WorldWideScience

Sample records for fr06au10p migratory bird

  1. 76 FR 54675 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird hunting...

  2. 77 FR 49679 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...) proposes special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off...

  3. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting...] RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting... in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for...

  4. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...) proposes special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off...

  5. 75 FR 29917 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ...-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX09 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird... governing migratory bird rehabilitation in the United States. Before creation of those regulations.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. George T. Allen, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish...

  6. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird... 50 CFR Part 20 [Docket No. FWS-R9-MB-2011-0014; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird...

  7. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by... Forces to incidentally take migratory birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA). The Authorization Act provided this interim authority to...

  8. Migratory Birds. Issue Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses why, how, where, and when birds migrate as well as problems birds encounter while migrating; the importance of research…

  9. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  10. 75 FR 52873 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... resources including migratory birds and their habitats. Large-scale efforts to influence bird migration and... timing and speed of bird migrations. It is possible that re-distribution of birds at smaller scales could...-0040; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season...

  11. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...-0014; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2011-12 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Fish and... migratory game birds for the 2011-12 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed rule provides the...

  12. 78 FR 67183 - Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...-91200 FF09M26000] Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird Surveys AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments...) or 703- 358-2482 (telephone). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Migratory Bird Treaty Act...

  13. 75 FR 27143 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Part III Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2011 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Proposals in...

  14. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ...-0082; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory bird...

  15. An overview of migratory birds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Somenzari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed the occurrences and distributional patterns of migratory species of birds in Brazil. A species was classified as migratory when at least part of its population performs cyclical, seasonal movements with high fidelity to its breeding grounds. Of the 1,919 species of birds recorded in Brazil, 198 (10.3% are migratory. Of these, 127 (64% were classified as Migratory and 71 (36% as Partially Migratory. A few species (83; 4.3% were classified as Vagrant and eight (0,4% species could not be defined due to limited information available, or due to conflicting data.

  16. Understanding the migratory orientation program of birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Holland, Richard A.; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    2010-01-01

    orient during migration. Despite the difficulties associated with following free-flying birds over long distances, a number of possibilities currently exist for tracking the long distance, sometimes even globe-spanning, journeys undertaken by migrating birds. Birds fitted with radio transmitters can......For many years, orientation in migratory birds has primarily been studied in the laboratory. Although a laboratory-based setting enables greater control over environmental cues, the laboratory-based findings must be confirmed in the wild in free-flying birds to be able to fully understand how birds...... system that enables experienced birds to navigate and guide inexperienced, young birds to their species-specific winter grounds...

  17. 78 FR 65576 - Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of “Hybrid” Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-0060; FF09M21200-134-XMB123199BPP0] RIN 1018-AX90 Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of ``Hybrid'' Migratory Bird AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), revise the definition of ``hybrid'' as it relates to birds protected under...

  18. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift...

  19. Modeling and the management of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.; Nichols, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of migratory bird populations is reviewed in the context of migratory bird management. We focus on dynamic models of waterfowl, since most management-oriented migratory bird models concern waterfowl species. We describe the management context for these modeling efforts, with a focus on large-scale operational data collection programs and on processes by which waterfowl harvest is regulated and waterfowl habitats are protected and managed. Through their impacts on key population parameters such as recruitment and survival rate, these activities can influence population dynamics, thereby providing managers some measure of control over the status of populations. Recent applications of the modeling of waterfowl are described in terms of objectives, mathematical structures, and contributions to management. Finally, we discuss research needs and data limitations in migratory bird modeling, and offer suggestions to increase the value to managers of future modeling efforts.

  20. 75 FR 52398 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird... between real and perceived changes, and the absence of adequate experimental controls. Consequently, we... options and a study plan to evaluate the effect of the proposed action in achieving those objectives. It...

  1. 50 CFR 92.22 - Subsistence migratory bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence migratory bird species. 92.22... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Regulations Governing Subsistence Harvest § 92.22 Subsistence migratory bird species. You may harvest birds or gather...

  2. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. 76 FR 9529 - Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX53 Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance AGENCY: Fish and... mail to: Attention: Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish... implementing statutes including the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act...

  4. 75 FR 32872 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... shared a common scientific underpinning. Alternative 39 was deemed to best balance tradeoffs among... Regulations Permitting the Sport Hunting of Migratory Birds (FSES 88- 14),'' filed with the Environmental...

  5. 75 FR 58993 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for...

  6. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... promulgating migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or other.... The policy memorandum and conditions govern current administration of Federal Migratory Bird Special...

  7. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...... allowed to settle and express migratory restlessness for at least 30 minutes. Secondly, the flight simulation axis (e.g. E-W or N-S) with the largest angle relative to the bird's migration course was chosen and "flights" of simulated calling conspecifics or the "ding" sound along this axis continued...

  8. Radionuclide carrying-out by migratory birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsevich, L.I.; Sabinevskij, B.V.; Komissar, A.D.; Ermakov, A.A.; Kryzhanovskij, V.I.; Mikityuk, Yu.A.; Arkhipchuk, V.A.; Panov, G.M.; Kolesnik, A.D.; Filimonov, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of the zoogenic transfer of radionuclides from the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP was necessary because of the enormous heavily polluted territory and mighty flow of migratory birds who tended to large rivers, the Dnieper and Pripyat. The integral estimate of the transferred amount was obtained as a product of three variables: the transfer factor (0.0077 m 2 /kg for 137 Cs; 0.00107 m 2 /kg for 90 Sr), the density of birds (0.002 kg/m 2 , at the mass of migrants about 5000 t per year), and the total fund of radionuclides throughout the territory

  9. Landscape associations of birds during migratory stopover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert Howard

    The challenge for migratory bird conservation is habitat preservation that sustains breeding, migration, and non-breeding biological processes. In choosing an appropriately scaled conservation arena for habitat preservation, a conservative and thorough examination of stopover habitat use patterns by migrants works back from the larger scales at which such relationships may occur. Because the use of stopover habitats by migrating birds occurs at spatial scales larger than traditional field techniques can easily accommodate, I quantify these relationship using the United States system of weather surveillance radars (popularly known as NEXRAD). To provide perspective on use of this system for biologists, I first describe the technical challenges as well as some of the biological potential of these radars for ornithological research. Using data from these radars, I then examined the influence of Lake Michigan and the distribution of woodland habitat on migrant concentrations in northeastern Illinois habitats during stopover. Lake Michigan exerted less influence on migrant abundance and density than the distribution and availability of habitat for stopover. There was evidence of post-migratory movement resulting in habitats within suburban landscapes experiencing higher migrant abundance but lower migrant density than habitats within nearby urban and agricultural landscapes. Finally, in the context of hierarchy theory, I examined the influence of landscape ecological and behavioral processes on bird density during migratory stopover. Migrant abundance did not vary across landscapes that differed considerably in the amount of habitat available for stopover. As a result, smaller, more isolated patches held higher densities of birds. Spatial models of migrant habitat selection based on migrant proximity to a patch explained nearly as much variance in the number of migrants occupying patches (R2 = 0.88) as selection models based on migrant interception of patches during

  10. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... rulemaking. (2) You can make an appointment, during normal business hours, to view the comments and materials... opportunity to harvest migratory birds in a way that maintains the culture and traditional harvest of the... (gill) nets on the North Slope. Yellow-billed loons are culturally important to the Inupiat Eskimo of...

  11. 77 FR 53117 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Impact Statement: Issuance of Annual Regulations Permitting the Sport Hunting of Migratory Birds (FSES 88... the final frameworks reflect any such modifications. Our biological opinions resulting from this... regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow for public...

  12. 77 FR 58443 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ...: Issuance of Annual Regulations Permitting the Sport Hunting of Migratory Birds (FSES 88- 14),'' filed with... the final frameworks reflect any such modifications. Our biological opinions resulting from this... regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow for public...

  13. 76 FR 5820 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...] Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird... Conservation Act (NAWCA) grant proposals for recommendation to the Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (Commission). This meeting is open to the public. The Advisory Group for the Neotropical Migratory Bird...

  14. Optimal moult strategies in migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Zoltán; McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I; Weber, Thomas P; Hedenström, Anders; Feró, Orsolya

    2008-01-27

    Avian migration, which involves billions of birds flying vast distances, is known to influence all aspects of avian life. Here we investigate how birds fit moult into an annual cycle determined by the need to migrate. Large variation exists in moulting patterns in relation to migration: for instance, moult can occur after breeding in the summer or after arrival in the wintering quarters. Here we use an optimal annual routine model to investigate why this variation exists. The modelled bird's decisions depend on the time of year, its energy reserves, breeding status, experience, flight feather quality and location. Our results suggest that the temporal and spatial variations in food are an important influence on a migratory bird's annual cycle. Summer moult occurs when food has a high peak on the breeding site in the summer, but it is less seasonal elsewhere. Winter moult occurs if there is a short period of high food availability in summer and a strong winter peak at different locations (i.e. the food is very seasonal but in opposite phase on these areas). This finding might explain why only long-distance migrants have a winter moult.

  15. Limitations and mechanisms influencing the migratory performance of soaring birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricia A. Miller; Brooks Robert P.; Michael J. Lanzone; David Brandes; Jeff Cooper; Junior A. Tremblay; Jay Wilhelm; Adam Duerr; Todd E. Katzner

    2016-01-01

    Migration is costly in terms of time, energy and safety. Optimal migration theory suggests that individual migratory birds will choose between these three costs depending on their motivation and available resources. To test hypotheses about use of migratory strategies by large soaring birds, we used GPS telemetry to track 18 adult, 13 sub-adult and 15 juvenile Golden...

  16. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or... and held in ``temporary'' caging for extended periods of time, i.e., multiple birds held in a trailer...

  17. 76 FR 39367 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Raptor Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...-0020; 91200-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX78 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing... primary responsibility for managing migratory birds. Our authority is based on the Migratory Bird Treaty... take and possession of migratory birds for many purposes. The BGEPA allows bald eagles and golden...

  18. 50 CFR 20.25 - Wanton waste of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wanton waste of migratory game birds. 20... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.25 Wanton waste of migratory game birds. No person shall kill or cripple any migratory game bird pursuant to this part without...

  19. Is there a "migratory syndrome" common to all migrant birds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Perez-Tris, J; Mouritsen, H; Bauchinger, U; Bairlein, F; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Bird migration has been assumed, mostly implicitly, to represent a distinct class of animal behavior, with deep and strong homologies in the various phenotypic expressions of migratory behavior between different taxa. Here the evidence for the existence of what could be called a "migratory

  20. Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other.

  1. Modeling the Geography of Migratory Pathways and Stopover Habitats for Neotropical Migratory Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Tankersley, Jr.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Intact migratory routes are critical for the stability of forest-dwelling, neotropical, migratory bird populations, and mortality along migratory pathways may be significant. Yet we know almost nothing about the geography of available stopovers or the possible migratory pathways that connect optimal stopovers. We undertake a spatial analysis of stopover habitat availability and then model potential migratory pathways between optimal stopovers in the eastern United States. Using models of fixed orientation and fixed nightly flight distance between stopovers during spring migration, we explore whether a simple endogenous migratory program is sufficient to ensure successful migration across the modern landscape. Our model runs suggest that the modern distribution of optimum stopovers in the eastern United States can be adequately exploited by birds following migratory pathways defined by fixed-orientation and fixed-distance nightly flights. Longer flight distances may increase the chances of success by enabling migrants to bypass locales offering little habitat. Our results also suggest that most southwest-northeast migratory pathways through the Appalachian mountains are intact. Lack of optimal habitat at key locations in the Southeast causes many modeled pathways to fail. We present a speculative view of regional migration patterns implied by predominant ideas found in stopover ecology literature, and demonstrate the need for broad-scale migration research, in the hope that our approach will foster other continental- and regional-scale projects.

  2. Candidate genes for migration do not distinguish migratory and non-migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Ramos, Juan S; Delmore, Kira E; Liedvogel, Miriam

    2017-07-01

    Migratory traits in birds have been shown to have a strong heritable component and several candidate genes have been suggested to control these migratory traits. To investigate if the genetic makeup of one or a set of these candidate genes can be used to identify a general pattern between migratory and non-migratory birds, we extracted genomic sequence data for 25 hypothesised candidate genes for migration from 70 available genomes across all orders of Aves and characterised sequence divergence between migratory and non-migratory phenotypes. When examining each gene separately across all species, we did not identify any genetic variants in candidate genes that distinguished migrants from non-migrants; any resulting pattern was driven by the phylogenetic signal. This was true for each gene analysed independently, but also for concatenated sequence alignments of all candidate genes combined. We also attempted to distinguish between migrant and non-migrants using structural features at four candidate genes that have previously been reported to show associated with migratory behaviour but did not pick up a signal for migratory phenotype here either. Finally, a screen for dN/dS ratio across all focal candidate genes to probe for putative features of selection did not uncover a pattern, though this might not be expected given the broad phylogenetic scale used here. Our study demonstrates the potential of public genomic data to test for general patterns of migratory gene candidates in a cross-species comparative context, and raise questions on the applicability of candidate gene approaches in a macro-evolutionary context to understand the genetic architecture of migratory behaviour.

  3. STOPOVER ECOLOGY OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRATORY BIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of intact stopovers may be as important as the condition of individual stopover. We modeled migratory flights based on flight distance and direction to examine how nightly flights link stopovers into flyways. The resulting maps highlight portions of the landsca...

  4. 78 FR 72830 - Migratory Bird Permits; Delegating Falconry Permitting Authority to 17 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ...-0110; FF09M21200-134-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-BA01 Migratory Bird Permits; Delegating Falconry... Migratory Bird Permits Program and assigned OMB control number 1018-0022, which expires February 28, 2014... Regulations, as follows: PART 21--MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS 0 1. The authority citation for part 21 continues to...

  5. 77 FR 66406 - Migratory Bird Permits; Delegating Falconry Permitting Authority to Seven States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ...-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AZ16 Migratory Bird Permits; Delegating Falconry Permitting Authority to Seven... requirements of the Migratory Bird Permits Program and assigned OMB control number 1018- 0022, which expires... chapter I, title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as follows: PART 21--MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS 0 1...

  6. 50 CFR 92.6 - Use and possession of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use and possession of migratory birds. 92... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.6 Use and possession of migratory birds. You may not sell, offer for sale, purchase, or offer...

  7. Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outbreaks may only occur after transmission from migratory species to domestic flocks through local amplification and secondary spread through the movement of poultry or people, as well as equipment or vehicles contaminated by sick birds. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together ...

  8. Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 produces severe disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, waterfowl and other bird species. Although the international spread of the disease is still poorly understood, scientists are increasingly convinced that at least some migratory waterfowl carry the H5N1 ...

  9. Economic impotance of flying visitors: migratory birds | Egwumah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are also capable of producing oil. Nature based tourism and recreation, such as the viewing of wildlife coupled with; management of migratory birds promotes market for other industrial goods such as lead shot, guns and binocular. Keywords: Migration; Recreation and Tourism; Trophies; Ornament; Food; Production of Oil ...

  10. 75 FR 57413 - Migratory Bird Permits; Possession and Educational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... not open to the general public, whereas, an educational program offered at a national park is. As... entertaining. As another commenter put it, ``laughter and amusement open pathways for receptive learning. The.... Under no circumstance would we authorize the use of migratory birds to endorse or promote any product or...

  11. Status and management of neotropical migratory birds: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M.; Peter W. Stangel

    1993-01-01

    The future for neotropical migratory birds rests with our commitment and ability to provide them adequate habitat during all periods of their life cycle. Our commitment to this cause is apparent in the groundswell of interest in neotropical migrants and the many proactive and coopemtive partnerships resulting from the Partners in Flight - Aves de las Americas...

  12. Meeting migratory bird management needs by integrated disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    1984-01-01

    The need to combat diseases of migratory birds more effectively will intensify because of need to counteract effects of continual habitat losses. Degradation of habitat will increase potential for disease transmission and the emergence of new disease problems. Migratory bird mobility provides a ready mechanism for spread of disease to locations greatly removed from the site of initial outbreaks. Disease control and management on a flyway basis is needed to combat disease problems of migratory birds more effectively. Modifications in the flyway council system are suggested for implementation of an integrated approach to disease control. Flyway management of disease problems is not a new concept and has been used for addressing lead poisoning in waterfowl (Greenwalt 1976). However, integration of disease concepts in the management of migratory birds on a flyway basis has not been attempted to the extent identified in this paper. Information and communication needs to achieve the goal of minimizing losses of migratory birds to disease are also identified. The limited resources available for disease investigations dictate that sound planning efforts serve as the foundation for program development, priority assessment, and coordination of efforts. Effective disease control in migratory birds is achievable. However, disease control will not happen without adjustments in current perspectives and approaches to disease problems. 'A prime requisite of long range planning for animal disease control or eradication is an attitude of mind that sustains an unflagging optimism toward the ultimate accomplishment of desired results, coupled with an equally persistent skepticism toward dogmatic formulae promising either certain success or certain failure. A long range plan cannot remain inviolate. It must undergo constant critical review and modification as necessary to: accommodate newly acquired scientific or practical information; meet changing economic conditions; account for

  13. Environmentalism in the crosshairs: Perspectives on migratory bird hunting and poaching conflicts in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Barca

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Migratory bird hunting has a long tradition in the Mediterranean, but remains a highly controversial issue. Here we examine the Mediterranean migratory bird hunting controversies through the case of Italy. We interviewed key informants and carried out participant observation on both legal and illegal migratory bird hunting and migratory bird protection, in four key migratory bird hunting sites in Italy. In many cases, both migratory bird hunters and bird protection activists consider themselves as the stewards of nature. Environmentalists accuse hunters of illegal practices, while hunters believe anti-poaching activists aim to threaten the existence of hunting itself. Yet surprisingly, the legality of specific hunting practices emerges as peripheral to the concerns of both groups. The lack of dialogue and increasingly polarized positions on both sides make it difficult to assure compliance with EU and national migratory bird hunting laws, and hinders finding shared solutions that consider differing values in a rapidly changing society.

  14. 78 FR 58204 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Environmental Impact Statement: Issuance of Annual Regulations Permitting the Sport Hunting of Migratory Birds... regulatory measures previously proposed, and the final frameworks reflect any such modifications. Our... that regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow...

  15. Tracking radar techniques for studying migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    The use of NASA tracking radar at Wallops Island and the islands of Bermuda and Antigua to plot the paths of migatory birds in three dimensional space is discussed. Attempts were also made to obtain data on the direction, speed, and density of large numbers of migrating birds. Observational results show that the performance of tracking radars vary considerably with the density of bird migration. At light to moderate levels of migration it is possible to obtain tracks of a variety of types of targets, both large and small. During heavy periods of migration the sky is so filled with targets, that only the largest targets can be tracked for more than a few minutes.

  16. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viana, D.S.; Gangoso, L.; Bouten, W.; Figuerola, J.

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has

  17. Migratory birds and West Nile virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rappole, J. H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 94, s1 (2003), s. 47-58 ISSN 1364-5072. [Conference of Society for Applied Microbiology (U.K.) "Pathogens in the Environment and Changing Ecosystems". Nottingham, 08.07.2002-11.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus * bird migration Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2003

  18. Actogram analysis of free-flying migratory birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Pedersen, Lykke

    2017-01-01

    The use of accelerometers has become an important part of biologging techniques for large-sized birds with accelerometer data providing information about flight mode, wing-beat pattern, behaviour and energy expenditure. Such data show that birds using much energy-saving soaring/gliding flight like...... rhythms of migratory flights, as well as prolonged nocturnal flights across desert barriers are illustrated. The shifting balance between flight, rest and different intensities of activity throughout the year as revealed by actogram data can be used to analyse exertion levels during different phases...

  19. The migratory bird treaty and a century of waterfowl conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Batt, Bruce D. J.; Blohm, Robert J.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Perry, Matthew; Ringelman, James K.; Sedinger, James S.; Serie, Jerome R.; Sharp, David E.; Trauger, David L.; Williams, Christopher K.

    2018-01-01

    In the final decades of the nineteenth century, concern was building about the status of migratory bird populations in North America. In this literature review, we describe how that concern led to a landmark conservation agreement in 1916, between the United States and Great Britain (on behalf of Canada) to conserve migratory birds shared by Canada and the United States. Drawing on published literature and our personal experience, we describe how subsequent enabling acts in both countries gave rise to efforts to better estimate population sizes and distributions, assess harvest rates and demographic impacts, design and fund landscape-level habitat conservation initiatives, and organize necessary political and regulatory processes. Executing these steps required large-scale thinking, unprecedented regional and international cooperation, ingenuity, and a commitment to scientific rigor and adaptive management. We applaud the conservation efforts begun 100 years ago with the Migratory Bird Treaty Convention. The agreement helped build the field of wildlife ecology and conservation in the twentieth century but only partially prepares us for the ecological and social challenges ahead. 

  20. MODELLING OF THE ENERGY COSTS, FLIGHT SPEED, AND MIGRATORY DISTANCES OF THE MIGRATORY BIRDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsyura M. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the preliminary analysis carried out by Flight software for White Stork and Pelican that migrate within the Mediterranean-Black Sea Migratory Route were presented. Obtained results practically coincide with experimental results and data of radar observations. Optimum speed allows the birds to fly with a higher grade soaring and shorter distance between the thermal flows. Time to find the next effective thermals (thermal flux is reduced by increasing the speed, which in turn reduces the average rise in thermal flows, increases the risk not to find appropriate thermal. Soaring birds reduce wingspan and wing area by bending the joints of the extremities at high speeds. This reduces profile resistance and increases the inductive reactance. Profile resistance increases and the inductive reactance decreases with increasing of bird speed. Under ideal conditions the birds try to find a position of wingspan, which reduces the difference between the values of profile and inductive resistance.

  1. 76 FR 69223 - Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of “Hybrid” Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... birds in those parts of the United States adapted thereto where the same have become scarce or extinct, and also to regulate the introduction of American or foreign birds or animals in localities where they...

  2. 78 FR 65953 - Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Regulations Concerning Certain Depredation Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...-0100; FF09M21200-134-FXMB1232099BPP0] RIN 1018-AX92 Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Regulations.... SUMMARY: We propose to remove regulations that set forth certain depredation orders for migratory birds... these regulations apparently are unused, we propose to remove them. Control of depredating birds could...

  3. EVOLUTION OF CONCEPTION OF INTEGRAL BIRDS AREAL: ANALYSIS OF MIGRATORY FLYWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepelova I. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on distribution and abundance of Ukraine migratory birds have nonsystematic character. Up to now there is no integrated evaluation of migratory bird populations’ status. The available information is of regional importance or it covers limited time period. Therefore, it is obvious to unite all the relevant information in order to establish monitoring program and work out the methodic on migratory birds abundance estimation concerning the Black-Mediterranean Sea Flyway.

  4. 77 FR 39983 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Fluoropolymeric Shot Coatings as Nontoxic for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ...-0038; FF09M21200-123-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] RIN 1018-AY66 Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval... INFORMATION CONTACT: George Allen, at 703-358-1825. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird treaties...

  5. Migratory connectivity and population-specific migration routes in a long-distance migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiler, Christiane; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Drent, Rudi H; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, Franz; Koks, Ben J

    2014-03-07

    Knowledge about migratory connectivity, the degree to which individuals from the same breeding site migrate to the same wintering site, is essential to understand processes affecting populations of migrants throughout the annual cycle. Here, we study the migration system of a long-distance migratory bird, the Montagu's harrier Circus pygargus, by tracking individuals from different breeding populations throughout northern Europe. We identified three main migration routes towards wintering areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Wintering areas and migration routes of different breeding populations overlapped, a pattern best described by 'weak (diffuse) connectivity'. Migratory performance, i.e. timing, duration, distance and speed of migration, was surprisingly similar for the three routes despite differences in habitat characteristics. This study provides, to our knowledge, a first comprehensive overview of the migration system of a Palaearctic-African long-distance migrant. We emphasize the importance of spatial scale (e.g. distances between breeding populations) in defining patterns of connectivity and suggest that knowledge about fundamental aspects determining distribution patterns, such as the among-individual variation in mean migration directions, is required to ultimately understand migratory connectivity. Furthermore, we stress that for conservation purposes it is pivotal to consider wintering areas as well as migration routes and in particular stopover sites.

  6. 78 FR 65955 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control Order for Introduced Migratory Bird Species in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... 2 asphyxiation. Any time that euthanasia of a bird is necessary, you must follow the American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines on Euthanasia. (2) If you use a firearm to kill cattle egrets or...

  7. 76 FR 48693 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... adequately and, therefore, we made them final beginning with the 1988-89 hunting season. We should stress... MCP sport harvest, including crippling losses, was 38,561 birds, which was a 51 percent increase from...

  8. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... adequately and, therefore, we made them final beginning with the 1988-89 hunting season. We should stress... American MCP sport harvest, including crippling losses, was 25,731 birds, which was a 39 percent decrease...

  9. Assessment of bird response to the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative using weather-surveillance radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieges, Mason L.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Randall, Lori A.; Buler, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in spring 2010, the Natural Resources Conservation Service implemented the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI) to provide temporary wetland habitat for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other birds along the northern Gulf of Mexico via managed flooding of agricultural lands. We used weather-surveillance radar to conduct broad regional assessments of bird response to MBHI activities within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Across both regions, birds responded positively to MBHI management by exhibiting greater relative bird densities within sites relative to pre-management conditions in prior years and relative to surrounding non-flooded agricultural lands. Bird density at MBHI sites was generally greatest during winter for both regions. Unusually high flooding in the years prior to implementation of the MBHI confounded detection of overall changes in remotely sensed soil wetness across sites. The magnitude of bird response at MBHI sites compared to prior years and to non-flooded agricultural lands was generally related to the surrounding landscape context: proximity to areas of high bird density, amount of forested wetlands, emergent marsh, non-flooded agriculture, or permanent open water. However, these relationships varied in strength and direction between regions and seasons, a finding which we attribute to differences in seasonal bird composition and broad regional differences in landscape configuration and composition. We detected greater increases in relative bird use at sites in closer proximity to areas of high bird density during winter in both regions. Additionally, bird density was greater during winter at sites with more emergent marsh in the surrounding landscape. Thus, bird use of managed wetlands could be maximized by enrolling lands located near areas of known bird concentration and within a mosaic of existing wetlands. Weather-radar observations

  10. Full annual cycle climate change vulnerability assessment for migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Leah A.; Cohen, Emily B.; Scarpignato, Amy L.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Marra, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a serious challenge faced by all plant and animal species. Climate change vulnerability assessments (CCVAs) are one method to assess risk and are increasingly used as a tool to inform management plans. Migratory animals move across regions and continents during their annual cycles where they are exposed to diverse climatic conditions. Climate change during any period and in any region of the annual cycle could influence survival, reproduction, or the cues used to optimize timing of migration. Therefore, CCVAs for migratory animals best estimate risk when they include climate exposure during the entire annual cycle. We developed a CCVA incorporating the full annual cycle and applied this method to 46 species of migratory birds breeding in the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes (UMGL) region of the United States. Our methodology included background risk, climate change exposure × climate sensitivity, adaptive capacity to climate change, and indirect effects of climate change. We compiled information about migratory connectivity between breeding and stationary non-breeding areas using literature searches and U.S. Geological Survey banding and re-encounter data. Climate change exposure (temperature and moisture) was assessed using UMGL breeding season climate and winter climate from non-breeding regions for each species. Where possible, we focused on non-breeding regions known to be linked through migratory connectivity. We ranked 10 species as highly vulnerable to climate change and two as having low vulnerability. The remaining 34 species were ranked as moderately vulnerable. In general, including non-breeding data provided more robust results that were highly individualistic by species. Two species were found to be highly vulnerable throughout their annual cycle. Projected drying will have the greatest effect during the non-breeding season for species overwintering in Mexico and the Caribbean. Projected temperature increases will have the greatest

  11. USDA Forest Service goals and programs for monitoring neotropical migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Manley

    1993-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) developed goals, objectives, and guidelines for monitoring neotropical migratory birds (NTMB) on National Forest System lands in response to the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program Partners in Flight. A USFS task group developed a hierarchical monitoring framework designed to define priorities for type of monitoring data....

  12. 75 FR 56555 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migrant Peregrine Falcons for Use in Falconry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ...-9BPP] Migratory Birds; Take of Migrant Peregrine Falcons for Use in Falconry AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... CONTACT: Dr. George Allen, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, at 703... of prey) listed in 50 CFR 10.13 unless the activities are allowed under Federal regulations. Take and...

  13. 76 FR 59298 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... transporting game birds off the Colorado River Indian Reservation must have a valid transport declaration form... early season will be open from one-half hour before sunrise until noon. For the late season, shooting... part 20 regarding manner of taking. In addition, shooting hours are sunrise to sunset, and each...

  14. 77 FR 58731 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... partners, developed measures in 2009 to further reduce the potential for shooting mortality or injury of... conservation via the bird fair, meetings, radio shows, signs, school visits, and one-on-one contacts. We also... of the harvest. Our primary strategy to reduce the threat of shooting mortality of threatened eiders...

  15. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual...

  16. 50 CFR 20.109 - Extended seasons, limits, and hours for taking migratory game birds by falconry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... taking migratory game birds by falconry. 20.109 Section 20.109 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING... taking migratory game birds by falconry. This section provides annual regulations by which falconers may...

  17. LINKING THE COMMUNITY IN THE MIGRATORY RAPTOR BIRDS COUNTS (BIRDS: FALCONIFORM IN EASTERN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylien Barreda-Leyva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Through interviews, workshops, conferences and sociocultural meeting, is carried out the linking of three communities from the high area of Gran Piedra to the studies and counts of migratory raptors birds developed in the east of Cuba. These small communities are near to one of the two points of count of migratory raptors of the region. During the interviews we could verify that some residents possessed basic knowledge on the raptors birds, but didn't know about the migration of these birds. 100 % of the interviewees coincided in that the main local problematic is the loss of birds of pen due to the attack of raptors, specifically the endemic Cuban threatened Accipitter gundlachi. The workshops were able to create spaces of exchange and reflection about the importance of the raptor’s conservation in the region. This linkage of cooperation and increasing awareness, allow an approaching between the communitarians and the researchers and volunteers that work in the counts of raptor birds in Cuba and the feedback of the scientific knowledge with the popular knowledge.

  18. Cyanide and migratory birds at gold mines in Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Hill, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, cyanide in heap leach solutions and mill tailings ponds at gold mines in Nevada has killed a large but incompletely documented number of wildlife ( gt 9,500 individuals, primarily migratory birds). This field investigation documents the availability of cyanide at a variety of 'typical' Nevada gold mines during 1990 and 1991, describes wildlife reactions to cyanide solutions, and discusses procedures for eliminating wildlife loss from cyanide poisoning. Substantial progress has been made to reduce wildlife loss. About half of the mill tailings ponds (some up to 150 ha) in Nevada have been chemically treated to reduce cyanide concentrations (the number needing treatment is uncertain) and many of the smaller heap leach solution ponds and channels are now covered with netting to exclude birds and most mammals. The discovery of a cyanide gradient in mill tailings ponds (concentration usually 2-3 times higher at the inflow point than at reclaim point) provides new insight into wildlife responses (mortality) observed in different portions of the ponds. Finding dead birds on the tops of ore heaps and associated with solution puddling is a new problem, but management procedures for eliminating this source of mortality are available. A safe threshold concentration of cyanide to eliminate wildlife loss could not be determined from the field data and initial laboratory studies. New analytical methods may be required to assess further the wildlife hazard of cyanide in mining solutions.

  19. Spatiotemporal Distributions of Migratory Birds: Patchy Models with Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Wu, Jianhong

    2010-01-01

    We derive and analyze a mathematical model for the spatiotemporal distribution of a migratory bird species. The birds have specific sites for breeding and winter feeding, and usually several stopover sites along the migration route, and therefore a patch model is the natural choice. However, we also model the journeys of the birds along the flyways, and this is achieved using a continuous space model of reaction-advection type. In this way proper account is taken of flight times and in-flight mortalities which may vary from sector to sector, and this information is featured in the ordinary differential equations for the populations on the patches through the values of the time delays and the model coefficients. The seasonality of the phenomenon is accommodated by having periodic migration and birth rates. The central result of the paper is a very general theorem on the threshold dynamics, obtained using recent results on discrete monotone dynamical systems, for birth functions which are subhomogeneous. For such functions, depending on the spectral radius of a certain operator, either there is a globally attracting periodic solution, or the bird population becomes extinct. Evaluation of the spectral radius is difficult, so we also present, for the particular case of just one stopover site on the migration route, a verifiable sufficient condition for extinction or survival in the form of an attractive periodic solution. This threshold is illustrated numerically using data from the U.S. Geological Survey on the bar-headed goose and its migration to India from its main breeding sites around Lake Qinghai and Mongolia.

  20. Data Mining Approaches for Habitats and Stopovers Discovery of Migratory Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on using data mining technology to efficiently and accurately discover habitats and stopovers of migratory birds. The three methods we used are as follows: 1. a density-based clustering method, detecting stopovers of birds during their migration through density-based clustering of location points; 2. A location histories parser method, detecting areas that have been overstayed by migratory birds during a set time period by setting time and distance thresholds; and 3. A time-parameterized line segment clustering method, clustering directed line segments to analyze shared segments of migratory pathways of different migratory birds and discover the habitats and stopovers of these birds. Finally, we analyzed the migration data of the bar-headed goose in the Qinghai Lake Area through the three above methods and verified the effectiveness of the three methods and, by comparison, identified the scope and context of the use of these three methods respectively.

  1. Impact of Environmental Changes on Migratory Bird Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Stöcker-Segre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical model that studies and simulates the interconnection between energetic and ecological aspects of bird migration. By comparing model predictions with experimental data, we show that it can be used to assess the impact of changing environmental conditions in breeding, wintering, and stop-over sites on migratory success. We relate in particular to the European white stork (Ciconia ciconia and its Eastern migration route and discuss questions concerning the timing, stopover, and feeding behavior en route. Opinions concerning the importance of resource availability and resource quality en route are divided. Whereas some studies have shown that storks gain weight in the wintering site, but almost do not feed en route, others stress the importance of the quality of stop-over locations. We address these questions and simulate the development of stork populations for changing environmental conditions. We demonstrate that resource availability and competition for breeding sites are crucial factors determining the timing of spring migration and the length of stop-over periods. Analyzing the robustness of migration strategies with respect to changing environmental conditions, we show that birds will shorten their stay in stop-over places of poor resource availability rather than prolonging it in the attempt to gain time for accumulating fat reserves.

  2. Advancing migratory bird conservation and management by using radar: An interagency collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Manville, Albert; Green, Michael T.; Krueper, David J.; Johnston, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Migratory birds face many changes to the landscapes they traverse and the habitats they use. Wind turbines and communications towers, which pose hazards to birds and bats in flight, are being erected or proposed across the United States and offshore. Human activities can also destroy or threaten habitats critical to birds during migratory passage, and climate change appears to be altering migratory patterns. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and other agencies are under increasing pressure to identify and evaluate movement patterns and habitats used during migration and other times.

  3. Modeling the distribution of migratory bird stopovers to inform landscape-scale siting of wind development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocewicz, Amy; Estes-Zumpf, Wendy A; Andersen, Mark D; Copeland, Holly E; Keinath, Douglas A; Griscom, Hannah R

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of migratory birds requires understanding the distribution of and potential threats to their migratory habitats. However, although migratory birds are protected under international treaties, few maps have been available to represent migration at a landscape scale useful to target conservation efforts or inform the siting of wind energy developments that may affect migratory birds. To fill this gap, we developed models that predict where four groups of birds concentrate or stopover during their migration through the state of Wyoming, USA: raptors, wetland, riparian and sparse grassland birds. The models were based on existing literature and expert knowledge concerning bird migration behavior and ecology and validated using expert ratings and known occurrences. There was significant agreement between migratory occurrence data and migration models for all groups except raptors, and all models ranked well with experts. We measured the overlap between the migration concentration models and a predictive model of wind energy development to assess the potential exposure of migratory birds to wind development and illustrate the utility of migratory concentration models for landscape-scale planning. Wind development potential is high across 15% of Wyoming, and 73% of this high potential area intersects important migration concentration areas. From 5.2% to 18.8% of each group's important migration areas was represented within this high wind potential area, with the highest exposures for sparse grassland birds and the lowest for riparian birds. Our approach could be replicated elsewhere to fill critical data gaps and better inform conservation priorities and landscape-scale planning for migratory birds.

  4. Modeling the distribution of migratory bird stopovers to inform landscape-scale siting of wind development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Pocewicz

    Full Text Available Conservation of migratory birds requires understanding the distribution of and potential threats to their migratory habitats. However, although migratory birds are protected under international treaties, few maps have been available to represent migration at a landscape scale useful to target conservation efforts or inform the siting of wind energy developments that may affect migratory birds. To fill this gap, we developed models that predict where four groups of birds concentrate or stopover during their migration through the state of Wyoming, USA: raptors, wetland, riparian and sparse grassland birds. The models were based on existing literature and expert knowledge concerning bird migration behavior and ecology and validated using expert ratings and known occurrences. There was significant agreement between migratory occurrence data and migration models for all groups except raptors, and all models ranked well with experts. We measured the overlap between the migration concentration models and a predictive model of wind energy development to assess the potential exposure of migratory birds to wind development and illustrate the utility of migratory concentration models for landscape-scale planning. Wind development potential is high across 15% of Wyoming, and 73% of this high potential area intersects important migration concentration areas. From 5.2% to 18.8% of each group's important migration areas was represented within this high wind potential area, with the highest exposures for sparse grassland birds and the lowest for riparian birds. Our approach could be replicated elsewhere to fill critical data gaps and better inform conservation priorities and landscape-scale planning for migratory birds.

  5. Why do female migratory birds arrive later than males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Gunnarsson, Tómas G; Morrell, Lesley J; Gill, Jennifer A

    2006-11-01

    1. In migratory birds males tend to arrive first on breeding grounds, except in sex-role reversed species. The two most common explanations are the rank advantage hypothesis, in which male-male competition for breeding sites drives stronger selection for early arrival in males than females, and the mate opportunity hypothesis, which relies on sexual selection, as early arrival improves prospects of mate acquisition more for males than for females. 2. To date, theoretical work has focused on selection for early arrival within a single sex, usually male. However, if fitness depends on territory quality, selection for early arrival should operate on both sexes. Here we use two independent modelling approaches to explore the evolution of protandry (male-first arrival) and protogyny (female-first arrival) under the rank advantage and mate opportunity hypotheses. 3. The rank advantage hypothesis, when operating alone, fails to produce consistent patterns of protandry, despite our assumption that males must occupy territories before females. This is because an individual of either sex benefits if it out-competes same-sex competitors. Rather than promoting protandry, the rank advantage mechanism can sometimes result in protogyny. Female-female competition is stronger than male-male competition early in the season, if females compete for a resource (territories occupied by males) that is initially less common than the resource of interest to males (unoccupied territories). 4. Our results support the mate opportunity hypothesis as an explanation of why protandry is the norm in migratory systems. Male-biased adult sex ratios and high levels of sperm competition (modelled as extra-pair young: EPY) both produce protandry as a result of sexual selection. Protogyny is only observed in our models with female-biased sex ratios and low EPY production. 5. We also show that the effects of sex ratio biases are much stronger than those of EPY production, explore the evidence for sex

  6. 76 FR 54657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...; migratory game birds in Alaska, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; youth waterfowl hunting day; and some...) Whether the rule will have an annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy or adversely affect an... reasons outlined above, this rule would have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more...

  7. 75 FR 53226 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...; migratory game birds in Alaska, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; youth waterfowl hunting day; and some...) Whether the rule will have an annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy or adversely affect an... reasons outlined above, this rule has an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more. However...

  8. Is There a “Migratory Syndrome” Common to All Migrant Birds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Mouritsen, Henrik; Bauchinger, Ulf; Bairlein, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Bird migration has been assumed, mostly implicitly, to represent a distinct class of animal behavior, with deep and strong homologies in the various phenotypic expressions of migratory behavior between different taxa. Here the evidence for the existence of what could be called a “migratory

  9. The impact of the bird flu on public willingness to pay for the protection of migratory birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.; van Beukering, P.J.H.; Sultanian, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a unique time series analysis of contingent values and models for migratory bird protection based on an identical contingent valuation (CV) survey carried out over a three year time period since the first bird flu outbreak in 2003. Although there exists no

  10. 50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.42 Authority to issue depredating orders to...

  11. Spatial, temporal, and species variation in prevalence of influenza A viruses in wild migratory birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J. Munster (Vincent); C. Baas (Chantal); P. Lexmond (Pascal); J. Waldenström (Jonas); A. Wallensten (Anders); T. Fransson (Thord); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); M. Schutten (Martin); B. Olsen (Björn); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAlthough extensive data exist on avian influenza in wild birds in North America, limited information is available from elsewhere, including Europe. Here, molecular diagnostic tools were employed for high-throughput surveillance of migratory birds, as an alternative to classical

  12. MIGRATORY GAME BIRDS AS A SOURCE OF PUBLIC EXPOSURE FROM THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines assessments of the impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on exposure of the Russian Federation population related to the seasonal migration of game birds. Intake of artificial radionuclides with meat of migratory game birds is shown to be one of the major pathways for the population exposure in the Far Eastern region of the country.

  13. Technology on the Move: Recent and Forthcoming Innovations for Tracking Migratory Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Eli S.; Thorup, Kasper; Bowlin, Melissa S.

    2011-01-01

    Basic questions about the life histories of migratory birds have confounded scientists for generations, yet we are nearing an era of historic discovery as new tracking technologies make it possible to determine the timing and routes of an increasing number of bird migrations. Tracking small flying...

  14. Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in resident and migratory birds from Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Mafumi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sethuraman, Alagappan; Titenko, Alexei M.; Qui, Vo; Prudente, Maricar; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in migratory birds from Asia did not necessarily reflect only the pollution in the sampling area. - Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in the resident and migratory birds, which were collected from India, Japan, Philippines, Russia (Lake Baikal) and Vietnam. Accumulation patterns of organochlorine concentrations in resident birds suggested that the predominant contaminants of each country were as follows: Japan-PCBs Philippines-PCBs and CHLs, India-HCHs and DDTs, Vietnam-DDTs, and Lake Baikal-PCBs and DDTs. The migratory birds from Philippines and Vietnam retained mostly the highest concentrations of DDTs among the organochlorines analyzed, indicating the presence of stopover and breeding grounds of those birds in China and Russia. On the other hand, migratory birds from India and Lake Baikal showed different patterns of organochlorine residues, reflecting that each species has inherent migratory routes and thus has exposure to different contaminants. Species which have breeding grounds around the Red Sea and Persian Gulf showed high levels of PCBs, indicating the presence of areas heavily polluted by PCBs in the Middle East

  15. 77 FR 36980 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...-0028; FF09M21200-123-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] RIN 1018-AY61 Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval... Allen, at 703-358-1825. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird treaties between the United States...

  16. Animal tracking meets migration genomics: transcriptomic analysis of a partially migratory bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Paolo; Irisarri, Iker; Fudickar, Adam; Schmidt, Andreas; Meyer, Axel; Wikelski, Martin; Partecke, Jesko

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal migration is a widespread phenomenon, which is found in many different lineages of animals. This spectacular behaviour allows animals to avoid seasonally adverse environmental conditions to exploit more favourable habitats. Migration has been intensively studied in birds, which display astonishing variation in migration strategies, thus providing a powerful system for studying the ecological and evolutionary processes that shape migratory behaviour. Despite intensive research, the genetic basis of migration remains largely unknown. Here, we used state-of-the-art radio-tracking technology to characterize the migratory behaviour of a partially migratory population of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in southern Germany. We compared gene expression of resident and migrant individuals using high-throughput transcriptomics in blood samples. Analyses of sequence variation revealed a nonsignificant genetic structure between blackbirds differing by their migratory phenotype. We detected only four differentially expressed genes between migrants and residents, which might be associated with hyperphagia, moulting and enhanced DNA replication and transcription. The most pronounced changes in gene expression occurred between migratory birds depending on when, in relation to their date of departure, blood was collected. Overall, the differentially expressed genes detected in this analysis may play crucial roles in determining the decision to migrate, or in controlling the physiological processes required for the onset of migration. These results provide new insights into, and testable hypotheses for, the molecular mechanisms controlling the migratory phenotype and its underlying physiological mechanisms in blackbirds and other migratory bird species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. H5N1 surveillance in migratory birds in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Arthur C; Barbara, Katie A; Indrawan, Mochamad; Ibrahim, Ima N; Petrus, Wicaksana B; Wijaya, Susan; Farzeli, Arik; Antonjaya, Ungke; Sin, Lim W; Hidayatullah, N; Kristanto, Ige; Tampubolon, A M; Purnama, S; Supriatna, Adam; Burgess, Timothy H; Williams, Maya; Putnam, Shannon D; Tobias, Steve; Blair, Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 in an enzoonotic area. Resident, captive, and migratory birds were sampled at five sites in Java, Indonesia. Mist nets were used to trap birds. Birds were identified to species. RNA was extracted from swabs and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) conducted for the HA and M genes of H5N1. Antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition test. Between October 2006 and September 2007, a total of 4,067 captive, resident, and migratory birds comprising 98 species in 23 genera were sampled. The most commonly collected birds were the common sandpiper (6% of total), striated heron (3%), and the domestic chicken (14%). The overall prevalence of H5N1 antibodies was 5.3%. A significantly higher percentage of captive birds (16.1%) showed antibody evidence of H5N1 exposure when compared to migratory or resident birds. The greatest number of seropositive birds in each category were Muschovy duck (captive), striated heron (resident), and the Pacific golden plover (migratory). Seven apparently well captive birds yielded molecular evidence of H5N1 infection. Following amplification, the HA, NA, and M genes were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the isolates were 97% similar to EU124153.1 A/chicken/West Java/Garut May 2006, an isolate obtained in a similar region of West Java. While no known markers of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance were found within the NA gene, M segment analysis revealed the V27A mutation known to confer resistance to adamantanes. Our results demonstrate moderate serologic evidence of H5N1 infection in captive birds, sampled in five sites in Java, Indonesia, but only occasional infection in resident and migratory birds. These data imply that in an enzoonotic region of Indonesia the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 is limited.

  18. Migratory connectivity and population-specific migration routes in a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trierweiler, Christiane; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Drent, Rudi H.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, Franz; Koks, Ben J.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about migratory connectivity, the degree to which individuals from the same breeding site migrate to the same wintering site, is essential to understand processes affecting populations of migrants throughout the annual cycle. Here, we study the migration system of a long-distance migratory

  19. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1982): Migratory Sea Bird Watch (F038) (NODC Accession 0014158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Migratory Sea Bird Watch (F038) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1982). Each dataset uses...

  20. Neotropical Migratory Bird Communities in a Developing Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson; Richard N. Conner; J. Howard Williamson

    1993-01-01

    Birds were censused annually from 4 250-x80-in transects in a young pine plantation from age to 2 to 17 to assess changes in the bird community.Bird abundance was low and the bird communitry was the least diverse when the pine plantation was sparsely vegetated at age 2. As the plantation developed rapidly into the shrub stage, the bird communitry became more abundant...

  1. Low intensity blood parasite infections do not reduce the aerobic performance of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimitar; Ivanova, Karina; Zehtindjiev, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Blood parasites (Haemosporidia) are thought to impair the flight performance of infected animals, and therefore, infected birds are expected to differ from their non-infected counterparts in migratory capacity. Since haemosporidians invade host erythrocytes, it is commonly assumed that infected individuals will have compromised aerobic capacity, but this has not been examined in free-living birds. We tested if haemosporidian infections affect aerobic performance by examining metabolic rates and exercise endurance in migratory great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) experimentally treated with Plasmodium relictum pGRW04 and in naturally infected wild birds over consecutive life-history stages. We found no effect of acute or chronic infections on resting metabolic rate, maximum metabolic rate or exercise endurance in either experimentally treated or free-living birds. Oxygen consumption rates during rest and while undergoing maximum exercise as well as exercise endurance increased from breeding to migration stages in both infected and non-infected birds. Importantly, phenotypic changes associated with preparation for migration were similarly unaffected by parasitaemia. Consequently, migratory birds experiencing parasitaemia levels typical of chronic infection do not differ in migratory capacity from their uninfected counterparts. Thus, if infected hosts differ from uninfected conspecifics in migration phenology, other mechanisms besides aerobic capacity should be considered. PMID:29386365

  2. Migratory birds use head scans to detect the direction of the earth's magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Henrik; Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Kropp, Wiebke

    2004-11-09

    Night-migratory songbirds are known to use a magnetic compass , but how do they detect the reference direction provided by the geomagnetic field, and where is the sensory organ located? The most prominent characteristic of geomagnetic sensory input, whether based on visual patterns or magnetite-mediated forces , is the predicted symmetry around the north-south or east-west magnetic axis. Here, we show that caged migratory garden warblers perform head-scanning behavior well suited to detect this magnetic symmetry plane. In the natural geomagnetic field, birds move toward their migratory direction after head scanning. In a zero-magnetic field , where no symmetry plane exists, the birds almost triple their head-scanning frequency, and the movement direction after a head scan becomes random. Thus, the magnetic sensory organ is located in the bird's head, and head scans are used to locate the reference direction provided by the geomagnetic field.

  3. The South Atlantic Migratory Bird Initiative – An Integrated Approach to Conservation of "All Birds Across All Habitats"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Watson; Chuck Hayes; Joseph McCauley; Andrew Milliken

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Management Board of the Atlantic Coast Joint Venture (ACJV) embraced the vision and framework of the then newly emerging North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI). Traditionally a Joint Venture focused on the conservation of waterfowl and wetlands habitat, the ACJV expanded its role throughout the Atlantic Flyway to all resident and migratory...

  4. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks of migratory birds in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărcuţan, Ioan-Daniel; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Vasile, Cozma; Sándor, Attila D

    2016-05-20

    Birds are important hosts and dispersers of parasitic arthropods and vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. Particularly migratory species may carry these parasites over long distances in short time periods. Migratory hotspots present ideal conditions to get a snapshot of parasite and pathogen diversity of birds migrating between continents. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and diversity of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from birds at a migratory hot-spot in the Danube Delta, Romania, eastern Europe. DNA was extracted from ticks that were collected from migratory birds in the Danube Delta during migratory seasons in 2011-2012. Two 360 bp  fragments of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and a 381 bp  fragment Gene gltA were PCR amplified and analyzed by sequence analysis (performed at Macrogen Europe, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Nucleotide sequences were compared to reference sequences available in the GenBank database, using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Four hundred ticks of four different species were found on 11 bird species. The prevalence of Rickettsia spp. infection was 14 % (56/400, CI: 11.7-29.1), with significantly more nymphs hosting rickettsial infection compared to larvae (48 vs 7; P birds migrating through eastern Europe may carry ticks infected with a high diversity of rickettsial pathogens, with four Rickettsia spp. recorded. Migratory direction was important for pathogen burden, with seasonal differences in the occurrence of individual Rickettsia species. Here we report the first individual records of different Rickettsia spp. in H. concinna (R. monacensis), I. arboricola (R. helvetica, R. massiliae) and I. redikorzevi (R. helvetica) and also the first geographical record of occurrence of R. massiliae in Romania, representing the easternmost observation on the continent.

  5. Records of new or poorly known migratory birds from Laguna del Otun, Los Nevados National Natural Park, Risaralda, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Charry, Orlando; Matta Camacho, Nubia E; Moncada Alvarez, Ligia Ines

    2013-01-01

    Colombia is important for migratory birds. Despite this, we do not know where they are during their crossing or residency in the country, and which species use paramo. We registered new migratory bird species for Laguna Del Otun, immersed in a complex of wetlands declared a Ramsar site since 2008. The lagoon is located in the Los Nevados National Natural Park at 3932 m asl, in paramo ecosystems of the Central Andes of Colombia. During five field trips between 2010-2012 we recorded four new migratory bird species for the park: Anas acuta, Pandion haliaetus, Riparia riparia, and Dendroica petechia. We also registered an altitudinal range extension for two additional migratory species which had only been recorded below 3500 m: Tringa flavipes and Hirundo rustica. These findings suggest these species could tolerate high mountain conditions and use the paramo. It's needed inquiry about migratory dynamics and high mountain habitat use by migratory birds.

  6. Ecologic Immunology of Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I.

    2007-01-01

    The claim that migratory birds are responsible for the long-distance spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 rests on the assumption that infected wild birds can remain asymptomatic and migrate long distances unhampered. We critically assess this claim from the perspective of ecologic immunology, a research field that analyzes immune function in an ecologic, physiologic, and evolutionary context. Long-distance migration is one of the most demanding activities in the animal world. We show that several studies demonstrate that such prolonged, intense exercise leads to immunosuppression and that migratory performance is negatively affected by infections. These findings make it unlikely that wild birds can spread the virus along established long-distance migration pathways. However, infected, symptomatic wild birds may act as vectors over shorter distances, as appears to have occurred in Europe in early 2006. PMID:17953082

  7. The microbiome of neotropical ticks parasitizing on passerine migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Budachetri, Khemraj; Williams, Jaclyn; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Sellers, Michael; Moore, Frank; Karim, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal migration of passerine birds between temperate North America and tropical Central and South America is an ecological phenomenon. Migration of birds has been associated with the introduction of ectoparasites like ticks or tick-borne pathogens across the avian migration routes. In this study, the microbial diversity was determined in the ticks and bird DNA samples using 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Tick DNA samples showed the dominance of genera Lactococcus, Francisel...

  8. Distribution study on migratory bird (Scolopacidae: Numenius) in Surabaya, Indonesia: Estimating the effect of habitat and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmawati, Iska; Indah Trisnawati D., T.; Kurnia, Ory; Hamdani, Albi; Fahmi, Mahsun; Fahmi, Mirza

    2017-06-01

    Migratory Birds are responding to recent climate change in variety of ways. Distribution study of migratory birds will help to understand climate change effect in ecosystem area. Its supported by natural resources all around Indonesia. One of this place is Surabaya city specially Wonorejo area. Wonorejo is one of the Important Bird Area (IBA), specifically for bird conserved by Indonesian law and migratory birds. This research aims to know that distribution study on migratory bird enhances the knowledge of climate change effect. The distribution study use mapping method and the environment variables study analyzed by multivariate analysis. The description about how to analize the climate change effect in this area will be described by map and ilustration model. The result show that migratory bird (Scolopacidae) use different area of preference habitat in Wonorejo during migratory season on 2010-2016. In particular, the details of population and scale is likely to characterize global change biodiversity of migratory birds research need to improve in future.

  9. Do migratory birds need a nap after a long non-stop flight?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwilch, R; Piersma, T; Holmgren, NMA; Jenni, L

    2002-01-01

    After a prolonged period of sleep deprivation, the urge to sleep overrules all other activities. Despite this well-known fact, the occurrence of sleep after naturally occurring sleep deprivation during long non-stop migratory flight in birds has hardly been investigated. The aim of this

  10. Characterizing the temporal patterns of avian influenza virus introduction into Japan by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Manabu; Kakogawa, Masayoshi; Yanagisawa, Masae; Haga, Atsushi; Okano, Tomomi; Neagari, Yasuko; Okano, Tsukasa; Goka, Koichi; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2017-05-23

    The objectives of the present study were to observe the temporal pattern of avian influenza virus (AIV) introduction into Japan and to determine which migratory birds play an important role in introducing AIV. In total, 19,407 fecal samples from migratory birds were collected at 52 sites between October 2008 and May 2015. Total nucleic acids extracted from the fecal samples were subjected to reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification to detect viral RNA. Species identification of host migratory birds was conducted by DNA barcoding for positive fecal samples. The total number of positive samples was 352 (prevalence, 1.8%). The highest prevalence was observed in autumn migration, and a decrease in prevalence was observed. During autumn migration, central to southern Japan showed a prevalence higher than the overall prevalence. Thus, the main AIV entry routes may involve crossing the Sea of Japan and entry through the Korean Peninsula. Species identification was successful in 221 of the 352 positive samples. Two major species sequences were identified: the Mallard/Eastern Spot-billed duck group (115 samples; 52.0%) and the Northern pintail (61 samples; 27.6%). To gain a better understanding of the ecology of AIV in Japan and the introduction pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, information regarding AIV prevalence by species, the prevalence of hatch-year migratory birds, migration patterns and viral subtypes in fecal samples using egg inoculation and molecular-based methods in combination is required.

  11. 77 FR 4274 - Migratory Bird Permits; Double-Crested Cormorant Management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 [Docket No. FWS-R9-MB-2011-0033; 91200-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX82 Migratory Bird Permits; Double-Crested Cormorant Management in the United States AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Request for comments; extension of...

  12. 75 FR 3395 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Falconry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 21 and 22 [FWS-R9-MB-2009-0002; 91200-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AW44 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Falconry Correction In rule document 2010-12 beginning on page 927 in the issue of Thursday, January 7, 2010, make the...

  13. Frequency of migrants and migratory activity are genetically correlated in a bird population: Evolutionary implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulido, F.; Berthold, P.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most migratory bird populations are composed of individuals that migrate and individuals that remain resident, While the role of ecological factors in maintaining this behavioral dimorphism has received much attention, the importance of genetic constraints on the evolution of avian migration has not

  14. Estimating migratory connectivity of birds when re-encounter probabilities are heterogeneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emily B.; Hostelter, Jeffrey A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Marra, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires an understanding of migratory connectivity – the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, for most species, we are lacking such information. The North American Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) houses an extensive database of marking, recaptures and recoveries, and such data could provide migratory connectivity information for many species. To date, however, few species have been analyzed for migratory connectivity largely because heterogeneous re-encounter probabilities make interpretation problematic. We accounted for regional variation in re-encounter probabilities by borrowing information across species and by using effort covariates on recapture and recovery probabilities in a multistate capture–recapture and recovery model. The effort covariates were derived from recaptures and recoveries of species within the same regions. We estimated the migratory connectivity for three tern species breeding in North America and over-wintering in the tropics, common (Sterna hirundo), roseate (Sterna dougallii), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). For western breeding terns, model-derived estimates of migratory connectivity differed considerably from those derived directly from the proportions of re-encounters. Conversely, for eastern breeding terns, estimates were merely refined by the inclusion of re-encounter probabilities. In general, eastern breeding terns were strongly connected to eastern South America, and western breeding terns were strongly linked to the more western parts of the nonbreeding range under both models. Through simulation, we found this approach is likely useful for many species in the BBL database, although precision improved with higher re-encounter probabilities and stronger migratory connectivity. We describe an approach to deal with the inherent biases in BBL banding and re-encounter data to demonstrate

  15. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from migratory birds in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capligina, Valentina; Salmane, Ineta; Keišs, Oskars; Vilks, Karlis; Japina, Kristine; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate

    2014-02-01

    Migratory birds act as hosts and long-distance vectors for several tick-borne infectious agents. Here, feeding Ixodes ticks were collected from migratory birds during the autumn migration period in Latvia and screened for the presence of epidemiologically important non-viral pathogens. A total of 93 DNA samples of ticks (37 larvae and 56 nymphs) removed from 41 birds (order Passeriformes, 9 species) was tested for Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia spp. Borrelia burgdorferi DNA was detected in 18% of the tick samples, and a majority of infected ticks were from thrush (Turdus spp.) birds. Among the infected ticks, Borrelia valaisiana was detected in 41% of cases, Borrelia garinii in 35%, and mixed Bo. valaisiana and Bo. garinii infection in 24%. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 2% of ticks, R. helvetica in 12%, and Babesia spp. pathogens in 4% of ticks. Among these samples, 3 Babesia species were identified: Ba. divergens, Ba. microti, and Ba. venatorum. Coinfection with different pathogens that included mixed infections with different Borrelia genospecies was found in 20% of nymphal and 3% of larval Ixodes ticks. These results suggest that migratory birds may support the circulation and spread of medically significant zoonoses in Europe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Move that fatty acid: fuel selection and transport in migratory birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2010-09-01

    The metaphor of marathon running is inadequate to fully capture the magnitude of long-distance migratory flight of birds. In some respects a journey to the moon seems more appropriate. Birds have no access to supplementary water or nutrition during a multi-day flight, and they must carefully budget their body fat and protein stores to provide both fuel and life support. Fatty acid transport is crucial to successful non-stop migratory flight in birds. Although fat is the most energy-dense metabolic fuel, the insolubility of its component fatty acids makes them difficult to transport to working muscles fast enough to support the highly aerobic exercise required to fly. Recent evidence indicates that migratory birds compensate for this by expressing large amounts of fatty acid transport proteins on the membranes of the muscles (FAT/CD36 and FABPpm) and in the cytosol (H-FABP). Through endogenous mechanisms and/or diet, migratory birds may alter the fatty acid composition of the fat stores and muscle membranes to improve endurance during flight. Fatty acid chain length, degree of unsaturation, and placement of double bonds can affect the rate of mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue, utilization of fatty acids by muscles, and whole-animal performance. However, there is great uncertainty about how important fatty acid composition is to the success of migration or whether particular types of fatty acids (e.g., omega-3 or omega-6) are most beneficial. Migratory bats provide an interesting example of evolutionary convergence with birds, which may provide evidence for the generality of the bird model to the evolution of migration by flight in vertebrates. Yet only recently have attempts been made to study bat migration physiology. Many aspects of their fuel metabolism are predicted to be more similar to those of migrant birds than to those of non-flying mammals. Bats may be distinct from most birds in their potential to conserve energy by using torpor between

  17. The microbiome of neotropical ticks parasitizing on passerine migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budachetri, Khemraj; Williams, Jaclyn; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Sellers, Michael; Moore, Frank; Karim, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal migration of passerine birds between temperate North America and tropical Central and South America is an ecological phenomenon. Migration of birds has been associated with the introduction of ectoparasites like ticks or tick-borne pathogens across the avian migration routes. In this study, the microbial diversity was determined in the ticks and bird DNA samples using 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Tick DNA samples showed the dominance of genera Lactococcus, Francisella, Raoultella, Wolbachia and Rickettsia across all the ticks, but birds DNA did not share common microbial diversity with ticks. Furthermore, "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" infection in the 91 ticks collected off the songbirds was also quantified by qPCR assay. Interestingly, "Candidatus R. amblyommii" was tested positive in 24 ticks (26% infection), and infection varied from as low as three copies to thousands of copies, but bird blood samples showed no amplification. Our results provide evidence that songbirds serve as transport carrier for immature ticks, and less likely to be a reservoir for "Candidatus R. amblyommii". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional Forest Fragmentation and the Nesting Success of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott K. Robinson; Frank R. Thompson III; Therese M. Donovan; Donald R. Whitehead; John Faaborg

    1995-01-01

    Forest fragmentation, the disruption in the continuity of forest habitat, is hypothesized to be a major cause of population decline for, some species of forest birds because fragmentation reduces nesting (reproductive) success. Nest predation and parasitism by cowbirds increased with forest fragmentation in nine midwestern (United States)landscapes that varied from 6...

  19. An annotated checklist of pathogenic microorganisms associated with migratory birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 4 (2004), s. 639-659 ISSN 0090-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Arboviruses * birds * migration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.741, year: 2004 http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/40/4/639

  20. [Speed of migratory movements in birds as adaptive behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paevskiĭ, V A

    2012-01-01

    Migration speed of 115 bird species from 35 families of 14 orders was analyzed. The data were collected from published sources based on ringing recoveries. It was found that average speed varies between 10 and 880 km/day, and the maximum speed varies between 30 and 1392 km/day, but in the majority of species the average speed values are in the range of 20-100, and the maximum speed values are in the range of 40-360 km/day There is significant positive correlation between the average and maximum speed. The ratio between maximum and average speed in different species varies significantly, and overall for all birds is 4:1. On average, shorebirds migrate twice as rapidly as passerines, and average speed of the raptors is rather higher than in shorebirds. The species from Turdidae family migrate significantly faster than the species from Fringillidae family, and the latter migrate faster than tits. No significant differences in migration speed were found between the species from Sylviidae and Turdidae families, as well as between Sylviidae and Motacillidae. Significant negative correlation was found between the body mass and average migration speed in the shorebirds, but no relationship between these parameters was found in the passerines. In many bird species, adult birds migrate significantly faster than juveniles, and in some species no difference in speed was found between males and females. In the passerines, the average migration speed is significantly higher among long-distance early-departing nocturnal migrants as compared with the short-distance late-departing diurnal ones. The spring migration speed was much higher than autumn speed, but in some species only. The beha-vior of migrants at flight and at stopovers is governed by a complex interaction between their species-specific foraging features, weather conditions, and habitat.

  1. EnviroAtlas - Migratory Bird Hunting Recreation Demand by 12-Digit HUC in the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes the total number of recreational days per year demanded by people ages 18 and over for migratory bird hunting by location in the...

  2. The Harvest and Management of Migratory Bird Eggs by Inuit in Nunatsiavut, Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natcher, David; Felt, Larry; Chaulk, Keith; Procter, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of collaborative research conducted in 2007 on the harvest of migratory bird eggs by Inuit households of Nunatsiavut, Labrador. Harvest variability between communities and species is examined, as is the social and ecological factors affecting the 2007 Inuit egg harvest. Representing the first comprehensive account of Inuit egg use in Labrador, this information should be valuable to agencies responsible for managing migratory bird populations in North America and will contribute to a more informed understanding of the complexity and temporal variability in subsistence harvesting among Labrador Inuit. It is argued that the recognition of this complexity will be critical as the Nunatsiavut Government and other wildlife management agencies formulate management policies that are supportive rather, than constraining, to Inuit resource use in the future.

  3. Clock gene polymorphism, migratory behaviour and geographic distribution: a comparative study of trans-Saharan migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Gaia; Cecere, Jacopo G; Caprioli, Manuela; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Podofillini, Stefano; Possenti, Cristina D; Ambrosini, Roberto; Saino, Nicola; Spina, Fernando; Rubolini, Diego

    2016-12-01

    Migratory behaviour is controlled by endogenous circannual rhythms that are synchronized by external cues, such as photoperiod. Investigations on the genetic basis of circannual rhythmicity in vertebrates have highlighted that variation at candidate 'circadian clock' genes may play a major role in regulating photoperiodic responses and timing of life cycle events, such as reproduction and migration. In this comparative study of 23 trans-Saharan migratory bird species, we investigated the relationships between species-level genetic variation at two candidate genes, Clock and Adcyap1, and species' traits related to migration and geographic distribution, including timing of spring migration across the Mediterranean Sea, migration distance and breeding latitude. Consistently with previous evidence showing latitudinal clines in 'circadian clock' genotype frequencies, Clock allele size increased with breeding latitude across species. However, early- and late-migrating species had similar Clock allele size. Species migrating over longer distances, showing delayed spring migration and smaller phenotypic variance in spring migration timing, had significantly reduced Clock (but not Adcyap1) gene diversity. Phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis suggested that migration date and distance were the most important variables directly affecting Clock gene diversity. Hence, our study supports the hypothesis that Clock allele size increases poleward as a consequence of adaptation to the photoperiodic regime of the breeding areas. Moreover, we show that long-distance migration is associated with lower Clock diversity, coherently with strong stabilizing selection acting on timing of life cycle events in long-distance migratory species, likely resulting from the time constraints imposed by late spring migration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation in population trends in a long-distance migratory bird

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, CA; Robinson, RA; Clark, JA; Gill, JA

    2010-01-01

    Over the past three decades, evidence has been growing that many Afro-Palaearctic migratory bird populations have suffered sustained and severe declines. As causes of these declines exist across both the breeding and non-breeding season, identifying potential drivers of population change is complex. In order to explore the roles of changes in regional and local environmental conditions on population change, we examine spatial and temporal variation in population trajectories of one of Europe’...

  5. Challenging claims in the study of migratory birds and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Endre; Linden, Andreas; Both, Christiaan; Jonzen, Niclas; Pulido, Francisco; Saino, Nicola; Sutherland, William J.; Bach, Lars A.; Coppack, Timothy; Ergon, Torbjorn; Gienapp, Phillip; Gill, Jennifer A.; Gordo, Oscar; Hedenstrom, Anders; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2011-01-01

    Recent shifts in phenology in response to climate change are well established but often poorly understood. Many animals integrate climate change across a spatially and temporally dispersed annual life cycle, and effects are modulated by ecological interactions, evolutionary change and endogenous control mechanisms. Here we assess and discuss key statements emerging from the rapidly developing study of changing spring phenology in migratory birds. These well-studied organisms have been instrum...

  6. The potential role of migratory birds in the transmission of zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Tsiouris

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The instinct for survival leads migratory birds to exploit seasonal opportunities for breeding habitats and food supplies. Consequently, they travel across national and international borders. These birds are distinguished in local migrants, short-distance, long-distance and vagrant and nomadic migrants. They can transfer micro-organisms across the globe and play a significant role in the ecology and circulation of pathogenic organisms. They are implicated in the transmission of zoonoses as biological and mechanical carriers and as hosts and carriers of infected ectoparasites. They can cause water-borne, tick-borne and insect-borne diseases. Favourable agents, such as seasonality and stress due to migration, influence the transmission of pathogens. The migration of birds is a natural phenomenon that is followed by the unavoidable repercussions of the participation of these birds as carriers or hosts in the transmission of pathogens. It is not possible to interrupt this sequence but risks can be minimised by controlling and preventing perilous situations. Surveillance of wetlands, ‘stopovers’, places of destination and wintering regions can be done. Furthermore, the implementation strict biosecurity measures that reduce contact with migratory birds will limit the transmission of pathogens.

  7. Water requirements and drinking rates of homing pigeons: A consideration for exposure risk of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-09-01

    Access to water along a bird's migratory flyway is essential during the vital process of migration. Because of the scarcity of water in some environments, there is potential for migratory birds to encounter and drink from contaminated bodies of water. Ingestion of contaminated water may cause injury and compromise flying ability, leading to a disruption of migration. To determine injury to birds from potential exposure, it is essential to know not only the concentration of a given contaminant in the water but also the quantity and rate of water consumption by the birds. Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were used in a series of experiments to determine differences in drinking behavior after various flights and after periods of resting. Results from the present study demonstrate that homing pigeons' water consumption is dramatically different when assessed according to activity, flight distance, and time elapsed after flight. This suggests that the drinking rates of birds during migration are extremely important and much greater than estimated using traditional exposure assessment procedures. Thus, exposure to contaminants via drinking water may be greatly underestimated, and the rate of water consumption should be considered when estimating potential exposure risk to avian species. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:870-876. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Environment, migratory tendency, phylogeny and basal metabolic rate in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Jetz

    Full Text Available Basal metabolic rate (BMR represents the minimum maintenance energy requirement of an endotherm and has far-reaching consequences for interactions between animals and their environments. Avian BMR exhibits considerable variation that is independent of body mass. Some long-distance migrants have been found to exhibit particularly high BMR, traditionally interpreted as being related to the energetic demands of long-distance migration. Here we use a global dataset to evaluate differences in BMR between migrants and non-migrants, and to examine the effects of environmental variables. The BMR of migrant species is significantly higher than that of non-migrants. Intriguingly, while the elevated BMR of migrants on their breeding grounds may reflect the metabolic machinery required for long-distance movements, an alternative (and statistically stronger explanation is their occupation of predominantly cold high-latitude breeding areas. Among several environmental predictors, average annual temperature has the strongest effect on BMR, with a 50% reduction associated with a 20 degrees C gradient. The negative effects of temperature variables on BMR hold separately for migrants and non-migrants and are not due their different climatic associations. BMR in migrants shows a much lower degree of phylogenetic inertia. Our findings indicate that migratory tendency need not necessarily be invoked to explain the higher BMR of migrants. A weaker phylogenetic signal observed in migrants supports the notion of strong phenotypic flexibility in this group which facilitates migration-related BMR adjustments that occur above and beyond environmental conditions. In contrast to the findings of previous analyses of mammalian BMR, primary productivity, aridity or precipitation variability do not appear to be important environmental correlates of avian BMR. The strong effects of temperature-related variables and varying phylogenetic effects reiterate the importance of

  9. Projected changes in prevailing winds for transatlantic migratory birds under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. We used occurrence information from eBird (1950-2015) to estimate the geographical location of population centres at a daily temporal resolution across the annual cycle for 10 transatlantic migratory bird species. We used this information to estimate the location and timing of autumn migration within the transatlantic flyway. We estimated how prevailing winds are projected to change within the transatlantic flyway during this time using daily wind speed anomalies (1996-2005 and 2091-2100) from 29 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models implemented under CMIP5. Autumn transatlantic migrants have the potential to encounter strong westerly crosswinds early in their transatlantic journey at intermediate and especially high migration altitudes, strong headwinds at low and intermediate migration altitudes within the Caribbean that increase in strength as the season progresses, and weak tailwinds at intermediate and high migration altitudes east of the Caribbean. The CMIP5 simulations suggest that, during this century, the likelihood of autumn transatlantic migrants encountering strong westerly crosswinds will diminish. As global warming progresses, the need for species to compensate or drift under the influence of strong westerly crosswinds during the initial phase of their autumn transatlantic journey may be diminished. Existing strategies that promote headwind avoidance and tailwind assistance will likely remain valid. Thus, climate change may reduce time and energy requirements and the chance of mortality or

  10. Early arrival is not associated with more extra-pair fertilizations in a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomotani, Barbara M.; Caglar, Ezra; de la Hera, Iván; Mateman, A. Christa; Visser, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    When assessing the benefits of early arrival date of migratory birds, a hidden and often ignored component of males’ fitness is the higher chance of early-arriving birds to obtain extra-pair fertilizations. Here we investigated how extra-pair paternity might affect the relationship between male

  11. Climate warming, ecological mismatch at arrival and population decline in migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saino, Nicola; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello; Hüppop, Kathrin; Hüppop, Ommo; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Lehikoinen, Esa; Rainio, Kalle; Romano, Maria; Sokolov, Leonid

    2011-03-22

    Climate is changing at a fast pace, causing widespread, profound consequences for living organisms. Failure to adjust the timing of life-cycle events to climate may jeopardize populations by causing ecological mismatches to the life cycle of other species and abiotic factors. Population declines of some migratory birds breeding in Europe have been suggested to depend on their inability to adjust migration phenology so as to keep track of advancement of spring events at their breeding grounds. In fact, several migrants have advanced their spring arrival date, but whether such advancement has been sufficient to compensate for temporal shift in spring phenophases or, conversely, birds have become ecologically mismatched, is still an unanswered question, with very few exceptions. We used a novel approach based on accumulated winter and spring temperatures (degree-days) as a proxy for timing of spring biological events to test if the progress of spring at arrival to the breeding areas by 117 European migratory bird species has changed over the past five decades. Migrants, and particularly those wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, now arrive at higher degree-days and may have therefore accumulated a 'thermal delay', thus possibly becoming increasingly mismatched to spring phenology. Species with greater 'thermal delay' have shown larger population decline, and this evidence was not confounded by concomitant ecological factors or by phylogenetic effects. These findings provide general support to the largely untested hypotheses that migratory birds are becoming ecologically mismatched and that failure to respond to climate change can have severe negative impacts on their populations. The novel approach we adopted can be extended to the analysis of ecological consequences of phenological response to climate change by other taxa.

  12. Migratory behavior of birds affects their coevolutionary relationship with blood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Tania; Thomas, Gavin H; Hellgren, Olof; Owens, Ian P F

    2012-03-01

    Host traits, such as migratory behavior, could facilitate the dispersal of disease-causing parasites, potentially leading to the transfer of infections both across geographic areas and between host species. There is, however, little quantitative information on whether variation in such host attributes does indeed affect the evolutionary outcome of host-parasite associations. Here, we employ Leucocytozoon blood parasites of birds, a group of parasites closely related to avian malaria, to study host-parasite coevolution in relation to host behavior using a phylogenetic comparative approach. We reconstruct the molecular phylogenies of both the hosts and parasites and use cophylogenetic tools to assess whether each host-parasite association contributes significantly to the overall congruence between the two phylogenies. We find evidence for a significant fit between host and parasite phylogenies in this system, but show that this is due only to associations between nonmigrant parasites and their hosts. We also show that migrant bird species harbor a greater genetic diversity of parasites compared with nonmigrant species. Taken together, these results suggest that the migratory habits of birds could influence their coevolutionary relationship with their parasites, and that consideration of host traits is important in predicting the outcome of coevolutionary interactions. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chen; Kuss, Amber Jean; Ketron, Tyler; Nguyen, Andrew; Remar, Alex Covello; Newcomer, Michelle; Fleming, Erich; Debout, Leslie; Debout, Brad; Detweiler, Angela; hide

    2011-01-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  14. Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in migratory birds inhabiting remote Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Hernandez, Jorge; Tyrlöv, Veronica; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Atterby, Clara; Järhult, Josef D.; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    We explored the abundance of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli among migratory birds at remote sites in Alaska and used a comparative approach to speculate on plausible explanations for differences in detection among species. At a remote island site, we detected antibiotic-resistant E. coli phenotypes in samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), a species often associated with foraging at landfills, but not in samples collected from black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), a more pelagic gull that typically inhabits remote areas year-round. We did not find evidence for antibiotic-resistant E. coli among 347 samples collected primarily from waterfowl at a second remote site in western Alaska. Our results provide evidence that glaucous-winged gulls may be more likely to be infected with antibiotic-resistant E. coli at remote breeding sites as compared to sympatric black-legged kittiwakes. This could be a function of the tendency of glaucous-winged gulls to forage at landfills where antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections may be acquired and subsequently dispersed. The low overall detection of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in migratory birds sampled at remote sites in Alaska is consistent with the premise that anthropogenic inputs into the local environment or the relative lack thereof influences the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among birds inhabiting the area.

  15. Zebra finches have a light-dependent magnetic compass similar to migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus; Muheim, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Birds have a light-dependent magnetic compass that provides information about the spatial alignment of the geomagnetic field. It is proposed to be located in the avian retina and mediated by a light-induced, radical-pair mechanism involving cryptochromes as sensory receptor molecules. To investigate how the behavioural responses of birds under different light spectra match with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, we examined the spectral properties of the magnetic compass in zebra finches. We trained birds to relocate a food reward in a spatial orientation task using magnetic compass cues. The birds were well oriented along the trained magnetic compass axis when trained and tested under low-irradiance 521 nm green light. In the presence of a 1.4 MHz radio-frequency electromagnetic (RF)-field, the birds were disoriented, which supports the involvement of radical-pair reactions in the primary magnetoreception process. Birds trained and tested under 638 nm red light showed a weak tendency to orient ∼45 deg clockwise of the trained magnetic direction. Under low-irradiance 460 nm blue light, they tended to orient along the trained magnetic compass axis, but were disoriented under higher irradiance light. Zebra finches trained and tested under high-irradiance 430 nm indigo light were well oriented along the trained magnetic compass axis, but disoriented in the presence of a RF-field. We conclude that magnetic compass responses of zebra finches are similar to those observed in nocturnally migrating birds and agree with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, suggesting that light-dependent, radical-pair-mediated magnetoreception is a common property for all birds, including non-migratory species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Migratory birds are the source of highly toxic organic pollutants for indigenous people in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesiakova, A. A.; Gusakova, E. V.; Trofimova, A. N.; Sorokina, T. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are highly toxic organic contaminants. Due to their chemical properties they had wide application in industry and agriculture in the 20th century. In 2001 the production of PCBs has been prohibited almost worldwide. Environmental contamination has been found in soils, water, and air where there were PCB production sites. They have been detected in fish, birds and animals of migratory species, retaining transboarding transfer. Several migratory species of birds (Taiga bean goose, greater white-fronted goose, lesser white fronted goose and barnacle goose) are a diet for indigenous people. PCBs accumulating in the human body affect all systems and organs. This article reviews the contribution of migratory bird species in transboarding transfer of highly toxic contaminants in the Nenets Autonomous Area, Kolguev island (Russian Arctic).

  17. Conserving migratory land birds in the New World: Do we know enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faaborg, John; Holmes, Richard T.; Anders, A.D.; Bildstein, K.L.; Dugger, K.M.; Gauthreaux, S.A.; Heglund, P.; Hobson, K.A.; Jahn, A.E.; Johnson, D.H.; Latta, S.C.; Levey, D.J.; Marra, P.P.; Merkord, C.L.; Nol, E.; Rothstein, S.I.; Sherry, T.W.; Scott, Sillett T.; Thompson, F. R.; Warnock, N.

    2010-01-01

    Migratory bird needs must be met during four phases of the year: breeding season, fall migration, wintering, and spring migration; thus, management may be needed during all four phases. The bulk of research and management has focused on the breeding season, although several issues remain unsettled, including the spatial extent of habitat influences on fitness and the importance of habitat on the breeding grounds used after breeding. Although detailed investigations have shed light on the ecology and population dynamics of a few avian species, knowledge is sketchy for most species. Replication of comprehensive studies is needed for multiple species across a range of areas. Information deficiencies are even greater during the wintering season, when birds require sites that provide security and food resources needed for survival and developing nutrient reserves for spring migration and, possibly, reproduction. Research is needed on many species simply to identify geographic distributions, wintering sites, habitat use, and basic ecology. Studies are complicated, however, by the mobility of birds and by sexual segregation during winter. Stable-isotope methodology has offered an opportunity to identify linkages between breeding and wintering sites, which facilitates understanding the complete annual cycle of birds. The twice-annual migrations are the poorest-understood events in a bird's life. Migration has always been a risky undertaking, with such anthropogenic features as tall buildings, towers, and wind generators adding to the risk, Species such as woodland specialists migrating through eastern North America have numerous options for pausing during migration to replenish nutrients, but some species depend on limited stopover locations. Research needs for migration include identifying pathways and timetables of migration, quality and distribution of habitats, threats posed by towers and other tall structures, and any bottlenecks for migration. Issues such as human

  18. Conserving migratory land birds in the new world: do we know enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faaborg, John; Holmes, Richard T; Anders, Angela D; Bildstein, Keith L; Dugger, Katie M; Gauthreaux, Sidney A; Heglund, Patricia; Hobson, Keith A; Jahn, Alex E; Johnson, Douglas H; Latta, Steven C; Levey, Douglas J; Marra, Peter P; Merkord, Christopher L; Nol, Erica; Rothstein, Stephen I; Sherry, Thomas W; Sillett, T Scott; Thompson, Frank R; Warnock, Nils

    2010-03-01

    Migratory bird needs must be met during four phases of the year: breeding season, fall migration, wintering, and spring migration; thus, management may be needed during all four phases. The bulk of research and management has focused on the breeding season, although several issues remain unsettled, including the spatial extent of habitat influences on fitness and the importance of habitat on the breeding grounds used after breeding. Although detailed investigations have shed light on the ecology and population dynamics of a few avian species, knowledge is sketchy for most species. Replication of comprehensive studies is needed for multiple species across a range of areas, Information deficiencies are even greater during the wintering season, when birds require sites that provide security and food resources needed for survival and developing nutrient reserves for spring migration and, possibly, reproduction. Research is needed on many species simply to identify geographic distributions, wintering sites, habitat use, and basic ecology. Studies are complicated, however, by the mobility of birds and by sexual segregation during winter. Stable-isotope methodology has offered an opportunity to identify linkages between breeding and wintering sites, which facilitates understanding the complete annual cycle of birds. The twice-annual migrations are the poorest-understood events in a bird's life. Migration has always been a risky undertaking, with such anthropogenic features as tall buildings, towers, and wind generators adding to the risk. Species such as woodland specialists migrating through eastern North America have numerous options for pausing during migration to replenish nutrients, but some species depend on limited stopover locations. Research needs for migration include identifying pathways and timetables of migration, quality and distribution of habitats, threats posed by towers and other tall structures, and any bottlenecks for migration. Issues such as human

  19. Migratory bird hunter opinions regarding potential management strategies for controlling light goose populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Andrew J.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Nilon, Charles H.; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A.

    2014-01-01

    We expanded the Nebraska Light Goose Conservation Order (LGCO) harvest survey (NE, USA) in spring 2012 to assess migratory bird hunter opinions regarding future management strategies for controlling light goose populations. Although hunters strongly agreed that population control of light geese was an important wildlife management issue, they were generally unsupportive of wildlife officials using forms of direct control methods to control light goose populations. Respondents who indicated participation in the 2012 LGCO were also less supportive of any form of direct control compared with migratory bird hunters who did not participate in the LGCO. When presented with alternative methods by wildlife officials for future light goose population control, respondents were most supportive of wildlife agencies selectively shooting light geese on migration and wintering areas and least supportive of wildlife officials using bait with approved chemicals to euthanize light geese. A clear understanding of public perception of various potential direct-control options will likely assist wildlife biologists in making informed decisions on how to proceed with population control of light geese.

  20. Bottomland hardwood reforestation for neotropical migratory birds: are we missing the forest for the trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

    1997-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods on lands managed for wildlife or timber production has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.). Although techniques have been developed for successful oak establishment, these plantings often require 5 or more years before establishing a 3-dimensional forest structure. We suggest that lands planted to fast-growing early-successional species, in combination with oaks, provide: (1) more expedient benefits to Neotropical migratory birds; (2) greater forest diversity; (3) more rapid economic return to landowners; and (4) enhanced public relations. Under good growing conditions, and with effective weed control, some fast-growing species can develop a substantial 3-dimensional forest structure in as few as 2 or 3 years. Forest-breeding Neotropical migratory birds use stands planted with early successional species several years before sites planted solely with oaks. Where desirable, succession to forests with a high proportion of oak species can be achieved on sites initially planted with fast-growing species through silvicultural management.

  1. Influenza in migratory birds and evidence of limited intercontinental virus exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Krauss

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Migratory waterfowl of the world are the natural reservoirs of influenza viruses of all known subtypes. However, it is unknown whether these waterfowl perpetuate highly pathogenic (HP H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses. Here we report influenza virus surveillance from 2001 to 2006 in wild ducks in Alberta, Canada, and in shorebirds and gulls at Delaware Bay (New Jersey, United States, and examine the frequency of exchange of influenza viruses between the Eurasian and American virus clades, or superfamilies. Influenza viruses belonging to each of the subtypes H1 through H13 and N1 through N9 were detected in these waterfowl, but H14 and H15 were not found. Viruses of the HP Asian H5N1 subtypes were not detected, and serologic studies in adult mallard ducks provided no evidence of their circulation. The recently described H16 subtype of influenza viruses was detected in American shorebirds and gulls but not in ducks. We also found an unusual cluster of H7N3 influenza viruses in shorebirds and gulls that was able to replicate well in chickens and kill chicken embryos. Genetic analysis of 6,767 avian influenza gene segments and 248 complete avian influenza viruses supported the notion that the exchange of entire influenza viruses between the Eurasian and American clades does not occur frequently. Overall, the available evidence does not support the perpetuation of HP H5N1 influenza in migratory birds and suggests that the introduction of HP Asian H5N1 to the Americas by migratory birds is likely to be a rare event.

  2. Light enough to travel or wise enough to stay? Brain size evolution and migratory behavior in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Orsolya

    2016-09-01

    Brain size relative to body size is smaller in migratory than in nonmigratory birds. Two mutually nonexclusive hypotheses had been proposed to explain this association. On the one hand, the "energetic trade-off hypothesis" claims that migratory species were selected to have smaller brains because of the interplay between neural tissue volume and migratory flight. On the other hand, the "behavioral flexibility hypothesis" argues that resident species are selected to have higher cognitive capacities, and therefore larger brains, to enable survival in harsh winters, or to deal with environmental seasonality. Here, I test the validity and setting of these two hypotheses using 1466 globally distributed bird species. First, I show that the negative association between migration distance and relative brain size is very robust across species and phylogeny. Second, I provide strong support for the energetic trade-off hypothesis, by showing the validity of the trade-off among long-distance migratory species alone. Third, using resident and short-distance migratory species, I demonstrate that environmental harshness is associated with enlarged relative brain size, therefore arguably better cognition. My study provides the strongest comparative support to date for both the energetic trade-off and the behavioral flexibility hypotheses, and highlights that both mechanisms contribute to brain size evolution, but on different ends of the migratory spectrum. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Soaring migratory birds avoid wind farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Villegas-Patraca

    Full Text Available The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni. We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region.

  4. Possible linkage between neuronal recruitment and flight distance in migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Shay; Roll, Uri; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Barnea, Anat

    2016-02-24

    New neuronal recruitment in an adult animal's brain is presumed to contribute to brain plasticity and increase the animal's ability to contend with new and changing environments. During long-distance migration, birds migrating greater distances are exposed to more diverse spatial information. Thus, we hypothesized that greater migration distance in birds would correlate with the recruitment of new neurons into the brain regions involved with migratory navigation. We tested this hypothesis on two Palearctic migrants - reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) and turtle doves (Streptopelia turtur), caught in Israel while returning from Africa in spring and summer. Birds were injected with a neuronal birth marker and later inspected for new neurons in brain regions known to play a role in navigation - the hippocampus and nidopallium caudolateral. We calculated the migration distance of each individual by matching feather isotopic values (δ(2)H and δ(13)C) to winter base-maps of these isotopes in Africa. Our findings suggest a positive correlation between migration distance and new neuronal recruitment in two brain regions - the hippocampus in reed warblers and nidopallium caudolateral in turtle doves. This multidisciplinary approach provides new insights into the ability of the avian brain to adapt to different migration challenges.

  5. 78 FR 25758 - Migratory Birds; Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-Land-Based Wind Energy, Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    .... The ECPG recommends that, at the end of each of the first four stages, project developers or operators... Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Arlington, Virginia... management populations that the Service has determined cannot sustain additional mortality, any remaining...

  6. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N8) Clade 2.3.4.4 Infection in Migratory Birds, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Abdullah A; Erfan, Ahmed M; Hagag, Naglaa; Zanaty, Ali; Samir, Abdel-Hafez; Samy, Mohamed; Abdelhalim, Ahmed; Arafa, Abdel-Satar A; Soliman, Mohamed A; Shaheen, Momtaz; Ibraheem, Essam M; Mahrous, Ibrahim; Hassan, Mohamed K; Naguib, Mahmoud M

    2017-06-01

    We isolated highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N8) of clade 2.3.4.4 from the common coot (Fulica atra) in Egypt, documenting its introduction into Africa through migratory birds. This virus has a close genetic relationship with subtype H5N8 viruses circulating in Europe. Enhanced surveillance to detect newly emerging viruses is warranted.

  7. A new approach to evaluate multimodal orientation behaviour of migratory passerine birds recorded in circular orientation cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarowska, Agnieszka; Ilieva, Mihaela; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Akesson, Susanne; Muś, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Circular orientation cages have been used for several decades to record the migratory orientation of passerine migrants, and have been central to the investigation of the functional characteristics of the biological compasses used for orientation. The use of these cages offers unique possibilities to study the migratory behaviour of songbirds, but suffers from statistical limitations in evaluating the directions of the activity recorded in the cages. The migratory activity has been reported to vary, including complex multimodal orientation of migratory passerines tested in orientation cages irrespective of species studied. The currently applied circular statistical methods fail to describe orientation responses differing from unimodal and axial distributions. We propose for the first time a modelling procedure enabling the analysis of multimodal distributions at either an individual or a group level. In this paper we compare the results of conventional methods and the recommended modelling approach. Migratory routes may be more complex than a simple migratory direction, and multimodal behaviour in migratory species at the individual and population levels can be advantageous. Individuals may select the expected migratory direction, but may also return to safer sites en route, i.e. sites already known, which provide food and/or shelter in reverse directions. In individual birds, several directions may be expressed in the same test hour. At the species level, multimodal orientation may give an opportunity to expand the range or may refer to differential migration route preferences in different populations of birds. A conflicting experimental situation may also result in a different preferential orientation. In this paper we suggest a statistical solution to deal with these types of variations in orientation preference.

  8. Landscape movements of migratory birds and bats reveal an expanded scale of stopover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D Taylor

    Full Text Available Many species of birds and bats undertake seasonal migrations between breeding and over-wintering sites. En-route, migrants alternate periods of flight with time spent at stopover--the time and space where individuals rest and refuel for subsequent flights. We assessed the spatial scale of movements made by migrants during stopover by using an array of automated telemetry receivers with multiple antennae to track the daily location of individuals over a geographic area ~20 × 40 km. We tracked the movements of 322 individuals of seven migratory vertebrate species (5 passerines, 1 owl and 1 bat during spring and fall migratory stopover on and adjacent to a large lake peninsula. Our results show that many individuals leaving their capture site relocate within the same landscape at some point during stopover, moving as much as 30 km distant from their site of initial capture. We show that many apparent nocturnal departures from stopover sites are not a resumption of migration in the strictest sense, but are instead relocations that represent continued stopover at a broader spatial scale.

  9. Radiocesium in migratory bird species in northern Ireland following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, J.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive fallout arising form the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986 reached Northern Ireland in early May and was deposited in rain. However, the subsequent contamination of food supplies in Northern Ireland were well below national and international levels at which any action would be considered necessary and presented no risks to health. In addition to the direct contamination of food supplies with radionuclides in the form of fallout following the Chernobyl incident another potential source of radioactive contamination entering the human food chain was through the arrival of migratory species of game birds. Each autumn and winter many thousands of birds migrate to Northern Ireland from Northern and Eastern Europe and some of these could have been contaminated as a result of being directly affected by the fallout from Chernobyl. The purpose of this work was to examine the extend of radionuclide contamination in such species and a number of samples were obtained for analyses during the autumn/winter periods in 1986/87 and 1987/88. The results obtained are outlined below. 5 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Ecological Causes and Consequences of Intratropical Migration in Temperate-Breeding Migratory Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutchbury, Bridget J M; Siddiqui, Raafia; Applegate, Kelly; Hvenegaard, Glen T; Mammenga, Paul; Mickle, Nanette; Pearman, Myrna; Ray, James D; Savage, Anne; Shaheen, Tim; Fraser, Kevin C

    2016-09-01

    New discoveries from direct tracking of temperate-breeding passerines show that intratropical migration (ITM) occurs in a growing number of species, which has important implications for understanding their evolution of migration, population dynamics, and conservation needs. Our large sample size ([Formula: see text]) for purple martins (Progne subis subis) tracked with geolocators to winter sites in Brazil, combined with geolocator deployments at breeding colonies across North America, allowed us to test hypotheses for ITM, something which has not yet been possible to do for other species. ITM in purple martins was not obligate; only 44% of individuals exhibited ITM, and movements were not coordinated in time or space. We found no evidence to support the resource hypothesis; rainfall and temperature experienced by individual birds during their last 2 weeks at their first roost site were similar to conditions at their second roost site after ITM. Birds generally migrated away from the heavily forested northwestern Amazon to less forested regions to the south and east. ITM in this aerial insectivore appears to support the competition-avoidance hypothesis and may be triggered by increasing local density in the core wintering region. Full life cycle models and migratory networks will need to incorporate ITM to properly address seasonal carryover effects and identify which wintering regions are most important for conservation.

  11. Is supplementary feeding in gardens a driver of evolutionary change in a migratory bird species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Kate E; Siriwardena, Gavin M; Conway, Greg J; Risely, Kate; Toms, Mike P

    2015-12-01

    Human activities are causing rapid environmental change at a global scale. Urbanization is responsible for some of the most extreme human-altered habitats and is a known driver of evolutionary change, but evidence and understanding of these processes is limited. Here, we investigate the potential underlying mechanisms contributing to the contemporary evolution of migration behaviour in the Eurasian blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). Blackcaps from central Europe have been wintering in urban areas of Britain with increasing frequency over the past 60 years, rather than migrating south to the Mediterranean. It has been hypothesized that the popularization of providing supplementary foods for wild birds within Britain may have influenced this marked migratory change, but quantifying the selective forces shaping evolutionary changes remains challenging. Using a long-term national scale data set, we examine both the spatial distribution and interannual variation in blackcap wintering behaviour in Britain in relation to supplementary food availability and local climate. Over a 12-year period, we show that blackcaps are becoming increasingly associated with the provision of supplementary foods in British gardens, and that the reliability of bird food supplies is influencing their winter distribution at a national scale. In addition, local climatic temperatures and broader scale weather variation are also important determinants of blackcap wintering patterns once they arrive in Britain. Based on our findings, we conclude that a synergistic effect of increased availability of feeding resources, in the form of garden bird food, coupled with climatic amelioration, has enabled a successful new wintering population to become established in Britain. As global biodiversity is threatened by human-induced environmental change, this study presents new and timely evidence of the role human activities can play in shaping evolutionary trajectories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Unravelling the drastic range retraction of an emblematic songbird of North Africa: potential threats to Afro-Palearctic migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelifa, Rassim; Zebsa, Rabah; Amari, Hichem; Mellal, Mohammed Khalil; Bensouilah, Soufyane; Laouar, Abdeldjalil; Mahdjoub, Hayat

    2017-04-24

    Understanding how culture may influence biodiversity is fundamental to ensure effective conservation, especially when the practice is local but the implications are global. Despite that, little effort has been devoted to documenting cases of culturally-related biodiversity loss. Here, we investigate the cultural domestication of the European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) in western Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and the effects of long-term poaching of wild populations (1990-2016) on range distribution, socio-economic value, international trading and potential collateral damage on Afro-Palearctic migratory birds. On average, we found that the European goldfinch lost 56.7% of its distribution range in the region which led to the increase of its economic value and establishment of international trading network in western Maghreb. One goldfinch is currently worth nearly a third of the average monthly income in the region. There has been a major change in poaching method around 2010, where poachers started to use mist nets to capture the species. Nearly a third of the 16 bird species captured as by-catch of the European goldfinch poaching are migratory, of which one became regularly sold as cage-bird. These results suggest that Afro-Palearctic migratory birds could be under serious by-catch threat.

  13. Localisation of the Putative Magnetoreceptive Protein Cryptochrome 1b in the Retinae of Migratory Birds and Homing Pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Bolte

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes are ubiquitously expressed in various animal tissues including the retina. Some cryptochromes are involved in regulating circadian activity. Cryptochrome proteins have also been suggested to mediate the primary mechanism in light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. Cryptochrome 1b (Cry1b exhibits a unique carboxy terminus exclusively found in birds so far, which might be indicative for a specialised function. Cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a is so far the only cryptochrome protein that has been localised to specific cell types within the retina of migratory birds. Here we show that Cry1b, an alternative splice variant of Cry1a, is also expressed in the retina of migratory birds, but it is primarily located in other cell types than Cry1a. This could suggest different functions for the two splice products. Using diagnostic bird-specific antibodies (that allow for a precise discrimination between both proteins, we show that Cry1b protein is found in the retinae of migratory European robins (Erithacus rubecula, migratory Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe and pigeons (Columba livia. In all three species, retinal Cry1b is localised in cell types which have been discussed as potentially well suited locations for magnetoreception: Cry1b is observed in the cytosol of ganglion cells, displaced ganglion cells, and in photoreceptor inner segments. The cytosolic rather than nucleic location of Cry1b in the retina reported here speaks against a circadian clock regulatory function of Cry1b and it allows for the possible involvement of Cry1b in a radical-pair-based magnetoreception mechanism.

  14. Potential for an Arctic-breeding migratory bird to adjust spring migration phenology to Arctic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameris, Thomas K; Scholten, Ilse; Bauer, Silke; Cobben, Marleen M P; Ens, Bruno J; Nolet, Bart A

    2017-10-01

    Arctic amplification, the accelerated climate warming in the polar regions, is causing a more rapid advancement of the onset of spring in the Arctic than in temperate regions. Consequently, the arrival of many migratory birds in the Arctic is thought to become increasingly mismatched with the onset of local spring, consequently reducing individual fitness and potentially even population levels. We used a dynamic state variable model to study whether Arctic long-distance migrants can advance their migratory schedules under climate warming scenarios which include Arctic amplification, and whether such an advancement is constrained by fuel accumulation or the ability to anticipate climatic changes. Our model predicts that barnacle geese Branta leucopsis suffer from considerably reduced reproductive success with increasing Arctic amplification through mistimed arrival, when they cannot anticipate a more rapid progress of Arctic spring from their wintering grounds. When geese are able to anticipate a more rapid progress of Arctic spring, they are predicted to advance their spring arrival under Arctic amplification up to 44 days without any reproductive costs in terms of optimal condition or timing of breeding. Negative effects of mistimed arrival on reproduction are predicted to be somewhat mitigated by increasing summer length under warming in the Arctic, as late arriving geese can still breed successfully. We conclude that adaptation to Arctic amplification may rather be constrained by the (un)predictability of changes in the Arctic spring than by the time available for fuel accumulation. Social migrants like geese tend to have a high behavioural plasticity regarding stopover site choice and migration schedule, giving them the potential to adapt to future climate changes on their flyway. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Binational climate change vulnerability assessment of migratory birds in the Great Lakes Basins: Tools and impediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Rempel

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global concern, requiring international strategies to reduce emissions, however, climate change vulnerability assessments are often local in scope with assessment areas restricted to jurisdictional boundaries. In our study we explored tools and impediments to understanding and responding to the effects of climate change on vulnerability of migratory birds from a binational perspective. We apply and assess the utility of a Climate Change Vulnerability Index on 3 focal species using distribution or niche modeling frameworks. We use the distributional forecasts to explore possible changes to jurisdictional conservation responsibilities resulting from shifting distributions for: eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna, wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina, and hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina. We found the Climate Change Vulnerability Index to be a well-organized approach to integrating numerous lines of evidence concerning effects of climate change, and provided transparency to the final assessment of vulnerability. Under this framework, we identified that eastern meadowlark and wood thrush are highly vulnerable to climate change, but hooded warbler is less vulnerable. Our study revealed impediments to assessing and modeling vulnerability to climate change from a binational perspective, including gaps in data or modeling for climate exposure parameters. We recommend increased cross-border collaboration to enhance the availability and resources needed to improve vulnerability assessments and development of conservation strategies. We did not find evidence to suggest major shifts in jurisdictional responsibility for the 3 focal species, but results do indicate increasing responsibility for these birds in the Canadian Provinces. These Provinces should consider conservation planning to help ensure a future supply of necessary habitat for these species.

  16. Global change and the distributional dynamics of migratory bird populations wintering in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Blancher, Peter J; Rodewald, Amanda D; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Rosenberg, Kenneth V; Hochachka, Wesley M; Verburg, Peter H; Kelling, Steve

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the susceptibility of highly mobile taxa such as migratory birds to global change requires information on geographic patterns of occurrence across the annual cycle. Neotropical migrants that breed in North America and winter in Central America occur in high concentrations on their non-breeding grounds where they spend the majority of the year and where habitat loss has been associated with population declines. Here, we use eBird data to model weekly patterns of abundance and occurrence for 21 forest passerine species that winter in Central America. We estimate species' distributional dynamics across the annual cycle, which we use to determine how species are currently associated with public protected areas and projected changes in climate and land-use. The effects of global change on the non-breeding grounds is characterized by decreasing precipitation, especially during the summer, and the conversion of forest to cropland, grassland, or peri-urban. The effects of global change on the breeding grounds are characterized by increasing winter precipitation, higher temperatures, and the conversion of forest to peri-urban. During spring and autumn migration, species are projected to encounter higher temperatures, forests that have been converted to peri-urban, and increased precipitation during spring migration. Based on current distributional dynamics, susceptibility to global change is characterized by the loss of forested habitats on the non-breeding grounds, warming temperatures during migration and on the breeding grounds, and declining summer rainfall on the non-breeding grounds. Public protected areas with low and medium protection status are more prevalent on the non-breeding grounds, suggesting that management opportunities currently exist to mitigate near-term non-breeding habitat losses. These efforts would affect more individuals of more species during a longer period of the annual cycle, which may create additional opportunities for species to

  17. Binational climate change vulnerability assessment of migratory birds in the Great Lakes Basins: Tools and impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a global concern, requiring international strategies to reduce emissions, however, climate change vulnerability assessments are often local in scope with assessment areas restricted to jurisdictional boundaries. In our study we explored tools and impediments to understanding and responding to the effects of climate change on vulnerability of migratory birds from a binational perspective. We apply and assess the utility of a Climate Change Vulnerability Index on 3 focal species using distribution or niche modeling frameworks. We use the distributional forecasts to explore possible changes to jurisdictional conservation responsibilities resulting from shifting distributions for: eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina). We found the Climate Change Vulnerability Index to be a well-organized approach to integrating numerous lines of evidence concerning effects of climate change, and provided transparency to the final assessment of vulnerability. Under this framework, we identified that eastern meadowlark and wood thrush are highly vulnerable to climate change, but hooded warbler is less vulnerable. Our study revealed impediments to assessing and modeling vulnerability to climate change from a binational perspective, including gaps in data or modeling for climate exposure parameters. We recommend increased cross-border collaboration to enhance the availability and resources needed to improve vulnerability assessments and development of conservation strategies. We did not find evidence to suggest major shifts in jurisdictional responsibility for the 3 focal species, but results do indicate increasing responsibility for these birds in the Canadian Provinces. These Provinces should consider conservation planning to help ensure a future supply of necessary habitat for these species. PMID:28225817

  18. The Dynamics of Arrivals of Maine Migratory Breeding Birds: Results from a 24-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Herbert Wilson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This citizen-science project is the first systematic study of patterns of spring migration of Maine migratory birds. A comparison of arrival data from the Maine Ornithological Society from 1899–1911 with the modern data (1994–2017 collected for this study indicated that most species are now not arriving earlier, contrary to the predictions of earlier arrivals in the face of global warming. Arrival was synchronous across the lower two-thirds of the state for most species, although some species showed delayed arrivals along the northeastern coast compared to southern coastal areas. Only thirteen of 81 species are now arriving earlier and seven arriving later. Using quantile regression analysis with three levels of tau, the effect of year, temperature-departure from mean monthly temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation Index were weak. Most species did not respond to any of these explanatory variables using the modern data. Leaf-gleaners showed the strongest responses. Only four species showed increasing abundance in recent years, an effect that influences detectability and hence could confound interpretation of changes in arrival date.

  19. Challenging claims in the study of migratory birds and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Endre; Lindén, Andreas; Both, Christiaan; Jonzén, Niclas; Pulido, Francisco; Saino, Nicola; Sutherland, William J; Bach, Lars A; Coppack, Timothy; Ergon, Torbjørn; Gienapp, Phillip; Gill, Jennifer A; Gordo, Oscar; Hedenström, Anders; Lehikoinen, Esa; Marra, Peter P; Møller, Anders P; Nilsson, Anna L K; Péron, Guillaume; Ranta, Esa; Rubolini, Diego; Sparks, Tim H; Spina, Fernando; Studds, Colin E; Saether, Stein A; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-11-01

    Recent shifts in phenology in response to climate change are well established but often poorly understood. Many animals integrate climate change across a spatially and temporally dispersed annual life cycle, and effects are modulated by ecological interactions, evolutionary change and endogenous control mechanisms. Here we assess and discuss key statements emerging from the rapidly developing study of changing spring phenology in migratory birds. These well-studied organisms have been instrumental for understanding climate-change effects, but research is developing rapidly and there is a need to attack the big issues rather than risking affirmative science. Although we agree poorly on the support for most claims, agreement regarding the knowledge basis enables consensus regarding broad patterns and likely causes. Empirical data needed for disentangling mechanisms are still scarce, and consequences at a population level and on community composition remain unclear. With increasing knowledge, the overall support ('consensus view') for a claim increased and between-researcher variability in support ('expert opinions') decreased, indicating the importance of assessing and communicating the knowledge basis. A proper integration across biological disciplines seems essential for the field's transition from affirming patterns to understanding mechanisms and making robust predictions regarding future consequences of shifting phenologies. © 2011 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Novel avian paramyxovirus (APMV-15 isolated from a migratory bird in South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Matsumiya Thomazelli

    Full Text Available A novel avian paramyxovirus (APMV isolated from a migratory bird cloacal swab obtained during active surveillance in April 2012 in the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, Rio Grande do Sul state, South of Brazil was biologically and genetically characterized. The nucleotide sequence of the full viral genome was completed using a next-generation sequencing approach. The genome was 14,952 nucleotides (nt long, with six genes (3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5' encoding 7 different proteins, typical of APMV. The fusion (F protein gene of isolate RS-1177 contained 1,707 nucleotides in a single open reading frame encoding a protein of 569 amino acids. The F protein cleavage site contained two basic amino acids (VPKER↓L, typical of avirulent strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome indicated that the virus is related to APMV-10, -2 and -8, with 60.1% nucleotide sequence identity to the closest APMV-10 virus, 58.7% and 58.5% identity to the closest APMV-8 and APMV-2 genome, respectively, and less than 52% identity to representatives of the other APMVs groups. Such distances are comparable to the distances observed among other previously identified APMVs serotypes. These results suggest that unclassified/calidris_fuscicollis/Brazil/RS-1177/2012 is the prototype strain of a new APMV serotype, APMV-15.

  1. The demographic drivers of local population dynamics in two rare migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael; Reichlin, Thomas S; Abadi, Fitsum; Kéry, Marc; Jenni, Lukas; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    The exchange of individuals among populations can have strong effects on the dynamics and persistence of a given population. Yet, estimation of immigration rates remains one of the greatest challenges for animal demographers. Little empirical knowledge exists about the effects of immigration on population dynamics. New integrated population models fitted using Bayesian methods enable simultaneous estimation of fecundity, survival and immigration, as well as the growth rate of a population of interest. We applied this novel analytical framework to the demography of two populations of long-distance migratory birds, hoopoe Upupa epops and wryneck Jynx torquilla, in a study area in south-western Switzerland. During 2002-2010, the hoopoe population increased annually by 11%, while the wryneck population remained fairly stable. Apparent juvenile and adult survival probability was nearly identical in both species, but fecundity and immigration were slightly higher in the hoopoe. Hoopoe population growth rate was strongly correlated with juvenile survival, fecundity and immigration, while that of wrynecks strongly correlated only with immigration. This indicates that demographic components impacting the arrival of new individuals into the populations were more important for their dynamics than demographic components affecting the loss of individuals. The finding that immigration plays a crucial role in the population growth rates of these two rare species emphasizes the need for a broad rather than local perspective for population studies, and the development of wide-scale conservation actions.

  2. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Struck Migratory Birds in China in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Zhenjie; Liu, Wenjun; Yin, Yanbo; Hong, Jianmin; Li, Xiangdong; Wang, Haiming; Wong, Gary; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yunfeng; Ru, Wendong; Gao, Ruyi; Liu, Di; Liu, Yingxia; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George F; Shi, Weifeng; Lei, Fumin

    2015-08-11

    Approximately 100 migratory birds, including whooper swans and pochards, were found dead in the Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China during January 2015. The causative agent behind this outbreak was identified as H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that this Sanmenxia H5N1 virus was a novel reassortant, possessing a Clade 2.3.2.1c HA gene and a H9N2-derived PB2 gene. Sanmenxia Clade 2.3.2.1c-like H5N1 viruses possess the closest genetic identity to A/Alberta/01/2014 (H5N1), which recently caused a fatal respiratory infection in Canada with signs of meningoencephalitis, a highly unusual symptom with influenza infections in humans. Furthermore, this virus was shown to be highly pathogenic to both birds and mammals, and demonstrate tropism for the nervous system. Due to the geographical location of Sanmenxia, these novel H5N1 viruses also have the potential to be imported to other regions through the migration of wild birds, similar to the H5N1 outbreak amongst migratory birds in Qinghai Lake during 2005. Therefore, further investigation and monitoring is required to prevent this novel reassortant virus from becoming a new threat to public health.

  3. The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Andrew R; Iqbal, Munir

    2015-01-01

    The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks.

  4. The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Dalby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks.

  5. How displaced migratory birds could use volatile atmospheric compounds to find their migratory corridor? A test using a particle dispersion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Safi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction represents an important sensory modality for navigation of both homing pigeons and wild birds. Experimental evidence in homing pigeons showed that airborne volatile compounds carried by the winds at the home area are learned in association with wind directions. When displaced, pigeons obtain information on the direction of their displacement using local odours at the release site. Recently, the role of olfactory cues in navigation has been reported also for wild birds during migration. However, the question whether wild birds develop an olfactory navigational map similar to that described in homing pigeons or, alternatively, exploit the distribution of volatile compounds in different manners for reaching the goal is still an open question. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we evaluate the possibilities of reconstructing spatio-temporally explicit aerosol dispersion at large spatial scales using the particle dispersion model FLEXPART. By combining atmospheric information with particle dispersion models, atmospheric scientists predict the dispersion of pollutants for example, after nuclear fallouts or volcanic eruptions or wildfires, or in retrospect reconstruct the origin of emissions such as aerosols. Using simple assumptions, we reconstructed the putative origin of aerosols traveling to the location of migrating birds. We use the model to test whether the putative odour plume could have originated from an important stopover site. If the migrating birds knew this site and the associated plume from previous journeys, the odour could contribut to the reorientation towards the migratory corridor, as suggested for the model scenario in displaced Lesser black-backed gulls migrating from Northern Europe into Africa.

  6. Maladaptive habitat selection of a migratory passerine bird in a human-modified landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck A Hollander

    Full Text Available In human-altered environments, organisms may preferentially settle in poor-quality habitats where fitness returns are lower relative to available higher-quality habitats. Such ecological trapping is due to a mismatch between the cues used during habitat selection and the habitat quality. Maladaptive settlement decisions may occur when organisms are time-constrained and have to rapidly evaluate habitat quality based on incomplete knowledge of the resources and conditions that will be available later in the season. During a three-year study, we examined settlement decision-making in the long-distance migratory, open-habitat bird, the Red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio, as a response to recent land-use changes. In Northwest Europe, the shrikes typically breed in open areas under a management regime of extensive farming. In recent decades, Spruce forests have been increasingly managed with large-size cutblocks in even-aged plantations, thereby producing early-successional vegetation areas that are also colonised by the species. Farmland and open areas in forests create mosaics of two different types of habitats that are now occupied by the shrikes. We examined redundant measures of habitat preference (order of settlement after migration and distribution of dominant individuals and several reproductive performance parameters in both habitat types to investigate whether habitat preference is in line with habitat quality. Territorial males exhibited a clear preference for the recently created open areas in forests with higher-quality males settling in this habitat type earlier. Reproductive performance was, however, higher in farmland, with higher nest success, offspring quantity, and quality compared to open areas in forests. The results showed strong among-year consistency and we can therefore exclude a transient situation. This study demonstrates a case of maladaptive habitat selection in a farmland bird expanding its breeding range to human

  7. Spatial heterogeneity in resource distribution promotes facultative sociality in two trans-Saharan migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Almaraz, Pablo; Carrete, Martina; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Delgado, Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José A

    2011-01-01

    Migrant populations must cope not only with environmental changes in different biomes, but also with the continuous constraints imposed by human-induced changes through landscape transformation and resource patchiness. Theoretical studies suggest that changes in food distribution can promote changes in the social arrangement of individuals without apparent adaptive value. Empirical research on this subject has only been performed at reduced geographical scales and/or for single species. However, the relative contribution of food patchiness and predictability, both in space and time, to abundance and sociality can vary among species, depending on their degree of flexibility. By means of constrained zero-inflated Generalized Additive Models we analysed the spatial distribution of two trans-Saharan avian scavengers that breed (Europe) and winter (Africa) sympatrically, in relation to food availability. In the summering grounds, the probability of finding large numbers of both species increases close to predictable feeding sources, whereas in the wintering grounds, where food resources are widespread, we did not find such aggregation patterns, except for the black kite, which aggregated at desert locust outbreaks. The comparison of diets in both species through stable isotopes revealed that their diets overlapped during summering, but not during wintering. Our results suggest that bird sociality at feeding grounds is closely linked to the pattern of spatial distribution and predictability of trophic resources, which are ultimately induced by human activities. Migrant species can show adaptive foraging strategies to face changing distribution of food availability in both wintering and summering quarters. Understanding these effects is a key aspect for predicting the fitness costs and population consequences of habitat transformations on the viability of endangered migratory species.

  8. Spatial heterogeneity in resource distribution promotes facultative sociality in two trans-Saharan migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainara Cortés-Avizanda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migrant populations must cope not only with environmental changes in different biomes, but also with the continuous constraints imposed by human-induced changes through landscape transformation and resource patchiness. Theoretical studies suggest that changes in food distribution can promote changes in the social arrangement of individuals without apparent adaptive value. Empirical research on this subject has only been performed at reduced geographical scales and/or for single species. However, the relative contribution of food patchiness and predictability, both in space and time, to abundance and sociality can vary among species, depending on their degree of flexibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By means of constrained zero-inflated Generalized Additive Models we analysed the spatial distribution of two trans-Saharan avian scavengers that breed (Europe and winter (Africa sympatrically, in relation to food availability. In the summering grounds, the probability of finding large numbers of both species increases close to predictable feeding sources, whereas in the wintering grounds, where food resources are widespread, we did not find such aggregation patterns, except for the black kite, which aggregated at desert locust outbreaks. The comparison of diets in both species through stable isotopes revealed that their diets overlapped during summering, but not during wintering. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that bird sociality at feeding grounds is closely linked to the pattern of spatial distribution and predictability of trophic resources, which are ultimately induced by human activities. Migrant species can show adaptive foraging strategies to face changing distribution of food availability in both wintering and summering quarters. Understanding these effects is a key aspect for predicting the fitness costs and population consequences of habitat transformations on the viability of endangered migratory species.

  9. Seasonal survival estimation for a long-distance migratory bird and the influence of winter precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Rockwell; Joseph M. Wunderle; T. Scott Sillett; Carol I. Bocetti; David N. Ewert; Dave Currie; Jennifer D. White; Peter P. Marra

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of migratory animals requires information about seasonal survival rates. Identifying factors that limit populations, and the portions of the annual cycle in which they occur, are critical for recognizing and reducing potential threats. However, such data are lacking for virtually all migratory taxa. We investigated patterns and environmental correlates of...

  10. Birds of a feather winter together: migratory connectivity in the Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Hobson, K. A.; Karcza, Z.; Kralj, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2008), s. 141-150 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus scirpaceus * migratory connectivity * migratory divide * ringing recoveries * stable isotopes Sub ject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.465, year: 2008

  11. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.

    2013-01-01

    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  12. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Muñoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since Darwin’s time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs, and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. We examined sequence variation for two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S for a subset of the data in a large set of population samples representing the entire native range of A. franciscana. Furthermore, we performed Mantel tests and redundancy analyses (RDA to test the role of flyways, geography and human introductions on the phylogeography and population genetic structure at a continental scale. A. franciscana mitochondrial DNA was very diverse, with two main clades, largely corresponding to Pacific and Atlantic populations, mirroring American bird flyways. There was a high degree of regional endemism, with populations subdivided into at least 12 divergent, geographically restricted and largely allopatric mitochondrial lineages, and high levels of population structure (ΦST of 0.92, indicating low ongoing gene flow. We found evidence of human-mediated introductions in nine out of 39 populations analysed. Once these populations were removed, Mantel tests revealed a strong association between genetic variation and geographic distance (i.e., isolation-by-distance pattern. RDA showed that shared bird flyways explained around 20% of the variance in genetic distance between populations and this was highly significant, once geographic distance was controlled for. The variance explained increased to 30% when the factor human introduction was included in the model. Our findings suggest that bird-mediated transport of brine shrimp propagules does not result

  13. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Joaquín; Amat, Francisco; Green, Andy J; Figuerola, Jordi; Gómez, Africa

    2013-01-01

    Since Darwin's time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs), and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. We examined sequence variation for two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S for a subset of the data) in a large set of population samples representing the entire native range of A. franciscana. Furthermore, we performed Mantel tests and redundancy analyses (RDA) to test the role of flyways, geography and human introductions on the phylogeography and population genetic structure at a continental scale. A. franciscana mitochondrial DNA was very diverse, with two main clades, largely corresponding to Pacific and Atlantic populations, mirroring American bird flyways. There was a high degree of regional endemism, with populations subdivided into at least 12 divergent, geographically restricted and largely allopatric mitochondrial lineages, and high levels of population structure (Φ ST of 0.92), indicating low ongoing gene flow. We found evidence of human-mediated introductions in nine out of 39 populations analysed. Once these populations were removed, Mantel tests revealed a strong association between genetic variation and geographic distance (i.e., isolation-by-distance pattern). RDA showed that shared bird flyways explained around 20% of the variance in genetic distance between populations and this was highly significant, once geographic distance was controlled for. The variance explained increased to 30% when the factor human introduction was included in the model. Our findings suggest that bird-mediated transport of brine shrimp propagules does not result in substantial

  14. Experimental reduction of winter food decreases body condition and delays migration in a long-distance migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Nathan W; Sherry, Thomas W; Marra, Peter P

    2015-07-01

    Many tropical habitats experience pronounced dry seasons, during which arthropod food availability declines, potentially limiting resident and migratory animal populations. In response to declines in food, individuals may attempt to alter their space use to enhance access to food resources, but may be socially constrained from doing so by con- and heterospecifics. If social constraints exist, food declines should result in decreased body condition. In migratory birds, correlational evidence suggests a link between body condition and migration timing. Poor body condition and delayed migration may, in turn, impact fitness in subsequent seasons via carry-over effects. To determine if winter food availability affects space use, inter- and intraspecific competition, body composition (i.e., mass, fat, and pectoral muscle), and migration timing, we experimentally decreased food availability on individual American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) territories in high-quality mangrove habitat. Redstarts on control territories experienced -40% loss of food due to the seasonal nature of the environment. Redstarts on experimental territories experienced -80% declines in food, which closely mimicked natural declines in nearby, low-quality, scrub habitat. Individuals on food-reduced territories did not expand their territories locally, but instead either became non-territorial "floaters" or remained on territory. Regardless of territorial status, food-reduced American Redstarts all deposited fat compared to control birds. Fat deposits provide insurance against the risk of starvation, but, for American Redstarts, came at the expense of maintaining pectoral muscle. Subsequently, food-reduced American Redstarts experienced, on average, a one-week delay in departure on spring migration, likely due to the loss of pectoral muscle. Thus, our results demonstrate experimentally, for the first time, that declines in winter food availability can result in a fat-muscle trade-off, which, in

  15. Intercontinental spread of asian-origin H5N8 to North America through Beringia by migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim Torchetti, Mia; Winker, Kevin; Ip, Hon S.; Swayne, David E.; Song, Chang-Seon

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic network analysis and understanding of waterfowl migration patterns suggest the Eurasian H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 avian influenza virus emerged in late 2013 in China, spread in early 2014 to South Korea and Japan, and reached Siberia and Beringia by summer 2014 via migratory birds. Three genetically distinct subgroups emerged and subsequently spread along different flyways during fall 2014 into Europe, North America, and East Asia, respectively. All three subgroups reappeared in Japan, a wintering site for waterfowl from Eurasia and parts of North America.

  16. Spare capacity and phenotypic flexibility in the digestive system of a migratory bird: defining the limits of animal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Scott R; Karasov, William H

    2014-05-22

    Flexible phenotypes enable animals to live in environments that change over space and time, and knowing the limits to and the required time scale for this flexibility provides insights into constraints on energy and nutrient intake, diet diversity and niche width. We quantified the level of immediate and ultimate spare capacity, and thus the extent of phenotypic flexibility, in the digestive system of a migratory bird in response to increased energy demand, and identified the digestive constraints responsible for the limits on sustained energy intake. Immediate spare capacity decreased from approximately 50% for birds acclimated to relatively benign temperatures to less than 20% as birds approached their maximum sustainable energy intake. Ultimate spare capacity enabled an increase in feeding rate of approximately 126% as measured in birds acclimated for weeks at -29°C compared with +21°C. Increased gut size and not tissue-specific differences in nutrient uptake or changes in digestive efficiency or retention time were primarily responsible for this increase in capacity with energy demand, and this change required more than 1-2 days. Thus, the pace of change in digestive organ size may often constrain energy intake and, for birds, retard the pace of their migration.

  17. First Report of bla CTX-M-15-Type ESBL-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Wild Migratory Birds in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Shahbaz; Mohsin, Mashkoor; Madni, Waqas Ahmed; Sarwar, Fatima; Saqib, Muhammad; Aslam, Bilal

    2017-03-01

    We investigated wild migratory birds faecal swabs for extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-K. pneumoniae) from wetland habitats in Pakistan. ESBL-K. pneumoniae were analysed for MDR phenotype, ESBL genotype and genetic diversity. A total of 13 (8.6%) ESBL-K. pneumoniae were recovered. Of these, 8 (61%) isolates were MDR. DNA sequencing confirmed bla CTX-M-15 as the dominant ESBL genotype. BOX-PCR fingerprints showed most of the isolates are unrelated. This study is the first to report the wildlife contamination of CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae in Pakistan. Due to long-range migration, these birds could be responsible for trans-boundary spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  18. A method for investigating population declines of migratory birds using stable isotopes: origins of harvested lesser scaup in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hobson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Elucidating geographic locations from where migratory birds are recruited into adult breeding populations is a fundamental but largely elusive goal in conservation biology. This is especially true for species that breed in remote northern areas where field-based demographic assessments are logistically challenging.Here we used hydrogen isotopes (deltaD to determine natal origins of migrating hatch-year lesser scaup (Aythya affinis harvested by hunters in the United States from all North American flyways during the hunting seasons of 1999-2000 (n = 412 and 2000-2001 (n = 455. We combined geospatial, observational, and analytical data sources, including known scaup breeding range, deltaD values of feathers from juveniles at natal sites, models of deltaD for growing-season precipitation, and scaup band-recovery data to generate probabilistic natal origin landscapes for individual scaup. We then used Monte Carlo integration to model assignment uncertainty from among individual deltaD variance estimates from birds of known molt origin and also from band-return data summarized at the flyway level. We compared the distribution of scaup natal origin with the distribution of breeding population counts obtained from systematic long-term surveys.Our analysis revealed that the proportion of young scaup produced in the northern (above 60 degrees N versus the southern boreal and Prairie-Parkland region was inversely related to the proportions of breeding adults using these regions, suggesting that despite having a higher relative abundance of breeding adults, the northern boreal region was less productive for scaup recruitment into the harvest than more southern biomes. Our approach for evaluating population declines of migratory birds (particularly game birds synthesizes all available distributional data and exploits the advantages of intrinsic isotopic markers that link individuals to geography.

  19. A Method for Investigating Population Declines of Migratory Birds Using Stable Isotopes: Origins of Harvested Lesser Scaup in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Keith A.; Wunder, Michael B.; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L.; Clark, Robert G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.

    2009-01-01

    Background Elucidating geographic locations from where migratory birds are recruited into adult breeding populations is a fundamental but largely elusive goal in conservation biology. This is especially true for species that breed in remote northern areas where field-based demographic assessments are logistically challenging. Methodology/Findings Here we used hydrogen isotopes (δD) to determine natal origins of migrating hatch-year lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) harvested by hunters in the United States from all North American flyways during the hunting seasons of 1999–2000 (n = 412) and 2000–2001 (n = 455). We combined geospatial, observational, and analytical data sources, including known scaup breeding range, δD values of feathers from juveniles at natal sites, models of δD for growing-season precipitation, and scaup band-recovery data to generate probabilistic natal origin landscapes for individual scaup. We then used Monte Carlo integration to model assignment uncertainty from among individual δD variance estimates from birds of known molt origin and also from band-return data summarized at the flyway level. We compared the distribution of scaup natal origin with the distribution of breeding population counts obtained from systematic long-term surveys. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis revealed that the proportion of young scaup produced in the northern (above 60°N) versus the southern boreal and Prairie-Parkland region was inversely related to the proportions of breeding adults using these regions, suggesting that despite having a higher relative abundance of breeding adults, the northern boreal region was less productive for scaup recruitment into the harvest than more southern biomes. Our approach for evaluating population declines of migratory birds (particularly game birds) synthesizes all available distributional data and exploits the advantages of intrinsic isotopic markers that link individuals to geography. PMID:19946360

  20. The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew R. Dalby; Munir Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This popu...

  1. An exception to the rule: carry-over effects do not accumulate in a long-distance migratory bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R Senner

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing consensus that events during one part of an animal's annual cycle can detrimentally affect its future fitness. Notably, migratory species have been shown to commonly display such carry-over effects, facing severe time constraints and physiological stresses that can influence events across seasons. However, to date, no study has examined a full annual cycle to determine when these carry-over effects arise and how long they persist within and across years. Understanding when carry-over effects are created and how they persist is critical to identifying those periods and geographic locations that constrain the annual cycle of a population and determining how selection is acting upon individuals throughout the entire year. Using three consecutive years of migration tracks and four consecutive years of breeding success data, we tested whether carry-over effects in the form of timing deviations during one migratory segment of the annual cycle represent fitness costs that persist or accumulate across the annual cycle for a long-distance migratory bird, the Hudsonian godwit, Limosa haemastica. We found that individual godwits could migrate progressively later than population mean over the course of an entire migration period, especially southbound migration, but that these deviations did not accumulate across the entire year and were not consistently detected among individuals across years. Furthermore, neither the accumulation of lateness during previous portions of the annual cycle nor arrival date at the breeding grounds resulted in individuals suffering reductions in their breeding success or survival. Given their extreme life history, such a lack of carry-over effects suggests that strong selection exists on godwits at each stage of the annual cycle and that carry-over effects may not be able to persist in such a system, but also emphasizes that high-quality stopover and wintering sites are critical to the

  2. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  3. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  4. The ecology of emerging infectious diseases in migratory birds: an assessment of the role of climate change and priorities for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Trevon; Bensch, Staffan; Müller, Inge; Novembre, John; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Ricklefs, Robert E; Smith, Thomas B; Waldenström, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    Pathogens that are maintained by wild birds occasionally jump to human hosts, causing considerable loss of life and disruption to global commerce. Preliminary evidence suggests that climate change and human movements and commerce may have played a role in recent range expansions of avian pathogens. Since the magnitude of climate change in the coming decades is predicted to exceed climatic changes in the recent past, there is an urgent need to determine the extent to which climate change may drive the spread of disease by avian migrants. In this review, we recommend actions intended to mitigate the impact of emergent pathogens of migratory birds on biodiversity and public health. Increased surveillance that builds upon existing bird banding networks is required to conclusively establish a link between climate and avian pathogens and to prevent pathogens with migratory bird reservoirs from spilling over to humans.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds from Chongming Island, Yangtze estuary, China: insight into migratory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Lin, Kuangfei; Guo, Jie; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Wang, Junxia; Zhao, Jianhua; Zhou, Peng; Xu, Feng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Sum-PBDEs concentrations in shorebirds and Anatidae ducks muscles from Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve ranged from 21-324 to 14-159ngg(-1) lw, respectively. PBDEs were detected in muscles of all the studied species. Compared with flyways around the world, migratory waterbirds on the East Asian-Australasian flyway exhibited lower PBDEs burdens than those reported on Black Sea-Mediterranean flyway in Europe and Pacific, Atlantic, Mississippi flyway in North America. Residential Eurasian tree sparrow samples indicated few PBDE products were used in Chongming Island developed in the idea of world famous eco-island. There was no significant difference in PBDEs concentrations between shorebirds and ducks. However, PBDEs composition varied between them. BDE 209 (29-44%) contributed to sum-PBDEs more than BDE 47 (17-19%) in muscles of ducks, while BDE 47 was the predominant congener in shorebirds contributing 32-48%. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes and stomach content analysis indicated shorebirds and ducks had the same dietary composition, but showed different preference to bivalves, gastropods and crustaceans for shorebirds and aquatic plant material for ducks. Migratory species had inherent migratory routes and thus had exposure to PBDEs during their stay in breeding grounds, stopover sites and wintering grounds with high use of different commercial PBDE mixtures. Higher percentage of BDE 209 in ducks than shorebirds suggested that breeding ranges and wintering grounds of ducks comprise wetlands in inland and coastal China and Korea where decaBDEs pollution was serious in Asian-Pacific region. Our findings reveal the influence of migratory behavior on PBDEs distribution in migratory waterbirds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transport of Ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eHasle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.

  7. A new conservation partnership: conserving the migratory birds of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack C. Capp; David Mehlman

    Over five billion birds move each year across the Americas, flying great distances over almost every location and habitat on the continents (Weidensaul 1999). Over 350 of the over 800 bird species in the United States migrate each year to Latin America and the Caribbean (Degraaf and Rappole 1995). Some fly each way over 4000 miles, chasing the seasons across oceans and...

  8. Effects of silviculture on neotropical migratory birds in central and southeastern oak pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson; Frank R. Thompson; Richard N. Conner; Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1993-01-01

    Avian communities that are associated with forest habitat attributes are affected by silvicultural and other stand influences. Some species have specific habitat requirements, whereas others occupy a broad range of vegetative conditions. In general, bird species richness and density are positively related to stand foliage volume and diversity. Bird density and...

  9. Discussing implications of fast depleting rural ponds on the globally threatened wetland winter migratory bird in Haryana: a Case Study of Nigdu village pond in Karnal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohtash Chand Gupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Nigdu-Sarovar is located in Nilokheri block in Karnal district in Haryana (29°50′N 76°55′E. The duration of observations span over seven years (September, 2005 to March, 2012. The recording of wetland winter visitor birds during 2005-08 in winter season included atleast 58 species of birds belonging to 10 orders and 18 families. It is important to mention that 29 species of wetland birds were winter migratory, 17 residents, 9 local migratory and three species of wetland birds like Lesser-whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica, Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus and Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicus were summer migratory. The special features of 2005-06 winter was the huge populations of birds like Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata, Northern Pintail Anas acuta, Common Teal Anas crecca, Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhynchus, Common Pochard Aythya ferina, Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, Greylag Goose Anser anser, Gadwall Anas strepera, Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Common Redshank Tringa totanus etc.In successive years, the scenario was more or less a substantial one depicting stability with respect to diversity of birds, number of birds upto the year of 2008. The popular birds included Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala, Openbill Stork Anastomus oscitans, White-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus, Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus, Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer and Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrines. The sharp decline in winter migratory birds at “Nigdu-Sarovar” started in the year of 2008 when the pond was leased out for FISH-FARMING as per the policies of Govt. of Haryana. Fish Farming based deepening of the pond by excavation of bottom resulting in total decimation of rooted, floating, submerged and ejecting plants along with its subsidiary fauna, Zooplanktons, phytoplankton etc. The age old structural regime of the pond

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in South Korea and Migratory Bird Routes Between China, South Korea, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeojun; Heo, Sang Taek; Kim, Gwanghun; Hewson, Roger; Kim, Hyemin; Park, Dahee; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Oh, Won Sup; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Kwon, Ki Tae; Medlock, Jolyon M; Lee, Keun Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne viral disease. The SFTS virus (SFTSV) has been detected in the Haemaphysalis longicornis, which acts as a transmission host between animals and humans. SFTSV was first confirmed in China in 2009 and has also been circulating in Japan and South Korea. However, it is not known if a genetic connection exists between the viruses in these regions and, if so, how SFTSV is transmitted across China, South Korea, and Japan. We therefore hypothesize that the SFTSV in South Korea share common phylogenetic origins with samples from China and Japan. Further, we postulate that migratory birds, well-known carriers of the tick H. longicornis, are a potential source of SFTSV transmission across countries. Our phylogenetic analysis results show that the SFTSV isolates in South Korea were similar to isolates from Japan and China. We connect this with previous work showing that SFTSV-infected H. longicornis were found in China, South Korea, and Japan. In addition, H. longicornis were found on migratory birds. The migratory bird routes and the distribution of H. longicornis are concurrent with the occurrence of SFTSV. Therefore, we suggest that migratory birds play an important role in dispersing H. longicornis-borne SFTSV. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Cardona, Carol J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway--breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007-2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway.

  12. Multiple lineages of Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium) in the Galapagos Islands and evidence for arrival via migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, I I; Zwiers, P; Deem, S L; Geest, E A; Higashiguchi, J M; Iezhova, T A; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G; Kim, D H; Morton, J P; Perlut, N G; Renfrew, R B; Sari, E H R; Valkiunas, G; Parker, P G

    2013-12-01

    Haemosporidian parasites in the genus Plasmodium were recently detected through molecular screening in the Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). We summarized results of an archipelago-wide screen of 3726 endemic birds representing 22 species for Plasmodium spp. through a combination of molecular and microscopy techniques. Three additional Plasmodium lineages were present in Galapagos. Lineage A-infected penguins, Yellow Warblers (Setophaga petechia aureola), and one Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) and was detected at multiple sites in multiple years [corrected]. The other 3 lineages were each detected at one site and at one time; apparently, they were transient infections of parasites not established on the archipelago. No gametocytes were found in blood smears of infected individuals; thus, endemic Galapagos birds may be dead-end hosts for these Plasmodium lineages. Determining when and how parasites and pathogens arrive in Galapagos is key to developing conservation strategies to prevent and mitigate the effects of introduced diseases. To assess the potential for Plasmodium parasites to arrive via migratory birds, we analyzed blood samples from 438 North American breeding Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), the only songbird that regularly migrates through Galapagos. Two of the ephemeral Plasmodium lineages (B and C) found in Galapagos birds matched parasite sequences from Bobolinks. Although this is not confirmation that Bobolinks are responsible for introducing these lineages, evidence points to higher potential arrival rates of avian pathogens than previously thought. Linajes Múltiples de Parásitos de Malaria Aviar (Plasmodium) en las Islas Galápagos y Evidencia de su Arribo por Medio de Aves Migratorias. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Understanding Demographic and Behavioral Mechanisms that Guide Responses of Neotropical Migratory Birds to Urbanization: a Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Shustack

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although studies often report that densities of many forest birds are negatively related to urbanization, the mechanisms guiding this pattern are poorly understood. Our objective was to use a population simulation to examine the relative influence of six demographic and behavioral processes on patterns of avian abundance in urbanizing landscapes. We constructed an individual-based population simulation model representing the annual cycle of a Neotropical migratory songbird. Each simulation was performed under two landscape scenarios. The first scenario had similar proportions of high- and low-quality habitat across the urban to rural gradient. Under the first scenario, avian density was negatively related to urbanization only when rural habitats were perceived to be of higher quality than they actually were. The second landscape scenario had declining proportions of high-quality habitat as urbanization increased. Under the second scenario, each mechanism generated a negative relationship between density and urbanization. The strongest effect on density resulted when birds preferentially selected habitats in landscapes from which they fledged or were constrained from dispersing. The next strongest patterns occurred when birds directly evaluated habitat quality and accurately selected the highest-quality available territories. When birds selected habitats based on the presence of conspecifics, the density-urbanization relationship was only one-third the strength of other habitat selection mechanisms and only occurred under certain levels of population survival. Although differences in adult or nest survival in the face of random habitat selection still elicited reduced densities in urban landscapes, the relationships between urbanization and density were weaker than those produced by the conspecific attraction mechanism. Results from our study identify key predictions and areas for future research, including assessing habitat quality in urban and

  14. Communally Nesting Migratory Birds Create Ecological Hot-Spots in Tropical Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J D Natusch

    Full Text Available Large numbers of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica migrate annually from New Guinea to the rainforests of tropical Australia, where they nest communally in single emergent trees (up to 1,000 birds. These aggregations create dense and species-rich faunal "hot-spots", attracting a diverse assemblage of local consumers that utilise this seasonal resource. The starlings nested primarily in poison-dart trees (Antiaris toxicaria near the rainforest-woodland boundary. Surveys underneath these colonies revealed that bird-derived nutrients massively increased densities of soil invertebrates and mammals (primarily wild pigs beneath trees, year-round. Flying invertebrates, nocturnal birds, reptiles, and amphibians congregated beneath the trees when starlings were nesting (the wet-season. Diurnal birds (primarily cockatoos and bush turkeys aggregated beneath the trees during the dry-season to utilise residual nutrients when the starlings were not nesting. The abundance of several taxa was considerably higher (to > 1000-fold under colony trees than under nearby trees. The system strikingly resembles utilisation of bird nesting colonies by predators in other parts of the world but this spectacular system has never been described, emphasizing the continuing need for detailed natural-history studies in tropical Australia.

  15. Do the ticks of birds at an important migratory hotspot reflect the seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus at the migration initiation site? A case study in the Danube Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Attila D; Mărcuţan, Daniel I; D'Amico, Gianluca; Gherman, Călin M; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds play important roles as distributors of ticks within and between continents. In the Old World, the most important migratory route of birds links Asia, Europe and Africa. During their migration, birds use various stopover sites, where they feed and rest and where ticks may attach or detach, creating new natural foci for vector-borne diseases. Danube Delta is one of the most important migration hotspots and so far no studies were focused on ticks of migratory birds herein. The aim of the present study was to assess the species diversity and seasonal dynamics of ticks parasitizing migratory birds in Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Migratory birds were trapped on Grindul Lupilor (44°41'N; 28°56'E) using mist nets during 4 migratory seasons (2 spring and 2 autumn) in 2011 and 2012. From each bird, all the ticks were collected and identified based on morphological features. Epidemiological parameters (prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity) were calculated and all data were analysed statistically based on the season (spring and autumn), regional status of birds (migrants and breeding) and foraging behaviour (ground feeders, reed-bed feeders, foliage feeders). A total of 1434 birds (46 species) were captured. Ticks were found on 94 birds (10 species). Significantly more migratory birds hosted ticks, compared to resident birds. The 400 collected ticks belonged to four species: Ixodes ricinus (92.25%), I. arboricola (6.25%), I. redikorzevi (1.00%) and Haemaphysalis punctata (0.50%). A higher prevalence was found for I. ricinus in spring, with higher prevalence of nymphs in this season, while larvae occurred with the same prevalence in both seasons. Larval intensity was higher during spring and nymphs were more abundant during autumn. The seasonal differences in our study may be related not to the local seasonal dynamics of ticks, but on the seasonal dynamics at the site of migration initiation.

  16. Do the ticks of birds at an important migratory hotspot reflect the seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus at the migration initiation site? A case study in the Danube Delta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila D Sándor

    Full Text Available Migratory birds play important roles as distributors of ticks within and between continents. In the Old World, the most important migratory route of birds links Asia, Europe and Africa. During their migration, birds use various stopover sites, where they feed and rest and where ticks may attach or detach, creating new natural foci for vector-borne diseases. Danube Delta is one of the most important migration hotspots and so far no studies were focused on ticks of migratory birds herein. The aim of the present study was to assess the species diversity and seasonal dynamics of ticks parasitizing migratory birds in Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Migratory birds were trapped on Grindul Lupilor (44°41'N; 28°56'E using mist nets during 4 migratory seasons (2 spring and 2 autumn in 2011 and 2012. From each bird, all the ticks were collected and identified based on morphological features. Epidemiological parameters (prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity were calculated and all data were analysed statistically based on the season (spring and autumn, regional status of birds (migrants and breeding and foraging behaviour (ground feeders, reed-bed feeders, foliage feeders. A total of 1434 birds (46 species were captured. Ticks were found on 94 birds (10 species. Significantly more migratory birds hosted ticks, compared to resident birds. The 400 collected ticks belonged to four species: Ixodes ricinus (92.25%, I. arboricola (6.25%, I. redikorzevi (1.00% and Haemaphysalis punctata (0.50%. A higher prevalence was found for I. ricinus in spring, with higher prevalence of nymphs in this season, while larvae occurred with the same prevalence in both seasons. Larval intensity was higher during spring and nymphs were more abundant during autumn. The seasonal differences in our study may be related not to the local seasonal dynamics of ticks, but on the seasonal dynamics at the site of migration initiation.

  17. A Deeper Statistical Examination of Arrival Dates of Migratory Breeding Birds in Relation to Global Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Herbert Wilson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an 18-year dataset of arrival dates of 65 species of Maine migratory breeding birds, I take a deeper view of the data to ask questions about the shapes of the distribution. For each year, most species show a consistent right-skewed pattern of distribution, suggesting that selection is stronger against individuals that arrive too early compared to those that arrive later. Distributions are consistently leptokurtic, indicating a narrow window of optimal arrival dates. Species that arrive earlier in the spring show higher skewness and kurtosis values. Nectarivorous species showed more pronounced skewness. Wintering area did not explain patterns of skewness or kurtosis. Deviations from average temperatures and the North Atlantic Oscillation index explained little variation in skewness and kurtosis. When arrival date distributions are broken down into different medians (e.g., 5% median and 75% median, stronger correlations emerge for portions of the distribution that are adjacent, suggesting species fine-tune the progress of their migration. Interspecific correlations for birds arriving around the same time are stronger for earliest migrants (the 25% median compared to the true median and the 75% median.

  18. Overwinter survival of neotropical migratory birds in early successional and mature tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Powell, G.V.N.; Nichols, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Many Neotropical migratory species inhabit both mature and early successional forest on their wintering grounds, yet comparisons of survival rates between habitats are lacking. Consequently, the factors affecting habitat suitability for Neotropical migrants and the potential effects of tropical deforestation on migrants are not well understood. We estimated over-winter survival and capture probabilities of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), and Kentucky Warbler (Oporomis formosus) inhabiting two common tropical habitat types, mature and early-successional forest. Our results suggest that large differences (for example, ratio of survival rates (gamma) effects of winter habitat use on survival during migration and between-winter survival.

  19. Using landscape ecology to test hypotheses about large-scale abundance patterns in migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flather, C.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The hypothesis that Neotropical migrant birds may be undergoing widespread declines due to land use activities on the breeding grounds has been examined primarily by synthesizing results from local studies. Growing concern for the cumulative influence of land use activities on ecological systems has heightened the need for large-scale studies to complement what has been observed at local scales. We investigated possible landscape effects on Neotropical migrant bird populations for the eastern United States by linking two large-scale inventories designed to monitor breeding-bird abundances and land use patterns. The null hypothesis of no relation between landscape structure and Neotropical migrant abundance was tested by correlating measures of landscape structure with bird abundance, while controlling for the geographic distance among samples. Neotropical migrants as a group were more 'sensitive' to landscape structure than either temperate migrants or permanent residents. Neotropical migrants tended to be more abundant in landscapes with a greater proportion of forest and wetland habitats, fewer edge habitats, large forest patches, and with forest habitats well dispersed throughout the scene. Permanent residents showed few correlations with landscape structure and temperate migrants were associated with habitat diversity and edge attributes rather than with the amount, size, and dispersion of forest habitats. The association between Neotropical migrant abundance and forest fragmentation differed among physiographic strata, suggesting that land-scape context affects observed relations between bird abundance and landscape structure. Finally, associations between landscape structure and temporal trends in Neotropical migrant abundance were negatively correlated with forest habitats. These results suggest that extrapolation of patterns observed in some landscapes is not likely to hold regionally, and that conservation policies must consider the variation in landscape

  20. Migratory bird habitat in relation to tile drainage and poorly drained hydrologic soil groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Brandi; Christensen, Victoria G.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Sanocki, Chris A.

    2016-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is home to more than 50% of the migratory waterfowl in North America. Although the PPR provides an abundance of temporary and permanent wetlands for nesting and feeding, increases in commodity prices and agricultural drainage practices have led to a trend of wetland drainage. The Northern Shoveler is a migratory dabbling duck species that uses wetland habitats and cultivated croplands in the PPR. Richland County in North Dakota and Roberts County in South Dakota have an abundance of wetlands and croplands and were chosen as the study areas for this research to assess the wetland size and cultivated cropland in relation to hydrologic soil groups for the Northern Shoveler habitat. This study used geographic information system data to analyze Northern Shoveler habitats in association with Natural Resource Conservation Service soil data. Habitats, which are spatially associated with certain hydrologic soil groups, may be at risk of artificial drainage installations because of their proximity to cultivated croplands and soil lacking in natural drainage that may become wet or inundated. Findings indicate that most wetlands that are part of Northern Shoveler habitats were within or adjacent to cultivated croplands. The results also revealed soil hydrologic groups with high runoff potential and low water transmission rates account for most of the soil within the Northern Shoveler‘s wetland and cropland habitats. Habitats near agriculture with high runoff potential are likely to be drained and this has the potential of reducing Northern Shoveler habitat.

  1. 75 FR 927 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Falconry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Regulations is to turn the regulation of falconry over to the States. States do monitor non-game wildlife and..., video, or other medium promoting its organization * * *. We respectfully request this be clarified to... treaties. This would still block use of a falconry bird to photograph for education, such as illustrating a...

  2. 76 FR 29665 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Raptor Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... education programs per paragraph (n). 4. We will allow hacking of raptors produced by captive propagation... would suffice for separating them. Response. We eliminated this requirement. Issue. Hacking of captive-bred raptors should be allowed. Hacking the birds, particularly in their first year, would [[Page 29666...

  3. Repeats, returns, and estimated flight ranges of neotropical migratory birds in Utah riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan A. Roberts; Jimmie R. Parrish; Frank P. Howe

    2005-01-01

    We present data on capture and recapture of neotropical migrants at constant-effort mist net sampling locations in Utah between 1994 and 2002. Data were collected in accordance with MAPS (Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship) protocols. Since 1994, a total of 23,789 birds have been captured (i.e., total captures include new captures, recaptures, and unbanded...

  4. Automated in situ monitoring of migratory birds at Germany's first offshore wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppack, Timothy; Kulemeyer, Christoph; Schulz, Axel; Steuri, Thomas; Liechti, Felix

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Offshore wind farms may negatively affect migrating birds, especially at night, by increased photo tactic attraction and risk of collision. Under favourable weather conditions (clear skies, tail wind) the majority of migrants probably fly well above the reach of wind turbine blades. Under unfavourable conditions (sea fog, precipitation, head wind), however, nocturnal migrants could get attracted by brightly lit wind farms, and the risk of collision would hence increase. To assess these potential effects, migration rates and collision probabilities need to be empirically quantified at existing wind farms. This is not an easy task, given the setting and dimension of an offshore wind farm and the sheer quantity and diversity of small-bodied birds potentially passing by. Nocturnal passerine migrants are impossible to count accurately over extended periods with observational methods, and even classic radar technology fails to pro-vide hard-wired information. Complementing the 'Standards for Environmental Impact Assessment' issued by Germany.s Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH), we have developed and installed a novel radar system (BirdScan) on the research platform FINO 1, situated around 50 km offshore next to the wind farm 'alpha ventus' in the German North Sea. BirdScan operates on the basis of defined detection volumes (fixed radar beam), allowing a precise quantification of passerine and non-passerine radar echoes. Our study design includes alternating measurements within and outside the wind farm in order to assess avoidance and/or photo tactic aggregation behaviour of migrants under various weather situations. At the same time, we are investigating the photo tactic attraction of birds at a smaller spatial scale using motion-controlled infrared cameras directly mounted on the nacelle and shaft of a wind turbine. Through this approach, disoriented birds (and even bats) can be automatically ground-proofed and set in

  5. Estimated Mortality of Selected Migratory Bird Species from Mowing and Other Mechanical Operations in Canadian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Tews

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical operations such as mowing, tilling, seeding, and harvesting are well-known sources of direct avian mortality in agricultural fields. However, there are currently no mortality rate estimates available for any species group or larger jurisdiction. Even reviews of sources of mortality in birds have failed to address mechanical disturbance in farm fields. To overcome this information gap we provide estimates of total mortality rates by mechanical operations for five selected species across Canada. In our step-by-step modeling approach we (i quantified the amount of various types of agricultural land in each Bird Conservation Region (BCR in Canada, (ii estimated population densities by region and agricultural habitat type for each selected species, (iii estimated the average timing of mechanical agricultural activities, egg laying, and fledging, (iv and used these values and additional demographical parameters to derive estimates of total mortality by species within each BCR. Based on our calculations the total annual estimated incidental take of young ranged from ~138,000 for Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris to as much as ~941,000 for Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis. Net losses to the fall flight of birds, i.e., those birds that would have fledged successfully in the absence of mechanical disturbance, were, for example ~321,000 for Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus and ~483,000 for Savannah Sparrow. Although our estimates are subject to an unknown degree of uncertainty, this assessment is a very important first step because it provides a broad estimate of incidental take for a set of species that may be particularly vulnerable to mechanical operations and a starting point for future refinements of model parameters if and when they become available.

  6. Species distribution models for a migratory bird based on citizen science and satellite tracking data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Coxen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models can provide critical baseline distribution information for the conservation of poorly understood species. Here, we compared the performance of band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata species distribution models created using Maxent and derived from two separate presence-only occurrence data sources in New Mexico: 1 satellite tracked birds and 2 observations reported in eBird basic data set. Both models had good accuracy (test AUC > 0.8 and True Skill Statistic > 0.4, and high overlap between suitability scores (I statistic 0.786 and suitable habitat patches (relative rank 0.639. Our results suggest that, at the state-wide level, eBird occurrence data can effectively model similar species distributions as satellite tracking data. Climate change models for the band-tailed pigeon predict a 35% loss in area of suitable climate by 2070 if CO2 emissions drop to 1990 levels by 2100, and a 45% loss by 2070 if we continue current CO2 emission levels through the end of the century. These numbers may be conservative given the predicted increase in drought, wildfire, and forest pest impacts to the coniferous forests the species inhabits in New Mexico. The northern portion of the species’ range in New Mexico is predicted to be the most viable through time.

  7. Species distribution models for a migratory bird based on citizen science and satellite tracking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxen, Christopher L.; Frey, Jennifer K.; Carleton, Scott A.; Collins, Daniel P.

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution models can provide critical baseline distribution information for the conservation of poorly understood species. Here, we compared the performance of band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) species distribution models created using Maxent and derived from two separate presence-only occurrence data sources in New Mexico: 1) satellite tracked birds and 2) observations reported in eBird basic data set. Both models had good accuracy (test AUC > 0.8 and True Skill Statistic > 0.4), and high overlap between suitability scores (I statistic 0.786) and suitable habitat patches (relative rank 0.639). Our results suggest that, at the state-wide level, eBird occurrence data can effectively model similar species distributions as satellite tracking data. Climate change models for the band-tailed pigeon predict a 35% loss in area of suitable climate by 2070 if CO2 emissions drop to 1990 levels by 2100, and a 45% loss by 2070 if we continue current CO2 emission levels through the end of the century. These numbers may be conservative given the predicted increase in drought, wildfire, and forest pest impacts to the coniferous forests the species inhabits in New Mexico. The northern portion of the species’ range in New Mexico is predicted to be the most viable through time.

  8. Impact of climate change on risk of incursion of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in livestock in Europe through migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Stephenson, B; Brouwer, A; Martinez, M; de la Torre, A; Bosch, J; Foley-Fisher, M; Bonilauri, P; Lindström, A; Ulrich, R G; de Vos, C J; Scremin, M; Liu, Z; Kelly, L; Muñoz, M J

    2012-02-01

    To predict the risk of incursion of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in livestock in Europe introduced through immature Hyalomma marginatum ticks on migratory birds under current conditions and in the decade 2075-2084 under a climate-change scenario. A spatial risk map of Europe comprising 14 282 grid cells (25 × 25 km) was constructed using three data sources: (i) ranges and abundances of four species of bird which migrate from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe each spring, namely Willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus), Northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), Tree pipit (Anthus trivialis) and Common quail (Coturnix coturnix); (ii) UK Met Office HadRM3 spring temperatures for prediction of moulting success of immature H. marginatum ticks and (iii) livestock densities. On average, the number of grid cells in Europe predicted to have at least one CCHFV incursion in livestock in spring was 1·04 per year for the decade 2005-2014 and 1·03 per year for the decade 2075-2084. In general with the assumed climate-change scenario, the risk increased in northern Europe but decreased in central and southern Europe, although there is considerable local variation in the trends. The absolute risk of incursion of CCHFV in livestock through ticks introduced by four abundant species of migratory bird (totalling 120 million individual birds) is very low. Climate change has opposing effects, increasing the success of the moult of the nymphal ticks into adults but decreasing the projected abundance of birds by 34% in this model. For Europe, climate change is not predicted to increase the overall risk of incursion of CCHFV in livestock through infected ticks introduced by these four migratory bird species. © 2011 Crown Copyright, AHVLA. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Detection of Babesia Sp. EU1 and members of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from migratory birds at Curonian Spit, North-Western Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movila, Alexandru; Reye, Anna L; Dubinina, Helen V; Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Toderas, Ion; Hübschen, Judith M; Muller, Claude P; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Babesia sp. in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks from migratory birds, 236 specimens represented 8 species of Passeriformes and were collected at Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad enclave of North-Western Russia. The ticks (total 126) being detached from four bird species, Turdus philomelos, Fringilla coelebs, Parus major, and Sturnus vulgaris, were investigated by PCR using the primers Rp CS.877p/Rp CS.1258n for the detection of Rickettsia and BJ1/BN2 for Babesia spp. Babesia spp. were detected in 2 of 126 (1.6%) ticks. The partial sequence of 18S rDNA had 100% similarity to human pathogenic Babesia sp. EU1. The SFG rickettsiae were detected in 19 of 126 (15.1%) ticks collected from the above-mentioned bird species. BLAST analysis of SFG rickettsia gltA assigned sequences to human pathogenic Rickettsia helvetica (10.3%), Rickettsia monacensis (3.9%), and Rickettsia japonica (0.8%) with 98%-100% sequence similarity. The SFG rickettsiae and Babesia sp. EU1 in ticks collected from the passerines in Russia were detected for the first time. The survey indicates that migratory birds may become a reservoir for Babesia spp. and SFG rickettsiae. Future investigations need to characterize the role of birds in the epidemiology of these human pathogens in the region.

  10. Protein loss during long-distance migratory flight in passerine birds: adaptation and constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilch, Regine; Grattarola, Alessandra; Spina, Fernando; Jenni, Lukas

    2002-03-01

    During long-distance flights, birds catabolize not only fat but also protein. Because there is no storage form of protein, protein catabolism entails a structural or functional loss. In this study, we investigated which organs were most reduced in lean mass during different phases of fat store loss and whether protein loss can be regarded as adaptive or as a constraint. Body and organ composition were analysed both during the autumn migration over continental Europe (sample from Switzerland) and after a long-distance flight over the Sahara and the Mediterranean Sea in spring (sample from Ventotene, Italy) in four species of passerine bird: pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus, garden warbler Sylvia borin and barn swallow Hirundo rustica. Large variations in protein mass occurred when long non-stop flights were performed. After a long-distance flight, birds showed a marked increase in net protein loss when fat stores were nearing depletion (analogous to the late phase of endurance fasting when the rate of protein catabolism is increased). When fat reserves were above approximately 5-10 %, protein was derived from all organs, but particularly from the breast muscles. When fat stores diminished further and protein catabolism increased, the mass of the digestive organs was reduced fastest. When the decrease in breast muscle mass during flight was regarded in terms of potential flight performance, it appeared that the use of breast muscle protein with decreasing body mass can be regarded as adaptive as long as fat stores did not reach a critical level. Below approximately 5-10 % body fat, however, protein loss reduced flight performance. This demonstrates that the phase of fasting (the size of the remaining fat stores) is an important condition for understanding the occurrence and effects of protein loss during endurance flights.

  11. Changes in spring arrival dates and temperature sensitivity of migratory birds over two centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolářová, Eva; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette; Nekovář, Jiří; Lumpe, Petr; Adamík, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Long-term phenological data have been crucial at documenting the effects of climate change in organisms. However, in most animal taxa, time series length seldom exceeds 35 years. Therefore, we have limited evidence on animal responses to climate prior to the recent warm period. To fill in this gap, we present time series of mean first arrival dates to Central Europe for 13 bird species spanning 183 years (1828-2010). We found a uniform trend of arrival dates advancing in the most recent decades (since the late 1970s). Interestingly, birds were arriving earlier during the cooler early part of the nineteenth century than in the recent warm period. Temperature sensitivity was slightly stronger in the warmest 30-year period (-1.70 ± SD 0.47 day °C -1 ) than in the coldest period (-1.42 ± SD 0.89 day °C -1 ); however, the difference was not statistically significant. In the most recent decades, the temperature sensitivity of both short- and long-distance migrants significantly increased. Our results demonstrate how centennial time series can provide a much more comprehensive perspective on avian responses to climate change.

  12. Genetic diversity and pathogenic potential of low pathogenic H7 avian influenza viruses isolated from wild migratory birds in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Il; Kim, Si-Wook; Si, Young-Jae; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Eun-Ha; Kim, Se Mi; Lee, In-Won; Song, Min-Suk; Choi, Young-Ki

    2016-11-01

    To detect the circulation of H7 avian influenza viruses, we characterized H7 viruses found in migratory birds and live poultry markets of South Korea from 2005 to 2014. Phylogenic analysis revealed that while all viruses clustered into the Eurasian-lineage of H7 avian viruses, at least 12 distinct genotypes were represented. Most H7 viruses contained at least one gene segment from the highly-pathogenic A/Sck/Hong Kong/YU100/02(H5N1)-like avian virus, and they could be separated into at least two antigenic groups. Although we did not detect genetically identical strains, HI assay demonstrated close cross-reactivity of some isolates with the H7N9 viruses from China. Animal studies revealed that most of the genotypes could replicate in the lungs of mice and chickens without prior adaptation and some, particularly H7N4 and H7N7 subtypes, induced mortality in mice. These results reinforce growing pandemic concerns regarding recent H7 viruses and emphasize the importance of continued surveillance of avian influenza viruses in the wild. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Does feather corticosterone reflect individual quality or external stress in arctic-nesting migratory birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legagneux

    Full Text Available The effects of environmental perturbations or stressors on individual states can be carried over to subsequent life stages and ultimately affect survival and reproduction. The concentration of corticosterone (CORT in feathers is an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during the molting period, providing information on the total baseline and stress-induced CORT secreted during the period of feather growth. Common eiders and greater snow geese replace all flight feathers once a year during the pre-basic molt, which occurs following breeding. Thus, CORT contained in feathers of pre-breeding individuals sampled in spring reflects the total CORT secreted during the previous molting event, which may provide insight into the magnitude or extent of stress experienced during this time period. We used data from multiple recaptures to disentangle the contribution of individual quality vs. external factors (i.e., breeding investment or environmental conditions on feather CORT in arctic-nesting waterfowl. Our results revealed no repeatability of feather CORT within individuals of either species. In common eiders, feather CORT was not affected by prior reproductive investment, nor by pre-breeding (spring body condition prior to the molting period. Individual feather CORT greatly varied according to the year, and August-September temperatures explained most of the annual variation in feather CORT. Understanding mechanisms that affect energetic costs and stress responses during molting will require further studies either using long-term data or experiments. Although our study period encompassed only five years, it nonetheless provides evidence that CORT measured in feathers likely reflects responses to environmental conditions experienced by birds during molt, and could be used as a metric to study carry-over effects.

  14. An implantable instrument for studying the long-term flight biology of migratory birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spivey, Robin J.; Bishop, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    The design of an instrument deployed in a project studying the high altitude Himalayan migrations of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) is described. The electronics of this archival datalogger measured 22 × 14 × 6.5 mm, weighed 3 g, was powered by a ½AA-sized battery weighing 10 g and housed in a transparent biocompatible tube sealed with titanium electrodes for electrocardiography (ECG). The combined weight of 32 g represented less than 2% of the typical bodyweight of the geese. The primary tasks of the instrument were to continuously record a digitised ECG signal for heart-rate determination and store 12-bit triaxial accelerations sampled at 100 Hz with 15% coverage over each 2 min period. Measurement of atmospheric pressure provided an indication of altitude and rate of ascent or descent during flight. Geomagnetic field readings allowed for latitude estimation. These parameters were logged twice per minute along with body temperature. Data were stored to a memory card of 8 GB capacity. Instruments were implanted in geese captured on Mongolian lakes during the breeding season when the birds are temporarily flightless due to moulting. The goal was to collect data over a ten month period, covering both southward and northward migrations. This imposed extreme constraints on the design's power consumption. Raw ECG can be post-processed to obtain heart-rate, allowing improved rejection of signal interference due to strenuous activity of locomotory muscles during flight. Accelerometry can be used to monitor wing-beat frequency and body kinematics, and since the geese continued to flap their wings continuously even during rather steep descents, act as a proxy for biomechanical power. The instrument enables detailed investigation of the challenges faced by the geese during these arduous migrations which typically involve flying at extreme altitudes through cold, low density air where oxygen availability is significantly reduced compared to sea level

  15. Global population collapse in a superabundant migratory bird and illegal trapping in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Johannes; Oppel, Steffen; Ananin, Alexandr A; Durnev, Yurii A; Gashev, Sergey N; Hölzel, Norbert; Mishchenko, Alexandr L; Pessa, Jorma; Smirenski, Sergey M; Strelnikov, Evgenii G; Timonen, Sami; Wolanska, Kolja; Chan, Simba

    2015-12-01

    Persecution and overexploitation by humans are major causes of species extinctions. Rare species, often confined to small geographic ranges, are usually at highest risk, whereas extinctions of superabundant species with very large ranges are rare. The Yellow-breasted Bunting (Emberiza aureola) used to be one of the most abundant songbirds of the Palearctic, with a very large breeding range stretching from Scandinavia to the Russian Far East. Anecdotal information about rapid population declines across the range caused concern about unsustainable trapping along the species' migration routes. We conducted a literature review and used long-term monitoring data from across the species' range to model population trend and geographical patterns of extinction. The population declined by 84.3-94.7% between 1980 and 2013, and the species' range contracted by 5000 km. Quantitative evidence from police raids suggested rampant illegal trapping of the species along its East Asian flyway in China. A population model simulating an initial harvest level of 2% of the population, and an annual increase of 0.2% during the monitoring period produced a population trajectory that matched the observed decline. We suggest that trapping strongly contributed to the decline because the consumption of Yellow-breasted Bunting and other songbirds has increased as a result of economic growth and prosperity in East Asia. The magnitude and speed of the decline is unprecedented among birds with a comparable range size, with the exception of the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius), which went extinct in 1914 due to industrial-scale hunting. Our results demonstrate the urgent need for an improved monitoring of common and widespread species' populations, and consumption levels throughout East Asia. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. The invisible prevalence of citizen science in global research: migratory birds and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Caren B; Shirk, Jennifer; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is a research practice that relies on public contributions of data. The strong recognition of its educational value combined with the need for novel methods to handle subsequent large and complex data sets raises the question: Is citizen science effective at science? A quantitative assessment of the contributions of citizen science for its core purpose--scientific research--is lacking. We examined the contribution of citizen science to a review paper by ornithologists in which they formulated ten central claims about the impact of climate change on avian migration. Citizen science was never explicitly mentioned in the review article. For each of the claims, these ornithologists scored their opinions about the amount of research effort invested in each claim and how strongly the claim was supported by evidence. This allowed us to also determine whether their trust in claims was, unwittingly or not, related to the degree to which the claims relied primarily on data generated by citizen scientists. We found that papers based on citizen science constituted between 24 and 77% of the references backing each claim, with no evidence of a mistrust of claims that relied heavily on citizen-science data. We reveal that many of these papers may not easily be recognized as drawing upon volunteer contributions, as the search terms "citizen science" and "volunteer" would have overlooked the majority of the studies that back the ten claims about birds and climate change. Our results suggest that the significance of citizen science to global research, an endeavor that is reliant on long-term information at large spatial scales, might be far greater than is readily perceived. To better understand and track the contributions of citizen science in the future, we urge researchers to use the keyword "citizen science" in papers that draw on efforts of non-professionals.

  17. An implantable instrument for studying the long-term flight biology of migratory birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivey, Robin J., E-mail: r.spivey@bangor.ac.uk, E-mail: c.bishop@bangor.ac.uk; Bishop, Charles M., E-mail: r.spivey@bangor.ac.uk, E-mail: c.bishop@bangor.ac.uk [Department of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    The design of an instrument deployed in a project studying the high altitude Himalayan migrations of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) is described. The electronics of this archival datalogger measured 22 × 14 × 6.5 mm, weighed 3 g, was powered by a ½AA-sized battery weighing 10 g and housed in a transparent biocompatible tube sealed with titanium electrodes for electrocardiography (ECG). The combined weight of 32 g represented less than 2% of the typical bodyweight of the geese. The primary tasks of the instrument were to continuously record a digitised ECG signal for heart-rate determination and store 12-bit triaxial accelerations sampled at 100 Hz with 15% coverage over each 2 min period. Measurement of atmospheric pressure provided an indication of altitude and rate of ascent or descent during flight. Geomagnetic field readings allowed for latitude estimation. These parameters were logged twice per minute along with body temperature. Data were stored to a memory card of 8 GB capacity. Instruments were implanted in geese captured on Mongolian lakes during the breeding season when the birds are temporarily flightless due to moulting. The goal was to collect data over a ten month period, covering both southward and northward migrations. This imposed extreme constraints on the design's power consumption. Raw ECG can be post-processed to obtain heart-rate, allowing improved rejection of signal interference due to strenuous activity of locomotory muscles during flight. Accelerometry can be used to monitor wing-beat frequency and body kinematics, and since the geese continued to flap their wings continuously even during rather steep descents, act as a proxy for biomechanical power. The instrument enables detailed investigation of the challenges faced by the geese during these arduous migrations which typically involve flying at extreme altitudes through cold, low density air where oxygen availability is significantly reduced compared to sea level.

  18. Nutrient composition and physicochemical characteristics in the destination sites of migratory water birds: a case study at the selected locations of seashores and lakes in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Augustine

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity in aquatic systems are indirectly controlled by their nutrient dynamics. The abundance of phytoplanktons and zooplanktons depends on the availability of nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates and silicates since these are the building blocks for their further growth. The phytoplanktons act as prey for the next higher trophic level including various fishes and other small organisms. One of the factors that enchant the migratory birds at some particular locations is the availability of the species of organisms that they prey on. In this paper a preliminary analysis is done to explore the nutrient dynamics of selected tropical aquatic systems in order to correlate the arrival of migratory birds at those locations. Water samples are collected from coastal region of Aleppey, Purakkad and Koonthankulam Bird Sancturay. The latter two sites are the important destination of many migratory water birds including Pallus Gull, Heuglins Gull, Bar-headed goose, Comb Duck and Spot Billed Pelican. The samples are analyzed chemically to trace the nutrient compositions and the related chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, primary productivity, chloride, salinity, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. Remarkable differences are observed mainly in the composition of phosphate, organic matter content and salinity. Finally, an attempt has been done to correlate the biodiversity of these locations with the chemical parameters and the prevailing nutrient compositions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9943 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 68-77

  19. Addressing complexity and uncertainty: conceptual models and expert judgments applied to migratory birds in the oil sands of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Nelitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Complexity and uncertainty are inherent in social-ecological systems. Although they can create challenges for scientists and decision makers, they cannot be a reason for delaying decision making. Two strategies have matured in recent decades to address these challenges. Systems thinking, as embodied by conceptual modeling, is a holistic approach in which a system can be better understood by examining it as a whole. Expert elicitation represents a second strategy that enables a greater diversity of inputs to understand complex systems. We explored the use of conceptual models and expert judgments to inform expansion of monitoring around oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada, particularly related to migratory forest birds. This study area is a complex social-ecological system for which there is an abundance of specific information, but a relatively weak understanding about system behavior. Multiple conceptual models were developed to represent complexity and provide a more fulsome view of influences across the landscape. A hierarchical approach proved useful, and a mechanistic structure of the models clarified the cumulative and interactive nature of factors within and outside the study area. To address gaps in understanding, expert judgments were integrated using a series of structured exercises to derive "weightings" of importance of different components in the conceptual models, specifically pairwise comparisons, Likert scaling, and a maximum difference conjoint approach. These exercises were helpful for discriminating the importance of different influences and illuminating the competing beliefs of experts. Various supporting tools helped us engage a group of experts from across North America, which included a virtual meeting, online polling, desktop sharing, web survey, and financial incentive. This combination of techniques was innovative and proved useful for addressing complexity and uncertainty in a specific natural resource

  20. Climate change leads to differential shifts in the timing of annual cycle stages in a migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotani, Barbara M; van der Jeugd, Henk; Gienapp, Phillip; de la Hera, Iván; Pilzecker, Jos; Teichmann, Corry; Visser, Marcel E

    2018-02-01

    Shifts in reproductive phenology due to climate change have been well documented in many species but how, within the same species, other annual cycle stages (e.g. moult, migration) shift relative to the timing of breeding has rarely been studied. When stages shift at different rates, the interval between stages may change resulting in overlaps, and as each stage is energetically demanding, these overlaps may have negative fitness consequences. We used long-term data of a population of European pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) to investigate phenological shifts in three annual cycle stages: spring migration (arrival dates), breeding (egg-laying and hatching dates) and the onset of postbreeding moult. We found different advancements in the timing of breeding compared with moult (moult advances faster) and no advancement in arrival dates. To understand these differential shifts, we explored which temperatures best explain the year-to-year variation in the timing of these stages, and show that they respond differently to temperature increases in the Netherlands, causing the intervals between arrival and breeding and between breeding and moult to decrease. Next, we tested the fitness consequences of these shortened intervals. We found no effect on clutch size, but the probability of a fledged chick to recruit increased with a shorter arrival-breeding interval (earlier breeding). Finally, mark-recapture analyses did not detect an effect of shortened intervals on adult survival. Our results suggest that the advancement of breeding allows more time for fledgling development, increasing their probability to recruit. This may incur costs to other parts of the annual cycle, but, despite the shorter intervals, there was no effect on adult survival. Our results show that to fully understand the consequences of climate change, it is necessary to look carefully at different annual cycle stages, especially for organisms with complex cycles, such as migratory birds. © 2017

  1. Comprehensive framework for ecological assessment of the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Brian; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Barbour, Philip J.; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) established and funded the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI), with the goal of improving and increasing wetland habitats on private lands to benefit wintering and migrating waterbirds displaced from oil-impacted coastal wetlands. The NRCS and conservation partners provided financial and technical assistance to landowners and managers of sites enrolled in various conservation easement programs, and incorporated approximately 190,000 ha of wetlands and agricultural lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) and Gulf Coast regions in the MBHI. In fall 2010, the NRCS worked with scientists and graduate students from three universities and various conservation agencies to design and implement landscape-scale evaluations of (1) the use of MBHI-managed wetlands and comparable non-MBHI wetlands by Charadriiformes(shorebirds), Anseriformes (waterfowl), and other waterbirds; and (2) the relative effectiveness of different MBHI practices for providing habitat and food resources for migrating, resident, and wintering waterbirds. In this paper, we describe the scientific framework designed to evaluate the MBHI in improving waterbird habitats on private lands in the MAV, the Gulf Coast Prairies in Louisiana and Texas, and Gulf coastal wetlands of Mississippi and Alabama. The results of our evaluation will enhance our understanding of the influence of MBHI, other Farm Bill Conservation Initiative managed lands (e.g., Wetland Reserve Program), and selected agricultural working lands (e.g., Oryza sativa L. [Rice] fields in southern Louisiana and Texas) on wintering and migrating waterbirds. A proactive approach that uses science to evaluate governmental conservation programs is relevant and can inform development of meaningful public policy that likely will be needed for effective delivery of future conservation programs and to justify

  2. Overwintering strategies of migratory birds: a novel approach for estimating seasonal movement patterns of residents and transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Kendall, William L.; Saracco, James F.; White, Gary C.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of movement patterns in wildlife populations has played an important role in current ecological knowledge and can inform landscape conservation decisions. Direct measures of movement can be obtained using marked individuals, but this requires tracking individuals across a landscape or multiple sites.We demonstrate how movements can be estimated indirectly using single-site, capture–mark–recapture (CMR) data with a multi-state open robust design with state uncertainty model (MSORD-SU). We treat residence and transience as two phenotypic states of overwintering migrants and use time- and state-dependent probabilities of site entry and persistence as indirect measures of movement. We applied the MSORD-SU to data on eight species of overwintering Neotropical birds collected in 14 countries between 2002 and 2011. In addition to entry and persistence probabilities, we estimated the proportions of residents at a study site and mean residence times.We identified overwintering movement patterns and residence times that contrasted with prior categorizations of territoriality. Most species showed an evidence of residents entering sites at multiple time intervals, with transients tending to enter between peak resident movement times. Persistence and the proportion of residents varied by latitude, but were not always positively correlated for a given species.Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that migratory songbirds commonly move among habitats during the overwintering period. Substantial proportions of populations appear to be comprised of transient individuals, and residents tend to persist at specific sites for relatively short periods of time. This information on persistence and movement patterns should be explored for specific habitats to guide landscape management on the wintering grounds, such as determining which habitats are conserved or restored as part of certification programmes of tropical agroforestry crops. We suggest that

  3. Migration timing and its determinants for nocturnal migratory birds during autumn migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Hochachka, Wesley M; Farnsworth, Andrew; Sheldon, Daniel; Fink, Daniel; Geevarghese, Jeffrey; Winner, Kevin; Van Doren, Benjamin M; Kelling, Steve

    2015-09-01

    1. Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments, and multiple environmental and biological factors determine the timing of migration. How these factors operate in combination during autumn migration, which is considered to be under weaker time constraints relative to spring migration, is not clear. 2. Here, we examine the patterns and determinants of migration timing for nocturnal migrants during autumn migration in the north-eastern USA using nocturnal reflectivity data from 12 weather surveillance radar stations and modelled diurnal probability of occurrence for 142 species of nocturnal migrants. We first model the capacity of seasonal atmospheric conditions (wind and precipitation) and ecological productivity (vegetation greenness) to predict autumn migration intensity. We then test predictions, formulated under optimal migration theory, on how migration timing should be related to assemblage-level estimates of body size and total migration distance within the context of dietary guild (insectivore and omnivore) and level of dietary plasticity during autumn migration. 3. Our results indicate seasonal declines in ecological productivity delineate the beginning and end of peak migration, whose intensity is best predicted by the velocity of winds at migration altitudes. Insectivorous migrants departed earlier in the season and, consistent with our predictions, large-bodied and long-distance insectivorous migrants departed the earliest. Contrary to our predictions, large-bodied and some long-distance omnivorous migrants departed later in the season, patterns that were replicated in part by insectivorous migrants that displayed dietary plasticity during autumn migration. 4. Our findings indicate migration timing in the region is dictated by optimality strategies, modified based on the breadth and flexibility of migrant's foraging diets, with declining ecological productivity defining possible resource thresholds during which

  4. A method for heavy metal exposure risk assessment to migratory herbivorous birds and identification of priority pollutants/areas in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Liu, Jiayu; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Yuan, Yujie; Wu, Haipeng; Li, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Wetlands are important habitats for migratory birds but have been degraded by many anthropogenic factors including heavy metal contamination. Birds inhabiting wetlands are exposed to pollutants. In this study, a method for exposure risk assessment of migratory herbivorous birds and identification of priority pollutants/areas was developed and employed in East Dongting Lake wetland (EDT). Four heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd) in sedge and soil samples from ten lesser white-fronted goose (Anser erythropus) habitats in EDT were investigated. Results showed that negative effect of Cr and Pb on lesser white-fronted goose may occur while the concentrations of Cu and Cd are considered to be relatively safe. Prioritize threats were decreased in the following sequence: Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. Cr and Pb were considered to be the priority pollutants. Spatial interpolation based on geostatistical methods showed that Spring Breeze Lake should draw much attention. Furthermore, regions with high hazard index were identified to be priority areas of EDT for risk management.

  5. Surveillance plan for the early detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in migratory birds in the United States: surveillance year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary: This Surveillance Plan (Plan) describes plans for conducting surveillance of wild birds in the United States and its Territories and Freely-Associated States to provide for early detection of the introduction of the H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype of the influenza A virus by migratory birds during the 2009 surveillance year, spanning the period of April 1, 2009 - March 31, 2010. The Plan represents a continuation of surveillance efforts begun in 2006 under the Interagency Strategic Plan for the Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior, 2006). The Plan sets forth sampling plans by: region, target species or species groups to be sampled, locations of sampling, sample sizes, and sampling approaches and methods. This Plan will be reviewed annually and modified as appropriate for subsequent surveillance years based on evaluation of information from previous years of surveillance, changing patterns and threats of H5N1 HPAI, and changes in funding availability for avian influenza surveillance. Specific sampling strategies will be developed accordingly within each of six regions, defined here as Alaska, Hawaiian/Pacific Islands, Lower Pacific Flyway (Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona), Central Flyway, Mississippi Flyway, and Atlantic Flyway.

  6. How do energy stores and changes in these affect departure decisions by migratory birds? A critical view on stopover ecology studies and some future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaljohann, Heiko; Eikenaar, Cas

    2017-07-01

    In birds, accumulating energy is far slower than spending energy during flight. During migration, birds spend, therefore, most of the time at stopover refueling energy used during the previous flight. This elucidates why current energy stores and actual rate of accumulating energy are likely crucial factors influencing bird's decision when to resume migration in addition to other intrinsic (sex, age) and extrinsic (predation, weather) factors modulating the decision within the innate migration program. After first summarizing how energy stores and stopover durations are generally determined, we critically review that high-energy stores and low rates of accumulating energy were significantly related to high departure probabilities in several bird groups. There are, however, also many studies showing no effect at all. Recent radio-tracking studies highlighted that migrants leave a site either to resume migration or to search for a better stopover location, so-called "landscape movements". Erroneously treating such movements as departures increases the likelihood of type II errors which might mistakenly suggest no effect of either trait on departure. Furthermore, we propose that energy loss during the previous migratory flight in relation to bird's current energy stores and migration strategy significantly affects its urge to refuel and hence its departure decision.

  7. Surveillance and characterization of avian influenza viruses from migratory water birds in eastern Hokkaido, the northern part of Japan, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abao, Lary N B; Jamsransuren, Dulamjav; Bui, Vuong N; Ngo, Lai H; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Runstadler, Jonathan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2013-04-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance was conducted around a small pond in Obihiro, eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Eleven AIVs were isolated from a total of 1,269 fecal samples of migratory wild birds collected during 2009 and 2010. The sample number covered approximately 60 % of the total number of birds observed during sampling periods. The subtypes of the isolates included H3N8 (4 isolates), H5N2 (3), H6N2 (2), H6N1 (1), and H11N2 (1). The H3N8 subtype was most prevalent as in the previous studies performed in Hokkaido. The three H5N2 isolates genetically characterized as low pathogenic AIV were closely related to the strains previously isolated from aquatic wild birds in Japan and also to the Korean strains isolated from aquatic birds in recent years. In Korea, H5N2 subtype virus has often been isolated from poultry and wild birds, as well as reassortant viruses generated from duck H5N2 viruses and chicken H9N2 virus, and avian-swine-like reassortant H5N2 viruses. Considering the previous chicken outbreaks caused by highly pathogenic H5N2 viruses, which affected many countries, it should be an important priority to continue, monitoring the evolution of H5N2 viruses circulating in the region.

  8. Detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus in I. ricinus ticks collected from autumn migratory birds in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarina, Alisa; Japiņa, Kristīne; Keišs, Oskars; Salmane, Ineta; Bandere, Dace; Capligina, Valentina; Ranka, Renāte

    2015-03-01

    Birds have a potential of spreading ticks via bird migration routes. In this study, we screened 170 ticks removed during autumn 2010 from 55 birds belonging to 10 species for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). In total, TBEV RNA was detected in 14% of I. ricinus tick samples obtained from different birds species. The results of this study indicate the possible role of migrating birds in the dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks along the southward migration route. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  10. Tug of war between continental gene flow and rearing site philopatry in a migratory bird: the sex-biased dispersal paradigm reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Nicolas; Gauthier, Gilles; Giroux, Jean-François; Milot, Emmanuel; Bernatchez, Louis

    2009-02-01

    Nonrandom dispersal has been recently advanced as a mechanism promoting fine-scale genetic differentiation in resident populations, yet how this applies to species with high rates of dispersal is still unclear. Using a migratory species considered a classical example of male-biased dispersal (the greater snow goose, Chen caerulescens atlantica), we documented a temporally stable fine-scale genetic clustering between spatially distinct rearing sites (5-30 km apart), where family aggregates shortly after hatching. Such genetic differentiation can only arise if, in both sexes, dispersal is restricted and nonrandom, a surprising result considering that pairing occurs among mixed flocks of birds more than 3000 km away from the breeding grounds. Fine-scale genetic structure may thus occur even in migratory species with high gene flow. We further show that looking for genetic structure based on nesting sites only may be misleading. Genetically distinct individuals that segregated into different rearing sites were in fact spatially mixed during nesting. These findings provide new, scale-dependent links between genetic structure, pairing, and dispersal and show the importance of sampling different stages of the breeding cycle in order to detect a spatial genetic structure.

  11. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-04-27

    Executive SummaryWe operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was established in 2010 as part of a long-term monitoring program for neotropical migratory birds during spring migration and for breeding birds as part of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program.During spring migration (April and May), 2011–15, we captured 1,760 individual birds of 54 species, 91 percent (1,595) of which were newly banded, fewer than 1 percent (3) of which were recaptures that were banded in previous years, and 9 percent (143 hummingbirds, 2 hawks, and 17 other birds) of which we released unbanded. We observed an additional 22 species that were not captured. Thirty-four individuals were captured more than once. Bird capture rate averaged 0.49 ± 0.07 captures per net-hour (range 0.41–0.56). Species richness per day averaged 6.87 ± 0.33. Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s warbler) was the most abundant spring migrant captured, followed by Empidonax difficilis (Pacific-slope flycatcher), Vireo gilvus (warbling vireo), Zonotrichia leucophrys (white-crowned sparrow), and Selasphorus rufus (rufous hummingbird). Captures of white-crowned sparrow decreased, and captures of Pacific-slope flycatcher increased, over the 5 years of our study. Fifty-six percent of known-sex individuals were male and 44 percent were female. The peak number of new species arriving per day ranged from April 1 (2013-six species) to April 16 (2012-five species). A significant correlation was determined between the number of migrants captured each day per net-hour and the density of echoes on the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) images across all 5 years, and in each year except 2014. NEXRAD radar imagery appears to be a useful tool for detecting pulses in migration.Our results indicate that Point Loma provides stopover habitat during migration for 76 migratory species, including 20

  12. Candidate genes have sex-specific effects on timing of spring migration and moult speed in a long-distance migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Gaia; Podofillini, Stefano; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Cecere, Jacopo G; Spina, Fernando; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2017-10-01

    The timing of major life-history events, such as migration and moult, is set by endogenous circadian and circannual clocks, that have been well characterized at the molecular level. Conversely, the genetic sources of variation in phenology and in other behavioral traits have been sparsely addressed. It has been proposed that inter-individual variability in the timing of seasonal events may arise from allelic polymorphism at phenological candidate genes involved in the signaling cascade of the endogenous clocks. In this study of a long-distance migratory passerine bird, the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus , we investigated whether allelic variation at 5 polymorphic loci of 4 candidate genes ( Adcyap1 , Clock , Creb1 , and Npas2 ), predicted 2 major components of the annual schedule, namely timing of spring migration across the central Mediterranean sea and moult speed, the latter gauged from ptilochronological analyses of tail feathers moulted in the African winter quarters. We identified a novel Clock gene locus ( Clock region 3) showing polyQ polymorphism, which was however not significantly associated with any phenotypic trait. Npas2 allele size predicted male (but not female) spring migration date, with males bearing longer alleles migrating significantly earlier than those bearing shorter alleles. Creb1 allele size significantly predicted male (but not female) moult speed, longer alleles being associated with faster moult. All other genotype-phenotype associations were statistically non-significant. These findings provide new evidence for a role of candidate genes in modulating the phenology of different circannual activities in long-distance migratory birds, and for the occurrence of sex-specific candidate gene effects.

  13. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  14. A global threats overview for Numeniini populations: synthesising expert knowledge for a group of declining migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Brown, Daniel J.; Douglas, David T.; Alves, José A.; Bellio, Mariagrazia; Bocher, Pierrick; Buchannan, Graeme M.; Clay, Robert P.; Conklin, Jesse R.; Crockford, Nicola; Dann, Peter; Elts, Jaanus; Friis, Christian; Fuller, Richard A.; Gill, Jennifer A.; Gosbell, Ken; Johnson, James A.; Marquez-Ferrando, Rocio; Masero, José A.; Melville, David S.; Millington, Spike; Minton, Clive; Mundkur, Taej; Nol, Erika; Pehlak, Hannes; Piersma, Theunis; Rogers, Danny I.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Senner, Nathan R.; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Sheldon, Rob D.; Soloviev, Sergej A.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Verkuil, Yvonne I.

    2017-01-01

    The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species' recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the

  15. Quantifying full phenological event distributions reveals simultaneous advances, temporal stability and delays in spring and autumn migration timing in long-distance migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Will T S; Bolton, Mark; Davis, Peter; Dennis, Roy; Broad, Roger; Robertson, Iain; Riddiford, Nick J; Harvey, Paul V; Riddington, Roger; Shaw, Deryk N; Parnaby, David; Reid, Jane M

    2017-04-01

    Phenological changes in key seasonally expressed life-history traits occurring across periods of climatic and environmental change can cause temporal mismatches between interacting species, and thereby impact population and community dynamics. However, studies quantifying long-term phenological changes have commonly only measured variation occurring in spring, measured as the first or mean dates on which focal traits or events were observed. Few studies have considered seasonally paired events spanning spring and autumn or tested the key assumption that single convenient metrics accurately capture entire event distributions. We used 60 years (1955-2014) of daily bird migration census data from Fair Isle, Scotland, to comprehensively quantify the degree to which the full distributions of spring and autumn migration timing of 13 species of long-distance migratory bird changed across a period of substantial climatic and environmental change. In most species, mean spring and autumn migration dates changed little. However, the early migration phase (≤10th percentile date) commonly got earlier, while the late migration phase (≥90th percentile date) commonly got later. Consequently, species' total migration durations typically lengthened across years. Spring and autumn migration phenologies were not consistently correlated within or between years within species and hence were not tightly coupled. Furthermore, different metrics quantifying different aspects of migration phenology within seasons were not strongly cross-correlated, meaning that no single metric adequately described the full pattern of phenological change. These analyses therefore reveal complex patterns of simultaneous advancement, temporal stability and delay in spring and autumn migration phenologies, altering species' life-history structures. Additionally, they demonstrate that this complexity is only revealed if multiple metrics encompassing entire seasonal event distributions, rather than single

  16. Radiocesium in migratory aquatic game birds using contaminated U.S. Department of Energy reactor-cooling reservoirs: A long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennamer, Robert A; Oldenkamp, Ricki E; Leaphart, James C; King, Joshua D; Bryan, A Lawrence; Beasley, James C

    2017-05-01

    Low-level releases of radiocesium into former nuclear reactor cooling-reservoirs on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, dating primarily to the late 1950s and early 1960s, have allowed examination of long-term contaminant attenuation in biota occupying these habitats. Periodic collections of migratory game birds since the 1970s have documented 137 Cs (radiocesium) activity concentrations in birds of SRS reservoirs, including mainly Par Pond and Pond B. In this study, during 2014 and 2015 we released wild-caught American coots (Fulica americana) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) onto Pond B. We made lethal collections of these same birds with residence times ranging from 32 to 173 days to examine radiocesium uptake and estimate the rate of natural attenuation. The two species achieved asymptotic whole-body activity concentrations of radiocesium at different times, with ring-necked ducks requiring almost three times longer than the 30-35 days needed by coots. We estimated ecological half-life (T e ) for Pond B coots over a 28-yr period as 16.8 yr (95% CI = 12.9-24.2 yr). Pond B coot T e was nearly four times longer than T e for coots at nearby Par Pond where radiocesium bioavailability had been constrained for decades by pumping of potassium-enriched river water into that reservoir. T e could not be estimated from long-term data for radiocesium in Pond B diving ducks, including ring-necked ducks, likely because of high variability in residence times of ducks on Pond B. Our results highlight the importance: (1) for risk managers to understand site-specific bio-geochemistry of radiocesium for successful implementation of countermeasures at contaminated sites and (2) of residence time as a critical determinant of observed radiocesium activity concentrations in highly mobile wildlife inhabiting contaminated habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring is not enough: on the need for a model-based approach to migratory bird management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Informed management requires information about system state and about effects of potential management actions on system state. Population monitoring can provide the needed information about system state, as well as information that can be used to investigate effects of management actions. Three methods for investigating effects of management on bird populations are (1) retrospective analysis, (2) formal experimentation and constrained-design studies, and (3) adaptive management. Retrospective analyses provide weak inferences, regardless of the quality of the monitoring data. The active use of monitoring data in experimental or constrained-design studies or in adaptive management is recommended. Under both approaches, learning occurs via the comparison of estimates from the monitoring program with predictions from competing management models.

  18. Environmental conditions during breeding modify the strength of mass-dependent carry-over effects in a migratory bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier A Harrison

    Full Text Available In many animals, processes occurring in one season carry over to influence reproductive success and survival in future seasons. The strength of such carry-over effects is unlikely to be uniform across years, yet our understanding of the processes that are capable of modifying their strength remains limited. Here we show that female light-bellied Brent geese with higher body mass prior to spring migration successfully reared more offspring during breeding, but only in years where environmental conditions during breeding were favourable. In years of bad weather during breeding, all birds suffered reduced reproductive output irrespective of pre-migration mass. Our results suggest that the magnitude of reproductive benefits gained by maximising body stores to fuel breeding fluctuates markedly among years in concert with conditions during the breeding season, as does the degree to which carry-over effects are capable of driving variance in reproductive success among individuals. Therefore while carry-over effects have considerable power to drive fitness asymmetries among individuals, our ability to interpret these effects in terms of their implications for population dynamics is dependent on knowledge of fitness determinants occurring in subsequent seasons. 

  19. Effects of Spring Temperatures on the Strength of Selection on Timing of Reproduction in a Long-Distance Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marcel E.; Gienapp, Phillip; Husby, Arild; Morrisey, Michael; de la Hera, Iván; Pulido, Francisco; Both, Christiaan

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has differentially affected the timing of seasonal events for interacting trophic levels, and this has often led to increased selection on seasonal timing. Yet, the environmental variables driving this selection have rarely been identified, limiting our ability to predict future ecological impacts of climate change. Using a dataset spanning 31 years from a natural population of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), we show that directional selection on timing of reproduction intensified in the first two decades (1980–2000) but weakened during the last decade (2001–2010). Against expectation, this pattern could not be explained by the temporal variation in the phenological mismatch with food abundance. We therefore explored an alternative hypothesis that selection on timing was affected by conditions individuals experience when arriving in spring at the breeding grounds: arriving early in cold conditions may reduce survival. First, we show that in female recruits, spring arrival date in the first breeding year correlates positively with hatch date; hence, early-hatched individuals experience colder conditions at arrival than late-hatched individuals. Second, we show that when temperatures at arrival in the recruitment year were high, early-hatched young had a higher recruitment probability than when temperatures were low. We interpret this as a potential cost of arriving early in colder years, and climate warming may have reduced this cost. We thus show that higher temperatures in the arrival year of recruits were associated with stronger selection for early reproduction in the years these birds were born. As arrival temperatures in the beginning of the study increased, but recently declined again, directional selection on timing of reproduction showed a nonlinear change. We demonstrate that environmental conditions with a lag of up to two years can alter selection on phenological traits in natural populations, something that has important

  20. Effects of spring temperatures on the strength of selection on timing of reproduction in a long-distance migratory bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel E Visser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has differentially affected the timing of seasonal events for interacting trophic levels, and this has often led to increased selection on seasonal timing. Yet, the environmental variables driving this selection have rarely been identified, limiting our ability to predict future ecological impacts of climate change. Using a dataset spanning 31 years from a natural population of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca, we show that directional selection on timing of reproduction intensified in the first two decades (1980-2000 but weakened during the last decade (2001-2010. Against expectation, this pattern could not be explained by the temporal variation in the phenological mismatch with food abundance. We therefore explored an alternative hypothesis that selection on timing was affected by conditions individuals experience when arriving in spring at the breeding grounds: arriving early in cold conditions may reduce survival. First, we show that in female recruits, spring arrival date in the first breeding year correlates positively with hatch date; hence, early-hatched individuals experience colder conditions at arrival than late-hatched individuals. Second, we show that when temperatures at arrival in the recruitment year were high, early-hatched young had a higher recruitment probability than when temperatures were low. We interpret this as a potential cost of arriving early in colder years, and climate warming may have reduced this cost. We thus show that higher temperatures in the arrival year of recruits were associated with stronger selection for early reproduction in the years these birds were born. As arrival temperatures in the beginning of the study increased, but recently declined again, directional selection on timing of reproduction showed a nonlinear change. We demonstrate that environmental conditions with a lag of up to two years can alter selection on phenological traits in natural populations, something that has

  1. Pattern of mercury accumulation in different tissues of migratory and resident birds: Western reef heron (Egretta gularis) and Siberian gull (Larus heuglini) in Hara International Wetland-Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Yousef; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The Hara Mangrove Forest of the Persian Gulf is undergoing increasing pollution from industrial, municipal, and petroleum sources; however, little research in ecotoxicology has been carried out in this ecosystem. In the present study, mercury distribution and accumulation were investigated in muscle, liver, kidney, and feather of the resident Western reef heron (n = 15) and the migratory Siberian gull (n = 15). We also evaluated the relation between Hg concentrations, sex, and age (juvenile vs. adult). Results showed that the highest concentrations of Hg were recorded in the feather (35 ± 0.14-3.0 ± 0.27 mg kg(-1) dw) and at 3.7-, 1.6-, and 1.3-fold in muscle, kidney, and liver, respectively. Concentrations of mercury in tissues of migratory birds were two times higher than in resident birds; geographical differences and feeding habits were used to explain these variations. We found a weak relationship between Hg concentrations in feathers and internal tissues (r ≤ 0.50); conversely, liver presented strong positive correlations with other soft tissues, especially kidney (p > 0.05; r = 0.82). Results showed that sex and age have no significant effects on T-Hg accumulation in these birds (p > 0.05; r pollution in this region.

  2. Nocturnal departure timing in songbirds facing distinct migratory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Florian; Eikenaar, Cas; Crysler, Zoe J; Taylor, Philip D; Schmaljohann, Heiko

    2018-03-05

    Most migratory songbirds travel between their breeding areas and wintering grounds through a series of nocturnal flights. The timing of their departures defines the potential flight duration and thus the distance covered during a migratory night. Yet, migratory songbirds show substantial variation in their nocturnal departure timing. With this study, we aim to assess whether the respective challenges of the migration route, namely its distance and nature, help to explain this variation. At a stopover site, we caught Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) of two subspecies that differ in distance and nature of their onward migration route in spring, but not in autumn. We determined the start of their nocturnal migratory restlessness during short-term captivity, and radiotracked their nocturnal departure timing after release in both migration seasons. Northern Wheatears started their nocturnal migratory restlessness earlier when facing a long remaining migration distance and an extended sea barrier in spring. Individual departure directions generally affected the nocturnal departure timing with early departures being directed towards the respective migratory destination. In spring, this pattern was predominantly found in birds carrying relatively large fuel stores, but was absent in lean birds. At the same time, birds facing a short remaining migration distance and no extended sea barrier strongly reacted to relatively large fuel stores by an early start of nocturnal migratory behaviour (migratory restlessness and departure timing), whereas this reaction was not found in birds facing a long remaining migration distance and sea barrier. These results suggest that the basic diel schedule of birds' migratory activity is adapted to the onward migration route. Further, they suggest that birds adjust their behavioural response, that is start of nocturnal migratory behaviour, to fuel stores in relation to their impending migratory challenges. This is a substantial step in

  3. A polar system of intercontinental bird migration

    OpenAIRE

    Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A; Hedenström, Anders; Henningsson, Sara S; Karlsson, Håkan; Rosén, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine

    2007-01-01

    Studies of bird migration in the Beringia region of Alaska and eastern Siberia are of special interest for revealing the importance of bird migration between Eurasia and North America, for evaluating orientation principles used by the birds at polar latitudes and for understanding the evolutionary implications of intercontinental migratory connectivity among birds as well as their parasites. We used tracking radar placed onboard the ice-breaker Oden to register bird migratory flights from 30 ...

  4. IncA/C Plasmid Carrying bla(NDM-1), bla(CMY-16), and fosA3 in a Salmonella enterica Serovar Corvallis Strain Isolated from a Migratory Wild Bird in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, L; Guerra, B; Schmoger, S; Fischer, J; Helmuth, R; Zong, Z; García-Fernández, A; Carattoli, A

    2015-10-01

    A Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis strain was isolated from a wild bird in Germany. This strain carried the IncA/C2 pRH-1238 plasmid. Complete sequencing of the plasmid was performed, identifying the blaNDM-1, blaCMY-16, fosA3, sul1, sul2, strA, strB, aac(6')-Ib, aadA5, aphA6, tetA(A), mphA, floR, dfrA7, and merA genes, which confer clinically relevant resistance to most of the antimicrobial classes, including β-lactams with carbapenems, fosfomycin, aminoglycosides, co-trimoxazole, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The strain likely originated from the Asiatic region and was transferred to Germany through the Milvus migrans migratory route. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. 50 CFR 20.37 - Custody of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody of birds of another. 20.37 Section... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.37 Custody of birds of another. No person shall receive or have in custody any migratory game birds belonging to another person unless such...

  6. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately killed...

  7. 50 CFR 20.42 - Transportation of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of birds of another. 20.42... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Transportation Within the United States § 20.42 Transportation of birds of another. No person shall transport migratory game birds belonging to another person...

  8. 50 CFR 20.62 - Importation of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of birds of another. 20.62... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Importations § 20.62 Importation of birds of another. No person shall import migratory game birds belonging to another person. ...

  9. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm: Preliminary note of analysis of data from spring 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    In February 1998, the Ministry of the Environment gave Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.a. approval to erect a wind farm, capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk off the west coast of Jutland. Construction activities at Horns Rev started in September 2001 and were finished in summer 2002. The entire project has been organised as a demonstration project to assess the technical, economic and environmental constraints on the future development of electric power production in Danish offshore environments. Within the framework of the environmental programme, bird investigations have been carried out in relation to the risk of collision between birds and wind turbines since 2002. To provide the latest update on the results from the bird investigations, this note presents results compiled during spring 2004 and deals with a preliminary analysis of effects on birds present at Horns Rev during commercial operation of the Horns Rev wind farm. Due to the remoteness of the area it has not been possible to obtain base-line investigation of bird occurrence and behaviour at the wind farm site. (au)

  10. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm: Preliminary note of analysis of data from spring 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    In February 1998, the Ministry of the Environment gave Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.a. approval to erect a wind farm, capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk off the west coast of Jutland. Construction activities at Horns Rev started in September 2001 and were finished in summer 2002. The entire project has been organised as a demonstration project to assess the technical, economic and environmental constraints on the future development of electric power production in Danish offshore environments. Within the framework of the environmental programme, bird investigations have been carried out in relation to the risk of collision between birds and wind turbines since 2002. To provide the latest update on the results from the bird investigations, this note presents results compiled during spring 2004 and deals with a preliminary analysis of effects on birds present at Horns Rev during commercial operation of the Horns Rev wind farm. Due to the remoteness of the area it has not been possible to obtain base-line investigation of bird occurrence and behaviour at the wind farm site. (au)

  11. Influence of moisture and food supply on the movement dynamics of a nonbreeding migratory bird (Parkesia noveboracensis) in a seasonal landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A.M. Smith; Leonard R. Reitsma; Peter P. Marra

    2011-01-01

    We radiotracked Northern Waterthrushes (Parkesia noveboracensis) in four habitats in Puerto Rico during two winters (i.e., January–April) in 2003 and 2004 to determine the ecological determinants of diurnal space use and overwinter sitepersistence in this species. The majority of birds (69%) were sedentary and used a contiguous area within a single habitat over the...

  12. Feather mass and winter moult extent are heritable but not associated with fitness-related traits in a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Reed, T.; Pulido, F.; Visser, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    In birds, the allocation of resources to plumage production may have important fitness consequences. However, we have only a limited understanding of how plumage traits respond to natural selection, making it difficult to predict how variation in plumage traits may contribute to the adaptation of

  13. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, Barend; Mateo, Rafael; Vives, Ingrid; Cardiel, Iris; Guitart, Raimon

    2008-05-01

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for summation operator PCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and summation operator PCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE.

  14. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drooge, Barend van [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Vives, Ingrid [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cardiel, Iris [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Guitart, Raimon [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: raimon.guitart@uab.cat

    2008-05-15

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for {sigma}PCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and {sigma}PCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors.

  15. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drooge, Barend van; Mateo, Rafael; Vives, Ingrid; Cardiel, Iris; Guitart, Raimon

    2008-01-01

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for ΣPCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and ΣPCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors

  16. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  17. Implications of mitochondrial DNA polyphyly in two ecologically undifferentiated but morphologically distinct migratory birds, the masked and white-browed woodswallows Artamus spp. of inland Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Leo; Wilke, Thomas; Ten Have, Jose; Chesser, R. Terry

    2006-01-01

    The white-browed woodswallow Artamus superciliosus and masked woodswallow A. personatus(Passeriformes: Artamidae) are members of Australia's diverse arid- and semi-arid zone avifauna. Widely sympatric and among Australia's relatively few obligate long-distance temperate-tropical migrants, the two are well differentiated morphologically but not ecologically and vocally. They are pair breeders unlike other Artamus species, which are at least facultative cooperative breeders. For these reasons they are an excellent case in which to use molecular data in integrative study of their evolution from ecological and biogeographical perspectives. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to test whether they are each other's closest relatives, whether they evolved migration independently, whether they have molecular signatures of population expansions like some other Australian arid zone birds, and to estimate the timing of any inferred population expansions. Their mtDNAs are monophyletic with respect to other species of Artamusbut polyphyletic with respect to each other. The two species appear not to have evolved migration independently of each other but their morphological and mtDNA evolution have been strongly decoupled. Some level of hybridization and introgression cannot be dismissed outright as being involved in their mtDNA polyphyly but incomplete sorting of their most recent common ancestor's mtDNA is a simpler explanation consistent with their ecology. Bayesian phylogenetic inference and analyses of diversity within the two species (n=77) with conventional diversity statistics, statistical parsimony, and tests for population expansion vs stability (Tajima's D, Fu's Fsand Ramos-Onsin and Rozas's R2) all favour recent population increases. However, a non-starlike network suggests expansion(s) relatively early in the Pleistocene. Repeated population bottlenecks corresponding with multiple peaks of Pleistocene aridity could explain our findings, which add a new

  18. Dynamic conservation for migratory species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark D; Sullivan, Brian L; Hallstein, Eric; Matsumoto, Sandra; Kelling, Steve; Merrifield, Matthew; Fink, Daniel; Johnston, Alison; Hochachka, Wesley M; Bruns, Nicholas E; Reiter, Matthew E; Veloz, Sam; Hickey, Catherine; Elliott, Nathan; Martin, Leslie; Fitzpatrick, John W; Spraycar, Paul; Golet, Gregory H; McColl, Christopher; Morrison, Scott A

    2017-08-01

    In an era of unprecedented and rapid global change, dynamic conservation strategies that tailor the delivery of habitat to when and where it is most needed can be critical for the persistence of species, especially those with diverse and dispersed habitat requirements. We demonstrate the effectiveness of such a strategy for migratory waterbirds. We analyzed citizen science and satellite data to develop predictive models of bird populations and the availability of wetlands, which we used to determine temporal and spatial gaps in habitat during a vital stage of the annual migration. We then filled those gaps using a reverse auction marketplace to incent qualifying landowners to create temporary wetlands on their properties. This approach is a cost-effective way of adaptively meeting habitat needs for migratory species, optimizes conservation outcomes relative to investment, and can be applied broadly to other conservation challenges.

  19. Migratory divides and their consequences for dispersal, population size and parasite-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Garamszegi, L Z; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Soler, J J

    2011-08-01

    Populations of migratory birds differ in their direction of migration with neighbouring populations often migrating in divergent directions separated by migratory divides. A total of 26% of 103 passerine bird species in Europe had migratory divides that were located disproportionately often along a longitudinal gradient in Central Europe, consistent with the assumption of a Quaternary glacial origin of such divides in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas followed by recolonization. Given that studies have shown significant genetic differentiation and reduced gene flow across migratory divides, we hypothesized that an absence of migratory divides would result in elevated rates of gene flow and hence a reduced level of local adaptation. In a comparative study, species with migratory divides had larger population sizes and population densities and longer dispersal distances than species without migratory divides. Species with migratory divides tended to be habitat generalists. Bird species with migratory divides had higher richness of blood parasites and higher growth rates of Staphylococcus on their eggs during the incubation period. There was weaker cell-mediated immunity in adults and stronger cell lysis in species with migratory divides. These findings may suggest that migratory divides constitute barriers to dispersal with consequences for ecology and evolution of distributions, population sizes, habitats and parasite-host interactions. They also suggest that migratory divides may play a role in local adaptation in host-parasite interactions. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Migratory Bird Joint Ventures of New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — A joint venture is a self-directed partnership of agencies, organizations, corporations, tribes, or individuals that has formally accepted the responsibility of...

  1. A Palaearctic migratory raptor species tracks shifting prey availability within its wintering range in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trierweiler, Christiane; Mullie, Wim C.; Drent, Rudi H.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, Franz; Harouna, Abdoulaye; de Bakker, Marinus; Koks, Ben J.

    Mid-winter movements of up to several hundreds of kilometres are typical for many migratory bird species wintering in Africa. Unpredictable temporary food concentrations are thought to result in random movements of such birds, whereas resightings and recoveries of marked birds suggest some degree of

  2. Experimental temperature manipulations alter songbird autumnal nocturnal migratory restlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berchtold Adrienne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Migrating birds may respond to a variety of environmental cues in order to time migration. During the migration season nocturnally migrating songbirds may migrate or stop-over at their current location, and when migrating they may vary the rate or distance of migration on any given night. It has long been known that a variety of weather-related factors including wind speed and direction, and temperature, are correlated with migration in free-living birds, however these variables are often correlated with each other. In this study we experimentally manipulated temperature to determine if it would directly modulate nocturnal migratory restlessness in songbirds. We experimentally manipulated temperature between 4, 14, and 24°C and monitored nocturnal migratory restlessness during autumn in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis. White-throated sparrows are relatively shortdistance migrants with a prolonged autumnal migration, and we thus predicted they might be sensitive to weatherrelated cues when deciding whether to migrate or stopover. At warm temperatures (24°C none of the birds exhibited migratory restlessness. The probability of exhibiting migratory restlessness, and the intensity of this restlessness (number of infra-red beam breaks increased at cooler (14°C, 4°C temperatures. These data support the hypothesis that one of the many factors that birds use when making behavioural decisions during migration is temperature, and that birds can respond to temperature directly independently of other weather-related cues.

  3. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements......, and conclude that the currently believed theoretical framework is insufficient to explain the observed performance. The other study investigates the ability of a displaced experienced migrant to navigate back to the normal migration route. It documents the capability, but also finds interesting patterns...

  4. The flight apparatus of migratory and sedentary individuals of a partially migratory songbird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudickar, Adam M; Partecke, Jesko

    2012-01-01

    Variations in the geometry of the external flight apparatus of birds are beneficial for different behaviors. Long-distance flight is less costly with more pointed wings and shorter tails; however these traits decrease maneuverability at low speeds. Selection has led to interspecific differences in these and other flight apparatuses in relation to migration distance. If these principles are general, how are the external flight apparatus within a partially migratory bird species shaped in which individuals either migrate or stay at their breeding grounds? We resolved this question by comparing the wing pointedness and tail length (relative to wing length) of migrant and resident European blackbirds (Turdus merula) breeding in the same population. We predicted that migrant blackbirds would have more pointed wings and shorter tails than residents. Contrary to our predictions, there were no differences between migrants and residents in either measure. Our results indicate that morphological differences between migrants and residents in this partially migratory population may be constrained.

  5. Shared wilderness, shared responsibility, shared vision: Protecting migratory wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will Meeks; Jimmy Fox; Nancy Roeper

    2011-01-01

    Wilderness plays a vital role in global and landscape-level conservation of wildlife. Millions of migratory birds and mammals rely on wilderness lands and waters during critical parts of their life. As large, ecologically intact landscapes, wilderness areas also play a vital role in addressing global climate change by increasing carbon sequestration, reducing...

  6. 78 FR 65578 - Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... (for Canada), Mexico, Japan, and the Soviet Union (Russia). We implement the provisions of the MBTA... control methods become ineffective and without continued lethal control as a part of a vertebrate pest... flexibility analysis that describes the effect of the rule on small businesses, small organizations, and small...

  7. 76 FR 58681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... additional harvest pressure, including the Tall Grass Prairie (TGP), Western Prairie, and the Eastern Prairie... goose resources, including progress on a revision to the TGP Population Management Plan. We would...

  8. 75 FR 58249 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... would also be subjected to additional harvest pressure, including the Tall Grass Prairie (TGP), Western... Plains resident geese in Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, or Texas. Population abundance indices for the TGP... and Mississippi Flyways, which share the TGP and EPP populations. We believe that more coordination...

  9. 77 FR 49867 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... balance potentially conflicting objectives for arctic, subarctic, and temperate (resident) breeding... take by sport hunters, or both. In many cases (e.g., tundra swans, some sandhill crane populations...

  10. 75 FR 53774 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... declaration form. Other Tribal regulations apply, and may be obtained at the Fish and Game Office in Parker... addition, shooting hours are sunrise to sunset, and each waterfowl hunter 16 years of age or older must.... Shooting hours are one-half hour before sunrise to one-half hour after sunset. Nontoxic shot is required...

  11. 76 FR 44729 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... from which States may select season dates, shooting hours, and daily bag and possession limits for the... weekend, holidays, or other non-school days when youth hunters would have the maximum opportunity to...

  12. 77 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... reduce the potential for shooting mortality or injury of closed species. These conservation measures..., meetings, radio shows, signs, school visits, and one-on-one contacts. We also recognize that no listed..., and in-season verification of the harvest. Our primary strategy to reduce the threat of shooting...

  13. 78 FR 11988 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ..., developed measures in 2009 to further reduce the potential for shooting mortality or injury of closed..., radio shows, signs, school visits, and one-on-one contacts. We also recognize that no listed eiders have... reduce the threat of shooting mortality of threatened eiders is to continue working with North Slope...

  14. 76 FR 54051 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... season dates, shooting hours, and daily bag and possession limits for the 2011-12 season. These... weekend, holidays, or other non-school days when youth hunters would have the maximum opportunity to... hunters would encounter whooping cranes. Kentucky has also opted to delay legal shooting hours until...

  15. 78 FR 27927 - Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... would remove horned larks from the depredation order. Horned larks feed on ``a diversity of food types, primarily seeds and insects, but also some fruits'' (Beason 1995). Damage to some agricultural crops has...

  16. 77 FR 42919 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Canadian prairies declined relative to 2011. Residual moisture from prior years benefitted more permanent... precipitation over much of the bush and ice-free habitats benefitted arriving waterfowl. Drier conditions were... 50 cranes. Woodcock Singing-ground and Wing-collection surveys were conducted to assess the...

  17. 75 FR 44855 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... moisture, but the early spring should benefit waterfowl across the entire area. Eastern Survey Area The... (survey was not complete in 2008) and is above the population objective of 2,500. Woodcock Singing-ground... (Scolopax minor). The Singing-ground Survey is intended to measure long-term changes in woodcock population...

  18. 78 FR 58123 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... entities in detail as part of the 1981 cost-benefit analysis. This analysis was revised annually from 1990... Survey (expires 4/30/ 2015). 1018-0019--North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey (expire 4/30/2015...

  19. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... criteria developed for the interim strategy, the 3-year average for the Singing Ground Survey indices and... entities in detail as part of the 1981 cost-benefit analysis. This analysis was revised annually from 1990...

  20. 78 FR 45375 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... benefit habitats into 2014. The majority of the Canadian prairies had above-average winter precipitation... 2012, and the boreal region has benefitted from average annual precipitation. Most of the Canadian... Singing-ground and Wing-collection Surveys were conducted to assess the population status of the American...

  1. 75 FR 59041 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... or more on the economy or adversely affect an economic sector, productivity, jobs, the environment... annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more. However, because this rule establishes hunting..., Arizona (Tribal Members and Nontribal Hunters). Doves Season Dates: Open September 1 through 15, 2010...

  2. 78 FR 53217 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...; would allow the first hunting season of swans; would open the season for several species (other than... Treaty Area, the GLIFWC's proposal would open the season for several species to September 1 to align with... an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more. However, because this rule establishes...

  3. 76 FR 53535 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... 52398) and the September 23, 2010, final rule (75 FR 58250), we announced our intention to propose... governing the application of those criteria would remain unchanged. When we announced our intention to... desire to provide as much hunting opportunity on these geese as possible, and we share the philosophy...

  4. 77 FR 58657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ..., mourning doves, white-winged doves, white-tipped doves, and band-tailed pigeons; and the status and harvest... regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow for public...-Tailed Pigeons Season Dates: Open September 1 through 30, 2012. Daily Bag and Possession Limits: 5 and 10...

  5. 77 FR 54451 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... that regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow... and 16 snipe, respectively. Band-Tailed Pigeon Season Dates: Open September 15, 2012, through January 6, 2013. Daily Bag and Possession Limits: 2 and 4 pigeons, respectively. General: Tribal members...

  6. 78 FR 58233 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow for public...-tailed Pigeons Season Dates: Open September 1 through 30, 2013. Daily Bag and Possession Limits: 5 and 10 pigeons, respectively. Mourning Doves Season Dates: Open September 1 through 30, 2013. Daily Bag and...

  7. 78 FR 35844 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... increasing the possession limit from 2 to 3 times the daily bag limit for band-tailed pigeons, special... emphasizes further that regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking...

  8. 78 FR 21199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... (doves and pigeons); Gruidae (cranes); Rallidae (rails, coots, moorhens, and gallinules); and... 12. Rails 13. Snipe 14. Woodcock 15. Band-tailed Pigeons 16. Mourning Doves 17. White-winged and... emphasizes further that regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking...

  9. 75 FR 18764 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... in the field and providing photo documentation of some portion of the harvest. In-season harvest... that one yellow-billed loon was found dead in a fishing net; one severely injured yellow-billed loon... biologists) from touching Steller's eiders (whether dead or injured) under any circumstances. The commenter...

  10. 76 FR 68263 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Gulf of Alaska roaded area, and Southeast Alaska were excluded from eligible subsistence harvest areas... Slope partners to conduct education, outreach, and harvest monitoring. In addition, the emergency... local, State, or tribal governments or private entities. The proposed rule does not have a significant...

  11. 76 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ...-Susitna and Fairbanks North Star boroughs, the Kenai Peninsula roaded area, the Gulf of Alaska roaded area... continues to be working with North Slope partners to conduct education, outreach, and harvest monitoring... impose a cost of $100 million or more in any given year on local, State, or tribal governments or private...

  12. 77 FR 23093 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... adversely affect an economic sector, productivity, jobs, the environment, or other units of the government... allowed the option of dividing their allotted hunting days into segments to take advantage of species... splits, to hunter recruitment, retention, and/or satisfaction are equivocal or lacking. In the face of...

  13. 75 FR 65599 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... with Canada, Mexico, Japan, and Russia, to ``issue such regulations as may be necessary to assure that... agencies' actions. (c) Whether the rule will materially affect entitlements, grants, user fees, loan...

  14. 78 FR 52337 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...). In addition, the strategy includes criteria for equitable distribution of scaup harvest amongst flyways based on historical distribution (Mississippi: 52 percent; Atlantic: 19 percent; Central: 17... Unit. The Council notes that the mean 3-year (2011-13) estimate of migrant Canada geese in North...

  15. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  16. Bird Use of Imperial Valley Crops [ds427

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Agriculture crops in the Imperial Valley of California provide valuable habitat for many resident and migratory birds and are a very important component of the...

  17. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F Stuber

    Full Text Available White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  18. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathog...

  19. Atmospheric conditions create freeways, detours and tailbacks for migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Liechti, Felix; Vansteelant, Wouter M G

    2017-07-01

    The extraordinary adaptations of birds to contend with atmospheric conditions during their migratory flights have captivated ecologists for decades. During the 21st century technological advances have sparked a revival of research into the influence of weather on migrating birds. Using biologging technology, flight behaviour is measured across entire flyways, weather radar networks quantify large-scale migratory fluxes, citizen scientists gather observations of migrant birds and mechanistic models are used to simulate migration in dynamic aerial environments. In this review, we first introduce the most relevant microscale, mesoscale and synoptic scale atmospheric phenomena from the point of view of a migrating bird. We then provide an overview of the individual responses of migrant birds (when, where and how to fly) in relation to these phenomena. We explore the cumulative impact of individual responses to weather during migration, and the consequences thereof for populations and migratory systems. In general, individual birds seem to have a much more flexible response to weather than previously thought, but we also note similarities in migratory behaviour across taxa. We propose various avenues for future research through which we expect to derive more fundamental insights into the influence of weather on the evolution of migratory behaviour and the life-history, population dynamics and species distributions of migrant birds.

  20. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  1. The Ukrainian Migratory Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    TOLSTOKOROVA, Alissa V.

    2011-01-01

    Improving EU and US Immigration Systems' Capacity for Responding to Global Challenges: Learning from experiences The paper discusses recent developments in Ukrainian migratory corridor, focusing on transit migration, a reality that has emerged since independence. It analyzes push and pull factors underpinning the rise in mobility which followed the downfall of the Soviet Union, traces the different ways that migrants enter Ukraine and examines routes followed by them in entering Europe, tr...

  2. Regional migratory osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahir, John G. [Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: john.cahir@nnuh.nhs.uk; Toms, Andoni P. [Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO) is an uncommon disease characterised by a migrating arthralgia involving the weight bearing joints of the lower limb. The typical imaging findings on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and bone scintigraphy are described and illustrated. Men in their fifth and sixth decades of life are most commonly affected. The most common presentation is with proximal to distal spread in the lower limb. The world literature has been reviewed which has revealed 63 documented cases of regional osteoporosis or bone marrow oedema with migratory symptoms. Most of these cases have not been labelled as RMO and therefore the condition is probably under-diagnosed. The radiology of RMO is indistinguishable from transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) except for the migratory symptoms and the two conditions are likely to be part of the same spectrum of disease. Systemic osteoporosis is a more recently recognised accompanying feature that hints at an underlying aetiology and an approach to the management of this condition.

  3. Optimizing conservation of migratory species over their full annual cycle in the Western Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Joseph; Auer, Tom; Fink, Daniel; Arcese, Peter; Rodewald, Amanda; Wilson, Scott; Schuster, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Strategic plans to conserve migratory species require detailed knowledge on species distribution, abundance, and habitat use over the annual cycle, but such data are lacking for most species. We developed a hemispheric approach to planning using spatiotemporally explicit species abundance models to prioritize land needed to conserve ≥17% of the global populations of 109 species of Neotropical migratory birds. The efficiency of annual cycle plans was evaluated in comparisons to single-season p...

  4. Ecosystem services from transborder migratory species: Implications for conservation governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Chester, Charles C.; Semmens, Darius J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Rodriguez-McGoffin, M. Sofia; Merideth, Robert; Diffendorfer, Jay E.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the conservation challenges of volant migratory transborder species and conservation governance primarily in North America. Many migratory species provide ecosystem service benefits to society. For example, insectivorous bats prey on crop pests and reduce the need for pesticides; birds and insects pollinate food plants; and birds afford recreational opportunities to hunters and birdwatchers. Migration is driven by the seasonal availability of resources; as resources in one area become seasonally scarce, individuals move to locations where resources have become seasonally abundant. The separation of the annual lifecycle means that species management and governance is often fractured across international borders. Because migratory species depend on habitat in different locations, their ability to provide ecosystem services in one area depends on the spatial subsidies, or support, provided by habitat and ecological processes in other areas. This creates telecouplings, or interconnections across geographic space, of areas such that impacts to the habitat of a migratory species in one location will affect the benefits enjoyed by people in other locations. Information about telecoupling and spatial subsidies can be used to craft new governance arrangements such as Payment for Ecosystem Services programs that target specific stakeholder groups and locations. We illustrate these challenges and opportunities with three North American case studies: the Duck Stamp Program, Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), and monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).

  5. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  6. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  7. Abundância sazonal de aves migratórias na Área de Proteção Ambiental de Piaçabuçu, Alagoas, Brasil Seasonal abundance of migratory birds in the Piaçabuçu Protection Area, Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna A. S. Cabral

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Todos os anos milhares de aves limícolas e migratórias invernam ao longo da costa da América do Sul, entre setembro e abril, onde adquirem massa corpórea e realizam mudas para retornar aos sítios de reprodução. Estudos quali-quantitativos foram realizados na Área de Proteção Ambiental de Piaçabuçu, Alagoas, Brasil, através da contagem direta, objetivando o acompanhamento das flutuações sazonais da avifauna migrante. Foram registradas cinco espécies da família Charadriidae: Vanellus chilensis (Wagler, 1827; Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758; Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825; Charadrius collaris Vieillot, 1818 e Charadrius wilsonia (Ord, 1814 e cinco espécies da família Scolopacidae: Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus, 1758; Actitis macularius (Linnaeus, 1766; Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Gmelin, 1789; Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 e Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764. Pluvialis squatarola, Charadrius semipalmatus, Charadrius collaris, Arenaria interpres, Calidris pusilla e Calidris alba foram consideradas constantes (presentes em mais de 50% das observações. Charadrius semipalmatus e Calidris alba apresentaram os maiores índices de freqüência de ocorrência nos meses de novembro e dezembro e, março e setembro, respectivamente. A correlação de Spearman demonstra uma forte dependência na migração destas espécies. A fidelidade dessas aves a APA de Piaçabuçu observada nessa pesquisa indica ser a área um sítio de invernada, reforçando sua importância para a conservação das espécies migratórias que utilizam o local.Every year, thousands of limicola and migratory birds winter on the South American coast, between September and April, where they acquire body mass and undergo moulting before returning to their reproduction sites. Qualitative and quantitative studies were performed in the Piaçabuçu Protection Area located in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, by direct counting, aiming to follow upon the birds' seasonal

  8. Species composition, abundance and activity pattern of birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23.81%) were irregular. The species composition decreased during the wet season due to the departure of migratory birds. But, the abundance of birds during the wet season was greater than during the dry season. The most abundant species ...

  9. Setting conservation priorities for migratory networks under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal-Adams, Kiran L; Klaassen, Marcel; Nicol, Sam; Possingham, Hugh P; Chadès, Iadine; Fuller, Richard A

    2017-06-01

    Conserving migratory species requires protecting connected habitat along the pathways they travel. Despite recent improvements in tracking animal movements, migratory connectivity remains poorly resolved at a population level for the vast majority of species, thus conservation prioritization is hampered. To address this data limitation, we developed a novel approach to spatial prioritization based on a model of potential connectivity derived from empirical data on species abundance and distance traveled between sites during migration. We applied the approach to migratory shorebirds of the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Conservation strategies that prioritized sites based on connectivity and abundance metrics together maintained larger populations of birds than strategies that prioritized sites based only on abundance metrics. The conservation value of a site therefore depended on both its capacity to support migratory animals and its position within the migratory pathway; the loss of crucial sites led to partial or total population collapse. We suggest that conservation approaches that prioritize sites supporting large populations of migrants should, where possible, also include data on the spatial arrangement of sites. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Marsh frogs, Pelophylax ridibundus, determine migratory direction by magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhparonov, Vladimir V; Ogurtsov, Sergei V

    2017-01-01

    Orientation by magnetic cues appears to be adaptive during animal migrations. Whereas the magnetic orientation in birds, mammals, and urodele amphibians is being investigated intensively, the data about anurans are still scarce. This study tests whether marsh frogs could determine migratory direction between the breeding pond and the wintering site by magnetic cues in the laboratory. Adult frogs (N = 32) were individually tested in the T-maze 127 cm long inside the three-axis Helmholtz coil system (diameter 3 m). The arms of the maze were positioned parallel to the natural migratory route of this population when measured in accordance with magnetic field. The frogs were tested under two-motivational conditions mediated by temperature/light regime: the breeding migratory state and the wintering state. The frogs' choice in a T-maze was evident only when analyzed in accordance with the direction of the magnetic field: they moved along the migratory route to the breeding pond and followed the reversion of the horizontal component of the magnetic field. This preference has been detected in both sexes only in the breeding migratory state. This suggests that adult ranid frogs can obtain directional information from the Earth's magnetic field as was shown earlier in urodeles and anuran larvae.

  11. Flight range, fuel load and the impact of climate change on the journeys of migrant birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christine; Stephens, Philip A; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheard, Catherine; Butchart, Stuart H M; Willis, Stephen G

    2018-02-28

    Climate change is predicted to increase migration distances for many migratory species, but the physiological and temporal implications of longer migratory journeys have not been explored. Here, we combine information about species' flight range potential and migratory refuelling requirements to simulate the number of stopovers required and the duration of current migratory journeys for 77 bird species breeding in Europe. Using tracking data, we show that our estimates accord with recorded journey times and stopovers for most species. We then combine projections of altered migratory distances under climate change with models of avian flight to predict future migratory journeys. We find that 37% of migratory journeys undertaken by long-distance migrants will necessitate an additional stopover in future. These greater distances and the increased number of stops will substantially increase overall journey durations of many long-distance migratory species, a factor not currently considered in climate impact studies. © 2018 The Authors.

  12. Tracking radar studies of bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.; Teal, J. M.; Kanwisher, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The application of tracking radar for determining the flight paths of migratory birds is discussed. The effects produced by various meteorological parameters are described. Samples of radar scope presentations obtained during tracking studies are presented. The characteristics of the radars and their limitations are examined.

  13. A Land Manager's Guide to Point Counts of Birds in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hamel; Winston P. Smith; Daniel J. Twedt; James R. Woehr; Eddie Morris; Robert B. Hamilton; Robert J. Cooper

    1996-01-01

    Current widespread concern for the status of neotropical migratory birds has sparked interest in techniques for inventorying and monitoring populations of these and other birds in southeastern forest habitats. The present guide gives detailed instructions for conducting point counts of birds. It further presents a detailed methodology for the design and conduct of...

  14. 50 CFR 21.44 - Depredation order for designated species of depredating birds in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of depredating birds in California. 21.44 Section 21.44 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.44 Depredation order for designated species of depredating...

  15. The flight apparatus of migratory and sedentary individuals of a partially migratory songbird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Fudickar

    Full Text Available Variations in the geometry of the external flight apparatus of birds are beneficial for different behaviors. Long-distance flight is less costly with more pointed wings and shorter tails; however these traits decrease maneuverability at low speeds. Selection has led to interspecific differences in these and other flight apparatuses in relation to migration distance. If these principles are general, how are the external flight apparatus within a partially migratory bird species shaped in which individuals either migrate or stay at their breeding grounds? We resolved this question by comparing the wing pointedness and tail length (relative to wing length of migrant and resident European blackbirds (Turdus merula breeding in the same population. We predicted that migrant blackbirds would have more pointed wings and shorter tails than residents. Contrary to our predictions, there were no differences between migrants and residents in either measure. Our results indicate that morphological differences between migrants and residents in this partially migratory population may be constrained.

  16. Prevalence of avian haemosporidia among injured wild birds in Tokyo and environs, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizue Inumaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian haemosporidia have been reported in various birds of Japan, which is part of the East Asian-Australian flyway and is an important stopover site for migratory birds potentially carrying new pathogens from other areas. We investigated the prevalence of avian malaria in injured wild birds, rescued in Tokyo and surrounding areas. We also evaluated the effects of migration by examining the prevalence of avian malaria for each migratory status. 475 birds of 80 species were sampled from four facilities. All samples were examined for haemosporidian infection via nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR of the cytochrome b (cytb gene. 100 birds (21.1% of 43 species were PCR positive for avian haemosporidia. Prevalence in wintering birds, migratory breeders, and resident birds was 46.0%, 19.3%, 17.3% respectively. There was a bias in wintering birds due to Eurasian coot (Fulica atra and Anseriformes. In wintering birds, lineages which are likely to be transmitted by Culiseta sp. in Northern Japan and lineages from resident species of Northern Japan or continental Asia were found, suggesting that wintering birds are mainly infected at their breeding sites. Meanwhile, there were numerous lineages found from resident and migratory breeders, suggesting that they are transmitted in Japan, some possibly unique to Japan. Although there are limits in studying rescued birds, rehabilitation facilities make sampling of difficult-to-catch migratory species possible and also allow for long-term monitoring within areas. Keywords: Avian haemosporidia, Japan, Rescued wild birds, Migratory birds, Parasite diversity, Cytochrome b

  17. Environmental Pollution and Hunting: Exposure of Birds to Metals in their Trophic Areas, and of Humans to Lead in Game Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Borghesi, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    This doctorate is focused on birds and their relationships with trace elements (MTEs). The Mediterranean coast hosts millions migratory birds every year. However, Mediterranean countries are among the most influenced in the world by human pressure. There is a strong impulse by GOs and NGOs operating in the European Union to improve methods and standardization in studies on contaminants involving birds. Birds are potential biomonitors of change in the environment and feathers has proven ...

  18. Timing of arrival from spring migration is associated with flight performance in the migratory barn swallow

    OpenAIRE

    Matyjasiak, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Timing of arrival at the breeding grounds by migratory birds affects their mating success and access to superior resources, thus being a major factor associated with fitness. Much empirical work has been devoted to investigate the condition dependence of arrival sequence of migrants and characteristics of individuals that influence arrival time from migration. Surprisingly, there are no studies examining the relationship between flight performance of individual birds and their arrival time. I...

  19. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  20. Body condition explains migratory performance of a long-distance migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijns, Sjoerd; Niles, Lawrence J; Dey, Amanda; Aubry, Yves; Friis, Christian; Koch, Stephanie; Anderson, Alexandra M; Smith, Paul A

    2017-11-15

    Body condition (i.e. relative mass after correcting for structural size) affects the behaviour of migrating birds, but how body condition affects migratory performance, timing and fitness is still largely unknown. Here, we studied the effects of relative body condition on individual departure decisions, wind selectivity, flight speed and timing of migration for a long-distance migratory shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus rufa. By using automated VHF telemetry on a continental scale, we studied knots' migratory movements with unprecedented temporal resolution over a 3-year period. Knots with a higher relative body condition left the staging site later than birds in lower condition, yet still arrived earlier to their Arctic breeding grounds compared to knots in lower relative body condition. They accomplished this by selecting more favourable winds at departure, thereby flying faster and making shorter stops en route Individuals with a higher relative body condition in spring migrated south up to a month later than individuals in lower condition, suggesting that individuals in better condition were more likely to have bred successfully. Moreover, individuals with a lower relative body condition in spring had a lower probability of being detected in autumn, suggestive of increased mortality. The pressure to arrive early to the breeding grounds is considered to be an important constraint of migratory behaviour and this study highlights the important influence of body condition on migratory decisions, performance and potentially fitness of migrant birds. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. The Algorithm of Habitat Discovery in Bird Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhengzheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bird migration has attracted an increasing attention. The study of habitats has played a vital role in the birds migratory. Previous researches, however, have encountered many problems, such as great limitations on research methods, low data utilization rate, statistics-focused and ineffective data processing and analysis methods. In this paper, the algorithm of habitat discovery is put forward by using computer’s data-mining technology based on the spatio-temporal characteristics of bird-watching data. First the algorithm detects and eliminates duplicate data to guarantee data standardization. Then density-based clustering algorithms are used to identify habitats where birds gathered. Finally the habitats of birds migratory are discovered.

  2. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  3. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Shenglai; Kleijn, David; Müskens, Gerard J.D.M.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Glazov, Petr M.; Si, Yali; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Boer, de Fred

    2017-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over

  4. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, S. (Shenglai); D. Kleijn (David); Müskens, G.J.D.M. (Gerard J. D. M.); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); Glazov, P.M. (Petr M.); Si, Y. (Yali); Prins, H.H.T. (Herbert H. T.); De Boer, W.F. (Willem Frederik)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus

  5. Effects of livestock grazing on neotropical migratory landbirds in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. Bock; Victoria A. Saab; Terrell D. Rich; David S. Dobkin

    1993-01-01

    Livestock grazing is a widespread and important influence on neotropical migratory birds in four major ecosystems in western North America: grasslands of the Great Plains and Southwest, riparian woodlands, Intermountain shrubsteppe, and open coniferous forests. We have reviewed available literature on avian responses to grazing in these habitats. Among 35 plains...

  6. Basal metabolic rate declines during long-distance migratory flight in great knots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Tang, SX; Hulsman, K; Battley, Phil F.; Tang, Sixian

    2001-01-01

    Great Knots (Calidris tenuirostris) make one of the longest migratory flights in the avian world, flying almost 5500 km from Australia to China during northward migration. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body composition in birds before and after this flight and found that BMR decreased

  7. Activity and migratory flights of individual free-flying songbirds throughout the annual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Alerstam, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , indicating that the bird was mostly sleeping between these long migratory flights. Annual activity and flight data for free-living songbirds will open up many new research possibilities. Main topics that can be addressed are e.g. migratory flight performance (total flight investment, numbers...... the sampling events. Activity levels were stored on an hourly basis throughout the annual cycle, allowing periods of resting/sleep, continuous flight and intermediate activity (foraging, breeding) to be distinguished. Measurements from a light sensor were stored from preprogrammed key stationary periods during...... > 66 (max. 73) nocturnal migratory flights (29 flights in autumn and > 37, max. 44, in spring) adding up to a total of > 434 (max. 495) flight hours. Migratory flights lasted on average 6.6 h with maximum 15.9 h. These flights were aggregated into eight travel episodes (periods of 4-11 nights when...

  8. A polar system of intercontinental bird migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A; Hedenström, Anders; Henningsson, Sara S; Karlsson, Håkan; Rosén, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine

    2007-10-22

    Studies of bird migration in the Beringia region of Alaska and eastern Siberia are of special interest for revealing the importance of bird migration between Eurasia and North America, for evaluating orientation principles used by the birds at polar latitudes and for understanding the evolutionary implications of intercontinental migratory connectivity among birds as well as their parasites. We used tracking radar placed onboard the ice-breaker Oden to register bird migratory flights from 30 July to 19 August 2005 and we encountered extensive bird migration in the whole Beringia range from latitude 64 degrees N in Bering Strait up to latitude 75 degrees N far north of Wrangel Island, with eastward flights making up 79% of all track directions. The results from Beringia were used in combination with radar studies from the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia and in the Beaufort Sea to make a reconstruction of a major Siberian-American bird migration system in a wide Arctic sector between longitudes 110 degrees E and 130 degrees W, spanning one-third of the entire circumpolar circle. This system was estimated to involve more than 2 million birds, mainly shorebirds, terns and skuas, flying across the Arctic Ocean at mean altitudes exceeding 1 km (maximum altitudes 3-5 km). Great circle orientation provided a significantly better fit with observed flight directions at 20 different sites and areas than constant geographical compass orientation. The long flights over the sea spanned 40-80 degrees of longitude, corresponding to distances and durations of 1400-2600 km and 26-48 hours, respectively. The birds continued from this eastward migration system over the Arctic Ocean into several different flyway systems at the American continents and the Pacific Ocean. Minimization of distances between tundra breeding sectors and northerly stopover sites, in combination with the Beringia glacial refugium and colonization history, seemed to be important for the evolution of this major

  9. The Significance of Mating System and Nonbreeding Behavior to Population and Forest Patch Use by Migrant Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene S. Morton; Bridget J. M. Stutchbury

    2005-01-01

    Migratory birds are birds of two worlds, breeding in the temperate zone then living as tropical birds for most of the year. We show two aspects of this unique biology that are important considerations for their conservation. First, habitat selection for breeding must include their need for extra-pair mating opportunities. Second, non-breeding distributions in tropical...

  10. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  11. Migration in the Anthropocene: how collective navigation, environmental system and taxonomy shape the vulnerability of migratory species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty-Moore, Molly; Deinet, Stefanie; Freeman, Robin; Titcomb, Georgia C; Dillon, Erin M; Stears, Keenan; Klope, Maggie; Bui, An; Orr, Devyn; Young, Hillary S; Miller-Ter Kuile, Ana; Hughey, Lacey F; McCauley, Douglas J

    2018-05-19

    Recent increases in human disturbance pose significant threats to migratory species using collective movement strategies. Key threats to migrants may differ depending on behavioural traits (e.g. collective navigation), taxonomy and the environmental system (i.e. freshwater, marine or terrestrial) associated with migration. We quantitatively assess how collective navigation, taxonomic membership and environmental system impact species' vulnerability by (i) evaluating population change in migratory and non-migratory bird, mammal and fish species using the Living Planet Database (LPD), (ii) analysing the role of collective navigation and environmental system on migrant extinction risk using International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classifications and (iii) compiling literature on geographical range change of migratory species. Likelihood of population decrease differed by taxonomic group: migratory birds were more likely to experience annual declines than non-migrants, while mammals displayed the opposite pattern. Within migratory species in IUCN, we observed that collective navigation and environmental system were important predictors of extinction risk for fishes and birds, but not for mammals, which had overall higher extinction risk than other taxa. We found high phylogenetic relatedness among collectively navigating species, which could have obscured its importance in determining extinction risk. Overall, outputs from these analyses can help guide strategic interventions to conserve the most vulnerable migrations.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  12. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Abdurrahman; Lee, Seoho; Ahsan, Syed S; Karlsson, Kolbeinn; Gabrielson, Richard; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Winkler, David W; Erickson, David

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  13. Key Features of Intertidal Food Webs That Support Migratory Shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Béat, Blanche; Dupuy, Christine; Bocher, Pierrick; Chalumeau, Julien; De Crignis, Margot; Fontaine, Camille; Guizien, Katell; Lavaud, Johann; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Montanié, Hélène; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Orvain, Francis; Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Quaintenne, Gwenaël; Radenac, Gilles; Richard, Pierre; Robin, Frédéric; Vézina, Alain F.; Niquil, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The migratory shorebirds of the East Atlantic flyway land in huge numbers during a migratory stopover or wintering on the French Atlantic coast. The Brouage bare mudflat (Marennes-Oléron Bay, NE Atlantic) is one of the major stopover sites in France. The particular structure and function of a food web affects the efficiency of carbon transfer. The structure and functioning of the Brouage food web is crucial for the conservation of species landing within this area because it provides sufficient food, which allows shorebirds to reach the north of Europe where they nest. The aim of this study was to describe and understand which food web characteristics support nutritional needs of birds. Two food-web models were constructed, based on in situ measurements that were made in February 2008 (the presence of birds) and July 2008 (absence of birds). To complete the models, allometric relationships and additional data from the literature were used. The missing flow values of the food web models were estimated by Monte Carlo Markov Chain – Linear Inverse Modelling. The flow solutions obtained were used to calculate the ecological network analysis indices, which estimate the emergent properties of the functioning of a food-web. The total activities of the Brouage ecosystem in February and July are significantly different. The specialisation of the trophic links within the ecosystem does not appear to differ between the two models. In spite of a large export of carbon from the primary producer and detritus in winter, the higher recycling leads to a similar retention of carbon for the two seasons. It can be concluded that in February, the higher activity of the ecosystem coupled with a higher cycling and a mean internal organization, ensure the sufficient feeding of the migratory shorebirds. PMID:24204666

  14. Key features of intertidal food webs that support migratory shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Saint-Béat

    Full Text Available The migratory shorebirds of the East Atlantic flyway land in huge numbers during a migratory stopover or wintering on the French Atlantic coast. The Brouage bare mudflat (Marennes-Oléron Bay, NE Atlantic is one of the major stopover sites in France. The particular structure and function of a food web affects the efficiency of carbon transfer. The structure and functioning of the Brouage food web is crucial for the conservation of species landing within this area because it provides sufficient food, which allows shorebirds to reach the north of Europe where they nest. The aim of this study was to describe and understand which food web characteristics support nutritional needs of birds. Two food-web models were constructed, based on in situ measurements that were made in February 2008 (the presence of birds and July 2008 (absence of birds. To complete the models, allometric relationships and additional data from the literature were used. The missing flow values of the food web models were estimated by Monte Carlo Markov Chain--Linear Inverse Modelling. The flow solutions obtained were used to calculate the ecological network analysis indices, which estimate the emergent properties of the functioning of a food-web. The total activities of the Brouage ecosystem in February and July are significantly different. The specialisation of the trophic links within the ecosystem does not appear to differ between the two models. In spite of a large export of carbon from the primary producer and detritus in winter, the higher recycling leads to a similar retention of carbon for the two seasons. It can be concluded that in February, the higher activity of the ecosystem coupled with a higher cycling and a mean internal organization, ensure the sufficient feeding of the migratory shorebirds.

  15. Prevalence of avian influenza virus in wild birds before and after the HPAI H5N8 outbreak in 2014 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Wang, Seung-Jun; Jeong, Jipseol; An, In-Jung; Hwang, Jong-Kyung; Jo, Seong-Deok; Yu, Seung Do; Choi, Kyunghee; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Kim, Seol-Hee

    2015-07-01

    Since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus outbreaks have occurred five times in Korea, with four HPAI H5N1 outbreaks and one HPAI H5N8 outbreak. Migratory birds have been suggested to be the first source of HPAI in Korea. Here, we surveyed migratory wild birds for the presence of AI and compared regional AI prevalence in wild birds from September 2012 to April 2014 for birds having migratory pathways in South Korea. Finally, we investigated the prevalence of AI in migratory birds before and after HPAI H5N8 outbreaks. Overall, we captured 1617 migratory wild birds, while 18,817 feces samples and 74 dead birds were collected from major wild bird habitats. A total of 21 HPAI viruses were isolated from dead birds, and 86 low pathogenic AI (LPAI) viruses were isolated from captured birds and from feces samples. Spatiotemporal distribution analysis revealed that AI viruses were spread southward until December, but tended to shift north after January, consistent with the movement of migratory birds in South Korea. Furthermore, we found that LPAI virus prevalences within wild birds were notably higher in 2013-2014 than the previous prevalence during the northward migration season. The data from our study demonstrate the importance of the surveillance of AI in wild birds. Future studies including in-depth genetic analysis in combination with evaluation of the movement and ecology of migratory birds might help us to bridge the gaps in our knowledge and better explain, predict, and ultimately prevent future HPAI outbreaks.

  16. How to get fat: nutritional mechanisms of seasonal fat accumulation in migratory songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairlein, Franz

    2002-01-01

    Many migratory birds accumulate large amounts of lipids as the prime energy source for their long-distance flights. This fat accumulation is mostly under endogenous control, reflecting genetically programmed temporal shifts of the body mass set point. It is accompanied by an increase in daily food intake and food utilisation efficiency and by a seasonal shift in food selection. In particular, seasonal frugivory appears to play a key role in many migrants. Fruits have a high content of fatty acids indispensable for building up the specific depot lipids. In addition, plant secondary compounds seem to play some kind of supportive role, but the mechanisms are not yet known. The effect of being fat on the metabolic situation in migrant birds appears to be similar to the metabolic syndrome in obese humans. The fat migratory bird provides a model through which to study nutritional factors as well as the biochemical and endocrine regulation of food intake, body mass and obesity.

  17. 77 FR 1718 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... conduct an open meeting on February 1, 2012, to identify and discuss preliminary issues concerning the...: The Service Regulations Committee will meet at the Holiday Inn Hotel and Suites Denver Airport Hotel... Consultants will meet on February 1, 2012, at 8:30 a.m. to identify preliminary issues concerning the 2012-13...

  18. 75 FR 9281 - General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ..., Collared, Charadrius collaris--Texas (AOU 1998); Pond-Heron, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus--Alaska (AOU 2000...) for the name change: Barn-Owl, Common, Tyto alba, becomes Owl, Barn (AOU 1989, 1998); Bittern, Chinese..., Intermediate, Mesophoyx intermedia (Monroe and Sibley 1993); Night-Heron, Malay, Nycticorax melanolophus...

  19. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... flavicollis [Chinese (see Yellow)] Least, Ixobrychus exilis Schrenck's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus Yellow... leucocephalus Golden, Aquila chrysaetos White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis Chinese..., Nycticorax nycticorax Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi [Malay (see Malayan)] Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus...

  20. MIGRATORY BIRDS Egwumah .FA¹ and Inah .EA² Department of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FRANCIS

    In the USA revenue regenerated by tourism in visits to national parks amounts to US$3billion a year. ... unidirectional causality from tourism export sectors in many developing countries. (Ahmad, et al.,2011). ... as pipe borne water, electricity, health care centres and good road network. • Increase in local income levels.

  1. Advanced Monitoring of Migratory Birds on Military Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Edge Distribution Evenness 6.12 Fractal Dimension ( Box ) -1.91 Fractal Dimension (Perimeter-Area) -2.27 Inverse Difference Moment 7.95 Largest...International Conference for the Management of Wildlife in Amazonia and Latin America, Ilheus, Brasil . 4 September 2006. 2006. St-Louis, V. A. M. Pidgeon

  2. 76 FR 23427 - General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ...); Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus, becomes Green Violetear (AOU 2008); Blue Rock Thrush, Monticola..., Caprimulgus arizonae (6). Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus Green Violetear, Colibri (8). thalassinus (8...) Whether the rule will have an annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy or adversely affect an...

  3. 78 FR 65843 - General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-poor- will (AOU 2010); Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus, becomes Green Violetear (AOU 2008); Blue..., Caprimulgus arizonae (6). Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus Green Violetear, Colibri (8). thalassinus (8... not have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more. b. This rule does not cause a major...

  4. Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases. View moreIDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative.

  5. 75 FR 9314 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control of Purple Swamphens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ....), which implements conventions with Great Britain (for Canada), Mexico, Japan, and the Soviet Union..., loan programs, or the rights and obligations of their recipients. There are no entitlements, grants, user fees, or loan programs associated with the regulation of control of purple swamphens. Regulatory...

  6. Sentinel birds in wild-bird resting sites as potential indicators for West Nile virus infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Seidowski, Diana; Globig, Anja; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus with wild birds as its natural hosts. Ravens, falcons and jays are highly susceptible for WNV and develop deadly encephalitis, while other bird species undergo only subclinical infections. Migratory birds are efficient vectors for geographic spreading of WNV. Until now, WNV infections have not been diagnosed in Germany, but infections in humans and horses have occurred recently in Austria, Hungary and Italy. To investigate potential WNV introduction by infected wild birds, we have monitored the serological status of ducks in three national sentinel stations. No WNV-positive reactions were found, whereas sera from coots from northern Iran were positive.

  7. The magnetic map sense and its use in fine-tuning the migration programme of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyers, D; Elbers, D; Bulte, M; Bairlein, F; Mouritsen, H

    2017-07-01

    The Earth's magnetic field is one of several natural cues, which migratory birds can use to derive directional ("compass") information for orientation on their biannual migratory journeys. Moreover, magnetic field effects on prominent aspects of the migratory programme of birds, such as migratory restlessness behaviour, fuel deposition and directional orientation, implicate that geomagnetic information can also be used to derive positional ("map") information. While the magnetic "compass" in migratory birds is likely to be based on radical pair-forming molecules embedded in their visual system, the sensory correlates underlying a magnetic "map" sense currently remain elusive. Behavioural, physiological and neurobiological findings indicate that the sensor is most likely innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and based on magnetic iron particles. Information from this unknown sensor is neither necessary nor sufficient for a functional magnetic compass, but instead could contribute important components of a multifactorial "map" for global positioning. Positional information could allow migratory birds to make vitally important dynamic adaptations of their migratory programme at any relevant point during their journeys.

  8. Predicting effects of environmental change on a migratory herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, R A; Wood, K A; Gilkerson, Whelan; Elkinton, E; Black, J. M.; Ward, David H.; Petrie, M.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, food abundance and disturbance from humans threaten the ability of species to successfully use stopover sites and migrate between non-breeding and breeding areas. To devise successful conservation strategies for migratory species we need to be able to predict how such changes will affect both individuals and populations. Such predictions should ideally be process-based, focusing on the mechanisms through which changes alter individual physiological state and behavior. In this study we use a process-based model to evaluate how Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) foraging on common eelgrass (Zostera marina) at a stopover site (Humboldt Bay, USA), may be affected by changes in sea level, food abundance and disturbance. The model is individual-based, with empirically based parameters, and incorporates the immigration of birds into the site, tidal changes in availability of eelgrass, seasonal and depth-related changes in eelgrass biomass, foraging behavior and energetics of the birds, and their mass-dependent decisions to emigrate. The model is validated by comparing predictions to observations across a range of system properties including the time birds spent foraging, probability of birds emigrating, mean stopover duration, peak bird numbers, rates of mass gain and distribution of birds within the site: all 11 predictions were within 35% of the observed value, and 8 within 20%. The model predicted that the eelgrass within the site could potentially support up to five times as many birds as currently use the site. Future predictions indicated that the rate of mass gain and mean stopover duration were relatively insensitive to sea level rise over the next 100 years, primarily because eelgrass habitat could redistribute shoreward into intertidal mudflats within the site to compensate for higher sea levels. In contrast, the rate of mass gain and mean stopover duration were sensitive to changes in total eelgrass biomass and the percentage of time

  9. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  10. Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, James D.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Schreckengost, Tim; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Boone, Matthew; van Loon, E. Emiel; Dawson, Deanna K.; Walters, Eric L.

    2018-01-01

    With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern U.S., that autumnal migrant stopover density increased at regional scales with proximity to the brightest areas, but decreased within a few kilometers of brightly-lit sources. This finding implies broad-scale attraction to artificial light while airborne, impeding selection for extensive forest habitat. Given that high-quality stopover habitat is critical to successful migration, and hindrances during migration can decrease fitness, artificial lights present a potentially heightened conservation concern for migratory bird populations.

  11. Ecological specialization to fluctuating resources prevents long-distance migratory raptors from becoming sedentary on islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gangoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adaptive transition between behavioral strategies, such as the shift from migratoriness to sedentariness, remains an outstanding question in evolutionary ecology. Density-dependent variation in the age of first breeding has been proposed as a feasible mechanism through which long-lived migratory birds with deferred sexual maturity should become sedentary to persist on islands. Although this pattern seems to hold for most raptors and herons, a few exceptions have been identified. One of these exceptions is the Eleonora's falcon, a long-distance migratory bird, which shows one of the most peculiar adaptations in the timing of reproduction and food requirements among raptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we compiled data concerning demography, banding recoveries and satellite tracking of Eleonora's falcons to discuss likely explanations for the exceptional behavior of this insular long-distance migratory species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: New data reveal that Eleonora's falcons do return to the natal colonies in their first year and young birds are able to breed. However, in contrast to previous hypothesis, the highly specialized strategy of this and other ecologically similar species, as well as the virtual lack of food during winter at breeding areas prevent them from becoming sedentary on islands. Although the ultimate mechanisms underlying the process of sedentarization remain poorly understood, the evidence provided reveal the existence of important trade-offs associated with ecological specialization that may become particularly relevant in the present context of global change.

  12. Historical diversification of migration patterns in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tris, Javier; Bensch, Staffan; Carbonell, Roberto; Helbig, Andreas J; Tellería, José Luis

    2004-08-01

    Migratory strategies of birds require complex orientation mechanisms, morphological adaptations, and life-history adjustments. From an evolutionary perspective, it is important to know how fast this complex combination of traits can evolve. We analyzed mitochondrial control-region DNA sequences in 241 blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) from 12 populations with different migratory behaviors. The sample included sedentary populations in Europe and Atlantic archipelagos and migratory populations with different distances of migration, from regional to intercontinental migrations, and different heading directions (due to a migratory divide in central Europe). There was no genetic structure between migratory and sedentary populations, or among populations from different biogeographic areas (Atlantic islands, the Iberian Peninsula, or the continent), however we found evidence of a genetic structure when comparing populations located on either side of the migratory divide. These findings support an independent evolution of highly divergent migratory strategies in blackcaps, occurring after a postglacial colonization of the continent along western and eastern routes. Accordingly, mismatch-distribution analyses suggested an expansion of blackcaps from a very small population size, and time estimates dated such an expansion during the last postglacial period. However, the populations in Gibraltar, located in a putative Mediterranean refuge, appeared to be independent of these processes, showing evidence of restricted gene flow with other populations and demonstrating insignificant historical changes in effective population size. Our results show that the interruption of gene flow between migratory and sedentary populations is not necessary for the maintenance of such a polymorphism, and that even the most divergent migratory strategies of a bird species are susceptible to evolution in response to historical environmental changes.

  13. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia lonestari in birds in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, B E; Onks, K R; Hamilton, S W; Hayslette, S E; Wright, S M

    2009-01-01

    Lyme disease in the United States is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner), which is transmitted by tick vectors Ixodes scapularis (Say) and I. pacificus (Cooley and Kohls). Borrelia lonestari, transmitted by the tick Amblyomma americanum L., may be associated with a related syndrome, southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI). Borrelia lonestari sequences, reported primarily in the southeastern states, have also been detected in ticks in northern states. It has been suggested that migratory birds may have a role in the spread of Lyme disease spirochetes. This study evaluated both migratory waterfowl and nonmigratory wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris, Eastern wild turkey) for B. burgdorferi and B. lonestari DNA sequences. A total of 389 avian blood samples (163 migratory birds representing six species, 125 wild turkeys harvested in habitats shared with migratory birds, 101 wild turkeys residing more distant from migratory flyways) were extracted, amplified, and probed to determine Borrelia presence and species identity. Ninety-one samples were positive for Borrelia spp. Among migratory birds and turkeys collected near migration routes, B. burgdorferi predominated. Among turkeys residing further away from flyways, detection of B. lonestari was more common. All A. americanum ticks collected from these areas were negative for Borrelia DNA; no I. scapularis were found. To our knowledge, this represents the first documentation of B. lonestari among any birds.

  14. Patterns in diurnal airspace use by migratory landbirds along an ecological barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Anna C.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory bird populations and survival are affected by conditions experienced during migration. While many studies and conservation and management efforts focus on terrestrial stoppage and staging areas, the aerial environment through which migrants move also is subjected to anthropogenic impacts with potential consequences to migratory movement and survival. During autumn migration, the northern coastline of Lake Superior acts as an ecological barrier for many landbirds migrating out of the boreal forests of North America. From 24 observation points, we assessed the diurnal movements of birds throughout autumn migration, 2008-2010, within a 210 km by 10 km coastal region along the northern coast of Lake Superior. Several raptor species showed patterns in airspace associated with topographic features such as proximity to the coastline and presence of ridgelines. Funneling movement, commonly used to describe the concentration of raptors along a migratory diversion line that either prevents or enhances migration progress, occurred only for Bald and Golden Eagles. This suggests a "leaky" migration funnel for most migratory raptors (e.g., migrating birds exiting the purported migration corridor). Passerines migrating during the late season showed more spatial and temporal structure in airspace distribution than raptors, including funneling and an association with airspace near the coast. We conclude that a) the diurnal use of airspace by many migratory landbirds is patterned in space and time, b) autumn count sites situated along ecological barriers substantially underestimate the number of raptors due to 'leakage' out of these concentration areas, and c) the magnitude and structure of diurnal passerine movements in airspace have been overlooked. The heavy and structured use of airspace by migratory landbirds, especially the airspace associated with anthropogenic development (e.g., buildings, towers, turbines) necessitates a shift in focus to airspace management and

  15. Dramatic intraspecific differences in migratory routes, stopover sites and wintering areas, revealed using light-level geolocators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmore, Kira E; Fox, James W; Irwin, Darren E

    2012-11-22

    Migratory divides are contact zones between breeding populations that use divergent migratory routes and have been described in a variety of species. These divides are of major importance to evolution, ecology and conservation but have been identified using limited band recovery data and/or indirect methods. Data from band recoveries and mitochondrial haplotypes suggested that inland and coastal Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) form a migratory divide in western North America. We attached light-level geolocators to birds at the edges of this contact zone to provide, to our knowledge, the first direct test of a putative divide using data from individual birds over the entire annual cycle. Coastal thrushes migrated along the west coast to Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. Some of these birds used multiple wintering sites. Inland thrushes migrated across the Rocky Mountains, through central North America to Columbia and Venezuela. These birds migrated longer distances than coastal birds and performed a loop migration, navigating over the Gulf of Mexico in autumn and around this barrier in spring. These findings support the suggestion that divergent migratory behaviour could contribute to reproductive isolation between migrants, advance our understanding of their non-breeding ecology, and are integral to development of detailed conservation strategies for this group.

  16. 77 FR 58627 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... ``Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement: Issuance of Annual Regulations Permitting the Sport... modification of some regulatory measures previously proposed, and the final frameworks reflect any such... objectives. E.O. 13563 emphasizes further that regulations must be based on the best available science and...

  17. 76 FR 59271 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... or more on the economy or adversely affect an economic sector, productivity, jobs, the environment... would have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more. However, because this rule would... youth less than 18 years of age may hunt, but they must be accompanied by an adult of at least 21 years...

  18. Five bird species poorly known for Norte de Santander, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, Luis Orlando; Torrado Vargas, Ricardo A; Esteban Llanes, Jose B

    2013-01-01

    We report five bird species poorly known for Norte de Santander based on observations in the urban area of the city of Cucuta (Department of Norte de Santander, Colombia). Two are Nearctic/Neotropical migratory birds (Coccyzus americanus and Protonotaria ci trea). Although four species had been collected before in Cacti, their report has remained unnoticed. We record the geographical range extension for Peoria naringinase to the north of its currently known distribution.

  19. Empirical evidence for differential organ reductions during trans-oceanic bird flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Piersma, T; Dietz, MW; Tang, SX; Dekinga, A; Hulsman, K

    2000-01-01

    Since the early 1960s it has been held that migrating birds deposit and use only fat as fuel during migratory flight, with the non-fat portion of the body remaining homeostatic. Recent evidence from field studies has shown large changes in organ sizes in fuelling birds, and theory on fuel use

  20. Observations of new bird species for San Salvador Island, the Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Akresh; David I. King

    2015-01-01

    We present our recent observations and compile other accounts of sightings or captures of 30 additional bird species reported for San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, since Sordahl compiled his checklist in 1996. Most are Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds that either spend the non-breeding season on the island or stop over during migration. Additionally, based on our...

  1. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are transcontinental migration routes of wild birds from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting of many migratory bird species with a very high level of ...

  2. Moreau's Paradox reversed, or why insectivorous birds reach high densities in savanna trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, Leo; Bijlsma, Rob G.; Van Der Kamp, Jan; Sikkema, Marten; Wymenga, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    In West Africa, tree preferences of wintering migratory birds (and African residents) were quantified in order to assess the importance of wintering conditions on distribution, abundance and trends of insectivorous woodland birds. This study encompassed 2000 plots between 10-18°N and 0-17°W, visited

  3. MASS CHANGES IN MIGRATING BIRDS - THE EVIDENCE FOR FAT AND PROTEIN STORAGE REEXAMINED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIERSMA, T

    The fact that one cannot kill a bird twice makes it very difficult to determine the relative contributions of fat and non-fat components to increases in body mass before migratory flights in individual birds. Knowing the relative contributions of these components is of obvious energetic interest

  4. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since

  5. Migratory Fishes of South America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Floodplains and inundated forests are essential for larval and juvenile development of most of these species, and provide foraging opportunities once they ...... reproductive activity was greater during droughts; (ii) “reproducing” individuals among the long-distance migratory species were more abundant in the year of the ...

  6. Timing of arrival from spring migration is associated with flight performance in the migratory barn swallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjasiak, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Timing of arrival at the breeding grounds by migratory birds affects their mating success and access to superior resources, thus being a major factor associated with fitness. Much empirical work has been devoted to investigate the condition dependence of arrival sequence of migrants and characteristics of individuals that influence arrival time from migration. Surprisingly, there are no studies examining the relationship between flight performance of individual birds and their arrival time. I investigated the relative importance of direct effects of short-term flight performance, age, body condition and the degree of sexual ornamentation (tail length) on timing of spring arrival in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), a long-distance trans-equatorial passerine migrant. I evaluated short-term flight performance (a composite variable comprising flight manoeuvrability, velocity and acceleration) in a standardised manner using flight tunnels. Short-term flight performance was a significant and important predictor of spring arrival date. Furthermore, locomotion predicted arrival date of individual birds independently of morphological variables-the degree of sexual ornamentation (the length of the tail) and wing aspect ratio and body condition. I discuss the possible role short-term flight performance may have in determining migratory performance. This is the first time flight performance has been shown to be associated with timing of arrival from migration in a migratory bird.

  7. Science & Education: Genetic Analysis Of Winter Social Structure And Social Traits In A Migratory Sparrow & Teaching Argumentation In Stem Education

    OpenAIRE

    Arnberg, Nina Nowshiravani

    2014-01-01

    Stable social organization in a wide variety of organisms has been linked to kinship, which can minimize conflict due to the indirect fitness benefits from cooperating with relatives. In birds, kin selection has been mostly studied in the context of reproduction or in species that are social year round. Many birds however are migratory and the role of kinship in the winter societies of these species is virtually unexplored. A previous study detected striking social complexity and stability in...

  8. a comparative study of species diversity of migrant birds between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S RINGIM

    that Protected wetlands had significantly higher species diversity (H' = 1.39) than Unprotected ones (H' = 1.28) (p = 0.0064), ... Key words: Circus macrourus, Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands, Threats to migratory birds, Palearctic and Intra-Africa Migrant ...... captured by protected areas in the Andes of Colombia: a gap analysis.

  9. Co-fluctuation among bird species in their migration timing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, 1-2 (2005), s. 159-164 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : migratory birds * phenology * spring arrival Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2005 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/54/1-2/159-164.pdf

  10. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central Asian country of Mongolia supports large populations of migratory water birds that migrate across much of Asia where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 is endemic. This, together with the near absence of domestic poultry, makes Mongolia an ideal location to unde...

  11. Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya | Etayeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Libyan coast is characterised by many wetlands that are used as stopover routes for many migratory marine birds. They provide food, shelter and nesting grounds for many avifauna during their migration from their home to wintering grounds. Farwa Island, which is located at the furthermost western part of Libya, ...

  12. Coordinated bird monitoring: Technical recommendations for military lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Manning, Ann; Fischer, Richard; Eberly, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is subject to several rules and regulations establishing responsibilities for monitoring migratory birds. The Sikes Act requires all military installations with significant natural resources to prepare and implement Integrated Natural Resources Management Plans (INRMPs). These plans guide the conservation and long-term management of natural resources on military lands in a manner that is compatible with and sustains the military mission. An INRMP also supports compliance with all legal requirements and guides the military in fulfilling its obligation to be a good steward of public land.The management and conservation of migratory birds is addressed in installation INRMPs. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate and disclose the potential environmental impacts of their proposed actions. More recently, DoD signed an MOU (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/EO13186_MOU-DoD.pdf) for migratory birds, under Executive Order 13186, with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in July 2006 and a Migratory Bird Rule (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/MigBirdFINALRule_FRFeb2007.pdf) was passed by Congress in February 2007. The Migratory Bird Rule addresses the potential impacts of military readiness activities on populations of migratory birds and establishes a process to implement conservation measures if and when a military readiness activity is expected to have a significant adverse impact on a population of migratory bird species (as determined through the NEPA process). The MOU states that for nonmilitary readiness activities, prior to initiating any activity likely to affect populations of migratory birds DoD shall (1) identify the migratory bird species likely to occur in the area of the proposed action and determine if any species of concern could be affected by the activity, and (2) assess and document, using NEPA when applicable, the effect of the proposed action on species of concern. By

  13. Migratory bats respond to artificial green light with positive phototaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C Voigt

    Full Text Available Artificial light at night is spreading worldwide at unprecedented rates, exposing strictly nocturnal animals such as bats to a novel anthropogenic stressor. Previous studies about the effect of artificial light on bats focused almost exclusively on non-migratory species, yet migratory animals such as birds are known to be largely affected by light pollution. Thus, we conducted a field experiment to evaluate if bat migration is affected by artificial light at night. In late summer, we presented artificial green light of 520 nm wavelength to bats that were migrating south along the shoreline of the Baltic Sea. Using a light on-off treatment, we observed that the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii and P. pygmaeus, the two most abundant migratory species at our site, increased by more than 50% in the light-on compared to the light-off treatment. We observed an increased number of feeding buzzes during the light-on compared to the light-off treatment for P. nathusii. However, feeding activity was low in general and did not increase disproportionately during the light-on treatment in relation to the overall echolocation call activity of bats. Further, P. nathusii were attracted towards the green light at a distance of about 23 m, which is way beyond the echolocation detection range for insects of Nathusius' bats. We therefore infer that migratory bats were not attracted to artificial green light because of high insect densities, but instead by positive phototaxis. We conclude that artificial light at night may potentially impact bat migration in a yet unrecognized way.

  14. Nematode parasite diversity in birds: the role of host ecology, life history and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tommy L F; Koprivnikar, Janet

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have found that migratory birds generally have a more diverse array of pathogens such as parasites, as well as higher intensities of infection. However, it is not clear whether this is driven by the metabolic and physiological demands of migration, differential selection on host life-history traits or basic ecological differences between migratory and non-migratory species. Parasitic helminths can cause significant pathology in their hosts, and many are trophically transmitted such that host diet and habitat use play key roles in the acquisition of infections. Given the concurrent changes in avian habitats and migratory behaviour, it is critical to understand the degree to which host ecology influences their parasite communities. We examined nematode parasite diversity in 153 species of Anseriformes (water birds) and Accipitriformes (predatory birds) in relation to their migratory behaviour, diet, habitat use, geographic distribution and life history using previously published data. Overall, migrators, host species with wide geographic distributions and those utilizing multiple aquatic habitats had greater nematode richness (number of species), and birds with large clutches harboured more diverse nematode fauna with respect to number of superfamilies. Separate analyses for each host order found similar results related to distribution, habitat use and migration; however, herbivorous water birds played host to a less diverse nematode community compared to those that consume some animals. Birds using multiple aquatic habitats have a more diverse nematode fauna relative to primarily terrestrial species, likely because there is greater opportunity for contact with parasite infectious stages and/or consumption of infected hosts. As such, omnivorous and carnivorous birds using aquatic habitats may be more affected by environmental changes that alter their diet and range. Even though there were no overall differences in their ecology and life history

  15. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in a long-distance migrant shorebird under migratory and non-migratory states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, Leslie A; van de Bildt, Marco W G; van Amerongen, Geert; Buehler, Debbie M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Jenni-Eiermann, Susi; Piersma, Theunis; Kuiken, Thijs

    2011-01-01

    Corticosterone regulates physiological changes preparing wild birds for migration. It also modulates the immune system and may lead to increased susceptibility to infection, with implications for the spread of pathogens, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1. The red knot (Calidris canutus islandica) displays migratory changes in captivity and was used as a model to assess the effect of high plasma concentration of corticosterone on HPAIV H5N1 infection. We inoculated knots during pre-migration (N = 6), fueling (N = 5), migration (N = 9) and post-migration periods (N = 6). Knots from all groups shed similar viral titers for up to 5 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaking at 1 to 3 dpi. Lesions of acute encephalitis, associated with virus replication in neurons, were seen in 1 to 2 knots per group, leading to neurological disease and death at 5 to 11 dpi. Therefore, the risk of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds and of potential transmission between wild birds and poultry may be similar at different times of the year, irrespective of wild birds' migratory status. However, in knots inoculated during the migration period, viral shedding levels positively correlated with pre-inoculation plasma concentration of corticosterone. Of these, knots that did not become productively infected had lower plasma concentration of corticosterone. Conversely, elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone did not result in an increased probability to develop clinical disease. These results suggest that birds with elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone at the time of migration (ready to migrate) may be more susceptible to acquisition of infection and shed higher viral titers--before the onset of clinical disease--than birds with low concentration of corticosterone (not ready for take-off). Yet, they may not be more prone to the development of clinical disease. Therefore, assuming no effect of sub-clinical infection on the likelihood of

  16. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in a long-distance migrant shorebird under migratory and non-migratory states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A Reperant

    Full Text Available Corticosterone regulates physiological changes preparing wild birds for migration. It also modulates the immune system and may lead to increased susceptibility to infection, with implications for the spread of pathogens, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1. The red knot (Calidris canutus islandica displays migratory changes in captivity and was used as a model to assess the effect of high plasma concentration of corticosterone on HPAIV H5N1 infection. We inoculated knots during pre-migration (N = 6, fueling (N = 5, migration (N = 9 and post-migration periods (N = 6. Knots from all groups shed similar viral titers for up to 5 days post-inoculation (dpi, peaking at 1 to 3 dpi. Lesions of acute encephalitis, associated with virus replication in neurons, were seen in 1 to 2 knots per group, leading to neurological disease and death at 5 to 11 dpi. Therefore, the risk of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds and of potential transmission between wild birds and poultry may be similar at different times of the year, irrespective of wild birds' migratory status. However, in knots inoculated during the migration period, viral shedding levels positively correlated with pre-inoculation plasma concentration of corticosterone. Of these, knots that did not become productively infected had lower plasma concentration of corticosterone. Conversely, elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone did not result in an increased probability to develop clinical disease. These results suggest that birds with elevated plasma concentration of corticosterone at the time of migration (ready to migrate may be more susceptible to acquisition of infection and shed higher viral titers--before the onset of clinical disease--than birds with low concentration of corticosterone (not ready for take-off. Yet, they may not be more prone to the development of clinical disease. Therefore, assuming no effect of sub-clinical infection on the

  17. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from migratory water fowls in Hakaluki Haor, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdaus Mohd. Altaf Hossain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 135 fecal samples were collected to characterize the Escherichia coli isolates from the migratory waterfowls (whistling Swan harbored in the Hakaluki Haor of Bangladesh in the year of 2008 and 2009. Out of 135 fecal samples, 100 samples were distinguished as positive for isolates of Escherichia coli following cultural, biochemical and motility test. Amongst the recovered isolates only 38% were found upbeat to enterotoxin production propensity on mice inoculation test. Finally, out of 38 % enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC positive isolates no any isolates found to be positive for the aptitude of heat stable (ST toxin yield. So, the presence of ETEC in migratory waterfowls indicating the possibilities of them to act as vector and reservoir of E. coli to spread further infection to animals and humans. This work indicates the first time ETEC characterization from the migratory birds of Bangladesh.

  18. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from migratory water fowls in Hakaluki Haor, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdaus MohdAltaf Hossain

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 135 fecal samples were collected to characterize the Escherichia coli isolates from the migratory waterfowls (whistling Swan harbored in the Hakaluki Haor of Bangladesh in the year of 2008 and 2009. Out of 135 fecal samples, 100 samples were distinguished as positive for isolates of Escherichia coli following cultural, biochemical and motility test. Amongst the recovered isolates only 38% were found upbeat to enterotoxin production propensity on mice inoculation test. Finally, out of 38 % enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC positive isolates no any isolates found to be positive for the aptitude of heat stable (ST toxin yield. So, the presence of ETEC in migratory waterfowls indicating the possibilities of them to act as vector and reservoir of E. coli to spread further infection to animals and humans. This work indicates the first time ETEC characterization from the migratory birds of Bangladesh.

  19. Migratory and resident blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus differ in their reaction to a novel object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anna L. K.; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan

    2010-11-01

    Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural reactions towards novel objects and new situations. Reaction to novelty is one part of a suit of individually consistent behaviours called coping strategies or personalities and is often summarised as bold or shy behaviour. Coping strategies could be particularly important for migrating birds exposed to novel environments on their journeys. We compared the average approach latencies to a novel object among migrants and residents in partially migratory blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus. In this test, we found migrating blue tits to have shorter approach latencies than had resident ones. Behavioural reactions to novelty can affect the readiness to migrate and short approach latency may have an adaptive value during migration. Individual behaviour towards novelty might be incorporated among the factors associated with migratory or resident behaviour in a partially migratory population.

  20. Methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis of bird migration with a tracking radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, B.; Steidinger, P.

    1972-01-01

    Methods of analyzing bird migration by using tracking radar are discussed. The procedure for assessing the rate of bird passage is described. Three topics are presented concerning the grouping of nocturnal migrants, the velocity of migratory flight, and identification of species by radar echoes. The height and volume of migration under different weather conditions are examined. The methods for studying the directions of migration and the correlation between winds and the height and direction of migrating birds are presented.

  1. Changes in bird-migration patterns associated with human-induced mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacín, Carlos; Alonso, Juan C; Martín, Carlos A; Alonso, Javier A

    2017-02-01

    Many bird populations have recently changed their migratory behavior in response to alterations of the environment. We collected data over 16 years on male Great Bustards (Otis tarda), a species showing a partial migratory pattern (sedentary and migratory birds coexisting in the same breeding groups). We conducted population counts and radio tracked 180 individuals to examine differences in survival rates between migratory and sedentary individuals and evaluate possible effects of these differences on the migratory pattern of the population. Overall, 65% of individuals migrated and 35% did not. The average distance between breeding and postbreeding areas of migrant individuals was 89.9 km, and the longest average movement of sedentary males was 3.8 km. Breeding group and migration distance had no effect on survival. However, mortality of migrants was 2.4 to 3.5 times higher than mortality of sedentary birds. For marked males, collision with power lines was the main cause of death from unnatural causes (37.6% of all deaths), and migratory birds died in collisions with power lines more frequently than sedentary birds (21.3% vs 6.3%). The percentage of sedentary individuals increased from 17% in 1997 to 45% in 2012. These results were consistent with data collected from radio-tracked individuals: The proportion of migratory individuals decreased from 86% in 1997-1999 to 44% in 2006-2010. The observed decrease in the migratory tendency was not related to climatic changes (temperatures did not change over the study period) or improvements in habitat quality (dry cereal farmland area decreased in the main study area). Our findings suggest that human-induced mortality during migration may be an important factor shaping the migration patterns of species inhabiting humanized landscapes. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. MoSI (Monitoreo de Sobrevivencia Invernal): assessing habitat-specific overwintering survival of neotropical migratory landbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David F. DeSante; T. Scott Sillett; Rodney B. Siegel; James F. Saracco; Claudia A. Romo de Vivar Alvarez; Salvadora Morales; Alexis Cerezo; Danielle R. Kaschube; Manuel Grosselet; Borja Mila

    2005-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that population declines in many Neotropical-wintering migratory landbird species are caused by habitat loss and degradation on their wintering grounds. Such habitat loss and degradation can lower overwintering survival rates and cause surviving birds to leave their wintering grounds in poor physical condition, leading to high mortality during...

  3. Migratory status is not related to the susceptibility to HPAIV H5N1 in an insectivorous passerine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Kalthoff

    Full Text Available Migratory birds have evolved elaborate physiological adaptations to travelling, the implications for their susceptibility to avian influenza are however unknown. Three groups of stonechats (Saxicola torquata from (I strongly migrating, (II weakly migrating and (III non-migrating populations were experimentally infected with HPAIV H5N1. The different bird groups of this insectivorous passerine species were infected in autumn, when the migrating populations clearly exhibit migratory restlessness. Following infection, all animals succumbed to the disease from 3 through 7 days post inoculation. Viral shedding, antigen distribution in tissues, and survival time did not differ between the three populations. However, notably, endothelial tropism of the HPAIV infection was exclusively seen in the group of resident birds. In conclusion, our data document for the first time the high susceptibility of an insectivorous passerine species to H5N1 infection, and the epidemiological role of these passerine birds is probably limited due to their high sensitivity to HPAIV H5N1 infection. Despite pronounced inherited differences in migratory status, the groups were generally indistinguishable in their susceptibility, survival time, clinical symptoms and viral shedding. Nevertheless, the migratory status partly influenced pathogenesis in the way of viral tropism.

  4. Gastro-intestinal microbiota of two migratory shorebird species during spring migration staging in Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migratory birds travel long distances and use diverse habitats, potentially exposing them to a broad range of microbes that could negatively affect their health and survival. Gut microbiota composition has been shown to be closely related to organismal health through interactions...

  5. Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild migratory waterfowl in a region of high poultry production, Delmarva, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hindman, Larry J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Ottinger, Christopher A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Driscoll, Cindy P.; Nagel, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Migratory waterfowl are natural reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and may contribute to the long-distance dispersal of these pathogens as well as spillover into domestic bird populations. Surveillance for AIVs is critical to assessing risks for potential spread of these viruses among wild and domestic bird populations. The Delmarva Peninsula on the east coast of the United States is both a key convergence point for migratory Atlantic waterfowl populations and a region with high poultry production (>4,700 poultry meat facilities). Sampling of key migratory waterfowl species occurred at 20 locations throughout the Delmarva Peninsula in fall and winter of 2013–14. Samples were collected from 400 hunter-harvested or live-caught birds via cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs. Fourteen of the 400 (3.5%) birds sampled tested positive for the AIV matrix gene using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, all from five dabbling duck species. Further characterization of the 14 viral isolates identified two hemagglutinin (H3 and H4) and four neuraminidase (N2, N6, N8, and N9) subtypes, which were consistent with isolates reported in the Influenza Research Database for this region. Three of 14 isolates contained multiple HA or NA subtypes. This study adds to the limited baseline information available for AIVs in migratory waterfowl populations on the Delmarva Peninsula, particularly prior to the highly pathogenic AIV A(H5N8) and A(H5N2) introductions to the United States in late 2014.

  6. Skipping swans : Fuelling rates and wind conditions determine differential use of migratory stopover sites of Bewick's Swans Cygnus bewickii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, JH; Nolet, BA; Klaassen, M

    2002-01-01

    Some migratory birds refuel at stopover sites that they by-pass on the return trip. In theory, this skipping behaviour is only expected in time-selected migrants when the overflown site is of a lower quality than the departure site. We provide empirical evidence that quality differences in stopover

  7. Cross-species transmission and emergence of novel viruses from birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-02-01

    Birds, the only living member of the Dinosauria clade, are flying warm-blooded vertebrates displaying high species biodiversity, roosting and migratory behavior, and a unique adaptive immune system. Birds provide the natural reservoir for numerous viral species and therefore gene source for evolution, emergence and dissemination of novel viruses. The intrusions of human into natural habitats of wild birds, the domestication of wild birds as pets or racing birds, and the increasing poultry consumption by human have facilitated avian viruses to cross species barriers to cause zoonosis. Recently, a novel adenovirus was exclusively found in birds causing an outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci infection among birds and humans. Instead of being the primary cause of an outbreak by jumping directly from bird to human, a novel avian virus can be an augmenter of another zoonotic agent causing the outbreak. A comprehensive avian virome will improve our understanding of birds' evolutionary dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Winker, Kevin; McCracken, Kevin G.; Gibson, Daniel D.; Pruett, Christin L.; Meier, Rose; Huettmann, Falk; Wege, Michael; Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.; Perdue, Michael L.; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Asian-origin avian influenza (AI) viruses are spread in part by migratory birds. In Alaska, diverse avian hosts from Asia and the Americas overlap in a region of intercontinental avifaunal mixing. This region is hypothesized to be a zone of Asia-to-America virus transfer because birds there can mingle in waters contaminated by wild-bird?origin AI viruses. Our 7 years of AI virus surveillance among waterfowl and shorebirds in this region (1998?2004; 8,254 samples) showed remarkably low infecti...

  9. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Shenglai; Kleijn, David; M?skens, Gerard J. D. M.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Glazov, Petr M.; Si, Yali; Prins, Herbert H. T.; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis), Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) and Greater white-fronted goose...

  10. Delineating large-scale migratory connectivity of reed warblers using integrated multistate models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Hahn, S.; Rolland, S.; van der Jeugd, H.; Csörgő, T.; Jiguet, F.; Mokwa, T.; Liechti, F.; Vangeluwe, D.; Korner-Nievergelt, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2017), s. 27-40 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus scirpaceus * band encounter data * bird migration * loop migration * migratory connectivity * ring recovery data * ring recovery model * species distribution * survival Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.391, year: 2016

  11. Degree of protandry reflects level of extrapair paternity in migratory songbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppack, Timothy; Tøttrup, Anders Peter; Spottiswoode, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Males of most migratory organisms, including many birds, precede female conspecifics on their journey to the breeding areas. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of protandrous migration, yet they have rarely been tested at the interspecific level. Here, we provide...... correlational support for the "mate opportunity" hypothesis, which assumes that selection favours protandry in polygynous species where males gain significant fitness benefits from arriving earlier than females. Drawing on phenological data collected at two northern European stopover sites, we show...

  12. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  13. Enterobacteriaceae Harboring AmpC (blaCMY) and ESBL (blaCTX-M) in Migratory and Nonmigratory Wild Songbird Populations on Ohio Dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Dimitria A; Mathys, Blake A; Mollenkopf, Dixie F; Daniels, Joshua B; Wittum, Thomas E

    2017-04-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer bacterial resistance to critically important antimicrobials, including extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). Livestock are important reservoirs for the zoonotic food-borne transmission of ESC-resistant enteric bacteria. Our aim is to describe the potential role of migratory and resident wild birds in the epidemiology of ESBL-mediated bacterial resistance on dairy farms. Using mist nets, we sampled wild migratory and resident birds either immediately adjacent to or 600 ft away from free-stall barns on three Ohio dairy farms during the 2014 and 2015 spring migrations. Individual swabs were used to obtain both a cloacal and external surface swab from each bird. Samples were inoculated into MacConkey broth containing cefotaxime then inoculated onto MacConkey agar with cefoxitin, cefepime, or meropenem to identify the bla CMY, bla CTX-M, and carbapenemase phenotypes, respectively. Six hundred twenty-three birds were sampled, 19 (3.0%) of which harbored bacteria with bla CMY and 32 (5.1%) harbored bacteria with bla CTX-M from either their cloacal sample or from their external swab. There was no difference in the prevalence of either gene between migratory and resident birds. Prevalence of bla CMY and bla CTX-M was higher among birds sampled immediately outside the barns compared with those sampled 600 ft away. Our results suggest that wild birds can serve as mechanical and/or biological vectors for Enterobacteriaceae with resistance to ESCs. Birds live in close contact with dairy cows and their feed, therefore, transmission locally between farms is possible. Finding a similar prevalence in migratory and nonmigratory birds suggests the potential for regional and intercontinental movement of these resistance genes via birds.

  14. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pet birds. Because of the risk of avian influenza (bird flu), USDA restricts the importation of pet birds from ... or look dirty may be ill. Learn the signs of illness in a bird, which include appearing ...

  15. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on migratory passerines in Western part of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-07-01

    During southward migration in the years 2006-2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia.

  16. Migratory sleeplessness in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C Rattenborg

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Twice a year, normally diurnal songbirds engage in long-distance nocturnal migrations between their wintering and breeding grounds. If and how songbirds sleep during these periods of increased activity has remained a mystery. We used a combination of electrophysiological recording and neurobehavioral testing to characterize seasonal changes in sleep and cognition in captive white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii across nonmigratory and migratory seasons. Compared to sparrows in a nonmigratory state, migratory sparrows spent approximately two-thirds less time sleeping. Despite reducing sleep during migration, accuracy and responding on a repeated-acquisition task remained at a high level in sparrows in a migratory state. This resistance to sleep loss during the prolonged migratory season is in direct contrast to the decline in accuracy and responding observed following as little as one night of experimenter-induced sleep restriction in the same birds during the nonmigratory season. Our results suggest that despite being adversely affected by sleep loss during the nonmigratory season, songbirds exhibit an unprecedented capacity to reduce sleep during migration for long periods of time without associated deficits in cognitive function. Understanding the mechanisms that mediate migratory sleeplessness may provide insights into the etiology of changes in sleep and behavior in seasonal mood disorders, as well as into the functions of sleep itself.

  17. A Continent-Wide Migratory Divide in North American Breeding Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hobson

    Full Text Available Populations of most North American aerial insectivores have undergone steep population declines over the past 40 years but the relative importance of factors operating on breeding, wintering, or stopover sites remains unknown. We used archival light-level geolocators to track the phenology, movements and winter locations of barn swallows (Hirdundo rustica; n = 27 from populations across North America to determine their migratory connectivity. We identified an east-west continental migratory divide for barn swallows with birds from western regions (Washington State, USA (n = 8 and Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 5 traveling shorter distances to wintering areas ranging from Oregon to northern Colombia than eastern populations (Ontario (n = 3 and New Brunswick (n = 10, Canada which wintered in South America south of the Amazon basin. A single swallow from a stable population in Alabama shared a similar migration route to eastern barn swallows but wintered farther north in northeast Brazil indicating a potential leap frog pattern migratory among eastern birds. Six of 9 (67% birds from the two eastern populations and Alabama underwent a loop migration west of fall migration routes including around the Gulf of Mexico travelling a mean of 2,224 km and 722 km longer on spring migration, respectively. Longer migration distances, including the requirement to cross the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico and subsequent shorter sedentary wintering periods, may exacerbate declines for populations breeding in northeastern North America.

  18. Pointed wings, low wingloading and calm air reduce migratory flight costs in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlin, Melissa S; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-05-14

    Migratory bird, bat and insect species tend to have more pointed wings than non-migrants. Pointed wings and low wingloading, or body mass divided by wing area, are thought to reduce energy consumption during long-distance flight, but these hypotheses have never been directly tested. Furthermore, it is not clear how the atmospheric conditions migrants encounter while aloft affect their energy use; without such information, we cannot accurately predict migratory species' response(s) to climate change. Here, we measured the heart rates of 15 free-flying Swainson's Thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) during migratory flight. Heart rate, and therefore rate of energy expenditure, was positively associated with individual variation in wingtip roundedness and wingloading throughout the flights. During the cruise phase of the flights, heart rate was also positively associated with wind speed but not wind direction, and negatively but not significantly associated with large-scale atmospheric stability. High winds and low atmospheric stability are both indicative of the presence of turbulent eddies, suggesting that birds may be using more energy when atmospheric turbulence is high. We therefore suggest that pointed wingtips, low wingloading and avoidance of high winds and turbulence reduce flight costs for small birds during migration, and that climate change may have the strongest effects on migrants' in-flight energy use if it affects the frequency and/or severity of high winds and atmospheric instability.

  19. Pointed wings, low wingloading and calm air reduce migratory flight costs in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S Bowlin

    Full Text Available Migratory bird, bat and insect species tend to have more pointed wings than non-migrants. Pointed wings and low wingloading, or body mass divided by wing area, are thought to reduce energy consumption during long-distance flight, but these hypotheses have never been directly tested. Furthermore, it is not clear how the atmospheric conditions migrants encounter while aloft affect their energy use; without such information, we cannot accurately predict migratory species' response(s to climate change. Here, we measured the heart rates of 15 free-flying Swainson's Thrushes (Catharus ustulatus during migratory flight. Heart rate, and therefore rate of energy expenditure, was positively associated with individual variation in wingtip roundedness and wingloading throughout the flights. During the cruise phase of the flights, heart rate was also positively associated with wind speed but not wind direction, and negatively but not significantly associated with large-scale atmospheric stability. High winds and low atmospheric stability are both indicative of the presence of turbulent eddies, suggesting that birds may be using more energy when atmospheric turbulence is high. We therefore suggest that pointed wingtips, low wingloading and avoidance of high winds and turbulence reduce flight costs for small birds during migration, and that climate change may have the strongest effects on migrants' in-flight energy use if it affects the frequency and/or severity of high winds and atmospheric instability.

  20. Prevalence and diversity of avian malaria parasites in migratory Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger, Laridae, Charadriiformes) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, F L; Belo, N O; Silveira, P; Braga, E M

    2015-10-01

    The Medium Solimões River region in the Brazilian Amazon Basin is an area utilized for reproduction and nesting by a variety of species of migratory aquatic birds such as Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger). These migratory birds form mixed-species reproductive colonies with high population densities and exhibit a large range of migration routes. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and diversity of the avian malaria parasites Plasmodium and Haemoproteus in Black Skimmers, on the basis of the association between microscopic observation of blood smears and amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (mtDNA cyt-b). The overall prevalence rates of the parasites for juvenile and adult bird specimens were 16% (5/31) and 22% (15/68), respectively. Sequencing the mtDNA cyt-b marker revealed two Plasmodium lineages, which had been previously described in different regions of the American continent, including a Neotropical region in Southeast Brazil, and one Haemoproteus lineage. The fact that avian malarial parasites have been found infecting the Black Skimmers in the Brazilian Amazon ecosystem, which exhibits considerable diversity, highlights the importance of these migratory birds as a potential source of infection and dispersion of pathogens to other susceptible birds of the Nearctic and Neotropical regions.

  1. Cardiac filariosis in migratory Mute swans (Cygnus olor in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Manno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarconema eurycerca is a common parasitic disease of North America swans and geese. The infection has been correlated with severe heart lesions, often resulting in cardiac failure and death of the animals. Heartworms infections have been previously reported in European swans, and specifically in the United Kingdom and Nederland. Both the countries are characterized by a cold temperate weather, similar to the one that can be found in swan wintering areas of U.S.A. and Canada. The first record of cardiac filariasis associated with Sarconema eurycerca infection in four swans in Italy. Twelve mute swans were examined during avian influenza surveillance activities on migratory birds. Birds were collected in the year 2006, in wintering areas of Eastern Sicily (Italy. Four of the twelve swans showed necrotic-haemorrhagic myocarditis with intra-lesional nematodes. Morphological characteristics identified the parasite as a filarial nematode. Birds lungs samples were used for parasites DNA extraction. The latter was used as template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and sequencing of part of the 12S rDNA gene. Comparison of genomic DNA extracted from a reference S. eurycerca isolate confirmed parasite identity and provided the first sequence resources for this species of value to future diagnostic and epidemiological studies.

  2. Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America by wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Casler, Bruce; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Samples were collected from wild birds in western Alaska to assess dispersal of influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America. Two isolates shared nearly identical nucleotide identity at eight genomic segments with H9N2 viruses isolated from China and South Korea providing evidence for intercontinental dispersal by migratory birds.

  3. A preliminary study on the birds of Thane Creek, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Chaudhari-Pachpande

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shorebirds also known as waders comprise several adaptations, which enable them to forage on exposed mudflats.  The population of birds in any ecosystem shows the environmental quality of the area, pollution level, security and availability of food and habitat.  Thane Creek located in Mumbai is one of the unique mangrove ecosystems, maintaining a good population of sediment-dwelling organisms that support a myriad of migratory and non-migratory bird populations.  Bird surveys were carried out using the point count method across two different locations at Thane Creek.  In total 95 species of birds were recorded during the study and distinguished as per the pattern of their foraging.  A healthy diversity of bird species observed indicates the high productivity of the creek.

  4. Flight mode affects allometry of migration range in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y

    2016-08-01

    Billions of birds migrate to exploit seasonally available resources. The ranges of migration vary greatly among species, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. I hypothesise that flight mode (flapping or soaring) and body mass affect migration range through their influence on flight energetics. Here, I compiled the tracks of migratory birds (196 species, weighing 12-10 350 g) recorded by electronic tags in the last few decades. In flapping birds, migration ranges decreased with body mass, as predicted from rapidly increasing flight cost with increasing body mass. The species with higher aspect ratio and lower wing loading had larger migration ranges. In soaring birds, migration ranges were mass-independent and larger than those of flapping birds, reflecting their low flight costs irrespective of body mass. This study demonstrates that many animal-tracking studies are now available to explore the general patterns and the underlying mechanisms of animal migration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Availability of water affects renewal of tissues in migratory blackcaps during stopover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bauchinger, Ulf; Aamidor, Sarah E; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry

    2011-09-01

    Migrating blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) were used to test the predictions that (1) the rebuilding of the digestive tract, as reflected by mass-specific consumption of food on the first 2-3 days of a stopover, is faster in birds with access to drinking water than in birds without, and (2) that adipose tissue and pectoral muscles grow faster and to a greater extent in birds with unlimited access to water. We simulated migratory stopover in two experiments. In Experiment I, each of 31 birds was randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups for 6 days. Along with mealworms (∼64% water) ad libitum, Group 1 received drinking water ad libitum; Group 2 had 0.5 h/day access to water; and Group 3 had no access to water. In Experiment II, 30 birds were offered a mixed diet for insectivorous birds (∼33% water) ad libitum for 6 days, while randomly assigned to two groups: (1) Water ad libitum-control; and (2) 30 min access to water twice a day. We measured lean mass and fat mass using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, as well as body mass (m(b)), pectoral muscle index (PMI), and daily intake of food and water. Mean daily water intake was significantly different among the groups in both experiments. However, the availability of drinking water positively affected the rates of gain of lean and fat mass only in birds fed with the mixed, relatively dry diet. Furthermore, mass-specific daily food intake was affected by the availability of drinking water only in the mixed diet experiment, in which birds with unlimited access to drinking water reached an asymptote, 1 day earlier than birds in the water-restricted group. We suggest that in birds consuming diets with low water content, the lack of sufficient drinking water may result in slower rebuilding of the digestive tract, or may influence biochemical processes in the gut that result in slower growth of tissue. Although blackcaps obtained sufficient water from preformed and metabolic water to renew lost tissues when

  6. Variation in survivorship of a migratory songbird throughout its annual cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillett, T. Scott; Holmes, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    1. Demographic data from both breeding and non-breeding periods are needed to manage populations of migratory birds, many of which are declining in abundance and are of conservation concern. Although habitat associations, and to a lesser extent, reproductive biology, are known for many migratory species, few studies have measured survival rates of these birds at different parts of their annual cycle. 2. Cormack-Jolly-Seber models and Akaike's information criterion model selection were used to investigate seasonal variation in survival of a Nearctic - Neotropical migrant songbird, the black-throated blue warbler, Dendroica caerulescens. Seasonal and annual survival were estimated from resightings of colour-ringed individuals on breeding grounds in New Hampshire, USA from 1986 to 2000 and on winter quarters in Jamaica, West Indies from 1986 to 1999. Warblers were studied each year during the May-August breeding period in New Hampshire and during the October-March overwinter period in Jamaica. 3. In New Hampshire, males had higher annual survival (0.51 + 0.03) and recapture probabilities (0.93 + 0.03) than did females (survival: 0.40 + 0.04; recapture: 0'87 + 0.06). In Jamaica, annual survival (0.43 + 0.03) and recapture (0'95 + 0.04) probabilities did not differ between sexes. Annual survival and recapture probabilities of young birds (i.e. yearlings in New Hampshire and hatch-year birds in Jamaica) did not differ from adults, indicating that from the time hatch-year individuals acquire territories on winter quarters in mid-October, they survive as well as adults within the same habitat. 4. Monthly survival probabilities during the summer (May-August) and winter (October-March) stationary periods were high: 1'0 for males in New Hampshire, and 0.99 + 0.01 for males in Jamaica and for females in both locations. 5. These annual and seasonal survival estimates were used to calculate warbler survival for the migratory periods. Monthly survival probability during migration

  7. Individual improvements and selective mortality shape lifelong migratory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergio, Fabrizio; Tanferna, Alessandro; De Stephanis, Renaud; Jiménez, Lidia López; Blas, Julio; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Preatoni, Damiano; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2014-11-20

    Billions of organisms, from bacteria to humans, migrate each year and research on their migration biology is expanding rapidly through ever more sophisticated remote sensing technologies. However, little is known about how migratory performance develops through life for any organism. To date, age variation has been almost systematically simplified into a dichotomous comparison between recently born juveniles at their first migration versus adults of unknown age. These comparisons have regularly highlighted better migratory performance by adults compared with juveniles, but it is unknown whether such variation is gradual or abrupt and whether it is driven by improvements within the individual, by selective mortality of poor performers, or both. Here we exploit the opportunity offered by long-term monitoring of individuals through Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite tracking to combine within-individual and cross-sectional data on 364 migration episodes from 92 individuals of a raptorial bird, aged 1-27 years old. We show that the development of migratory behaviour follows a consistent trajectory, more gradual and prolonged than previously appreciated, and that this is promoted by both individual improvements and selective mortality, mainly operating in early life and during the pre-breeding migration. Individuals of different age used different travelling tactics and varied in their ability to exploit tailwinds or to cope with wind drift. All individuals seemed aligned along a race with their contemporary peers, whose outcome was largely determined by the ability to depart early, affecting their subsequent recruitment, reproduction and survival. Understanding how climate change and human action can affect the migration of younger animals may be the key to managing and forecasting the declines of many threatened migrants.

  8. Migration confers winter survival benefits in a partially migratory songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Daniel; Gager, Yann; Kokko, Hanna; Fudickar, Adam Michael; Schmidt, Andreas; Naef-Daenzer, Beat; Wikelski, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To evolve and to be maintained, seasonal migration, despite its risks, has to yield fitness benefits compared with year-round residency. Empirical data supporting this prediction have remained elusive in the bird literature. To test fitness related benefits of migration, we studied a partial migratory population of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) over 7 years. Using a combination of capture-mark-recapture and radio telemetry, we compared survival probabilities between migrants and residents estimated by multi-event survival models, showing that migrant blackbirds had 16% higher probability to survive the winter compared to residents. A subsequent modelling exercise revealed that residents should have 61.25% higher breeding success than migrants, to outweigh the survival costs of residency. Our results support theoretical models that migration should confer survival benefits to evolve, and thus provide empirical evidence to understand the evolution and maintenance of migration. PMID:29157357

  9. Thermogenic side effects to migratory predisposition in shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézina, François; Jalvingh, Kirsten M; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2007-03-01

    In the calidrine sandpiper red knot (Calidris canutus), the weeks preceding takeoff for long-distance migration are characterized by a rapid increase in body mass, largely made up of fat but also including a significant proportion of lean tissue. Before takeoff, the pectoral muscles are known to hypertrophy in preparation for endurance flight without any specific training. Because birds facing cold environments counterbalance heat loss through shivering thermogenesis, and since pectoral muscles represent a large proportion of avian body mass, we asked the question whether muscle hypertrophy in preparation for long-distance endurance flight would induce improvements in thermogenic capacity. We acclimated red knots to different controlled thermal environments: 26 degrees C, 5 degrees C, and variable conditions tracking outdoor temperatures. We then studied within-individual variations in body mass, pectoral muscle size (measured by ultrasound), and metabolic parameters [basal metabolic rate (BMR) and summit metabolic rate (M(sum))] throughout a 3-mo period enclosing the migratory gain and loss of mass. The gain in body mass during the fattening period was associated with increases in pectoral muscle thickness and thermogenic capacity independent of thermal acclimation. Regardless of their thermal treatment, birds showing the largest increases in body mass also exhibited the largest increases in M(sum). We conclude that migratory fattening is accompanied by thermoregulatory side effects. The gain of body mass and muscle hypertrophy improve thermogenic capacity independent of thermal acclimation in this species. Whether this represents an ecological advantage depends on the ambient temperature at the time of fattening.

  10. Radioactivity measurements on migrating birds (Turdus philomelos) captured in the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, E.; Roldan, C.; Cervera, J.; Ferrero, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclides 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 90 Sr have been measured in edible tissues and bones of migratory birds (song-thrushes, Turdus philomelos) from central and northern Europe and captured in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain in the 1994 autumn-winter season. Eight years after the Chernobyl accident, extensive agricultural lands in Europe are still contaminated and this study shows that there was a transfer of radioactive isotopes to the captured migratory song-thrushes. The whole-body dose commitment to humans consuming these birds is estimated

  11. Birds in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Khan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the birds in the area adjacent to the Dharala and Brahmaputra rivers in Kurigram District, Bangladesh, was conducted between November 2000 and February 2002. A total of 105 species of birds belonging to 12 orders, 35 families and 77 genera were recorded. Out of 105 species, 51 (48.6% were non-passerine and 54 (51.4% passerine, 33 (31.4% migratory and 72 (68.6% resident. Of the non-passerine birds, 15 (29.4% were migratory and 36 (70.6% were resident, while, among the passerines 18 (33.3% were migratory and 36 (66.7% were resident. Of the total (105 species 14 (13.3% were found to be very common, 30 (28.6% common, 25 (23.8% fairly common and 36 (34.3% were rare or few. Out of 105 species, 30 (28.6% were aquatic and semiaquatic birds and 75 (71.4% were terrestrial. Among 105 species, 52 (49.5% were widely distributed in Kurigram, 31 (29.5% restricted only to the northern side, five (4.8% to the central side, eight (7.6% to the southern side, and nine (8.6% species were common in two or three parts of the study area. Among the three canopy categories, 16 (15.2% species were observed in lower canopy, 32 (30.5% species were recorded from both lower and middle canopies, 19 (18.1% species from upper and middle canopies and only one (1% species was recorded from upper canopy. In the study area 37 (35.2% species of birds used all levels of the canopy. Out of 105 species, 48 (45.7% were insectivorous, 11 (10.4% were grainivorous, five (4.8% frugivorous, 10 (9.5% were piscivorous, five (4.8% were predatory, and 19 (18.1% species of birds were omnivorous. Only one (1% was vegetarian and the diet of 6 (5.7% species could not be determined.

  12. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Satellite-marked waterfowl reveal migratory connection between H5N1 outbreak areas in China and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, D.J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, S.H.; Yan, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Hou, Y.; Xing, Z.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Zhao, D.; Perry, W.M.; Palm, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    The role of wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been greatly debated and remains an unresolved question. However, analyses to determine involvement of wild birds have been hindered by the lack of basic information on their movements in central Asia. Thus, we initiated a programme to document migrations of waterfowl in Asian flyways to inform hypotheses of H5N1 transmission. As part of this work, we studied migration of waterfowl from Qinghai Lake, China, site of the 2005 H5N1 outbreak in wild birds. We examined the null hypothesis that no direct migratory connection existed between Qinghai Lake and H5N1 outbreak areas in central Mongolia, as suggested by some H5N1 phylogeny studies. We captured individuals in 2007 from two of the species that died in the Qinghai Lake outbreaks and marked them with GPS satellite transmitters: Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus (n = 14) and Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (n = 11). Three of 25 marked birds (one Goose and two Shelducks) migrated to breeding grounds near H5N1 outbreak areas in Mongolia. Our results describe a previously unknown migratory link between the two regions and offer new critical information on migratory movements in the region. ?? 2009 British Ornithologists' Union.

  14. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  15. Impact of Spring Bird Migration on the Range Expansion of Ixodes scapularis Tick Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaotian; Röst, Gergely; Zou, Xingfu

    2016-01-01

    Many observational studies suggest that seasonal migratory birds play an important role in spreading Ixodes scapularis, a vector of Lyme disease, along their migratory flyways, and they are believed to be responsible for geographic range expansion of I. scapularis in Canada. However, the interplay between the dynamics of I. scapularis on land and migratory birds in the air is not well understood. In this study, we develop a periodic delay meta-population model which takes into consideration the local landscape for tick reproduction within patches and the times needed for ticks to be transported by birds between patches. Assuming that the tick population is endemic in the source region, we find that bird migration may boost an already established tick population at the subsequent region and thus increase the risk to humans, or bird migration may help ticks to establish in a region where the local landscape is not appropriate for ticks to survive in the absence of bird migration, imposing risks to public health. This theoretical study reveals that bird migration plays an important role in the geographic range expansion of I. scapularis, and therefore our findings may suggest some strategies for Lyme disease prevention and control.

  16. Bird's eye views earth's magnetic lines

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Migratory birds, as well as many other animals, are able to sense the magnetic field of the earth, but how do they do it? "A fascinating possibility is that they may actually see the earth's magnetic lines as patterns of color or light intensity superimposed on their visual surroundings," said John B. Phillips, associate professor of biology in the College of Science at Virginia Tech. The results of more than two decades of research allow him to let such an image cross his mind.

  17. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the reserve. We observed a richness of 261 birds species, the family Tyrannidae is the best represented. Of the species recorded, 177 are permanent residents (31 are endemic and 15 are quasi-endemics to Mexico and 73 are migratory; the remaining eleven records have other status. Also 43 species are in endangered categories. We include species that have not been recorded in the lists of the area and records of species expand their ranges at Nayarit. Due to the great diversity of birds observed, it is necesary to continue the research work about habitat use, abundance and monitoring, it will provides the basis for the conservation of birds of Sierra de Vallejo.

  18. Species Richness and Diversity of Resident and Migratory Landbirds in Remnant Forest Patches and Residential Areas in the Florida Keys, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin B. Main

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of migratory birds necessitates protecting suitable stopover habitat along migratory routes as well as destination habitats, especially near large geographic barriers such as the Gulf of Mexico. The Florida Keys (Keys are an important stopover and breeding destination for migratory landbirds. We documented 47 migratory and 21 resident landbird species via point counts during March–May 2004 and 2005. As a group, species richness, species diversity, and the effective number of species of migratory landbirds, including several species of conservation concern, was significantly and positively associated with percent cover of tropical hardwood hammock, a threatened upland forest type. The collective resident landbird community in the Keys was negatively associated with native hammock cover, although species diversity of the resident community was positively associated with the proximity of native hammock and several resident species, including species of conservation concern, were commonly or predominantly associated with native hammock. Consequently, conservation of native hammock habitat in the Keys is an important conservation priority for migratory birds and several resident species of conservation concern.

  19. Hybrid zone dynamics, assortative mating, and migratory programmes in a willow warbler migratory divide

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Keith

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis I will compare and contrast the two willow warbler subspecies (Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus and P. t. acredula) with differing migratory phenotypes (or "migratype") in the context of their migratory divide and hybrid zone in central Sweden. Their migratory programs differ in the direction and distance traveled during migration. The "northern" willow warblers migrate south-southeast through the Balkan Peninsula to winter in eastern Africa. The "south...

  20. Connecting the dots: Stopover strategies of an intercontinental migratory songbird in the context of the annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Kristina L; Moore, Frank R

    2017-09-01

    The phases of the annual cycle for migratory species are inextricably linked. Yet, less than five percent of ecological studies examine seasonal interactions. In this study, we utilized stable hydrogen isotopes to geographically link individual black-and-white warblers ( Mniotilta varia) captured during spring migration with breeding destinations to understand a migrant's stopover strategy in the context of other phases of the annual cycle. We found that stopover strategy is not only a function of a bird's current energetic state, but also the distance remaining to breeding destination and a bird's time-schedule, which has previously been linked to habitat conditions experienced in the preceding phase of the annual cycle. Birds in close proximity to their breeding destination accumulate additional energy reserves prior to arrival on the breeding grounds, as reflected by higher migratory condition upon arrival, higher refueling rates measured via blood plasma metabolites, and longer stopover durations compared to birds migrating to breeding destinations farther from the stopover site. However, late birds near their breeding destination were more likely to depart on the day of arrival (i.e., transients), and among birds that stopped over at the site, the average duration of stopover was almost half the time of early conspecifics, suggesting late birds are trying to catch-up with the overall time-schedule of migration for optimal arrival time on the breeding grounds. In contrast, birds with long distances remaining to breeding destinations were more likely to depart on the day of arrival and primarily used stopover to rest before quickly resuming migration, adopting similar strategies regardless of a bird's time-schedule. Our study demonstrates that migrants adjust their en route strategies in relation to their time-schedule and distance remaining to their breeding destination, highlighting that strategies of migration should be examined in the context of other phases

  1. Bird associations with shrubsteppe plant communities at the proposed reference repository location in southeastern Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, C.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Sargeant, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides information on te seasonal use of shrubsteppe vegetation by bird species at the RRL. Bird abundance and distribution were studied at the RRL to ensure that the DOE monitored migratory bird species pursuant to the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and to assess potential impacts of site characterization activities on bird populations. Birds were counted on two transects that together sampled an areas of 1.39 km/sup 2/. The relative abundance of birds, species richness, seasonal distribution, and the association of breeding shrubsteppe birds with major vegetation types were determined from Janurary through December 1987. Only 38 species were counted during 82 surveys. Total bird density during the nesting season (March-June) was 42.96 birdskm/sup 2/ and the density for the entire year was 26.74 birdskm/sup 2/. The characteristic nesting birds in shrubsteppe habitats were western meadowlark, sage sparrow, burrowing owl, mourning dove, horned lark, long-billed curlew, lark sparrow, and loggerhead shrike. Western meadowlark and sage sparrows were the most abundant breeding birds with an average density of 11.25 and 7.76 birdskm/sup 2/, respectively. Seasonal distribution of birds varied with species, but most species were present from March to September. Distribution and abunandance of nesting birds were correlated with habitat type. About 63% of the habitat surveyed was sagebrush, 26% was cheatgrass, and 11% was spiny hopsage. Sagebrush habitat supproted a greeater total bird density than cheatgrass or hopsage habitats. Sage sparrows were closely associated with sagebrush habitats, while western meadowlarks showed no strong habitat affinities. 22 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Forest fragmentation and its effects on birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Johnson, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Fragmentation of forest land, whether by suburban development, highways, transmission lines, or poorly planned cutting regimes, seriously affects reproduction by the large numbers of obligate forest interior birds. Many of our warblers, vireos, thrushes, tanagers, and flycatchers are highly migratory insectivorous birds that spend more than half the year in the neotropics, but migrate north to the United States and Canada to rear their young. These tropical visitors are especially vulnerable to predation and cowbird parasitism and are unable to maintain their populations within 100-200 m of forest edge. Habitats for these declining species can be provided by managing forest lands in large blocks so as to maintain at all times extensive contiguous areas of successional stages as well as of mature forest. Avoiding scattered small cuts will also help by reducing edge, road construction, and other disturbance.

  3. Effects of migratory status and habitat on the prevalence and intensity of infection by haemoparasites in passerines in eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian peninsula is a suitable place to study the effects of migratory condition on the prevalence of blood parasites in avian communities as resident, local populations cohabit with migratory species and with abundant vector populations. In this study we examined the incidence of avian blood parasites in three localities in the Mediterranean region (east Spain, in relation to the migratory status of the species. We analyzed 333 blood smears from 11 avian species, and obtained an overall prevalence of 9.6%. The prevalence of parasites varied among the different species studied, although intensity of infection did not. Our results are discussed in terms of population dynamics and abundance of Diptera vectors able to transmit blood parasites to other birds.

  4. Characterization of a non-pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus isolated from a migratory duck flying from Siberia in Hokkaido, Japan, in October 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamatsu Masatoshi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs of domestic poultry and wild birds has spread to more than 60 countries in Eurasia and Africa. It is concerned that HPAIVs may be perpetuated in the lakes in Siberia where migratory water birds nest in summer. To monitor whether HPAIVs circulate in migratory water birds, intensive surveillance of avian influenza has been performed in Mongolia and Japan in autumn each year. Until 2008, there had not been any H5N1 viruses isolated from migratory water birds that flew from their nesting lakes in Siberia. In autumn 2009, A/mallard/Hokkaido/24/09 (H5N1 (Mal/Hok/24/09 was isolated from a fecal sample of a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos that flew from Siberia to Hokkaido, Japan. The isolate was assessed for pathogenicity in chickens, domestic ducks, and quails and analyzed antigenically and phylogenetically. Results No clinical signs were observed in chickens inoculated intravenously with Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1. There was no viral replication in chickens inoculated intranasally with the isolate. None of the domestic ducks and quails inoculated intranasally with the isolate showed any clinical signs. There were no multiple basic amino acid residues at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA of the isolate. Each gene of Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1 is phylogenetically closely related to that of influenza viruses isolated from migratory water birds that flew from their nesting lakes in autumn. Additionally, the antigenicity of the HA of the isolate was similar to that of the viruses isolated from migratory water birds in Hokkaido that flew from their northern territory in autumn and different from those of HPAIVs isolated from birds found dead in China, Mongolia, and Japan on the way back to their northern territory in spring. Conclusion Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1 is a non-pathogenic avian influenza virus for chickens, domestic ducks, and quails, and is antigenically and genetically

  5. Composition and Dynamics of Migratory and Resident Avian Population in Wintering Wetlands from Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar JHA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve wetlands occurring in four different ecozones in Uttar Pradesh (UP, India, were selected for studying the winter composition and dynamics of avian populations. Wetland information was collected from office records of the UP Forest department. Bird populations were estimated by transect method and block-in-flock-in-sector method for woodland and aquatic birds, respectively. Across the twelve selected wetlands a total of 486,182 individuals belonging to 161 species of birds on 15,592 ha were recorded during the winter of 2010-11. The data were analyzed to assess the relationship between wetland characteristics and avian populations. Aquatic vegetation, surrounding vegetation, water availability and climate were found as important factors related to avian populations. January was found to be the peak of bird assemblage, while winter times before and after January were the waxing and waning period, respectively. Species richness and species diversity of aquatic birds varied between 18-58 and 1.90-3.20, respectively, and of all bird species between 23-109, and 1.73-3.81, respectively. The density of aquatic birds ranged between 17-384 ha-1. The most common migratory birds in wetlands were Northern Pintail, Common Teal and Greylag Goose. Common resident birds included Asian Openbill, Darter, Little Egret, Common Coot, Little Cormorant, Grey Heron, Purple Heron, Indian Pond Heron, Common Moorhen, Purple Swamphen, Cattle Egret, Indian Sarus Crane and White-throated Kingfisher. For improved conservation of aquatic avian fauna, management prescriptions are suggested for wetlands under current management which could also be extended to other wetlands, whereas conservation of avian fauna to be the emphasis.

  6. Bird migration advances more strongly in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Sparks, Tim H; Kuźniak, Stanisław; Czechowski, Paweł; Jerzak, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization has a marked effect on the reproduction and other ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In migrant birds, survival and reproductive output is influenced by the (mis)synchronization of arrival with the availability of resources. Many recent studies have shown that arrival timing is related to temperatures en-route and at destination. Because urban areas are "heat islands", with higher temperatures that influence earlier vegetation and invertebrate development, this should favour earlier arrival of migrant birds to cities rather than to rural areas. In this paper, we analysed differences between urban and rural habitats in mean dates and trends of first arrival dates of 18 species of migratory bird species in western Poland during 1983-2010. For many individual species, and overall, mean first arrival date was significantly earlier in rural areas than in urban areas (significant for 11 species). However, the trend towards earlier first arrival dates was stronger in urban areas for 15 of the 18 species (significantly stronger in four species). Consequently, arrival dates in urban areas are fast approaching, or have now matched or passed those in rural areas. These findings suggest that recent environmental changes may have more rapidly changed the migratory habits of birds occupying urban habitats than those occupying rural habitats.

  7. Bird migration advances more strongly in urban environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tryjanowski

    Full Text Available Urbanization has a marked effect on the reproduction and other ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In migrant birds, survival and reproductive output is influenced by the (missynchronization of arrival with the availability of resources. Many recent studies have shown that arrival timing is related to temperatures en-route and at destination. Because urban areas are "heat islands", with higher temperatures that influence earlier vegetation and invertebrate development, this should favour earlier arrival of migrant birds to cities rather than to rural areas. In this paper, we analysed differences between urban and rural habitats in mean dates and trends of first arrival dates of 18 species of migratory bird species in western Poland during 1983-2010. For many individual species, and overall, mean first arrival date was significantly earlier in rural areas than in urban areas (significant for 11 species. However, the trend towards earlier first arrival dates was stronger in urban areas for 15 of the 18 species (significantly stronger in four species. Consequently, arrival dates in urban areas are fast approaching, or have now matched or passed those in rural areas. These findings suggest that recent environmental changes may have more rapidly changed the migratory habits of birds occupying urban habitats than those occupying rural habitats.

  8. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-02

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  10. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Miller

    Full Text Available In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna. Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology

  11. Migration confers survival benefits against avian predators for partially migratory freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Chapman, Ben B.; Baktoft, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    in a freshwater fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus) that commonly migrates from lakes to streams during winter confers a significant survival benefit with respect to bird (cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo spp.) predation. We tagged over 2000 individual fish in two Scandinavian lakes over 4 years and monitored migratory......The importance of predation risk in shaping patterns of animal migration is not well studied, mostly owing to difficulties in accurately quantifying predation risk for migratory versus resident individuals. Here, we present data from an extensive field study, which shows that migration...... behaviour using passive telemetry. Next, we calculated the predation vulnerability of fish with differing migration strategies, by recovering data from passive integrated transponder tags of fish eaten by cormorants at communal roosts close to the lakes. We show that fish can reduce their predation risk...

  12. Recreation economics to inform migratory species conservation: Case study of the northern pintail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Brady J; Dubovsky, James A; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Goldstein, Joshua H; Loomis, John B; Diffendorfer, James E; Semmens, Darius J; Wiederholt, Ruscena; López-Hoffman, Laura

    2018-01-15

    Quantification of the economic value provided by migratory species can aid in targeting management efforts and funding to locations yielding the greatest benefits to society and species conservation. Here we illustrate a key step in this process by estimating hunting and birding values of the northern pintail (Anas acuta) within primary breeding and wintering habitats used during the species' annual migratory cycle in North America. We used published information on user expenditures and net economic values (consumer surplus) for recreational viewing and hunting to determine the economic value of pintail-based recreation in three primary breeding areas and two primary wintering areas. Summed expenditures and consumer surplus for northern pintail viewing were annually valued at $70M, and annual sport hunting totaled $31M (2014 USD). Expenditures for viewing ($42M) were more than twice as high than those for hunting ($18M). Estimates of consumer surplus, defined as the amount consumers are willing to pay above their current expenditures, were $15M greater for viewing ($28M) than for hunting ($13M). We discovered substantial annual consumer surplus ($41M) available for pintail conservation from birders and hunters. We also found spatial differences in economic value among the primary regions used by pintails, with viewing generally valued more in breeding regions than in wintering regions and the reverse being true for hunting. The economic value of pintail-based recreation in the Western wintering region ($26M) exceeded that in any other region by at least a factor of three. Our approach of developing regionally explicit economic values can be extended to other taxonomic groups, and is particularly suitable for migratory game birds because of the availability of large amounts of data. When combined with habitat-linked population models, regionally explicit values could inform development of more effective conservation finance and policy mechanisms to enhance

  13. Disentangling migratory routes and wintering grounds of Iberian near-threatened European Rollers Coracias garrulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Long-distance migrants are suffering drastic declines in the last decades. Causes beneath this problem are complex due to the wide spatial and temporal scale involved. We aim to reveal migratory routes, stopover areas, wintering grounds, and migratory strategies for the most southwestern populations of the near-threatened European Roller Coracias garrulus in order to identify conservation key areas for the non-breeding stage of this species. To this end, we used tracking data from seven satellite transmitters fitted to birds breeding in different populations throughout the Iberian Peninsula and four geolocators fitted to individuals in a southeastern Iberian population. Precise satellite data were used to describe daily activity patterns and speed in relation to the main regions crossed during the migration. Individuals from the most southwestern Iberian populations made a detour towards the Atlantic African coast whereas those from northeastern populations followed a straight north-to-south route. We identified important stopover areas in the Sahel belt, mainly in the surroundings of the Lake Chad, and wintering grounds on southwestern Africa farther west than previously reported for the species. Concerning the migratory strategy, satellite data revealed: 1 a mainly nocturnal flying activity, 2 that migration speed depended on the type of crossed habitat, with higher average speed while crossing the desert; and 3 that the migration was slower and lasted longer in autumn than in spring. The studied populations showed weak migratory connectivity, suggesting the confluence of birds from a wide range of breeding grounds in a restricted wintering area. Therefore, we suggest to target on defining precisely key areas for this species and identifying specific threats in them in order to develop an appropriate global conservation programme for the European Roller.

  14. Recreation economics to inform migratory species conservation: Case study of the northern pintail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Brady J.; Dubovsky, James A.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Goldstein, Joshua H.; Loomis, John B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Semmens, Darius J.; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Quantification of the economic value provided by migratory species can aid in targeting management efforts and funding to locations yielding the greatest benefits to society and species conservation. Here we illustrate a key step in this process by estimating hunting and birding values of the northern pintail (Anas acuta) within primary breeding and wintering habitats used during the species’ annual migratory cycle in North America. We used published information on user expenditures and net economic values (consumer surplus) for recreational viewing and hunting to determine the economic value of pintail-based recreation in three primary breeding areas and two primary wintering areas. Summed expenditures and consumer surplus for northern pintail viewing were annually valued at $70M, and annual sport hunting totaled $31M (2014 USD). Expenditures for viewing ($42M) were more than twice as high than those for hunting ($18M). Estimates of consumer surplus, defined as the amount consumers are willing to pay above their current expenditures, were $15M greater for viewing ($28M) than for hunting ($13M). We discovered substantial annual consumer surplus ($41M) available for pintail conservation from birders and hunters. We also found spatial differences in economic value among the primary regions used by pintails, with viewing generally valued more in breeding regions than in wintering regions and the reverse being true for hunting. The economic value of pintail-based recreation in the Western wintering region ($26M) exceeded that in any other region by at least a factor of three. Our approach of developing regionally explicit economic values can be extended to other taxonomic groups, and is particularly suitable for migratory game birds because of the availability of large amounts of data. When combined with habitat-linked population models, regionally explicit values could inform development of more effective conservation finance and policy mechanisms to enhance

  15. Characterizing wild bird contact and seropositivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Alaskan residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Carrie; Bruden, Dana; Byrd, Kathy K; Veguilla, Vic; Bruce, Michael; Hurlburt, Debby; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Hancock, Kathy; Ortiz, Justin R; Klejka, Joe; Katz, Jacqueline M; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2014-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have infected poultry and wild birds on three continents with more than 600 reported human cases (59% mortality) since 2003. Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza A viruses, and migratory birds have been documented with HPAI H5N1 virus infection. Since 2005, clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to many countries. We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey in Anchorage and western Alaska to identify possible behaviors associated with migratory bird exposure and measure seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We enrolled rural subsistence bird hunters and their families, urban sport hunters, wildlife biologists, and a comparison group without bird contact. We interviewed participants regarding their exposures to wild birds and collected blood to perform serologic testing for antibodies against a clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 virus strain. Hunters and wildlife biologists reported exposures to wild migratory birds that may confer risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses, although none of the 916 participants had evidence of seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We characterized wild bird contact among Alaskans and behaviors that may influence risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses. Such knowledge can inform surveillance and risk communication surrounding HPAI H5N1 and other influenza viruses in a population with exposure to wild birds at a crossroads of intercontinental migratory flyways. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Torn Paper Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson for third-grade students that begins with an examination of bird prints done by John James Audubon and moves into the students creating their own torn paper birds. Introduces the students to the beauty of birds and focuses on the environmental issues that face birds and their habitats. (CMK)

  17. Flying, fasting, and feeding in birds during migration: a nutritional and physiological ecology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McWilliams, S.R.; Guglielmo, C.; Pierce, B.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike exercising mammals, migratory birds fuel very high intensity exercise (e.g., flight) with fatty acids delivered from the adipose tissue to the working muscles by the circulatory system. Given the primary importance of fatty acids for fueling intense exercise, we discuss the likely limiting

  18. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Wild Birds from Northern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jourdain, E.; Olsen, B.; Lundkvist, A.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Šikutová, Silvie; Waldenström, J.; Karlsson, M.; Wahlström, M.; Jozan, M.; Falk, K. I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 77-79 ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Antibodies * Migratory birds * Sweden * West Nile Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2011

  19. Heavy fall of migrating land-birds on board of a ship off Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roselaar, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Between 4 and 7 October 1973, during a spell of unfavourable weather, 85 North American migratory birds were found dead on board a ship sailing between Costa Rica and Belize and in the roads of Belize. They were donated to the Institute of Taxonomic Zoology, University of Amsterdam, where they were

  20. Variation in energy intake and basal metabolic rate of a bird migrating in a wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindström, Å.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Kvist, A.

    1999-01-01

    1. We studied the changes in body mass, metabolizable energy intake rate (ME) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) of a Thrush Nightingale, Luscinia luscinia, following repeated 12-h migratory flights in a wind tunnel. In total the bird flew for 176 h corresponding to 6300 km. This is the first study

  1. Bird Habitat Conservation at Various Scales in the Atlantic Coast Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Milliken; Craig Watson; Chuck Hayes

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic Coast Joint Venture is a partnership focused on the conservation of habitats for migratory birds within the Atlantic Flyway/Atlantic Coast Region from Maine south to Puerto Rico. In order to be effective in planning and implementing conservation in this large and diverse area, the joint venture must work at multiple spatial scales, from the largest ?...

  2. The evolution of bird migration--a synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Bruderer, Bruno

    2007-04-01

    We approach the problem of the evolution of bird migration by asking whether migration evolves towards new breeding areas or towards survival areas in the non-breeding season. Thus, we avoid the ambiguity of the usually discussed "southern-home-theory" or "northern-home-theory". We argue that migration evolved in birds that spread to seasonal habitats through gradual dispersal to enhance survival during the non-breeding season; this in contrast to the alternative idea suggesting that migration evolved towards new breeding areas to increase reproductive success. Our synthesis is based on the threshold model explaining how migratory traits can change rapidly through microevolutionary processes. Our model brings former theories together and explains how bird migration, with the appropriate direction and time program, evolves through selection after genetically non-directed events such as dispersal and colonization. The model does not need the former untested assumptions such as competition as a reason for migration and for the disappearance of sedentary populations or higher reproductive success in temperate breeding areas. Our theory offers answers to questions such as how birds with a southern origin may gradually reach northern latitudes, why migration routes may follow historical expansion routes and why birds leave an area for the non-breeding season and move back instead of breeding on their wintering grounds. The theory proposes gradual change through selection and not sudden changes such as long distance dispersal or mutations and can be applied to migration at all latitudes and in all directions. The scenario provides a reasonable concept to understand most of the existing migratory phenomena on the basis of the ecology and genetics of migratory behaviour.

  3. Seasonally Changing Cryptochrome 1b Expression in the Retinal Ganglion Cells of a Migrating Passerine Bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Nießner

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes, blue-light absorbing proteins involved in the circadian clock, have been proposed to be the receptor molecules of the avian magnetic compass. In birds, several cryptochromes occur: Cryptochrome 2, Cryptochrome 4 and two splice products of Cryptochrome 1, Cry1a and Cry1b. With an antibody not distinguishing between the two splice products, Cryptochrome 1 had been detected in the retinal ganglion cells of garden warblers during migration. A recent study located Cry1a in the outer segments of UV/V-cones in the retina of domestic chickens and European robins, another migratory species. Here we report the presence of cryptochrome 1b (eCry1b in retinal ganglion cells and displaced ganglion cells of European Robins, Erithacus rubecula. Immuno-histochemistry at the light microscopic and electron microscopic level showed eCry1b in the cell plasma, free in the cytosol as well as bound to membranes. This is supported by immuno-blotting. However, this applies only to robins in the migratory state. After the end of the migratory phase, the amount of eCry1b was markedly reduced and hardly detectable. In robins, the amount of eCry1b in the retinal ganglion cells varies with season: it appears to be strongly expressed only during the migratory period when the birds show nocturnal migratory restlessness. Since the avian magnetic compass does not seem to be restricted to the migratory phase, this seasonal variation makes a role of eCry1b in magnetoreception rather unlikely. Rather, it could be involved in physiological processes controlling migratory restlessness and thus enabling birds to perform their nocturnal flights.

  4. First evidence of bryophyte diaspores in the plumage of transequatorial migrant birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lily R; Behling, Emily; Gousse, Hannah; Qian, Emily; Elphick, Chris S; Lamarre, Jean-François; Bêty, Joël; Liebezeit, Joe; Rozzi, Ricardo; Goffinet, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between transequatorial migratory bird routes and bipolar biogeographic disjunctions in bryophytes suggest that disjunctions between northern and southern high latitude regions may result from bird-mediated dispersal; supporting evidence is, however, exclusively circumstantial. Birds disperse plant units (diaspores) internally via ingestion (endozoochory) or externally by the attachment of diaspores to the body (ectozoochory). Endozoochory is known to be the primary means of bird-mediated dispersal for seeds and invertebrates at local, regional, and continental scales. Data supporting the role of bird-mediated endozoochory or ectozoochory in the long distance dispersal of bryophytes remain sparse, however, despite the large number of bryophytes displaying bipolar disjunctions. To determine if transequatorial migrant shorebirds may play a role in the ectozoochory of bryophyte diaspores, we developed a method for screening feathers of wild birds. We provide the first evidence of microscopic bryophyte diaspores, as well as those from non-bryophyte lineages, embedded in the plumage of long distance transequatorial migrant birds captured in their arctic breeding grounds. The number of diaspores recovered suggests that entire migratory populations may be departing their northern breeding grounds laden with potentially viable plant parts and that they could thereby play significant roles in bipolar range expansions of lineages previously ignored in the migrant bird dispersal literature.

  5. First evidence of bryophyte diaspores in the plumage of transequatorial migrant birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily R. Lewis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between transequatorial migratory bird routes and bipolar biogeographic disjunctions in bryophytes suggest that disjunctions between northern and southern high latitude regions may result from bird-mediated dispersal; supporting evidence is, however, exclusively circumstantial. Birds disperse plant units (diaspores internally via ingestion (endozoochory or externally by the attachment of diaspores to the body (ectozoochory. Endozoochory is known to be the primary means of bird-mediated dispersal for seeds and invertebrates at local, regional, and continental scales. Data supporting the role of bird-mediated endozoochory or ectozoochory in the long distance dispersal of bryophytes remain sparse, however, despite the large number of bryophytes displaying bipolar disjunctions. To determine if transequatorial migrant shorebirds may play a role in the ectozoochory of bryophyte diaspores, we developed a method for screening feathers of wild birds. We provide the first evidence of microscopic bryophyte diaspores, as well as those from non-bryophyte lineages, embedded in the plumage of long distance transequatorial migrant birds captured in their arctic breeding grounds. The number of diaspores recovered suggests that entire migratory populations may be departing their northern breeding grounds laden with potentially viable plant parts and that they could thereby play significant roles in bipolar range expansions of lineages previously ignored in the migrant bird dispersal literature.

  6. Flight responses by a migratory soaring raptor to changing meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzone, Michael J; Miller, Tricia A; Turk, Philip; Brandes, David; Halverson, Casey; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Brooks, Robert P; Katzner, Todd

    2012-10-23

    Soaring birds that undertake long-distance migration should develop strategies to minimize the energetic costs of endurance flight. This is relevant because condition upon completion of migration has direct consequences for fecundity, fitness and thus, demography. Therefore, strong evolutionary pressures are expected for energy minimization tactics linked to weather and topography. Importantly, the minute-by-minute mechanisms birds use to subsidize migration in variable weather are largely unknown, in large part because of the technological limitations in studying detailed long-distance bird flight. Here, we show golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migratory response to changing meteorological conditions as monitored by high-resolution telemetry. In contrast to expectations, responses to meteorological variability were stereotyped across the 10 individuals studied. Eagles reacted to increased wind speed by using more orographic lift and less thermal lift. Concomitantly, as use of thermals decreased, variation in flight speed and altitude also decreased. These results demonstrate how soaring migrant birds can minimize energetic expenditures, they show the context for avian decisions and choices of specific instantaneous flight mechanisms and they have important implications for design of bird-friendly wind energy.

  7. [Wild birds--a reservoir for influenza A virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griot, C; Hoop, R

    2007-11-01

    Influenza A viruses, in particular the H5 and H7 subtypes, have caused epizootic diseases in poultry for a long time. Wild aquatic birds and shorebirds form the natural virus reservoir. All influenza virus subtypes and almost all possible haemagglutinin/neuraminidase combinations have been detected in wild birds, whereas relatively few have been detected in humans and other mammals. In 1997, the emerging and spreading of the highly pathogenic strain H5N1 within Asia was supported by lack of hygiene in commercial poultry units and by the existence of live bird markets. During autumn 2005, migratory birds have been accused for spreading the infection along their flyways to Europe including Switzerland. For early detection of introduction to Europe, many countries have initiated surveillance programs for avian influenza in wild birds. Vaccines against influenza A viruses are existing for birds and are widely used to protect domestic fowl in endemic regions of Asia as well as valuable birds in zoos worldwide. Subtype H5N1 could be the progenitor virus of a new pandemic influenza virus. Therefore, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, Paris) as well as the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO, Rome) will need to increase their efforts to assist countries to combat the disease in the field.

  8. Avian Information Systems: Developing Web-Based Bird Avoidance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Shamoun-Baranes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between aircraft and birds, so-called "bird strikes," can result in serious damage to aircraft and even in the loss of lives. Information about the distribution of birds in the air and on the ground can be used to reduce the risk of bird strikes and their impact on operations en route and in and around air fields. Although a wealth of bird distribution and density data is collected by numerous organizations, these data are not readily available nor interpretable by aviation. This paper presents two national efforts, one in the Netherlands and one in the United States, to develop bird avoidance nodels for aviation. These models integrate data and expert knowledge on bird distributions and migratory behavior to provide hazard maps in the form of GIS-enabled Web services. Both models are in operational use for flight planning and flight alteration and for airfield and airfield vicinity management. These models and their presentation on the Internet are examples of the type of service that would be very useful in other fields interested in species distribution and movement information, such as conservation, disease transmission and prevention, or assessment and mitigation of anthropogenic risks to nature. We expect that developments in cyber-technology, a transition toward an open source philosophy, and higher demand for accessible biological data will result in an increase in the number of biological information systems available on the Internet.

  9. Dissemination of spotted fever rickettsia agents in Europe by migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, Karin; Olsen, Björn; Bergström, Sven; Waldenström, Jonas; Lundkvist, Ake; Sjöstedt, Anders; Mejlon, Hans; Nilsson, Kenneth

    2010-01-05

    Migratory birds are known to play a role as long-distance vectors for many microorganisms. To investigate whether this is true of rickettsial agents as well, we characterized tick infestation and gathered ticks from 13,260 migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1127 Ixodes spp. ticks were removed from these birds and the extracted DNA from 957 of them was available for analyses. The DNA was assayed for detection of Rickettsia spp. using real-time PCR, followed by DNA sequencing for species identification. Rickettsia spp. organisms were detected in 108 (11.3%) of the ticks. Rickettsia helvetica, a spotted fever rickettsia associated with human infections, was predominant among the PCR-positive samples. In 9 (0.8%) of the ticks, the partial sequences of 17kDa and ompB genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia monacensis, an etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever-like illness, previously described in southern Europe as well as to the Rickettsia sp.IrITA3 strain. For 15 (1.4%) of the ticks, the 17kDa, ompB, gltA and ompA genes showed the greatest similarity to Rickettsia sp. strain Davousti, Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis, all closely phylogenetically related, the former previously found in Amblyomma tholloni ticks in Africa and previously not detected in Ixodes spp. ticks. The infestation prevalence of ticks infected with rickettsial organisms was four times higher among ground foraging birds than among other bird species, but the two groups were equally competent in transmitting Rickettsia species. The birds did not seem to serve as reservoir hosts for Rickettsia spp., but in one case it seems likely that the bird was rickettsiemic and that the ticks had acquired the bacteria from the blood of the bird. In conclusion, migratory passerine birds host epidemiologically important vector ticks and Rickettsia species and contribute to the geographic distribution of spotted fever rickettsial agents and their diseases.

  10. Role of the low-affinity glucocorticoid receptor in the regulation of behavior and energy metabolism in the migratory red knot Calidris canutus islandica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landys, Meta M; Piersma, Theunis; Ramenofsky, Marilyn; Wingfield, John C

    2004-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone increases in association with migratory flight in the red knot Calidris canutus islandica, suggesting that corticosterone may promote migratory activity and/or energy mobilization in this species. This hypothesis is supported by general effects of glucocorticoids, which include stimulation of locomotion and the mobilization of energy depots. We experimentally examined the role of elevated corticosterone levels in the migratory red knot by comparing foraging behavior, flight frequency, and plasma metabolites between vehicle-injected controls and birds treated with RU486, an antagonist to the genomic low-affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We predicted that RU486 treatment would interfere with energy mobilization. However, we expected no effects on flight activity because recent studies suggest that glucocorticoids affect locomotion through a nongenomic receptor. Finally, because glucocorticoids exert permissive effects on food intake, we postulated that RU486 treatment in the red knot would interfere with feeding. Results were consistent with the latter prediction, suggesting that the GR participates in the promotion of hyperphagia, the intense feeding state that is characteristic of the migratory condition. RU486 treatment did not affect flight frequency, suggesting that corticosterone may support migratory activity through a receptor other than the GR. Energy metabolism (as determined through plasma metabolites) was also unaffected by RU486, possibly because energetic demands experienced by captive birds were low.

  11. Obese super athletes: fat-fueled migration in birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2018-03-07

    Migratory birds are physiologically specialized to accumulate massive fat stores (up to 50-60% of body mass), and to transport and oxidize fatty acids at very high rates to sustain flight for many hours or days. Target gene, protein and enzyme analyses and recent -omic studies of bird flight muscles confirm that high capacities for fatty acid uptake, cytosolic transport, and oxidation are consistent features that make fat-fueled migration possible. Augmented circulatory transport by lipoproteins is suggested by field data but has not been experimentally verified. Migratory bats have high aerobic capacity and fatty acid oxidation potential; however, endurance flight fueled by adipose-stored fat has not been demonstrated. Patterns of fattening and expression of muscle fatty acid transporters are inconsistent, and bats may partially fuel migratory flight with ingested nutrients. Changes in energy intake, digestive capacity, liver lipid metabolism and body temperature regulation may contribute to migratory fattening. Although control of appetite is similar in birds and mammals, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal changes in fuel store set-points in migrants remain poorly understood. Triacylglycerol of birds and bats contains mostly 16 and 18 carbon fatty acids with variable amounts of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 depending on diet. Unsaturation of fat converges near 70% during migration, and unsaturated fatty acids are preferentially mobilized and oxidized, making them good fuel. Twenty and 22 carbon n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may affect membrane function and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling. However, evidence for dietary PUFA as doping agents in migratory birds is equivocal and requires further study. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Genetic diversity and mutation of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus) in wild birds and evidence for intercontinental spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Ogawa, Haruko; Ip, Hon S.; Imai, Kunitoshi; Bui, V. N.; Yamaguchi, Emi; Silko, N. Y.; Afonso, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), or Newcastle disease virus, is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, one of the most economically important diseases for poultry production worldwide and a cause of periodic epizootics in wild birds in North America. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity of APMV-1 isolated from migratory birds sampled in Alaska, Japan, and Russia and assessed the evidence for intercontinental virus spread using phylogenetic methods. Additionally, we predicted viral virulence using deduced amino acid residues for the fusion protein cleavage site and estimated mutation rates for the fusion gene of class I and class II migratory bird isolates. All 73 isolates sequenced as part of this study were most closely related to virus genotypes previously reported for wild birds; however, five class II genotype I isolates formed a monophyletic clade exhibiting previously unreported genetic diversity, which met criteria for the designation of a new sub-genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of wild-bird isolates provided evidence for intercontinental virus spread, specifically viral lineages of APMV-1 class II genotype I sub-genotypes Ib and Ic. This result supports migratory bird movement as a possible mechanism for the redistribution of APMV-1. None of the predicted deduced amino acid motifs for the fusion protein cleavage site of APMV-1 strains isolated from migratory birds in Alaska, Japan, and Russia were consistent with those of previously identified virulent viruses. These data therefore provide no support for these strains contributing to the emergence of avian pathogens. The estimated mutation rates for fusion genes of class I and class II wild-bird isolates were faster than those reported previously for non-virulent APMV-1 strains. Collectively, these findings provide new insight into the diversity, spread, and evolution of APMV-1 in wild birds.

  13. Local parasite lineage sharing in temperate grassland birds provides clues about potential origins of Galapagos avian Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Iris I; Colborn, Rachel E; Kim, Daniel; Perlut, Noah G; Renfrew, Rosalind B; Parker, Patricia G

    2016-02-01

    Oceanic archipelagos are vulnerable to natural introduction of parasites via migratory birds. Our aim was to characterize the geographic origins of two Plasmodium parasite lineages detected in the Galapagos Islands and in North American breeding bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) that regularly stop in Galapagos during migration to their South American overwintering sites. We used samples from a grassland breeding bird assemblage in Nebraska, United States, and parasite DNA sequences from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, to compare to global data in a DNA sequence registry. Homologous DNA sequences from parasites detected in bobolinks and more sedentary birds (e.g., brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ater, and other co-occurring bird species resident on the North American breeding grounds) were compared to those recovered in previous studies from global sites. One parasite lineage that matched between Galapagos birds and the migratory bobolink, Plasmodium lineage B, was the most common lineage detected in the global MalAvi database, matching 49 sequences from unique host/site combinations, 41 of which were of South American origin. We did not detect lineage B in brown-headed cowbirds. The other Galapagos-bobolink match, Plasmodium lineage C, was identical to two other sequences from birds sampled in California. We detected a close variant of lineage C in brown-headed cowbirds. Taken together, this pattern suggests that bobolinks became infected with lineage B on the South American end of their migratory range, and with lineage C on the North American breeding grounds. Overall, we detected more parasite lineages in bobolinks than in cowbirds. Galapagos Plasmodium had similar host breadth compared to the non-Galapagos haemosporidian lineages detected in bobolinks, brown-headed cowbirds, and other grassland species. This study highlights the utility of global haemosporidian data in the context of migratory bird-parasite connectivity. It is possible that migratory bobolinks

  14. Webcams for Bird Detection and Monitoring: A Demonstration Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem W. Verstraeten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  15. Post construction bird and bat monitoring programs in southern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edworthy, J. [VisionQuest, Calgary, AB (Canada); Morin, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    A post construction monitoring methodology for bats and birds was presented for Castle River, Summerview, McBride and Magrath wind farms, which are jointly operated by Suncor Energy and Visionquest. The aim of the on-going program is to gain a better understanding of bird and bat interactions with wind turbines. Surveys occur once a week during non-migratory periods and twice a week during migratory periods. Turbines are surveyed 60 m in each direction. Each mortality is recorded, photographed and collected. Data includes species, date, location in relation to turbine, level of scavenging and cause of death. Species of concern are sent for necropsy. Searcher efficiency and scavenger trials are completed for all sites. Mortality rates for all 4 wind farms were presented separately, with details of species of concern. Additional studies were recommended for long-billed curlew and sharp-tailed grouse, along with details of foraging activity, setbacks from breeding habitats, and impacts observed. Studies for sources of ultrasound and echolocation activity during migration periods and details of participation and monitoring of Bat Wind Energy Consortium activity were also discussed. Details of bird banding program for Swainson Hawks were presented. It was recommended that wind farms avoid rare flora and fauna and critical wildlife habitats. It was concluded that pre-construction wildlife surveys can provide valuable information, and post construction bird and bat mortality surveys are critical to understanding the factors contribute to collisions. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Monitoring of Wild Birds in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Michel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By systematically setting up a unique nation-wide wild bird surveillance network, we monitored migratory and resident birds for zoonotic arthropod-borne virus infections, such as the flaviviruses West Nile virus (WNV and Usutu virus (USUV. More than 1900 wild bird blood samples, from 20 orders and 136 different bird species, were collected between 2014 and 2016. Samples were investigated by WNV and USUV-specific real-time polymerase chain reactions as well as by differentiating virus neutralization tests. Dead bird surveillance data, obtained from organ investigations in 2016, were also included. WNV-specific RNA was not detected, whereas four wild bird blood samples tested positive for USUV-specific RNA. Additionally, 73 USUV-positive birds were detected in the 2016 dead bird surveillance. WNV neutralizing antibodies were predominantly found in long-distance, partial and short-distance migrants, while USUV neutralizing antibodies were mainly detected in resident wild bird species, preferentially with low seroprevalences. To date, WNV-specific RNA has neither been detected in wild birds, nor in mosquitoes, thus, we conclude that WNV is not yet present in Germany. Continued wild bird and mosquito monitoring studies are essential to detect the incursion of zoonotic viruses and to allow risk assessments for zoonotic pathogens.

  17. West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Monitoring of Wild Birds in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Friederike; Fast, Christine; Reuschel, Maximilian; Müller, Kerstin; Urbaniak, Sylvia; Brandes, Florian; Schwehn, Rebekka; Groschup, Martin H.; Ziegler, Ute

    2018-01-01

    By systematically setting up a unique nation-wide wild bird surveillance network, we monitored migratory and resident birds for zoonotic arthropod-borne virus infections, such as the flaviviruses West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV). More than 1900 wild bird blood samples, from 20 orders and 136 different bird species, were collected between 2014 and 2016. Samples were investigated by WNV and USUV-specific real-time polymerase chain reactions as well as by differentiating virus neutralization tests. Dead bird surveillance data, obtained from organ investigations in 2016, were also included. WNV-specific RNA was not detected, whereas four wild bird blood samples tested positive for USUV-specific RNA. Additionally, 73 USUV-positive birds were detected in the 2016 dead bird surveillance. WNV neutralizing antibodies were predominantly found in long-distance, partial and short-distance migrants, while USUV neutralizing antibodies were mainly detected in resident wild bird species, preferentially with low seroprevalences. To date, WNV-specific RNA has neither been detected in wild birds, nor in mosquitoes, thus, we conclude that WNV is not yet present in Germany. Continued wild bird and mosquito monitoring studies are essential to detect the incursion of zoonotic viruses and to allow risk assessments for zoonotic pathogens. PMID:29361762

  18. Satellite tracking of the migratory pathways of the first-year Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus departing from the breeding grounds of different subspecies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pütz, Klemens; Rahbek, Carsten; Saurola, Pertti

    2007-01-01

    of the other subspecies. In addition, first-year birds from cross-breeding experiments between the two subspecies (fuscus x intermedius) were also equipped with satellite transmitters. In total, eleven first-year birds were successfully tracked during their initial autumn migration, at least one from each...... study group. First-year birds from the Danish intermedius subspecies migrated either southwest along the coast of the North Sea or through central Europe to Algeria. By contrast, first-year birds from the Finnish fuscus subspecies migrated on a south-southeastern course towards Ukraine and the Bosporus......The migratory behaviour of two Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus subspecies, fuscus and intermedius, was studied using satellite telemetry. To this end, first-year birds were equipped with satellite transmitters and released either at their natal site, or after transferring to a breeding site...

  19. 78 FR 53199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... possession limits of mourning, white-winged, and white- tipped doves; band-tailed pigeons; rails; moorhens... seasons, hours, areas, and limits for mourning, white-winged, and white-tipped doves; band-tailed pigeons... regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow for public...

  20. 77 FR 53751 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... possession limits of mourning, white-winged, and white- tipped doves; band-tailed pigeons; rails; moorhens...-tailed pigeons; rails; moorhens and gallinules; woodcock; common snipe; sandhill cranes; sea ducks; early... that regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow...

  1. Space-Based Ornithology - Studying Bird Migration and Environmental Change in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Deppe, Jill L.

    2008-01-01

    Natural fluctuations in the availability of critical stopover sites coupled with anthropogenic destruction of wetlands, land-use change, and anticipated losses due to climate change present migratory birds with a formidable challenge. Space based technology in concert with bird migration modeling and geographical information analysis yields new opportunities to shed light on the distribution and movement of organisms on the planet and their sensitivity to human disturbances and environmental changes. At the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, we are creating ecological forecasting tools for science and application users to address the consequences of loss of wetlands, flooding, drought or other natural disasters such as hurricanes on avian biodiversity and bird migration. We use an individual-based bird biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate and hydrologic data, and biological field observations to study migratory bird responses to environmental change in North America. Simulation allows us to study bird migration across multiple scales and can be linked to mechanistic processes describing the time and energy budget states of migrating birds. We illustrate our approach by simulating the spring migration of pectoral sandpipers from the Gulf of Mexico to Alaska. Mean stopover length and trajectory patterns are consistent with field observations.

  2. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglai Yin

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis, Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis and Greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons, from their breeding grounds, spring stopover sites, and wintering grounds. We tested if the geese were infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus outside of their wintering grounds, and analysed the spatial and temporal patterns of infection prevalence on their wintering grounds. Our results show that geese were not infected before their arrival on wintering grounds. Barnacle geese and Greater white-fronted geese had low prevalence of infection just after their arrival on wintering grounds in the Netherlands, but the prevalence increased in successive months, and peaked after December. This suggests that migratory geese are exposed to the virus after their arrival on wintering grounds, indicating that migratory geese might not disperse low pathogenic avian influenza virus during autumn migration.

  3. Seasonal associations with urban light pollution for nocturnally migrating bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Buler, Jeffrey J; Farnsworth, Andrew; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A

    2017-11-01

    The spatial extent and intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) has increased worldwide through the growth of urban environments. There is evidence that nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to ALAN, and there is evidence that nocturnally migrating bird populations are more likely to occur in urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn. Here, we test if urban sources of ALAN are responsible, at least in part, for these observed urban associations. We use weekly estimates of diurnal occurrence and relative abundance for 40 nocturnally migrating bird species that breed in forested environments in North America to assess how associations with distance to urban areas and ALAN are defined across the annual cycle. Migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with shorter distances to urban areas during migration, and stronger than expected association with higher levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas during migration. These patterns were more pronounced during autumn migration, especially within urban areas. Outside of the two migration periods, migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with longer distances to urban areas, especially during the nonbreeding season, and weaker than expected associations with the highest levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas. These findings suggest that ALAN is associated with higher levels of diurnal abundance along the boundaries and within the interior of urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn when juveniles are undertaking their first migration journey. These findings support the conclusion that urban sources of ALAN can broadly effect migratory behavior, emphasizing the need to better understand the implications of ALAN for migratory bird populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Modeling Bird Migration under Climate Change: A Mechanistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2009-01-01

    How will migrating birds respond to changes in the environment under climate change? What are the implications for migratory success under the various accelerated climate change scenarios as forecast by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change? How will reductions or increased variability in the number or quality of wetland stop-over sites affect migratory bird species? The answers to these questions have important ramifications for conservation biology and wildlife management. Here, we describe the use of continental scale simulation modeling to explore how spatio-temporal changes along migratory flyways affect en-route migration success. We use an individually based, biophysical, mechanistic, bird migration model to simulate the movement of shorebirds in North America as a tool to study how such factors as drought and wetland loss may impact migratory success and modify migration patterns. Our model is driven by remote sensing and climate data and incorporates important landscape variables. The energy budget components of the model include resting, foraging, and flight, but presently predation is ignored. Results/Conclusions We illustrate our model by studying the spring migration of sandpipers through the Great Plains to their Arctic breeding grounds. Why many species of shorebirds have shown significant declines remains a puzzle. Shorebirds are sensitive to stop-over quality and spacing because of their need for frequent refueling stops and their opportunistic feeding patterns. We predict bird "hydrographs that is, stop-over frequency with latitude, that are in agreement with the literature. Mean stop-over durations predicted from our model for nominal cases also are consistent with the limited, but available data. For the shorebird species simulated, our model predicts that shorebirds exhibit significant plasticity and are able to shift their migration patterns in response to changing drought conditions. However, the question remains as to whether this

  5. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  6. Local parasite lineage sharing in temperate grassland birds provides clues about potential origins of Galapagos avian Plasmodium

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Iris I.; Colborn, Rachel E.; Kim, Daniel; Perlut, Noah G.; Renfrew, Rosalind B.; Parker, Patricia G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oceanic archipelagos are vulnerable to natural introduction of parasites via migratory birds. Our aim was to characterize the geographic origins of two Plasmodium parasite lineages detected in the Galapagos Islands and in North American breeding bobolinks ( Dolichonyx oryzivorus) that regularly stop in Galapagos during migration to their South American overwintering sites. We used samples from a grassland breeding bird assemblage in Nebraska, United States, and parasite DNA sequences...

  7. Seasonal movements, winter range use, and migratory connectivity of the Black Oystercatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Clarkson, Peter; Goldstein, Michael I.; Haig, Susan M.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Tessler, David F.; Zwiefelhofer, Denny

    2010-01-01

    The Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) is an intertidal obligate along North America's Pacific coast and a species of high conservation concern (population size 8900–11 000 individuals). Understanding birds' movements and space use throughout the annual cycle has become paramount in the face of changing environmental conditions, and intertidal species may be particularly vulnerable to habitat change due to anticipated sea-level rise associated with climate change and increasing coastal development. Conservation of the Black Oystercatcher is hindered by a lack of information on the species' nonbreeding distribution, seasonal movements, and habitat connectivity. Using satellite (n = 19) and VHF (n = 19) radio transmitters, we tracked Black Oystercatchers from five breeding sites (Vancouver Island, British Columbia; Kodiak Island, Prince William Sound, Middleton Island, and Juneau, Alaska) through one and one half annual cycles (May 2007–Dec 2008). We documented medium- to long-distance migration (range of migration distance 130–1667 km) in three populations (Prince William Sound, Middleton Island, and Juneau) and year-round residency in two others (Kodiak and Vancouver Island). We observed variation in the timing and length of migration by study site, and individual birds demonstrated fidelity to breeding and nonbreeding sites. We did not observe strong migratory connectivity. Migratory oystercatchers distributed themselves widely along the coasts of British Columbia and southeast Alaska during winter. Results provide baseline information on the Black Oystercatcher's movements and space use throughout the annual cycle.

  8. Isolation of an H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strain from Wild Birds in Seoul, a Highly Urbanized Area in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-07-01

    Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates. This H5N8 virus was likely introduced into the urbanized city by migratory wild birds. Therefore, wild bird habitats in urbanized areas should be carefully monitored for HPAIV.

  9. Status of wetland birds of Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary, Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary (76036-76046 E and 29052-30000 N, situated in Kurukshetra District of Haryana provides an important wintering ground for a diverse range of wetland birds. This study was carried out from April 2009 to March 2012 to document the diversity of wetland birds. Altogether 57 species of wetland birds belonging to 37 genera and 16 families were recorded from the study area. Family Anatidae dominated the wetland bird community with 13 species. Among recorded species, 33 were winter migrants, two summer migrants and 22 were resident species. The winter migratory birds did not arrive at this wetland in one lot and at one time. Instead, they displayed a definite pattern specific to species for arrival and departure. They appeared at the wetland during mid-October and stayed up to early April. The composition of birds in major feeding guilds in the study area showed that the insectivore guild was the most common with 35.09% species, followed by carnivore (29.82%, omnivore (19.30%, herbivore (10.53% and piscivore (5.26%. Among the birds recorded in this study area, Darter (Anhinga melanogaster and Painted Stork (Mycterialeucocephala were Near Threatened species. Comb Duck (Sarkidiornismelanotos, listed in Appendix II of CITES, was also spotted in the sanctuary. The spotting of these threatened bird species highlights the importance of Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary as a significant wetland bird habitat in Haryana. However, anthropogenic activities like fire wood collection, livestock grazing, cutting of emergent and fringe vegetation and improper management of the wetland are major threats to the ecology of this landscape.

  10. Stopover ecology of migratory Sedge Warblers ( Acrocephalus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    migration might also be involved. Sedge Warblers gain mass in Eilat, both in spring and in autumn. Birds in poor initial condition and those stopping over for a longer period gained more body mass faster. In spring, but not in autumn, the progress of the season was another important factor: late birds gained more body mass.

  11. [Stationary and migratory avifauna as reservoirs of Salmonella, Yersinia and Campylobacter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrè, E; Valentini, P; Brunetti, M; Sacchelli, F

    1989-01-01

    Domestic and wild animals have been always considered very important as reservoir of agents of human infections. Particularly birds, because of their great mobility from a continent to another or within the limits of the same ecosystem may transfer pathogenic micro-organisms. The present survey was undertaken in order to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter, Yersinia and Salmonella in migratory and permanent birds. During the period October 1986 to March 1988 intestinal loops were collected from a total of 217 birds representing 17 different species shot, during hunting seasons, in the inland of Versilia in the district of Lucca. Each sample was divided into three parts and examined for the presence of Campylobacter, Yersinia and Salmonella. Campylobacter was isolated from 74 of the 217 birds examined (34.10%). Yersinia was recovered from 26 birds (11.98%), while only 8 birds (3.68%) harboured Salmonella. Most of the samples carried only one of the three bacterial genera investigated while 9 harboured at the same time Yersinia and Campylobacter, 1 Salmonella and Campylobacter, and 1 Salmonella, Yersinia and Campylobacter. Campylobacter spp.: On the ground of Lior's biotyping scheme, the 74 strains, isolated from 16 of the 17 species of birds examined, have assigned to three biochemically different species. C. coli was the most commonly isolated followed by C. jejuni and C. laridis. Of the 54 isolates of C. coli 30 belonged to biotype I and 24 to biotype II. 19 C. jejuni organisms were differentiated into 5 belonging to biotype I and 14 to biotype II. The only C. laridis isolated belonged to biotype I. Yersinia spp.: 37 strains belonging to the genus Yersinia were isolated from 26 birds. In 10 samples different types of Yersinia were identified. Most of the strains could be ascribed to Yersinia enterocolitica (28 strains), 3 to Yersinia frederiksenii, 3 to Yersinia intermedia and 1 to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. 2 strains were identified as atypical Yersinia

  12. Highly dynamic wintering strategies in migratory geese: Coping with environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Kevin K; Madsen, Jesper; Cottaar, Fred; Kuijken, Eckhart; Verscheure, Christine

    2018-01-19

    When and where to move is a fundamental decision to migratory birds, and the fitness-related costs and benefits of migratory choices make them subject to strong selective forces. Site use and migration routes are outcomes of opportunities in the surrounding landscape, and the optimal migration strategy may be conservative or explorative depending on the variability in the environment occupied by the species. This study applies 25 years of resighting data to examine development in winter migration strategy of pink-footed geese divided among Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium, and analyse potential drivers of strategy change as well as individuals' likelihood to break with migratory tradition. Contrary with the general notion that geese are highly traditional in their winter site use, our results reveal that winter migration strategy is highly dynamic in this species, with an average annual probability of changing strategy of 54%. Strategy was not related to hunting pressure or winter temperature, but could be partly explained by a tracking of food resources in a landscape of rapid land use changes. The probability of individuals changing strategy from year to year varied considerably between birds, and was partly related to sex and age, with young males being the most likely to change. The annual probability of changing wintering strategy increased substantially from ≈40% to ≈60% during the study period, indicating an increasingly explorative behaviour. Our findings demonstrate that individual winter strategies are very flexible and able to change over time, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity and cultural transmission are important drivers of strategy choice in this species. Growing benefits from exploratory behaviours, including the ability to track rapid land use changes, may ultimately result in increased resilience to global change. © 2018 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Migratory New World blackbirds (icterids are more neophobic than closely related resident icterids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Environments undergo short-term and long-term changes due to natural or human-induced events. Animals differ in their ability to cope with such changes which can be related to their ecology. Changes in the environment often elicit avoidance reactions (neophobia which protect animals from dangerous situations but can also inhibit exploration and familiarization with novel situations and thus, learning about new resources. Studies investigating the relationship between a species' ecology and its neophobia have so far been restricted to comparing only a few species and mainly in captivity. The current study investigated neophobia reactions to experimentally-induced changes in the natural environment of six closely-related blackbird species (Icteridae, including two species represented by two distinct populations. For analyses, neophobic reactions (difference in number of birds feeding and time spent feeding with and without novel objects were related to several measures of ecological plasticity and the migratory strategy (resident or migratory of the population. Phylogenetic relationships were incorporated into the analysis. The degree of neophobia was related to migratory strategy with migrants expressing much higher neophobia (fewer birds feeding and for a shorter time with objects present than residents. Furthermore, neophobia showed a relationship to diet breadth with fewer individuals of diet generalists than specialists returning when objects were present supporting the dangerous niche hypothesis. Residents may have evolved lower neophobia as costs of missing out on opportunities may be higher for residents than migrants as the former are restricted to a smaller area. Lower neophobia allows them approaching changes in the environment (e.g. novel objects quickly, thereby securing access to resources. Additionally, residents have a greater familiarity with similar situations in the area than migrants and the latter may, therefore, initially

  14. Revegetation increase bird diversity in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban, East Java - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Yeni Indah; Edi, Wasito; Alivvy, Alkautsar; Ibadah, Acib Setia; Sari, Fadina Yuliana; Nuraini, Finda; Yanuar, Ahmad; Satriyono, Agus; Riany, Citra Fitrie; Saptarini, Dian; Muzaki, Farid Kamal

    2017-06-01

    Study to address positive impact of revegetation program to increasing diversity of bird had been conducted in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban - Indonesia. Field observation conducted during April 2011 (representing pre-revegetation period), April 2015 and May 2016 (representing post-revegetation period). A belt transect (500 meter long and 50 meter width) was used to survey the abundance and species composition of birds community. In general, we identified at least 51 bird species from three observation times. From 2011 to 2016, the numbers of the birds identified are 23, 37 and 37 species; while the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') are 1.865, 2.071 and 2.957, respectively. In addition, there are 11 national or internationally protected species, 3 Indonesian endemic species and 12 migratory species occurred in the area. As a conclusion, the coastal revegetation program provides positive impact by generating habitat function for bird community.

  15. Flight by night or day? Optimal daily timing of bird migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerstam, Thomas

    2009-06-21

    Many migratory bird species fly mainly during the night (nocturnal migrants), others during daytime (diurnal migrants) and still others during both night and day. Need to forage during the day, atmospheric structure, predator avoidance and orientation conditions have been proposed as explanations for the widespread occurrence of nocturnal migration. However, the general principles that determine the basic nocturnal-diurnal variation in flight habits are poorly known. In the present study optimal timing of migratory flights, giving the minimum total duration of the migratory journey, is evaluated in a schematic way in relation to ecological conditions for energy gain in foraging and for energy costs in flight. There exists a strong and fundamental advantage of flying by night because foraging time is maximized and energy deposition can take place on days immediately after and prior to the nocturnal flights. The increase in migration speed by nocturnal compared with diurnal migration will be largest for birds with low flight costs and high energy deposition rates. Diurnal migration will be optimal if it is associated with efficient energy gain immediately after a migratory flight because suitable stopover/foraging places have been located during the flight or if energy losses during flight are substantially reduced by thermal soaring and/or by fly-and-forage migration. A strategy of combined diurnal and nocturnal migration may be optimal when birds migrate across regions with relatively poor conditions for energy deposition (not only severe but also soft barriers). Predictions about variable timing of migratory flights depending on changing foraging and environmental conditions along the migration route may be tested for individual birds by analysing satellite tracking results with respect to daily travel routines in different regions. Documenting and understanding the adaptive variability in daily travel schedules among migrating animals constitute a fascinating

  16. Prevalence and Distribution of Vibrio spp. in Wild Aquatic Birds of the Southern Caribbean Sea, Venezuela, 2011-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Sanz, Virginia; Giner, Sandra; Suárez, Paula; Contreras, Monica; Michelangeli, Fabian; García-Amado

    2016-07-01

    Vibrio spp. are associated with waterbirds mainly in temperate latitudes. We evaluated the prevalence and distribution of Vibrio spp. from fecal samples of resident and migratory aquatic birds collected during October 2011 and March 2012 at two coastal sites in the tropical southern Caribbean Sea. We amplified DNA by PCR in 40% of samples, resulting in 47% and 36% estimated prevalence for resident and migratory birds in Cuare Wildlife Refuge, and 33% and 44% in Margarita Island, respectively. We found nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Cuare Wildlife Refuge with a higher prevalence in resident birds (18%). Our PCR results for Vibrio and V. cholerae were not significantly different between sites or bird migratory status. The 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis sequences from fecal samples from Cuare Wildlife Refuge were highly similar to V. cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus , whereas sequences from Margarita Island samples formed clusters with species related to the Harveyi clade. Our findings indicate that several species of Vibrio are common in aquatic birds along the southern Caribbean Sea and contribute to our understanding of the role of birds as possible reservoirs of potentially pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Causes and consequences of repeatability, flexibility and individual fine-tuning of migratory timing in pike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibblin, Petter; Forsman, Anders; Borger, Tobias; Larsson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Many organisms undertake migrations between foraging and breeding habitats and while it is assumed that reproductive timing affects fitness, little is known about the degree of individual consistency, and about the causes and consequences of individual variation in migratory timing in organisms other than birds. Here, we report on a 6-year mark-recapture study, including 2048 individuals, of breeding migration in anadromous pike (Esox lucius), an iteroparous top-predatory fish that displays homing behaviour. By repeated sampling across years at a breeding site, we first quantify individual variation both within and between breeding events and then investigate phenotypic correlates and fitness consequences of arrival timing to the breeding site. Our data demonstrate that males arrive before females, that large males arrive later than small males, that the timing of breeding migration varies among years and that individuals are consistent in their timing across years relative to other individuals in the population. Furthermore, data on return rates indicate that arrival time is under stabilizing viability selection, and that individuals who are more flexible in their timing of arrival during the first reproductive years survive longer compared with less flexible individuals. Finally, longitudinal data demonstrate that individuals consistently fine-tune their arrival timing across years, showing that the timing of arrival to breeding sites is influenced by experience. These findings represent rare evidence of how between- and within-individual variations in migratory timing across breeding events are correlated with phenotypic and fitness traits in an ecologically important keystone species. Our results emphasize the importance of considering variation in migratory timing both between and within individuals in studies investigating the fitness consequences of migratory behaviour and have implications for future management. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal

  18. Migratory Reed Warblers Need Intact Trigeminal Nerves to Correct for a 1,000 km Eastward Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishkinev, Dmitry; Chernetsov, Nikita; Heyers, Dominik; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that experienced night-migratory songbirds can determine their position, but it has remained a mystery which cues and sensory mechanisms they use, in particular, those used to determine longitude (east-west position). One potential solution would be to use a magnetic map or signpost mechanism like the one documented in sea turtles. Night-migratory songbirds have a magnetic compass in their eyes and a second magnetic sense with unknown biological function involving the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1). Could V1 be involved in determining east-west position? We displaced 57 Eurasian reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) with or without sectioned V1. Sham operated birds corrected their orientation towards the breeding area after displacement like the untreated controls did. In contrast, V1-sectioned birds did not correct for the displacement. They oriented in the same direction after the displacement as they had done at the capture site. Thus, an intact ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve is necessary for detecting the 1,000 km eastward displacement in this night-migratory songbird. Our results suggest that V1 carries map-related information used in a large-scale map or signpost sense that the reed warblers needed to determine their approximate geographical position and/or an east-west coordinate.

  19. Morphological shifts of the external flight apparatus across the range of a passerine (Northern Wheatear) with diverging migratory behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förschler, Marc I; Bairlein, Franz

    2011-04-18

    We studied morphological differentiation in the flight apparatus of the four currently recognised sub-species of Northern Wheatears, Oenanthe oenanthe. Considering all measured birds without assigning them a priori to any sub-species we found a clinal morphological shift. Relative wing length, wing pointedness, and the degree of tail forking were positively correlated with migratory distance, whereas tail length (relative to wing length) was negatively correlated. The large-sized, long-distance migrant "Greenland" Wheatear, O. o. leucorhoa, is characterized by relatively longer, broader and more pointed wings and more forked tails, similar to the smaller-sized nominate Northern Wheatear, O. o. oenanthe, from North Europe, Siberia and Russia. In contrast, the short distance migrant "Seebohm's" Wheatear, O. o. seebohmi, from northwest Africa, possesses much rounder wings, and the tail is relatively longer and less forked. Sub-species with intermediate migratory habits (different populations of nominate Northern Wheatear, O. o. oenanthe, and "Mediterranean" Northern Wheatear, O. o. libanotica) show, as expected, intermediate features according to their intermediate migratory behaviour. Our results are congruent with other inter- and intraspecific studies finding similar adaptations for energy-effective flight in relation to migration distance (morphological migratory syndrome).

  20. Morphological shifts of the external flight apparatus across the range of a passerine (Northern Wheatear with diverging migratory behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc I Förschler

    Full Text Available We studied morphological differentiation in the flight apparatus of the four currently recognised sub-species of Northern Wheatears, Oenanthe oenanthe. Considering all measured birds without assigning them a priori to any sub-species we found a clinal morphological shift. Relative wing length, wing pointedness, and the degree of tail forking were positively correlated with migratory distance, whereas tail length (relative to wing length was negatively correlated. The large-sized, long-distance migrant "Greenland" Wheatear, O. o. leucorhoa, is characterized by relatively longer, broader and more pointed wings and more forked tails, similar to the smaller-sized nominate Northern Wheatear, O. o. oenanthe, from North Europe, Siberia and Russia. In contrast, the short distance migrant "Seebohm's" Wheatear, O. o. seebohmi, from northwest Africa, possesses much rounder wings, and the tail is relatively longer and less forked. Sub-species with intermediate migratory habits (different populations of nominate Northern Wheatear, O. o. oenanthe, and "Mediterranean" Northern Wheatear, O. o. libanotica show, as expected, intermediate features according to their intermediate migratory behaviour. Our results are congruent with other inter- and intraspecific studies finding similar adaptations for energy-effective flight in relation to migration distance (morphological migratory syndrome.

  1. Demographic and spatiotemporal patterns of avian influenza infection at the continental scale, and in relation to annual life cycle of a migratory host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallar, Rodolfo; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Epp, Tasha; Leighton, Frederick A.; Swafford, Seth R.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Berhane, Yohannes; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Soos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Since the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in the eastern hemisphere, numerous surveillance programs and studies have been undertaken to detect the occurrence, distribution, or spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wild bird populations worldwide. To identify demographic determinants and spatiotemporal patterns of AIV infection in long distance migratory waterfowl in North America, we fitted generalized linear models with binominal distribution to analyze results from 13,574 blue-winged teal (Anas discors, BWTE) sampled in 2007 to 2010 year round during AIV surveillance programs in Canada and the United States. Our analyses revealed that during late summer staging (July-August) and fall migration (September-October), hatch year (HY) birds were more likely to be infected than after hatch year (AHY) birds, however there was no difference between age categories for the remainder of the year (winter, spring migration, and breeding period), likely due to maturing immune systems and newly acquired immunity of HY birds. Probability of infection increased non-linearly with latitude, and was highest in late summer prior to fall migration when densities of birds and the proportion of susceptible HY birds in the population are highest. Birds in the Central and Mississippi flyways were more likely to be infected compared to those in the Atlantic flyway. Seasonal cycles and spatial variation of AIV infection were largely driven by the dynamics of AIV infection in HY birds, which had more prominent cycles and spatial variation in infection compared to AHY birds. Our results demonstrate demographic as well as seasonal, latitudinal and flyway trends across Canada and the US, while illustrating the importance of migratory host life cycle and age in driving cyclical patterns of prevalence.

  2. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  3. Birds of Sabaki Birds of Sabaki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CJ

    2005-02-25

    Feb 25, 2005 ... covers approximately 250ha.The area encompassed by this study extends from Mambrui to the north, the sea to the east, the opposite bank of the estuary to the south and the Sabaki bridge and Malindi-Garsen road to the west. The area is defined as an Important Bird Area(IBA) by BirdLife International in ...

  4. Angry Birds in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    When space computers first started listening into space radio, they noticed that there were radio noises that happened on the morning side of the Earth. Because these waves sounded like noises birds make in the morning, we named these waves after them. These bird sounding waves can move around the Earth, flying up and down, and sometimes move into an area where there is more stuff. This area is also much colder than where these bird noises are first made. When the waves move into this cold area where there is more stuff, they start to sound like angry birds instead of happy birds. Both of these waves, the happy and angry bird sounding waves, are very important to our understanding of how the tiny things in space move and change. Sometimes the waves which sound like birds can push these tiniest of things into the sky. The happy bird sounding waves can push the tiniest things quickly while the angry bird sounding waves push the tinest of things more slowly. When the tiny things fall into the sky, they create beautiful space lights and light that burns which can hurt people in up goers and not so up goers as well as our things like phones, and space computers. We study these waves that sound like birds to better understand when and where the tiny things will fall. That way we can be prepared and enjoy watching the pretty space lights at night with no worries.

  5. Freshwater to seawater transitions in migratory fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Michael P. Wilkie,

    2012-01-01

    The transition from freshwater to seawater is integral to the life history of many fishes. Diverse migratory fishes express anadromous, catadromous, and amphidromous life histories, while others make incomplete transits between freshwater and seawater. The physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are widely conserved among phylogenetically diverse species. Diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater develop osmoregulatory mechanisms for different environmental salinities. Freshwater to seawater transition involves hormonally mediated changes in gill ionocytes and the transport proteins associated with hypoosmoregulation, increased seawater ingestion and water absorption in the intestine, and reduced urinary water losses. Fishes attain salinity tolerance through early development, gradual acclimation, or environmentally or developmentally cued adaptations. This chapter describes adaptations in diverse taxa and the effects of salinity on growth. Identifying common strategies in diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater will reveal the ecological and physiological basis for maintaining homeostasis in different salinities, and inform efforts to conserve and manage migratory euryhaline fishes.

  6. Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics.

  7. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  8. American exceptionalism: population trends and flight initiation distances in birds from three continents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available All organisms may be affected by humans' increasing impact on Earth, but there are many potential drivers of population trends and the relative importance of each remains largely unknown. The causes of spatial patterns in population trends and their relationship with animal responses to human proximity are even less known.We investigated the relationship between population trends of 193 species of bird in North America, Australia and Europe and flight initiation distance (FID; the distance at which birds take flight when approached by a human. While there is an expected negative relationship between population trend and FID in Australia and Europe, we found the inverse relationship for North American birds; thus FID cannot be used as a universal predictor of vulnerability of birds. However, the analysis of the joint explanatory ability of multiple drivers (farmland breeding habitat, pole-most breeding latitude, migratory habit, FID effects on population status replicated previously reported strong effects of farmland breeding habitat (an effect apparently driven mostly by European birds, as well as strong effects of FID, body size, migratory habit and continent. Farmland birds are generally declining.Flight initiation distance is related to population trends in a way that differs among continents opening new research possibilities concerning the causes of geographic differences in patterns of anti-predator behavior.

  9. American exceptionalism: population trends and flight initiation distances in birds from three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Samia, Diogo S M; Weston, Mike A; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2014-01-01

    All organisms may be affected by humans' increasing impact on Earth, but there are many potential drivers of population trends and the relative importance of each remains largely unknown. The causes of spatial patterns in population trends and their relationship with animal responses to human proximity are even less known. We investigated the relationship between population trends of 193 species of bird in North America, Australia and Europe and flight initiation distance (FID); the distance at which birds take flight when approached by a human. While there is an expected negative relationship between population trend and FID in Australia and Europe, we found the inverse relationship for North American birds; thus FID cannot be used as a universal predictor of vulnerability of birds. However, the analysis of the joint explanatory ability of multiple drivers (farmland breeding habitat, pole-most breeding latitude, migratory habit, FID) effects on population status replicated previously reported strong effects of farmland breeding habitat (an effect apparently driven mostly by European birds), as well as strong effects of FID, body size, migratory habit and continent. Farmland birds are generally declining. Flight initiation distance is related to population trends in a way that differs among continents opening new research possibilities concerning the causes of geographic differences in patterns of anti-predator behavior.

  10. Seasonal abundance and habitat use of bird species in and around Wondo Genet Forest, south-central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Zerihun; Mamo, Yosef; Mengesha, Girma; Verma, Ashok; Asfaw, Tsyon

    2017-05-01

    The habitat use and seasonal migratory pattern of birds in Ethiopia is less explored as compared to diversity studies. To this end, this study aimed at investigating the patterns of distribution related to seasonality and the effect of habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, and average vegetation height) on habitat use of birds of Wondo Genet Forest Patch. A stratified random sampling design was used to assess the avian fauna across the four dominant habitat types found in the study area: natural forest, wooded grassland, grassland, and agroforestry land. A point transect count was employed to investigate avian species richness and abundance per habitat type per season. Ancillary data, such as elevation above sea level, latitude and longitude, average vegetation height, and percent slope inclination, were recorded with a GPS and clinometers per plot. A total of 33 migratory bird species were recorded from the area, of which 20 species were northern (Palearctic) migrants while 13 were inter-African migrants. There was a significant difference in the mean abundance of migratory bird species between dry and wet seasons ( t  = 2.13, p  = .038, df  = 44). The variation in mean abundance per plot between the dry and wet seasons in the grassland habitat was significant ( t  = 2.35, p  = .051, df  = 7). In most habitat types during both dry and wet seasons, omnivore birds were the most abundant. While slope was a good predictor for bird species abundance in the dry season, altitude and average vegetation height accounted more in the wet season. The patch of forest and its surrounding is an important bird area for migratory, endemic, and global threatened species. Hence, it is conservation priority area, and the study suggests that conservation coupled with ecotourism development is needed for its sustainability.

  11. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).

  12. The U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory: an integrated scientific program supporting research and conservation of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) was established in 1920 after ratification of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act with the United Kingdom in 1918. During World War II, the BBL was moved from Washington, D.C., to what is now the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC). The BBL issues permits and bands to permittees to band birds, records bird band recoveries or encounters primarily through telephone and Internet reporting, and manages more than 72 million banding records and more than 4.5 million records of encounters using state-of-the-art technologies. Moreover, the BBL also issues bands and manages banding and encounter data for the Canadian Bird Banding Office (BBO). Each year approximately 1 million bands are shipped from the BBL to banders in the United States and Canada, and nearly 100,000 encounter reports are entered into the BBL systems. Banding data are essential for regulatory programs, especially migratory waterfowl harvest regulations. The USGS BBL works closely with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to develop regulations for the capture, handling, banding, and marking of birds. These regulations are published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In 2006, the BBL and the USFWS Division of Migratory Bird Management (DMBM) began a comprehensive revision of the banding regulations. The bird banding community has three major constituencies: Federal and State agency personnel involved in the management and conservation of bird populations that include the Flyway Councils, ornithological research scientists, and avocational banders. With increased demand for banding activities and relatively constant funding, a Federal Advisory Committee (Committee) was chartered and reviewed the BBL program in 2005. The final report of the Committee included six major goals and 58 specific recommendations, 47 of which have been addressed by the BBL. Specifically, the Committee recommended the BBL continue to support science

  13. Geolocator tracking of Great Reed-Warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) identifies key regions for migratory wetland specialists in the Middle East and sub-Saharan East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Horns, Joshua J.; Buechley, Evam; Chynoweth, Mark William; Aktay, Lale; Çoban, Emrah; Kırpık, Mehmet Sli; Herman, Jordan M.; Şaşmaz, Yakup; Şekercioğlu, Çağan H.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland-dependent migratory songbirds represent one of the most vulnerable groups of birds on the planet, with >67% of wetland-obligate species threatened with extinction. One of the major hurdles for conservation efforts is determining the migration routes, stopover sites, and wintering sites of these species. We describe an annual migration cycle revealed by geolocator tracking of Great Reed-Warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) breeding in the Aras River wetlands of eastern Turkey. Because ...

  14. Geolocator tracking of Great Reed-Warblers (acrocephalus arundinaceus) identifies key regions for migratory wetland specialists in the Middle East and sub-Saharan East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Aktay, Lale; Horns J.J.; Buechley E., Chynoweth M.; Çoban E., Kirpik M.A., Herman J.M., Şaşmaz Y., Şekercioǧlu Ç.H.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland-dependent migratory songbirds represent one of the most vulnerable groups of birds on the planet, with >67% of wetland-obligate species threatened with extinction. One of the major hurdles for conservation efforts is determining the migration routes, stopover sites, and wintering sites of these species. We describe an annual migration cycle revealed by geolocator tracking of Great Reed-Warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) breeding in the Aras River wetlands of eastern Turkey. Because ...

  15. Escaping peril: perceived predation risk affects migratory propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.; Nilsson, P. Anders

    2015-01-01

    Although migratory plasticity is increasingly documented, the ecological drivers of plasticity are not well understood. Predation risk can influence migratory dynamics, but whether seasonal migrants can adjust their migratory behaviour according to perceived risk is unknown. We used electronic tags...... to record the migration of individual roach (Rutilus rutilus), a partially migratory fish, in the wild following exposure to manipulation of direct (predator presence/absence) and indirect (high/low roach density) perceived predation risk in experimental mesocosms. Following exposure, we released fish...... in their lake summer habitat and monitored individual migration to connected streams over an entire season. Individuals exposed to increased perceived direct predation risk (i.e. a live predator) showed a higher migratory propensity but no change in migratory timing, while indirect risk (i.e. roach density...

  16. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick D Rittenhouse

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance.We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States.Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years. Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary factor. Importantly, these findings suggest some regions of the United

  17. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Pidgeon, Anna M; Albright, Thomas P; Culbert, Patrick D; Clayton, Murray K; Flather, Curtis H; Huang, Chengquan; Masek, Jeffrey G; Stewart, Susan I; Radeloff, Volker C

    2010-08-02

    Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance. We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period) and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route) that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States. Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years). Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary factor. Importantly, these findings suggest some regions of the United States may

  18. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  19. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  20. Variation in migratory behavior influences regional genetic diversity and structure among American Kestrel populations (Falco sparverius) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P; Mullins, Thomas D; Parrish, John W; Walters, Jeffrey R; Haig, Susan M

    2012-07-01

    Birds employ numerous strategies to cope with seasonal fluctuations in high-quality habitat availability. Long distance migration is a common tactic; however, partial migration is especially common among broadly distributed species. Under partial migration systems, a portion of a species migrates, whereas the remainder inhabits breeding grounds year round. In this study, we identified effects of migratory behavior variation on genetic structure and diversity of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), a widespread partial migrant in North America. American Kestrels generally migrate; however, a resident group inhabits the southeastern United States year round. The southeastern group is designated as a separate subspecies (F. s. paulus) from the migratory group (F. s. sparverius). Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites from 183 and 211 individuals, respectively, we illustrate that genetic structure is stronger among nonmigratory populations, with differentiation measures ranging from 0.060 to 0.189 depending on genetic marker and analysis approach. In contrast, measures from western North American populations ranged from 0 to 0.032. These findings suggest that seasonal migratory behavior is also associated with natal and breeding dispersal tendencies. We likewise detected significantly lower genetic diversity within nonmigratory populations, reflecting the greater influence of genetic drift in small populations. We identified the signal of population expansion among nonmigratory populations, consistent with the recent establishment of higher latitude breeding locations following Pleistocene glacial retreat. Differentiation of F. s. paulus and F. s. sparverius reflected subtle differences in allele frequencies. Because migratory behavior can evolve quickly, our analyses suggest recent origins of migratory American Kestrel populations in North America.