comparison of events from various periods. These temporal disparities include the integration of various kinds of data and point out the importance of historical hydrology. It is possible to evaluate accurately the characteristics of recent floods by interpreting quantitative data (for example hydrological records. However, for floods that occurred before the 1960's it is necessary resorting to qualitative information such as written sources is necessary (Coeur, Lang, 2008). In a second part the evaluation grid requires equitable criteria in order not to

  12. Assessing infrastructure vulnerability to major floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes a method for assessing the direct effects of serious floods on a physical infrastructure or utility. This method should be useful in contingency planning and in the design of structures likely to be damaged by flooding. A review is given of (1) methods of floodplain management and strategies for mitigating floods, (2) methods of risk analysis that will become increasingly important in flood management, (3) methods for hydraulic computations, (4) a variety of scour assessment methods and (5) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to the analysis of flood vulnerability. Three computer codes were developed: CULVCAP computes the headwater level for circular and box culverts, SCOUR for assessing riprap stability and scour depths, and FASTFLOOD prepares input rainfall series and input files for the rainfall-runoff model used in the case study. A road system in central Norway was chosen to study how to analyse the flood vulnerability of an infrastructure. Finally, the thesis proposes a method for analysing the flood vulnerability of physical infrastructure. The method involves a general stage that will provide data on which parts of the infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to flooding and how to analyse them, and a specific stage which is concerned with analysing one particular kind of physical infrastructure in a study area. 123 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs= .

  13. National flood modelling for insurance purposes: using IFSAR for flood risk estimation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sanders

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk poses a major problem for insurers and governments who ultimately pay the financial costs of losses resulting from flood events. Insurers therefore face the problem of how to assess their exposure to floods and how best to price the flood element of their insurance products. This paper looks at the insurance implications of recent flood events in Europe and the issues surrounding insurance of potential future events. In particular, the paper will focus on the flood risk information needs of insurers and how these can be met. The data requirements of national and regional flood models are addressed in the context of the accuracy of available data on property location. Terrain information is generally the weakest component of sophisticated flood models. Therefore, various sources of digital terrain models (DTM are examined and discussed with consideration of the vertical and horizontal accuracy, the speed of acquisition, the costs and the comprehensiveness of the data. The NEXTMap DTM series from Intermap Technologies Inc. is proposed as a suitable DTM for flood risk identification and mapping, following its use in the UK. Its acquisition, processing and application is described and future plans discussed. Examples are included of the application of flood information to insurance property information and the potential benefits and advantages of using suitable hazard modelling data sources are detailed.

  14. Flood Mapping Using InSAR Coherence Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, S.; Ben Abdallah, W.; Abdelfatteh, R.

    2014-09-01

    Classic approaches for the detection of flooded areas are based on a static analysis of optical images and/or SAR data during and after the event. In this paper, we aim to extract the flooded zones by using the SAR image coupled with the InSAR coherence. A new formulation of the ratio approach for flood detection is given considering InSAR coherence. Our contribution is to take advantage from the coherence map provided using the InSAR pairs (one before and one after the event) to enhance the detection of flooded areas. We explore the fact that the coherence values during and after the flood are mainly differents on the flooded zones and we give a more suitable flood decision rule using this assumption. The proposed approach is tested and validated in the case of the flood taken place in 2005 in the region of Kef in Tunisia.

  15. South China Flooded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  16. Base Flood Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  17. Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  18. Flooding: Prioritizing protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peduzzi, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    With climate change, urban development and economic growth, more assets and infrastructures will be exposed to flooding. Now research shows that investments in flood protection are globally beneficial, but have varied levels of benefit locally.

  19. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  20. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  1. Uncertainty in flood risk mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luisa M. S.; Fonte, Cidália C.; Gomes, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    , which indicates all possible peak flow values and the possibility of their occurrence. To produce the LCM a supervised soft classifier is used to perform the classification of a satellite image and a possibility distribution is assign to the pixels. These extra data provide additional land cover information at the pixel level and allow the assessment of the classification uncertainty, which is then considered in the identification of the parameters uncertainty used to compute peak flow. The proposed approach was applied to produce vulnerability and risk maps that integrate uncertainty in the urban area of Leiria, Portugal. A SPOT - 4 satellite image and DEMs of the region were used and the peak flow was computed using the Soil Conservation Service method. HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, Matlab and ArcGIS software programs were used. The analysis of the results obtained for the presented case study enables the order of magnitude of uncertainty on the watershed peak flow value and the identification of the areas which are more susceptible to flood risk to be identified.

  2. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences: Technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an

  3. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences: Technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an ext

  4. On the Use of Global Flood Forecasts and Satellite-Derived Inundation Maps for Flood Monitoring in Data-Sparse Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Revilla-Romero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early flood warning and real-time monitoring systems play a key role in flood risk reduction and disaster response decisions. Global-scale flood forecasting and satellite-based flood detection systems are currently operating, however their reliability for decision-making applications needs to be assessed. In this study, we performed comparative evaluations of several operational global flood forecasting and flood detection systems, using 10 major flood events recorded over 2012–2014. Specifically, we evaluated the spatial extent and temporal characteristics of flood detections from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS. Furthermore, we compared the GFDS flood maps with those from NASA’s two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensors. Results reveal that: (1 general agreement was found between the GFDS and MODIS flood detection systems, (2 large differences exist in the spatio-temporal characteristics of the GFDS detections and GloFAS forecasts, and (3 the quantitative validation of global flood disasters in data-sparse regions is highly challenging. Overall, satellite remote sensing provides useful near real-time flood information that can be useful for risk management. We highlight the known limitations of global flood detection and forecasting systems, and propose ways forward to improve the reliability of large-scale flood monitoring tools.

  5. Flood management: prediction of microbial contamination in large-scale floods in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathon; Lai, Ka Man; Davies, Mike; Clifton, David; Ridley, Ian; Biddulph, Phillip

    2011-07-01

    With a changing climate and increased urbanisation, the occurrence and the impact of flooding is expected to increase significantly. Floods can bring pathogens into homes and cause lingering damp and microbial growth in buildings, with the level of growth and persistence dependent on the volume and chemical and biological content of the flood water, the properties of the contaminating microbes, and the surrounding environmental conditions, including the restoration time and methods, the heat and moisture transport properties of the envelope design, and the ability of the construction material to sustain the microbial growth. The public health risk will depend on the interaction of these complex processes and the vulnerability and susceptibility of occupants in the affected areas. After the 2007 floods in the UK, the Pitt review noted that there is lack of relevant scientific evidence and consistency with regard to the management and treatment of flooded homes, which not only put the local population at risk but also caused unnecessary delays in the restoration effort. Understanding the drying behaviour of flooded buildings in the UK building stock under different scenarios, and the ability of microbial contaminants to grow, persist, and produce toxins within these buildings can help inform recovery efforts. To contribute to future flood management, this paper proposes the use of building simulations and biological models to predict the risk of microbial contamination in typical UK buildings. We review the state of the art with regard to biological contamination following flooding, relevant building simulation, simulation-linked microbial modelling, and current practical considerations in flood remediation. Using the city of London as an example, a methodology is proposed that uses GIS as a platform to integrate drying models and microbial risk models with the local building stock and flood models. The integrated tool will help local governments, health authorities

  6. Urban pluvial flood prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer

    2016-01-01

    Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numerically both...... historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0–2 h lead time, and numerical weather models with lead times up to 24 h are used as inputs...... to an integrated flood and drainage systems model in order to investigate the relative difference between different inputs in predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been flooded in 2012 and 2014. Results show it is possible to generate detailed flood maps...

  7. Guidelines for the adaptation to floods in changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszkiewicz, Joanna; Romanowicz, Renata J.

    2017-06-01

    A decrease of flood damages in the future requires not only adaptation to flood caused by present day climate, but also climate change effects on floods should be taken into account. The paper illustrates the need to take into account changing climate conditions in flood adaptation strategies and to apply in practice the concept of integrated water resource management (IWRM). IWRM is based on a number of policy instruments, economic instruments, political signals, and also, on the effects of climate change on floods and collaboration across national, regional and local administrative units. The guidelines for a country adaptation to floods in a changing climate are outlined. A comparison of the adaptive capacities in Poland and Norway is used to illustrate the need for the implementation of proposed guidelines to assure flood risk management under climate change in a sustainable way.

  8. Modeling on Flash Flood Disaster Induced by Bed Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Shuyou; LIU Xingnian; HUANG Er; YANG Keiun

    2008-01-01

    Flash floods result from a complex interaction among hydro-meteorological, hydrologi-cal, and hydraulic processes across various spatial and temporal scales. Sichuan Province suffers flash floods frequently owing to mountain weather and topography. A flash flood and gravel bed load transport are two key relative problems in mountain river engineering. Bed materials are often encountered in alternate scouring and deposition in mountain fluvial processes during a flash flood.In this circumstance, CRS-1 bed load numerical model jointly with scale physical model is em-ployed to predict water level and gravel bed scour and deposition for design of flood control dykes and flash flood disaster mitigation. A case study on the mechanism of a flash flood disaster in-duced by bed load transport for a hydropower station in Sichuan Province is conducted. Finally,suggestions to protect the hydropower station are proposed.

  9. Street floods in Metro Manila and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Mendoza, Jerico; Cipriano, Fatima; Delmendo, Patricia Anne; Lacsamana, Micah Nieves; Moises, Marc Anthony; Pellejera, Nicanor; Punay, Kenneth Niño; Sabio, Glenn; Santos, Laurize; Serrano, Jonathan; Taniza, Herbert James; Tingin, Neil Eneri

    2017-09-01

    Urban floods from thunderstorms cause severe problems in Metro Manila due to road traffic. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived topography, flood simulations and anecdotal reports, the root of surface flood problems in Metro Manila is identified. Majority of flood-prone areas are along the intersection of creeks and streets located in topographic lows. When creeks overflow or when rapidly accumulated street flood does not drain fast enough to the nearest stream channel, the intersecting road also gets flooded. Possible solutions include the elevation of roads or construction of well-designed drainage structures leading to the creeks. Proposed solutions to the flood problem of Metro Manila may avoid paralyzing traffic problems due to short-lived rain events, which according to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) cost the Philippine economy 2.4billionpesos/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. FloodNet: Coupling Adaptive Sampling with Energy Aware Routing in a Flood Warning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhou; David De Roure

    2007-01-01

    We describe the design of FloodNet, a flood warning system, which uses a grid-based flood predictor model developed by environmental experts to make flood predictions based on readings of water level collected by a set of sensor nodes.To optimize battery consumption, the reporting frequency of sensor nodes is required to be adaptive to local conditions as well as the flood predictor model.We therefore propose an energy aware routing protocol which allows sensor nodes to consume energy according to this need.This system is notable both for the adaptive sampling regime and the methodology adopted in the design of the adaptive behavior, which involved development of simulation tools and very close collaboration with environmental experts.

  11. An experimental system for flood risk forecasting at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, L.; Dottori, F.; Kalas, M.; Lorini, V.; Bianchi, A.; Hirpa, F. A.; Feyen, L.; Salamon, P.

    2016-12-01

    Global flood forecasting and monitoring systems are nowadays a reality and are being applied by an increasing range of users and practitioners in disaster risk management. Furthermore, there is an increasing demand from users to integrate flood early warning systems with risk based forecasts, combining streamflow estimations with expected inundated areas and flood impacts. To this end, we have developed an experimental procedure for near-real time flood mapping and impact assessment based on the daily forecasts issued by the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The methodology translates GloFAS streamflow forecasts into event-based flood hazard maps based on the predicted flow magnitude and the forecast lead time and a database of flood hazard maps with global coverage. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information to derive flood risk. Impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, and affected population, infrastructures and cities. To further increase the reliability of the proposed methodology we integrated model-based estimations with an innovative methodology for social media monitoring, which allows for real-time verification of impact forecasts. The preliminary tests provided good results and showed the potential of the developed real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management. In particular, the link with social media is crucial for improving the accuracy of impact predictions.

  12. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  13. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment using a time series of satellite images: a case study in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the use of time series of satellite imagery to flood hazard mapping and flood risk assessment is presented. Flooded areas are extracted from satellite images for the flood-prone territory, and a maximum flood extent image for each flood event is produced. These maps are further fused to determine relative frequency of inundation (RFI). The study shows that RFI values and relative water depth exhibit the same probabilistic distribution, which is confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The produced RFI map can be used as a flood hazard map, especially in cases when flood modeling is complicated by lack of available data and high uncertainties. The derived RFI map is further used for flood risk assessment. Efficiency of the presented approach is demonstrated for the Katima Mulilo region (Namibia). A time series of Landsat-5/7 satellite images acquired from 1989 to 2012 is processed to derive RFI map using the presented approach. The following direct damage categories are considered in the study for flood risk assessment: dwelling units, roads, health facilities, and schools. The produced flood risk map shows that the risk is distributed uniformly all over the region. The cities and villages with the highest risk are identified. The proposed approach has minimum data requirements, and RFI maps can be generated rapidly to assist rescuers and decisionmakers in case of emergencies. On the other hand, limitations include: strong dependence on the available data sets, and limitations in simulations with extrapolated water depth values.

  14. RASOR flood modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the

  15. NASA Global Flood Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli, Fritz; Slayback, Dan; Brakenridge, Bob; Nigro, Joe; Hubbard, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Product utility key factors: Near real time, automated production; Flood spatial extent Cloudiness Pixel resolution: 250m; Flood temporal extent; Flash floods short duration on ground?; Landcover--Water under vegetation cover vs open water

  16. Framework for probabilistic flood risk assessment in an Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Klaus; Huttenlau, Matthias; Steinberger, Thomas; Achleitner, Stefan; Stötter, Johann

    2014-05-01

    Flooding is among the natural hazards that regularly cause significant losses to property and human lives. The assessment of flood risk delivers crucial information for all participants involved in flood risk management and especially for local authorities and insurance companies in order to estimate the possible flood losses. Therefore a framework for assessing flood risk has been developed and is introduced with the presented contribution. Flood risk is thereby defined as combination of the probability of flood events and of potential flood damages. The probability of occurrence is described through the spatial and temporal characterisation of flood. The potential flood damages are determined in the course of vulnerability assessment, whereas, the exposure and the vulnerability of the elements at risks are considered. Direct costs caused by flooding with the focus on residential building are analysed. The innovative part of this contribution lies on the development of a framework which takes the probability of flood events and their spatio-temporal characteristic into account. Usually the probability of flooding will be determined by means of recurrence intervals for an entire catchment without any spatial variation. This may lead to a misinterpretation of the flood risk. Within the presented framework the probabilistic flood risk assessment is based on analysis of a large number of spatial correlated flood events. Since the number of historic flood events is relatively small additional events have to be generated synthetically. This temporal extrapolation is realised by means of the method proposed by Heffernan and Tawn (2004). It is used to generate a large number of possible spatial correlated flood events within a larger catchment. The approach is based on the modelling of multivariate extremes considering the spatial dependence structure of flood events. The input for this approach are time series derived from river gauging stations. In a next step the

  17. On Flood Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    lina braces fora particularly dangerous flood season in the wake of disastrous rainstorms Aseries of heavy storms since early May led to severe flooding and landslides in south and southwest China,causing heavy casualties and economic losses. Severe convective weather such as downpours,

  18. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  19. 76 FR 37893 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards AGENCY: Office of Thrift... collection. Title of Proposal: Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards. OMB Number: 1550-0088....

  20. A method for mapping flood hazard along roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-01-15

    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways.

  1. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  2. Improving flood risk mapping in Italy: the FloodRisk open-source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Raffaele; Mancusi, Leonardo; Craciun, Iulia; Sole, Aurelia; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    management process, enhancing their awareness. This FOSS approach can promotes transparency and accountability through a process of "guided discovery". Moreover, the immediacy with which information is presented by the qualitative flood risk map, can facilitate and speed up the process of knowledge acquisition. An application of FloodRisk model is showed on a pilot case in "Serio" Valley, (North Italy), and its strengths and limits, in terms of additional efforts required in its application compared with EDQ procedure, have been highlighted focusing on the utility of the results provided for the development of FRMPs. Although they still present limits which prevent the FloodRisk application without critically consider the peculiarities of the investigated area in terms of available knowledge on hazard, exposure and vulnerability, the proposed approach surely produces an increase in available knowledge of flood risk and its drivers. This further information cannot be neglected for defining risk mitigation objectives and strategies. Hence, considering the ongoing efforts in the improvement of data availability and quality, FloodRisk could be a suitable tool for the next revision of flood risk maps due by December 2019, supporting effectively Italian and EU practitioners in the delineation of FRMPs (and for flood risk management in general).

  3. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  4. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  5. Imprecise probabilistic estimation of design floods with epistemic uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Fu, Guangtao; Zhou, Huicheng

    2016-06-01

    An imprecise probabilistic framework for design flood estimation is proposed on the basis of the Dempster-Shafer theory to handle different epistemic uncertainties from data, probability distribution functions, and probability distribution parameters. These uncertainties are incorporated in cost-benefit analysis to generate the lower and upper bounds of the total cost for flood control, thus presenting improved information for decision making on design floods. Within the total cost bounds, a new robustness criterion is proposed to select a design flood that can tolerate higher levels of uncertainty. A variance decomposition approach is used to quantify individual and interactive impacts of the uncertainty sources on total cost. Results from three case studies, with 127, 104, and 54 year flood data sets, respectively, show that the imprecise probabilistic approach effectively combines aleatory and epistemic uncertainties from the various sources and provides upper and lower bounds of the total cost. Between the total cost and the robustness of design floods, a clear trade-off which is beyond the information that can be provided by the conventional minimum cost criterion is identified. The interactions among data, distributions, and parameters have a much higher contribution than parameters to the estimate of the total cost. It is found that the contributions of the various uncertainty sources and their interactions vary with different flood magnitude, but remain roughly the same with different return periods. This study demonstrates that the proposed methodology can effectively incorporate epistemic uncertainties in cost-benefit analysis of design floods.

  6. Intelligent Real-Time Reservoir Operation for Flood Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L.; Hsu, H.

    2008-12-01

    Real-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. It is a continuous and instant decision-making process based on relevant operating rules, policy and water laws, in addition the immediate rainfall and the hydrology information; however, it is difficult to learn the intelligent experience from the elder operators. The main purpose of this study is to establish the automatic reservoir flood control model to achieve the goal of a reservoir operation during flood periods. In this study, we propose an intelligent reservoir operating methodology for real-time flood control. First, the genetic algorithm is used to search the optimal solutions, which can be considered as extracting the knowledge of reservoir operation strategies. Then, the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), which uses a hybrid learning procedure for extracting knowledge in the form of fuzzy if-then rules, is used to learn the input-output patterns and then to estimate the optimal flood operation. The Shihmen reservoir in Northern Taiwan was used as a case study, where its 26 typhoon events are investigated by the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed control model can perform much better than the original reservoir operator in 26 flood events and effectively achieve decreasing peak flood stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage.

  7. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  8. A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet

  9. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  10. Nogales flood detention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  11. Estimation of the relative severity of floods in small ungauged catchments for preliminary observations on flash flood preparedness: a case study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

    2012-04-01

    An increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration has caused significant danger and loss of life and property in Korea as well as many other parts of the World. Since such floods usually accompanied by rapid runoff and debris flow rise quite quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage, this study presents a new flash flood indexing methodology to promptly provide preliminary observations regarding emergency preparedness and response to flash flood disasters in small ungauged catchments. Flood runoff hydrographs are generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the annual maximum rainfall series of long-term observed data in the two selected small ungauged catchments. The relative flood severity factors quantifying characteristics of flood runoff hydrographs are standardized by the highest recorded maximum value, and then averaged to obtain the flash flood index only for flash flood events in each study catchment. It is expected that the regression equations between the proposed flash flood index and rainfall characteristics can provide the basis database of the preliminary information for forecasting the local flood severity in order to facilitate flash flood preparedness in small ungauged catchments.

  12. FLOODPLAIN, FLOOD COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  13. Localized Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    practitioners will cover a range of practices that can help communities build flood resilience, from small scale interventions such as rain gardens and permeable pavement to coordinated open space and floodplain preservation

  14. Floods and Mold Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold growth may be a problem after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for pests, molds and other microorganisms.

  15. Real-time simulation of large-scale floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Qin, Y.; Li, G. D.; Liu, Z.; Cheng, D. J.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2016-08-01

    According to the complex real-time water situation, the real-time simulation of large-scale floods is very important for flood prevention practice. Model robustness and running efficiency are two critical factors in successful real-time flood simulation. This paper proposed a robust, two-dimensional, shallow water model based on the unstructured Godunov- type finite volume method. A robust wet/dry front method is used to enhance the numerical stability. An adaptive method is proposed to improve the running efficiency. The proposed model is used for large-scale flood simulation on real topography. Results compared to those of MIKE21 show the strong performance of the proposed model.

  16. The Terrible Flood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1998-01-01

    Dear Xiao Lan. ’Several times a week, no matter which of the major television news networksI turn to, the screen is filled with tragic pictures of flooding along the YangtzeRiver, and I grieve for the suffering people whose lives are being so terriblydisrupted by this disaster. Even more to be grieved is the terrible number of peoplewho have been killed by the floods and their effects.

  17. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  18. Review Paper on Flooding Attack in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchita Meher,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is widely applicable in various areas like military services, civilian environments and emergency operations. The issues in MANET are broadcasting, clustering, mobility management, bandwidth management and power management. Broadcasting becomes an important issue in MANET for route information discovery. The different routing attacks in MANET are flooding, black hole, link spoofing and wormhole attack. In this paper we are representing works proposed by various author on flooding attack. Our contribution in this paper is that we have presented details comparison of various counter based schemes.

  19. Satellites, tweets, forecasts: the future of flood disaster management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Lorini, Valerio; Wania, Annett; Pappenberger, Florian; Salamon, Peter; Ramos, Maria Helena; Cloke, Hannah; Castillo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Floods have devastating effects on lives and livelihoods around the world. Structural flood defence measures such as dikes and dams can help protect people. However, it is the emerging science and technologies for flood disaster management and preparedness, such as increasingly accurate flood forecasting systems, high-resolution satellite monitoring, rapid risk mapping, and the unique strength of social media information and crowdsourcing, that are most promising for reducing the impacts of flooding. Here, we describe an innovative framework which integrates in real-time two components of the Copernicus Emergency mapping services, namely the European Flood Awareness System and the satellite-based Rapid Mapping, with new procedures for rapid risk assessment and social media and news monitoring. The integrated framework enables improved flood impact forecast, thanks to the real-time integration of forecasting and monitoring components, and increases the timeliness and efficiency of satellite mapping, with the aim of capturing flood peaks and following the evolution of flooding processes. Thanks to the proposed framework, emergency responders will have access to a broad range of timely and accurate information for more effective and robust planning, decision-making, and resource allocation.

  20. Assessing flood risk for a rural detention area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Förster

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood detention areas serve the primary purpose of controlled water storage during large flood events in order to decrease the flood risk downstream along the river. These areas are often used for agricultural production. While various damage estimation methods exist for urban areas, there are only a few, most often simpler approaches for loss estimation in rural areas. The loss assessment can provide an estimate of the financial provisions required for the farmers' compensation (e.g., in the context of cost-benefit analyses of detention measures.

    Flood risk is a combination of potential damage and probability of flooding. Losses in agricultural areas exhibit a strong seasonal pattern, and the flooding probability also has a seasonal variation. In the present study, flood risk is assessed for a planned detention area alongside the Elbe River in Germany based on two loss and probability estimation approaches of different time frames, namely a monthly and an annual approach. The results show that the overall potential damage in the proposed detention area amounts to approximately 40 000 € a−1, with approximately equal losses for each of the main land uses, agriculture and road infrastructure. A sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of flooding (i.e., the frequency of operation of the detention area has the largest impact on the overall flood risk.

  1. Probabilistic modelling of flood events using the entropy copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Zheng, Qian

    2016-11-01

    The estimation of flood frequency is vital for the flood control strategies and hydraulic structure design. Generating synthetic flood events according to statistical properties of observations is one of plausible methods to analyze the flood frequency. Due to the statistical dependence among the flood event variables (i.e. the flood peak, volume and duration), a multidimensional joint probability estimation is required. Recently, the copula method is widely used for multivariable dependent structure construction, however, the copula family should be chosen before application and the choice process is sometimes rather subjective. The entropy copula, a new copula family, employed in this research proposed a way to avoid the relatively subjective process by combining the theories of copula and entropy. The analysis shows the effectiveness of the entropy copula for probabilistic modelling the flood events of two hydrological gauges, and a comparison of accuracy with the popular copulas was made. The Gibbs sampling technique was applied for trivariate flood events simulation in order to mitigate the calculation difficulties of extending to three dimension directly. The simulation results indicate that the entropy copula is a simple and effective copula family for trivariate flood simulation.

  2. On the role of geometry of cross-section in generating flood-dominance in shallow estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.

    Shallow estuaries often show tidal asymmetry of flood-dominance in which duration of the flood is shorter and its peak discharge larger than the corresponding values during ebb. A simple analytic model for this phenomenon is proposed. Noting...

  3. Analysis of the influence of flood control reservoirs on runoff hydrograph: example of flood control reservoir above Poljane nad Škofjo Loko

    OpenAIRE

    Koranter, Tilen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to determine the effect of flood control reservoir on runoff hydrograph of the stream Ločivnica. Increasing urbanization of the environment and particularly flood-prone areas increases the risk of floods in these areas, while reducing the possibility of proper regulation of the area. Part of the town Poljane nad Škofjo Loko extends into the area of higher flood risk. In studies of flood regulation of this area is proposed as the only measure, that would have a greate...

  4. Explorers Presentation: Flooding and Coastal Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01

    : Explorers Flooding and Coastal Communities presentation provides an introduction to flooding. This can be used with the lesson plan on building flood defences. It covers: What is a flood? Why does it flood? Where does the water come from? The water cycle; Where is water stored? Examples of Pluvial vs. Coastal flooding; Impacts of flooding; Flood defences; What else influences flooding - Human impacts, Urbanisation, Deforestation, Sea level rise

  5. Compounding effects of sea level rise and fluvial flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moftakhari, Hamed R; Salvadori, Gianfausto; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sanders, Brett F; Matthew, Richard A

    2017-09-12

    Sea level rise (SLR), a well-documented and urgent aspect of anthropogenic global warming, threatens population and assets located in low-lying coastal regions all around the world. Common flood hazard assessment practices typically account for one driver at a time (e.g., either fluvial flooding only or ocean flooding only), whereas coastal cities vulnerable to SLR are at risk for flooding from multiple drivers (e.g., extreme coastal high tide, storm surge, and river flow). Here, we propose a bivariate flood hazard assessment approach that accounts for compound flooding from river flow and coastal water level, and we show that a univariate approach may not appropriately characterize the flood hazard if there are compounding effects. Using copulas and bivariate dependence analysis, we also quantify the increases in failure probabilities for 2030 and 2050 caused by SLR under representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Additionally, the increase in failure probability is shown to be strongly affected by compounding effects. The proposed failure probability method offers an innovative tool for assessing compounding flood hazards in a warming climate.

  6. Dynamic building risk assessment theoretic model for rainstorm-flood utilization ABM and ABS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wenze; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Hailei; Huang, Yingliang; Wu, Xuelian; Sun, Bingyun

    2015-12-01

    Flood is one of natural disasters with the worst loss in the world. It needs to assess flood disaster risk so that we can reduce the loss of flood disaster. Disaster management practical work needs the dynamic risk results of building. Rainstorm flood disaster system is a typical complex system. From the view of complex system theory, flood disaster risk is the interaction result of hazard effect objects, rainstorm flood hazard factors, and hazard environments. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is an important tool for complex system modeling. Rainstorm-flood building risk dynamic assessment method (RFBRDAM) was proposed using ABM in this paper. The interior structures and procedures of different agents in proposed meth had been designed. On the Netlogo platform, the proposed method was implemented to assess the building risk changes of the rainstorm flood disaster in the Huaihe River Basin using Agent-based simulation (ABS). The results indicated that the proposed method can dynamically assess building risk of the whole process for the rainstorm flood disaster. The results of this paper can provide one new approach for flood disaster building risk dynamic assessment and flood disaster management.

  7. Decision making based on global flood forecasts and satellite-derived inundation maps in data-sparse regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Hirpa, Feyera A.; Thielen-del Pozo, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Pappenberger, Florian; De Groeve, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Early flood warning and real-time monitoring systems play a key role in flood risk reduction and disaster response decisions. Global-scale flood forecasting and satellite-based flood detection systems are currently operating, however their reliability for decision making applications needs to be assessed. In this study, we performed comparative evaluations of several operational global flood forecasting and flood detection systems, using major flood events recorded over 2012-2014. Specifically, we evaluated the spatial extent and temporal characteristics of flood detections from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Furthermore, we compared the GFDS flood maps with those from NASA's two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. Results reveal that: 1) general agreement was found between the GFDS and MODIS flood detection systems, 2) large differences exist in the spatio-temporal characteristics of the GFDS detections and GloFAS forecasts, and 3) the quantitative validation of global flood disasters in data-sparse regions is highly challenging. Overall, the satellite remote sensing provides useful near real-time flood information that can be useful for risk management. We highlight the known limitations of global flood detection and forecasting systems, and propose ways forward to improve the reliability of large scale flood monitoring tools.

  8. Mitigating flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; McLean, Andrew; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Rosen, Alexa; Kelly, Fiona; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Youngs Jr, Georgia A; Jensen, Jessica; Bernal, Oscar; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2011, following heavy winter snowfall, two cities bordering two rivers in North Dakota, USA faced major flood threats. Flooding was foreseeable and predictable although the extent of risk was uncertain. One community, Fargo, situated in a shallow river basin, successfully mitigated and prevented flooding. For the other community, Minot, located in a deep river valley, prevention was not possible and downtown businesses and one-quarter of the homes were inundated, in the city’s worst flood on record. We aimed at contrasting the respective hazards, vulnerabilities, stressors, psychological risk factors, psychosocial consequences, and disaster risk reduction strategies under conditions where flood prevention was, and was not, possible. Methods. We applied the “trauma signature analysis” (TSIG) approach to compare the hazard profiles, identify salient disaster stressors, document the key components of disaster risk reduction response, and examine indicators of community resilience. Results. Two demographically-comparable communities, Fargo and Minot, faced challenging river flood threats and exhibited effective coordination across community sectors. We examined the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in situations where coordinated citizen action was able to prevent disaster impact (hazard avoidance) compared to the more common scenario when unpreventable disaster strikes, causing destruction, harm, and distress. Across a range of indicators, it is clear that successful mitigation diminishes both physical and psychological impact, thereby reducing the trauma signature of the event. Conclusion. In contrast to experience of historic flooding in Minot, the city of Fargo succeeded in reducing the trauma signature by way of reducing risk through mitigation. PMID:28228985

  9. The effectiveness of flood risk communication strategies and the influence of social networks-Insights from an agent-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, W.J.W.; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk management is becoming increasingly important, because more people are settling in flood-prone areas, and flood risk is increasing in many regions due to extreme weather events associated with climate change. It has been proposed that appropriately designed flood risk communication

  10. The effectiveness of flood risk communication strategies and the influence of social networks-Insights from an agent-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, W.J.W.; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk management is becoming increasingly important, because more people are settling in flood-prone areas, and flood risk is increasing in many regions due to extreme weather events associated with climate change. It has been proposed that appropriately designed flood risk communication campai

  11. Flood Risk Analysis and Flood Potential Losses Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The heavy floods in the Taihu Basin showed increasing trend in recent years. In thiswork, a typical area in the northern Taihu Basin was selected for flood risk analysis and potentialflood losses assessment. Human activities have strong impact on the study area' s flood situation (asaffected by the polders built, deforestation, population increase, urbanization, etc. ), and havemade water level higher, flood duration shorter, and flood peaks sharper. Five years of differentflood return periods [(1970), 5 (1962), 10 (1987), 20 (1954), 50 (1991)] were used to cal-culate the potential flood risk area and its losses. The potential flood risk map, economic losses,and flood-impacted population were also calculated. The study's main conclusions are: 1 ) Humanactivities have strongly changed the natural flood situation in the study area, increasing runoff andflooding; 2) The flood risk area is closely related with the precipitation center; 3) Polder construc-tion has successfully protected land from flood, shortened the flood duration, and elevated waterlevel in rivers outside the polders; 4) Economic and social development have caused flood losses toincrease in recent years.

  12. Probabilistic flood extent estimates from social media flood observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Tom; Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Booij, Martijn J.; Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; Verkade, Jan S.; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2017-05-01

    The increasing number and severity of floods, driven by phenomena such as urbanization, deforestation, subsidence and climate change, create a growing need for accurate and timely flood maps. In this paper we present and evaluate a method to create deterministic and probabilistic flood maps from Twitter messages that mention locations of flooding. A deterministic flood map created for the December 2015 flood in the city of York (UK) showed good performance (F(2) = 0.69; a statistic ranging from 0 to 1, with 1 expressing a perfect fit with validation data). The probabilistic flood maps we created showed that, in the York case study, the uncertainty in flood extent was mainly induced by errors in the precise locations of flood observations as derived from Twitter data. Errors in the terrain elevation data or in the parameters of the applied algorithm contributed less to flood extent uncertainty. Although these maps tended to overestimate the actual probability of flooding, they gave a reasonable representation of flood extent uncertainty in the area. This study illustrates that inherently uncertain data from social media can be used to derive information about flooding.

  13. Rapid Exposure Assessment of Nationwide River Flood for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Y.; Park, J.; Arifuzzaman, B.; Iwami, Y.; Amirul, Md.; Kondoh, A.

    2016-06-01

    considerably increased. For flood disaster risk reduction, it is important to identify and characterize flood area, locations (particularly lowland along rivers), and durations. For this purpose, flood mapping and monitoring are an imperative process and the fundamental part of risk management as well as emergency response. Our ultimate goal is to detect flood inundation areas over a nationwide scale despite limitations of optical and multispectral images, and to estimate flood risk in terms of affected people. We propose a methodological possibility to be used as a standard approach for nationwide rapid flood exposure assessment with the use of the multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), a big contributor to progress in near-real-time flood mapping. The preliminary results in Bangladesh show that a propensity of flood risk change strongly depends on the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure such as distributed population.

  14. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  15. Sustainable flood risk management – What is sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Brudler, Sarah; Lerer, Sara Maria

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable flood risk management has to be achieved since flood protection is a fundamental societal service that we must deliver. Based on the discourse within the fields of risk management and sustainable urban water management, we discuss the necessity of assessing the sustainability of flood...... risk management, and propose an evaluation framework for doing so. We argue that it is necessary to include quantitative sustainability measures in flood risk management in order to exclude unsustainable solutions. Furthermore, we use the concept of absolute sustainability to discuss the prospects...... of maintaining current service levels without compromising future generation’s entitlement of services. Discussions on the sustainability of different overall flood risk schemes must take place. Fundamental changes in the approaches will require fundamental changes in the mind-sets of practitioners as well...

  16. Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge : Beaver Control Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal to begin beaver trapping on Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge because beaver dams are preventing the flooding of impoundments for waterfowl.

  17. Composite Flood Risk for New Jersery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Composite Flood Risk layer combines flood hazard datasets from Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood zones, NOAA's Shallow Coastal Flooding, and the...

  18. Composite Flood Risk for Virgin Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Composite Flood Risk layer combines flood hazard datasets from Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood zones, NOAA's Shallow Coastal Flooding, and the...

  19. A statistical approach to evaluate flood risk at the regional level: an application to Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mauro; Marchesini, Ivan; Salvati, Paola; Donnini, Marco; Guzzetti, Fausto; Sterlacchini, Simone; Zazzeri, Marco; Bonazzi, Alessandro; Carlesi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Floods are frequent and widespread in Italy, causing every year multiple fatalities and extensive damages to public and private structures. A pre-requisite for the development of mitigation schemes, including financial instruments such as insurance, is the ability to quantify their costs starting from the estimation of the underlying flood hazard. However, comprehensive and coherent information on flood prone areas, and estimates on the frequency and intensity of flood events, are not often available at scales appropriate for risk pooling and diversification. In Italy, River Basins Hydrogeological Plans (PAI), prepared by basin administrations, are the basic descriptive, regulatory, technical and operational tools for environmental planning in flood prone areas. Nevertheless, such plans do not cover the entire Italian territory, having significant gaps along the minor hydrographic network and in ungauged basins. Several process-based modelling approaches have been used by different basin administrations for the flood hazard assessment, resulting in an inhomogeneous hazard zonation of the territory. As a result, flood hazard assessments expected and damage estimations across the different Italian basin administrations are not always coherent. To overcome these limitations, we propose a simplified multivariate statistical approach for the regional flood hazard zonation coupled with a flood impact model. This modelling approach has been applied in different Italian basin administrations, allowing a preliminary but coherent and comparable estimation of the flood hazard and the relative impact. Model performances are evaluated comparing the predicted flood prone areas with the corresponding PAI zonation. The proposed approach will provide standardized information (following the EU Floods Directive specifications) on flood risk at a regional level which can in turn be more readily applied to assess flood economic impacts. Furthermore, in the assumption of an appropriate

  20. Flood Risk Management In Europe: European flood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.; Green, C.; Driessen, Peter; Delvaux, B.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Deketelaere, K.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Dieperink, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, water management is moving from flood defense to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. In this report, we will look at Directives and (non-)EU- initiatives in place to deal with flood risk in Europe indirectly

  1. Improving Global Flood Forecasting using Satellite Detected Flood Extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla Romero, B.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding is a natural global phenomenon but in many cases is exacerbated by human activity. Although flooding generally affects humans in a negative way, bringing death, suffering, and economic impacts, it also has potentially beneficial effects. Early flood warning and forecasting systems, as well

  2. Improving Global Flood Forecasting using Satellite Detected Flood Extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla Romero, B.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding is a natural global phenomenon but in many cases is exacerbated by human activity. Although flooding generally affects humans in a negative way, bringing death, suffering, and economic impacts, it also has potentially beneficial effects. Early flood warning and forecasting systems, as well

  3. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  4. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  5. 2013 FEMA Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  6. FLOOD CHARACTERISTICS AND MANAGEMENT ADAPTATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-26

    , bearing flood losses and land ... Engineering control of the major tributaries of the Imo River system is required to ..... on previous knowledge of physical nature of flood ... uptake; other factors include a lack of formal titles to.

  7. 2013 FEMA Base Flood Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  8. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  9. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  10. FEMA Q3 Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  11. FEMA 100 year Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Q3 Flood Data product is a digital representation of certain features of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) product, intended for use with desktop mapping...

  12. 2013 FEMA Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  13. Land Use Scenario Modeling for Flood Risk Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Barredo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that flood risk has been increasing in Europe in the last decades. Accordingly, it becomes a priority to better understand its drivers and mechanisms. Flood risk is evaluated on the basis of three factors: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. If one of these factors increases, then so does the risk. Land use change models used for ex-ante assessment of spatial trends provide planners with powerful tools for territorial decision making. However, until recently this type of model has been largely neglected in strategic planning for flood risk mitigation. Thus, ex-ante assessment of flood risk is an innovative application of land use change models. The aim of this paper is to propose a flood risk mitigation approach using exposure scenarios. The methodology is applied in the Pordenone province in northern Italy. In the past 50 years Pordenone has suffered several heavy floods, the disastrous consequences of which demonstrated the vulnerability of the area. Results of this study confirm that the main driving force of increased flood risk is found in new urban developments in flood-prone areas.

  14. Toward economic flood loss characterization via hazard simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Cunha, Luciana K.; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann; Smith, James A.

    2016-08-01

    Among all natural disasters, floods have historically been the primary cause of human and economic losses around the world. Improving flood risk management requires a multi-scale characterization of the hazard and associated losses—the flood loss footprint. But this is typically not available in a precise and timely manner, yet. To overcome this challenge, we propose a novel and multidisciplinary approach which relies on a computationally efficient hydrological model that simulates streamflow for scales ranging from small creeks to large rivers. We adopt a normalized index, the flood peak ratio (FPR), to characterize flood magnitude across multiple spatial scales. The simulated FPR is then shown to be a key statistical driver for associated economic flood losses represented by the number of insurance claims. Importantly, because it is based on a simulation procedure that utilizes generally readily available physically-based data, our flood simulation approach has the potential to be broadly utilized, even for ungauged and poorly gauged basins, thus providing the necessary information for public and private sector actors to effectively reduce flood losses and save lives.

  15. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  16. An approach to the implementation of European Directive 2007/60/EC on flood risk management in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dráb

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (the Flood Risk Directive signifies that flood risk analysis methods are gaining ground in EC Member States and, therefore, also in the Czech Republic (CR. Procedures of flood risk analysis have been developed in the Czech Republic since the catastrophic floods of 1997 in line with European and worldwide trends and have been tested and applied in hundreds of case studies to date. Currently, the Flood Risk Directive Guideline based on past experience with flood risk analysis applications is being processed.

    The aim of the paper is to present flood risk analysis procedures and specially developed techniques for the assembly of flood hazard, danger and flood risk maps. Methods related to flood risk management plans are briefly mentioned as well. The following particular problems are discussed in more detail: an application and extension of the "danger matrix" approach, the definition of residual danger, the formulation of efficiency criteria and preliminary multi-criteria flood risk assessment. These issues were tested in practical applications at pilot locations in the Czech Republic. Present experience provides evidence that the flood risk analysis methods used in the Czech Republic are in harmony with the requirements of the Flood Risk Directive. The proposed and applied methods are based primarily on existing available data such as flood extent maps, cadastral maps, the Register of Census Districts and Structures and others.

  17. Floods in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa K. Andersen; Marshall J. Shepherd

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric warming and associated hydrological changes have implications for regional flood intensity and frequency. Climate models and hydrological models have the ability to integrate various contributing factors and assess potential changes to hydrology at global to local scales through the century. This survey of floods in a changing climate reviews flood...

  18. Importance of Integrating High-Resoultion 2D Flood Hazard Maps in the Flood Disaster Management of Marikina City, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapales, Ben Joseph; Mendoza, Jerico; Uichanco, Christopher; Mahar Francisco Amante Lagmay, Alfredo; Moises, Mark Anthony; Delmendo, Patricia; Eneri Tingin, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Flooding has been a perennial problem in the city of Marikina. These incidences result in human and economic losses. In response to this, the city has been investing in their flood disaster mitigation program in the past years. As a result, flooding in Marikina was reduced by 31% from 1992 to 2004. [1] However, these measures need to be improved so as to mitigate the effects of floods with more than 100 year return period, such as the flooding brought by tropical storm Ketsana in 2009 which generated 455mm of rains over a 24-hour period. Heavy rainfall caused the streets to be completely submerged in water, leaving at least 70 people dead in the area. In 2012, the Southwest monsoon, enhanced by a typhoon, brought massive rains with an accumulated rainfall of 472mm for 22-hours, a number greater than that which was experienced during Ketsana. At this time, the local government units were much more prepared in mitigating the risk with the use of early warning and evacuation measures, resulting to zero casualty in the area. Their urban disaster management program, however, can be further improved through the integration of high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps in the city's flood disaster management. The use of these maps in flood disaster management is essential in reducing flood-related risks. This paper discusses the importance and advantages of integrating flood maps in structural and non-structural mitigation measures in the case of Marikina City. Flood hazard maps are essential tools in predicting the frequency and magnitude of floods in an area. An information that may be determined with the use of these maps is the locations of evacuation areas, which may be accurately positioned using high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps. Evacuation of people in areas that are not vulnerable of being inundated is one of the unnecessary measures that may be prevented and thus optimizing mitigation efforts by local government units. This paper also discusses proposals for a more

  19. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions.

  20. Flooding on Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. On Flood Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Aseries of heavy storms since early May led to severe flooding and landslides in south and southwest China,causing heaw casualties and economic losses.Severe convective weather such as downpours,gusts,hail and thunderstorms attacked these areas over a week from May 5.

  2. Fast Flooding over Manhattan

    CERN Document Server

    Clementi, Andrea; Silvestri, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    We consider a Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) formed by n agents that move at speed V according to the Manhattan Random-Way Point model over a square region of side length L. The resulting stationary (agent) spatial probability distribution is far to be uniform: the average density over the "central zone" is asymptotically higher than that over the "suburb". Agents exchange data iff they are at distance at most R within each other. We study the flooding time of this MANET: the number of time steps required to broadcast a message from one source agent to all agents of the network in the stationary phase. We prove the first asymptotical upper bound on the flooding time. This bound holds with high probability, it is a decreasing function of R and V, and it is tight for a wide and relevant range of the network parameters (i.e. L, R and V). A consequence of our result is that flooding over the sparse and highly-disconnected suburb can be as fast as flooding over the dense and connected central zone. Rather surprisin...

  3. Flood model for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palán, Ladislav; Punčochář, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Looking on the impact of flooding from the World-wide perspective, in last 50 years flooding has caused over 460,000 fatalities and caused serious material damage. Combining economic loss from ten costliest flood events (from the same period) returns a loss (in the present value) exceeding 300bn USD. Locally, in Brazil, flood is the most damaging natural peril with alarming increase of events frequencies as 5 out of the 10 biggest flood losses ever recorded have occurred after 2009. The amount of economic and insured losses particularly caused by various flood types was the key driver of the local probabilistic flood model development. Considering the area of Brazil (being 5th biggest country in the World) and the scattered distribution of insured exposure, a domain covered by the model was limited to the entire state of Sao Paolo and 53 additional regions. The model quantifies losses on approx. 90 % of exposure (for regular property lines) of key insurers. Based on detailed exposure analysis, Impact Forecasting has developed this tool using long term local hydrological data series (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) from riverine gauge stations and digital elevation model (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). To provide most accurate representation of local hydrological behaviour needed for the nature of probabilistic simulation, a hydrological data processing focused on frequency analyses of seasonal peak flows - done by fitting appropriate extreme value statistical distribution and stochastic event set generation consisting of synthetically derived flood events respecting realistic spatial and frequency patterns visible in entire period of hydrological observation. Data were tested for homogeneity, consistency and for any significant breakpoint occurrence in time series so the entire observation or only its subparts were used for further analysis. The realistic spatial patterns of stochastic events are reproduced through the innovative use of d-vine copula

  4. Climate, orography and scale controls on flood frequency in Triveneto (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persiano, Simone; Castellarin, Attilio; Salinas, Jose Luis; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Brath, Armando

    2016-05-01

    The growing concern about the possible effects of climate change on flood frequency regime is leading Authorities to review previously proposed reference procedures for design-flood estimation, such as national flood frequency models. Our study focuses on Triveneto, a broad geographical region in North-eastern Italy. A reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto is available from the Italian NCR research project "VA.PI.", which considered Triveneto as a single homogeneous region and developed a regional model using annual maximum series (AMS) of peak discharges that were collected up to the 1980s by the former Italian Hydrometeorological Service. We consider a very detailed AMS database that we recently compiled for 76 catchments located in Triveneto. All 76 study catchments are characterized in terms of several geomorphologic and climatic descriptors. The objective of our study is threefold: (1) to inspect climatic and scale controls on flood frequency regime; (2) to verify the possible presence of changes in flood frequency regime by looking at changes in time of regional L-moments of annual maximum floods; (3) to develop an updated reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto by using a focused-pooling approach (i.e. Region of Influence, RoI). Our study leads to the following conclusions: (1) climatic and scale controls on flood frequency regime in Triveneto are similar to the controls that were recently found in Europe; (2) a single year characterized by extreme floods can have a remarkable influence on regional flood frequency models and analyses for detecting possible changes in flood frequency regime; (3) no significant change was detected in the flood frequency regime, yet an update of the existing reference procedure for design flood estimation is highly recommended and we propose the RoI approach for properly representing climate and scale controls on flood frequency in Triveneto, which cannot be regarded as a single

  5. A DATABASE DESIGN OF MAJOR PAST FLOOD EVENTS IN ROMANIA FROM NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INVENTORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENDEŞ V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Floods are one of the most significant natural hazards in Romania, causing losses of human lives and important damages to buildings and infrastructure. Romania is recognized among the most flood prone European countries. This work was conducted in the framework of the VULMIN project, aiming to extract the available key indicators of major and historical flood events in Romania, as a basis for better understanding the patterns of socio-economic vulnerability to floods at regional and national scales and of the adaptive capacity of living areas along the main rivers of this country. The existing databases on flood records at global (e.g. EM-DAT International Disaster Database, Dartmouth Flood Observatory, GLIDE database and national level (the preliminary flood risk assessment conducted within the framework of the EU Flood Directive, research projects (e.g. Hydrate, Danube Flood Risk and the available literature have been explored to collect indicators of intensity, magnitude, extent and impacts associated to past major flood events recorded in Romania. Starting from the scientific and reporting needs, taking into account the reliable information found in the documented databases, the main attributes of floods and flash-floods events has been embedded into a proposed database to be developed in the project, which may be useful for further analyses related to hydrological changes associated to climate change.

  6. The value of integrating information from multiple hazards for flood risk analysis and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rodríguez, J. T.; Escuder-Bueno, I.; Altarejos-García, L.; Serrano-Lombillo, A.

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a methodology for estimating flood risk in urban areas integrating pluvial flooding, river flooding and failure of both small and large dams. The first part includes a review of basic concepts on flood risk analysis, evaluation and management. Flood risk analyses may be developed at local, regional and national level, however a general methodology to perform a quantitative flood risk analysis including different flood hazards is still required. The second part describes the proposed methodology, which presents an integrated approach - combining pluvial, river flooding and flooding from dam failure, as applied to a case study: an urban area located downstream of a dam under construction. The methodology enhances the approach developed within the SUFRI project ("Sustainable Strategies of Urban Flood Risk Management to cope with the residual risk", 2009-2011). This article also shows how outcomes from flood risk analysis provide better and more complete information to inform authorities, local entities and the stakeholders involved in decision-making with regard to flood risk management.

  7. Flood control and loss estimation for paddy field at midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, T. C.; Mitani, Y.

    2015-09-01

    2011 Thailand flood has brought serious impact to downstream of Chao Phraya River Basin. The flood peak period started from August, 2011 to the end of October, 2011. This research focuses on midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin, which is Nakhon Sawan area includes confluence of Nan River and Yom River, also confluence of Ping River and Nan River. The main purpose of this research is to understand the flood generation, estimate the flood volume and loss of paddy field, also recommends applicable flood counter measurement to ease the flood condition at downstream of Chao Phraya River Basin. In order to understand the flood condition, post-analysis is conducted at Nakhon Sawan. The post-analysis consists of field survey to measure the flood marks remained and interview with residents to understand living condition during flood. The 2011 Thailand flood generation at midstream is simulated using coupling of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic model to understand the flood generation during flood peak period. It is calibrated and validated using flood marks measured and streamflow data received from Royal Irrigation Department (RID). Validation of results shows good agreement between simulated result and actual condition. Subsequently, 3 scenarios of flood control are simulated and Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to assess the spatial distribution of flood extent and reduction of loss estimation at paddy field. In addition, loss estimation for paddy field at midstream is evaluated using GIS with the calculated inundation depth. Results show the proposed flood control at midstream able to minimize 5% of the loss of paddy field in 26 provinces.

  8. 76 FR 19753 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the `Īao Stream Flood Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... ` ao Stream Flood Control Project, Wailuku, Maui, HI AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of... design deficiency in the existing ` ao Stream Flood Control Project, Wailuku, Maui, HI. This effort is being proposed under Section 203 of the Flood Control Act of 1968 (Pub. L. 90-483) and is necessary...

  9. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François

    2007-01-01

    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...... developed an adaptive web-based transportation network application using Oracle technology. Moreover, the geographic relationships between the road network and flood areas are taken into account. The overlay between the road network and flood polygons is computed on the fly. This application allows users...... to retrieve the shortest and safest route in Fredericton road network during flood event. It enables users to make a timely decision for flood rescue. We are using Oracle Spatial to deal with emergency situations that can be applied to other constrained network applications as well....

  10. Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Bačová Mitková, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Váh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornád, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected. The aim of this paper is to map the flood marks documenting this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. Flood marks and registrations on the 1813 flood in the Váh river basin are characterized by great diversity and are written in Bernolák modification of Slovak, in Latin, German and Hungarian. Their descriptions are stored in municipal chronicles and Slovak and Hungarian state archives. The flood in 1813 devastated the entire Váh valley, as well as its tributaries. Following flood marks were known in the Vah river basin: Dolná Lehota village in the Orava river basin, historical map from 1817 covering the Sučany village and showing three different cross-sections of the Váh river during the 1813 flood, flood mark in the city of Trenčín, Flood mark in the gate of the Brunovce mansion, cross preserved at the old linden tree at Drahovce, and some records in written documents, e.g. Cifer village. The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron: Banská Bystrica. According to recent situation the 1813 flood peak was approximately by 1.22 m higher, than the flood in 1974. Also in the Poprad basin is the August 1813 flood referred as the most devastating flood in last 400 years. The position of the flood mark is known, but the building was unfortunately removed later. The water level in 1813 was much higher than the water level during the recent flood in June 2010. In Cracow the water level

  11. Citizen involvement in flood risk governance: flood groups and networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twigger-Ross Clare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade has been a policy shift withinUK flood risk management towards localism with an emphasis on communities taking ownership of flood risk. There is also an increased focus on resilience and, more specifically, on community resilience to flooding. This paper draws on research carried out for UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs to evaluate the Flood Resilience Community Pathfinder (FRCP scheme in England. Resilience is conceptualised as multidimensional and linked to exisiting capacities within a community. Creating resilience to flooding is an ongoing process of adaptation, learning from past events and preparing for future risks. This paper focusses on the development of formal and informal institutions to support improved flood risk management: institutional resilience capacity. It includes new institutions: e.g. flood groups, as well as activities that help to build inter- and intra- institutional resilience capacity e.g. community flood planning. The pathfinder scheme consisted of 13 projects across England led by local authorities aimed at developing community resilience to flood risk between 2013 – 2015. This paper discusses the nature and structure of flood groups, the process of their development, and the extent of their linkages with formal institutions, drawing out the barriers and facilitators to developing institutional resilience at the local level.

  12. Investigating hillslope afforestation as a potential natural flood management strategy in the Eddleston Water catchment, Scottish Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Natural Flood Management (NFM) represents a sustainable alternative to traditional ‘hard- engineered’ flood defences. NFM has come to the forefront of environmental policy interest in recent years, particularly in light of projected increases in flood risk due to changes in climate and land use. Afforestation of hillslopes has been proposed as one such method of flood alleviation. However, the scientific evidence base for its effectiveness is limited. This project seeks to address this knowle...

  13. Reducing uncertainty in flood frequency analyses: A comparison of local and regional approaches involving information on extreme historical floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, K.; Nguyen, C. C.; Payrastre, O.; Gaume, E.

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a detailed comparison of local and regional approaches for flood frequency analyses, with a special emphasis on the effects of (a) the information on extreme floods used in the analysis (historical data or recent extreme floods observed at ungauged sites), and (b) the assumptions associated with regional approaches (statistical homogeneity of considered series, independence of observations). The results presented are based on two case studies: the Ard e ̀ che and Argens rivers regions in south-east of France. Four approaches are compared: 1 - local analysis based on continuous measured series, 2 - local analysis with historical information, 3 - regional index-flood analysis based on continuous series, 4 - regional analysis involving information on extremes (including both historical floods and recent floods observed at ungauged sites). The inference approach used is based on a GEV distribution and a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain approach for parameters estimation. The comparison relies both on (1) available observed datasets and (2) Monte Carlo simulations in order to evaluate the effects of sampling variability and to analyze the possible influence of regional heterogeneities. The results indicate that a relatively limited level of regional heterogeneity, which may not be detected through homogeneity tests, may significantly affect the performances of regional approaches. These results also illustrate the added value of information on extreme floods, historical floods or recent floods observed at ungauged sites, in both local and regional approaches. As far as possible, gathering such information and incorporating it into flood frequency studies should be promoted. Finally, the presented Monte Carlo simulations appear as an interesting analysis tool for adapting the estimation strategy to the available data for each specific case study.

  14. Impact of rainfall spatial variability on Flash Flood Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douinot, Audrey; Roux, Hélène; Garambois, Pierre-André; Larnier, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    built for each studied catchment. The proposed methodology is applied on three Mediterranean catchments often submitted to flash floods. The new forecasting method as well as the Flash Flood Guidance method (uniform rainfall threshold) are tested on 25 flash floods events that had occurred on those catchments. Results show a significant impact of rainfall spatial variability. Indeed, it appears that the uniform rainfall threshold (FFG threshold) always overestimates the observed rainfall threshold. The difference between the FFG threshold and the proposed threshold ranges from 8% to 30%. The proposed methodology allows the calculation of a threshold more representative of the observed one. However, results strongly depend on the related event duration and on the catchment properties. For instance, the impact of the rainfall spatial variability seems to be correlated with the catchment size. According to these results, it seems to be interesting to introduce information on the catchment properties in the threshold calculation. Flash Flood Guidance Improvement Team, 2003. River Forecast Center (RFC) Development Management Team. Final Report. Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD), Silver Spring, Mary-land. Le Lay, M. and Saulnier, G.-M., 2007. Exploring the signature of climate and landscape spatial variabilities in flash flood events: Case of the 8-9 September 2002 Cévennes-Vivarais catastrophic event. Geophysical Research Letters, 34(L13401), doi:10.1029/2007GL029746. Roux, H., Labat, D., Garambois, P.-A., Maubourguet, M.-M., Chorda, J. and Dartus, D., 2011. A physically-based parsimonious hydrological model for flash floods in Mediterranean catchments. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. J1 - NHESS, 11(9), 2567-2582. Zoccatelli, D., Borga, M., Zanon, F., Antonescu, B. and Stancalie, G., 2010. Which rainfall spatial information for flash flood response modelling? A numerical investigation based on data from the Carpathian range, Romania. Journal of Hydrology, 394(1-2), 148-161.

  15. Direct local building inundation depth determination in 3-D point clouds generated from user-generated flood images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbaum, Luisa; Marx, Sabrina; Höfle, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the number of people affected by flooding caused by extreme weather events has increased considerably. In order to provide support in disaster recovery or to develop mitigation plans, accurate flood information is necessary. Particularly pluvial urban floods, characterized by high temporal and spatial variations, are not well documented. This study proposes a new, low-cost approach to determining local flood elevation and inundation depth of buildings based on user-generated flood images. It first applies close-range digital photogrammetry to generate a geo-referenced 3-D point cloud. Second, based on estimated camera orientation parameters, the flood level captured in a single flood image is mapped to the previously derived point cloud. The local flood elevation and the building inundation depth can then be derived automatically from the point cloud. The proposed method is carried out once for each of 66 different flood images showing the same building façade. An overall accuracy of 0.05 m with an uncertainty of ±0.13 m for the derived flood elevation within the area of interest as well as an accuracy of 0.13 m ± 0.10 m for the determined building inundation depth is achieved. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can provide reliable flood information on a local scale using user-generated flood images as input. The approach can thus allow inundation depth maps to be derived even in complex urban environments with relatively high accuracies.

  16. Floods and tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Mark

    2006-06-01

    Floods and tsunamis cause few severe injuries, but those injuries can overwhelm local areas, depending on the magnitude of the disaster. Most injuries are extremity fractures, lacerations, and sprains. Because of the mechanism of soft tissue and bone injuries, infection is a significant risk. Aspiration pneumonias are also associated with tsunamis. Appropriate precautionary interventions prevent communicable dis-ease outbreaks. Psychosocial health issues must be considered.

  17. Water impoundment modes of flood utilization for the Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Taking the Songnen Plain as the research region and basing on the structural division of river water resources, the impounding models of flood water utilization are proposed. Considering the water requirement, potential impoundage and the degree of risk, two modes of the flood water utilization are developed: full impounding and partial impounding. A risk assessment method is put forward according to variation of the flood storage capacity before and after impounding water. A representative hydrological year is taken as an example to analyze the application of the model at the downstream of the Nenjiang River. It is found that the model is very useful for the flood utilization and protection. For flood utilization, the spring drought can be relieved and the risk of impounding water is also acceptable. For flood protection, the river flood peak can be largely reduced and the impounding water can increase the river discharge at the low water period, at the same time the structure of river water resources can be improved as well.

  18. Attribution of regional flood changes based on scaling fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglione, Alberto; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Parajka, Juraj; Nester, Thomas; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the river flood regime may be due to atmospheric processes (e.g., increasing precipitation), catchment processes (e.g., soil compaction associated with land use change), and river system processes (e.g., loss of retention volume in the floodplains). This paper proposes a new framework for attributing flood changes to these drivers based on a regional analysis. We exploit the scaling characteristics (i.e., fingerprints) with catchment area of the effects of the drivers on flood changes. The estimation of their relative contributions is framed in Bayesian terms. Analysis of a synthetic, controlled case suggests that the accuracy of the regional attribution increases with increasing number of sites and record lengths, decreases with increasing regional heterogeneity, increases with increasing difference of the scaling fingerprints, and decreases with an increase of their prior uncertainty. The applicability of the framework is illustrated for a case study set in Austria, where positive flood trends have been observed at many sites in the past decades. The individual scaling fingerprints related to the atmospheric, catchment, and river system processes are estimated from rainfall data and simple hydrological modeling. Although the distributions of the contributions are rather wide, the attribution identifies precipitation change as the main driver of flood change in the study region. Overall, it is suggested that the extension from local attribution to a regional framework, including multiple drivers and explicit estimation of uncertainty, could constitute a similar shift in flood change attribution as the extension from local to regional flood frequency analysis.

  19. Water impoundment modes of flood utilization for the Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU ShiGuo; LI WenYi

    2008-01-01

    Taking the Songnen Plain as the research region and basing on the structural divi-sion of river water resources,the impounding models of flood water utilization are proposed.Considering the water requirement,potential impoundage and the de-gree of risk,two modes of the flood water utilization are developed:full impounding and partial impounding.A risk assessment method is put forward according to variation of the flood storage capacity before and after impounding water.A representative hydro-logical year is taken as an example to analyze the application of the model at the down-stream of the Nenjiang River.It is found that the model is very useful for the flood utiliza-tion and protection.For flood utilization,the spring drought can be relieved and the risk of impounding water is also acceptable.For flood protection,the river flood peak can be largely reduced and the impounding water can increase the river discharge at the low water period,at the same time the structure of river water resources can be improved as well.

  20. Probabilistic modeling of financial exposure to flood in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncoulon, David; Quantin, Antoine; Leblois, Etienne

    2014-05-01

    CCR is a French reinsurance company which offers natural catastrophe covers with the State guarantee. Within this framework, CCR develops its own models to assess its financial exposure to floods, droughts, earthquakes and other perils, and thus the exposure of insurers and the French State. A probabilistic flood model has been developed in order to estimate the financial exposure of the Nat Cat insurance market to flood events, depending on their annual occurrence probability. This presentation is organized in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the development of a flood hazard and damage model (ARTEMIS). The model calibration and validation on historical events are then described. In the second part, the coupling of ARTEMIS with two generators of probabilistic events is achieved: a stochastic flow generator and a stochastic spatialized precipitation generator, adapted from the SAMPO model developed by IRSTEA. The analysis of the complementary nature of these two generators is proposed: the first one allows generating floods on the French hydrological station network; the second allows simulating surface water runoff and Small River floods, even on ungauged rivers. Thus, the simulation of thousands of non-occured, but possible events allows us to provide for the first time an estimate of the financial exposure to flooding in France at different scales (commune, department, country) and from different points of view (hazard, vulnerability and damages).

  1. A Report on Fish and Wildlife Resources in Relation to the Flood Control Plan for the Sny River and Tributaries in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The flood control plan for the Sny Biver and tributaries id proposed "by the Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, to alleviate flood damages on Mississippi...

  2. Atmospheric Rivers, Floods, and Flash Floods in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, Klint T.

    Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are long (>2000 km), narrow (<1000 km) corridors of enhanced vertically integrated water vapor (IWV) and enhanced IWV transport (IVT). The landfall of ARs along the U.S. West Coast have been linked to extreme precipitation and flooding/flash flooding in regions of complex topography. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between a 10 water-year (2005-2014) climatology of floods, flash floods, and landfalling ARs. The ARs in this study are defined using IVT following the Rutz et al. (2013) methodology, whereas floods and flash floods are identified by the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Storm Events Database. The results of this study indicate that landfalling ARs are present on a majority of days that there are floods in northern California. Landfalling ARs are predominantly present on a majority of days that there are flash flood reports during the cold-season (November-March); however, the North American monsoon is present on days that there are flash flood reports during the warm-season (April-October). Two exemplary case studies are provided to illustrate the hydrologic impact of landfalling ARs. The first case study illustrated a flood event that occurred in associated with three landfalling ARs that produced 800 mm in regions over the Russian River watershed in northern California and the second case study illustrated a flash flood event that occurred in association with a landfalling AR that produced ˜225 mm of precipitation in regions over the Santa Ynez xii watershed in which produced a flash flood over the southern portions of Santa Barbara County in southern California.

  3. Technical note: Design flood under hydrological uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Botto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Planning and verification of hydraulic infrastructures require a design estimate of hydrologic variables, usually provided by frequency analysis, and neglecting hydrologic uncertainty. However, when hydrologic uncertainty is accounted for, the design flood value for a specific return period is no longer a unique value, but is represented by a distribution of values. As a consequence, the design flood is no longer univocally defined, making the design process undetermined. The Uncertainty Compliant Design Flood Estimation (UNCODE procedure is a novel approach that, starting from a range of possible design flood estimates obtained in uncertain conditions, converges to a single design value. This is obtained through a cost–benefit criterion with additional constraints that is numerically solved in a simulation framework. This paper contributes to promoting a practical use of the UNCODE procedure without resorting to numerical computation. A modified procedure is proposed by using a correction coefficient that modifies the standard (i.e., uncertainty-free design value on the basis of sample length and return period only. The procedure is robust and parsimonious, as it does not require additional parameters with respect to the traditional uncertainty-free analysis. Simple equations to compute the correction term are provided for a number of probability distributions commonly used to represent the flood frequency curve. The UNCODE procedure, when coupled with this simple correction factor, provides a robust way to manage the hydrologic uncertainty and to go beyond the use of traditional safety factors. With all the other parameters being equal, an increase in the sample length reduces the correction factor, and thus the construction costs, while still keeping the same safety level.

  4. Technical note: Design flood under hydrological uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, Anna; Ganora, Daniele; Claps, Pierluigi; Laio, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Planning and verification of hydraulic infrastructures require a design estimate of hydrologic variables, usually provided by frequency analysis, and neglecting hydrologic uncertainty. However, when hydrologic uncertainty is accounted for, the design flood value for a specific return period is no longer a unique value, but is represented by a distribution of values. As a consequence, the design flood is no longer univocally defined, making the design process undetermined. The Uncertainty Compliant Design Flood Estimation (UNCODE) procedure is a novel approach that, starting from a range of possible design flood estimates obtained in uncertain conditions, converges to a single design value. This is obtained through a cost-benefit criterion with additional constraints that is numerically solved in a simulation framework. This paper contributes to promoting a practical use of the UNCODE procedure without resorting to numerical computation. A modified procedure is proposed by using a correction coefficient that modifies the standard (i.e., uncertainty-free) design value on the basis of sample length and return period only. The procedure is robust and parsimonious, as it does not require additional parameters with respect to the traditional uncertainty-free analysis. Simple equations to compute the correction term are provided for a number of probability distributions commonly used to represent the flood frequency curve. The UNCODE procedure, when coupled with this simple correction factor, provides a robust way to manage the hydrologic uncertainty and to go beyond the use of traditional safety factors. With all the other parameters being equal, an increase in the sample length reduces the correction factor, and thus the construction costs, while still keeping the same safety level.

  5. Recent advances in flood forecasting and flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arduino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent large floods in Europe have led to increased interest in research and development of flood forecasting systems. Some of these events have been provoked by some of the wettest rainfall periods on record which has led to speculation that such extremes are attributable in some measure to anthropogenic global warming and represent the beginning of a period of higher flood frequency. Whilst current trends in extreme event statistics will be difficult to discern, conclusively, there has been a substantial increase in the frequency of high floods in the 20th century for basins greater than 2x105 km2. There is also increasing that anthropogenic forcing of climate change may lead to an increased probability of extreme precipitation and, hence, of flooding. There is, therefore, major emphasis on the improvement of operational flood forecasting systems in Europe, with significant European Community spending on research and development on prototype forecasting systems and flood risk management projects. This Special Issue synthesises the most relevant scientific and technological results presented at the International Conference on Flood Forecasting in Europe held in Rotterdam from 3-5 March 2003. During that meeting 150 scientists, forecasters and stakeholders from four continents assembled to present their work and current operational best practice and to discuss future directions of scientific and technological efforts in flood prediction and prevention. The papers presented at the conference fall into seven themes, as follows.

  6. Application of satellite products and hydrological modelling for flood early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriche, Sifan A.; Rientjes, Tom H. M.

    2016-06-01

    Floods have caused devastating impacts to the environment and society in Awash River Basin, Ethiopia. Since flooding events are frequent, this marks the need to develop tools for flood early warning. In this study, we propose a satellite based flood index to identify the runoff source areas that largely contribute to extreme runoff production and floods in the basin. Satellite based products used for development of the flood index are CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique: 0.25° by 0.25°, daily) product for calculation of the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) for calculation of the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Other satellite products used in this study are for rainfall-runoff modelling to represent rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, vegetation cover and topography. Results of the study show that assessment of spatial and temporal rainfall variability by satellite products may well serve in flood early warning. Preliminary findings on effectiveness of the flood index developed in this study indicate that the index is well suited for flood early warning. The index combines SPI and TWI, and preliminary results illustrate the spatial distribution of likely runoff source areas that cause floods in flood prone areas.

  7. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Susceptibility Index - contribution to a vulnerability index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, R.; Grosso, N.; Reis, E.; Dias, L.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2015-08-01

    This work defines a national flood susceptibility index for the Portuguese continental territory, by proposing the aggregation of different variables which represent natural conditions for permeability, runoff and accumulation. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). This approach expands on previous works by trying to bridge the gap between different flood mechanisms (e.g. progressive and flash floods) occurring at different spatial scales in the Portuguese territory through (a) selecting homogeneously processed data sets and (b) aggregating their values to better translate the spatially continuous and cumulative influence in floods at multiple spatial scales. Results show a good ability to capture, in the higher susceptibility classes, different flood types: fluvial floods and flash floods. Lower values are usually related to mountainous areas, low water accumulation potential and more permeable soils. Validation with independent flood data sets confirmed these index characteristics, although some overestimation can be seen in the southern region of Alentejo where, due to a dense hydrographic network and an overall low slope, floods are not as frequent as a result of lower precipitation mean values. Future work will focus on (i) including extreme precipitation data sets to represent the triggering factor, (ii) improving representation of smaller and stepper basins, (iii) optimizing variable weight definition process and (iii) developing more robust independent flood validation data sets.

  8. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Susceptibility Index - contribution for a vulnerability index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, R.; Grosso, N.; Reis, E.; Dias, L.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2014-12-01

    This work defines a national flood susceptibility index for the Portuguese continental territory, by proposing the aggregation of different variables which represent natural conditions for permeability, runoff and accumulation. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). This approach expands on previous works by trying to bridge the gap between different floods mechanisms (e.g. progressive and flash floods) occurring at different spatial scales in the Portuguese territory through: (a) selecting homogeneously processed datasets, (b) aggregating their values to better translate the spatially continuous and cumulative influence in floods at multiple spatial scales. Results show a good ability to capture, in the higher susceptibility classes, different flood types: progressive floods and flash floods. Lower values are usually related to: mountainous areas, low water accumulation potential and more permeable soils. Validation with independent flood datasets confirmed these index characteristics, although some overestimation can be seen in the southern region of Alentejo where, due to a dense hydrographic network and an overall low slope, floods are not as frequent as a result of lower precipitation mean values. Future work will focus on: (i) including extreme precipitation datasets to represent the triggering factor, (ii) improving representation of smaller and stepper basins, (iii) optimizing variable weight definition process, (iii) developing more robust independent flood validation datasets.

  9. Flood risk assessment in The Netherlands: a case study for dike ring South Holland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Kok, Matthijs; Vrijling, Johannes K

    2008-10-01

    Large parts of The Netherlands are below sea level. Therefore, it is important to have insight into the possible consequences and risks of flooding. In this article, an analysis of the risks due to flooding of the dike ring area South Holland in The Netherlands is presented. For different flood scenarios the potential number of fatalities is estimated. Results indicate that a flood event in this area can expose large and densely populated areas and result in hundreds to thousands of fatalities. Evacuation of South Holland before a coastal flood will be difficult due to the large amount of time required for evacuation and the limited time available. By combination with available information regarding the probability of occurrence of different flood scenarios, the flood risks have been quantified. The probability of death for a person in South Holland due to flooding, the so-called individual risk, is small. The probability of a flood disaster with many fatalities, the so-called societal risk, is relatively large in comparison with the societal risks in other sectors in The Netherlands, such as the chemical sector and aviation. The societal risk of flooding appears to be unacceptable according to some of the existing risk limits that have been proposed in literature. These results indicate the necessity of a further societal discussion on the acceptable level of flood risk in The Netherlands and the need for additional risk reducing measures.

  10. Time-dependent Reliability Analysis of Flood Defence Assets Using Generic Fragility Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepal Jaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood defence assets such as earth embankments comprise the vital part of linear flood defences in many countries including the UK and protect inland from flooding. The risks of flooding are likely to increase in the future due to increasing pressure on land use, increasing rainfall events and rising sea level caused by climate change also affect aging flood defence assets. Therefore, it is important that the flood defence assets are maintained at a high level of safety and serviceability. The high costs associated with preserving these deteriorating flood defence assets and the limited funds available for their maintenance require the development of systematic approaches to ensure the sustainable flood-risk management system. The integration of realistic deterioration measurement and reliabilitybased performance assessment techniques has tremendous potential for structural safety and economic feasibility of flood defence assets. Therefore, the need for reliability-based performance assessment is evident. However, investigations on time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defence assets are limited. This paper presents a novel approach for time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defence assets. In the analysis, time-dependent fragility curve is developed by using the state-based stochastic deterioration model. The applicability of the proposed approach is then demonstrated with a case study.

  11. Fault tree analysis for urban flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods to evaluate flood risk mostly focus on storm events as the main cause of flooding. Fault tree analysis is a technique that is able to model all potential causes of flooding and to quantify both the overall probability of flooding and the contributions of all causes of flooding to

  12. FINANCING OF THE FLOOD DEFENSE IN DABULENI-CETATE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin COSMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Danube River Basin has been frequently affected by floods in the last decades which often gained historical meanings, the latest being recorded in 2006 and 2013. The material losses were very high and on the Cetate-Dabuleni sector of the Danube river, after the floods of 2006 the dikes have been damaged and partially destroyed. In the end the Rast locality was almost total relocated. Following these events, we need to rebuild the flood defense infrastructure in the Lower Danube, but after the first assessment the costs are very high. With this paper we propose the ways of funding the flood protection works on the Lower Danube, research being done on the Cetate-Dabuleni Danube's sector.

  13. New-Fangled Method Against Data Flooding Attacks in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavuri Roshan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile users like to use their own consumer electronic devices anywhere and at anytime to accessmultimedia data. Hence, we expect that wireless ad hoc networks will be widely used in the near futuresince these networks form the topology with low cost on the fly. However, consumer electronic devicesgenerally operate on limited battery power and therefore are vulnerable to security threats like dataflooding attacks. The data flooding attack causes Denial of Service (DoS attacks by flooding many datapackets. However, there are a few existing defence systems against data flooding attacks. Moreover, theexisting schemes may not guarantee the Quality of Service (QoS of burst traffic since multimedia data areusually burst. Therefore, we propose a novel defence mechanism against data flooding attacks with the aimof enhancing the throughput.

  14. The Semantic Network of Flood Hydrological Data for Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Aziyati; Din, Norashidah Md; Yussof, Salman; Ullah Khan, Samee

    2016-03-01

    Every year, authorities in Malaysia are putting efforts on disaster management mechanisms including the flood incidence that might hit the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This includes the state of Kelantan of which it was reported that flood is just a normal event occurred annually. However, the aftermath was always unmanageable and had left the state to struggle for its own recoveries. Though it was expected that flood occurred every year, among the worst were in 1967, 1974, 1982 and recently in December 2014. This study is proposing a semantic network as an approach to the method of utilising big data analytics in analysing the huge data from the state’s flood reading stations. It is expected that by using current computing edge can also facilitate mitigating this particular disaster.

  15. Ensemble hydro-meteorological simulation for flash flood early detection in southern Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; THIELEN DEL POZO Jutta; Pappenberger, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing changing climate has raised the attention towards weather driven natural hazards. Local floodings and debris flows following exceptional downpours often come without any adequate warning and cause heavy tolls to the human society. This work proposes a novel flood alert system for small catchments prone to flash flooding, capable of monitoring a large portion of the European domain. Operational streamflow simulations are produced through distributed hydrological modeling of ensemble we...

  16. Enhancing local action planning through quantitative flood risk analysis: a case study in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a method to incorporate and promote quantitative risk analysis to support local action planning against flooding. The proposed approach aims to provide a framework for local flood risk analysis, combining hazard mapping with vulnerability data to quantify risk in terms of expected annual affected population, potential injuries, number of fatalities, and economic damages. Flood risk is estimated combining GIS data of loads, system response, and consequen...

  17. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf [University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf (Germany); Serrhini, Kamal [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Genie des Systemes Urbains, France, and Universite Francois Rabelais, Unite Mixte de Recherche, Tours (France); Fuchs, Sven [Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: karl.spachinger@fhd.edu

    2008-11-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  18. Adaptive Probabilistic Flooding for Multipath Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Betoule, Christophe; Clavier, Remi; Rossi, Dario; Rossini, Giuseppe; Thouenon, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we develop a distributed source routing algorithm for topology discovery suitable for ISP transport networks, that is however inspired by opportunistic algorithms used in ad hoc wireless networks. We propose a plug-and-play control plane, able to find multiple paths toward the same destination, and introduce a novel algorithm, called adaptive probabilistic flooding, to achieve this goal. By keeping a small amount of state in routers taking part in the discovery process, our technique significantly limits the amount of control messages exchanged with flooding -- and, at the same time, it only minimally affects the quality of the discovered multiple path with respect to the optimal solution. Simple analytical bounds, confirmed by results gathered with extensive simulation on four realistic topologies, show our approach to be of high practical interest.

  19. The Impact of Climate Change on the Duration and Division of Flood Season in the Fenhe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hejia Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the duration and division of the flood season in the Fenhe River Basin over the period of 1957–2014 based on daily precipitation data collected from 14 meteorological stations. The Mann–Kendall detection, the multiscale moving t-test, and the Fisher optimal partition methods are used to evaluate the impact of climate change on flood season duration and division. The results show that the duration of the flood season has extended in 1975–2014 compared to that in 1957–1974. Specifically, the onset date of the flood season has advanced 15 days, whereas the retreat date of the flood season remains almost the same. The flood season of the Fenhe River Basin can be divided into three stages, and the variations in the onset and retreat dates of each stage are also examined. Corresponding measures are also proposed to better utilize the flood resources to adapt to the flood season variations.

  20. Integrating a Typhoon Event Database with an Optimal Flood Operation Model on the Real-Time Flood Control of the Tseng-Wen Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.

    2012-04-01

    Typhoons which normally bring a great amount of precipitation are the primary natural hazard in Taiwan during flooding season. Because the plentiful rainfall quantities brought by typhoons are normally stored for the usage of the next draught period, the determination of release strategies for flood operation of reservoirs which is required to simultaneously consider not only the impact of reservoir safety and the flooding damage in plain area but also for the water resource stored in the reservoir after typhoon becomes important. This study proposes a two-steps study process. First, this study develop an optimal flood operation model (OFOM) for the planning of flood control and also applies the OFOM on Tseng-wun reservoir and the downstream plain related to the reservoir. Second, integrating a typhoon event database with the OFOM mentioned above makes the proposed planning model have ability to deal with a real-time flood control problem and names as real-time flood operation model (RTFOM). Three conditions are considered in the proposed models, OFOM and RTFOM, include the safety of the reservoir itself, the reservoir storage after typhoons and the impact of flooding in the plain area. Besides, the flood operation guideline announced by government is also considered in the proposed models. The these conditions and the guideline can be formed as an optimization problem which is solved by the genetic algorithm (GA) in this study. Furthermore, a distributed runoff model, kinematic-wave geomorphic instantaneous unit hydrograph (KW-GIUH), and a river flow simulation model, HEC-RAS, are used to simulate the river water level of Tseng-wun basin in the plain area and the simulated level is shown as an index of the impact of flooding. Because the simulated levels are required to re-calculate iteratively in the optimization model, applying a recursive artificial neural network (recursive ANN) instead of the HEC-RAS model can significantly reduce the computational burden of

  1. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the

  2. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  3. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  4. Temporal clustering of floods in Germany: Do flood-rich and flood-poor periods exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Bruno; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2016-10-01

    The repeated occurrence of exceptional floods within a few years, such as the Rhine floods in 1993 and 1995 and the Elbe and Danube floods in 2002 and 2013, suggests that floods in Central Europe may be organized in flood-rich and flood-poor periods. This hypothesis is studied by testing the significance of temporal clustering in flood occurrence (peak-over-threshold) time series for 68 catchments across Germany for the period 1932-2005. To assess the robustness of the results, different methods are used: Firstly, the index of dispersion, which quantifies the departure from a homogeneous Poisson process, is investigated. Further, the time-variation of the flood occurrence rate is derived by non-parametric kernel implementation and the significance of clustering is evaluated via parametric and non-parametric tests. Although the methods give consistent overall results, the specific results differ considerably. Hence, we recommend applying different methods when investigating flood clustering. For flood estimation and risk management, it is of relevance to understand whether clustering changes with flood severity and time scale. To this end, clustering is assessed for different thresholds and time scales. It is found that the majority of catchments show temporal clustering at the 5% significance level for low thresholds and time scales of one to a few years. However, clustering decreases substantially with increasing threshold and time scale. We hypothesize that flood clustering in Germany is mainly caused by catchment memory effects along with intra- to inter-annual climate variability, and that decadal climate variability plays a minor role.

  5. Towards Interactive Flood Governance: changing approaches in Dutch flood policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Ast (Jacko)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In the course of history, flooding of rivers and the sea brought misery to humanity. Low lying delta’s of large rivers like Bangladesh, New Orleans, the Nile delta or the Netherlands belong to the most vulnerable for flood disasters. Since ancient times people pondered

  6. FLOOD AND FLOOD CONTROL OF THE YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxue LI; Huirang WANG; Yunqi SU; Naiqian JIANG; Yuanfeng ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    The Yellow River is the cradle of China. It had long been the center of politics, economics and culture of China in history. Large coverage flood disaster occurred frequently in the Yellow River basin and the losses were often heavy. Thus, the Yellow River is also considered as the serious hidden danger of China. Since the founding of new China, structural and non-structural systems of flood control have been established basically. Tremendous successes have been made on flood control. Into the 21century, flood control standard of the Lower Yellow River has been increased significantly with the operation of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. However, problems of the Yellow River are complicated and the tasks for solving these problems are arduous. Particularly, the sedimentation problem can't be solved completely in the near future. The situation of "suspended river" and threat of flood will long exist.Therefore, supported by rapid social and economical development of the nation and relied on advanced technology, the flood control system shall be perfected. Meantime, study of the Yellow River shall be enhanced in order to better understand the flood, get with it and use it thus to reduce flood disaster.

  7. Storage and flood routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R.W.; Godfrey, R.G.

    1960-01-01

    The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined, from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.

  8. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE - MO 2014 Springfield FEMA Base Flood Elevations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This polyline layer indicates the approximate effective FEMA Base Flood Elevation (BFE) associated with the corresponding Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). Each line...

  9. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE - MO 2010 Springfield FEMA Base Flood Elevations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This polyline layer indicates the approximate effective FEMA Base Flood Elevations (BFE) associated with the corresponding Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). Each...

  10. Estancia Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  11. Elephant Butte Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  12. Sierra County Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  13. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly.

  14. Water NOT wanted - Coastal Floods and Flooding Protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass

    2016-01-01

    vulnerability towards coastal flooding, the country has experienced severe storm surges throughout history, and hitherto safe areas will become increasingly at risk this century as the climate changes. Historically a seafarers’ nation, Denmark has always been connected with the sea. From medieval time ports...... acceptance of floods has decreased from a “this is a natural consequence of living by the sea” to an explicit: Water Not Wanted! This paper provides a brief overview of floods and flooding protection issues in Denmark (Ch. 2 & Ch. 3), the current legislation (Ch. 4), and discusses challenges in relation...... to climate change adaptation, risk reduction, and to potential ways of rethinking flooding protection in strategies that also incorporate other uses (Ch. 5)....

  15. A volume law for specification of linear channel storage for estimation of large floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shangyou; Cordery, Ian; Sharma, Ashish

    2000-02-01

    A method of estimating large floods using a linear storage-routing approach is presented. The differences between the proposed approach and those traditionally used are (1) that the flood producing properties of basins are represented by a linear system, (2) the storage parameters of the distributed model are determined using a volume law which, unlike other storage-routing models, accounts for the distribution of storage in natural basins, and (3) the basin outflow hydrograph is determined analytically and expressed in a succinct mathematical form. The single model parameter is estimated from observed data without direct fitting, unlike most traditionally used methods. The model was tested by showing it could reproduce observed large floods on a number of basins. This paper compares the proposed approach with a traditionally used storage routing approach using observed flood data from the Hacking River basin in New South Wales, Australia. Results confirm the usefulness of the proposed approach for estimation of large floods.

  16. Impacts of dyke development in flood prone areas in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to downstream flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh Triet Nguyen, Van; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Chau and Chau Doc. The MK test statistic results (Z) for these stations are -0.23, -1.39 and -0.84 respectively. In contrary, significant increasing trend (at α = 1%) of annual flood peak at Can Tho and My Thuan is calculated, with the Z value are 5.20 and 4.28. A Monte Carlo experiment by adding assumed observation errors of 5%, 10% and 15% results in similar trend for these stations. After the trend analysis, a set of scenarios are generated based on various hydrological boundaries, infrastructure developments and climate change scenarios. The scenarios are simulated with the quasi-2D hydrodynamic model for the Mekong Delta (Dung, 2011; Manh, 2014) in order to separate and quantify the impacts of flood protection measures to the flood regime in the lower part of the delta in a spatially explicit manner, with a special focus on the urban and economic centers Can Tho and My Thuan. Based on these scenarios the change in flood hazard caused by the infrastructure development that has to be expected is described and possible mitigation actions are proposed.

  17. Flood Risk and Asset Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Within the UK for example, the flooding of the village of Boscastle (August, 2004), that took place over a day, Roca -Collel and Davison (2010), can...Hazard Research Centre. Roca -Collel, M. and Davison, M. (2010). "Two dimensional model analysis of flash- flood processes: application to the Boscastle

  18. Geomorphological factors of flash floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic load, rise of extreme meteorological events frequency and total precipitation depth often lead to increasing danger of catastrophic fluvial processes worldwide. Flash floods are one of the most dangerous and less understood types of them. Difficulties of their study are mainly related to short duration of single events, remoteness and hard access to origin areas. Most detailed researches of flash floods focus on hydrological parameters of the flow itself and its meteorological factors. At the same time, importance of the basin geological and geomorphological structure for flash floods generation and the role they play in global sediment redistribution is yet poorly understood. However, understanding and quantitative assessment of these features is a real basis for a complete concept of factors, characteristics and dynamics of flash floods. This work is a review of published data on flash floods, and focuses on the geomorphological factors of the phenomenon. We consider both individual roles and interactions between different geomorphological features (the whole basin parameters, characteristics of the single slopes and valley bottom). Special attention is paid to critical values of certain factors. This approach also highlights the gaps or less studied factors of flash floods. Finally, all data is organized into a complex diagram that may be used for flash floods modeling. This also may help to reach a new level of flash flood predictions and risk assessment.

  19. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, M.; Bhikharie, A.; Mustroph, A.; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that gro

  20. 77 FR 21516 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Creek--West Tributary, Council Creek, Dairy Creek, Dawson Creek, Deer Creek, Erickson Creek, Fanno Creek... Creek, Deer Creek, Erickson Creek, Glencoe Swale, Golf Creek, Gordon Creek, Hall Center Creek, Hall... Avenue. Erickson Creek Approximately 211 feet +174 +175 City of Beaverton. upstream of Southwest 144th...

  1. Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

    2009-04-01

    will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of information that has to be completed to become a real decision making tool. Indeed, we have seen that major floods cause almost always failures in the flood defense system. So potentially the city could face a flood event and managers recovery works. Knowing the vulnerability of the city, direct and indirect impacts, how can managers optimize recovery actions? Our research will focus first on proposing recovery scenarios based on the city system and second on vulnerability indicators to first limit damages during floods and to speed up recovery actions. At last, a GIS will be developed to assist stakeholders to take spatial measures to reduce city system weakness before a flood event and to help them to decide on how to optimize recovery actions after a flood event. Dealing with these two temporal scales will allow obtaining more flood resilient cities.

  2. Optimized Flood Forecasts Using a Statistical Enemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Micha; Fredj, Erick

    2016-04-01

    The method presented here assembles an optimized flood forecast from a set of consecutive WRF-Hydro simulations by applying coefficients which we derive from straightforward statistical procedures. Several government and research institutions that produce climate data offer ensemble forecasts, which merge predictions from different models to gain a more accurate fit to observed data. Existing ensemble forecasts present climate and weather predictions only. In this research we propose a novel approach to constructing hydrological ensembles for flood forecasting. The ensemble flood forecast is created by combining predictions from the same model, but initiated at different times. An operative flood forecasting system, run by the Israeli Hydrological Service, produces flood forecasts twice daily with a 72 hour forecast period. By collating the output from consecutive simulation runs we have access to multiple overlapping forecasts. We then apply two statistical procedures to blend these consecutive forecasts, resulting in a very close fit to observed flood runoff. We first employ cross-correlation with a time lag to determine a time shift for each of the original, consecutive forecasts. This shift corrects for two possible sources of error: slow or fast moving weather fronts in the base climate data; and mis-calibrations of the WRF-Hydro model in determining the rate of flow of surface runoff and in channels. We apply this time shift to all consecutive forecasts, then run a linear regression with the observed runoff data as the dependent variable and all shifted forecasts as the predictor variables. The solution to the linear regression equation is a set of coefficients that corrects the amplitude errors in the forecasts. These resulting regression coefficients are then applied to the consecutive forecasts producing a statistical ensemble which, by design, closely matches the observed runoff. After performing this procedure over many storm events in the Negev region

  3. The value of integrating information from multiple hazards for flood risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Castillo-Rodríguez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for estimating flood risk in urban areas integrating pluvial flooding, river flooding and failure of both small and large dams. The first part includes a review of basic concepts and existing methods on flood risk analysis, evaluation and management. Traditionally, flood risk analyses have focused on specific site studies and qualitative or semi-quantitative approaches. However, in this context, a general methodology to perform a quantitative flood risk analysis including different flood hazards was still required. The second part describes the proposed methodology, which presents an integrated approach – combining pluvial, river flooding and dam failure, as applied to a case study: a urban area located downstream a dam under construction. Such methodology represents an upgrade of the methodological piece developed within the SUFRI project. This article shows how outcomes from flood risk analysis provide better and more complete information to inform authorities, local entities and the stakeholders involved on decision-making with regard to flood risk management.

  4. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  5. Evaluating coping capacity and benefits of flood-prone land use to support Integrated Flood Management in developing countries: community assessment in Candaba, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, A. M.; Kibler, K. M.; Ohara, M.

    2015-12-01

    Flood risk reduction strategies such as zoning and land use restrictions reduce exposure by "keeping people away from floods". However, in many developing countries, benefits provided by floods and use of flood-prone land are essential, particularly where livelihoods are tied to natural hydrologic cycles. We propose integrating coping capacity and benefits of floodplain use into risk assessments in developing countries. We assess flood damages and identify local strategies for living with and benefitting from floods in Candaba, Philippines. We use a physically-based rainfall-runoff model and remotely-sensed data to characterize flooding. At the village scale, we evaluate potential damages to agriculture and fisheries. Through community surveys and focus groups, we identify adaptations that allow people to cope with and benefit from flooding. Seeking to integrate these adaptations into standard risk assessments, we explore valuation methods to appraise floodplain-derived benefits. We find that some communities adapt their livelihoods to seasonal inundation, for instance, by using land alternately for agriculture and wild-catch fisheries during dry and wet seasons respectively. To integrate the role of coping capacity into our assessment, we consider dynamics of seasonal land use and evaluate damages and benefits of adapted (high coping capacity) and non-adapted (low coping capacity) conditions. We find that coping strategies minimize flood losses while allowing valuable flood-related benefit capture. We conclude that neglecting coping capacity and benefits of floodplain use can lead to poor characterization of risk, which may result in misguided management. Acknowledging local capacity to live with and benefit from floods may support flood risk management, sustainable livelihoods and ecosystem services in developing countries.

  6. A GIS-based method for flood risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Kleomenis; Stathopoulos, Nikos; Psarogiannis, Athanasios; Penteris, Dimitris; Tsiakos, Chrisovalantis; Karagiannopoulou, Aikaterini; Krikigianni, Eleni; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Chalkias, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Floods are physical global hazards with negative environmental and socio-economic impacts on local and regional scale. The technological evolution during the last decades, especially in the field of geoinformatics, has offered new advantages in hydrological modelling. This study seeks to use this technology in order to quantify flood risk assessment. The study area which was used is an ungauged catchment and by using mostly GIS hydrological and geomorphological analysis together with a GIS-based distributed Unit Hydrograph model, a series of outcomes have risen. More specifically, this paper examined the behaviour of the Kladeos basin (Peloponnese, Greece) using real rainfall data, as well hypothetical storms. The hydrological analysis held using a Digital Elevation Model of 5x5m pixel size, while the quantitative drainage basin characteristics were calculated and were studied in terms of stream order and its contribution to the flood. Unit Hydrographs are, as it known, useful when there is lack of data and in this work, based on time-area method, a sequences of flood risk assessments have been made using the GIS technology. Essentially, the proposed methodology estimates parameters such as discharge, flow velocity equations etc. in order to quantify flood risk assessment. Keywords Flood Risk Assessment Quantification; GIS; hydrological analysis; geomorphological analysis.

  7. Toward generalized decision support systems for flood risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muste Marian V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a large number of specialized decision-support systems (DSS in the last decades, currently there are fewer efforts made for integrating the flood risk management relevant sciences with information and communication technologies into generalized DSS. Such systems are expected to formulate decision options for prevention, mitigation, preparation, response, and recovery from flood impacts with consideration of climate change, socio-economic evolution, and stakeholders’ input. Currently, there is no unified vision on the architecture, components, and the needed computer and communications technologies for attaining generic DSS for flood mitigation and resilience. Moreover, there is no guidance of what components should be developed first and in what order and how to efficiently include human-computer interfaces for efficient stakeholder engagement and consensus. This paper calls for the formation of a strategic global partnership for framing and subsequently assisting in the development of a generalized flood DSS (FLOODSS that can overcome the current flood DSS limitations. The call is preceded by a review of the flood decision-support terminology and context. Subsequently, an initial vision on the FLOODSS is outlined and the steps for transitioning such a system from vision to practice are proposed.

  8. Effective delineation of urban flooded areas based on aerial ortho-photo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Raymond, Don; Hong, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The combination of rapid global urban growth and climate change has resulted in increased occurrence of major urban flood events across the globe. The distribution of flooded area is one of the key information layers for applications of emergency planning and response management. While SAR systems and technologies have been widely used for flood area delineation, radar images suffer from range ambiguities arising from corner reflection effects and shadowing in dense urban settings. A new mapping framework is proposed for the extraction and quantification of flood extent based on aerial optical multi-spectral imagery and ancillary data. This involves first mapping of flood areas directly visible to the sensor. Subsequently, the complete area of submergence is estimated from this initial mapping and inference techniques based on baseline data such as land cover and GIS information such as available digital elevation models. The methodology has been tested and proven effective using aerial photography for the case of the 2013 flood in Calgary, Canada.

  9. Regional Flood Frequency Analysis in the Volta River Basin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossi Komi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Volta River Basin, flooding has been one of the most damaging natural hazards during the last few decades. Therefore, flood frequency estimates are important for disaster risk management. This study aims at improving knowledge of flood frequencies in the Volta River Basin using regional frequency analysis based on L-moments. Hence, three homogeneous groups have been identified based on cluster analysis and a homogeneity test. By using L-moment diagrams and goodness of fit tests, the generalized extreme value and the generalized Pareto distributions are found suitable to yield accurate flood quantiles in the Volta River Basin. Finally, regression models of the mean annual flood with the size of the drainage area, mean basin slope and mean annual rainfall are proposed to enable flood frequency estimation of ungauged sites within the study area.

  10. Tropical stormwater floods: a sustainable solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinie, Jack; Bade, Francois; Nagau, Jimmy; Nuiro, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Stormwater management is one of the most difficult problem of urban and suburban area. The urban runoff volume related to rain intensity and surfaces properties can lead to flood. Thereby, urban flooding creates considerable infrastructure problem, economics and human damages. In tropical countries, burgeoning human population coupled with unplanned urbanization altered the natural drainage. Consequently, classical intense rain around 100 cm/h produces frequent street flooding. In our case, we study the management of intense tropical rain, by using a network of individual rain storage tanks. The study area is economical and industrial zone installed in a coastal plain , with seventy per cent of impermeable surface (roads, parking lots, building roof, …) and thirty per cent of wetland (mangrove, …). Our solution is to delay the routes and parking lots runoff to the roof one. We propose sustainable individual water storage and a real time dynamical management, which permit to control the roof water arrival in the stormwater culvert. During the remaining time, the stored rainwater can be used for domestic activities instead of the use of drinking water.

  11. A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven; Keiler, Margreth

    2013-04-01

    The design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed to flood hazard. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the intensity of the impacting water-related hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow for an estimation of the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario on the basis of a spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk, and improve both risk assessments and cost-benefit analyses of planned mitigation strategies. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage generating mechanisms remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is rather limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme comprises distinct analytical steps: (a) modelling the process intensity and (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed, (c) the physical response of the building envelope, (d) the damage accounting and (f) the economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of flood hazard losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

  12. An experimental system for flood risk forecasting and monitoring at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Kalas, Milan; Lorini, Valerio; Salamon, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Global flood forecasting and monitoring systems are nowadays a reality and are being applied by a wide range of users and practitioners in disaster risk management. Furthermore, there is an increasing demand from users to integrate flood early warning systems with risk based forecasting, combining streamflow estimations with expected inundated areas and flood impacts. Finally, emerging technologies such as crowdsourcing and social media monitoring can play a crucial role in flood disaster management and preparedness. Here, we present some recent advances of an experimental procedure for near-real time flood mapping and impact assessment. The procedure translates in near real-time the daily streamflow forecasts issued by the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) into event-based flood hazard maps, which are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information at global scale to derive risk forecast. Impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, and affected population, infrastructures and cities. To increase the reliability of our forecasts we propose the integration of model-based estimations with an innovative methodology for social media monitoring, which allows for real-time verification and correction of impact forecasts. Finally, we present the results of preliminary tests which show the potential of the proposed procedure in supporting emergency response and management.

  13. Flash Flooding and 'Muddy Floods' on Arable Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flash flooding is often associated with upland, grazed catchments. It does, however, occur in lowland arable-dominated areas. In southern England, notable examples have occurred at Rottingdean (Brighton) in 1987, at Faringdon (Oxfordshire) in 1993 and at Breaky Bottom vineyard (near Brighton) in 1987 and 2000. All resulted in damage to nearby property. Runoff was largely from recently cultivated ground. The characteristics of such floods are: Rapid runoff from bare soil surfaces. Saturated excess overland flow is likely in the early parts of storms but high intensity rainfall on loamy soils results in crusting and Hortonian overland flow; High rates of erosion; Sediment transport to downvalley sites causing property damage ('muddy flooding'). Muddy floods are known from several areas of Europe e.g. Belgium, northern France, South Limburg (Netherlands) and Slovakia (Boardman et al 2006). In other areas they occur but have gone unreported or are classified under different terms. The necessary conditions for occurrence are areas of arable land which is bare at times of the year when there is a risk of storms. For muddy floods to cause damage (and hence be reported), vulnerable property must lie downstream from such areas of arable land. In some areas the incidence of muddy floods relates to autumn and early winter rainfall and winter cereal crops (e.g. southern England). In continental Europe, flooding is more common in summer and is associated with convectional storms and land uses including sugar beet, maize and potatoes. Predictions of increased numbers of high-intensity storms with future climate change, suggest that arable areas will continue to generate both flash floods and muddy floods.

  14. Advances in pan-European flood hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, P. D.; Alfieri, L.; Salamon, P.; Bianchi, A.; Neal, J. C.; Feyen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Flood hazard maps at trans-national scale have potential for a large number of applications ranging from climate change studies, reinsurance products, aid to emergency operations for major flood crisis, among others. However, at continental scales, only few products are available, due to the difficulty of retrieving large consistent data sets. Moreover, these are produced at relatively coarse grid resolution, which limits their applications to qualitative assessments. At finer resolution, maps are often limited to country boundaries, due to limited data sharing at trans-national level. The creation of a European flood hazard map would currently imply a collection of scattered regional maps, often lacking mutual consistency due to the variety of adopted approaches and quality of the underlying input data. In this work, we derive a pan-European flood hazard map at 100m resolution. The proposed approach is based on expanding a literature cascade model through a physically based approach. A combination of distributed hydrological and hydraulic models was set up for the European domain. Then, an observed meteorological data set is used to derive a long-term streamflow simulation and subsequently coherent design flood hydrographs for a return period of 100years along the pan-European river network. Flood hydrographs are used to simulate areas at risk of flooding and output maps are merged into a pan-European flood hazard map. The quality of this map is evaluated for selected areas in Germany and United Kingdom against national/regional hazard maps. Despite inherent limitations and model resolution issues, simulated maps are in good agreement with reference maps (hit rate between 59% and 78%, critical success index between 43% and 65%), suggesting strong potential for a number of applications at the European scale

  15. Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grames, Johanna; Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, Alexia; Grass, Dieter; Viglione, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Recently socio-hydrology models have been proposed to analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters such as floods. Complementary to these descriptive models, we develop a dynamic optimization model, where the inter-temporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. This interdisciplinary approach matches with the goals of Panta Rhei i.e. to understand feedbacks between hydrology and society. It enables new perspectives but also shows limitations of each discipline. Young scientists need mentors from various scientific backgrounds to learn their different research approaches and how to best combine them such that interdisciplinary scientific work is also accepted by different science communities. In our socio-hydrology model we apply a macro-economic decision framework to a long-term flood-scenario. We assume a standard macro-economic growth model where agents derive utility from consumption and output depends on physical capital that can be accumulated through investment. To this framework we add the occurrence of flooding events which will destroy part of the capital. We identify two specific periodic long term solutions and denote them rich and poor economies. Whereas rich economies can afford to invest in flood defense and therefore avoid flood damage and develop high living standards, poor economies prefer consumption instead of investing in flood defense capital and end up facing flood damages every time the water level rises. Nevertheless, they manage to sustain at least a low level of physical capital. We identify optimal investment strategies and compare simulations with more frequent and more intense high water level events.

  16. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  17. Flood hazard and management: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, Howard S

    2006-08-15

    This paper discusses whether flood hazard in the UK is increasing and considers issues of flood risk management. Urban development is known to increase fluvial flood frequency, hence design measures are routinely implemented to minimize the impact. Studies suggest that historical effects, while potentially large at small scale, are not significant for large river basins. Storm water flooding within the urban environment is an area where flood hazard is inadequately defined; new methods are needed to assess and manage flood risk. Development on flood plains has led to major capital expenditure on flood protection, but government is attempting to strengthen the planning role of the environmental regulator to prevent this. Rural land use management has intensified significantly over the past 30 years, leading to concerns that flood risk has increased, at least at local scale; the implications for catchment-scale flooding are unclear. New research is addressing this issue, and more broadly, the role of land management in reducing flood risk. Climate change impacts on flooding and current guidelines for UK practice are reviewed. Large uncertainties remain, not least for the occurrence of extreme precipitation, but precautionary guidance is in place. Finally, current levels of flood protection are discussed. Reassessment of flood hazard has led to targets for increased flood protection, but despite important developments to communicate flood risk to the public, much remains to be done to increase public awareness of flood hazard.

  18. Somerset County Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the floods of August 2, 1973, September 16 and 17, 1999, and April 16, 2007, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how costly, especially in terms of human life, an unexpected flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin. Since the mid 1960's, the National Weather Service (NWS) has been able to forecast flooding on larger streams in Somerset County, such as the Raritan and Millstone Rivers. Flooding on smaller streams in urban areas was more difficult to predict. In response to this problem the NWS, in cooperation with the Green Brook Flood Control Commission, installed a precipitation gage in North Plainfield, and two flash-flood alarms, one on Green Brook at Seeley Mills and one on Stony Brook at Watchung, in the early 1970's. In 1978, New Jersey's first countywide flood-warning system was installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Somerset County. This system consisted of a network of eight stage and discharge gages equipped with precipitation gages linked by telephone telemetry and eight auxiliary precipitation gages. The gages were installed throughout the county to collect precipitation and runoff data that could be used to improve flood-monitoring capabilities and flood-frequency estimates. Recognizing the need for more detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the USGS, in cooperation with Somerset County, designed and installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. This system is part of a statewide network of stream gages, precipitation gages, weather stations, and tide gages that collect data in real time. The data provided by the SCFIS improve the flood forecasting ability of the NWS and aid Somerset County and municipal agencies in

  19. The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Burkardt, Nina; Golden, Joseph H.; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Huffman, George J.; Larsen, Matthew C.; McGinley, John A.; Updike, Randall G.; Verdin, James P.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the USGS, and other government agencies convened in San Juan, Puerto Rim for a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The essence of the HFLC is to develop and integrate tools across disciplines to enable the issuance of regional guidance products for floods and landslides associated with major tropical rain systems, with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure. All three lead agencies are independently developing precipitation-flood-debris flow forecasting technologies, and all have a history of work on natural hazards both domestically and overseas. NOM has the capability to provide tracking and prediction of storm rainfall, trajectory and landfall and is developing flood probability and magnTtude capabilities. The USGS has the capability to evaluate the ambient stability of natural and man-made landforms, to assess landslide susceptibilities for those landforms, and to establish probabilities for initiation of landslides and debris flows. Additionally, the USGS has well-developed operational capacity for real-time monitoring and reporting of streamflow across distributed networks of automated gaging stations (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/). NASA has the capability to provide sophisticated algorithms for satellite remote sensing of precipitation, land use, and in the future, soil moisture. The Workshop sought to initiate discussion among three agencies regarding their specific and highly complimentary capabilities. The fundamental goal of the Workshop was to establish a framework that will leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed for example, in relatively data-rich Puerto Rim, it could be adapted for use in data-poor, low-infrastructure regions such as the Dominican Republic or Haiti. This paper provides an overview of the Workshop s goals

  20. Facts and perceptions on the flood-risk evolution along the Po River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Carisi, Francesca; Castellarin, Attilio

    2014-05-01

    Has the flood risk increased in the Po river basin during the last half century? The increasing frequency with which floods damages are recorded, or reported by media, strengthen the common perception that the flood risk is dramatically increasing in Europe and other areas of the world, due to a combination of different causes, among which climate change is often described as the major factor. However, there is a growing awareness of how anthropogenic pressures, such as uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone areas, may strongly impact the evolution of flood-risk in a given area, increasing potential flood damages and losses. Starting from these considerations, our study aims at shedding some light on the impact and relative importance of different factors controlling the flood risk. Focusing in particular on the middle-lower portion of the River Po, we analyse the evolution of flood hazard in the last half century referring to long streamflow series for different gauging stations located along the study reach (~450 km), while the modification of anthropogenic pressure is evaluated by referring to land-use and demographic dynamics observed from 1950s. Our study proposes simplified flood-vulnerability indices to be used for large scale flood-risk assessments and, on the basis of these indices, (1) we assess the importance of the different elements contributing to the definition of flood risk and (2) represent the evolution of flood risk in time along the middle and lower portion of the River Po. The results of the study represent an important piece of information that can be particularly useful to decision-makers in the definition of large scale flood-risk mitigation strategies and development plans for the study area.

  1. Probabilistic mapping of flood-induced backscatter changes in SAR time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaffer, Stefan; Chini, Marco; Giustarini, Laura; Matgen, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The information content of flood extent maps can be increased considerably by including information on the uncertainty of the flood area delineation. This additional information can be of benefit in flood forecasting and monitoring. Furthermore, flood probability maps can be converted to binary maps showing flooded and non-flooded areas by applying a threshold probability value pF = 0.5. In this study, a probabilistic change detection approach for flood mapping based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) time series is proposed. For this purpose, conditional probability density functions (PDFs) for land and open water surfaces were estimated from ENVISAT ASAR Wide Swath (WS) time series containing >600 images using a reference mask of permanent water bodies. A pixel-wise harmonic model was used to account for seasonality in backscatter from land areas caused by soil moisture and vegetation dynamics. The approach was evaluated for a large-scale flood event along the River Severn, United Kingdom. The retrieved flood probability maps were compared to a reference flood mask derived from high-resolution aerial imagery by means of reliability diagrams. The obtained performance measures indicate both high reliability and confidence although there was a slight under-estimation of the flood extent, which may in part be attributed to topographically induced radar shadows along the edges of the floodplain. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of local incidence angle for the separability between flooded and non-flooded areas as specular reflection properties of open water surfaces increase with a more oblique viewing geometry.

  2. Sequential planning of flood protection infrastructure under limited historic flood record and climate change uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, Beatrice; Špačková, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Flood protection is often designed to safeguard people and property following regulations and standards, which specify a target design flood protection level, such as the 100-year flood level prescribed in Germany (DWA, 2011). In practice, the magnitude of such an event is only known within a range of uncertainty, which is caused by limited historic records and uncertain climate change impacts, among other factors (Hall & Solomatine, 2008). As more observations and improved climate projections become available in the future, the design flood estimate changes and the capacity of the flood protection may be deemed insufficient at a future point in time. This problem can be mitigated by the implementation of flexible flood protection systems (that can easily be adjusted in the future) and/or by adding an additional reserve to the flood protection, i.e. by applying a safety factor to the design. But how high should such a safety factor be? And how much should the decision maker be willing to pay to make the system flexible, i.e. what is the Value of Flexibility (Špačková & Straub, 2017)? We propose a decision model that identifies cost-optimal decisions on flood protection capacity in the face of uncertainty (Dittes et al. 2017). It considers sequential adjustments of the protection system during its lifetime, taking into account its flexibility. The proposed framework is based on pre-posterior Bayesian decision analysis, using Decision Trees and Markov Decision Processes, and is fully quantitative. It can include a wide range of uncertainty components such as uncertainty associated with limited historic record or uncertain climate or socio-economic change. It is shown that since flexible systems are less costly to adjust when flood estimates are changing, they justify initially lower safety factors. Investigation on the Value of Flexibility (VoF) demonstrates that VoF depends on the type and degree of uncertainty, on the learning effect (i.e. kind and quality of

  3. A framework for global river flood risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Winsemius

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for strategic global assessments of flood risks in current and future conditions. In this paper, we propose a framework for global flood risk assessment for river floods, which can be applied in current conditions, as well as in future conditions due to climate and socio-economic changes. The framework's goal is to establish flood hazard and impact estimates at a high enough resolution to allow for their combination into a risk estimate, which can be used for strategic global flood risk assessments. The framework estimates hazard at a resolution of ~ 1 km2 using global forcing datasets of the current (or in scenario mode, future climate, a global hydrological model, a global flood-routing model, and more importantly, an inundation downscaling routine. The second component of the framework combines hazard with flood impact models at the same resolution (e.g. damage, affected GDP, and affected population to establish indicators for flood risk (e.g. annual expected damage, affected GDP, and affected population. The framework has been applied using the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, which includes an optional global flood routing model DynRout, combined with scenarios from the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE. We performed downscaling of the hazard probability distributions to 1 km2 resolution with a new downscaling algorithm, applied on Bangladesh as a first case study application area. We demonstrate the risk assessment approach in Bangladesh based on GDP per capita data, population, and land use maps for 2010 and 2050. Validation of the hazard estimates has been performed using the Dartmouth Flood Observatory database. This was done by comparing a high return period flood with the maximum observed extent, as well as by comparing a time series of a single event with Dartmouth imagery of the event. Validation of modelled damage estimates was performed using observed damage estimates from

  4. The use of a flood index to characterise flooding in the north-eastern region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding in the Haor region in the north-east of Bangladesh is presented in this paper. A haor is a saucershaped depression, which is used during the dry period (Dec to mid-May for agriculture and as a fishery during the wet period (Jun-Nov. Pre-monsoon flooding till mid-May causes agricultural loss. The area is bordering India, and is fed by some flashy Indian catchments. The area is drained mainly by the Surma-Kushiyara river system. The terrain generally is flat and the flashy characteristics die out within a short distance from the border. Limited studies on the region, particularly with the help of numerical models, have been carried out in the past. Therefore, an objective of the current research was to set up numerical models capable of reasonably emulating the physical system. Such models could, for example, associate different gauges to the spatio-temporal variation of hydrodynamic variables and help in carrying out a systemic study on the flood propagation. A 1D2D model, with one-dimensional model for the rivers (based on MIKE 11 from DHI and a two-dimensional model for the haors (based on MIKE 21 from DHI were developed. In order to characterize flooding in the large area a flood index is proposed, which is computed based on the hydrograph characteristics such as the rising curve gradient, flood magnitude ratio and time to peak. The index was used in characterising flooding in the Haor region. In general, two groups of rivers were identified. The study enabled identifying the hot-spots in the study area with risks from flooding.

  5. Ice flood velocity calculating approach based on single view metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Xu, L.

    2017-02-01

    Yellow River is the river in which the ice flood occurs most frequently in China, hence, the Ice flood forecasting has great significance for the river flood prevention work. In various ice flood forecast models, the flow velocity is one of the most important parameters. In spite of the great significance of the flow velocity, its acquisition heavily relies on manual observation or deriving from empirical formula. In recent years, with the high development of video surveillance technology and wireless transmission network, the Yellow River Conservancy Commission set up the ice situation monitoring system, in which live videos can be transmitted to the monitoring center through 3G mobile networks. In this paper, an approach to get the ice velocity based on single view metrology and motion tracking technique using monitoring videos as input data is proposed. First of all, River way can be approximated as a plane. On this condition, we analyze the geometry relevance between the object side and the image side. Besides, we present the principle to measure length in object side from image. Secondly, we use LK optical flow which support pyramid data to track the ice in motion. Combining the result of camera calibration and single view metrology, we propose a flow to calculate the real velocity of ice flood. At last we realize a prototype system by programming and use it to test the reliability and rationality of the whole solution.

  6. Flooding Fragility Experiments and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tahhan, Antonio [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Muchmore, Cody [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nichols, Larinda [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhandari, Bishwo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report describes the work that has been performed on flooding fragility, both the experimental tests being carried out and the probabilistic fragility predictive models being produced in order to use the text results. Flooding experiments involving full-scale doors have commenced in the Portal Evaluation Tank. The goal of these experiments is to develop a full-scale component flooding experiment protocol and to acquire data that can be used to create Bayesian regression models representing the fragility of these components. This work is in support of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway external hazards evaluation research and development.

  7. Guiding rational reservoir flood operation using penalty-type genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chiu

    2008-06-01

    SummaryReal-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. This study proposes a reservoir flood control optimization model with linguistic description of requirements and existing regulations for rational operating decisions. The approach involves formulating reservoir flood operation as an optimization problem and using the genetic algorithm (GA) as a search engine. The optimizing formulation is expressed not only by mathematical forms of objective function and constraints, but also by no analytic expression in terms of parameters. GA is used to search a global optimum of a mixture of mathematical and nonmathematical formulations. Due to the great number of constraints and flood control requirements, it is difficult to reach a solution without violating constraints. To tackle this bottleneck, the proper penalty strategy for each parameter is proposed to guide the GA searching process. The proposed approach is applied to the Shihmen reservoir in North Taiwan for finding the rational release and desired storage as a case study. The hourly historical data sets of 29 typhoon events that have hit the area in last thirty years are investigated bye the proposed method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the simplex method was performed. The results demonstrated that a penalty-type genetic algorithm could effectively provide rational hydrographs to reduce flood damage during the flood operation and to increase final storage for future usages.

  8. Adaptive flood risk management in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, H.L.P.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent times a shift has occurred from traditional flood management focused on the prevention of flooding (reduction of the probability) only, to more adaptive strategies focused on the reduction of the impacts of floods as a means to improve the resilience of occupied flood plains to increased r

  9. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and…

  10. Local Flood Action Groups: Governance And Resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrest, Steven; Trell, Elen-Maarja; Woltjer, Johan; Macoun, Milan; Maier, Karel

    2015-01-01

    A diverse range of citizen groups focusing on flood risk management have been identified in several European countries. The paper discusses the role of flood action (citizen) groups in the context of flood resilience and will do this by analysing the UK and its diverse range of flood groups. These c

  11. Flood damage, vulnerability and risk perception - challenges for flood damage research

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in flood damage analysis mainly focuses on the economic evaluation of tangible flood effects. It is contended in this discussion paper that important economic, social and ecological aspects of flood-related vulnerabilities are neglected. It is a challenge for flood research to develop a wider perspective for flood damage evaluation.

  12. Flood Avoidance Mechanisms for Bridged Resilient Packet Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pisai Setthawong; Surat Tanterdtid

    2008-01-01

    Resilient Packet Ring (RPR), or the Standard IEEE 802.17, is a new IP-based network technology proposed to replace SONET/SDH in metropolitan area networks. RPR is well-adapted to handle multimedia traffic and is efficient.However, when RPR networks are bridged, inter-ring packets, or packets with the destination on a remote RPR network other than on the source network, are flooded on the source and the destination networks, and also on the path of the intermediate networks between the source and the destination networks. This decreases the available bandwidth for othertraffic in those networks and is inefficient. As a result, we propose two solutions based on topology discovery, global topologydiscovery (GTD) and enhanced topology discovery (ETD), that prevent the flooding of inter-ring packets. GTD enables the bridges to determine the next-hop bridge for each destination. ETD enables the source node to determine a default ringlet,so that packets reach the next-hop bridge without flooding the source network. The proposed solutions were analyzed and the overhead bandwidth and stabilization time were shown to be bounded. Simulations performed showed that the proposed solutions successfully avoid flooding and achieve optimal efficiency in the intermediate and destination networks, and in the source networks with one bridge.

  13. Flood Progression Modelling and Impact Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Nickerson, B.

    People living in the lower valley of the St. John River, New Brunswick, Canada, frequently experience flooding when the river overflows its banks during spring ice melt and rain. To better prepare the population of New Brunswick for extreme flooding, we developed a new flood prediction model...... that computes floodplain polygons before the flood occurs. This allows emergency managers to access the impact of the flood before it occurs and make the early decisions for evacuation of the population and flood rescue. This research shows that the use of GIS and LiDAR technologies combined with hydrological...... modelling can significantly improve the decision making and visualization of flood impact needed for emergency planning and flood rescue. Furthermore, the 3D GIS application we developed for modelling flooded buildings and infrastructure provides a better platform for modelling and visualizing flood...

  14. Smoky River coal flood risk mapping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The Canada-Alberta Flood Damage Reduction Program (FDRP) is designed to reduce flood damage by identifying areas susceptible to flooding and by encouraging application of suitable land use planning, zoning, and flood preparedness and proofing. The purpose of this study is to define flood risk and floodway limits along the Smoky River near the former Smoky River Coal (SRC) plant. Alberta Energy has been responsible for the site since the mine and plant closed in 2000. The study describes flooding history, available data, features of the river and valley, calculation of flood levels, and floodway determination, and includes flood risk maps. The HEC-RAS program is used for the calculations. The flood risk area was calculated using the 1:100 year return period flood as the hydrological event. 7 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs., 3 apps.

  15. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  16. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  17. Flash floods: forecasting and warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sene, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    .... Floods of this type are often characterised by fast flowing deep water and a high debris content which - combined with the short lead time available for warnings - add to the risk to people and property...

  18. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  19. Maximising the usefulness of flood risk assessment for the River Vistula in Warsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiczko, A.; Romanowicz, R. J.; Osuch, M.; Karamuz, E.

    2013-12-01

    The derivation of the flood risk maps requires an estimation of maximum inundation extent for a flood with a given return period, e.g. 100 or 500 yr. The results of numerical simulations of flood wave propagation are used to overcome the lack of relevant observations. In practice, deterministic 1-D models are used for that purpose. The solution of a 1-D model depends on the initial and boundary conditions and estimates of model parameters based on the available noisy observations. Therefore, there is a large uncertainty involved in the derivation of flood risk maps using a single realisation of a flow model. Bayesian conditioning based on multiple model simulations can be used to quantify this uncertainty; however, it is too computer-time demanding to be applied in flood risk assessment in practice, without further flow routing model simplifications. We propose robust and feasible methodology for estimating flood risk. In order to decrease the computation times the assumption of a gradually varied flow and the application of a steady state flow routing model is introduced. The aim of this work is an analysis of the influence of those simplifying assumptions and uncertainty of observations and modelling errors on flood inundation mapping and a quantitative comparison with deterministic flood extent maps. Apart from the uncertainty related to the model structure and its parameters, the uncertainty of the estimated flood wave with a specified probability of return period (so-called 1-in-10 yr, or 1-in-100 yr flood) is also taken into account. In order to derive the uncertainty of inundation extent conditioned on the design flood, the probabilities related to the design wave and flow model uncertainties are integrated. In the present paper that integration is done whilst taking into account the dependence of roughness coefficients on discharge. The roughness is parameterised based on maximum annual discharges. This approach allows for the relationship between flood

  20. NASA's Support to Flood Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. S.; Murray, J. J.; Stough, T.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of flood and inundation, the impacts on people and infrastructure, and generally the situational awareness on all scales for decision making are areas where NASA is mobilizing scientific results, advanced sensing and technologies, experts and partnerships to support response. NASA has targeted mature application science and ready technology for flood and inundation monitoring and assessment. This includes supporting timely data management and product dissemination with users and partners. Requirements are captured in the form of science-area questions, while solutions measure readiness for use by considering standard tools and approaches that make information more accessible, interoperable, understandable and reliable. The program collaborates with capacity building and areas of education and outreach needed to create and leverage non-traditional partnerships in transdisciplinary areas including socio-economic practice, preparedness and resilience assessment, early warning and forecast response, and emergency management, relief and recovery. The program outcomes also seek alignment with and support to global and community priorities related to water resources and food security. This presentation will examine the achievements of individual projects and the challenges and opportunities of more comprehensive and collaborative teams behind NASA's response to global flooding. Examples from recent event mobilization will be reviewed including to the serious of domestic floods across the south and Midwest United States throughout 2015 and 2016. Progress on the combined use of optical, microwave and SAR remote sensing measurements, topographic and geodetic data and mapping, data sharing practices will be reviewed. Other response case studies will examine global flood events monitored, characterized and supported in various boundary regions and nations. Achievements and future plans will be described for capabilities including global flood modeling, near real

  1. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  2. Potential flood volume of Himalayan glacial lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fujita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Glacial lakes are potentially dangerous sources of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, and represent a serious natural hazard in Himalayan countries. Despite the development of various indices aimed at determining the outburst probability, an objective evaluation of the thousands of Himalayan glacial lakes has yet to be completed. In this study we propose a single index, based on the depression angle from the lakeshore, which allows the lakes to be assessed using remotely sensed digital elevation models (DEMs. We test our approach on five lakes in Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet using images taken by the declassified Hexagon KH-9 satellite before these lakes experienced an outburst flood. All five lakes had a steep lakefront area (SLA, on which a depression angle was steeper than our proposed threshold of 10° before the GLOF event, but the SLA was no longer evident after the events. We further calculated the potential flood volume (PFV; i.e., the maximum volume of floodwater that could be released if the lake surface was lowered sufficiently to eradicate the SLA. This approach guarantees repeatability to assess the possibility of GLOF hazards because it requires no particular expertise to carry out, though the PFV does not quantify the GLOF risk. We calculated PFVs for more than 2000 Himalayan glacial lakes using visible band images and DEMs of ASTER data. The PFV distribution follows a power-law function. We found that 794 lakes did not have an SLA, and consequently had a PFV of zero, while we also identified 49 lakes with PFVs of over 10 million m3, which is a comparable volume to that of recorded major GLOFs. This PFV approach allows us to preliminarily identify and prioritize those Himalayan glacial lakes that require further detailed investigation on GLOF hazards and risk.

  3. Assessing flood forecast uncertainty with fuzzy arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruyn Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing forecasts for flow rates and water levels during floods have to be associated with uncertainty estimates. The forecast sources of uncertainty are plural. For hydrological forecasts (rainfall-runoff performed using a deterministic hydrological model with basic physics, two main sources can be identified. The first obvious source is the forcing data: rainfall forecast data are supplied in real time by meteorological forecasting services to the Flood Forecasting Service within a range between a lowest and a highest predicted discharge. These two values define an uncertainty interval for the rainfall variable provided on a given watershed. The second source of uncertainty is related to the complexity of the modeled system (the catchment impacted by the hydro-meteorological phenomenon, the number of variables that may describe the problem and their spatial and time variability. The model simplifies the system by reducing the number of variables to a few parameters. Thus it contains an intrinsic uncertainty. This model uncertainty is assessed by comparing simulated and observed rates for a large number of hydro-meteorological events. We propose a method based on fuzzy arithmetic to estimate the possible range of flow rates (and levels of water making a forecast based on possible rainfalls provided by forcing and uncertainty model. The model uncertainty is here expressed as a range of possible values. Both rainfall and model uncertainties are combined with fuzzy arithmetic. This method allows to evaluate the prediction uncertainty range. The Flood Forecasting Service of Oise and Aisne rivers, in particular, monitors the upstream watershed of the Oise at Hirson. This watershed’s area is 310 km2. Its response time is about 10 hours. Several hydrological models are calibrated for flood forecasting in this watershed and use the rainfall forecast. This method presents the advantage to be easily implemented. Moreover, it permits to be carried out

  4. A large scale rainfall-runoff-inundation analysis of Thailand Flood 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, T.; Tatebe, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2012-12-01

    A large amount of rainfall during the 2011 monsoonal season caused an unprecedented flood disaster in the Chao Phraya River basin in Thailand. When a large-scale flood occurs, it is very important to take appropriate emergency measures by holistically understanding the characteristics of the flooding based on available information and by predicting its possible development. This paper proposes quick response-type flood simulation that can be conducted during a severe flooding event. The hydrologic simulation model used in this study is designed to simulate river discharges and flood inundation simultaneously for an entire river basin with satellite based rainfall and topographic information. The model is based on two-dimensional diffusive wave equations for rainfall-runoff and inundation calculations. The model takes into account the effects of lateral subsurface flow and vertical infiltration flow since these two types of flow are also important processes. This paper presents prediction results obtained in mid-October 2011, when the flooding in Thailand was approaching to its peak. Our scientific question is how well we can predict the possible development of a large-scale flooding event with limited information and how much we can improve the prediction with more local information. In comparison with a satellite based flood inundation map, the study found that the quick response-type simulation (Case A) was capable of capturing the peak flood inundation extent reasonably. Our interpretation of the prediction was that the flooding might continue even until the end of November, which was positively confirmed to some extent by the actual flooding status in late November. In the meantime, the Case A simulation generally overestimated the peak water level. To address this overestimation, the input data was updated with additional local information (Case B). Consequently, the simulation accuracy improved in the lower basin by up to about 10 % for discharge and up to

  5. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  6. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit; Mustroph, Angelika; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that grow in naturally flooded areas, have high submergence tolerance achieved by the so-called quiescence and escape strategies, respectively. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in these strategies, we investigated submergence-induced changes in gene expression in flooded roots of Rorippa species. There was a higher induction of glycolysis and fermentation genes and faster carbohydrate reduction in R. amphibia, indicating a higher demand for energy potentially leading to faster mortality by starvation. Moreover, R. sylvestris showed induction of genes improving submergence tolerance, potentially enhancing survival in prolonged floods. Additionally, we compared transcript profiles of these 2 tolerant species to relatively intolerant Arabidopsis and found that only Rorippa species induced various inorganic pyrophosphate dependent genes, alternatives to ATP demanding pathways, thereby conserving energy, and potentially explaining the difference in flooding survival between Rorippa and Arabidopsis.

  7. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  8. Modelling the socio-economic impact of river floods in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Salamon, Peter; Thielen, Jutta; Bianchi, Alessandra; Dottori, Francesco; Burek, Peter

    2016-06-01

    River floods generate a large share of the socio-economic impact of weather-driven hazards worldwide. Accurate assessment of their impact is a key priority for governments, international organization, reinsurance companies and emergency responders. Yet, available databases of flood losses over large domains are often affected by gaps and inconsistencies in reported figures. In this work, a framework to reconstruct the economic damage and population affected by river floods at continental scale is applied. Pan-European river flow simulations are coupled with a high-resolution impact assessment framework based on 2-D inundation modelling. Two complementary methods are compared in their ability to estimate the climatological average flood impact and the impact of each flood event in Europe between 1990 and 2013. The event-based method reveals key features, such as the ability to include changes in time of all three components of risk, namely hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Furthermore, it skilfully reproduces the socio-economic impact of major flood events in the past two decades, including the severe flooding hitting central Europe in June 2013. On the other hand, the integral method is capable of reproducing the average flood losses which occurred in Europe between 1998 and 2009. Strengths and limitations of the proposed model are discussed to stress the large potential for filling in the gaps of current datasets of flood impact.

  9. Natural Flood Management Plus: Scaling Up Nature Based Solutions to Larger Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Nicholson, Alex; Adams, Russ

    2017-04-01

    It has been established that networks NFM features, such as ponds and wetlands, can have a significant effect on flood flow and pollution at local scales (less than 10km2). However, it is much less certain that NFM and NBS can impact at larger scales and protect larger cities. This is especially true for recent storms in the UK such as storm Desmond that caused devastation across the north of England. It is possible using observed rainfall and runoff data to estimate the amounts of storage that would be required to impact on extreme flood events. Here we will how a toolkit that will estimate the amount of storage that can be accrued through a dense networks of NFM features. The analysis suggest that the use of many hundreds of small NFM features can have a significant impact on peak flow, however we still require more storage in order to address extreme events and to satisfy flood engineers who may propose more traditional flood defences. We will also show case studies of larger NFM feature positioned on flood plains that can store significantly more flood flow. Examples designs of NFM plus feature will be shown. The storage aggregation tool will then show the degree to which storing large amounts of flood flow in NFM plus features can contribute to flood management and estimate the likely costs. Together smaller and larger NFM features if used together can produce significant flood storage and at a much lower cost than traditional schemes.

  10. Health Impacts of Climate and Weather: Influenza and Floods as Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Hatim

    2010-05-01

    The interest in understanding how the emergence and spread of infectious disease is controlled by environmental factors such atmospheric condition has increased in the past two decades among public health officials, hydrometeorologists, scientists and policy maker. Given the strong linkage between climate and influenza, we studied the relationship between specific meteorological variables, namely temperature, humidity, precipitation, and radiation, and influenza morbidity and mortality at various temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate goal of the study is to make it possible to use weather and climate prediction at or before the beginning of the influenza season to provide valuable prediction of the characteristics of the season. Preliminary results will be presented. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) considers flooding "America's Number One Natural Hazard". Despite flood management efforts in many communities, U.S. flood damages remain high, due, in large part, to increasing population and property development in flood-prone areas. Floods are the leading cause of fatalities related to natural disasters in Texas and are considered as a serious health threat by Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS). We examined flood fatalities that occurred in Texas between 1960 and 2008. Flood fatality statistics were extracted from several sources including DSHS. The data collected for flood fatalities include the date, time, gender, age, location, and weather conditions. Analysis reveals that most fatalities result from driving into flood water. A health education intervention strategy is proposed.

  11. Modeling Flood & Drought Scenario for Water Management in Porali River Basin, Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent history shows that floods have become a frequently occurring disaster in Balochistan, especially during monsoon season. Two rivers, river Porali and river Kud overflows, inundating its banks and causing destruction to cultivated land and property. This study is an attempt to identify flood prone areas of Porali river basin for future flood scenario and propose possible reservoir locations for excess flood water storage. Computer-based models Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF and HEC-river analysis system (HEC-RAS are used as tools to simulate existing and future flood and drought scenarios. Models are calibrated and validated using data from 3 weather stations, namely Wadh, Bela, and Uthal and stream flow data from two gauging stations. The highest and the lowest 10 years of precipitation data are extracted, from historic dataset of all stations, to attain future flooding and drought scenarios, respectively. Flood inundation map is generated highlighting agricultural prone land and settlements of the watershed. Using Digital Elevation Model (DEM and volume of water calculated from the flood scenario, possible locations for reservoirs are marked that can store excess water for the use in drought years. Flow and volume of water has also been simulated for drought scenario. Analyses show that 3 × 109 m3 of water available due to immense flooding that is sufficient for the survival for one drought year, as the volume of water for latter scenario is 2.9 × 108m3.

  12. Evaluation of TRMM satellite-based precipitation indexes for flood forecasting over Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeli, Ahmet Emre; Fouli, Hesham

    2016-10-01

    Floods are among the most common disasters harming humanity. In particular, flash floods cause hazards to life, property and any type of structures. Arid and semi-arid regions are equally prone to flash floods like regions with abundant rainfall. Despite rareness of intensive and frequent rainfall events over Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); an arid/semi-arid region, occasional flash floods occur and result in large amounts of damaging surface runoff. The flooding of 16 November, 2013 in Riyadh; the capital city of KSA, resulted in killing some people and led to much property damage. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) Real Time (RT) data (3B42RT) are used herein for flash flood forecasting. 3B42RT detected high-intensity rainfall events matching with the distribution of observed floods over KSA. A flood early warning system based on exceedance of threshold limits on 3B42RT data is proposed for Riyadh. Three different indexes: Constant Threshold (CT), Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF) and Riyadh Flood Precipitation Index (RFPI) are developed using 14-year 3B42RT data from 2000 to 2013. RFPI and CDF with 90% captured the three major flooding events that occurred in February 2005, May 2010 and November 2013 in Riyadh. CT with 3 mm/h intensity indicated the 2013 flooding, but missed those of 2005 and 2010. The methodology implemented herein is a first-step simple and accurate way for flash flood forecasting over Riyadh. The simplicity of the methodology enables its applicability for the TRMM follow-on missions like Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  13. Characterisation of seasonal flood types according to timescales in mixed probability distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Svenja; Schumann, Andreas; Schulte, Markus

    2016-08-01

    When flood statistics are based on annual maximum series (AMS), the sample often contains flood peaks, which differ in their genesis. If the ratios among event types change over the range of observations, the extrapolation of a probability distribution function (pdf) can be dominated by a majority of events that belong to a certain flood type. If this type is not typical for extraordinarily large extremes, such an extrapolation of the pdf is misleading. To avoid this breach of the assumption of homogeneity, seasonal models were developed that differ between winter and summer floods. We show that a distinction between summer and winter floods is not always sufficient if seasonal series include events with different geneses. Here, we differentiate floods by their timescales into groups of long and short events. A statistical method for such a distinction of events is presented. To demonstrate their applicability, timescales for winter and summer floods in a German river basin were estimated. It is shown that summer floods can be separated into two main groups, but in our study region, the sample of winter floods consists of at least three different flood types. The pdfs of the two groups of summer floods are combined via a new mixing model. This model considers that information about parallel events that uses their maximum values only is incomplete because some of the realisations are overlaid. A statistical method resulting in an amendment of statistical parameters is proposed. The application in a German case study demonstrates the advantages of the new model, with specific emphasis on flood types.

  14. Holistic Approach for Critical System Security: Flooding Prevention and Malicious Packet Stopping

    CERN Document Server

    Alhabeeb, M A; Le, P D

    2010-01-01

    Denial of service attacks (DoS) can cause significant financial damages. Flooding and Malicious packets are two kinds of DoS attacks. This paper presents a new security approach which stops malicious packets and prevents flooding in the critical systems. New concepts of packet stamp a dynamic-multi-communication-point mechanism has been identified for this proposed approach to make the prevention of flooding attacks easier and the performing of malicious packet attacks harder. In addition, dynamic key encryption technique has been adapted as a part of the proposed approach to enhance its functionality.

  15. The development of a flash flood severity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Amanda J.; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hardy, Jill; Henderson, Jen J.; Parhi, Pradipta; Rahmani, Vahid; Reed, Kimberly A.; Schumacher, Russ S.; Smith, Brianne K.; Taraldsen, Matthew J.

    2016-10-01

    Flash flooding is a high impact weather event that requires clear communication regarding severity and potential hazards among forecasters, researchers, emergency managers, and the general public. Current standards used to communicate these characteristics include return periods and the United States (U.S.) National Weather Service (NWS) 4-tiered river flooding severity scale. Return periods are largely misunderstood, and the NWS scale is limited to flooding on gauged streams and rivers, often leaving out heavily populated urban corridors. To address these shortcomings, a student-led group of interdisciplinary researchers came together in a collaborative effort to develop an impact-based Flash Flood Severity Index (FFSI). The index was proposed as a damage-based, post-event assessment tool, and preliminary work toward the creation of this index has been completed and presented here. Numerous case studies were analyzed to develop the preliminary outline for the FFSI, and three examples of such cases are included in this paper. The scale includes five impact-based categories ranging from Category 1 very minor flooding to Category 5 catastrophic flooding. Along with the numerous case studies used to develop the initial outline of the scale, empirical data in the form of semi-structured interviews were conducted with multiple NWS forecasters across the country and their responses were analyzed to gain more perspective on the complicated nature of flash flood definitions and which tools were found to be most useful. The feedback from these interviews suggests the potential for acceptance of such an index if it can account for specific challenges.

  16. Flood forecasting and alert system for Arda River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artinyan, Eram; Vincendon, Beatrice; Kroumova, Kamelia; Nedkov, Nikolai; Tsarev, Petko; Balabanova, Snezhanka; Koshinchanov, Georgy

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the set-up and functioning of a flood alert system based on SURFEX-TOPODYN platform for the cross-border Arda River basin. The system was built within a Bulgarian-Greek project funded by the European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) Programme and is in operational use since April 2014. The basin is strongly influenced by Mediterranean cyclones during the autumn-winter period and experiences dangerous rapid floods, mainly after intensive rain, often combined with snow melt events. The steep mountainous terrain leads to floods with short concentration time and high river speed causing damage to settlements and infrastructure. The main challenge was to correctly simulate the riverflow in near-real time and to timely forecast peak floods for small drainage basins below 100 km2 but also for larger ones of about 1900 km2 using the same technology. To better account for that variability, a modification of the original hydrological model parameterisation is proposed. Here we present the first results of a new model variant which uses dynamically adjusted TOPODYN river velocity as function of the computed partial streamflow discharge. Based on historical flooding data, river sections along endangered settlements were included in the river flow forecasting. A continuous hydrological forecast for 5 days ahead was developed for 18 settlements in Bulgaria and for the border with Greece, thus giving enough reaction time in case of high floods. The paper discusses the practical implementation of models for the Arda basin, the method used to calibrate the models' parameters, the results of the calibration-validation procedure and the way the information system is organised. A real case of forecasted rapid floods that occurred after the system's finalisation is analysed. One of the important achievements of the project is the on-line presentation of the forecasts that takes into account their temporal variability and uncertainty. The web presentation includes a

  17. Predictions of flood warning threshold exceedance computed with logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomede, Tommaso; Marsigli, Chiara; Stefania Tesini, Maria

    2017-04-01

    A method based on logistic regression is proposed for the prediction of river level threshold exceedance at different lead times (from +6h up to +42h). The aim of the study is to provide a valuable tool for the issue of warnings by the authority responsible of public safety in case of flood. The role of different precipitation periods as predictors for the exceedance of a fixed river level has been investigated, in order to derive significant information for flood forecasting. Based on catchment-averaged values, a separation of "antecedent" and "peak-triggering" rainfall amounts as independent variables is attempted. In particular, the following flood-related precipitation periods have been considered: (i) the period from 1 to n days before the forecast issue time, which may be relevant for the soil saturation ("state of the catchment"), (ii) the last 24 hours, which may be relevant for the current water level in the river ("state of the river"), and (iii) the period from 0 to x hours in advance with respect to the forecast issue time, when the flood-triggering precipitation generally occurs ("state of the atmosphere"). Several combinations and values of these predictors have been tested to optimise the method implementation. In particular, the period for the precursor antecedent precipitation ranges between 5 and 45 days; the current "state of the river" can be represented by the last 24-h precipitation or, as alternative, by the current river level. The flood-triggering precipitation has been cumulated over the next 18-42 hours, or the previous 6-12h, according to the forecast lead time. The proposed approach requires a specific implementation of logistic regression for each river section and warning threshold. The method performance has been evaluated over several catchments in the Emilia-Romagna Region, northern Italy, which dimensions range from 100 to 1000 km2. A statistical analysis in terms of false alarms, misses and related scores was carried out by using

  18. Understanding the effects of past flood events and perceived and estimated flood risks on individuals' voluntary flood insurance purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Kunreuther, Howard; Jackson, Nida; Goidel, Kirby

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the economic damage from flooding in the coastal areas has greatly increased due to rapid coastal development coupled with possible climate change impacts. One effective way to mitigate excessive economic losses from flooding is to purchase flood insurance. Only a minority of coastal residents however have taken this preventive measure. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data, this study examines the effects of external influences and perceptions of flood-related risks on individuals' voluntary behaviors to purchase flood insurance. It is found that the estimated flood hazard conveyed through the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) flood maps, the intensities and consequences of past storms and flooding events, and perceived flood-related risks significantly affect individual's voluntary purchase of flood insurance. This behavior is also influenced by home ownership, trust in local government, education, and income. These findings have several important policy implications. First, FEMA's flood maps have been effective in conveying local flood risks to coastal residents, and correspondingly influencing their decisions to voluntarily seek flood insurance in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Flood maps therefore should be updated frequently to reflect timely and accurate information about flood hazards. Second, policy makers should design strategies to increase homeowners' trust in the local government, to better communicate flood risks with residents, to address the affordability issue for the low-income, and better inform less educated homeowners through various educational programs. Future studies should examine the voluntary flood insurance behavior across countries that are vulnerable to flooding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrodynamic model of Fukushima-Daiichi NPP Industrial site flooding

    CERN Document Server

    Vaschenko, V N; Gerasimenko, T V; Vachev, B

    2014-01-01

    While the Fukushima-Daiichi was designed and constructed the maximal tsunami height estimate was about 3 m based on analysis of statistical data including Chile earthquake in 1960. The NPP project industrial site height was 10 m. The further deterministic estimates TPCO-JSCE confirmed the impossibility of the industrial site flooding by a tsunami and therefore confirmed ecological safety of the NPP. However, as a result of beyond design earthquake of 11 March 2011 the tsunami height at the shore near the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP reached 15 m. This led to flooding and severe emergencies having catastrophic environmental consequences. This paper proposes hydrodynamic model of tsunami emerging and traveling based on conservative assumptions. The possibility of a tsunami wave reaching 15 m height at the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP shore was confirmed for deduced hydrodynamic resistance coefficient of 1.8. According to the model developed a possibility of flooding is determined not only by the industrial site height, magni...

  20. Socio-Economic Resilience to Floods in 90 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, S.; Bangalore, M.; Vogt-Schilb, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global losses from floods are increasing, with renewed calls for action to reduce their impact. In each country, region or city, many actions can protect the population and help rebuild and recover: building dikes and restoring mangroves; land-use planning; early warning and evacuation; insurance and social safety nets. What should be the priorities? How to build a comprehensive strategy? Is progress being made? We propose a tool - a national-level scorecard based on welfare economics - to assess a country's socio-economic resilience to river floods and identify the most promising policy options in different contexts to reduce the impact of floods on well-being. The tool is applied to 90 countries using open databases, and can serve as a starting point for designing policies and more in-depth local studies.

  1. Beyond Flood Hazard Maps: Detailed Flood Characterization with Remote Sensing, GIS and 2d Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, J. R.; Marqueso, J. T.; Makinano-Santillan, M.; Serviano, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D) flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers) that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  2. BEYOND FLOOD HAZARD MAPS: DETAILED FLOOD CHARACTERIZATION WITH REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND 2D MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Santillan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  3. Evidence for trends in UK flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Alice J

    2002-07-15

    Recent major flooding in the UK has raised concern that climate change is causing increases in flood frequency and flood magnitude. This paper considers whether UK flood data provide evidence of increasing trends in fluvial floods. The analysis examines both local and national flood series and investigates the effect of climate variability on trend detection. The results suggest that there have been trends towards more protracted high flows over the last 30-50 years, but that this could be accounted for as part of climatic variation rather than climate change. There is no statistical evidence of a long-term trend in flooding over the last 80-120 years. Thus, although climate change could be influencing floods, direct analysis of flood records does not yet provide proof.

  4. A Bayesian decision approach to rainfall thresholds based flood warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. V. Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational real time flood forecasting systems generally require a hydrological model to run in real time as well as a series of hydro-informatics tools to transform the flood forecast into relatively simple and clear messages to the decision makers involved in flood defense. The scope of this paper is to set forth the possibility of providing flood warnings at given river sections based on the direct comparison of the quantitative precipitation forecast with critical rainfall threshold values, without the need of an on-line real time forecasting system. This approach leads to an extremely simplified alert system to be used by non technical stakeholders and could also be used to supplement the traditional flood forecasting systems in case of system failures. The critical rainfall threshold values, incorporating the soil moisture initial conditions, result from statistical analyses using long hydrological time series combined with a Bayesian utility function minimization. In the paper, results of an application of the proposed methodology to the Sieve river, a tributary of the Arno river in Italy, are given to exemplify its practical applicability.

  5. A fully automated TerraSAR-X based flood service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Sandro; Kersten, Jens; Twele, André

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a fully automated processing chain for near real-time flood detection using high resolution TerraSAR-X Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is presented. The processing chain including SAR data pre-processing, computation and adaption of global auxiliary data, unsupervised initialization of the classification as well as post-classification refinement by using a fuzzy logic-based approach is automatically triggered after satellite data delivery. The dissemination of flood maps resulting from this service is performed through an online service which can be activated on-demand for emergency response purposes (i.e., when a flood situation evolves). The classification methodology is based on previous work of the authors but was substantially refined and extended for robustness and transferability to guarantee high classification accuracy under different environmental conditions and sensor configurations. With respect to accuracy and computational effort, experiments performed on a data set of 175 different TerraSAR-X scenes acquired during flooding all over the world with different sensor configurations confirm the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed flood mapping service. These promising results have been further confirmed by means of an in-depth validation performed for three study sites in Germany, Thailand, and Albania/Montenegro.

  6. Flood forecasting using medium-range probabilistic weather prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Gouweleeuw

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the developments in short- and medium-range weather forecasting over the last decade, operational flood forecasting also appears to show a shift from a so-called single solution or 'best guess' deterministic approach towards a probabilistic approach based on ensemble techniques. While this probabilistic approach is now more or less common practice and well established in the meteorological community, operational flood forecasters have only started to look for ways to interpret and mitigate for end-users the prediction products obtained by combining so-called Ensemble Prediction Systems (EPS of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP models with rainfall-runoff models. This paper presents initial results obtained by combining deterministic and EPS hindcasts of the global NWP model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF with the large-scale hydrological model LISFLOOD for two historic flood events: the river Meuse flood in January 1995 and the river Odra flood in July 1997. In addition, a possible way to interpret the obtained ensemble based stream flow prediction is proposed.

  7. A GIS based urban flood risk analysis model for vulnerability assessment of critical structures during flood emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, R.; Sole, A.; Adamowski, J.; Mancusi, L.

    2014-04-01

    Risk analysis has become a priority for authorities and stakeholders in many European countries, with the aim of reducing flooding risk by considering the priority and benefits of possible interventions. Within this context, a flood risk analysis model was developed in this study that is based on GIS, and integrated with a model that assesses the degree of accessibility and operability of strategic emergency response structures in an urban area. The proposed model is unique in that it provides a quantitative estimation of flood risk on the basis of the operability of the strategic emergency structures in an urban area, their accessibility, and connection within the urban system of a city (i.e., connection between aid centres and buildings at risk) in the emergency phase. The results of a case study in the Puglia Region in Southern Italy are described to illustrate the practical applications of this newly proposed approach. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that it allows for the defining of a hierarchy between different infrastructures in the urban area through the identification of particular components whose operation and efficiency are critical for emergency management. This information can be used by decision makers to prioritize risk reduction interventions in flood emergencies in urban areas.

  8. Flood risks and willingness to purchase flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlinger, M.R.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed and the effects on the purchase of insurance of uncertainties in the parameters of the distribution were explored using response surface analysis. Results indicate that fixed coverage insurance provisions shift most of the uncertainty in the physical parameters governing natural disaster occurrences away from the insuree and onto the insurer. The results also show that the form of the damage function has little effect on the demand for flood insurance.- Authors

  9. Flood Loss Model for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punčochář, P.; Podlaha, A.

    2012-04-01

    A new flood model for Austria quantifying fluvial flood losses based on probabilistic event set developed by Impact Forecasting (Aon Benfield's model development centre) was released in June 2011. It was successfully validated with two serious past flood events - August 2002 and August 2005. The model is based on 10 meters cell size digital terrain model with 1cm vertical step and uses daily mean flows from 548 gauge stations of series of average length ~ 60 years. The even set is based on monthly maxima flows correlation, generating 12 stochastic events per year and allows to calculate annual and occurrence exceedance probability loss estimates. The model contains flood extents for more than 24,000 km of modelled river network compatible with HORA project (HOchwasserRisikoflächen Austria) for design flows ranging from 2 to 10,000 years. Model is primarily constructed to work with postal level resolution insurance data reducing positional uncertainty by weighting over more than 2.5 millions address points from Austria Post's ACGeo database. Countrywide flood protections were provided by the Austrian Ministry of Environment. The model was successfully tested with property portfolios of 8 global and local insurance companies and was also successfully validated with August 2002 and August 2005 past events evaluating their return period on the probabilistic simulation basis.

  10. King Tide floods in Tuvalu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2013-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of sea level rise present regional floods in some certain areas. The low-lying island countries are obviously the spots affected severely. Tuvalu, an atoll island country located in the south-west Pacific Ocean, is suffering the devastating effects of losing life, property, and intending migration caused by floods. They blame the regional flooding to King Tide, a term used but not clearly identified by Pacific islanders. In this study, we clarify what King Tide is first. By the tide gauge and topography data, we estimated the reasonable value of 3.2 m as the threshold of King Tide. This definition also fits to the statement by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of King Tide occurring once or twice a year. In addition, We cross validate the 19 yr data of tide gauge and satellite altimeter (1993-2012), the correlation coefficient indicates King Tide phenomenon is considerable connected to warm water mass. The 28 King Tide events revealed the fact that flooding can be referenced against spring tide levels, so can it be turned up by warm water mass. The warm water mass pushes up sea level; once spring tide, storm surge, or other climate variability overlaps it, the rising sea level might overflow and so has been called "King Tide" for the floods in Tuvalu. This study provides more understanding of the signals of King Tide and an island country case study of regional sea level rise.

  11. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment at the local spatial scale: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Vojtek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With regard to minimizing flood damage, there are measures of different character each of which has its justification and plays an important role in flood protection. Implementation of traditional flood protection measures is still very important; however, an increasing role should be played particularly by flood prevention and flood risk management. The paper presents a case study on flood hazard and flood risk assessment at the local spatial scale using geographic information systems, remote sensing, and hydraulic modelling. As for determining flood hazard in the model area, which has 3.23 km2, the estimation of maximum flood discharges and hydraulic modelling were important steps. The results of one-dimensional hydraulic modelling, which are water depth and flow velocity rasters, were the basis for determining flood hazard and flood risk. In order to define flood risk, the following steps were applied: determining flood intensity on the basis of water depth and flow velocity rasters, determining flood hazard using three categories (low, medium, and high based on flood intensity, defining vulnerability for the classes of functional areas using three categories of acceptable risk (low, medium, and high, and lastly determination of flood risk which represents a synthesis of flood hazard and vulnerability of the model area.

  12. Climate Change Adaptation Decision Making for Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Palcacocha Lake in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, A. D.; McKinney, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change has accelerated glacial retreat in high altitude glaciated regions of Peru leading to the growth and formation of glacier lakes. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) are sudden events triggered by an earthquake, avalanche into the lake or other shock that causes a sudden outflow of water. These floods are catastrophic because of their sudden onset, the difficulty predicting them, and enormous quantity of water and debris rapidly flooding downstream areas. Palcacocha Lake in the Peruvian Andes has experienced accelerated growth since it burst in 1941 and threatens the major city of Huaraz and surrounding communities. Since the 1941 flood stakeholders have advocated for projects to adapt to the increasing threat posed by Palcacocha Lake. Nonetheless, discussions surrounding projects for Palcacocha have not included a rigorous analysis of the potential consequences of a flood, probability of an event, or costs of mitigation projects. This work presents the first step to rationally analyze the risks posed by Palcacocha Lake and the various adaptation projects proposed. In this work the authors use decision analysis to asses proposed adaptation measures that would mitigate damage in downstream communities from a GLOF. We use an existing hydrodynamic model of the at-risk area to determine how adaptation projects will affect downstream flooding. Flood characteristics are used in the HEC-FIA software to estimate fatalities and injuries from an outburst flood, which we convert to monetary units using the value of a statistical life. We combine the monetary consequences of a GLOF with the cost of the proposed projects and a diffuse probability distribution for the likelihood of an event to estimate the expected cost of the adaptation plans. From this analysis we found that lowering the lake level by 15 meters has the least expected cost of any proposal despite uncertainty in the effect of lake lowering on flooding downstream.

  13. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE - MO 2014 Springfield FEMA Base Flood Elevations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This polyline layer indicates the approximate effective FEMA Base Flood Elevation (BFE) associated with the corresponding Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). Each line...

  14. Groundwater flood hazards in lowland karst terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Owen; McCormack, Ted

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal complexity of flooding in karst terrains pose unique flood risk management challenges. Lowland karst landscapes can be particularly susceptible to groundwater flooding due to a combination of limited drainage capacity, shallow depth to groundwater and a high level of groundwater-surface water interactions. Historically the worst groundwater flooding to have occurred in the Rep. of Ireland has been centred on the Gort Lowlands, a karst catchment on the western coast of Ireland. Numerous notable flood events have been recorded throughout the 20th century, but flooding during the winters of 2009 and 2015 were the most severe on record, inundating an area in excess of 20km2 and causing widespread and prolonged disruption and damage to property and infrastructure. Effective flood risk management requires an understanding of the recharge, storage and transport mechanisms during flood conditions, but is often hampered by a lack of adequate data. Using information gathered from the 2009 and 2015 events, the main hydrological and geomorphological factors which influence flooding in this complex lowland karst groundwater system under are elucidated. Observed flood mechanisms included backwater flooding of sinks, overland flow caused by the overtopping of sink depressions, high water levels in turlough basins, and surface ponding in local epikarst watersheds. While targeted small-scale flood measures can locally reduce the flood risk associated with some mechanisms, they also have the potential to exacerbate flooding down-catchment and must be assessed in the context of overall catchment hydrology. This study addresses the need to improve our understanding of groundwater flooding in karst terrains, in order to ensure efficient flood prevention and mitigation in future and thus help achieve the aims of the EU Floods Directive.

  15. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  16. Improving flood risk management through risk communication strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoque, Jose Maria; Diez Herrero, Andres; Amerigo, Maria; Garcia, Juan Antonio; Olcina, Jorge; Cortes, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    A suitable level of social perception about flood risk and awareness of Civil Protection Plans are critical to minimize disasters and damages due to flash floods. In order to improve risk perception, awareness and, as a result, the effectiveness of Civil Protection Plans, it is often required the implementation of communication plans. This research proposes a guide recommendation framework to enhance local population preparedness, prevention and response when a flash flood occurs. The research setting was a village (Navaluenga) located in Central Spain with 2,027 inhabitants. It is crossed by the Alberche river and Chorreron stream (both tributaries of the Tagus river), which are prone to flash floods. In a first phase, we assessed citizens' flash-flood risk perception and level of awareness regarding some key variables of the Civil Protection Plan. To this end, a questionnaire survey was designed and 254 adults, a sample representing roughly 12% of the population census, were interviewed. Responses were analysed, comparing awareness regarding preparedness and response actions with those previously defined in the Civil Protection Plan. In addition, we carried out a latent class cluster analysis aimed at identifying the different groups present among the respondents. Next, a risk communication plan was designed and implemented. It aimed to improve the understanding of flood risk among local people; and it comprises briefings, quiz-answers, contests of stories and flood images and intergenerational workshops. Finally, participants in the first phase were reached again and a new survey was performed. The results derived from these second questionnaires were statistically treated using the same approach of the first phase. Additionally, a t-test for paired samples and Pearson Chi-Square test was implemented in order to detect possible improvements in the perception and awareness. Preliminary results indicate that in Navaluenga there is a low social perception of flood

  17. Collecting data for quantitative research on pluvial flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, M.H.; Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2011-01-01

    Urban pluvial flood management requires detailed spatial and temporal information on flood characteristics and damaging consequences. There is lack of quantitative field data on pluvial flooding resulting in large uncertainties in urban flood model calculations and ensuing decisions for investments

  18. Collecting data for quantitative research on pluvial flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, M.H.; Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2011-01-01

    Urban pluvial flood management requires detailed spatial and temporal information on flood characteristics and damaging consequences. There is lack of quantitative field data on pluvial flooding resulting in large uncertainties in urban flood model calculations and ensuing decisions for investments

  19. Evaluation and Optimization Study on a Hybrid EOR Technique Named as Chemical-Alternating-Foam Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xingguang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR method called Chemical-Alternating-Foam (CAF floods in order to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional foam flooding such as insufficient amount of in-situ foams, severe foam collapse and surfactant retention. The first part of this research focused on the comparison of conventional foam floods and CAF floods both of which had the same amount of gas and chemicals. It showed that: (1 CAF floods possessed the much greater Residual Resistance Factor (RRF at elevated temperature; (2 the accumulative oil recovery of the CAF floods was 10%-15% higher than that of the conventional foam flooding. After 1.8 Pore Volume (PV injection, the oil recovery reached the plateau for both methods; (3 CAF floods yielded the most amount of incremental oil at the 98% water cut (water content in the effluent, while the continuous foam floods achieved the best performance at 60% water cut. The second part of this work determined the optimal foam quality (gas/liquid ratio or the volume percent gas within foam, chemical/foam slug size ratio, cycle number and injection sequence for the CAF floods. It was found that the CAF was endowed with the peak performance if the foam quality, chemical/foam slug size ratio, cycle number was fixed at 80%, 1:1 and 3 respectively with the chemical slug being introduced ahead of the foam slug. Through systematic and thorough research, the proposed hybrid process has been approved to be a viable and effective method significantly strengthening the conventional foam flooding.

  20. The role of fine sediment in managing catchment scale flood risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Sarah; Pattison, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Increases in sediment delivery to river channels from changes in land use and climate must be accounted for by catchment managers. Recent flooding of the Somerset Levels, UK highlighted the impacts of reduced channel capacity as a result of sedimentation. Sediment entering river systems needs to be carefully managed in order to sustainably mitigate flood risk. Geomorphological drivers have previously been neglected when proposing methods to reduce flood risk. Understanding the connections between hydrology, geomorphology and engineering is fundamental to predicating sediment transfer within river catchments and thus successfully implementing sustainable flood management. This study focuses on catchment scale fine sediment delivery, changes to channel capacity and its implications for existing flood defence infrastructure. Furthermore, fine sediment accumulations in river channels have been found to reduce water quality due to the presence of nutrients and heavy metals and degrade spawning and invertebrate habitats. Locating the sources of fine sediment within a catchment will enable catchment managers to target resources effectively at reducing sedimentation in rivers and appraise natural flood alleviation measures. This study investigates whether changes in channel capacity due to sedimentation influence flood risk of the River Eye catchment, Leicestershire. Using a combination of field, laboratory and modelling methods this study 1) identifies the sources of fine sediment within the catchment, using sediment fingerprinting techniques; 2) quantifies the spatial and temporal changes in channel capacity at a reach scale with a history of flooding in Melton Mowbray, and 3) monitors existing flood defences designed to prevent downstream sedimentation to determine the longevity and success of the sustainable flood defence scheme. These results will be used to predict the long term flood risk to the catchment, using a series of hydraulic inundation scenarios.

  1. A Novel Dual Traffic/Flash Flood Monitoring System Using Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2015-10-19

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster, causing thousands of casualties every year. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the high concentration of population in cities. Since most flash flood casualties are caused by a lack of information, it is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings of flash floods. However, deploying an infrastructure that solely monitor flash floods makes little economic sense, since the average periodicity of catastrophic flash floods exceeds the lifetime of a typical sensor network. To address this issue, we propose a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and another phenomenon of interest (traffic congestion on the present case). This sensing device is based on the combination of an ultrasonic rangefinder with one or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow and flash flood sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed and classifying them in function of their length. The same sensor can also monitor urban water levels with an accuracy of less than 2 cm. Two of the sensors have been deployed in a flood prone area, where they captured the only (minor) flash flood that occurred over the one-year test period, with no false detection, and an agreement in the estimated water level estimate (during the flash flood event) of about 2 cm.

  2. A physically based analytical model of flood frequency curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, S.; Schirmer, M.; Botter, G.

    2016-09-01

    Predicting magnitude and frequency of floods is a key issue in hydrology, with implications in many fields ranging from river science and geomorphology to the insurance industry. In this paper, a novel physically based approach is proposed to estimate the recurrence intervals of seasonal flow maxima. The method links the extremal distribution of streamflows to the stochastic dynamics of daily discharge, providing an analytical expression of the seasonal flood frequency curve. The parameters involved in the formulation embody climate and landscape attributes of the contributing catchment and can be estimated from daily rainfall and streamflow data. Only one parameter, which is linked to the antecedent wetness condition in the watershed, needs to be calibrated on the observed maxima. The performance of the method is discussed through a set of applications in four rivers featuring heterogeneous daily flow regimes. The model provides reliable estimates of seasonal maximum flows in different climatic settings and is able to capture diverse shapes of flood frequency curves emerging in erratic and persistent flow regimes. The proposed method exploits experimental information on the full range of discharges experienced by rivers. As a consequence, model performances do not deteriorate when the magnitude of events with return times longer than the available sample size is estimated. The approach provides a framework for the prediction of floods based on short data series of rainfall and daily streamflows that may be especially valuable in data scarce regions of the world.

  3. Flood mapping with remote sensing and hydrochemistry: A new method to distinguish the origin of flood water during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chormanski, J.; Okruszko, T.; Ignar, S.; Batelaan, O.; Rebel, K.T.; Wassen, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    River flooding is important for the ecological functioning of river floodplains. It is implicitly assumed that in many river floodplains during floods, river water is spreading all over the floodplain. We hypothesize that during flood events a spatial distribution of water types exists, which is cor

  4. Multilevel integrated flood management aproach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilly, Mitja; Rusjan, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The optimal solution for complex flood management is integrated approach. Word »integration« used very often when we try to put something together, but should distinguish full multiple integrated approach of integration by parts when we put together and analyse only two variables. In doing so, we lost complexity of the phenomenon. Otherwise if we try to put together all variables we should take so much effort and time and we never finish the job properly. Solution is in multiple integration captures the essential factors, which are different on a case-by-case (Brilly, 2000). Physical planning is one of most important activity in which flood management should be integrated. The physical planning is crucial for vulnerability and its future development and on other hand our structural measures must be incorporate in space and will very often dominated in. The best solution is if space development derived on same time with development of structural measures. There are good examples with such approach (Vienna, Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana). Problems stared when we try incorporating flood management in already urbanised area or we would like to decrease risk to some lower level. Looking to practice we learn that middle Ages practices were much better than to day. There is also »disaster by design« when hazard increased as consequence of upstream development or in stream construction or remediation. In such situation we have risk on areas well protected in the past. Good preparation is essential for integration otherwise we just lost time what is essential for decision making and development. We should develop clear picture about physical characteristics of phenomena and possible solutions. We should develop not only the flood maps; we should know how fast phenomena could develop, in hour, day or more. Do we need to analyse ground water - surface water relations, we would like to protected area that was later flooded by ground water. Do we need to take care about

  5. Evaluating Flood Resilience Strategies for Coastal Megacities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aerts, J. C. J. H; Botzen, W. J. W; Emanuel, K; Lin, N; de Moel, H; Michel-Kerjan, E. O

    2014-01-01

    ... . Population density in flood-prone coastal zones and megacities is expected to grow by 25% by 2050; projected climate change and sea level rise may further increase the frequency and/or severity of large-scale floods...

  6. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  7. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE,

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  8. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, W.R.; Conger, D.H.; Gebert, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 269 gaged sites on Wisconsin streams are presented for recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years. Annual flood peaks for the period of record for each gaged site are included.

  9. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  10. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Risk Project Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  11. Flooding in Thailand: flee, fight or float

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan S Sophonpanich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The severity of recent flooding in Thailand and the probability of future flooding have triggered a re-assessment of coping mechanisms employed by both the Thai population and the government.

  12. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, , USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  13. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  14. Flood Insurance Rate Map, Scott County, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  15. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing...... trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods...... that occurred in the same area. In analogy to ’Paired catchment studies’ - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow – we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One...

  16. Seismic risks posed by mine flooding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach, OD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Many South African gold mines will flood when they close, as the groundwater will gradually fill the mining voids. Preliminary investigations have shown that flooding of mines can generate increased levels of seismicity. Examples are given...

  17. Field note from Pakistan floods: Preventing future flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oxley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually heavy monsoon rains in Northern Pakistan have caused disproportionate levels of extreme flooding and unprecedented flood losses across the entire Indus River basin. Extensive land use changes and environmental degradation in the uplands and lowlands of the river basin together with the construction of a “built environment” out of balance with the functioning, capacities, scale and limits of the local ecosystems have exposed millions of people to an increased risk of extreme #ooding. The catastrophic nature of the August #ooding provides a unique opportunity to fundamentally change Pakistan’s current socio-economic development path by incorporating disaster risk reduction and climate change measures into the post-disaster recovery process to rebuild a safer, more resilient nation. In January 2005 one hundred and sixty-eight nations adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2005-2015 to bring about a “substantial reduction in disaster losses” by 2015. Despite this global initiative a series of major disasters, including the recent flooding in Pakistan, all indicate that we are not on track to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster losses. The following fieldnote considers what can be done to accelerate progress towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework, drawing on insights and lessons learnt from the August flooding to understand how Pakistan and neighbouring countries can prevent a repeat of such catastrophic disasters in future years.

  18. Optimized cascade reservoir operation considering ice flood control and power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianxia; Meng, Xuejiao; Wang, ZongZhi; Wang, Xuebin; Huang, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    Ice flood control is an important objective for reservoir operation in cold regions. Maintaining the reservoir outflow in a certain range is considered an effective way to remediate ice flood damage. However, this strategy may decrease the socio-economic benefit of reservoirs, for example, reduction of hydropower production. These conflicting objectives cause a dilemma for water managers when defining reservoir operation policy. This study considers seven cascade reservoirs in the upstream Yellow River, and ice flood control storage is introduced to balance the hydropower generation and ice flood control. The relation between the ice flood control storage volume of the Liujiaxia reservoir and cascade power output is analyzed. An optimization model to explore the trade-offs between hydropower generation and ice flood control requirements is developed. The model takes into account ice flood control requirements. The optimization model compared to simulation model based on the reservoir operation rule curves. The results show that the optimal operation rules are far more efficient in balancing the benefits within the power generation and ice flood control. The cascade reservoirs operation strategies proposed in this study can be effectively and suitably used in reservoir operation systems with similar conditions.

  19. Incorporating river morphological changes to flood risk assessment: uncertainties, methodology and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neuhold

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk zonation maps are mostly derived from design floods which propagate through the study area. The respective delineation of inundated flood plains is a fundamental input for the flood risk assessment of exposed objects. It is implicitly assumed that the river morphology will not vary, even though it is obvious that the river bed elevation can quickly and drastically change during flood events. The objectives of this study were to integrate the river bed dynamics into the flood risk assessment procedure and to quantify associated uncertainties. The proposed concept was applied to the River Ill in the Western Austrian Alps. In total, 138 flood and associated sediment transport scenarios were considered, simulated and illustrated for the main river stem. The calculated morphological changes of the river bed at the moment of peak flow provided a basis to estimate the variability of possible water surface levels and inundation lines which should be incorporated into flood hazard assessment. In the context of vulnerability assessment an advanced methodological approach to assess flood risk based on damage probability functions is described.

  20. Influence of floods on natural riparian forests along the Ergis River,west China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Kewu; ZANG Runguo; ZHOU Xiaofang; ZHANG Weiyin; BAI Zhiqiang

    2007-01-01

    The riparian forests along the Ergis River,west China,composed mainly of Salicaceae species,play an important role in eco-environment protection and sustainable development of local agriculture,stockbreeding,and social economy of the northern desert region of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.The study of the influence of floods on the natural riparian forests is imperative for the understanding of the successional process and the acceleration of conservation and restoration of forests.By investigating the relationship between floods and dispersal of seeds,sprouting,natural regeneration,the structure of the forests,and their current distribution,we conclude that:1) the ripening and dispersal periods of Salicaceae species seeds overlap largely with flood occurrence periods,and the sprouting and natural regeneration of seeds depend greatly on flood events;2) floods supply soil water and increase groundwater level of riparian land through flood irrigation and horizontal infiltration to maintain the normal growth of the riparian forests;3) floods have a decisive influence on the structure,composition,and distribution pattern of riparian forests,and any disturbance in the water flow has a profound effect on these characteristics.Given these facts,some management measures for conservation and restoration of the riparian forests are proposed,including the establishment of riparian forest buffer belt,bank stabilization measures,and maintenance of flood protection.

  1. Expected shortage based pre-release strategy for reservoir flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Frederick N.-F.; Wu, Chia-Wen

    2013-08-01

    In Taiwan, an increase in the frequency of severe flooding over the past decade has prompted demand for improved reservoir operation to control flood-related damage. Flood protection of reservoir can be enhanced by pre-releasing its storage to more adequately accommodate an impending flood. A procedure is proposed in this paper to evaluate the impact of pre-releases of flood control operation on water supply. A basic criterion used is that the pre-release of reservoir storage should not cause intolerable increment of water shortage risk. The shortage risks for different pre-release scenarios are simulated according to the uncertainties of storm rainfall and post-flood ordinary inflow till the end of next dry season. Two operational objectives are provided to help determining the target pre-released level. One of which identifies the minimum allowable pre-released threshold. The other seeks the pre-released level which maximizes the probability that the reservoir release during flood is below the non-damaging discharge and the end-of-operation storage target can still be achieved. This paper evaluated the operations of Tsengwen Reservoir of southern Taiwan during four typhoons from 2007 to 2012 to illustrate the significant contribution of pre-releases in reducing downstream flood potential.

  2. Learning about Flood Risk: Comparing the Web-Based and Physical Flood-Walk Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Nyberg, Lars; Evers, Mariele; Alexandersson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Numerous of sustainable development related challenges are emerging today, e.g. flooding problems. Our group has developed "the flood walk" project since 2010 to convey flood risk knowledge in an authentic context. Considering the limitation of time and space to educate people the flood risk knowledge, we tried to transform the physical…

  3. Learning about Flood Risk: Comparing the Web-Based and Physical Flood-Walk Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Nyberg, Lars; Evers, Mariele; Alexandersson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Numerous of sustainable development related challenges are emerging today, e.g. flooding problems. Our group has developed "the flood walk" project since 2010 to convey flood risk knowledge in an authentic context. Considering the limitation of time and space to educate people the flood risk knowledge, we tried to transform the physical…

  4. Thesis Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Strukturen i Thesis proposal er følgende: Først præsenteres mine konkrete empiriske forskningsprojekter som skal munde ud i afhandlingens artikler. Jeg præsenterer herefter de teoretiske overvejelser omkring oplevelsesbegrebet og forbrugerkulturteori som danner baggrund for at jeg er nået frem til...

  5. A Hazus-Based Method for Assessing Robustness of Electricity Supply to Critical Smart Grid Consumers during Flood Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr; Montoya, Lorena; Ceccarelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring an external electricity supply to critical city components during flood events requires adequate urban grid planning. The proliferation of smart grid technologies means that such planning needs to assess how smart grids might function during floods. This paper proposes a method to qualitati

  6. Making Supply Chains Resilient to Floods Using a Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Natural hazards distress the global economy by disrupting the interconnected supply chain networks. Manufacturing companies have created cost-efficient supply chains by reducing inventories, streamlining logistics and limiting the number of suppliers. As a result, today's supply chains are profoundly susceptible to systemic risks. In Thailand, for example, the GDP growth rate declined by 76 % in 2011 due to prolonged flooding. Thailand incurred economic damage including the loss of USD 46.5 billion, approximately 70% of which was caused by major supply chain disruptions in the manufacturing sector. Similar problems occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011, the Mississippi River floods and droughts during 2011 - 2013, and Hurricane Sandy in 2012. This study proposes a methodology for modeling supply chain disruptions using a Bayesian network analysis (BNA) to estimate expected values of countermeasures of floods, such as inventory management, supplier management and hard infrastructure management. We first performed a spatio-temporal correlation analysis between floods and extreme precipitation data for the last 100 years at a global scale. Then we used a BNA to create synthetic networks that include variables associated with the magnitude and duration of floods, major components of supply chains and market demands. We also included decision variables of countermeasures that would mitigate potential losses caused by supply chain disruptions. Finally, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis by estimating the expected values of these potential countermeasures while conducting a sensitivity analysis. The methodology was applied to supply chain disruptions caused by the 2011 Thailand floods. Our study demonstrates desirable typical data requirements for the analysis, such as anonymized supplier network data (i.e. critical dependencies, vulnerability information of suppliers) and sourcing data(i.e. locations of suppliers, and production rates and

  7. Towards a 1km resolution global flood risk model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeff; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in computationally efficient numerical algorithms and new High Performance Computing architectures now make high (1-2km) resolution global hydrodynamic models a realistic proposition. However in many areas of the world the data sets and tools necessary to undertake such modelling do not currently exist. In particular, five major problems need to be resolved: (1) the best globally available terrain data (SRTM) was generated from X-band interferometric radar data which does not penetrate vegetation canopies and which has significant problems in determining ground elevations in urban areas; (2) a global river bathymetry data set does not currently exist; (3) most river channels globally are less than the smallest currently resolvable grid scale (1km) and therefore require a sub-grid treatment; (4) a means to estimate the magnitude of the T year flood at any point along the global river network does not currently exist; and (5) a large proportion of flood losses are generated by off-floodplain surface water flows which are not well represented in current hydrodynamic modelling systems. In this paper we propose solutions to each of these five issues as part of a concerted effort to develop a 1km (or better) resolution global flood hazard model. We describe the new numerical algorithms, computer architectures and computational resources used, and demonstrate solutions to the five previously intractable problems identified above. We conduct a validation study of the modelling against satellite imagery of major flooding on the Mississippi-Missouri confluence plain in the central USA before outlining a proof-of-concept regional study for SE Asia as a step towards a global scale model. For SE Asia we simulate flood hazard for ten different flood return periods over the entire Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Laos region at 1km resolution and show that the modelling produces coherent, consistent and sensible simulations of extent and water depth.

  8. Advancements in the global modelling of coastal flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Brown, Sally; Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Ward, Philip J.

    2017-04-01

    Storm surges and high tides can cause catastrophic floods. Due to climate change and socio-economic development the potential impacts of coastal floods are increasing globally. Global modelling of coastal flood hazard provides an important perspective to quantify and effectively manage this challenge. In this contribution we show two recent advancements in global modelling of coastal flood hazard: 1) a new improved global dataset of extreme sea levels, and 2) an improved vertical datum for extreme sea levels. Both developments have important implications for estimates of exposure and inundation modelling. For over a decade, the only global dataset of extreme sea levels was the DINAS-COAST Extreme Sea Levels (DCESL), which uses a static approximation to estimate total water levels for different return periods. Recent advances have enabled the development of a new dynamically derived dataset: the Global Tide and Surge Reanalysis (GTSR) dataset. Here we present a comparison of the DCESL and GTSR extreme sea levels and the resulting global flood exposure for present-day conditions. While DCESL generally overestimates extremes, GTSR underestimates extremes, particularly in the tropics. This results in differences in estimates of flood exposure. When using the 1 in 100-year GTSR extremes, the exposed global population is 28% lower than when using the 1 in 100-year DCESL extremes. Previous studies at continental to global-scales have not accounted for the fact that GTSR and DCESL are referenced to mean sea level, whereas global elevation datasets, such as SRTM, are referenced to the EGM96 geoid. We propose a methodology to correct for the difference in vertical datum and demonstrate that this also has a large effect on exposure. For GTSR, the vertical datum correction results in a 60% increase in global exposure.

  9. A surface water flooding impact library for flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldridge Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for improved risk-based Surface Water Flooding (SWF warning systems is evident in EU directives and in the UK Government’s Pitt Review of the 2007 summer floods. This paper presents a novel approach for collating receptor and vulnerability datasets via the concept of an Impact Library, developed by the Health and Safety Laboratory as a depository of pre-calculated impact information on SWF risk for use in a real-time SWF Hazard Impact Model (HIM. This has potential benefits for the Flood Forecasting Centre (FFC as the organisation responsible for the issuing of flood guidance information for England and Wales. The SWF HIM takes a pixel-based approach to link probabilistic surface water runoff forecasts produced by CEH’s Grid-to-Grid hydrological model with Impact Library information to generate impact assessments. These are combined to estimate flood risk as a combination of impact severity and forecast likelihood, at 1km pixel level, and summarised for counties and local authorities. The SWF HIM takes advantage of recent advances in operational ensemble forecasting of rainfall by the Met Office and of SWF by the Environment Agency and CEH working together through the FFC. Results are presented for a case study event which affected the North East of England during 2012. The work has been developed through the UK’s Natural Hazards Partnership (NHP, a group of organisations gathered to provide information, research and analysis on natural hazards for civil contingencies, government and responders across the UK.

  10. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main pu

  11. The August 1975 Flood over Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Smith, James; Liu, Maofeng; Baeck, MaryLynn

    2016-04-01

    The August 1975 flood in Central China was one of the most destructive floods in history, resulting in 26 000 fatalities, leaving about 10 million people with insufficient shelter, and producing long-lasting famine and disease. Extreme rainfall responsible for this flood event was associated with typhoon Nina during 5-7 August 1975. Despite the prominence of the August 1975 flood, analyses of the storms producing the flood and the resulting flood are sparse. Even fewer attempts were made from the perspective of numerical simulations. We examine details of extreme rainfall for the August 1975 flood based on downscaling simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model driven by 20th Century Reanalysis fields. We further placed key hydrometeorological features for the flood event in a climatological context through the analyses of the 20th Century Reanalysis fields. Results indicate interrelated roles of multiple mesoscale ingredients for deep, moist convection in producing extreme rainfall for the August 1975 flood, superimposed over an anomalous synoptic environment. Attribution analyses on the source of water vapor for this flood event will be conducted based on a Lagrangian parcel tracking algorithm LAGRANTO. Analytical framework developed in this study aims to explore utilization of hydrometeorological approach in flood-control engineering designs by providing details on key elements of flood-producing storms.

  12. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main

  13. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main pu

  14. The European Flood Risk Directive and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.; Doorn, N.

    2012-01-01

    The European Flood risk directive (2007/60/EC) requires EU Member States to review their system of flood risk management. In doing so, they will have to face ethical issues inherent in flood risk management. This paper discusses three such issues, using examples from the Netherlands. These issues ar

  15. Resilience to flooding: Draft building code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarkson, J.D.; Braun, K.; Desoto-Duncan, A.; Forsyth, G.; De Gijt, J.G.; Huber, N.P.; Miller, D.; Rigo, P.; Sullivan, D.

    2013-01-01

    A significant issue associated Flood Defence Systems (FDS) is the difficulty of predicting how these structures will behave when inevitably they have been loaded beyond their designed capacity by a flood. The flood can cause these structures to fail catastrophically with loss of life and substantial

  16. Flood forecasting using artificial neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varoonchotikul, P.

    2003-01-01

    Flood disasters continue to occur In many countries around the world and cause tremendous casualtles and properties damage. To mitigate the effects of floods, both structural and non-structural measures can be employed, such as dykes, channelisatlon, flood proofing of properties, land-use regulation

  17. Tangible and Intangible Flood damage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frongia Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding and flash floods that cause significant economic and social damage have been widely studied in the last few decades. The European Commission Flood Directive 2007/60 Flood Risk Management Plans require the assessment of potential damage to give an appreciation of the magnitude of the consequences of a flood event and so help stakeholders to use a cost benefit approach to planning flood mitigation measures. This paper evaluates the direct tangible flood damage applying the JRC water depth-damage functions for the European territory to estimate the potential economic damage. Intangible damage is evaluated with the Life Safety Model (LSM to study the dynamic interactions among people, vehicles, buildings and the flood wave. LSM assesses potential flood damage and allows the development of a Flood Evacuation Plan in case of an emergency, underlining the evacuation routes adopted by people and vehicles. This enables emergency managers to avoid evacuation bottleneck problems and identify areas of potential high mortality. The impact of changes such as road network improvements, the location of safe havens and timing of flood warnings can be assessed in terms of potential loss of life. The developed methodology has been applied on the Sardinian Flood Risk Management Plan pilot basin, the Coghinas river lowland basin.

  18. Flood Risk Management in the People’s Republic of China: Learning to Live with Flood Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents a shift in the People’s Republic of China from flood control depending on structural measures to integrated flood management using both structural and non-structural measures. The core of the new concept of integrated flood management is flood risk management. Flood risk management is based on an analysis of flood hazard, exposure to flood hazard, and vulnerability of people and property to danger. It is recommended that people learn to live with flood risks, gaining...

  19. 2-D NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOODING EFFECTS CAUSED BY SOUTH-TO-NORTH WATER TRANSFER PROJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Dong-po; XUE Hai; WANG Peng-tao; LU Rui-li; LIAO Xiao- long

    2008-01-01

    Since the General Channel designed for the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China has to cross many rivers and streams flowing from west to east, there are potentially serious effects additional flooding on the westem side of the project alignment. Therefore, a 2-D numerical model for forecasting basin flood disasters was established and verified using historical flood data. The model was applied to researching the interaction between the proposed Project and flooding events for 5 streams in the Anyang River reach as a representative case study. Simulated results indicate that the model could correctly forecast the flood, submerged area and depths, and water surface elevations along the left side of the channel. The discharge capacity and location of hydraulic structures in the transfer canal alignment were analyzed. Then adjustments to the dimensions and positioning of proposed hydraulic structures were recommended at intersections, especially the addition of a channel to transfer flood water from one stream to another, which can effectively limit the sluice and protect the Anyang City from flooding.

  20. Modelling dynamic roughness during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most

  1. Risk-sharing policies in the context of the French Flood Prevention Action Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdlenbruch, K; Thoyer, S; Grelot, F; Kast, R; Enjolras, G

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the consequences for risk distribution of the French Flood Prevention Action Programme (PAPI). By redirecting floods from the most vulnerable to the least vulnerable areas, PAPIs expose farmers to greater flood risks. This has led local water management institutions to introduce compensation payments. The article outlines the results of an exhaustive survey of all PAPIs in France, which examined the way the compensation policies are set up locally. Results of the survey showed that the proposed policies may be financially non-viable. Several more viable risk-sharing solutions are then discussed, involving insurance schemes, state intervention and local institutions.

  2. Feedback on flood risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the

  3. Characterization of floods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharia, Manabendra; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vergara, Humberto; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Floods have gained increasing global significance in the recent past due to their devastating nature and potential for causing significant economic and human losses. Until now, flood characterization studies in the United States have been limited due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics such as peak discharges and flood duration with geospatial and geomorphologic information. The availability of a representative and long archive of flooding events spanning 78 years over a variety of hydroclimatic regions results in a spatially and temporally comprehensive flood characterization over the continental U.S. This study, for the first time, employs a large-event database that is based on actual National Weather Service (NWS) definitions of floods instead of the frequently-adopted case study or frequentist approach, allowing us to base our findings on real definitions of floods. It examines flooding characteristics to identify how space and time scales of floods vary with climatic regimes and geomorphology. Flood events were characterized by linking flood response variables in gauged basins to spatially distributed variables describing climatology, geomorphology, and topography. The primary findings of this study are that the magnitude of flooding is highest is regions such as West Coast and southeastern U.S. which experience the most extraordinary precipitation. The seasonality of flooding varies greatly from maxima during the cool season on the West Coast, warm season in the desert Southwest, and early spring in the Southeast. The fastest responding events tend to be in steep basins of the arid Southwest caused by intense monsoon thunderstorms and steep terrain. The envelope curves of unit peak discharge are consistent with those reported for Europe and worldwide. But significant seasonal variability was observed in floods of the U.S. compared to Europe that is attributed to the diversity of causative rainfall ranging from synoptic

  4. A novel flood detection mapping using multi-temporal RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X images through an optimized Taguchi based classification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2016-07-01

    Floods are considered as one of the most common natural disasters in Malaysia. Preparation of an actuate flood inventory map is the basic step in flood risk management. Flood detection is yet significantly complex process due to the presence of cloud coverage in the tropical areas especially in Malaysia. Moreover, the most available techniques are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, in the present study an efficient approach is presented to identify the flooded areas by means of multi-temporal RADARSAT-2 and single Terra-SAR-X images. The proposed framework was tested at two tropical areas in Malaysia: Kelantan (2014 flood); and Kuala Terengganu (2009 flood) to map the flooded areas. Multi-temporal RADARSAT-2 and single TerrSAR-X and Landsat images were classified based on a rule-based object-oriented technique. Then, different levels of image segmentation was performed to distinguish the boundaries of various dimensions and scales of objects. Finally, a novel Taguchi based method was employed to optimize the segmentation parameters. After the completion of segmentation, the rules were defined and the images were classified to produce an accurate flood inventory map for both 2014 Kelantan flood event as well as 2009 flood event in Kuala Terengganu. Finally, the results of classification were measured through the confusion matrix. In this research, the combination of techniques and the optimization approach were applied as a pioneering approach for flood detection. The flood inventory map which was obtained by using the proposed approach is showing the efficiency of the methodology which can be applied by other researchers and decision makers to construct the flood inventory maps. Keywords: Radarsat 2; Multispectral imagery; flood detection; Taguchi; rule-based classification

  5. Determination of minimum flood flow for regeneration of floodplain forest from inundated forest width-stage curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-hao SHANG; Xiao-min MAO

    2010-01-01

    Floods are essential for the regeneration and growth of floodplain forests in arid and semiarid regions.However,river flows,and especially flood flows,have decreased greatly with the increase of water diversion from rivers and/or reservoir regulation,resulting in severe deterioration of floodplain ecosystems.Estimation of the flood stage that will inundate the floodplain forest is necessary for the forest's restoration or protection.To balance water use for economic purposes and floodplain forest protection,the inundated forest width method is proposed for estimating the minimum flood stage for floodplain forests from the inundated forest width-stage curve.The minimum flood stage is defined as the breakpoint of the inundated forest width-stage curve,and is determined directly or analytically from the curve.For the analytical approach,the problem under consideration is described by a multi-objective optimization model,which can be solved by the ideal point method.Then,the flood flow at the minimum flood stage(minimum flood flow),which is useful for flow regulation,can be calculated from the stage-discharge curve.In order to protect the forest in a river floodplain in a semiarid area in Xinjiang subject to reservoir regulation upstream,the proposed method was used to determine the minimum flood stage and flow for the forest.Field survey of hydrology,topography,and forest distribution was carried out at typical cross sections in the floodplain.Based on the survey results,minimum flood flows for six typical cross sections were estimated to be between 306 m3/s and 393 m3/s.Their maximum,393 m3/s,was considered the minimum flood flow for the study river reach.This provides an appropriate flood flow for the protection of floodplain forest and can be used in the regulation of the upstream reservoir.

  6. A NEW GENERATION CHEMICAL FLOODING SIMULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori; Mojdeh Delshad

    2005-01-01

    The premise of this research is that a general-purpose reservoir simulator for several improved oil recovery processes can and should be developed so that high-resolution simulations of a variety of very large and difficult problems can be achieved using state-of-the-art algorithms and computers. Such a simulator is not currently available to the industry. The goal of this proposed research is to develop a new-generation chemical flooding simulator that is capable of efficiently and accurately simulating oil reservoirs with at least a million gridblocks in less than one day on massively parallel computers. Task 1 is the formulation and development of solution scheme, Task 2 is the implementation of the chemical module, and Task 3 is validation and application. In this final report, we will detail our progress on Tasks 1 through 3 of the project.

  7. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.; Farahi; Saeed; Reza; Khodashenas; B.; Ghahraman; K.; Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplain processes in general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers. Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools. In this paper flood inundation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and observed flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  8. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Farahi; Saeed Reza Khodashenas; B.Ghahraman; K.Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplaln processes In general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers.Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools.In this paper flood in-undation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and ob-served flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  9. Re-thinking urban flood management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, Johanna; Persson, Andreas; Sternudd, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    Urban flooding is of growing concern due to increasing densification of urban areas, changes in land use, and climate change. The traditional engineering approach to flooding is designing single-purpose drainage systems, dams, and levees. These methods, however, are known to increase the long......-term flood risk and harm the riverine ecosystems in urban as well as rural areas. In the present paper, we depart from resilience theory and suggest a concept to improve urban flood resilience. We identify areas where contemporary challenges call for improved collaborative urban flood management. The concept...

  10. Exploratory functional flood frequency analysis and outlier detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebana, Fateh; Dabo-Niang, Sophie; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The prevention of flood risks and the effective planning and management of water resources require river flows to be continuously measured and analyzed at a number of stations. For a given station, a hydrograph can be obtained as a graphical representation of the temporal variation of flow over a period of time. The information provided by the hydrograph is essential to determine the severity of extreme events and their frequencies. A flood hydrograph is commonly characterized by its peak, volume, and duration. Traditional hydrological frequency analysis (FA) approaches focused separately on each of these features in a univariate context. Recent multivariate approaches considered these features jointly in order to take into account their dependence structure. However, all these approaches are based on the analysis of a number of characteristics and do not make use of the full information content of the hydrograph. The objective of the present work is to propose a new framework for FA using the hydrographs as curves: functional data. In this context, the whole hydrograph is considered as one infinite-dimensional observation. This context allows us to provide more effective and efficient estimates of the risk associated with extreme events. The proposed approach contributes to addressing the problem of lack of data commonly encountered in hydrology by fully employing all the information contained in the hydrographs. A number of functional data analysis tools are introduced and adapted to flood FA with a focus on exploratory analysis as a first stage toward a complete functional flood FA. These methods, including data visualization, location and scale measures, principal component analysis, and outlier detection, are illustrated in a real-world flood analysis case study from the province of Quebec, Canada.

  11. A framework for probabilistic pluvial flood nowcasting for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntegeka, Victor; Murla, Damian; Wang, Lipen; Foresti, Loris; Reyniers, Maarten; Delobbe, Laurent; Van Herk, Kristine; Van Ootegem, Luc; Willems, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    larger city of Gent, Belgium. After each of the different above-mentioned components were evaluated, they were combined and tested for recent historical flood events. The rainfall nowcasting, hydraulic sewer and 2D inundation modelling and socio-economical flood risk results each could be partly evaluated: the rainfall nowcasting results based on radar data and rain gauges; the hydraulic sewer model results based on water level and discharge data at pumping stations; the 2D inundation modelling results based on limited data on some recent flood locations and inundation depths; the results for the socio-economical flood consequences of the most extreme events based on claims in the database of the national disaster agency. Different methods for visualization of the probabilistic inundation results are proposed and tested.

  12. A Bayesian Network approach for flash flood risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutkhamouine, Brahim; Roux, Hélène; Pérès, François

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is contributing to the increase of natural disasters such as extreme weather events. Sometimes, these events lead to sudden flash floods causing devastating effects on life and property. Most recently, many regions of the French Mediterranean perimeter have endured such catastrophic flood events; Var (October 2015), Ardèche (November 2014), Nîmes (October 2014), Hérault, Gard and Languedoc (September 2014), and Pyrenees mountains (Jun 2013). Altogether, it resulted in dozens of victims and property damages amounting to millions of euros. With this heavy loss in mind, development of hydrological forecasting and warning systems is becoming an essential element in regional and national strategies. Flash flood forecasting but also monitoring is a difficult task because small ungauged catchments ( 10 km2) are often the most destructive ones as for the extreme flash flood event of September 2002 in the Cévennes region (France) (Ruin et al., 2008). The problem of measurement/prediction uncertainty is particularly crucial when attempting to develop operational flash-flood forecasting methods. Taking into account the uncertainty related to the model structure itself, to the model parametrization or to the model forcing (spatio-temporal rainfall, initial conditions) is crucial in hydrological modelling. Quantifying these uncertainties is of primary importance for risk assessment and decision making. Although significant improvements have been made in computational power and distributed hydrologic modelling, the issue dealing with integration of uncertainties into flood forecasting remains up-to-date and challenging. In order to develop a framework which could handle these uncertainties and explain their propagation through the model, we propose to explore the potential of graphical models (GMs) and, more precisely, Bayesian Networks (BNs). These networks are Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) in which knowledge of a certain phenomenon is represented by

  13. A first large-scale flood inundation forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Guy J-P; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Voisin, Nathalie; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Pappenberger, Florian; Phanthuwongpakdee, Kay; Hall, Amanda C.; Bates, Paul D.

    2013-11-04

    At present continental to global scale flood forecasting focusses on predicting at a point discharge, with little attention to the detail and accuracy of local scale inundation predictions. Yet, inundation is actually the variable of interest and all flood impacts are inherently local in nature. This paper proposes a first large scale flood inundation ensemble forecasting model that uses best available data and modeling approaches in data scarce areas and at continental scales. The model was built for the Lower Zambezi River in southeast Africa to demonstrate current flood inundation forecasting capabilities in large data-scarce regions. The inundation model domain has a surface area of approximately 170k km2. ECMWF meteorological data were used to force the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) macro-scale hydrological model which simulated and routed daily flows to the input boundary locations of the 2-D hydrodynamic model. Efficient hydrodynamic modeling over large areas still requires model grid resolutions that are typically larger than the width of many river channels that play a key a role in flood wave propagation. We therefore employed a novel sub-grid channel scheme to describe the river network in detail whilst at the same time representing the floodplain at an appropriate and efficient scale. The modeling system was first calibrated using water levels on the main channel from the ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) laser altimeter and then applied to predict the February 2007 Mozambique floods. Model evaluation showed that simulated flood edge cells were within a distance of about 1 km (one model resolution) compared to an observed flood edge of the event. Our study highlights that physically plausible parameter values and satisfactory performance can be achieved at spatial scales ranging from tens to several hundreds of thousands of km2 and at model grid resolutions up to several km2. However, initial model test runs in forecast mode

  14. A Methodology to Support Decision Making in Flood Plan Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, C.; di Francesco, S.; Manciola, P.

    2009-04-01

    . In the present paper we propose a novel methodology for supporting the priority setting in the assessment of such issues, beyond the typical "expected value" approach. Scientific contribution and management aspects are merged to create a simplified method for plan basin implementation, based on risk and economic analyses. However, the economic evaluation is not the sole criterion for flood-damage reduction plan selection. Among the different criteria that are relevant to the decision process, safety and quality of human life, economic damage, expenses related with the chosen measures and environmental issues should play a fundamental role on the decisions made by the authorities. Some numerical indices, taking in account administrative, technical, economical and risk aspects, are defined and are combined together in a mathematical formula that defines a Priority Index (PI). In particular, the priority index defines a ranking of priority interventions, thus allowing the formulation of the investment plan. The research is mainly focused on the technical factors of risk assessment, providing quantitative and qualitative estimates of possible alternatives, containing measures of the risk associated with those alternatives. Moreover, the issues of risk management are analyzed, in particular with respect to the role of decision making in the presence of risk information. However, a great effort is devoted to make this index easy to be formulated and effective to allow a clear and transparent comparison between the alternatives. Summarizing this document describes a major- steps for incorporation of risk analysis into the decision making process: framing of the problem in terms of risk analysis, application of appropriate tools and techniques to obtain quantified results, use of the quantified results in the choice of structural and non-structural measures. In order to prove the reliability of the proposed methodology and to show how risk-based information can be

  15. Optimal Control of Polymer Flooding Based on Maximum Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer flooding is one of the most important technologies for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. In this paper, an optimal control model of distributed parameter systems (DPSs for polymer injection strategies is established, which involves the performance index as maximum of the profit, the governing equations as the fluid flow equations of polymer flooding, and the inequality constraint as the polymer concentration limitation. To cope with the optimal control problem (OCP of this DPS, the necessary conditions for optimality are obtained through application of the calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s weak maximum principle. A gradient method is proposed for the computation of optimal injection strategies. The numerical results of an example illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Integral assessment of floodplains as a basis for spatially-explicit flood loss forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischg, Andreas Paul; Mosimann, Markus; Weingartner, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    A key aspect of disaster prevention is flood discharge forecasting which is used for early warning and therefore as a decision support for intervention forces. Hereby, the phase between the issued forecast and the time when the expected flood occurs is crucial for an optimal planning of the intervention. Typically, river discharge forecasts cover the regional level only, i.e. larger catchments. However, it is important to note that these forecasts are not useable directly for specific target groups on local level because these forecasts say nothing about the consequences of the predicted flood in terms of affected areas, number of exposed residents and houses. For this, on one hand simulations of the flooding processes and on the other hand data of vulnerable objects are needed. Furthermore, flood modelling in a high spatial and temporal resolution is required for robust flood loss estimation. This is a resource-intensive task from a computing time point of view. Therefore, in real-time applications flood modelling in 2D is not suited. Thus, forecasting flood losses in the short-term (6h-24h in advance) requires a different approach. Here, we propose a method to downscale the river discharge forecast to a spatially-explicit flood loss forecast. The principal procedure is to generate as many flood scenarios as needed in advance to represent the flooded areas for all possible flood hydrographs, e.g. very high peak discharges of short duration vs. high peak discharges with high volumes. For this, synthetic flood hydrographs were derived from the hydrologic time series. Then, the flooded areas of each scenario were modelled with a 2D flood simulation model. All scenarios were intersected with the dataset of vulnerable objects, in our case residential, agricultural and industrial buildings with information about the number of residents, the object-specific vulnerability, and the monetary value of the objects. This dataset was prepared by a data-mining approach. For each

  17. A European precipitation index for extreme rain-storm and flash flood early warning

    OpenAIRE

    ALFIERI LORENZO; THIELEN DEL POZO Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Extreme rain-storms are known for triggering devastating flash floods in various regions of Europe and particularly along the Mediterranean coasts. Despite recent notable advances in weather forecasting, most operational early warning systems for extreme rainstorms and flash floods are based on rainfall estimation, rather than on forecasts. As a result, warning lead times are bounded to few hours and warnings are usually issued when the event is already taking place. This work proposes a n...

  18. Interaction between urban spatial organization and flood risk, Taipei case study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    8 p.; International audience; Nowadays, the dikes and high walls constructions in the water shore are the solution to protect from flooding in urban areas. However, the rapid and dense urbanization also the climate change indicate the danger of this solution. The urban planning recent research proposes to preserve and to make urban space for water in order to contribute on flood risk management. By this concept, water could be considered as one of urban key components which trace over urban c...

  19. Coping with Pluvial Floods by Private Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Rözer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pluvial floods have caused severe damage to urban areas in recent years. With a projected increase in extreme precipitation as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, further insights, especially on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods and their mitigation, are needed. To gain more knowledge, empirical damage data from three different pluvial flood events in Germany were collected through computer-aided telephone interviews. Pluvial flood awareness as well as flood experience were found to be low before the respective flood events. The level of private precaution increased considerably after all events, but is mainly focused on measures that are easy to implement. Lower inundation depths, smaller potential losses as compared with fluvial floods, as well as the fact that pluvial flooding may occur everywhere, are expected to cause a shift in damage mitigation from precaution to emergency response. However, an effective implementation of emergency measures was constrained by a low dissemination of early warnings in the study areas. Further improvements of early warning systems including dissemination as well as a rise in pluvial flood preparedness are important to reduce future pluvial flood damage.

  20. Composite Flood Risk for Virgin Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Composite Flood Risk layer combines flood hazard datasets from Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood zones, NOAA's Shallow Coastal Flooding, and the National Hurricane Center SLOSH model for Storm Surge inundation for category 1, 2, and 3 hurricanes.Geographic areas are represented by a grid of 10 by 10 meter cells and each cell has a ranking based on variation in exposure to flooding hazards: Moderate, High and Extreme exposure. Geographic areas in each input layers are ranked based on their probability of flood risk exposure. The logic was such that areas exposed to flooding on a more frequent basis were given a higher ranking. Thus the ranking incorporates the probability of the area being flooded. For example, even though a Category 3 storm surge has higher flooding elevations, the likelihood of the occurrence is lower than a Category 1 storm surge and therefore the Category 3 flood area is given a lower exposure ranking. Extreme exposure areas are those areas that are exposed to relatively frequent flooding.The ranked input layers are then converted to a raster for the creation of the composite risk layer by using cell statistics in spatial analysis. The highest exposure ranking for a given cell in any of the three input layers is assigned to the corresponding cell in the composite layer.For example, if an area (a cell) is rank as medium in the FEMA layer, moderate in the SLOSH layer, but extreme in the SCF layer, the cell will be considere

  1. Comparing Simple Flood Reservoir Operation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Connaughton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of three simple flood operating rules in reducing the peak flow is compared for four simplified hydrograph shapes. The Minimize Flood Peak rule uses available flood storage capacity to store peak flows from an accurate hydrograph forecast. The less demanding Minimize Flooding Frequency operating rule releases water at or below channel capacity until the flood storage pool is filled and outflows are forced to exceed the channel capacity. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule minimizes flood peak over a short foreseeable future with existing flood storage capacity. Four simplified hydrograph shapes (triangular, abrupt wave, flood pulse and broad peak were used. The Minimize Flood Peak rule reduces peak flows better than alternatives, but is often impractical. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule reduces peak flows for a wide range of conditions. The Minimize Flood Frequency rule may be more relevant where damages occur abruptly, as in many leveed systems. All rules reduce peak outflow more efficiently for more steeply rising hydrographs. The approach suggests some general insights for flood operations of reservoirs.

  2. M2KMIX: Identifying the Type of High Rate Flooding Attacks using a Mixture of Expert Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Raj Kumar P.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High rate flooding attacks such as SYN flood, UDP flood, and HTTP flood have been posing a perilous threat to Web servers, DNS servers, Mail servers, VoIP servers, etc. These high rate flooding attacks deplete the limited capacity of the server resources. Hence, there is a need for the protection of these critical resources from high rate flooding attacks. Existing detection techniques used in Firewalls, IPS, IDS, etc., fail to identify the illegitimate traffic due to its self-similarity nature of legitimate traffic and suffer from low detection accuracy and high false alarms. Also, very few in the literature have focused on identifying the type of attack. This paper focuses on the identification of type of high rate flooding attack with High detection accuracy and fewer false alarms. The attack type identification is achieved by training the classifiers with different feature subsets. Therefore, each trained classifier is an expert in different feature space. High detection accuracy is achieved by creating a mixture of expert classifiers and the ensemble output decisions are identified by our proposed Preferential Agreement (PA rule. Our proposed classification algorithm, M2KMix (mixture of two Multi Layer Perceptron and one K-Nearest Neighbor models differs from the existing solutions in feature selection, error cost reduction, and attack type identification. M2KMix was trained and tested with our own SSE Lab 2011 dataset and CAIDA dataset. Detection accuracy and False Alarms are the two metrics used to analyze the performance of the proposed M2KMix algorithm with the existing output combination methods such as mean, maximum, minimum, and product. From the simulation results, it is evident that M2KMix algorithm achieves high detection accuracy (97.8% with fewer false alarms than the existing output combination methods. M2KMix identifies three types of flooding attacks, viz., the SYN Flood, UDP flood, and HTTP Flood, effectively with detection

  3. Living behind dikes: mimicking flooding experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalberg, Ruud; Midden, Cees J H

    2013-05-01

    Delta areas like the Netherlands are threatened by global climate change. Awareness is, however, rather low. Our research objective was to investigate whether coping responses to flooding risks could be enhanced in a virtual environment (VE). A laboratory experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to a simulated dike breach and consequent flooding of their virtual residence. We tested the hypothesis that an interactive 3D flood simulation facilitates coping responses compared to noninteractive film and slide simulations. Our results showed that information search, the motivation to evacuate, and the motivation to buy flood insurance increased after exposure to the 3D flood simulation compared to the film and slide simulations. Mediation analyses revealed that some of these presentation mode effects were mediated by a greater sense of being present in the VE. Implications to use high-end flood simulations in a VE to communicate real-world flooding risks and coping responses to threatened residents will be discussed.

  4. Can we predict the next urban flood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer

    2015-01-01

    Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numericallyboth...... historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0-2 hours leadtime, and numerical weather models with leadtimes up to 24 h are used as inputs...... to an integrated flood and drainage systems model with the purpose to investigate the potential for predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been recently flooded. Results show that it is possible to generate detailed flood maps in real-time with high resolution...

  5. Flood risk zoning using a rule mining based on ant colony algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chengguang; Shao, Quanxi; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhaoli; Zhou, Xiaowen; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Lilan

    2016-11-01

    Risk assessment is a preliminary step in flood management and mitigation, and risk zoning provides a quantitative measure of flood risk. The difficulty in flood risk zoning is to deal with the complicated non-linear relationship among indices and risk levels. To solve this problem, the ant colony algorithm based on rule mining (Ant-Miner) is promoted in this paper to map the regional flood risk at grid scale. For the case study in the Dongjiang River Basin in Southern China, 11 and 14 indices (without and with the socio-economic indices considered) are respectively chosen to construct the zoning model based on Ant-Miner. The results show that Ant-Miner exhibits higher accuracy and more simple rules that can be used to generate flood risk zoning map quickly and easily than decision tree method (DT); compared to random forest (RF) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE), Ant-Miner has significant advantages both in implementation step-reducing and computing time-saving. Although the comprehensive measure and natural hazard measure of flood risk distributed similarly over the entire region, the former one which considered the socio-economic indices is more reasonable in term of real impact to natural and socio-economy. The areas with high-risk level obtained in this paper matched well with the integrated risk zoning map and the inundation areas of historical floods, suggesting that the proposed Ant-Miner method is capable of zoning the flood risk at grid scale. This study shows the potential to provide a novel and successful approach to flood risk zoning. Evaluation results provide a reference for flood risk management, prevention, and reduction of natural disasters in the study basin.

  6. Root signalling and modulation of stomatal closure in flooded citrus seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gamir, Juan; Ancillo, Gema; González-Mas, M Carmen; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Forner-Giner, M Angeles

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we studied the sequence of responses induced by flooding in citrus plants, with the aim of identifying the signals that lead to stomatal closure. One-year-old seedlings of Carrizo citrange, grown in sand under greenhouse conditions, were waterlogged for 35 d and compared with normally watered well-drained plants. Significant decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration were detected between flooded and control seedlings from a week after the beginning of the experiment. However ABA concentration in leaves only started to increase after three weeks of flooding, suggesting that stomata closed in the absence of a rise in foliar ABA. Therefore, stomatal closure in waterlogged seedlings does not appear to be induced by ABA, at least during the early stages of flood-stress. The low levels of ABA detected in roots and xylem sap from flooded seedlings indicated that it is very unlikely that the ABA increase in the leaves of these plants is due to ABA translocation from roots to shoots. We propose that ABA is produced in old leaves and transported to younger leaves. Flooding had no effect on water potential or the relative water content of leaves. Soil flooding reduced root hydraulic conductance in citrus seedlings. This effect was already evident after a week of waterlogging, and at the end of the experiment, flood-stressed seedlings reached values of root hydraulic conductance below 12% of that of control plants. This reduction was related to down-regulation of the expression of PIP aquaporins. In addition, whole plant transpiration was reduced by 56% after 35 d under flooding conditions. Flood-stress also decreased the pH of sap extracted from citrus roots. Evidence is presented suggesting that acidosis induced by anoxic stress in roots causes gating of aquaporins, thereby decreasing hydraulic conductance. Additionally, stomatal closure finely balances-out low pH-mediated losses of root hydraulic conductance therefore maintaining stable leaf

  7. Canyon formation constraints on the discharge of catastrophic outburst floods of Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Lamb, Michael P.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.

    2016-07-01

    Catastrophic outburst floods carved amphitheater-headed canyons on Earth and Mars, and the steep headwalls of these canyons suggest that some formed by upstream headwall propagation through waterfall erosion processes. Because topography evolves in concert with water flow during canyon erosion, we suggest that bedrock canyon morphology preserves hydraulic information about canyon-forming floods. In particular, we propose that for a canyon to form with a roughly uniform width by upstream headwall retreat, erosion must occur around the canyon head, but not along the sidewalls, such that canyon width is related to flood discharge. We develop a new theory for bedrock canyon formation by megafloods based on flow convergence of large outburst floods toward a horseshoe-shaped waterfall. The model is developed for waterfall erosion by rock toppling, a candidate erosion mechanism in well fractured rock, like columnar basalt. We apply the model to 14 terrestrial (Channeled Scablands, Washington; Snake River Plain, Idaho; and Ásbyrgi canyon, Iceland) and nine Martian (near Ares Vallis and Echus Chasma) bedrock canyons and show that predicted flood discharges are nearly 3 orders of magnitude less than previously estimated, and predicted flood durations are longer than previously estimated, from less than a day to a few months. Results also show a positive correlation between flood discharge per unit width and canyon width, which supports our hypothesis that canyon width is set in part by flood discharge. Despite lower discharges than previously estimated, the flood volumes remain large enough for individual outburst floods to have perturbed the global hydrology of Mars.

  8. Design flood estimation in ungauged basins: probabilistic extension of the design-storm concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Mario; Špačková, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Design flood estimation in ungauged basins is an important hydrological task, which is in engineering practice typically solved with the design storm concept. However, neglecting the uncertainty in the hydrological response of the catchment through the assumption of average-recurrence-interval (ARI) neutrality between rainfall and runoff can lead to flawed design flood estimates. Additionally, selecting a single critical rainfall duration neglects the contribution of other rainfall durations on the probability of extreme flood events. In this study, the design flood problem is approached with concepts from structural reliability that enable a consistent treatment of multiple uncertainties in estimating the design flood. The uncertainty of key model parameters are represented probabilistically and the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM) is used to compute the flood exceedance probability. As an important by-product, the FORM analysis provides the most likely parameter combination to lead to a flood with a certain exceedance probability; i.e. it enables one to find representative scenarios for e.g., a 100 year or a 1000 year flood. Possible different rainfall durations are incorporated by formulating the event of a given design flood as a series system. The method is directly applicable in practice, since for the description of the rainfall depth-duration characteristics, the same inputs as for the classical design storm methods are needed, which are commonly provided by meteorological services. The proposed methodology is applied to a case study of Trauchgauer Ach catchment in Bavaria, SCS Curve Number (CN) and Unit hydrograph models are used for modeling the hydrological process. The results indicate, in accordance with past experience, that the traditional design storm concept underestimates design floods.

  9. A consistent set of trans-basin floods in Germany between 1952–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uhlemann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Floods that affect many sites simultaneously can pose great challenges in the co-ordination of flood disaster management actions, as well as for the insurance and re-insurance industry, since this type of flooding leads to an accumulation of losses and the risk assessment needs to be extended to a concept representing the spatial risk of flooding. The assessment of the accumulated risk, especially over large domains, requires an analysis of the spatial and temporal coherence of flooding. For Germany the extent of spatial dependence of flooding is largely unknown and no systematic analysis has been performed so far. In this paper, we present a methodology that is capable of capturing the simultaneous occurrence of flooding using multiple series of mean daily discharge. For the first time we present a complete and consistent set of trans-basin floods in Germany for the period between 1952 and 2002. Each flood is characterised by a specific value for the timing, the location and the magnitude of discharges within the entire river network. We propose a measure for quantifying the overall event severity considering both the heterogeneous spatial extent as well as the locally varying magnitudes of a trans-basin flood. In total, we identify 80 trans-basin floods in the entire time period. The set is dominated by events that were recorded in the hydrological winter (64%; 36% occurred during the summer months. 32 events affected more than one third of the entire river network. These most severe events are predominantly winter events. Dividing the study period into two sub-periods, we find an increase in the percentage of winter events from 58% in the first to 70.5% in the second sub-period. Accordingly, we find a significant increase in the number of extreme trans-basin floods in the second sub-period. A natural extension of this study is the quantification of the spatial and temporal dependencies in a multivariate framework. This framework needs to be

  10. A consistent set of trans-basin floods in Germany between 1952–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Floods that affect many sites simultaneously can pose great challenges in the co-ordination of flood disaster management actions, as well as for the insurance and re-insurance industry, since this type of flooding leads to an accumulation of losses and the risk assessment needs to be extended to a concept representing the spatial risk of flooding. The assessment of the accumulated risk, especially over large domains, requires an analysis of the spatial and temporal coherence of flooding. For Germany the extent of spatial dependence of flooding is largely unknown and no systematic analysis has been performed so far. In this paper, we present a methodology that is capable of capturing the simultaneous occurrence of flooding using multiple series of mean daily discharge. For the first time we present a complete and consistent set of trans-basin floods in Germany for the period between 1952 and 2002. Each flood is characterised by a specific value for the timing, the location and the magnitude of discharges within the entire river network. We propose a measure for quantifying the overall event severity considering both the heterogeneous spatial extent as well as the locally varying magnitudes of a trans-basin flood. In total, we identify 80 trans-basin floods in the entire time period. The set is dominated by events that were recorded in the hydrological winter (64%; 36% occurred during the summer months. 32 events affected more than one third of the entire river network. These most severe events are predominantly winter events. Dividing the study period into two sub-periods, we find an increase in the percentage of winter events from 58% in the first to 70.5% in the second sub-period. Accordingly, we find a significant increase in the number of extreme trans-basin floods in the second sub-period. A natural extension of this study is the quantification of the spatial and temporal dependencies in a multivariate framework. This framework needs to be

  11. 75 FR 7522 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, Presidio Flood Control... EIS) for flood control improvements to the Presidio Flood Control Project, Presidio, Texas (Presidio... Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, USIBWC Presidio Flood......

  12. Betwixt Droughts and Floods: Flood Management Politics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Maier-Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to create greater understanding of the political dynamics that influence domestic disaster relief and management (DRM in Thailand, this article takes a closer look at these dynamics by outlining the main actors involved in flood-related DRM. It acknowledges the importance of international and military actors but emphasises the role of national and subnational authorities. The article then identifies the central issues of DRM governance as capacity and bureaucracy and discusses these through a chronological assessment of the flood crisis in Thailand in 2011, interweaving the colourful domestic politics with various political cleavages and dichotomies, and thereby distinguishing between three main dichotomies which it considers as the central drivers of the political dynamics and institutional development of DRM. These issues can be summarised as old versus new institutions, technocracy versus bureaucracy and centralised (but with direct people-orientation through greater channels of citizenry participation versus decentralised bureaucracy with an indirect orientation towards people.

  13. Toward more resilient flood risk governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. J. Driessen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Countries all over the world face increasing flood risks because of urbanization and the effects of climate change. In Europe, flooding is the most common of all natural disasters and accounts for the largest number of casualties and highest amount of economic damage. The current scientific debate on how urban agglomerations can be made more resilient to these flood risks includes a discussion on how a diversification, coordination, and alignment of flood risk management strategies (FRMSs, including flood risk prevention through proactive spatial planning, flood defense, flood risk mitigation, flood preparation, and flood recovery, can contribute to flood resilience. Although effective implementation of FRMSs can be considered a necessary precondition for resilience, efficient and legitimate flood risk governance can enhance this societal resilience to flooding. Governance and legal research has the potential to provide crucial insights into the debate on how to improve resilience. Yet the social sciences have only looked into this issue in a fragmented manner, often without a comparative scope. This special feature addresses this knowledge gap by focusing on the scope and workings of FRMSs, but also on cross-cutting topics such as uncertainties, distributional effects, solidarity, knowledge management, and citizen participation. The papers included in this feature are written by both policy analysts and legal scholars. The above-mentioned issues are thus approached via a multidisciplinary perspective. All papers convincingly show that one-size-fits-all solutions for appropriate and resilient flood risk governance arrangements do not exist. Governance arrangements should be tailored to the existing physical, socio-cultural, and institutional context. This requires an open and transparent debate between scientists and practitioners on the normative starting point of flood risk governance, a clear division of responsibilities, the establishment of

  14. Optimal house elevation for reducing flood-related losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Kunreuther, Howard

    2017-05-01

    FEMA recommends that houses in coastal flood zones be elevated to at least 1 foot above the base flood elevation (BFE). However, this guideline is not specific and ignores characteristics of houses that affect their vulnerability. An economically optimal elevation level (OEL) is proposed that minimizes the combined cost of elevation and cumulative insurance premiums over the lifespan of the house. As an illustration, analysis is performed for various coastal houses in Ortley Beach, NJ. Compared with the strategy of raising houses to 1 foot above BFE, the strategy of raising houses to their OELs is much more economical for the homeowners. Elevating to the OELs also significantly reduces government spending on subsidizing low-income homeowners through, for example, a voucher program, to mitigate flood risk. These results suggest that policy makers should consider vulnerability factors in developing risk-reduction strategies. FEMA may recommend OELs to homeowners based on their flood hazards as well as house characteristics or at least providing more information and tools to homeowners to assist them in making more economical decisions. The OEL strategy can also be coupled with a voucher program to make the program more cost-effective.

  15. Evidence for Middle Amazonian catastrophic flooding and glaciation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J. Alexis P.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Baker, Victor R.; Platz, Thomas; Fairén, Alberto G.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Rice, James W.; Glines, Natalie

    2014-11-01

    Early geologic investigations of Mars revealed some of the largest channels in the Solar System (outflow channels), which appear to have mostly developed ∼3 byr ago. These channels have been the subject of much scientific inquiry since the 1970s and proposed formative processes included surface erosion by catastrophic floods, glaciers, debris flows and lava flows. Based on the analysis of newly acquired Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context (CTX, 5.15-5.91 m/pixel) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE, 25-50 cm/pixel) image data, we have identified a few locations contained within relatively narrow canyons of the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels that retain well-preserved decameter/hectometer-scale landform assemblages. These terrains include landforms consistent in shape, dimension and overall assemblage to those produced by catastrophic floods, and at one location, to glacial morphologies. Impact crater statistics for four of these surfaces, located within upstream, midstream and downstream outflow channel surfaces, yield an age estimate of ∼600 myr. This suggests that the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels were locally resurfaced by some of the most recent catastrophic floods on the planet, and that these floods coexisted within regional glacier environments as recently as during the Middle Amazonian.

  16. Multisite flooding hazard assessment in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghizzoni, Tatiana; Roth, Giorgio; Rudari, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThis contribution presents an assessment of the joint probability distribution able to describe multi-site multi-basin flood scenarios in a high dimensionality framework. This goal will be pursued through two different approaches: the multivariate skew- t distribution and the Student copula with arbitrary margins. While copulas have been widely used in the modeling of hydrological processes, the use of the skew- t distribution in hydrology has been only recently proposed with reference to a trivariate application (Ghizzoni et al., 2010, Adv. Water Resour., 33, 1243-1255). Both methods are here applied and discussed in a context of considerably higher dimensionality: the Upper Mississippi River floods. In fact, to enhance the characteristics of the correlation structure, eighteen nested and non-nested gauging stations were selected, with significantly different contributing areas. Such conditions represent a challenge for both the skew- t and the copula approach. In perspective, the ability of such approaches in explaining the multivariate aspects of the relevant processes is needed to specify flood hazard scenarios in terms of their intensity, extension and frequency. When this is associated to the knowledge of location, value and vulnerability of exposed elements, comprehensive flood risk scenarios can be produced, and risk cumuli quantified, for given portfolios, composed of wherever located risks.

  17. Robust flood frequency analysis: Performance of EMA with multiple Grubbs-Beck outlier tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, J. R.; Stedinger, J. R.; Yu, Xin; Whealton, C. A.; Xu, Ziyao

    2016-04-01

    Flood frequency analysis generally involves the use of simple parametric probability distributions to smooth and extrapolate the information provided by short flood records to estimate extreme flood flow quantiles. Parametric probability distributions can have difficulty simultaneously fitting both the largest and smallest floods. A danger is that the smallest observations in a record can distort the exceedance probabilities assigned to the large floods of interest. The identification and treatment of such Potentially Influential Low Floods (PILFs) frees a fitting algorithm to describe the distribution of the larger observations. This can allow parametric flood frequency analysis to be both efficient, and also robust to deviations from the proposed probability model's lower tail. Historically, PILF identification involved subjective judgement. We propose a new multiple Grubbs-Beck outlier test (MGBT) for objective PILF identification. MGBT PILF identification rates (akin to Type I errors) are reported for the lognormal (LN) distribution and the log-Pearson Type III (LP3) distribution with a variety of skew coefficients. MGBT PILF identification generally matched subjective identification from a recent California flood frequency study. Monte Carlo results show that censoring of PILFs identified by the MGBT algorithm improves the extreme quantile estimator efficiency of the expected moments algorithm (EMA) for negatively skewed LP3 distributions and has little effect for zero or positive skews; simultaneously it protects against deviations from the LP3 in the lower tail, as illustrated by distorted LN examples. Thus, MGBT generally makes flood frequency analysis based on the LP3 distribution with EMA both more accurate and more robust.

  18. Noah's Flood and the Associated Tremendous Rainfall as a Possible Result of Collision of a Big Asteroid with the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Shopov, Y Y; Georgiev, L N; Damyanov, Y; Damyanova, A; Ford, D C; Yonge, C J

    2009-01-01

    A good correlation between the growth rate of the cave speleothems and the annual precipitation at the cave site allow quantitative reconstruction of the precipitation. Measuring the growth rate of a speleothem from Duhlata Cave, Bulgaria we found that around 7500 B.P. the speleothem growth rate (averaged for 120 years) exceeds 53 times its recent value suggesting that enormous precipitation flooded the Black Sea basin at that time. Its possible connection with the Bible (Noahs) Flood is discussed. We propose a possible mechanism of the flooding of the Black Sea during the Flood involving production of a super- Tsunami by pushing of the Black Sea water towards the Crimea cost by Mediterranean waters. We propose also an Astronomical Theory of the origin of the Bible Flood. We attribute higher water evaporation and rainfall to be caused by rapid increasing of the solar radiation resulting from a collision of a large asteroid or comet with the Sun.

  19. Sobre inundaciones y anegamientos / Reflections on floods and flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrando A., Francisco J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Respecto a anegamientos e inundaciones, el autor realiza algunas precisiones conceptuales que afectan la gestión de acciones preventivas, la planificación y el ordenamiento territorial; además se ofrece una sistematización del quehacer sobre las inundaciones./ The author punctualizes the concepts regarding preventive actions and territorial planning. Also the article includes a systematized list of actions related to flood management.

  20. Use of documentary sources on past flood events for flood risk management and land planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cœur, Denis; Lang, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The knowledge of past catastrophic events can improve flood risk mitigation policy, with a better awareness against risk. As such historical information is usually available in Europe for the past five centuries, historians are able to understand how past society dealt with flood risk, and hydrologists can include information on past floods into an adapted probabilistic framework. In France, Flood Risk Mitigation Maps are based either on the largest historical known flood event or on the 100-year flood event if it is greater. Two actions can be suggested in terms of promoting the use of historical information for flood risk management: (1) the development of a regional flood data base, with both historical and current data, in order to get a good feedback on recent events and to improve the flood risk education and awareness; (2) the commitment to keep a persistent/perennial management of a reference network of hydrometeorological observations for climate change studies.

  1. Immodest Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardzell, Jeffrey; Bardzell, Shaowen; Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers theoretical support for research through design (RtD) by arguing that to legitimize and make use of research through design as research, HCI researchers need to explore and clarify how RtD objects contribute to knowledge. One way to pursue this goal is to leverage knowledge...... fiction Menstruation Machine by Sputniko!, the paper explores how design objects coproduce knowledge, by working through complex design problem spaces in non-reductive ways, proposing new connections and distinctions, and embodying design ideas and processes across time and minds.......-producing tactics of the arts and humanities traditions of aesthetics, key among which is a communitywide and ongoing critical analysis of aesthetic objects. Along these lines, we argue that while the intentions of the object’s designer are important and annotations are a good mechanism to articulate them...

  2. Urban flood simulation based on the SWMM model

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    China is the nation with the fastest urbanization in the past decades which has caused serious urban flooding. Flood forecasting is regarded as one of the important flood mitigation methods, and is widely used in catchment flood mitigation, but is not widely used in urban flooding mitigation. This paper, employing the SWMM model, one of the widely used urban flood planning and management models, simulates the urban flooding of Dongguan City in the rapidly urbanized southern China. SWMM is fir...

  3. Real-time flood forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C.; Tsay, T.-K.; Chien, C.-H.; Wu, I.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Hydroinformatic Research and Development Team (HIRDT) of the National Taiwan University undertook a project to create a real time flood forecasting model, with an aim to predict the current in the Tamsui River Basin. The model was designed based on deterministic approach with mathematic modeling of complex phenomenon, and specific parameter values operated to produce a discrete result. The project also devised a rainfall-stage model that relates the rate of rainfall upland directly to the change of the state of river, and is further related to another typhoon-rainfall model. The geographic information system (GIS) data, based on precise contour model of the terrain, estimate the regions that were perilous to flooding. The HIRDT, in response to the project's progress, also devoted their application of a deterministic model to unsteady flow of thermodynamics to help predict river authorities issue timely warnings and take other emergency measures.

  4. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods that occurred in the same area. In analogy to 'Paired catchment studies' - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow - we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number of resulting dyke breaches. Additionally, exposure hotspots like the city of Dresden at the Elbe river as well as some smaller municipalities at the river Mulde (e.g. Grimma, Eilenburg, Bitterfeld, Dessau) were severely impacted. However, affected parties and authorities learned from the extreme flood in 2002, and many governmental flood risk programs and initiatives were launched. Considerable improvements since 2002 occurred on many levels that deal with flood risk reduction and disaster response, in particular in 1) increased flood prevention by improved spatial planning, 2) an increased number of property-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their

  5. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Floods in Brno: history, causes and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, R.; Dobrovolný, P.; Halíčková, M.; Macková, J.; Øezníčková, L.; Soukalová, E.; Valášek, H.

    2009-09-01

    Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic (cca 400,000 inhabitants), a centre of southern Moravia. It was always endangered by floods occurring on the Svratka River and the Svitava River. Observed floods were related mainly to intense snow-melting (with rains and also ice-damming) in winter/early spring or heavy precipitation in the summer half-year. Historical and recent changes in catchments of the both rivers influencing floods are described (land-use, regulations of rivers, water reservoirs). Basic analysis of floods is presented for the period of systematic hydrological measurements (water stages or discharges) with respect to their severity (expressed by N-year return period) and seasonality of floods for the four hydrological stations in Brno and its surroundings. Examples of selected flood events with analysis of meteorological causes, hydrological course and impacts are presented. The most severe floods occurred in March 1941 and August-September 1938. Information about floods from the instrumental period is extended by flood information derived from different documentary evidence. Long-term chronology of Brno floods (since 1650) combining documentary and instrumental data is presented and discussed in the context of climate variability.

  7. Bayesian flood forecasting methods: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shasha; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, floods have been seen as one of the most common and largely distributed natural disasters in the world. If floods could be accurately forecasted in advance, then their negative impacts could be greatly minimized. It is widely recognized that quantification and reduction of uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecast is of great importance for flood estimation and rational decision making. Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) offers an ideal theoretic framework for uncertainty quantification that can be developed for probabilistic flood forecasting via any deterministic hydrologic model. It provides suitable theoretical structure, empirically validated models and reasonable analytic-numerical computation method, and can be developed into various Bayesian forecasting approaches. This paper presents a comprehensive review on Bayesian forecasting approaches applied in flood forecasting from 1999 till now. The review starts with an overview of fundamentals of BFS and recent advances in BFS, followed with BFS application in river stage forecasting and real-time flood forecasting, then move to a critical analysis by evaluating advantages and limitations of Bayesian forecasting methods and other predictive uncertainty assessment approaches in flood forecasting, and finally discusses the future research direction in Bayesian flood forecasting. Results show that the Bayesian flood forecasting approach is an effective and advanced way for flood estimation, it considers all sources of uncertainties and produces a predictive distribution of the river stage, river discharge or runoff, thus gives more accurate and reliable flood forecasts. Some emerging Bayesian forecasting methods (e.g. ensemble Bayesian forecasting system, Bayesian multi-model combination) were shown to overcome limitations of single model or fixed model weight and effectively reduce predictive uncertainty. In recent years, various Bayesian flood forecasting approaches have been

  8. A holistic model for coastal flooding using system diagrams and the Source-Pathway-Receptor (SPR concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Coastal flooding is a problem of increasing relevance in low-lying coastal regions worldwide. In addition to the anticipated increase in likelihood and magnitude of coastal floods due to climate change, there is rapid growth in coastal assets and infrastructure. Sustainable and integrated coastal flood management over large areas and varying coastline types cannot be simply treated as local combinations of flood defences and floodplains. Rather, a system level analysis of floodplains is required to structure the problem as a first step before applying quantitative models. In this paper such a model is developed using system diagrams and the Source-Pathway-Receptor (SPR concept, to structure our understanding of large and complex coastal flood systems. A graphical systems model is proposed for the assessment of coastal flood systems with regard to individual elements and their topological relationships. Two examples are discussed – a unidirectional model for a large-scale flood system, and a multi-directional model for a smaller-scale system, both based on the Western Scheldt estuary. The models help to develop a comprehensive understanding of system elements and their relationships and provide a holistic overview of the coastal flood system. The approach shows that a system level analysis of floodplains is more effective than simple topographic maps when conveying complex information. The models are shown to be useful as an apriori approach for making the assumptions about flood mechanisms explicit and for informing inputs to numerical models.

  9. A Multi-Scale Flood Monitoring System Based on Fully Automatic MODIS and TerraSAR-X Processing Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Stein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A two-component fully automated flood monitoring system is described and evaluated. This is a result of combining two individual flood services that are currently under development at DLR’s (German Aerospace Center Center for Satellite based Crisis Information (ZKI to rapidly support disaster management activities. A first-phase monitoring component of the system systematically detects potential flood events on a continental scale using daily-acquired medium spatial resolution optical data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. A threshold set controls the activation of the second-phase crisis component of the system, which derives flood information at higher spatial detail using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR based satellite mission (TerraSAR-X. The proposed activation procedure finds use in the identification of flood situations in different spatial resolutions and in the time-critical and on demand programming of SAR satellite acquisitions at an early stage of an evolving flood situation. The automated processing chains of the MODIS (MFS and the TerraSAR-X Flood Service (TFS include data pre-processing, the computation and adaptation of global auxiliary data, thematic classification, and the subsequent dissemination of flood maps using an interactive web-client. The system is operationally demonstrated and evaluated via the monitoring two recent flood events in Russia 2013 and Albania/Montenegro 2013.

  10. Application of Wavelet Fractal Dimension Estimation Method on Flood Season Staged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianjia; Dong Qianjin; Ai Xueshan; Zhang Yanmin

    2006-01-01

    Floodwater utilization is an important content in flood management. Controlling the limit water level of reservoir by stage is one of important contents in the management of multi-purpose reservoir's floodwater utilization for the sake of more benefits, and reasonable division of stage in flood season is precondition of controlling the limit water level by stage. On the background of Three Gorges Reservoir floodwater utilization management and on the foundation of self-similarity of hydrological series, determining the number of flood season staged in base of conventional statistical method, choosing the Db4 wavelet and Mallat algorithm, the computation mode of wavelet fractal dimension estimation method is proposed and each stage's fractal dimension is computed, then the final flood season staged is obtained. The results demonstrate the stages of Three Gorges Reservoir determined by using wavelet fractal dimension method are consistent with that from conventional method, but the fractal dimension results by former method are easier, more stable and objective which ensures the feasibility of the wavelet fractal dimension method applying in flood season staged. The obtained results are the base of deep coping with floodwater utilization management, also are the decision-making gist for the flood forecast, flood control and water allocation reasonably of Three Gorges Reservoir.

  11. Merging information from multi-model flood projections in a hierarchical Bayesian framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, Nataliya

    2016-04-01

    Multi-model ensembles are becoming widely accepted for flood frequency change analysis. The use of multiple models results in large uncertainty around estimates of flood magnitudes, due to both uncertainty in model selection and natural variability of river flow. The challenge is therefore to extract the most meaningful signal from the multi-model predictions, accounting for both model quality and uncertainties in individual model estimates. The study demonstrates the potential of a recently proposed hierarchical Bayesian approach to combine information from multiple models. The approach facilitates explicit treatment of shared multi-model discrepancy as well as the probabilistic nature of the flood estimates, by treating the available models as a sample from a hypothetical complete (but unobserved) set of models. The advantages of the approach are: 1) to insure an adequate 'baseline' conditions with which to compare future changes; 2) to reduce flood estimate uncertainty; 3) to maximize use of statistical information in circumstances where multiple weak predictions individually lack power, but collectively provide meaningful information; 4) to adjust multi-model consistency criteria when model biases are large; and 5) to explicitly consider the influence of the (model performance) stationarity assumption. Moreover, the analysis indicates that reducing shared model discrepancy is the key to further reduction of uncertainty in the flood frequency analysis. The findings are of value regarding how conclusions about changing exposure to flooding are drawn, and to flood frequency change attribution studies.

  12. Decreasing flood risk perception in Porto Alegre - Brazil and its influence on water resource management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allasia, D. G.; Tassi, R.; Bemfica, D.; Goldenfum, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil with approximately 1.5 million inhabitants. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaiba Lake, formed by the convergence of five rivers and leading to the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial centre. However, this strategic location resulted in severe damage because of its exposure to flooding from the river system, affecting the city in the years 1873, 1928, 1936, 1941 and 1967. In order to reduce flood risk, a complex system of levees and pump stations was implemented during 1960s and 1970s. Since its construction, not a single large flood event occurred. However, in recent years, the levees in the downtown region of Porto Alegre were severally criticized by city planners and population. Several projects have been proposed to demolish the Mauá Wall due to the false perception of lack of flood risk. Similar opinions and reactions against flood infrastructure have been observed in other cities in Brazil, such as Itajaí and Blumenau, with disastrous consequences. This paper illustrates how the perception of flood risk in Porto Alegre has changed over recent years as a result of flood infrastructure, and how such changes in perceptions can influence water management decisions.

  13. Real-time updating of the flood frequency distribution through data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; Polo, María-José

    2017-07-01

    We explore the memory properties of catchments for predicting the likelihood of floods based on observations of average flows in pre-flood seasons. Our approach assumes that flood formation is driven by the superimposition of short- and long-term perturbations. The former is given by the short-term meteorological forcing leading to infiltration and/or saturation excess, while the latter is originated by higher-than-usual storage in the catchment. To exploit the above sensitivity to long-term perturbations, a meta-Gaussian model and a data assimilation approach are implemented for updating the flood frequency distribution a season in advance. Accordingly, the peak flow in the flood season is predicted in probabilistic terms by exploiting its dependence on the average flow in the antecedent seasons. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro and the Danube River at Bratislava. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is noticeably impacted by higher-than-usual flows occurring up to several months earlier. The proposed technique may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated with the estimation of flood frequency.

  14. Tool for decision-making regarding general evacuation during a rapid river flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljevic, V; Belojevic, G; Pavlovic, N

    2017-05-01

    To propose a simple and effective tool for decision-making regarding general evacuation during a rapid river flood. Virtual testing of a tool in a real event. A four-component tool was applied to build an alternative scenario of the catastrophic river flood in Obrenovac, Serbia, on May 2014. The components of this tool are: (1) the amount of precipitation above the 95th percentile of all previous measurements; (2) upstream river discharge above the 95th percentile of all previous measurements; (3) upstream river level above the 95th percentile of all previous measurements; and (4) worsening of the hydrometeorological situation in the following 48 h. In the early morning of 16 May 2014, a rapid river wave flooded 80% of the Obrenovac territory. There were 13 deaths due to drowning. Application of the study tool shows that these lives could have been saved, as the score to recommend general evacuation was reached 1 day before the flooding. The application of this tool to two previous great floods in Serbia shows that the score to recommend general evacuation was reached either 1 day before or on the onset of flash flooding. Due to its simplicity, this tool is universally applicable to facilitate decision-making regarding general evacuation during a rapid river flood, and it should be further tested in future similar catastrophes. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Floods Risk Management in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Güiza Suárez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The last rainy season 2010-2011 resulted in Colombia in around 500 casualties and more than 3.6 million of victims. Although this rainfall term accounted for one of the strongest it was not an unprecedented event since for more than fifty years this phenomenon has been taking place in the same Colombian regions producing casualties and victims. This fact makes us to think about the public management by authorities regarding flooding prevention in our country. This article elaborates on this topic explaining the risk management system in case of flooding in Colombia. It shows some national figures of the main ravages brought about by the 2010 2011 rainy seasons. Finally the article analyzes two cases of study of how operational is this public policy in risk management: La Mojana and Canal del Dique regions. It was evident that the state failed in managing the risk management from flooding because despite the important investment, every year the victims, casualties and material damages are increasing steadily.

  16. Predicting floods with Flickr tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Nataliya; Jarvis, Stephen; Procter, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, user generated content (UGC) in social media postings and their associated metadata such as time and location stamps are being used to provide useful operational information during natural hazard events such as hurricanes, storms and floods. The main advantage of these new sources of data are twofold. First, in a purely additive sense, they can provide much denser geographical coverage of the hazard as compared to traditional sensor networks. Second, they provide what physical sensors are not able to do: By documenting personal observations and experiences, they directly record the impact of a hazard on the human environment. For this reason interpretation of the content (e.g., hashtags, images, text, emojis, etc) and metadata (e.g., keywords, tags, geolocation) have been a focus of much research into social media analytics. However, as choices of semantic tags in the current methods are usually reduced to the exact name or type of the event (e.g., hashtags '#Sandy' or '#flooding'), the main limitation of such approaches remains their mere nowcasting capacity. In this study we make use of polysemous tags of images posted during several recent flood events and demonstrate how such volunteered geographic data can be used to provide early warning of an event before its outbreak.

  17. Flood risk modelling based on tangible and intangible urban flood damage quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, J A E; Clemens, F H L R

    2010-01-01

    The usual way to quantify flood damage is by application stage-damage functions. Urban flood incidents in flat areas mostly result in intangible damages like traffic disturbance and inconvenience for pedestrians caused by pools at building entrances, on sidewalks and parking spaces. Stage-damage functions are not well suited to quantify damage for these floods. This paper presents an alternative method to quantify flood damage that uses data from a municipal call centre. The data cover a period of 10 years and contain detailed information on consequences of urban flood incidents. Call data are linked to individual flood incidents and then assigned to specific damage classes. The results are used to draw risk curves for a range of flood incidents of increasing damage severity. Risk curves for aggregated groups of damage classes show that total flood risk related to traffic disturbance is larger than risk of damage to private properties, which in turn is larger than flood risk related to human health. Risk curves for detailed damage classes show how distinctions can be made between flood risks related to many types of occupational use in urban areas. This information can be used to support prioritisation of actions for flood risk reduction. Since call data directly convey how citizens are affected by urban flood incidents, they provide valuable information that complements flood risk analysis based on hydraulic models.

  18. Regional prioritisation of flood risk in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelis, María Carolina; Werner, Micha; Obregón, Nelson; Wright, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a method is proposed to identify mountainous watersheds with the highest flood risk at the regional level. Through this, the watersheds to be subjected to more detailed risk studies can be prioritised in order to establish appropriate flood risk management strategies. The prioritisation is carried out through an index composed of a qualitative indicator of vulnerability and a qualitative flash flood/debris flow susceptibility indicator. At the regional level, vulnerability was assessed on the basis of a principal component analysis carried out with variables recognised in literature to contribute to vulnerability, using watersheds as the unit of analysis. The area exposed was obtained from a simplified flood extent analysis at the regional level, which provided a mask where vulnerability variables were extracted. The vulnerability indicator obtained from the principal component analysis was combined with an existing susceptibility indicator, thus providing an index that allows the watersheds to be prioritised in support of flood risk management at regional level. Results show that the components of vulnerability can be expressed in terms of three constituent indicators: (i) socio-economic fragility, which is composed of demography and lack of well-being; (ii) lack of resilience and coping capacity, which is composed of lack of education, lack of preparedness and response capacity, lack of rescue capacity, cohesiveness of the community; and (iii) physical exposure, which is composed of exposed infrastructure and exposed population. A sensitivity analysis shows that the classification of vulnerability is robust for watersheds with low and high values of the vulnerability indicator, while some watersheds with intermediate values of the indicator are sensitive to shifting between medium and high vulnerability.

  19. Utilising social media contents for flood inundation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Dransch, Doris; Fohringer, Joachim; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Data about the hazard and its consequences are scarce and not readily available during and shortly after a disaster. An information source which should be explored in a more efficient way is eyewitness accounts via social media. This research presents a methodology that leverages social media content to support rapid inundation mapping, including inundation extent and water depth in the case of floods. It uses quantitative data that are estimated from photos extracted from social media posts and their integration with established data. Due to the rapid availability of these posts compared to traditional data sources such as remote sensing data, areas affected by a flood, for example, can be determined quickly. Key challenges are to filter the large number of posts to a manageable amount of potentially useful inundation-related information, and to interpret and integrate the posts into mapping procedures in a timely manner. We present a methodology and a tool ("PostDistiller") to filter geo-located posts from social media services which include links to photos and to further explore this spatial distributed contextualized in situ information for inundation mapping. The June 2013 flood in Dresden is used as an application case study in which we evaluate the utilization of this approach and compare the resulting spatial flood patterns and inundation depths to 'traditional' data sources and mapping approaches like water level observations and remote sensing flood masks. The outcomes of the application case are encouraging. Strengths of the proposed procedure are that information for the estimation of inundation depth is rapidly available, particularly in urban areas where it is of high interest and of great value because alternative information sources like remote sensing data analysis do not perform very well. The uncertainty of derived inundation depth data and the uncontrollable availability of the information sources are major threats to the utility of the approach.

  20. Assessment of the susceptibility of roads to flooding based on geographical information - test in a flash flood prone area (the Gard region, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, P.-A.; Gaume, E.; Andrieu, H.

    2010-04-01

    In flash flood prone areas, roads are often the first assets affected by inundations which make rescue operations difficult and represent a major threat to lives: almost half of the victims are car passengers trapped by floods. In the past years, the Gard region (France) road management services have realized an extensive inventory of the known road submersions that occurred during the last 40 years. This inventory provided an unique opportunity to analyse the causes of road flooding in an area frequently affected by severe flash floods. It will be used to develop a road submersion susceptibility rating method, representing the first element of a road warning system. This paper presents the results of the analysis of this data set. A companion paper will show how the proposed road susceptibility rating method can be combined with distributed rainfall-runoff simulations to provide accurate road submersion risk maps. The very low correlation between the various possible explanatory factors and the susceptibility to flooding measured by the number of past observed submersions implied the use of particular statistical analysis methods based on the general principals of the discriminant analysis. The analysis led to the definition of four susceptibility classes for river crossing road sections. Validation tests confirmed that this classification is robust, at least in the considered area. One major outcome of the analysis is that the susceptibility to flooding is rather linked to the location of the road sections than to the size of the river crossing structure (bridge or culvert).