WorldWideScience

Sample records for fr05fe10n wooden bedroom

  1. 75 FR 14469 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... its notice of institution (74 FR 62817, December 1, 2009) was adequate and the respondent interested... COMMISSION Wooden Bedroom Furniture From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... order on wooden bedroom furniture from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  2. 77 FR 1456 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... constitutes a jewelry cabinet line with fabric, having necklace and bracelet hooks, mountings for rings and... Update AD/CVD Module for Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China,'' dated January 4...

  3. 77 FR 21536 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ..., 72 FR 948 (January 9, 2007). \\15\\ Metal furniture parts and unfinished furniture parts made of wood... International Trade Administration Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final... furniture (``WBF'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period of review...

  4. 75 FR 339 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... People's Republic of China'' (November 10, 2009). \\4\\ See letter from Rise regarding, ``Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China: Rise Furniture Clarification Regarding Withdrawal of Review... Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...

  5. 76 FR 49729 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeff Pedersen or Rebecca Pandolph, AD/ CVD Operations, Office 4, Import... products made from wood particles, fibers, or other wooden materials such as plywood, strand...

  6. My Bedroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨溪

    2000-01-01

    book! Tiffs is my bedroom.It's nice and clean. It's not big.You can see a picture on the wall. There are some flowers in it, Inside the flowers there is a tiger. I was born in the tiger-year. So my mother bought it for me on my birthday.

  7. 75 FR 21657 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... subject five-year review pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act (75 FR 14469, March 25, 2010). The Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 62817... amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted,...

  8. 75 FR 80528 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ....2(f)). Background The Commission instituted this review on December 1, 2009 (74 FR 62817) and determined on March 8, 2010 that it would conduct a full review (75 FR 14469, March 25, 2010). Notice of the..., Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21657)....

  9. 75 FR 5952 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... ] International, Inc., Kimball Furniture Group, Inc. and Kimball Hospitality Inc., and the domestic interested... practice, we based the weighted-average dumping margin for the separate rate recipients not individually... did not provide a separate rate certification or application: Best King International Ltd. Brother...

  10. 76 FR 7534 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Hospitality Inc., American of Martinsville, and Ashley Furniture, and certain foreign exporters requested that.... Margins for Separate Rate Recipients Not Individually Examined Consistent with our normal practice,\\48\\ we... if the interested party acted to the best of its ability in providing the information. Where all of...

  11. 77 FR 52311 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... of entries of the heritage court bench (model 800-4800) which were imported by Legacy Classic... Mark Enterprise Co., Ltd.; Carven Industries Limited (BVI); Carven Industries Limited (HK); Dongguan...

  12. 76 FR 10880 - Initiation of Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Wooden Bedroom Furniture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    .... Family Enterprise Co., Ltd. Season Furniture Manufacturing Co.;* Season Industrial Development Co.* Sen... Co., Ltd.;* Hero Way Enterprises Ltd.;* Well Earth International Ltd.* Dongguan Hua Ban Furniture Co... Enterprise Co., Ltd.* Dongguan Kin Feng Furniture Co., Ltd.* Dongguan Kingstone Furniture Co.,...

  13. 76 FR 57713 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... cash deposit instructions and the Final Results; and (3) incorrectly listed ZYD's rate as 41.75 percent... entries for ZYD during the instant POR at the cash deposit rate required at the time of entry. In addition, ZYD's cash deposit rate will not change as a result of this review but will remain the rate in...

  14. 75 FR 9581 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ..., Thailand, and Peru.\\4\\ On November 2, 2009, the Department released the Policy Memorandum to interested... Legal Trade and Vaughan-Bassett Furniture Company, Inc. (collectively, ``Petitioners'') provided... systems. The scope of the order excludes the following items: (1) seats, chairs, benches, couches, sofas...

  15. 76 FR 49443 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... are India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Ukraine, and Peru.\\3\\ On April 12, 2011, the..., the American Furniture Manufacturers Committee for Legal Trade and Vaughan-Bassett Furniture Company... systems. The scope of the order excludes the following items: (1) Seats, chairs, benches, couches, sofas...

  16. 78 FR 13626 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... certification applies equally to NME-owned firms, wholly foreign-owned firms, and foreign sellers who purchase...-owned firms, and foreign sellers who purchase and export subject merchandise to the United States. \\5... International Co., Ltd, Yes. Prime Best International Co., Ltd., Prime Best Factory, Liang Huang (Jiaxing...

  17. 77 FR 12235 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...-owned firms, and foreign sellers who purchase and export subject merchandise to the United States... Application applies equally to NME-owned firms, wholly foreign-owned firms, and foreign sellers that purchase... Furniture Co., Ltd.* Prime Wood International Co., Ltd; * Prime Best International Co., Ltd.; * Prime Best...

  18. 75 FR 9869 - Initiation of Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Wooden Bedroom Furniture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... applies equally to NME-owned firms, wholly foreign-owned firms, and foreign sellers who purchase and..., wholly foreign-owned firms, and foreign sellers that purchase and export subject merchandise to the...,* Pleasant Wave Limited* Perfect Line Furniture Co., Ltd.* Prime Wood International Co., Ltd.*, Prime Best...

  19. 78 FR 60844 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Product Co., Ltd. Zhangjiagang Daye Hotel Furniture Co., Ltd. Zhangzhou Guohui Industrial & Trade Co., Ltd...., Foshan Guanqiu Furniture Co., Ltd. Furnmart Ltd. Green River Wood (Dongguan) Ltd. Guangdong Sunwin Green...

  20. 76 FR 65684 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Guangdong Sunwin Green Furniture Industry Group Co., Ltd. On July 5, 2011, Sunwin submitted its response to... Daye Hotel Furniture Co., Ltd. Zhangjiagang Zheng Yan Decoration Co., Ltd. Zhangzhou Guohui Industrial... Furniture LP Fujian Putian Jinggong Furniture Co., Ltd. Gainwell Industries Limited Green River Wood...

  1. 75 FR 54854 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Furniture Co., Ltd. Gainwell Industries Limited Green River Wood (Dongguan) Ltd. Guangdong Gainwell... Sanlong Wood Product Co., Ltd. Zhangjiagang Daye Hotel Furniture Co. Ltd. Zhangzhou Guohui Industrial...

  2. 75 FR 72794 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... 2007 report published by the international research firm CSIL Milano that demonstrates the significance... economically comparable to the PRC and significant producers of comparable merchandise: Ecuador, Egypt...

  3. Are Pets in the Bedroom a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Lois E; Tovar, M Diane; Miller, Bernie

    2015-12-01

    The presence of pets in the bedroom can alter the sleep environment in ways that could affect sleep. Data were collected by questionnaire and interview from 150 consecutive patients seen at the Center for Sleep Medicine, Mayo Clinic in Arizona. Seventy-four people (49%) reported having pets, with 31 (41% of pet owners) having multiple pets. More than half of pet owners (56%) allowed their pets to sleep in the bedroom. Fifteen pet owners (20%) described their pets as disruptive, whereas 31 (41%) perceived their pets as unobtrusive or even beneficial to sleep. Health care professionals working with patients with sleep concerns should inquire about the presence of companion animals in the sleep environment to help them find solutions and optimize their sleep.

  4. Geometry Design of Wooden Barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan CISMARU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a design methodology of the wooden barrel geometry, as an algorithm of successive calculations. Thus, starting from the required elements (volume, length, shape, maximum height of storage space the user will be able to define the geometry which must be obtained by processing. Based on these calculations, one can define the structure, size and shape of the staves in order to establish the processing technology of both components and subassemblies (jacket and bottoms which are to form the final product by their assembling using metal circles.

  5. APPRAISAL OF USED WOODEN RAILWAY SLEEPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI HAWA HAMZAH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wooden sleepers to prestressed concrete sleepers has marked as advancement in the railway sleepers industry in Malaysia. Despite superiority of these man-made composite sleepers, wooden sleepers still lead in terms of track performance qualities in particular on its natural elasticity. An initiative to investigate the degree of degradation of used wooden sleepers and the possibility of reusing them on low capacity railway track in Malaysia as a means of reducing the overall track rehabilitation cost was undertaken. Used wooden sleepers were tested according to Australian Standard, Railway Track Material, Prestressed Concrete Sleepers (AS 1085:14:2003 on Rail Seat Vertical Load Test and Centre Positive Bending Moment Test. Six wooden sleeper samples were tested under the static load until failure. Benchmarking was carried on high strength prestressed concrete sleeper, tested according to AS 1085:14:2003: Rail Seat - Positive Moment Test. The results obtained showed the maximum load that the used wooden sleepers can carry surpassed the design load of KTMB specifications and it is about 58% of high strength prestressed concrete sleeper.The maximum deflection produced by all used wooden sleepers is 20 mm showing that the sleepers maintained their elastic behaviour. Modulus of Elasticity ranging from 21 to 27 kN/mm2 of which within the standard value, indicating weathering process does not so much affect their stiffness. Most sleepers showed crack patterns propagated in the longitudinal direction. Toughness value is almost one half of the high strength prestressed concrete sleeper. This study indicates that there is a potential of reusing the wooden sleepers for light loading of the railway track. Hence, an extensive study is recommended to be carried out under fatigue loading condition.

  6. WOODEN FLOORING – BETWEEN PRESENT AND FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan CISMARU; Marius FILIPAȘCU; Olimpia-Minerva ȚURCAȘ (DIACONU); Adriana FOTIN

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims at presenting a systematization of the wood floors, both in terms of the areas of application, and in terms of the fastening solutions and structures in constructions. In this respect, an extensive bibliographic research was achieved, on the researchers’ preoccupations. Starting from the current situation and forecasting the future, from the point of view of the chances held by wooden flooring, in competition with other types of materials, we dare say the wooden flo...

  7. WOODEN DOOR WINGS OF ADIYAMAN GREAT MOSQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet ARSLAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodworking which is in the most important Turk art branches have been used especially in Anatolia land readily. Wooden material that is seen on architectural units such as mimbar, ambo, wings of door and window, lectern has an important particularly with its ornamental figures. Wooden composition on the north and east doors of Adıyaman Great Mosque was built by Dulkadir Principality but regulated again in the last period of Ottoman Empire, is a theme which is exemined detailedly in Turk art. In this article, it is tried to determined ornamentel and tecnical characteristics of wooden door wings of Adıyaman Great Mosque belongs to early XX. century and the place of them in Turk art.

  8. 75 FR 50992 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    .... (Fairmont). \\6\\ Comprised of Coaster Company of America, Emerald Home Furnishings, LLC, Trade Masters of... investigation or review.\\42\\ \\39\\ See SAA at 870. \\40\\ See id. \\41\\ See Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished From Japan, and Tapered Roller Bearings, Four Inches or Less in Outside...

  9. 78 FR 72862 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ...''), using its market purchases. In addition, the Department revised the surrogate financial ratios by... calculation of the surrogate financial ratios, constitutes a final decision of that court that is not in...: Final Results and Final Rescission in Part, 76 FR 49729 (August 11, 2011) (``Final Results'')....

  10. 76 FR 53409 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Corrected Notice of Court Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Factory, or Kuan Lin Furniture Co., Ltd. Kunshan Lee Wood Product Co., Ltd. Kunshan Summit Furniture Co., Ltd. Leefu Wood (Dongguan) Co., Ltd., or King Rich International, Ltd. Locke Furniture Factory, or Kai... Corporation, or Pleasant Wave Ltd. Perfect Line Furniture Co., Ltd. Prime Wood International Co., Ltd.,...

  11. 78 FR 13322 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... requirements for initiation. The period of review (``POR'') for the new shipper review is January 1, 2012... data query that Dongguan Chengcheng's subject merchandise entered the United States during the POR.... See generally, Initiation Checklist. The POR for the new shipper review of Dongguan Chengcheng...

  12. 77 FR 51754 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Amini met with the Department.\\5\\ \\3\\ See letter from Amini to the Honorable John Bryson, Acting... Results, we also found that (1) Baigou Crafts Factory of Fengkai, (2) Locke Furniture Factory; Kai Chan Furniture Co., Ltd.; Kai Chan (Hong Kong) Enterprise Ltd.; Taiwan Kai Chan Co., Ltd, (collectively, Locke...

  13. 75 FR 19364 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... this review are addressed in the ``Issues and Decision Memorandum'' (``Decision Memorandum'') from John.... Ltd., or Dongguan Haoshun Furniture Ltd Locke Furniture Factory, or Kai Chan Furniture Co., 7.24...

  14. 76 FR 9747 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ..., 2010) (``Preliminary Results''). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rebecca Pandolph or Jeffrey Pedersen... both solid wood and also engineered wood products made from wood particles, fibers, or other...

  15. 76 FR 68138 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Pedersen, AD/CVD Operations, Office 4, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S... both solid wood and also engineered wood products made from wood particles, fibers, or other...

  16. Wooden Model of Wide AA Bending Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets: BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). A wide one had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. A wooden model was build in 1978, to gain dimensional experience. Here, Peter Zettwoch, one of the largest men at CERN at that time, is putting a hand in the mouth of the wooden BST monster.

  17. Ultrasonic Inspection of Wooden Pallet Parts Using Time of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Robert M. Nelson; Robert J. Ross; Kent A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    Wooden pallets are the largest single use of sawn hardwood logs in the USA. Unfortunately, millions of wooden pallets are discarded annually due to damage or because their low cost makes them readily disposable. In general, pallets are constructed from stringers and deckboards of random quality. Higher quality wooden pallets, however, can be built from higher quality...

  18. Probabilistic modeling durability of wooden window frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van; Abspoel-Bukman, L.M.; Courage, W.M.G.; Mennink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, maintenance of wooden window frames strongly depends on the practical experience of the parties involved. To get a better understanding of the required maintenance period and maintenance actions, a model has been developed to predict durability. This model makes it possible to optimize mai

  19. TRADITIONAL WOODEN GATES IN THE SZEKLER LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhiorghiŃă Nicolaie COMSA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents specific aspects oftraditional wooden gates built in the rural area of thecounty of Harghita in Romania. One can see the loveand appreciation given to woodworking and outdoorelements of household adornment, beautiful insidetransmitted outside. Constructive elements andornaments are given specific geographical area.These gates belong to our national cultural heritage.

  20. Community Involvement in School: Social Relationships in a Bedroom Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe how community involvement in school is associated with the social relationships existing/lacking within a bedroom community. Thirty-five interviews with school council members, teachers, and community members highlighted that traditional forms of community involvement in school generate…

  1. The Star Wars Kid and the Bedroom Intruder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2011-01-01

    Jørgen Riber Christensen's article Star Wars Kid and the Bedroom Intruder looks at how people may unexpectedly become icons of the Internet, through a transgression of the private sphere. Surveillance and celebrity is revealed to be bound together with a disciplinary effect, at the same time...

  2. Wooden Model of Wide AA Bending Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets: BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see a wooden model, built in 1978, to gain dimensional experience with such a monster.

  3. The Hoshino wooden skeleton, the first wooden model of a human skeleton, made during the Edo era in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Katsuko; Suzaki, Etsuko; Ajima, Noriaki

    2007-03-01

    The wooden model of the human skeleton, called the wooden skeleton, is a distinguished original craft object from the Edo era, in Japan, when medical doctors were unable to keep a human skeleton for study and teaching purposes. There are three types of wooden skeletons: (i) Hoshino made in 1792; (ii) Kagami made by 1810; and (iii) Okuda made around 1820. The former two are of adult males and the latter is of a female. The wooden skeletons were made with surprising accuracy compared with figures that appeared in the medical books available in Japan at that time, which suggests a scientific readiness of the doctors and the skill of the craftsmen. In the cases of the Hoshino and Kagami wooden skeletons, it is hard to consider that all wooden bones were assembled to show the entire body. Conversely, the Okuda wooden skeletons were made for showing in the sitting position. The skull of the Hoshino wooden skeleton is of special interest: the skull cap was not cut, yet the internal structures of the skull, such as the sella turcica, foramina for nerves and vessels, and the sulci for venous sinuses, were made with considerable accuracy. The skull caps of the Kagami and Okuda wooden skeletons were cut, as those used in modern medical education.

  4. Wooden Box Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Division (SMCAC-DES), to test a wooden box pallet. This report contains the procedures, results, and recommendations from the MIL- STD -1660 tests...conducted. As tested, the wooden box pallet passed MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, tests.

  5. Ultrasonic Inspection of Wooden Pallet Parts for Grading and Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Michael Morrone; John C. Duke

    1994-01-01

    Wooden pallets are the largest single use of sawn hardwood logs in the USA. Unfortunately, millions of pallets are discarded into landfills annually. High quality wooden pallets, on the other hand, promote longevity and re-use. To build durable pallets requires high quality parts. Manual grading and sorting of pallet parts is not feasible, however, so we are developing...

  6. Ultrasonic Defect Detection in Wooden Pallet Parts for Quality Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Robert M. Nelson; Robert J. Ross

    1996-01-01

    Millions of wooden pallets are discarded annually due to damage or because their low cost makes them readily disposable. Higher quality wooden pallets, however, can be built from high quality deckboards and stringers, and have a much longer life cycle and a lower cost per trip. The long-term goal of this project is to develop an automated pallet part inspection system...

  7. WOODEN FLOORING – BETWEEN PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan CISMARU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting a systematization of the wood floors, both in terms of the areas of application, and in terms of the fastening solutions and structures in constructions. In this respect, an extensive bibliographic research was achieved, on the researchers’ preoccupations. Starting from the current situation and forecasting the future, from the point of view of the chances held by wooden flooring, in competition with other types of materials, we dare say the wooden flooring or the wood in combination with other materials are not likely to be eliminated from the “civil-engineering market”. The wood floors are likely to develop as an application, especially in the area of the “special floors”, specific to the indoor sports or social halls; and even for some industrial sectors, with strict operating conditions (elasticity, thermal insulation, soundproofing that cannot be provided by other types of materials or structures. Starting from this last observation, the paper also aims at submitting current opinions with respect to this type of floors, both in the light of the current databases and in the light of the future researches, to this end

  8. Characteristics associated with older adolescents who have a television in their bedrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; van den Berg, Patricia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2008-04-01

    The goals were to examine the prevalence of adolescents having a television in their bedroom and to describe associated personal, social, and behavioral characteristics. Participants included 781 adolescents (mean age: 17.2 years) who completed a mailed Project Eating Among Teens II questionnaire. The relationships between adolescents having a television in their bedroom and sociodemographic, behavioral, and personal characteristics were examined. Nearly two thirds (62%) of participants had a bedroom television. Gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and age were associated with the presence of a bedroom television. Compared with girls without a bedroom television, girls with a bedroom television reported less time spent in vigorous activity (1.8 vs 2.5 hours/week), more time spent watching television (20.7 vs 15.2 hours/week), lower vegetable intake (1.7 vs 2.0 servings per day), greater sweetened beverage consumption (1.2 vs 1.0 servings per day), and fewer family meals (2.9 vs 3.7 meals per week). Compared with boys without a bedroom television, boys with a bedroom television reported more time spent watching television (22.2 vs 18.2 hours/week), lower fruit intake (1.7 vs 2.2 servings per day), fewer family meals (2.9 vs 3.6 meals per week), and lower grade point average (2.6 vs 2.9). Twice as many youths with a television in their bedroom were heavy television users (watched >5 hours/day), compared with youths without a television in their bedroom (16% vs 8%). Adolescents with a bedroom television reported more television viewing time, less physical activity, poorer dietary habits, fewer family meals, and poorer school performance. Refraining from placing a television in teenagers' rooms may be a first step in helping to decrease screen time and subsequent poor behaviors associated with increased television watching.

  9. Indoor environment in bedrooms in 79 Greenlandic households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten; Clausen, Geo;

    2014-01-01

    ventilation results in low air change and thus elevated concentrations of indoor pollutants. In cold Arctic regions where people spend most of their time during long winters indoors is the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on occupants' health and comfort considerable. A cross sectional study in 79...... concentrations above 1000 ppm and difference in absolute humidity between indoor and outdoor air above 2.5 g/kg as indicators of insufficient ventilation were found in 73% of the bedrooms. The situation was significantly worse dwellings build after 1990. Although the average winter additional moisture was higher...

  10. The aesthetic interpretation on Wooden Drum Dancing of Wa people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfeng Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wa nationality, a typical ethnic group in Yunnan province, is an ancient one lives across Yunnan. The main residences of it are border area beside northern Yunnan and the Wa States in Burma. Among all the Wa dances, Wooden Drum Dancing leads a vital position, and it is also a symbolic dancing in the culture of Wa people. The feature of Wooden Drum Dancing is that every action expending by the beats of wooden drum, namely, first the wooden drum, then the Wooden Drum Dancing. Dancing is an important content in the life of Wa people, and the aesthetics of life comes from dancing, so they present their value on worship by the form of dancing. This article is going to interpret the aesthetic standard on Wa people’s Wooden Drum Dancing by the view of aesthetics, and come into a conclude that the inspiration of such dancing came from practice and their worship to nature and ancestor. The Wooden Drum Dancing displays totally the tough air and solidarity of Wa people, which also presents the fair society of them. The Wooden Drum Dancing is an enriched art that Wa People took from particle life, so dancing of Wa is often classified into the aesthetic area of plain. The information of people’s living situation displayed by Wa dancing also conveys their rich emotions. The sense of beauty within Wooden Drum Dancing will give others a solemn feeling. The formal beauty is displayed by the rhythm of upper part of body, and the power beauty is displayed by the rhythm of the lower part of body.

  11. Wooden floors: part of historical antiseismic building systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Laner

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes how wooden floors have been used over the centuries as a means of ensuring greater building solidity to ensure against earthquakes or other events that threaten wall stability.

  12. Evaluation of consumers' choice of wooden dining furniture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... This study evaluated consumers' choice of wooden dining furniture in Southwestern Nigeria to ..... Values in brackets are the number of respondents interviewed in each case. ..... Orlando F.L academic Press, (4): 549-561.

  13. Assessment of structural integrity of wooden poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Ian A.; Thackery, Steve; Redstall, Martin; Thomas, Matthew R.

    2000-05-01

    Despite recent advances in the development of new materials, wood continues to be used globally for the support of overhead cable networks used by telecommunications and electrical utility companies. As a natural material, wood is subject to decay and will eventually fail, causing disruption to services and danger to public and company personnel. Internal decay, due to basidomycetes fungi or attack by termites, can progress rapidly and is often difficult to detect by casual inspection. The traditional method of testing poles for decay involves hitting them with a hammer and listening to the sound that results. However, evidence suggests that a large number of poles are replaced unnecessarily and a significant number of poles continue to fail unexpectedly in service. Therefore, a more accurate method of assessing the structural integrity of wooden poles is required. Over the last 25 years there have been a number of attempts at improving decay detection. Techniques such as ultrasound, drilling X rays etc. have been developed but have generally failed to improve upon the practicality and accuracy of the traditional testing method. The paper describes the use of signal processing techniques to analyze the acoustic response of the pole and thereby determine the presence of decay. Development of a prototype meter is described and the results of initial tests on several hundred poles are presented.

  14. THE BEHAVIOURAL REACTION OF WEANERS TO HANGING TOYS: WOODEN BALL AND AROMATIZED WOODEN BALL – WAY TO REDUCE AGGRESSION AFTER MIXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek NOWICKI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of weaners after mixing housed in pens equipped with hanging wooden ball, aromatized with vanilla fluid hanging wooden ball and without enrichment was evaluated. It was found that both enrichments reduced aggression, however the most interesting for weaners was the aromatized wooden ball.

  15. Woodworm Disinfestation of Wooden Artifacts by Vacuum Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Chidichimo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wooden artifacts are subject to being heavily damaged by the attack of worms which develop in the wood through the eggs deposited by adult pests before their final transformation into flying insects. Among the most dangerous species are xylophagous (wood-boring insects, whose larvae are responsible for one of the most efficient wood-destroying mechanisms in wooden cultural heritage. Their elimination has always been a huge problem for the conservation of wood. In this work, we present the experimentation of a simple vacuum technique to disinfest wood from the larval Hylotrupes bajolus. We will also introduce the possibility of treating large-sized wooden artifacts by means of a special vacuum chamber.

  16. Microwave dielectric properties of wooden cross-arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Khalid, Kaida; bin Shari, Mohd H.; Keong, Ng K.; Fuad, Syed A.

    1999-10-01

    When wooden poles and cross-arms are exposed to weather, its surface undergoes changes such warping, loss of some surface fibers and surface roughing. As a result of weathering, its unprotected surface tends to absorb more moisture as compare to the surface of sound wood. After the rain, the moisture will sustain in the weathered wood for some time before it is dried out. There is a possibility to relate the quality of the wooden cross-arms with the amount of its moisture content (MC) at a particular time. This work deals with the effect of weather on the dielectric properties of wooden cross-arms. The samples from sound wood, incipient decay and decay woods were chosen for dielectric study with frequency ranging from 0.2 GHz to 20 GHz. It is found that the decay wood can absorbed more than 70% MC (dry-basis) as compare to sound wood of only about 30% MC. The results of the dielectric measurement are compared with the values predicted by dielectric mixture equations. From the above study, there is a great possibility of using microwave reflection method to determine the moisture content and condition of wooden cross-arms.

  17. 49 CFR 178.709 - Standards for wooden IBCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... structural equipment. (2) Liner means a separate tube or bag, including the closures of its openings, inserted in the body but not forming an integral part of it. (c) Construction requirements for wooden IBCs... handling and transportation. (4) Any integral pallet base forming part of an IBC, or any detachable...

  18. Energy management in wooden industry; Gestao energetica em industrias madeireiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagnon, Jose Angelo; Valarelli, Ivaldo de Domenico; Rodrigues, Ricardo Martini [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: jacagnon@feb.unesp.br, ivaldo@feb.unesp.br, martini@feb.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is the use of a methodology developed for the evaluation of the energy performance in wooden plants, aiming the application of a energy management program, for products and processes improvement, observing a reliable technical and economic implementation. (author)

  19. Safety Analysis for Packaging Steel Banded Wooden Shipping Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERRELL, P.C.

    2000-12-05

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the steel banded wooden shipping containers, which are certified as Type AF packagings. The authorized payload for these containers is unirradiated, slightly enriched, uranium ingots, billets, extrusions, and scrap materials. The amount of uranium in the containers will not exceed the LSA-II material requirements as defined in 49 CFR 173.403.

  20. [Okuda wooden human skeleton made in Edo era, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hisao

    2006-03-01

    Probably in 1820 (late Edo era), a human skeleton for medical education was carved from cypress wood, based on a criminal's skeleton under the supervision of a medical doctor, Banri Okuda in Osaka City. The skeleton is called "Okuda wooden skeleton" and is now housed in the National Science Museum, Tokyo. The bones can be assembled into a skeleton by metal pivots or bamboo sticks. The thorax and pelvis were made of several pieces of wood and combined together, respectively. By and large, the wooden skeleton shows morphological characteristics usually seen in early middle-aged females of the Edo era. But the claviculae, distal ends of the femora, and the patellae are exceptionally larger than those of a female, implying that these bones of the original skeleton had already been lost or were deformed before the wooden skeleton was made. Actually the wooden skeleton might not have been used for medical education but rather for the promotion of European medicine, which was gradually developing in the Edo era.

  1. Finite element analysis of boron diffusion in wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl;

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the f...... by the finite element method and, finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are presented....

  2. Finite Element Analysis of Boron Diffusion in Wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl;

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the f...... by the finite element method and, finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are presented....

  3. Finite Element Analysis of Boron Diffusion in Wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, P.; Bechgaard, C.;

    2003-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the f...... by the finite element method and, finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are presented....

  4. THE COUPLING ELEMENT CALCULATION OF COMBINED WOODEN BAR FOR TURNOUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Patlasov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The deficit of permanent way (PW material elements leads to a revision of the re-use of old serviceable object after their replacement or repair. As an example is the following fact, that after the wear in the under-rail area of wooden sleepers and beams, or other defects that prevent their further exploitation, there is an acute issue of their planned replacement. Usually, the required minimum margin of sleepers is always in the track service brigades. As for the wooden beams the length of which in the turnouts is up to 5 m, there is not always possible quickly replace them due to the lack of size in the short term. Therefore, the geometric dimensions of the connect elements of the two halves of the beams or sleepers in a single rigid structure were proposed and justified and its characteristics do not differ from solid beam. Methodology. The authors considered the calculation algorithm of wooden elements connection and mathematical models that describe the elastic properties of base. The most adequate technique that fully characterizes the interactions beam in the form of a beam of finite length on the ballast was determined. Findings. The qualitative and quantitative verification of the results showed a very good agreement between the values of bending moments, shear forces and deflections that were obtained by the finite difference method (FDM and the analytical method. It gives the reason to believe that the received geometric dimensions of nag connection can be recommended to employees of track facilities to connect the wooden sleepers on the switches and crossovers. Originality. The nag connection geometrical sizes of two wooden sleepers in the beam for using on switches were substantiated. Practical value. The proposed joint design allows re-using of renovated old wooden sleepers and bars. This design can be applied not only for the connection of conventional wooden sleepers in the beam of desired length, but also to create the

  5. Modeling ventilation rates in bedrooms based on building characteristics and occupant behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2011-01-01

    characteristics and occupant behavior. These were tested in several linear regression models to identify the degree of effect each selected independent variable has on the total ACR. The measured ACRs are summarized by some of the most significant variables such as room volume (higher ACR in smaller rooms......), number of people sleeping in the bedroom (higher ACR with more people), average window and door opening habits (higher ACR with more opening), sharing the bedroom with other family members (higher ACR in shared rooms), location of the measured room (higher ACR above ground floor), year of construction...... (lowest ACR in buildings from early 1970s), observed condensation on the bedroom window (higher ACR at less condensation), etc. The best-fitting model explained 46% of the variability in the air change rates. Variables related to occupant behavior were stronger predictors of ventilation rate (model R2 ¼ 0...

  6. Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants' bedrooms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Sørensen, M.; Hertel, Ole

    2011-01-01

    (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–5.5 times) higher in houses where people smoked; the concentration increased by 19% (95% CI, 15–23%) per doubling of the amount of tobacco smoked and decreased by 16% (95% CI, 9–27%) per 5-m increase in the distance between the smoking area and the infant’s bedroom...... conducted 1122 measurements of fine PM (PM2.5 and black smoke) in the bedrooms of 389 infants and registered indoor activities and characteristics of the house. We used mixed models to identify and quantify associations between predictors and concentrations. Results The concentration of PM2.5 was 2.8 times......, local traffic, inner city residence and cold season increased the fine PM concentration. Open windows decreased the PM2.5 concentration in homes with smokers but increased the concentration in non-smoking homes. Conclusions We identified several sources of fine PM in infants’ bedrooms...

  7. The relationship between media use in the bedroom, sleep habits and symptoms of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Molde, Helge; Myrseth, Helga; Skouverøe, Knut Joachim Mår; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2011-12-01

    This postal questionnaire study investigated the use of media in the bedroom and its relationships with sleep habits and symptoms of insomnia. The sample comprised 2500 individuals aged 16-40 years drawn randomly from the Norwegian national register. A total of 816 (34.0%) completed and returned the questionnaire. Respondents were asked how often they used computers, television sets, DVD players, game consoles and mobile telephones and listened to music/radio in their bedrooms. They also reported sleep habits on weekdays and at weekends/days off and symptoms of insomnia. After controlling for gender, age, anxiety and depression, the respondents who used a computer in the bedroom 'often' compared to 'rarely' rose later on weekdays and at weekends/days off, turned off the lights to go to sleep later at weekends/days off, slept more hours at weekends/days off and had a greater discrepancy between turning off the lights to go to sleep on weekdays and at weekends/days off. Respondents who used a mobile telephone in their bedrooms at night 'often' compared to 'rarely' turned off the lights to go to sleep later on weekdays and at weekends/days off, and rose later at weekends/days off. No such differences were found with the use of the other media. There were also no significant differences in symptoms of insomnia. This study indicates that the use of computers and mobile telephones in the bedroom are related to poor sleep habits, but that media use in the bedroom seems to be unrelated to symptoms of insomnia.

  8. Television Viewing, Bedroom Television, and Sleep Duration From Infancy to Mid-Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Matthew W.; Kleinman, Ken; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Television and insufficient sleep are associated with poor mental and physical health. This study assessed associations of TV viewing and bedroom TV with sleep duration from infancy to midchildhood. METHOD: We studied 1864 children in Project Viva. Parents reported children’s average daily TV viewing and sleep (at 6 months and annually from 1–7 years) and the presence of a bedroom TV (annually 4–7 years). We used mixed effects models to assess associations of TV exposures with contemporaneous sleep, adjusting for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, and income. RESULTS: Six hundred forty-three children (35%) were racial/ethnic minorities; 37% of households had incomes ≤$70 000. From 6 months to 7 years, mean (SD) sleep duration decreased from 12.2 (2.0) hours to 9.8 (0.9) hours per day; TV viewing increased from 0.9 (1.2) hours to 1.6 (1.0) hours per day. At 4 years, 17% had a bedroom TV, rising to 23% at 7 years. Each 1 hour per day increase in lifetime TV viewing was associated with 7 minutes per day (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4 to 10) shorter sleep. The association of bedroom TV varied by race/ethnicity; bedroom TV was associated with 31 minutes per day shorter sleep (95% CI: 16 to 45) among racial/ethnic minority children, but not among white, non-Hispanic children (8 fewer minutes per day [95% CI: −19 to 2]). CONCLUSIONS: More TV viewing, and, among racial/ethnic minority children, the presence of a bedroom TV, were associated with shorter sleep from infancy to midchildhood. PMID:24733878

  9. A system for ubiquitous health monitoring in the bedroom via a Bluetooth network and wireless LAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J M; Choi, B H; Seo, J W; Sohn, R H; Ryu, M S; Yi, W; Park, K S

    2004-01-01

    Advances in information technology have enabled ubiquitous health monitoring at home, which is particularly useful for patients, who have to live alone. We have focused on the automatic and unobtrusive measurement of biomedical signals and activities of patients. We have constructed wireless communication networks in order to transfer data. The networks consist of Bluetooth and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). In this paper, we present the concept of a ubiquitous-Bedroom (u-Bedroom) which is a part of a ubiquitous-House (u-House) and we present our systems for ubiquitous health monitoring.

  10. Wooden models of an AA quadrupole between bending magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    At two points in the AA lattice, a quadrupole (QDN, defocusing, narrow) was tightly wedged between two bending magnets (BST, short, wide). This picture of wooden models lets one imagine the strong interaction between their magnetic fields. There was no way one could calculate with the necessary accuracy the magnetic effects and their consequences for the machine optics. The necessary corrections were made after measurements with a circulating beam, in a tedious iterative procedure, with corrrection coils and shims.

  11. CT appearances of chronically retained wooden intraorbital foreign bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncoeur-Martel, M.P.; Dupuy, J.P.; Maubon, A. [Univ. Hospital Dupuytren, Limoges (France). Dept. of Radiology; Adenis, J.P.; Rulfi, J.Y.; Robert, P.Y. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Univ. Hospital Dupuytren, Limoges (France)

    2001-02-01

    Identification of wooden intraorbital foreign bodies (WIOFB) is crucial for avoiding severe orbital infection. Despite careful clinical examination, WIOFB are often not recognised. We report the CT findings in chronically retained WIOFB. When not initially diagnosed, WIOFB create a granulomatous inflammatory foreign-body reaction. CT demonstrates the WIOFB as a linear dense structure surrounded by a soft-tissue mass with density similar to that of muscle, corresponding to the foreign-body reaction. (orig.)

  12. Residential characteristics and radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from bedroom measurements in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, J; Blettner, M; Schüz, J

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess total exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in bedrooms and the contribution of different radioservices (FM radio, analogue TV and DVB-T, TETRA, GSM900 downlink, GSM1800 downlink, UMTS downlink, DECT, and wireless LAN and blue tooth...

  13. Exploring the Cost and Value of Private versus Shared Bedrooms in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Margaret; Cassella, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: There is debate about the relative merits and costs of private versus shared bedrooms in nursing homes, particularly in light of the current efforts at creating both cost-efficient and person-centered care facilities. The purpose of this project was to explore the extent to which there is evidence-based information that supports the…

  14. Guys, a Noisy Bedroom May Not Be Good for Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bedroom noise is better for general health and fertility." The study, by Kyoung-Bok Min and Jin-Young Min, was published in the July issue of the journal Environmental Pollution . SOURCES: James Nodler, M.D., reproductive endocrinology and ...

  15. Design and Calculation of the Resistance Circles for Wooden Barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana FOTIN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a design methodology for the circles of wooden barrels, usingappropriate strength calculations, so as to provide tightness while maintaining the integrity of the woodenmaterial embedded in the barrel structure, in the jacket and bottom staves, respectively.Based on these calculations, the circle dimensions (length, width and thickness can be defined,depending on the barrel type (for transport or storage and their relation to the barrel bottoms.Defining the dimensional characteristics of the circles is mandatory, as these are safety elements in thebarrel operation.

  16. Impact sound insulation improvement of wooden floors on concrete slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Hoffmeyer, Dan; Hansen, Rói

    2014-01-01

    . The measurements indicated up to about 8 dB improvement potential compared to floor constructions typical before the latest change of regulations, namely wooden floors on joists on PE wedges or similar. In addition, tests of small-scale samples (1 m2) – unsuitable for type testing – were performed to provide...... a fast track ranking of different floor supports, giving also the opportunity to compare differences between small-scale floors with those from full-scale measurements. The paper presents results from the laboratory tests of different floor supports....

  17. Shipping Service requests all users of wooden pallets

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Shipping Service requests all users of wooden pallets marked 'EUR' (80x120 cm) or freight containers and lids marked 'CFF SBB FFS', which are subject to a refundable deposit and thus have a logistics exchange value, to make any they are holding available as soon as possible to CERN's Transport Service, which is responsible for collecting and returning them to the Goods Reception Service in Buildings 904 and 194. A large number of EUR pallets and CFF freight containers and lids are used as supports and packing cases for storing various items of equipment in buildings and underground areas. If you are using them for this purpose, please contact the Goods Reception Service who will be able to offer you alternative wooden pallets and containers that are available to cover special needs. The Goods Reception Service regularly needs to stock up on EUR pallets and CFF containers and lids in order to have sufficient available each day to be able to exchange them for those used by various carriers to deliver goo...

  18. Shipping Service calls on all users of wooden pallets

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Shipping Service requests all users of wooden pallets marked 'EUR' (80x120 cm) or freight containers and lids marked 'CFF SBB FFS', which are subject to a refundable deposit and thus have a logistics exchange value, to make any they are holding available as soon as possible to CERN's Transport Service, which is responsible for collecting and returning them to the Goods Reception Service in Buildings 904 and 194. A large number of EUR pallets and CFF freight containers and lids are used as supports and packing cases for storing various items of equipment in buildings and underground areas. If you are using them for this purpose, please contact the Goods Reception Service, which will be able to offer you alternative wooden pallets and containers that are available to cover special needs. The Goods Reception Service regularly needs to stock up on EUR pallets and CFF containers and lids in order to have sufficient available each day to be able to exchange them for those used by various carriers to deliver g...

  19. Bio-inspired wooden actuators for large scale applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rüggeberg

    Full Text Available Implementing programmable actuation into materials and structures is a major topic in the field of smart materials. In particular the bilayer principle has been employed to develop actuators that respond to various kinds of stimuli. A multitude of small scale applications down to micrometer size have been developed, but up-scaling remains challenging due to either limitations in mechanical stiffness of the material or in the manufacturing processes. Here, we demonstrate the actuation of wooden bilayers in response to changes in relative humidity, making use of the high material stiffness and a good machinability to reach large scale actuation and application. Amplitude and response time of the actuation were measured and can be predicted and controlled by adapting the geometry and the constitution of the bilayers. Field tests in full weathering conditions revealed long-term stability of the actuation. The potential of the concept is shown by a first demonstrator. With the sensor and actuator intrinsically incorporated in the wooden bilayers, the daily change in relative humidity is exploited for an autonomous and solar powered movement of a tracker for solar modules.

  20. Wooden facade decor in the aspect of energy saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samol'kina Elena Grigor'evna

    2014-09-01

    most common facing materials of natural origin include wooden facades. Demand for such kind of structures in contemporary architecture is explained by wide possibilities of architectural and artistic facades. Facade decor made of wood is various, it tends to be unusual, with exclusive forms, eliminating unnecessary luxury. Valuable wood panels, board with logs imitation, block house, facade boards (planken, the wood tile (shingle, etc. can be used in decoration. A large number of wooden facing materials allow to create wooden facades of different styles, and the texture and wood shades form a harmonious environment. Among the various methods of using wooden decor the most common technique is outplaying of wood texture. Wood is treated with special impregnation to give effect of the natural aging, wood is also tinted, creating a color contrast of house planes, and then is coloured, imitating the texture of precious wood. Wooden facade decor fully solves not only the problem of architectural expressiveness of structures, but also the problem of energy saving, which is especially important in the context of the global crisis. The unique capabilities of the tree, its ability to be in harmony with other materials form a comfortable environment, providing a favorable psychological impact.

  1. Failure of wooden sandwich beam reinforced with glass/epoxy faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papakaliatakis, G. E.; Zacharopoulos, D. A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, 67100, Greece gpapakal@civil.duth.gr, dzachar@civil.duth.gr (Greece)

    2015-12-31

    The mechanical properties and the failure of wooden beam strengthened with two faces from glass/epoxy composite and a wooden beam without strengthening was studied. Stresses and deflections on both beams, which are imposed in three point bending loading. On the idealized geometry of the specimens with detailed nonlinear orthotropic analysis was performed with a finite elements program. The failure study of the wooden beams was performed, applying the criterion of Tsai-Hill. The shear strength of the adhesive was taken into account. All the specimens were tested with three point bending loading and the experimental results were compared to those of the theoretical approach with the finite elements analysis. Comparing the results, the advantage of strengthened wooden beam against the simple wooden beam becomes obvious. Theoretical predictions were in good agreement with experimental results.

  2. The haphazard wooden material converted to healthy MDF product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgül, Mehmet; uner, Birol; Korkut, Suleyman; Camlibel, Osman

    2007-02-15

    During machining of wood and wood composites materials, fine particles and dusts are created. These minute wooden materials can easily be carried out to human lungs by air and can cause serious health problem. Even though this material is too fine and created in huge amount, it can be stored and used as raw material in wood composite industry. The addition of wood dust into MDF contents can improve the physical and mechanical properties of the products. Small particles can fill the spaces between fiber and act as matrix material to improve adhesion properties. However, the addition of dust into MDF receipt decreased bending strength, internal bond values and MOE. In contrast, these mechanical strengths meet the standard values and fulfill the requirements.

  3. Fire performance of multi-storey wooden facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman Birgit A.-L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two series of full scale fire tests of wooden facades according to the Swedish test SP Fire 105 are presented, one series for different shares of untreated wood (partial wood and structural fire protection with a fire shield above the window and another series for fire retardant treated, FRT, wood. The results are compared with data from the Single Burning Item test and the cone calorimeter. For FRT wood, the need for verification of the weather durability of the treatment is stressed and a new European technical specification CEN/TS 15912 presented. The need to use fire stops behind multi-storey façade claddings to avoid fire spread in the cavities is underlined and the possibilities of fire safety design with sprinklers is briefly presented.

  4. Sensory and Emotional Perception of Wooden Surfaces through Fingertip Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Shiv R.; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vahtikari, Katja; Hughes, Mark; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on tactile experiences have investigated a wide range of material surfaces across various skin sites of the human body in self-touch or other touch modes. Here, we investigate whether the sensory and emotional aspects of touch are related when evaluating wooden surfaces using fingertips in the absence of other sensory modalities. Twenty participants evaluated eight different pine and oak wood surfaces, using sensory and emotional touch descriptors, through the lateral motion of active fingertip exploration. The data showed that natural and smooth wood surfaces were perceived more positively in emotional touch than coated surfaces. We highlight the importance of preserving the naturalness of the surface texture in the process of wood-surface treatment so as to improve positive touch experiences, as well as avoid negative ones. We argue that the results may offer possibilities in the design of wood-based interior products with a view to improving consumer touch experiences. PMID:28348541

  5. Problems and perspectives of preservation of wooden architecture monuments in the Kostroma region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyak Sergey Aleksandrovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wooden folk architecture is a unique layer of world cultural heritage. Over a period of one and a half centuries of research of wooden architecture heritage in Russia different forms of monuments preservation were worked out. The most effective of them is creation of wooden architecture museums out in the open. The article considers the activities of the Kostroma Museum of wooden architecture for preservation of landmarks under the Federal target program «Culture of Russia». The Museum was created in order to preserve the irrecoverable loss of monuments of wooden architecture of the Kostroma region. The objects of wooden architecture require regular attention of restorers with the purpose of maintenance of monuments in the standard condition, timely restoration and conservation activities. The support of the Federal target program «Culture of Russia» has provided a series of repair-restoration, project and research works. The museumification of monuments as a large regional network, when creating sufficient transport and tourist infrastructure, would enrich the tourist and cultural map of the Kostroma region. The author sets out the prerequisites for creating the Program for the preservation of monuments of wooden architecture, examples of similar programs in force in other regions of the Russian Federation.

  6. Damage of bamboo and wooden materials based on linear elastic fracture mechanics in garden design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo and wood are the most widely applied and the oldest natural structural materials in the world. Currently, worldwide output of wooden material is 1 billion ton, almost the same as steel. Most of them are used as structure, such as load carrying girder, scaffold, floor and support. Wooden materials and bamboo materials with clear microstructure are composite biomaterials which can be studied under multiple scales. Irregular evolution behaviors of initial defects or damage during loading determines macro mechanical behavior of wooden and bamboo materials. Taking wood and bamboo as test materials, this study explored mechanical characteristics and damage crack behavior of wood and bamboo as well as toughening mechanism.

  7. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day) performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day). Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β=-4.798) and the combination TV+computer (β=-3.233) were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Transorbital impalement by a wooden stick in a 3-year-old child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anders; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Klemp, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 3-year-old girl with a transorbital impalement injury due to a wooden stick penetrating the lower inferior palpebra and progressing through the orbita, after the child jumped from a table and hit a wooden basket containing pieces of exposed stick. CT revealed the stick prog...... and discharged 2 days later. Follow-up examination 2 months after the trauma demonstrated normal visual acuity and ocular motility, with no diplopia, tearing or pain....

  9. Science Applied for the Investigation of Imperial Gate from Eighteenth Century Wooden Church of Nicula Monastery

    OpenAIRE

    I. Bratu; Monk Siluan; C. Măruţoiu; Kacso, I.; S. Garabagiu; V. C. Măruţoiu; C. Tănăselia; Popescu, D.; D. L. Postolache; Pop, D

    2017-01-01

    Part of an indestructible component of any orthodox church, the Imperial Gates represent an important symbol in our cultural heritage. But in many cases the Imperial Gates from the wooden churches were damaged. In order to preserve and restore them, the scientific investigations of the Imperial Gate belonging to Nicula Monastery wooden church were performed by employing nondestructive and destructive methods. The wood essence was established, with its “health” status being investigated by FTI...

  10. Digital Survey Techniques for the Documentation of Wooden Shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, E.; Balletti, C.; Beltrame, C.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, researchers widely employ the acquisition of point clouds as one of the principal type of documentation for cultural heritage. In this paper, different digital survey techniques are employed to document a wooden ancient shipwreck, a particular and difficult kind of archaeological finding due to its material characteristics. The instability of wood and the high costs of restoration do not always offer the opportunity of recovering and showing the hull to researchers and public and three-dimensional surveys are fundamental to document the original conditions of the wood. The precarious conditions of this material in contact with air could modify the structure and the size of the boat, requiring a fast and accurate recording technique. The collaboration between Ca' Foscari University and the Laboratory of Photogrammetry of Iuav University of Venice has given the possibility to demonstrate the utility of these technology. We have surveyed a sewn boat of Roman age through multi-image photogrammetry and laser scanner. Point clouds were compared and a residual analysis was done, to verify the characteristics and the opportunity of the two techniques, both of them have allowed obtaining a very precise documentation from a metrical point of view.

  11. Spectroscopic study of an icon painted on wooden panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Sofija R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian icon painted on wooden panel analyzed in this work is interesting for art historians because there is no precise information in which workshops it was made or who the author was. Similar icons are often found in churches and monasteries in our region. In order to obtain information about materials used for creation of investigated icon two micro-analytical techniques were used: Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Obtained results confirmed presence of following materials: lead-white, vermilion, minium, ultramarine, brown and green earth pigments and silver in combination with yellow organic varnish, which served to an iconographer for gilding. Ground layer was made of calcite. Blue pigment ultramarine was probably used for blue colour as well as for obtaining particulars hues in several parts of the paint layer. This can be important information for further research concerning particular workshop in which the icon was made. Identified materials are typical for Russian iconography of the 19th century. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 177021 i OI 177012

  12. Removing the Bedroom Television Set: A Possible Method for Decreasing Television Viewing Time in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine E.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Harvey-Berino, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between…

  13. Concentrations of "legacy" and novel brominated flame retardants in matched samples of UK kitchen and living room/bedroom dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jiangmeng; Ma, Yuning; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and 5 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were measured in paired samples of kitchen and living room/bedroom dust sampled in 2015 from 30 UK homes. BDE-209 was most abundant (22-170,000 ng/g), followed by γ-HBCDD (1.7-21,000 ng/g), α-HBCDD (5.2-4,900 ng/g), β-HBCDD (2.3-1,600 ng/g), BDE-99 (2.6-1,440 ng/g), BDE-47 (0.4-940 ng/g), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) (nd-680 ng/g) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP) (2.7-630 ng/g). The concentrations in kitchens and living rooms/bedrooms are moderate compared with previous studies. Concentrations of BDE-209 in living room/bedroom dust were significantly lower and those of DBDPE significantly higher (p kitchens. With the exception of BDE-28, pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and DBDPE, these differences were significant (p < 0.05). No specific source was found that could account for the higher concentrations in living rooms/bedrooms.

  14. PROTECTION OF WOODEN MATERIALS AGAINST BIOLOGICAL ATTACK BY USING NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Havrlik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on protection of wooden materials by using nanofibrous textiles with biocidal addition, which continues on the work of a group at the Center for Nanotechnology at the Faculty of Civil Engineering in the CTU. Timber is a natural material which is predisposed for biodegradation and therefore it is essential to study suitable and effective protection against microorganisms. Wood is a material susceptible to biological corrosion and therefore it is necessary to protect it. The study compares biocidal efficiency of polymer solution as a coating and as a layer from nanofiber textiles. We used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA as a basic polymer which was enriched by substances from commercial Lignofix E – profi, solution of CuSO4 · 5H2O and AgNO3 and finally colloidal silver as an example of nanoparticles. The final concentration of the biocidal substance was 1 (v/wt% in fiber. The nanofiber textiles are produced on the device Nanospider NS LAB 500 (Elmarco, CR on cylinder rotating electrode. The study was divided into two parts, the first being an agar plate test and the second a test on samples from timber. The mixture of mold was used as the model organism. (Alternaria tenuissima, Pochonia bulbiosa, Trichoderma viride and Acremonium sclerotigenum. Comparison of efficiency between the polymer paint and nanofiber textiles showed no difference. The best results were shown by PVA with an addition of substances from the commercial biocidal treatment Lignofix-E Profi on the agar plate. The difference of result was shown on timbre samples, finding that the best results were with treatment by PVA doped by Silver nitrate. The anticipated results were shown by treatment with non-doped PVA, which does not have any fungicidal protective effect.

  15. Snakebite in bedroom kills a physician in Cameroon: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwescheu, Armand; Mbasso, Leopold Cyriaque Donfack; Pouth, Franky Baonga Ba; Dzudie, Anastase; Billong, Serge Clotaire; Ngouakam, Hermann; Diffo, Joseph Le Doux; Eyongorock, Hanny; Mbacham, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies snake bites as neglected public health problem affecting mostly tropical and subtropical countries. In Africa there are an estimated 1 million snake bites annually with about half needing a specific treatment. Women, children and farmers in poor rural communities in developing countries are the most affected. Case management of snake bites are not adequate in many health facilities in developing countries where personnel are not always abreast with the new developments in snake bite management and in addition, quite often the anti-venom serum is lacking. We report the case of a medical doctor bitten by a cobra in the rural area of Poli, Cameroon while asleep in his bedroom. Lack of facilities coupled with poor case management resulted in a fatal outcome. PMID:27800086

  16. Can modifications to the bedroom environment improve the sleep of new parents? Two randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathryn A; Gay, Caryl L

    2011-02-01

    Postpartum sleep disruption is common among new parents. In this randomized controlled trial we evaluated a modified sleep hygiene intervention for new parents (infant proximity, noise masking, and dim lighting) in anticipation of night-time infant care. Two samples of new mothers (n = 118 and 122) were randomized to the experimental intervention or attention control, and sleep was assessed in late pregnancy and first 3 months postpartum using actigraphy and the General Sleep Disturbance Scale. The sleep hygiene strategies evaluated did not benefit the more socioeconomically advantaged women or their partners in Sample 1, but did improve postpartum sleep among the less advantaged women of Sample 2. Simple changes to the bedroom environment can improve sleep for new mothers with few resources.

  17. Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in indoor air sampled in children's bedrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkens, Kerstin; Koponen, Jani; Schuster, Jasmin; Shoeib, Mahiba; Vestergren, Robin; Berger, Urs; Karvonen, Anne M; Pekkanen, Juha; Kiviranta, Hannu; Cousins, Ian T

    2017-03-01

    The contamination levels and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors in indoor air of children's bedrooms in Finland, Northern Europe, were investigated. Our study is among the most comprehensive indoor air monitoring studies (n = 57) and to our knowledge the first one to analyse air in children's bedrooms for PFASs (17 PFAAs and 9 precursors, including two acrylates, 6:2 FTAC and 6:2 FTMAC). The most frequently detected compound was 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) with the highest median concentration (3570 pg/m(3)). FTOH concentrations were generally similar to previous studies, indicating that in 2014/2015 the impact of the industrial transition had been minor on FTOH levels in indoor air. However, in contrast to earlier studies (with one exception), median concentrations of 6:2 FTOH were higher than 10:2 FTOH. The C8 PFAAs are still the most abundant acids, even though they have now been phased out by major manufacturers. The mean concentrations of FOSE/As, especially MeFOSE (89.9 pg/m(3)), were at least an order of magnitude lower compared to previous studies. Collectively the comparison of FTOHs, PFAAs and FOSE/FOSAs with previous studies indicates that indoor air levels of PFASs display a time lag to changes in production of several years. This is the first indoor air study investigating 6:2 FTMAC, which was frequently detected (58%) and displayed some of the highest maximum concentrations (13 000 pg/m(3)). There were several statistically significant correlations between particular house and room characteristics and PFAS concentrations, most interestingly higher EtFOSE air concentrations in rooms with plastic floors compared to wood or laminate.

  18. Assessing Ecotourism Potential of Traditional Wooden Architecture in Rural Areas: The Case of Papart Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Okan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal the resource values that the rural areas host, and with a very disciplined approach, to discuss opportunities to benefit from those values in terms of ecotourism practices specific to Papart Valley. As a first step in this study, we took an inventory of natural and cultural assets of Papart Valley in Eastern Black Sea Region, Artvin province. Then, a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis was conducted with the participation of all stakeholders and the current situation was analyzed in terms of ecotourism practices. In light of SWOT results, along with observed natural resource assets in the region, the traditional wooden houses were seen to have potential in terms of ecotourism and it was detected that there were a large number of wooden homes and home plans suitable for both the settlement of the local people and accommodation of guests. On the other hand, it was determined that there was a lack of information for sufficient protection and care of wooden houses, and despite their potential, there was a lack of regulations and positive attitudes towards accomodation businesses in traditional wooden houses. In order to eliminate these deficiencies, proposals for the protection of traditional building stock were developed, by first determining the causes of material degradation in the wooden houses. Also, to emphasize the worth and importance of these structures, dendrochronology studies were conducted in order to determine the antiquity of the structures and potentially to make them more attractive for eco-tourism.

  19. A POF-based distributed strain sensor for detecting deformation of wooden structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Takuji; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2008-04-01

    This report presents a feasibility test of the distributed strain sensor based on plastic optical fiber (POF) for detecting deformation of wooden structures. First, a simple method to fix POF cable onto wooden structures is developed, where the dimensions of the fixing plate are determined so as to minimize the OTDR responses due to the fixing tool as well as the slip between the POF cable and the structure. Second, the authors focus on a new function "memory effect" of the POF-based strain sensor. The strain once applied to the POF cable is memorized through the plastic deformation of the core material, and can be read out using OTDR even after the event. The characteristics of the memory effect and its life are discussed experimentally for tensile strain. Third, in this report, we showed that a 5-point measurement with the spatial resolution of around 5 m was possible for the axial elongation imposed on the POF. Then, we apply the present method for detection of deformations of wooden frame structures. We try to detect the direction and magnitude of deformations at four corners of a rectangular wooden frame using a POF cable and OTDR. The availability of the memory effect in multipoint measurements on wooden structures is also discussed.

  20. NEW WAYS TO DEVELOP AND PPROMOT TOURISM THROUGH RESTORATION OF WOODEN CHURCHES FROM BUZAU REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Teodora, NECULA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With highlighting of the wooden churches from the sub-Carpathian region is possible to make projects of development and promovation of tourism in Buzau. Publishing a book of the wooden churches witch presents the overview on architecture helps with the prom ovation of tourism by bringing new light on the full set, geographical specking it brings new territory to view. Advantage by placing wooden churches in the vicinity of hermitage caves from Buzau will attract even more interest of the large public for seed region. Realizing a few projects of conservation-restoration of wooden churches which are declared historical monuments, will bring a local developing from a cultural-tourist view. A particular case is the wooden church "Saints Emperors" from the vicinity city Nehoiu which has ruttier access, helps with the cost for restoration and number of viewers. Through realizing interventions of conservation-restoration and placing it in a favorable aesthetic view, the monument can be used in a cultural-tourist circuit of international important and this way it can help with the growth of value of monuments and developing cultural-tourist with the final scope heightening the economy.

  1. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Charmaine B. Lo; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods: Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n ...

  2. PUPILS’ AND STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS AND REPRESENTATIONS OF THE WOODEN CHURCHES IN MARAMUREŞ, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN-ALIN KOSINSZKI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to study the perceptions and representations of some pupils and students, living in Maramureş, of the wooden churches from Maramureş and their employment as tourist attractions. The specific objectives of this research were the following: conceiving, analysing and applying a research instrument for the perceptions and representations on the wooden churches from Maramureş and their employment as tourist attractions, the analysis and interpretation of the obtained results. The following research hypothesis was tested: pupils and students do not have very precise representations of the wooden churches in Maramureş and their employment as tourist attractions. After the questionnaire was applied and the results were analyzed, the working hypothesis was confirmed.

  3. Investigation of interior post-insulated masonry walls with wooden beam ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    investigated using both thermal and hygrothermal simulation software. The results show that the risk to incurring moisture problems at the wooden beam ends can be resolved by not insulating that portion of the wall directly above and below the floor division. Additionally, this proposed retrofit measure would......The preponderant number of multistorey buildings constructed in Denmark in the period between 1850 and 1930 were built with masonry walls incorporating wooden floor beams. Given the nature of this construction, it is supposed that significant energy savings could be achieved by simply insulating...... of the wall, and this in turn may lead to increased freeze–thaw damages and moisture problems at the beam ends embedded in the masonry, when the masonry facade is subjected to driving rain. This article presents a method to investigate retrofit measures of interior-insulated masonry walls having wooden floor...

  4. The benefits of life cycle inventory parametric models in streamlining data collection. A case study in the wooden pallet sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, M.; Di Felice, F.; Ren, Jingzheng;

    to consider changes in the design of the wooden pallets. Based on the results of the application of the LCI parametric model to a selection of different wooden pallets, we further determined numerical correlations between the environmental impacts and the most significant inventory parameters, i.e. mass...

  5. Descriptive texture analyses of cooked broiler breast fillets with the wooden condition after fresh and frozen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the wooden breast condition on the texture of cooked broiler breast fillets (Pectoralis major) after fresh and frozen storage. Texture characteristics of normal (NORM) and severe wooden breast (WB) fillets were studied by both sensory descr...

  6. Wooden sticks as the source of a pseudoepidemic of infection with Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis among immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, P E; Voss, A; Donnelly, J P; de Pauw, B E; Meis, J F

    1997-09-01

    Wooden sticks used to suspend feces obtained for surveillance cultures were found to be the source of Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis causing a pseudo-outbreak among 17 immunocompromised patients cared for in three different wards. Nonsterile wooden products should therefore not be used for collecting, handling, and processing specimens for microbiological examination.

  7. Wooden sticks as the source of a pseudoepidemic of infection with Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis among immunocompromised patients

    OpenAIRE

    Verweij, P.E.; Voss, A.; Donnelly, J P; de Pauw, B E; Meis, J. F. G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Wooden sticks used to suspend feces obtained for surveillance cultures were found to be the source of Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis causing a pseudo-outbreak among 17 immunocompromised patients cared for in three different wards. Nonsterile wooden products should therefore not be used for collecting, handling, and processing specimens for microbiological examination.

  8. Super-energy wrap-up model for renovation of standard wooden houses in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Vladyková, Petra

    2012-01-01

    as a robust building renovation method with focus on applying the membrane for air tightness with a minimum of risk of leakage, high level of insulation with very few thermal bridges, focus on fire protection by using insulation material of mineral wool and high attention on solving details in the building...... envelope. This interesting wrap-up and package solution can easily be applied to many standard wooden houses in Greenland, but also to wooden houses across the Arctic regions. Linking all these aspects lead to interesting findings about high energy savings, reduction of oil usage and decrease of greenhouse...

  9. Second-hand smoke exposure in homes with children: assessment of airborne nicotine in the living room and children's bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechavala, Teresa; Continente, Xavier; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Fernandez, Esteve; Cortés-Francisco, Núria; Centrich, Francesc; Muñoz, Glòria; López, Maria J

    2017-08-19

    The introduction of 'smoke-free laws' has reduced the population's exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS), although SHS is still an issue in homes and other public places. Children are vulnerable to its health effects, and their greatest exposure occurs at home. To assess airborne nicotine concentration of the living room and children's bedroom of homes with children under 13 years of age, and to analyse factors associated with these levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Barcelona in 2015-2016, selecting a convenience sample from families with at least one child under 13 years of age. The sample comprised 50 families with smokers and 50 without. We measured airborne nicotine concentrations in the living room and children's bedroom, and, using a questionnaire administered to the parents, collected information about smoking habits at home. Homes without smokers showed nicotine concentrations below the limit of detection (smoked in the living room, smoking rules, the number of smokers living at home and tobacco smell. Homes with smokers present SHS in the living room and in the children's bedroom. Therefore, programmes focused on reducing children's SHS exposure are urgently needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Characterisation of the Microflora Contaminating the Wooden Vats Used for Traditional Sicilian Cheese Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Cinzia; Miraglia, Viviana; Lazzara, Fabrizio; Fiorenza, Gerlando; Macaluso, Giusi; Arcuri, Luigi; Settanni, Luca; Mancuso, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Sicilian cheese productions are carried out employing traditional wooden vats, called tina. Many studies have highlighted the beneficial role of wooden dairy equipment by contributing to enriching the milk microflora and improving the acidification processes. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the safety of the wooden vats used to coagulate milk. To this purpose, the different microbial populations hosted onto the internal surfaces of the vats used to produce two different stretched cheeses, namely Caciocavallo Palermitano and Vastedda della valle del Belìce DOP, were investigated for the presence of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms as well as for bacteria with inhibitory effect in vitro against pathogenic microorganisms. A wide biodiversity of protechnological lactic acid bacteria (LAB), in terms of species, was revealed. Several LAB inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. The wooden vats analysed resulted safe for three main findings: absence of the main pathogenic species, presence of high levels of LAB, anti-Listeria activity of many LAB. PMID:27800376

  11. Investigations of fungal diversity in wooden structures and soils at historic sites on the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenz, Brett E; Blanchette, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Investigations of microbial diversity in Antarctic are important to begin to understand ecosystem functioning and decomposition processes. This study documents fungi at 9 historic sites on the Antarctic Peninsula collected from wooden structures, other organic materials, and soils during a joint National Science Foundation and British Antarctic Survey expedition in 2007. Many of these sites had wooden structures built by the British during the World War II Operation Tabarin, but others visited included the American "East Base" on Stonington Island and the Swedish hut on Snow Hill Island. Fungi were cultured on several different media and pure cultures were obtained and identified by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. Cadophora species previously found to attack historic wooden structures on Ross Island, Antarctica, were found at all but 1 location sampled in the Peninsula region. Fungi causing decay in the historic wooden structures and artifacts and those causing mold problems inside the structures are of great concern, and conservation efforts are urgently needed to help preserve these important polar heritage structures. The results presented also expand our knowledge on the identity of fungi present throughout the Antarctic Peninsula region and provide insights into the organisms responsible for decomposition and nutrient recycling.

  12. [Limb-length measurements using wooden boards: an accurate and experience-independent method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakvis, D.F.M.; Jaarsma, R.L.; Kampen, A. van

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the precision and reliability of the indirect limb-length measurement, and the inter-observer variance between doctors differing in level of experience. DESIGN: Descriptive. METHOD: Indirect limb-length measurement by placing 0.5 cm-thick wooden boards under the foot of the s

  13. The use of the wooden shoe (Steward Clog) in treating laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Micheal L

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the use of the wooden shoe in the treatment of chronic laminitis. The shoe, designed to provide a solid base and full roller motion, offers mechanical advantages and enables reduction and redistribution of forces within the hoof capsule.

  14. An Evaluation of Test and Physical Uncertainty of Measuring Vibration in Wooden Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper a study of test and material uncertainty in modal analysis of certain wooden junctions is presented. The main structure considered here is a T-junction made from a particleboard plate connected to a spruce beam of rectangular cross section. The size of the plate is 1.2 m by 0...

  15. Characterisation of the microflora contaminating the wooden vats used for traditional Sicilian cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Scatassa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Sicilian cheese productions are carried out employing traditional wooden vats, called tina. Many studies have highlighted the beneficial role of wooden dairy equipment by contributing to enriching the milk microflora and improving the acidification processes. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the safety of the wooden vats used to coagulate milk. To this purpose, the different microbial populations hosted onto the internal surfaces of the vats used to produce two different stretched cheeses, namely Caciocavallo Palermitano and Vastedda della valle del Belìce DOP, were investigated for the presence of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms as well as for bacteria with inhibitory effect in vitro against pathogenic microorganisms. A wide biodiversity of protechnological lactic acid bacteria (LAB, in terms of species, was revealed. Several LAB inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. The wooden vats analysed resulted safe for three main findings: absence of the main pathogenic species, presence of high levels of LAB, anti-Listeria activity of many LAB.

  16. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Perturbations in Wooden Breast Disorder in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasht, Behnam; Mutryn, Marie F; Michalek, Ryan D; Lee, William R

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize metabolic features of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) in chickens affected with the Wooden Breast myopathy. Live birds from two purebred chicken lines and one crossbred commercial broiler population were clinically examined by manual palpation of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) at 47-48 days of age. Metabolite abundance was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using breast muscle tissue samples from 16 affected and 16 unaffected chickens. Muscle glycogen content was also quantified in breast muscle tissue samples from affected and unaffected chickens. In total, levels of 140 biochemicals were significantly different (FDR1.3 or chickens. Glycogen content measurements were considerably lower (1.7-fold) in samples taken from Wooden Breast affected birds when compared with samples from unaffected birds. Affected tissues exhibited biomarkers related to increased oxidative stress, elevated protein levels, muscle degradation, and altered glucose utilization. Affected muscle also showed elevated levels of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate molecules, the generation of which can contribute to altered redox homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Wooden Breast affected tissues possess a unique metabolic signature. This unique profile may identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into altered biochemical processes contributing to tissue hardening associated with the Wooden Breast myopathy in commercial chickens.

  17. Surface temperature of wooden window frames under influence of solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castenmiller, C.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Under influence of solar radiation the surface temperature of wooden window frames can reach values above 60 0C. High temperature can cause considerable tensions within the window frame; as a result joints can be cracked and rain water can penetrate into these joints. This penetration of rain water

  18. ANALYSIS OF JOINTS AND ORNAMENTS OF THE WOODEN CHURCHES STRUCTURES IN MARAMUREȘ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela COMAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of wooden joints and ornaments used in construction of wooden churches built in XVIII-XIX centuries in Maramureș County, Romania. In the structure of wooden churches, Romanian masters revealed the wood - natural material and representative of Romanian culture and civilization of the Carpathian, faith-Christian monotheistic, Dacian population subsequently the only Roman people of the Carpathian basin which has cultivated such a faith, unlike existing polytheistic beliefs of the ancient peoples, woodworking skills that manifested from the creation of wood joints to ornaments and floral and geomorphic with sacred meaning to human existence. Wood joints, besides proving refinement and craftsmanship, good knowledge of proportions, showed the inclination to achieve balance of form - material - requests and tension accumulated in the structure of the wooden churches. This paper aims to present the triad: material - form - resistance (mechanical and over time the most important joints in wood used in the structure of the churches of Maramureș.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of a Three-Bedroom House in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is one of the crucial stakeholders in the global energy and environmental scenario. Life cycle assessment (LCA is a tool widely used to evaluate the environmental performance of buildings, materials and activities. Saudi Arabia has a rapidly growing construction sector with over $1 Trillion of ongoing projects. The housing sector, annually needing over 2.32 million new residential units in coming years, is yet to entertain environmental performance of buildings in its list of priorities. The present work undertakes a LCA study of a three-bedroom modern villa located in Dhahran. Providing the structural details of the villa, an account of the 18 main construction materials in terms of quantity and application has been produced. Embodied energy of these materials has been estimated adopting ‘cradle-to-gate’ approach. Environmental impacts of the materials have been modeled with the help of SimaPro software. The results suggest that concrete accounts for more than 43% of the total embodied energy of the house and is also the predominant material in terms of the overall environmental impacts. Steel is the second most prominent material both in terms of quantity and embodied energy.

  20. D Digital Model Database Applied to Conservation and Research of Wooden Construction in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Protected by the Tai-Hang Mountains, Shanxi Province, located in north central China, is a highly prosperous, densely populated valley and considered to be one of the cradles of Chinese civilization. Its continuous habitation and rich culture have given rise to a large number of temple complexes and pavilions. Among these structures, 153 can be dated as early as from the Tang dynasty (618- 907C.E.) to the end of the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368C.E.) in Southern Shanxi area. The buildings are the best-preserved examples of wooden Chinese architecture in existence, exemplifying historic building technology and displaying highly intricate architectural decoration and detailing. They have survived war, earthquakes, and, in the last hundred years, neglect. In 2005, a decade-long conservation project was initiated by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of China (SACH) to conserve and document these important buildings. The conservation process requires stabilization, conservation of important features, and, where necessary, partial dismantlement in order to replace unsound structural elements. Project team of CHCC have developed a practical recording system that created a record of all building components prior to and during the conservation process. After that we are trying to establish a comprehensive database which include all of the 153 earlier buildings, through which we can easily entering, browse, indexing information of the wooden construction, even deep into component details. The Database can help us to carry out comparative studies of these wooden structures, and, provide important support for the continued conservation of these heritage buildings. For some of the most important wooden structure, we have established three-dimensional models. Connected the Database with 3D Digital Model based on ArcGIS, we have developed 3D Digital Model Database for these cherish buildings. The 3D Digital Model Database helps us set up an integrate information inventory

  1. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

  2. State's moral crusade against bedroom: Misdemeanour of prostitution in new Public Order and Peace Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristivojević Branislav R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author investigates the new Public Order and Peace Act (Ser. ZoJRM and the provisions on so-called morale offences contained therein. Of these provisions, the one he recognizes as the most revolutionary is that of a new instance of perpetration under the old offence of prostitution. With this novelty, the Act extends liability for the offence not only to the prostitute, but also to the user of her services. The author first puts forward a general criticism to the criminal and misdemeanour laws when these attempt to turn morality into the object of protection, which already has a general place in science. Then he investigates what perception of morality is protected by this offence, concluding that it crosses over into the sphere in which the freedom of citizens must in no way be interfered with - the sphere of voluntary sexual intercourse of two persons. For this reason, the author, in somewhat humorous fashion, warns, through the paper's title, that the state will have to undertake a moral crusade against bedroom if it wants to consistently enforce these provisions. Moreover, the author sheds light on the origin of this moral stance, finding its roots in the societies with dominant protestant religious ethics as the moral foundation, as well as on its genesis, seeing it in the rise in sexual morality standards that occurred in the developing industrial societies in the second half of the nineteenth century. The author concludes that to our society and our natural moral stance such foreign moral implants are unnecessary, particularly if one considers that it is precisely in the country of their origin, the US, that they have long been rejected and marked as symbols of repression and non-liberty.

  3. Application of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL on the Wooden Boat Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Basuki Widodo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available LVL (Laminated-Veneer Lumber has many advantages and economic values, which is important for wooden boat construction. The recovery of veneer, the main material of LVL, are higher than sawn-timber and their drying process are faster. LVL produced with a continuous press has been approved as an engineered material with reliable strength and stiffness. In a wooden boat processing, the easy forming into a curve shape and strength are main factor, because of the streamline shape of boats. LVL material is able to meet those requirements. As an endless-length LVL is made from a log limited-length hence LVL always contain joints. Butt joint have numerous drawbacks, but they are inherently simple and less time to manufacture than other joints types. The purposes of this experiment are to investigate the basic characteristics of LVL which are important for deck and hull planking in the wooden boat constructions. Yellow meranti and red meranti were peeled by a veneer lathe and phenol formaldehyde adhesive were used. Result of experiment indicated that at the position 0o (β, the flexibility and strength of LVL up to proportional limit increased with increasing number of layer and spacing of butt-joint (d/t. LVL at the position 45o and 90o (β, all types of LVL had lower flexibility and strength than the standard value for deck and hull planking. In bending experiment test speciment at position 45° with direction of grain, maximum width of LVL equal to the spacing of frame and at position 90° equal to the width of hull planking in wooden boat. Based on the interpretations of the above results, it can be concluded that (1. LVL of 9, 6 and 4 plies with upside (inside veneer butt-joint is appropriate for deck and hull planking in wooden boat manufacturing, (2. LVL of 9, 6 and 4 plies with spacing of butt-joint (d/t more than 20 is appropriate for deck and hull planking in manufacturing wooden boat.

  4. Sleep paralysis and "the bedroom intruder": the role of the right superior parietal, phantom pain and body image projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2014-12-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common condition occurring either at sleep onset or sleep offset. During SP the sleeper experiences gross motor paralysis while the sensory system is clear. Hypnogogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are common during SP and may involve seeing, hearing, and sensing the presence of menacing intruders in one's bedroom. This "intruder" is often perceived as a shadowy humanoid figure. Supernatural accounts of this hallucinated intruder are common across cultures. In this paper, we postulate that a functional disturbance of the right parietal cortex explains the shadowy nocturnal bedroom intruder hallucination during SP. This hallucination may arise due to a disturbance in the multisensory processing of body and self at the temporoparietal junction. We specifically propose that this perceived intruder is the result of a hallucinated projection of the genetically "hard-wired" body image (homunculus), in the right parietal region; namely, the same circuits that dictate aesthetic and sexual preference of body morphology. One way to test this hypothesis would be to study clinical populations who may have genetically acquired "irregularities" in their internal hard-wired body image in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL); for example, individuals with apotemnophilia or anorexia nervosa. If such individuals experience SP (e.g., induced in a sleep lab), and they hallucinate this shadowy figure, one would predict that they would see humanoid shadows and shapes with body irregularities, mirroring their own internal body image morphology. If correct, our hypothesis will offer a neurological explanation for this nocturnal bedroom intruder that has been a source of controversy, and striking and implausible cultural interpretations throughout history. Indeed, if our proposed hypothesis is tested and corroborated, dissemination of such findings would provide great relief to SP experiencers worldwide and could potentially be used in a therapeutic context.

  5. Environmental Impact Research Program. Wooden Fences. Section 5.2.4. US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Saucier, WES, was Program Manager, EIRP. The report was edited by Ms. Jessica S. Ruff of the WES Publications and Graphic Arts Division (PGAD). Drawings...LIMITATIONS Vandalism of wooden fences can be a major problem. In campgrounds and picnic areas, fences are often cut for firewood. Wooden fences are also...easily defaced by graffiti , and fences near parking areas are subject to dam- age by motor vehicles. Fences should be located a sufficient distance away

  6. Experimental and Numerical Analyses of New Massive Wooden Shear-Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pozza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three innovative massive wooden shear-wall systems (Cross-Laminated-Glued Wall, Cross-Laminated-Stapled Wall, Layered Wall with dovetail inserts were tested and their structural behaviour under seismic action was assessed with numerical simulations. The wall specimens differ mainly in the method used to assemble the layers of timber boards composing them. Quasi-static cyclic loading tests were carried out and then reproduced with a non-linear numerical model calibrated on the test results to estimate the most appropriate behaviour factor for each system. Non-linear dynamic simulations of 15 artificially generated seismic shocks showed that these systems have good dissipative capacity when correctly designed and that they can be assigned to the medium ductility class of Eurocode 8. This work also shows the influence of deformations in wooden panels and base connectors on the behaviour factor and dissipative capacity of the system.

  7. The influence of ventilation on moisture conditions in facades with wooden cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2009-01-01

    A ventilated cavity behind the cladding of timber frame walls is often considered good building practice that facilitates the removal of moisture from the construction. However, moisture will only be removed from the construction by ventilating it with dry air, whereas ventilating with humid air...... might add moisture to the construction. Full-size wall elements with wooden cladding placed in a test building were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. Temperature and moisture conditions inside the wall elements and climate parameters were monitored....... Test parameters included cavity/unventilated cavity/no cavity, cavity size, vent geometry, type of cladding and type of wind barrier. The potential durability of the wooden façade claddings was evaluated by coupling the measured time series of moisture content, temperature and time by means of a model...

  8. New Manufacturers of Wooden Pallets Utilizing Mechanical Nailers MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    UTILIZING MECHANICAL NAILERS MIL- STD -1660 TESTS Prepared for: Distribution Unlimited U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center ATTN...SUBTITLE New Manufacturers of Wooden Pallets Utilizing Mechanical Nailers MIL- STD - 1660 Tests Unclassified 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT...to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, on 42- by 53-inch pallets using commercially available nails installed with

  9. [The application of two occupation health risk assessment models in a wooden furniture manufacturing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A H; Leng, P B; Bian, G L; Li, X H; Mao, G C; Zhang, M B

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To explore the applicability of 2 different models of occupational health risk assessment in wooden furniture manufacturing industry. Methods: American EPA inhalation risk model and ICMM model of occupational health risk assessment were conducted to assess occupational health risk in a small wooden furniture enterprises, respectively. Results: There was poor protective measure and equipment of occupational disease in the plant. The concentration of wood dust in the air of two workshops was over occupational exposure limit (OEL) , and the CTWA was 8.9 mg/m(3) and 3.6 mg/m(3), respectively. According to EPA model, the workers who exposed to benzene in this plant had high risk (9.7×10(-6) ~34.3×10(-6)) of leukemia, and who exposed to formaldehyde had high risk (11.4 × 10(-6)) of squamous cell carcinoma. There were inconsistent evaluation results using the ICMM tools of standard-based matrix and calculated risk rating. There were very high risks to be attacked by rhinocarcinoma of the workers who exposed to wood dust for the tool of calculated risk rating, while high risk for the tool of standard-based matrix. For the workers who exposed to noise, risk of noise-induced deafness was unacceptable and medium risk using two tools, respectively. Conclusion: Both EPA model and ICMM model can appropriately predict and assessthe occupational health risk in wooden furniture manufactory, ICMM due to the relatively simple operation, easy evaluation parameters, assessment of occupational- disease-inductive factors comprehensively, and more suitable for wooden furniture production enterprise.

  10. Wooden Houses in Irkutsk Downtown: a Burden or Unused Touristic Resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Chertilov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article tells about the poor condition of valuable old wooden housing in the central part of the historical settlement, the city of Irkutsk. The major part of this historical and cultural genetic pool has been ruthlessly demolished for reasons of predatory construction business in the last 25 years, being already in the list of cultural heritage. Various solutions of the problem are considered in the article.

  11. PROCEDURES FOR SEISMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TRADITIONAL AND MODERN WOODEN BUILDING TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ario Ceccotti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes different wooden buildings types used in past and nowadays to realized low-rise and mid-rise timber structures from the seismic point of view. A preliminary overview about the procedures prescribed by codes for the seismic characterization of the timber building systems is given. Then the definition of the behaviour q-factor in the literature and its relevance in design of structures in seismic areas is treated. Available research methods for estimating the q-factor based on the verification of the nonlinear seismic response of entire buildings by means of experimental tests and numerical simulations are presented and analyzed. The relevance of a proper definition of the yielding limit and of failure condition in the seismic characterization of wooden building systems is treated. Moreover, a comparison between the q-factor estimations obtained using different calculation methods is presented. Lastly, the appropriate q-factor values are given for a reliable and safe seismic design of buildings realized using the examined wooden constructive systems.

  12. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow's milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm(2) for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm(2) for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement.

  13. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Galinari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow's milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm² for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm² for coliforms in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement.

  14. Science Applied for the Investigation of Imperial Gate from Eighteenth Century Wooden Church of Nicula Monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bratu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Part of an indestructible component of any orthodox church, the Imperial Gates represent an important symbol in our cultural heritage. But in many cases the Imperial Gates from the wooden churches were damaged. In order to preserve and restore them, the scientific investigations of the Imperial Gate belonging to Nicula Monastery wooden church were performed by employing nondestructive and destructive methods. The wood essence was established, with its “health” status being investigated by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry thermal analysis. The painting materials employed by popular artists were determined by FTIR and XRF (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy as gypsum, calcite (rear background, lead white (Archangel Clothes, lead-minium (Archangel Clothes, leaf, iron oxide (Imperial Gate frame, malachite (green, Prussian blue (blue, orpiment (yellow, aliphatic, ester, and protein (probably egg yolk degradation products. Using similar colors as in the original artwork (resulting from the scientific investigation of the pigments a 3D reconstruction has been performed. The restored Imperial Gates are placed in the old Nicula wooden church, being included into a tourist and religious circuit.

  15. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow’s milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm2 for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm2 for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement. PMID:25242963

  16. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Sound Absorption Properties of Finely Perforated Wooden Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boqi Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Perforated wooden panels are typically utilized as a resonant sound absorbing material in indoor noise control. In this paper, the absorption properties of wooden panels perforated with tiny holes of 1–3 mm diameter were studied both experimentally and theoretically. The Maa-MPP (micro perforated panels model and the Maa-Flex model were applied to predict the absorption regularities of finely perforated wooden panels. A relative impedance comparison and full-factorial experiments were carried out to verify the feasibility of the theoretical models. The results showed that the Maa-Flex model obtained good agreement with measured results. Control experiments and measurements of dynamic mechanical properties were carried out to investigate the influence of the wood characteristics. In this study, absorption properties were enhanced by sound-induced vibration. The relationship between the dynamic mechanical properties and the panel mass-spring vibration absorption was revealed. While the absorption effects of wood porous structure were not found, they were demonstrated theoretically by using acoustic wave propagation in a simplified circular pipe with a suddenly changed cross-section model. This work provides experimental and theoretical guidance for perforation parameter design.

  17. Application of Carbon Fiber Paper in Integrated Wooden Electric Heating Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanping Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To endow wooden material with an electric heating function, carbon fiber paper, as an electric heating membrane, was laminated with wood veneer to prepare wooden electric heating composites. The electric heating performance of the membrane under different power densities and resistance stabilities, as well as the influencing mechanism of the process on both the resistance and bonding performance of the composite, were studied. The surface temperature of the membrane and composite increased by more than 20 °C in 30 s and 10 min, respectively, after electricity was applied. Furthermore, the samples had a surface temperature unevenness of 4 and 2 °C, respectively. Many potential contact points between carbon fibers fulfilled their connections, reducing the drop rate of resistance (DRR after hot-pressing to the range of 30% to 43%. The hot-press pressure and glue spread had a high degree of relevancy (coefficient of determination R2=0.960 and R2=0.997 with the DRR of the composite, respectively. The composite exhibited a negative temperature coefficient effect (NTC, and the DRR after heating for 15 h was 4.4%, but tended to ultimately stabilize. The composite, which exhibited good time-temperature effects and had a linear relationship with a high value of the coefficient of determination (R2=0.983 between power density and equilibrium temperature, displays solid potential for use in preparing integrated wooden electric heating products.

  18. 中国木门加工设备发展概况%Development Situation of China’s Wooden Door Processing Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐英杰; 王爽; 杨印桐

    2013-01-01

    The developing course of Chinese wooden door is introduced, the wooden door manufacturing equipment is stated, and the insufficiencies existing in the standardization and inspection work of the wooden door industry are pointed out.%介绍了中国木门的发展历程及木门加工设备的概况,指出了木门行业标准化及检测工作存在的不足。

  19. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; P<0.001). Wooden breast, either alone or in combination with white striping, was associated with a significant (P<0.001) increase of fillet thickness in the caudal area and raw meat hardness compared with both normal and the white striping abnormality, for which there was no difference. Overall, the occurrence of the individual and combined white striping and wooden breast abnormalities resulted in substantial reduction in the quality of breast meat, although these abnormalities are associated with distinct characteristics. Wooden breast fillets showed lower marinade uptake and higher cooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities

  20. Renovation and Strengthening of Wooden Beams With CFRP Bands Including the Rheological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kula Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a work analysis of wooden beams reinforced with glued composite bands from the top and resin inclusions, taking into account the rheology of materials. The paper presents numerical model of the multimaterial beam work including rheological phenomena described by linear equations of viscoelasticity. For the construction of this model one used MES SIMULIA ABAQUS environment in which were prepared its own procedures containing rheological models. The calculation results were compared with the literature data. One has done an analysis of the advisability of the use of CFRP reinforcements bands in terms of rheological phenomena.

  1. Microbial Activation of Wooden Vats Used for Traditional Cheese Production and Evolution of Neoformed Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Cruciata, Margherita; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Cardamone, Cinzia; Mancuso, Isabella; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Portolano, Baldassare; Settanni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Three Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains were used to develop ad hoc biofilms on the surfaces of virgin wooden vats used for cheese production. Two vats (TZ) were tested under controlled conditions (pilot plant), and two vats (TA) were tested under uncontrolled conditions (industrial plant). In each plant, one vat (TA1 and TZ1) was used for the control, traditional production of PDO Vastedda della Valle del Belìce (Vastedda) cheese, and one (TA2 and TZ2) was used for experimental prod...

  2. Cage-enrichment: rabbit does prefer straw or a compressed wooden block

    OpenAIRE

    Rommers, Jorine M.; Bracke, Marc B.M.; Berry Reuvekamp; Henk Gunnink; Ingrid C. de Jong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different food related materials on the behaviour of commercial meat rabbit does was investigated to provide them enrichment. Five different treatments were tested. Control (pens without additional enrichment, C) was compared with pens containing a pinewood stick (Pine), straw in a plastic bin (Straw), a compressed wooden block (Ply) or a combination of straw and a pinewood stick (Straw+Pine). The experiment was conducted on a commercial rabbit farm using 80 cages with multiparo...

  3. Removal of alum from Iron-Age wooden objects by an applied electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper removal of potassium, sulfate and aluminum ions from waterlogged alum treated wood with the use of an applied electric field is described. An electric DC field was applied across the wood for 4-20 days. At the end of the experiments sulfate had moved as expected towards the anode...... was not obtained in the experiments reported here, but the high conductivity and the transport of the measured ions due to the electric field indicates that an applied electric field as a method for removal of alum and other unwanted ions from treated wooden objects warrants further investigation....

  4. Intraorbital wooden foreign body detected by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gaeta, Alfredo; Giurazza, Francesco; Capobianco, Eugenio; Diano, Alvaro; Muto, Mario

    2017-02-01

    To identify and localize an intraorbital wooden foreign body is often a challenging radiological issue; delayed diagnosis can lead to serious adverse complications. Preliminary radiographic interpretations are often integrated with computed tomography and magnetic resonance, which play a crucial role in reaching the correct definitive diagnosis. We report on a 40 years old male complaining of pain in the right orbit referred to our hospital for evaluation of eyeball pain and double vision with an unclear clinical history. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance scans supposed the presence of an abscess caused by a foreign intraorbital body, confirmed by surgical findings.

  5. Renovation and Strengthening of Wooden Beams With CFRP Bands Including the Rheological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Krzysztof; Socha, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a work analysis of wooden beams reinforced with glued composite bands from the top and resin inclusions, taking into account the rheology of materials. The paper presents numerical model of the multimaterial beam work including rheological phenomena described by linear equations of viscoelasticity. For the construction of this model one used MES SIMULIA ABAQUS environment in which were prepared its own procedures containing rheological models. The calculation results were compared with the literature data. One has done an analysis of the advisability of the use of CFRP reinforcements bands in terms of rheological phenomena.

  6. Wooden windows and doors. Vol. 2. Construction, connections, surfaces, energy conservation; Holzfenster und -tueren. Bd. 2. Konstruktion, Anschluesse, Oberflaechen, Energieeinsparung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Ulrich; Huckfeldt, Tobias; Wenk, Hans-Joachim (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Vol. II supplements and complements Vol. I with much additional information. While Vol. I focused exclusively on wooden windows, Vol. II goes into wooden doors, frames, connections, armature technology, folding and rolling shutters, skylights, wooden replacement parts, replacement parts made of other materials, and energy conservation. Other subjects like armatures, glazing, damage, repair, restoration, maintenance and regulations are presented in more detail. [German] Als Band II ergaenzt und komplettiert das Buch den ersten Band ''Holzfenster'' mit zahlreichen flankierenden Themenbereichen. Waehrend sich Band I ausschliesslich auf Holzfenster konzentriert, erschliesst Band II neue Bereiche, wie Holztueren, Rahmenkonstruktionen, Anschluesse, Beschlagtechnik, Fenster- und Rolllaeden, Dachflaechenfenster, Vollholzergaenzungen, Holzersatzmaterialien oder Energieeinsparung. Weitere Themen, wie Beschlaege, Verglasungen, Schaeden, Sanierung, Restaurierung, Wartung und Regelwerke, werden vertieft und ergaenzt.

  7. How can a life cycle inventory parametric model streamline life cycle assessment in the wooden pallet sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Di Felice, Francesco; Ren, Jingzheng

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the use of parameterization within the life cycle inventory (LCI) in the wooden pallet sector, in order to test the effectiveness of LCI parametric models to calculate the environmental impacts of similar products. Starting from a single case study, the objectives of this paper......-linear regression allowed to define a correlation between the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) category indicators considered and the most influencing parameters.The definition of LCI parametric model in the wooden pallet sector can effectively be used for calculating the environmental impacts of products......; these correlations can be used to improve the design of new wooden pallets.The conceptual scheme for defining the model is based on ISO14040-44 standards. First of all, the product system was defined identifying the life cycle of a generic wood pallet, as well as its life cycle stages. A list of independent...

  8. How can a life cycle inventory parametric model streamline life cycle assessment in the wooden pallet sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Felice, Francesco, Di; Ren, Jingzheng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study discusses the use of parameterization within the life cycle inventory (LCI) in the wooden pallet sector, in order to test the effectiveness of LCI parametric models to calculate the environmental impacts of similar products. Starting from a single case study, the objectives......-based regression and one multiple non-linear regression allowed to define a correlation between the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) category indicators considered and the most influencing parameters. Conclusions The definition of LCI parametric model in the wooden pallet sector can effectively be used......; these correlations can be used to improve the design of new wooden pallets. Methods The conceptual scheme for defining the model is based on ISO14040-44 standards. First of all, the product system was defined identifying the life cycle of a generic wood pallet, as well as its life cycle stages. A list of independent...

  9. [Textual research on "Chigu Decoction" in Wooden Slips from the Site of the Ancient People's Dike in Zhangjiajie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan; Zhang, Ru-Qing

    2011-07-01

    In 1987, wooden slips named Zhi Chigu Fang (Chigu Decoction) were discovered on the site of the Ancient People's Dike in Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province. 15 drugs with dosage were listed on the front of the wooden slip and processing on the reverse side. Though there are two academic opinions about Chigu Decoction neither of them is convincing. Zhi means treatment and Chigu is the name of an ancient exogenous febrile disease with the symptoms of aversion to cold, fever, headache and neck pain, ankylosis, cough and asthma or cold pain in the gastric area and diarrhea. Chi is a descriptive word describing the appearance of exogenous febrile fever.

  10. Improvement of thermal performance of envelopes for traditional wooden vernacular dwellings of Tujia Minority in Western Hunan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 石磊; 余志武

    2016-01-01

    Thermal performance of envelopes and indoor thermal environment were technologically improved for traditional wooden vernacular dwellings of Tujia Minority in Western Hunan, China, on the premise of protecting their conventional styles. Thermal insulation boards and wooden boards were added to the interior side of external walls of vernacular dwellings to form two layers of air cavities, so as to gain excellent thermal performance. The indoor temperature of such dwellings after reconstruction was apparently improved compared with the data before reconstruction both in winter and summer, which verified the feasibility and the effectiveness of the reconstruction technologies proposed.

  11. Internal insulation applied in heritage multi-storey buildings with wooden beams embedded in solid masonry brick facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    The use of internal insulation is investigated in a heritage building block with wooden beam construction and masonry brick walls as part of an energy renovation. Measurements were carried out and compared to results from a hygrothermal simulation model. The risk of mould growth in the wooden beams...... and in the interface between the insulation and the brick wall was evaluated. Three different insulation strategies for applying internal insulation were investigated: 1) insulation applied on the entire interior facade; 2) 200 mm gap in the insulation above the floor; and 3) 200 mm gap in the insulation both above...

  12. Photo-Fenton and Fenton Oxidation of Recalcitrant Wastewater from the Wooden Floor Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Henrik; Kaczala, Fabio; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2015-06-01

    There is a need for development of on-site wastewater treatment technologies suitable to "dry-process" industries, such as the wooden floor sector. Due to the nature of their activities, these industries generate low volumes of highly polluted and recalcitrant wastewaters due to washing and cleaning surfaces and machinery. Advanced oxidation processes such as Fenton and photo-Fenton are potentially feasible options for the treatment of wastewaters with not easily biodegradable pollutants. The wastewater from a wooden floor industry with initial COD value of 4956 mg/L and TOC value of 2730 mg/L was treated with Fenton (Fe/H2O2) and photo-Fenton (Fe/H2O2/UV) applying a 2-level full-factorial experimental design. The highest removals of COD and TOC (79% and 62% respectively) were achieved when photo-Fenton was applied. In conclusion, Fenton and photo-Fenton are promising treatment options for these highly recalcitrant wastewaters, photo-Fenton being a more promising option according to the results.

  13. Microbial Activation of Wooden Vats Used for Traditional Cheese Production and Evolution of Neoformed Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Cruciata, Margherita; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Cardamone, Cinzia; Mancuso, Isabella; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Portolano, Baldassare; Settanni, Luca

    2015-11-06

    Three Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains were used to develop ad hoc biofilms on the surfaces of virgin wooden vats used for cheese production. Two vats (TZ) were tested under controlled conditions (pilot plant), and two vats (TA) were tested under uncontrolled conditions (industrial plant). In each plant, one vat (TA1 and TZ1) was used for the control, traditional production of PDO Vastedda della Valle del Belìce (Vastedda) cheese, and one (TA2 and TZ2) was used for experimental production performed after lactococcal biofilm activation and the daily addition of a natural whey starter culture (NWSC). Microbiological and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed differences in terms of microbial levels and composition of the neoformed biofilms. The levels of the microbial groups investigated during cheese production showed significant differences between the control trials and between the control and experimental trials, but the differences were not particularly marked between the TA2 and TZ2 productions, which showed the largest numbers of mesophilic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) cocci. LAB populations were characterized phenotypically and genotypically, and 44 dominant strains belonging to 10 species were identified. Direct comparison of the polymorphic profiles of the LAB collected during cheese making showed that the addition of the NWSC reduced their biodiversity. Sensory evaluation showed that the microbial activation of the wooden vats with the multistrain Lactococcus culture generated cheeses with sensory attributes comparable to those of commercial cheese. Thus, neoformed biofilms enable a reduction of microbial variability and stabilize the sensorial attributes of Vastedda cheese.

  14. Quality classification of wooden surfaces using Gabor filters and genetic feature optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelzleitner, Wolfgang; Schwingskakl, Gert

    1999-08-01

    We apply a model of texture segmentation using multiple spatially and spectrally localized filters, known as Gabor filters, to the analysis of texture and effect regions found on wooden boards. Specifically we present a method to find an optimal set of parameters for a given 2D object detection method. The method uses banks of Gabor filters to limit the rang of spatial frequencies, where mutually distinct textures differ significantly in their dominant characterizing frequencies. By encoding images into multiple narrow spatial frequency and orientation channels a local classification of texture regions can be achieved. Unlike other methods applying Gabor filters, we do not use a full Gabor transform, but use feature selection techniques to maximize discrimination. The selection method uses a genetic algorithm to optimize various parameters of the system including Gabor weights, and the parameters of morphological pre-processing. We demonstrate the applicability of the method to the task of classifying wooden textures, and report experimental results using the proposed method.

  15. Active and Passive 3d Imaging Technologies Applied to Waterlogged Wooden Artifacts from Shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, A.; Alfonso, C.; Auriemma, R.

    2015-04-01

    The fragility of organic artefacts in presence of water and their volumetric variation caused by the marine life on or surrounding them dictate that their physical dimensions be measured soon after their extraction from the seabed. In an ideal context, it would be appropriate to preserve and restore all the archaeological elements, rapidly and with the latest methods. Unfortunately however, the large number of artefacts makes the cost of such an operation prohibitive for a public institution. For this reason, digital technologies for documentation, restoration, display and conservation are being considered by many institutions working with limited budgets. In this paper, we illustrate the experience of the University of Salento in 3D imaging technology for waterlogged wooden artefacts from shipwrecks. The interest originates from the need to develop a protocol for documentation and digital restoration of archaeological finds discovered along the coast of Torre S. Sabina (BR) Italy. This work has allowed us to explore recent technologies for 3D acquisitions, both underwater and in the laboratory, as well as methods for data processing. These technologies have permitted us to start defining a protocol to follow for all waterlogged wooden artefacts requiring documentation and restoration.

  16. Wooden hutch space allowance influences male Holstein calf health, performance, daily lying time, and respiratory immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Fowler, A L; Louie, A; Gershwin, L J; Pinkerton, K E; Ballou, M A; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy calves in the western United States are commonly raised individually in wooden hutches with a space allowance of 1.23m(2)/calf. Recent legislative initiatives in California and across the United States were passed regarding concern over space allowance for farm animals. The objective of this study was to determine if rearing male Holstein calves in wooden hutches modified to increase space allowance would influence measures of performance, lying time per day, health, and respiratory immunocompetence. At 4d of age, 60 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3housing treatments: (1) conventional housing (CONV; 1.23m(2)/calf), (2) 1.5 × CONV (MOD; 1.85m(2)/calf), or (3) 3 × CONV (MAX; 3.71m(2)/calf). Intakes of milk and solid feed were recorded daily and body weight was measured at 0, 3, 6, 10, and 12 wk of age. For the first 3 wk of the trial, calves were scored daily for fecal consistency, hydration, and hide cleanliness. In addition, calves were scored for respiratory health (i.e., nasal and eye discharge, ear position) until 7 wk of age. The total lying duration per day was recorded using data loggers at 3, 6, and 10 wk of age. Eight clinically healthy calves from each treatment were sensitized with subcutaneous ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosolized OVA to assess calf respiratory immunity at 11 wk of age. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 4d after the OVA challenge and analyzed for leukocyte differentials and OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgA, and IgE. Calf average daily gain and body weight were positively associated with space allowance at approximately 3 wk before weaning and throughout postweaning, respectively. A greater space allowance decreased lying time after 46d. Space allowance did not influence fecal consistency, but there was a tendency for MAX calves to take 1d longer to recover from loose feces than MOD calves. The MAX calves had the fewest (%) observations with feces on their body compared with CONV or MOD. At 3 wk of

  17. Reinforcing Wooden Composite with Glass Fiber Fabric - Manufacturing Technology as a Factor Limiting Mechanical Properties and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deskiewicz Adam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the strength and reliability of the wooden composites reinforced with glass fiber for the skateboard application. Three different methods of glass-fiber reinforcement have been used to prepare totally 94 samples, including control trial. Two lamination methods have been utilized: vacuum and HPL (High Pressure Lamination. Conducted analysis allowed to determine preferred production technique.

  18. McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (MCAAP) 40- by 44-Inch Wooden Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on a 40- by 44-inch wooden pallet (oak) manufactured by MCAAP. This report contains test...results with the pallets provided meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  19. Persistence of wild Streptococcus thermophilus strains on wooden vat and during the manufacture of a traditional Caciocavallo type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, L; Di Grigoli, A; Tornambé, G; Bellina, V; Francesca, N; Moschetti, G; Bonanno, A

    2012-04-01

    The present work was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the wooden dairy plant equipment on the microbiological characteristics of curd to be transformed into Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese. Traditional raw milk productions were performed concomitantly with standard cheese making trials carried out in stainless steel vat inoculated with a commercial starter. Milk from two different farms (A and B) was separately processed. The wooden vat was found to be a reservoir of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while unwanted (spoilage and/or pathogenic) microorganisms were not hosted or were present at very low levels. All microbial groups were numerically different in bulk milks, showing higher levels for the farm B. LAB, especially thermophilic cocci, dominated the whole cheese making process of all productions. Undesired microorganisms decreased in number or disappeared during transformation, particularly after curd stretching. LAB were isolated from the wooden vat surface and from all dairy samples, subjected to phenotypic and genetic characterization and identification. Streptococcus thermophilus was the species found at the highest concentration in all samples analyzed and it also dominated the microbial community of the wooden vat. Fourteen other LAB species belonging to six genera (Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Weissella) were also detected. All S. thermophilus isolates were genetically differentiated and a consortium of four strains persisted during the whole traditional production process. As confirmed by pH and the total acidity after the acidification step, indigenous S. thermophilus strains acted as a mixed starter culture.

  20. APPLICATION OF THE GENERALISED OBJECT MODEL FOR THE TECHNICAL CREATION RELATED TO THE PRODUCTION OF WOODEN BRIQUETTES AND PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai OLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the usage of the generalised object model for the analysis of the production processes of biofuels from wooden biomass. The “imposed decision” technique is employed to analyse several alternative solutions in order to find out the optimum one, to be further developed and put into practice.

  1. Chemical and thermal analysis of biomass ash from wooden chips and wheat straw combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Sedmidubský, David; Luxa, Jan; Bartůněk, Vilém; Záleská, Martina; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we would like to demonstrate that biomass ash with appropriate composition can be used for the fabrication of high performance composites. Biomass ash from wooden chips and packed wheat straw was characterized using XRF and XRD. While the biomass ash contained high amount of carbon, it was thermally treated in order to reduce carbon content. The chemical and phase composition of treated biomass ash was again analyzed in detail by XRF and XRD. Moreover, the thermal treatment process was analyzed using STA. In the next step, the pozzolanic activity was analyzed using Frattini test. Potentiometric method was used for pH measurement. Since the both biomass ashes were pozzolana active, they are potentially suitable as a pozzolana active admixture in the cement, lime and alkali activated aluminosilicate composites.

  2. Long-Span Wooden Structural Floors with Self-Tensioning System: Performance under Asymmetrical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Estévez-Cimadevila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the performance of wooden structural floors equipped with the self-tensioning system patented by the authors, consisting of a force multiplying mechanism connected to a self-tensioning tendon, which is activated automatically when the load is applied to the structural element. The paper describes the system’s difficulties when the structural floor is subjected to asymmetrical loads. The proposed solution consists of anchoring the tendon by an adhesive connection in the central part of the piece yielding a favorable redistribution of the bending moments and an effective performance in terms of deformations. The comparative study focuses on π-shape cross section pieces with spans of 12 m and 15 m, using sections without prestressing and with initial prestressing and self-tensioning system.

  3. Internal Insulation of Masonry Walls with Wooden Floor Beams in Northern Humid Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    2010-01-01

    Multi-story buildings in Denmark from 1850–1950 are built with masonry walls and wooden floor beams. Large energy savings can be achieved by insulating the facades. Often interior insulation is the only possibility in order to keep the appearance of the external facade. The internal insulation...... reduces the drying potential of the wall, which might lead to moisture problems in the beam ends embedded in the masonry due to absorption of driving rain. This paper describes a solution to avoid the moisture problems and still achieve large energy savings. The thermal analyses are made in thermal...... simulation programs for two dimensions and three dimensions. The moisture analyses are made by a twodimensional simulation of the coupled heat, air, and moisture transport. The results show that leaving an uninsulated part of the wall above and below the floor division could solve the moisture problem...

  4. Cage-enrichment: rabbit does prefer straw or a compressed wooden block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorine M. Rommers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different food related materials on the behaviour of commercial meat rabbit does was investigated to provide them enrichment. Five different treatments were tested. Control (pens without additional enrichment, C was compared with pens containing a pinewood stick (Pine, straw in a plastic bin (Straw, a compressed wooden block (Ply or a combination of straw and a pinewood stick (Straw+Pine. The experiment was conducted on a commercial rabbit farm using 80 cages with multiparous lactating hybrid (Hycole rabbit does. Behavioural observations were conducted in the first 4 wk of 2 successive lactations of 6 wk each, twice a week from 15:00 to 18:30 h. Once every week the consumption of gnawing materials and soiling of the cages was scored. More does were significantly occupied with Straw and Ply than with Pine (24±20, 11±9 and 4±3% of does, respectively for a longer duration (4±4, 2±2, 0.1±0.2% of observed time, respectively. In does of Straw+Pine group, the pinewood was barely touched and straw was preferred. It can be concluded that straw (loose material and wooden block are used by the animals as enrichment material to gnaw or chew on. The materials remain attractive for the 2 lactations which were measured. The pinewood stick as provided in this study was rarely used and it may be questioned whether it is sufficient as enrichment material or if it should be provided in another way than hanging on the roof of the cage. This study provides a first step towards a positive list of enrichment materials that can be used in commercial rabbit farming in The Netherlands.

  5. Assessing the global warming potential of wooden products from the furniture sector to improve their ecodesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Gasol, Carles M; Lozano, Raúl García; Moreira, María Teresa; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the global warming potential of several wood products as an environmental criterion for their ecodesign. Two methodologies were combined: the quantification of greenhouse gas emissions (equivalent CO(2)) of several representative wood based products from the furniture sector and the integration of environmental aspects into product design. The products under assessment were classified in two groups: indoor products and outdoor products, depending on their location. "Indoor products" included a convertible cot/bed, a kitchen cabinet, an office table, a living room furniture, a headboard, youth room accessories and a wine crate, while the "Outdoor products" analysed were a ventilated wooden wall and a wooden playground. Spanish wood processing companies located in Galicia (NW Spain) and Catalonia (NE Spain) were analysed in detail. The life cycle of each product was carried out from a cradle-to-gate perspective according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, using global warming potential as the selected impact category. According to the results, metals, boards and energy use appeared to be the most contributing elements to the environmental impact of the different products under assessment, with total contributions ranging from 40% to 90%. Furthermore, eco-design strategies were proposed by means of the methodology known as Design for the Environment (DfE). Improvement strategies viable for implementation in the short term were considered and analysed in detail, accounting for remarkable reductions in the equivalent CO(2) emissions (up to 60%). These strategies would be focused on the use of renewable energies such as photovoltaic cells, the promotion of national fibres or changes in the materials used. Other alternatives to be implemented in the long term can be of potential interest for future developments.

  6. Surveying and Comparing the Arco Dei Gavi and its Historical Wooden Maquette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Guerra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Actually geometrics’ science offers new opportunities and interesting applications in the field of Cultural Heritage. These applications are strictly related to preservation, restoration but even to cataloging and reproducing a monument that no longer has its original integrity.  The possibility of obtaining 3D data, of such a model close to reality, enables us to realize studies that sometimes are too complex or impossible. The paper will describe the study of a monumental arch, the Arco dei Gavi, built in Verona during the I sec. A.C., that was destroyed in 1805 by the Napoleonic army, and its wooden model that was realized in 1813 and it has a very important role concerning the monument’s reconstruction. The purpose is to realize two threedimensional models which can be comparable to each other, two models with recognizable differences, similarities and discontinuities about shapes and single elements that compose the monument. It should also be noted that some original parts of the monument have not been relocated but are badly preserved in a museum: the 3D digital model helps to identify these parts in their original location. The main steps of the work can be summarized in: collecting the historical documentation of Arco dei Gavi and its representations; identifying proper instruments (laser scanning and photogrammetric hardware and software; surveying the Arch and its wooden model; identifying a unique and shared reference system; comparing both digital models related to the same scale; choosing a three-dimensional representation to emphasize the results; reallocation of outstanding pieces (virtual anastylosis.

  7. Assessing the global warming potential of wooden products from the furniture sector to improve their ecodesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara, E-mail: sara.gonzalez@usc.es [Division of Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College of London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782- Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gasol, Carles M.; Lozano, Raul Garcia [Inedit Innovacio, Carretera de Cabrils, km 2 -IRTA-, 08348 Cabrils, Barcelona (Spain); SosteniPrA - UAB-IRTA, Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Moreira, Ma Teresa [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782- Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782- Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the global warming potential of several wood products as an environmental criterion for their ecodesign. Two methodologies were combined: the quantification of greenhouse gas emissions (equivalent CO{sub 2}) of several representative wood based products from the furniture sector and the integration of environmental aspects into product design. The products under assessment were classified in two groups: indoor products and outdoor products, depending on their location. 'Indoor products' included a convertible cot/bed, a kitchen cabinet, an office table, a living room furniture, a headboard, youth room accessories and a wine crate, while the 'Outdoor products' analysed were a ventilated wooden wall and a wooden playground. Spanish wood processing companies located in Galicia (NW Spain) and Catalonia (NE Spain) were analysed in detail. The life cycle of each product was carried out from a cradle-to-gate perspective according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, using global warming potential as the selected impact category. According to the results, metals, boards and energy use appeared to be the most contributing elements to the environmental impact of the different products under assessment, with total contributions ranging from 40% to 90%. Furthermore, eco-design strategies were proposed by means of the methodology known as Design for the Environment (DfE). Improvement strategies viable for implementation in the short term were considered and analysed in detail, accounting for remarkable reductions in the equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions (up to 60%). These strategies would be focused on the use of renewable energies such as photovoltaic cells, the promotion of national fibres or changes in the materials used. Other alternatives to be implemented in the long term can be of potential interest for future developments.

  8. [Television in a child's bedroom--a possible risk factor for expressive language impairment in 5- and 6-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kries, R; von Suchodoletz, W; Stränger, J; Toschke, A M

    2006-10-01

    There are a number of established risk factors for expressive language-impairment. Does reading aloud with children reduce the risk? Are extensive TV viewing and a TV set in the child's bedroom associated with an increased risk in preschool kids? Testing for expressive language impairment was carried out as part of the school entrance health examinations in four Bavarian districts. Testing included: correct use of the plural, comparative/superlative forms, syntax, verb flexion and use of articles (a maximum of 5 mistakes could be made). Parents were asked to answer a questionnaire on a number of biographic, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors potentially related to expressive language impairment. The participation rate in the 4 districts was 88.3 % on average. Complete data were acquired for 3234 children. The prevalence for expressive language impairment (more than one mistake) was 12.2 (95 % CI: 11.3-13.2 %). Children who did not speak German predominantly at home were more often affected than children of German nationality: 44.4 % (95 % CI: 32.3-54.6 %) versus 9.9 % (95 % CI: 8.9 %-10.8 %). Logistic regression analyses identified only a TV set in the child's bedroom as an independent risk factor for expressive language impairment: OR 1.82 (95 % CI: 1.15-2.88). Possession of an own TV in a child's bedroom appears to be an important, independent risk factor for expressive language impairment in preschool children.

  9. Polux and K-store - Trendsetting technologies for wooden poles; Polux und K-Store - Zukunftstraechtige Technologien fuer Holzmasten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoz, J.L.; Kratzeisen, S. [ETH Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1999-04-06

    The use of electric lines on wooden poles poses two problems for companies: To guarantly the utmost safty of their employees, and to minimise the maintenance costs. New devices developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne respond to these problems in a reliable way. Polux is a portable device, which specifies the security diagnosis and the probable longevity of wooden poles by a diode. The K-store software analyses the data and optimises the maintenance costs. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Nutzung elektrischer Leitungen auf Holzmasten stellt sich Unternehmern ein doppeltes Problem: Ihrem Personal groesstmoegliche Sicherheit zu garantieren und die Unterhaltskosten niedrig zu halten. An der Eidgenoessischen Technischen Hochschule in Lausanne entwickelte Technologien fuer Holzmasten begegnen diesen Risikofaktoren auf zuverlaessige Weise. Polux ist ein tragbares Geraet, das die Sicherheitsdiagnose sowie die voraussichtliche Lebensdauer per Lichtanzeige angibt. K-Store ist ein Computerprogramm, das die Daten ausarbeitet und damit die Optimierung der Unterhaltskosten ermoeglicht. (orig.)

  10. 木器涂料改性的新进展%New Progress of Wooden Ware Coatings Modified

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国杰

    2012-01-01

    主要阐述了新材料和纳米技术对重要木器涂料改性研究的一些新进展,重点介绍纳米技术对水性和UV固化木器涂料的复合改性,以及溶胶-凝胶技术制备无机-有机纳米复合涂膜提高木材抗性的研究。%This paper mainly narrates some new progresses of the modification search of key wooden ware coatings by new materials and through nano technology, focusing on the complex modification of water-borne and UV curable wooden ware coatings through nano technology and the preparation research of inorganic organic nanocomposite coatings to improve the resistance of wood materials through sol-gel technology.

  11. Estimating how and why Dr Okuda made a complete wooden human skeleton in the Edo era, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hisao

    2007-03-01

    Probably in 1820 (late Edo era), a human skeleton for medical education was precisely carved from cypress wood, based on a criminal's skeleton, by a craftsman under the supervision of the medical doctor Banri Okuda in Osaka City. By and large, the wooden skeleton shows morphological characteristics usually seen in early middle-aged females of the Edo era. However, the claviculae, distal ends of the femora and the patellae are exceptionally larger than those of a female, implying that the bones of the original model skeleton had already been lost or were deformed before the wooden skeleton was made. Furthermore, the skeleton may not have been used for medical education, but rather for the promotion of European medicine, which was gradually developing in the Edo era.

  12. The benefits of life cycle inventory parametric models in streamlining data collection. A case study in the wooden pallet sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, M.; Di Felice, F.; Ren, Jingzheng

    study of a SME in the wooden pallet sector, investigating to what extent the use of parametric LCI models can be beneficial both in evaluating the environmental impacts of similar products and in providing a preliminary assessment of the potential environmental impacts of new products. We developed...... of elements constituting the wooden pallet, as well as aspects of the manufacturing process, which are information already available to every company. Apart from applicability, the use of an LCI parametric model has also the advantage of flexibility, since the value of the parameters can be easily modified...... in the design process. This modelling approach can be replicated in other manufacturing sectors, provided the products being examined present similar characteristics....

  13. The benefits of life cycle inventory parametric models in streamlining data collection. A case study in the wooden pallet sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Di Felice, F.; Ren, J.

    2014-01-01

    study of a SME in the wooden pallet sector, investigating to what extent the use of parametric LCI models can be beneficial both in evaluating the environmental impacts of similar products and in providing a preliminary assessment of the potential environmental impacts of new products. We developed...... of elements constituting the wooden pallet, as well as aspects of the manufacturing process, which are information already available to every company. Apart from applicability, the use of an LCI parametric model has also the advantage of flexibility, since the value of the parameters can be easily modified...... in the design process. This modelling approach can be replicated in other manufacturing sectors, provided the products being examined present similar characteristics....

  14. Cow hair allergen concentrations in dairy farms with automatic and conventional milking systems: From stable to bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, A; Schierl, R; Heizinger, J; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Zahradnik, E; Bruckmaier, L; Sültz, J; Raulf, M; Nowak, D

    2016-01-01

    Bovine hair and dander are considered to be a notable risk factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms in occupationally exposed cattle farmers due to various IgE binding proteins. Farmers are suspected not only to be exposed during their work inside the stables but also inside their homes as allergens could be transferred via hair and clothes resulting in continued bovine allergen exposure in private areas. In recent years a new sensitive sandwich ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) test has been developed to measure the cow hair allergen (CHA) concentration in dust. The aim of the present study was to determine the CHA concentration in airborne and settled dust samples in stables and private rooms of dairy cattle farms with automatic milking systems (AM) and conventional milking systems (CM), also with respect to questionnaire data on farming characteristics. For this purpose different sampling techniques were applied, and results and practicability of the techniques were compared. Dust sampling was performed in the stable, computer room (only AM), changing room, living room and bedroom (mattress) of 12 dairy farms with automatic milking systems (AM group) and eight dairy farms with conventional milking systems (CM group). Altogether, 90 samples were taken by ALK filter dust collectors from all locations, while 32 samples were collected by an ion charging device (ICD) and 24 samples by an electronic dust fall collector (EDC) in computer rooms (AM) and/or changing and living rooms (not stables). The dust samples were extracted and analyzed for CHA content with a sandwich ELISA. At all investigated locations, CHA concentrations were above the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/ml dust extract. The median CHA concentrations in dust collected by ALK filters ranged from 63 to 7154 μg/g dust in AM farms and from 121 to 5627 μg/g dust in CM farms with a steep concentration gradient from stables to bedrooms. ICD sampling revealed median CHA contents of 112

  15. The potential and need for energy saving in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in arctic Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Vladyková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives an account of the potential and need for energy saving in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in Greenland. It is based on studies of house construction compared with Building Regulation requirements and the spread of buildings over time. In the climatic...... to approximately half of the housing stock without changing the architectural expression or having to relocate the occupants during the renovation....

  16. Analysis of Wooden Toy Manufacturing Costs Through the Application of a Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing System

    OpenAIRE

    PONGWASIT, Ramida; CHOMPU-INWAI, Rungchat

    2016-01-01

    The case study company, which manufactures wooden toys, encounters problems when fixing its product prices, since its experienced owners tend to dictate the prices of all the products, yet do not have available the appropriate product price and cost data. Currently, the company’s product costs are calculated using traditional accounting methods, but these are unable to accurately record the costs associated with the resources used and activities that occur during manufacture. Furthermore, whe...

  17. On Zhuge Liang’s Wooden Ox And Flow Horse%论诸葛亮木牛流马

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李遵刚

    2016-01-01

    《作木牛流马法》提供的信息说明木牛和流马是两种不同的运输工具。复原木牛流马的标准是符合《作木牛流马法》提供的构件尺寸、构件数量和载重数量。木牛流马都是在已有轮车基础上的创新,但也分别存在着一些缺陷,被历史淘汰是必然的。%The information from Wooden Ox And Flow Horse demonstrate that wooden ox and flow horse are two different conveyance. To reconstruct the wood ox and flow horse, the standard must be consistent with unit size, unit number and deadweight in Wooden Ox And Flow Horse. They are innovation on the base of existed wheel-vehicles, but still there are some flaws. Therefore, it is inevitable for them to be eliminated by history.

  18. A feasibility study of using two-component polyurethane adhesive in constructing wooden structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Derikvand; Ghanbar Ebrahimi; Mehdi Tajvidi

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using a two-component polyurethane (PUR) adhesive, with special waterproof properties, in constructing wooden structures. We designed and conducted tests to compare the shear strength and adhesion per-formance of PUR with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) adhesive on block-shear specimens constructed of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.), fir (Abies alba Mill.), poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), sycamore (Platanus orientalis L.) and white walnut (Juglans cinerea L.). The values of the percentage of wood failure were also determined in specimens constructed with each adhesive. The highest shear strength values of both adhesives were obtained in specimens constructed of beech, while the lowest shear strength values were obtained in fir and poplar specimens. Average shear strength of the PUR adhesive was 16.5%higher than that of the PVAc adhesive. Specimens constructed of fir, poplar and sycamore were characterised by the highest percentages of wood failure, whereas the lowest average percentages of wood failure were obtained in beech and oak specimens. With the exception of oak specimens, there was no statistically significant difference between per-centage of wood failure among the PUR and PVAc adhesives. Generally, the PUR adhesive showed an acceptable adhesion performance on wood materials used in our study.

  19. Fine Surveying and 3D Modeling Approach for Wooden Ancient Architecture via Multiple Laser Scanner Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwu Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A multiple terrestrial laser scanner (TLS integration approach is proposed for the fine surveying and 3D modeling of ancient wooden architecture in an ancient building complex of Wudang Mountains, which is located in very steep surroundings making it difficult to access. Three-level TLS with a scalable measurement distance and accuracy is presented for data collection to compensate for data missed because of mutual sheltering and scanning view limitations. A multi-scale data fusion approach is proposed for data registration and filtering of the different scales and separated 3D data. A point projection algorithm together with point cloud slice tools is designed for fine surveying to generate all types of architecture maps, such as plan drawings, facade drawings, section drawings, and doors and windows drawings. The section drawings together with slicing point cloud are presented for the deformation analysis of the building structure. Along with fine drawings and laser scanning data, the 3D models of the ancient architecture components are built for digital management and visualization. Results show that the proposed approach can achieve fine surveying and 3D documentation of the ancient architecture within 3 mm accuracy. In addition, the defects of scanning view and mutual sheltering can overcome to obtain the complete and exact structure in detail.

  20. Wooden architecture of the conservation area of the Lake Baikal Circular Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Chertilov

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The rural and taiga character of the Siberian constructions on the shore of Lake Baikal could not influence on the style and the look of the road under construction, because it had been fully designed by the capital engineers, first in St. Petersburg and Irkutsk, then directly on the site of the road: in the Maritui and Baikal villages, where the first special design bureaus were organized.That is why the Lake Baikal Circular Railway is an example of the European construction culture, with its peculiar departmental style worked out by the Ministry of Communications (the socalled «style of Ministry of Communications». The only thing that was «borrowed» from the Siberian and Russian experience in general is a technology of wooden and at the same time urban house-building.Making walls of round timber, binding corners without remainders, panelling frameworks with planks, strict decorations of fronts - these are the attributes of the architectural constructions of the Lake Baikal circular area and other areas of Transsib.

  1. Application of Structured Light System Technique for Authentication of Wooden Panel Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Buchón-Moragues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new application of photogrammetric techniques for protecting cultural heritage. The accuracy of the method and the fact that it can be used to carry out different tests without contact between the sample and the instruments can make this technique very useful for authenticating and cataloging artworks. The application focuses on the field of pictorial artworks, and wooden panel paintings in particular. In these works, the orography formed by the brushstrokes can be easily digitalized using a photogrammetric technique, called Structured Light System, with submillimeter accuracy. Thus, some of the physical characteristics of the brushstrokes, like minimum and maximum heights or slopes become a fingerprint of the painting. We explain in detail the general principles of the Structured Light System Technique and the specific characteristics of the commercial set-up used in this work. Some experiments are carried out on a sample painted by us to check the accuracy limits of the technique and to propose some tests that can help to stablish a methodology for authentication purposes. Finally, some preliminary results obtained on a real pictorial artwork are presented, providing geometrical information of its metric features as an example of the possibilities of this application.

  2. Toward structural mechanics through wooden bridges in France (1716-1841)

    CERN Document Server

    Tardini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Early applications of Navier’s beam theory to the rational design of structures are documented in the Annales of the French Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées and refer to the design of three wooden bridges built in France in the 1840's. Revisiting these examples, the book provides documentation on the progressive establishment of the new design approach, based on the theory of structural mechanics rather than empirical knowledge. The bridges concerned were built according to the structural scheme patented by Ithiel Town in the USA, witnessing the diffusion in Europe of the American advancements in bridge design, circulated by the travel reports of French engineers from the Ecole. Through the exam of French treatises discussing the progress of theoretical formulations in parallel with experimental findings in the 18th and 19th centuries, the book retraces as well the long path which led to the formulation of Navier’s theory. The relevant scientific debate dealt mainly with the specific case of wood bridges; th...

  3. Phenolic and Aroma Composition of White Wines Produced by Prolonged Maceration and Maturation in Wooden Barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Jedrejčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the phenolic and aroma composition of Malvazija istarska (Vitis vinifera L. white wines produced by an unconventional technology comprising prolonged maceration followed by maturation in wooden barrels, representative samples were subjected to analysis by UV/Vis spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When compared to standard wines, the investigated samples contained higher levels of dry extract, volatile acidity, lactic acid, phenols, colour intensity, antioxidant activity, majority of monoterpenes, C13-norisoprenoids, methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl acetate, branched-chain esters and esters of hydroxy and dicarboxylic acids, ethylphenols, furans, and acetals, as well as lower levels of malic acid, β-damascenone, straight-chain fatty acids, ethyl and acetate esters. It was estimated that maceration had a stronger influence on phenols, and maturation on volatile aromas. Despite different vintages and technological details, the investigated wines showed a relative homogeneity in the composition, representing a clear and distinctive type.

  4. Numerical analysis of heat, air, and moisture transfers in a wooden building material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnasri Faiza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to predict the hygrothermal behavior of massive wood panel considered as bio-based building material. In this context, we developed a macroscopic model coupled no linear heat, air, and moisture transfers that incorporates simultaneously the effect of thermal diffusion and infiltration phenomenon on the building material. The model inputs parameters were evaluated experimentally according to the recognized standards of material’s characterization. Therefore, numerous series of hygrothermal calculation were carried out on the 1-D and 2-D configuration in order to assess the dimensionless effect on such wooden material. Two types of boundary conditions were considered and examined. The first are at the material scale of wood drying process. The second type of conditions is at the wall scale, where the conditions of the building ambiance are considered. Moreover, the model sensitivity to the driving potentials coupling and to the parameters variability was considered and examined. It has been found that the coupling in the model had a remarkable impact on both kinetics of temperature and moisture content.

  5. Real-time color-based texture analysis for sophisticated defect detection on wooden surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzleitner, Wolfgang; Schwingshakl, Gert

    2004-10-01

    We describe a scanning system developed for the classification and grading of surfaces of wooden tiles. The system uses color imaging sensors to analyse the surfaces of either hard- or softwood material in terms of the texture formed by grain lines (orientation, spatial frequency, and color), various types of colorization, and other defects like knots, heart wood, cracks, holes, etc. The analysis requires two major tracks: the assignment of a tile to its texture class (like A, B, C, 1, 2, 3, Waste), and the detection of defects that decrease the commercial value of the tile (heart wood, knots, etc.). The system was initially developed under the international IMS program (Intelligent Manufacturing Systems) by an industry consortium. During the last two years it has been further developed, and several industrial systems have been installed, and are presently used in production of hardwood flooring. The methods implemented reflect some of the latest developments in the field of pattern recognition: genetic feature selection, two-dimensional second order statistics, special color space transforms, and classification by neural networks. In the industrial scenario we describe, many of the features defining a class cannot be described mathematically. Consequently a focus was the design of a learning architecture, where prototype texture samples are presented to the system, which then automatically finds the internal representation necessary for classification. The methods used in this approach have a wide applicability to problems of inspection, sorting, and optimization of high-value material typically used in the furniture, flooring, and related wood manufacturing industries.

  6. Computed Tomography with X-rays and Fast Neutrons for Restoration of Wooden Artwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterloh, Kurt; Bellon, Carsten; Hohendorf, Stefan; Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Wrobel, Norma; Nusser, Amélie; Freitag, Markus; Bücherl, Thomas; Bar, Doron; Mor, Ilan; Tamin, Noam; Weiss-Babai, Ruth; Bromberger, Benjamin; Dangendorf, Volker; Tittelmeier, Kai

    The objects of this investigation were sculptures taken from a ca. three hundred years old baroque epitaph of a church in Tönning, a town in Northern Germany. Around 1900 it was found in a disastrous state heavily damaged by wood-worm. At that time, the whole artwork was treated with the tar extract carbolineum as a remedy. Nowadays, this substance has been identified as carcinogenic, and its presence can be perceived by its stench and visually at certain spots on the surface where it has penetrated the covering paint. A gold-painted sculpture of a massive wooden skull was interrogated with X-rays and fast neutrons to investigate the internal distribution of the carbolineum. The X-ray tomography, with its excellent spatial resolution revealed galleries left over from the worm infestation in the outer areas and cracks in the central region. The golden color coating appeared as a thick and dense layer. In comparison the tomography with fast neutrons, though being of lower resolution and yet unresolved artefacts revealed sections of slightly different densities in the bulk of the wood. These differences we attribute to the differences in the distribution of the impregnant in the wood, visible due to its higher hydrogen content making it less transparent for neutrons.

  7. Application of Structured Light System Technique for Authentication of Wooden Panel Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchón-Moragues, Fernando; Bravo, José María; Ferri, Marcelino; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Pérez, Juan Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new application of photogrammetric techniques for protecting cultural heritage. The accuracy of the method and the fact that it can be used to carry out different tests without contact between the sample and the instruments can make this technique very useful for authenticating and cataloging artworks. The application focuses on the field of pictorial artworks, and wooden panel paintings in particular. In these works, the orography formed by the brushstrokes can be easily digitalized using a photogrammetric technique, called Structured Light System, with submillimeter accuracy. Thus, some of the physical characteristics of the brushstrokes, like minimum and maximum heights or slopes become a fingerprint of the painting. We explain in detail the general principles of the Structured Light System Technique and the specific characteristics of the commercial set-up used in this work. Some experiments are carried out on a sample painted by us to check the accuracy limits of the technique and to propose some tests that can help to stablish a methodology for authentication purposes. Finally, some preliminary results obtained on a real pictorial artwork are presented, providing geometrical information of its metric features as an example of the possibilities of this application. PMID:27314353

  8. Application of Structured Light System Technique for Authentication of Wooden Panel Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchón-Moragues, Fernando; Bravo, José María; Ferri, Marcelino; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Pérez, Juan Vicente

    2016-06-14

    This paper presents a new application of photogrammetric techniques for protecting cultural heritage. The accuracy of the method and the fact that it can be used to carry out different tests without contact between the sample and the instruments can make this technique very useful for authenticating and cataloging artworks. The application focuses on the field of pictorial artworks, and wooden panel paintings in particular. In these works, the orography formed by the brushstrokes can be easily digitalized using a photogrammetric technique, called Structured Light System, with submillimeter accuracy. Thus, some of the physical characteristics of the brushstrokes, like minimum and maximum heights or slopes become a fingerprint of the painting. We explain in detail the general principles of the Structured Light System Technique and the specific characteristics of the commercial set-up used in this work. Some experiments are carried out on a sample painted by us to check the accuracy limits of the technique and to propose some tests that can help to stablish a methodology for authentication purposes. Finally, some preliminary results obtained on a real pictorial artwork are presented, providing geometrical information of its metric features as an example of the possibilities of this application.

  9. ORIENTATION AND POSITION EFFECTS OF A LOCAL HETEROGENEITY ON FLEXURAL VIBRATION FREQUENCIES IN WOODEN BEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Roohnia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studying the influence of defect on the dynamic behavior of wood in order to detect the local heterogeneities is of great importance in non-destructive testing of wood. The natural heterogeneities in wood are oriented in a volume. However, onedimensional models are still used in dynamic characterization of wooden beams. The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate the effects of the orientation and position of an artificial defect on the flexural vibration frequencies. Different batches of Fagus orientalis specimens were drilled in the radial direction at five positions along the specimen. Dynamic tests in free flexural vibration were performed on the specimens before and after drilling both in the longitudinal-radial (LR and longitudinal-tangential (LT bending plan. The behavior in free flexural vibration was found to be different depending on the position and orientation of heterogeneity. When the drilling axis lies in the bending plane (LR, the weakening of frequency was maximal at the location of an antinode of vibration. On the contrary, the frequency offset was maximal in the place of a vibration node when the drilling axis was orthogonal to the bending plane (LT.

  10. Ultrasound guided percutaneous removal of wooden foreign bodies in the extremities with hydro-dissection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, HeeJin; Lee, So Yeon; Chung, Eun Chul; Rho, Myung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Moon; Son, Eun Seok [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We described the technique of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous removal of the foreign bodies (FB) with hydro-dissection in the radiologic department and presented video files of several cases.Four patients referred to the radiology department for US evaluation and US-guided percutaneous removal of the FBs in the upper and lower extremities between November, 2006 and November, 2013 were included in this study. The procedures started with US evaluation for the exact location and shape of the FB. A 5 mm-sized skin incision was made at the site of the nearest point from the FB where no passing arteries or tendons were present. We adopted a hydro dissection technique to separate the FB from adjacent tissue using a 2% lidocaine solution. Injected anesthetics detached the FBs from surrounding tissue and thereby facilitated removal. After the tip of the mosquito forceps reached the FB, the wooden FBs were removed. The mean time required for the entire procedure was approximately 20 minutes. There were no significant complications during the US-guided removal or long-term complications after the procedure. All 4 FBs were successfully removed from the soft tissue under US guidance. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous removal of the FBs with hydro-dissection in the radiology department is a less invasive and safe method over surgical removal in the operating room. Additionally, the use of a guide wire and serial dilator may help minimize soft tissue injury and facilitate the introduction of forceps.

  11. Do computer use, TV viewing, and the presence of the media in the bedroom predict school-aged children’s sleep habits in a longitudinal study?

    OpenAIRE

    Nuutinen, Teija; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic media use is becoming an increasingly important part of life for today’s school-aged children. At the same time, concern of children’s sleep habits has arisen, and cross-sectional studies have shown that electronic media use is associated with short sleep duration and sleep disturbances. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether baseline electronic media use and media presence in a child’s bedroom predicted sleep habits as well as changes in these...

  12. Personal exposure to PM2.5, black smoke and NO2 in Copenhagen: relationship to bedroom and outdoor concentrations covering seasonal variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Loft, Steffen; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    concentrations of PM(2.5), black smoke (BS), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) were measured during 2-day periods in 30 subjects (20-33 years old) living and studying in central parts of Copenhagen. The measurements were repeated in the four seasons. Information on indoor exposure sources such as environmental...... tobacco smoke (ETS) and burning of candles was collected by questionnaires. The personal exposure, the bedroom concentration and the front door concentration was set as outcome variable in separate models and analysed by mixed effect model regression methodology, regarding subject levels as a random...

  13. Design of Information Collecting System Towards The Song Dynasty Wooden Hall of Baoguo Temple, Ningbo

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Tang, Z.; Yang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Baoguo Temple is located half way up Lingshan Mountain in Northern Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. The main hall of Baoguo Temple is Song dynasty wooden structure. As the oldest wooden architecture in Jiangnan, China, it is a national major protective historical relic. In 2005, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum was set up and opens to the outside world. From 2007, to be able to protect it more effectively and foreseeably, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum began to build information collecting systems towards historical architectures using modern information technology. After comparing correlated studies both at home and abroad, we found that: heritage protection abroad started earlier than us, and it has already established thorough protection system, relevant protection mechanism, and also issued relevant protection laws and regulations. The technology which was utilized in protection abroad was not only limited in RS, GIS, GPS, VR, but also included many emerging technology such as using a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the condition of temperature and humidity. The main body of this paper are going to talk about four parts: the first one is existing information system. In this part, we'll introduce the information collecting system, which was preliminarily built in 2007 in Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum. Using the modern digital computer information technology, researchers can gradually check and acquire the information of the material of relics, the condition of the structure stress and the natural environmental information, which may probably affect the cultural architecture. And this part may be divided into information collection, information management and exhibition. The second part is update scheme design of original information collecting equipment and technology. Original information collecting system of microenvironment is relatively independent and data haven't been included in the management of the system

  14. Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy for identifying the finish on wooden furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, T; Chiantore, O; Nervo, M; Piccirillo, A

    2011-05-01

    Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) is a totally noninvasive infrared analytical technique allowing the investigation of artworks without the need for any sampling. The development and optimization of this analytical methodology can provide a tool that is capable of supporting conservators during the first steps of their interventions, yielding fast results and dramatically reducing the number of samples needed to identify the materials involved. Furthermore, since reflection IR spectra suffer from important spectral anomalies that complicate accurate spectral interpretation, it is important to characterize known reference materials and substrates in advance. This work aims to verify the possibility of investigating and identifying the most widely used wood finishes by means of fiber-optic (chalcogenide and metal halides) mid-infrared spectroscopy. Two historically widely employed wood finishes (beeswax, shellac) and two modern ones (a hydrogenated hydrocarbon resin and a microcrystalline wax) were investigated in an extended IR range (from 1000 to 6000 cm(-1)) with reflectance spectroscopy and with FORS. The broad spectral response of the MCT detector was exploited in order to include overtones and combination bands from the NIR spectral range in the investigation. The reflectance spectra were compared with those collected in transmission mode in order to highlight modifications to shapes and intensities, to assign absorptions, and finally to select "marker" bands indicating the presence of certain finishing materials, even when applied onto a substrate such as wood, which shows many absorptions in the mid-infrared region. After the characterization, the different products were applied to samples of aged pear wood and investigated with the same techniques in order to check the ability of mid-IR FORS to reveal the presence and composition of the product on the wooden substrate.

  15. Mediating role of television time, diet patterns, physical activity and sleep duration in the association between television in the bedroom and adiposity in 10 year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Borghese, Michael M.; Tremblay, Mark S; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Schuna, John M.; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; LeBlanc, Allana G; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Having a TV in the bedroom is associated with adiposity in children. It is not known how lifestyle behaviours (television viewing time, diet patterns, physical activity, and sleep duration) mediate this association. The objective of this study was to examine the mediating role of these lifestyle behaviours in the association between TV in the bedroom and percent body fat (% BF). Methods Cross-sectional data from 1 201 children (57.3 % female; mean age = 9.8 years) from Ottawa, Cana...

  16. Study on visual spatial design of the economical small bedroom%经济型小居室的视觉空间设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓亚娟; 余婞; 张顺锋

    2014-01-01

    This paper through the social significance of the economical small bedroom as a starting point,find out the reconstruction methods for the small living space’s objective defects,such as lift racks dwarf,small size and others. Have an analysis on the constituent elements of the vis-ual space to the habitant,it is concluded that make full use of space layout,color,light,shadow,optical illusion and other factors to improve the spatial proportional relationship and the extent of the actual degree,thus the economical small bedroom can create a humanized and emotional effect on the visual space.%将经济型小居室存在的社会意义作为切入点,挖掘小居室空间举架矮、面积狭小等客观缺陷的改造方法,对居住者视觉空间的构成要素进行了解析,指出充分利用空间布局、色彩、光影、视错觉等因素来改善空间的比例关系和虚实程度,可将经济型小居室营造出人性化和情感化的视觉空间效果。

  17. Malthus in the Bedroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinnirella, Francesco; Klemp, Marc; Weisdorf, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We use duration models on a well-known historical data set of more than 15,000 families and 60,000 births in England for the period 1540-1850 to show that the sampled families adjusted the timing of their births in accordance with the economic conditions as well as their stock of dependent children....... The effects were larger among the lower socioeconomic ranks. Our findings on the existence of parity-dependent as well as parity-independent birth spacing in England are consistent with the growing evidence that marital birth control was present in pre-transitional populations....

  18. Battle of the bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-21

    The Philippine government's position on aggressive population management is in conflict with the Catholic Church's opposition to artificial means of birth control, particularly sterilization. The Episcopal Commission for Family Life plans to increase its campaign against contraception at their local level. The government effort through the Department of health will provide access to contraception in a network of 600 hospitals and 1500 rural health units. Government support comes from 2 Protestant churches, the Church of Christ, which is the largest independent church in the Philippines, and the United Church of Christ. Leaders of both churches gave the Minister of Health letters of support which stated that family planning (FP) was necessary to curb population growth which was too high, and China and Thailand are countries which are economically better off with population planning. The government position is similar to former President Corazon Aquino's. The new President, Fidel Ramos, is a protestant and wants economic prosperity for the Philippines; part of the formula for achieving economic growth is slowing population growth. There is limited resources in a sluggish economy and the push for zero population growth can be accomplished through effective contraception. The birth rate fuels poverty is the position of Juan Flavier, Health Secretary. Annual population growth is 2.3% and family size is 4.8/couple while agricultural growth is only 1%. The ideal family size recommended is 2 children/family. The Philippine Commission on Population in its 6-year plan is hoping to obtain 200 million in foreign aid and involve a larger network of nongovernmental organizations. Choice is the key component. Women need to be convinced that birth spacing will reduce maternal and infant mortality. Flavier has reassured Cardinal Jaime Sin of the Catholic Church that Natural methods or the rhythm method would be taught. Health experts argue that the discipline and sacrifice necessary for effective natural methods is lacking.

  19. Zoonoses in the Bedroom

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-01-26

    This podcast reports on some of the diseases pet owners can acquire from their pets. Public health veterinarian, Dr. Heather Bair-Brake, describes the connection between disease and pets sleeping in their owner’s beds.  Created: 1/26/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/31/2011.

  20. An experimental and statistical study of the behavior of the vibration field in two coupled lightweight wooden joist floors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjökvist, Lars-Göran; Brunskog, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the vibration level attenuation of a common wooden floor structure and to present the results together with the statistical precision of the evaluation. Linear regression was used to determine the attenuation rate in the two main directions of the floor...... structure. The probability for the attenuation rate to be zero was calculated. The attenuation rate was found to be high in the direction perpendicular to the beams with a probability to be zero lower than 0.001. In the direction parallel to the beams the attenuation rate was found to be close to zero...

  1. 木结构建筑火灾危险性及防火措施解析%Fire Risk with Wooden Buildings and Measures to Prevent Fires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莹莹

    2012-01-01

    Wooden buildings have a character of a long time of use, a good resistance to the earthquake and a variety of designs. This paper offers some fire - prevention measures regarding wooden buildings based on the current struc- tures of these wooden buildings.%木结构建筑具有使用寿命长,抗震性能好,舒适度高和设计多样化的特点。根据我国现阶段木结构建筑的发展现状,通过分析木结构建筑自身特点和特殊的火灾危险性。提出木结构建筑的防火措施。

  2. 探究木摇铃的发声原理%Investigations on the sound-production mechanism of wooden rattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫滨

    2013-01-01

    Wooden rattle is a kind of old toy .The current explanation of its sound-production mechanism is incorrect .By making suitable changes of the wooden rattle ,a series of experiments were carried out to investigate in what situations it could produce sound .The results showed that sound was produced by the friction between the knot and the bar of the wooden rattle .%通过研究发现文献中的木摇铃发声原理的观点是错误的。适当改变木摇铃的器材,通过一系列实验,观察其在不同情况下是否发声,证实其发声源于绳结与木棍之间的摩擦振动。

  3. Subjects of, or Subject to, Policy Reform? A Foucauldian Discourse Analysis of Regulation and Resistance in UK Narratives of Educational Impacts of Welfare Cuts: The Case of the "Bedroom Tax"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Erica; Greenstein, Anat; Bragg, Jo; Hanley, Terry; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Lupton, Ruth; McCoy, Lauren; Sapin, Kate; Winter, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper draws on material generated from a qualitative study of educational impacts of a British welfare reform affecting housing rent subsidy, size and location commonly known as "the bedroom tax" (Bragg et al., 2015), which was partly taken as a topic for study specifically because of its iconic status as a controversial and…

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT FOR THE REDUCTION OF NITROGEN IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER FROM INDIVIDUAL RESIDENTIAL HOMES, WATERLOO BIOFILTER® MODEL 4-BEDROOM (NSF 02/03/WQPC-SWP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Waterloo Biofilter Systems (WBS), Inc. Waterloo Biofilter® Model 4-Bedroom system was conducted over a thirteen month period at the Massachusetts Alternative Septic System Test Center (MASSTC) located at Otis Air National Guard Base in Bourne, Mas...

  5. Intention, Principle, Outputs and Aims of the Experimental Pavilion Research of Building Envelopes Including Windows for Wooden Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štaffenová, Daniela; Rybárik, Ján; Jakubčík, Miroslav

    2017-06-01

    The aim of experimental research in the area of exterior walls and windows suitable for wooden buildings was to build special pavilion laboratories. These laboratories are ideally isolated from the surrounding environment, airtight and controlled by the constant internal climate. The principle of experimental research is measuring and recording of required physical parameters (e.g. temperature or relative humidity). This is done in layers of experimental fragment sections in the direction from exterior to interior, as well as in critical places by stable interior and real exterior climatic conditions. The outputs are evaluations of experimental structures behaviour during the specified time period, possibly during the whole year by stable interior and real exterior boundary conditions. The main aim of this experimental research is processing of long-term measurements of experimental structures and the subsequent analysis. The next part of the research consists of collecting measurements obtained with assistance of the experimental detached weather station, analysis, evaluation for later setting up of reference data set for the research locality, from the point of view of its comparison to the data sets from Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) and to localities with similar climate conditions. Later on, the data sets could lead to recommendations for design of wooden buildings.

  6. Field study on the impact of nocturnal road traffic noise on sleep: the importance of in- and outdoor noise assessment, the bedroom location and nighttime noise disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrera, Sandra; De Valck, Elke; Cluydts, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this field study is to gain more insight into the way nocturnal road traffic noise impacts the sleep of inhabitants living in noisy regions, by taking into account several modifying variables. Participants were tested during five consecutive nights in their homes and comparisons between effective indoor and outdoor noise levels (LAeq, LAmax, number of noise events), sleep (actigraphy and sleep logs) and aspects of well-being (questionnaires) were made. Also, we investigated into what extent nocturnal noise exposure - objectively measured as well as perceived - directly relates to sleep outcomes and how the bedroom location influenced our measurements. We found that subjects living and sleeping in noisy regions correctly perceive their environment in terms of noise exposure and reported an overall discomfort due to traffic noise. In the evaluation of the objective noise levels, the inside noise levels did not follow the outside noise levels, though the different noise patterns could be described as characteristic for a noise and quiet environment. The impact on sleep, however, was only modest and we did not find any influence of noise intrusion on mood or pre-sleep arousal levels. Concerning the subjectively reported noise disturbances during the night, a clear relationship between noise and sleep outcomes could be established; with sleep onset latencies and judged sleep quality being particularly affected. The importance of inside and outside noise assessment as well as the use of multiple noise indicators in a home environment is further described. Additional emphasis is put on the determination of quiet control regions and the bedroom location, as this can alter noise levels and sleep outcomes. Also, including subjective noise evaluations during the night might not only provide crucial information on how participants experience the noise, but also allows for a more qualitative interpretation of the actual noise situation.

  7. TLS and photogrammetry for the modeling of a historic wooden framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, M.; Viale, M.

    2012-04-01

    contents which will be integrated into an informative device. That way, the public can easily visualize the framework, manipulate the 3D model, discover the construction and the various parts of the historical wooden structure. The raw point cloud cannot be used for this kind of applications. It is thus necessary, from the data which it supplies, to create an exploitable model. Several parameters are to be taken into account: the level of detail of the 3D model, the necessary time to model all the beams, the weight of the final files and finally the type of applied texture. The idea was to implement a workflow to reconcile these various criteria, several methods were tested. This project allowed to create a range of solutions (3D models of the complete framework, virtual tour, interactive 3D models, video animations) to allow an uninitiated public to take advantage of 3D material and software often reserved for the professionals. The work was completed by the comparison between a theoretical model of the framework and a more detailed model of the current state, which allowed to make diagnoses and to study the movements of the structure in the time and to supply important data for rehabilitation and renovation operations.

  8. Radiocarbon dating and wiggle matching of wooden poles forming circular structures in the 1st Millennium BC at the Mawaki archaeological site, central Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi, E-mail: momo@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Noto-Town Board of Education, Mawaki Noto-cho, Ishikawa 927-0562 (Japan); Takada, Hideki [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Wooden circular structures, presumed archaeologically as a structure related with ritual of ancient people in the Final Jomon period, are specific to archaeological sites excavated mainly in the coastal region around Noto peninsula, central Japan. So far, only few attempts have been made at chronological studies on these wooden structures. {sup 14}C dating has been attempted to wooden poles forming the structures, which had been excavated at the Mawaki archaeological site, Ishikawa prefecture, central Japan, to examine construction period of the structures. It was revealed that these structures were constructed in the Final Jomon period, most probably within 900-400 cal BC. In addition, we have tried wiggle matching of {sup 14}C ages for several annual rings separated from three and two poles that were constituting two circular structures, the oldest and the newest ones. {sup 14}C dates of annual rings measured with AMS were wiggle-matched to IntCal04 data sets by Bayesian statistics. The results indicated that the construction period of these wooden structures can be placed within ca. 820-680 cal BC, being narrowed by about 350 calendar years successfully.

  9. THE COMPARISON OF THE BEHAVIOUR OF WEANERS HOUSED AFTER MIXING IN PEN EQUIPPED WITH A HANGING TOYS: OBJECT FOR BITING AND WOODEN BALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek NOWICKI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of weaners after mixing housed in pens equipped with hanging fl exible, destructible object for biting, hanging non-destructible wooden ball and without enrichment was evaluated. It was found that both enrichments reduced aggression, however the most interesting for weaners was the object for biting.

  10. AMS {sup 14}C dating of wooden anchors and planks excavated from submerged wrecks located at Takashima in Imari Bay, Nagasaki prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Oda, Hirotaka; Niu, Etsuko; Ikeda, Akiko; Nakamura, Toshio [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Ogawa, Mitsuhiko [Ryukyus Univ., Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Course of Regional Cultural Studies, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan); Matsuo, Akiko [Takashima-town Archeological Center, Takashima, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    According to folklore the fleet that was dispatched to Japan for the second Mongol invasion of 1281 encountered a fierce typhoon at Takashima. Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) ages of wooden anchors and planks excavated from the submerged site at Takashima were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The {sup 14}C ages are 745{+-}20 BP for bamboo and 770{+-}20 BP for wood from the intact wooden anchor, and 840{+-}20 / 865{+-}20 BP for the planks, respectively. The calibrated bamboo age of 1268-1284 cal AD and the slightly older age of 1257-1279 cal AD for wood suggest that the wooden anchor was manufactured just before the invasion. The age range of planks (1191-1236 and 1163-1215 cal AD) is consistent with an idea that they are likely to be derived from contemporaneous ships. The high-precision AMS {sup 14}C dating confirms that the wooden anchors and planks are remains of wrecked Mongolian warships that were involved in the second Mongol invasion. (author)

  11. [Raman microspectroscopic analysis of polychrome wooden artifact from the Astana tomb of the tang dynasty, Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yi; Jiang, Hong-En; Wang, Bo; He, Qiu-Ju; Hu, Yao-Wu; Yang, Yi-Min; Wang, Chang-Sui

    2013-10-01

    The Turpan District is characterized by a typical dry climate, so that many organic relics have been well preserved. A piece of wooden artifact with 9 colors was unearthed from Astana graveyard which is rich in cultural connotations. In the present paper, Raman microscopy was employed for in-situ, nondestructive analysis of pigments that remained on this artifact, and many mineral pigments (gypsum, red lead, carbon black, haematite, atacamite) and vegetable dyes (gamboges and indigo) were identified. It is noteworthy that this is the earliest example that gamboges were used as yellow dye in China at present. The results show that the Gaochang people had mastered skills proficiently, including the preparation, deployment and usage of pigment. The investigation of pigments could provide a basis for the restoration and conservation of relies, and more evidence for pigments trade business and cultural exchanges.

  12. Hbim for Conservation and Management of Built Heritage: Towards a Library of Vaults and Wooden Bean Floors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreni, D.; Brumana, R.; Georgopoulos, A.; Cuca, B.

    2013-07-01

    The paper illustrates the utility to switch from a 3D content model to a Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) in order to support conservation and management of built heritage. This three dimensional solution is based on simplified parametric models, suitable for industrial elements and modern architecture, that can be usefully applied to heritage documentation and management of the data on conservation practices. In this sense, the potentials in starting the definition of an HBIM targeted library are investigated, towards the logic of object data definition, beginning from surface surveying and representation. In order to motivate the opportunity in using this 3D object modelling instruments, some case studies are investigated in the paper. Vault and wooden bean floor analysis show how a HBIM for architectural heritage could be implemented in order to assemble different kind of data on historical buildings, such as e.g. dimensional, geometrical, thematic, historical and architectural information.

  13. Human Body Exergy Balance: Numerical Analysis of an Indoor Thermal Environment of a Passive Wooden Room in Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Isawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a basic understanding of the resultant changes in the human body exergy balance (input, consumption, storage, and output accompanying outdoor air temperature fluctuations, a “human body system and a built environmental system” coupled with numerical analysis was conducted. The built environmental system assumed a wooden room equipped with passive cooling strategies, such as thermal insulation and solar shading devices. It was found that in the daytime, the cool radiation exergy emitted by surrounding surfaces, such as walls increased the rate of human body exergy consumption, whereas the warm radiant exergy emitted by the surrounding surfaces at night decreased the rate of human body exergy consumption. The results suggested that the rates and proportions of the different components in the exergy balance equation (exergy input, consumption, storage, and output vary according to the outdoor temperature and humidity conditions.

  14. Surface-coated wooden-tip electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for determination of trace fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiewei; Yu, Tiantian; Yao, Yao; Peng, Qi; Luo, Lijuan; Chen, Baowei; Wang, Xiaowei; Yang, Yunyun; Luan, Tiangang

    2017-02-15

    In this study, a surface-coated wooden-tip electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SCWT-ESI-MS) method was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of trace fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics in water. First, a SCWT solid-phase microextration (SPME) probe was prepared, via silanization and sulfonation for modification of a layer of adsorbent containing both C8-chain and sulfo group on the surface of wooden tips. Then, the SCWT-SPME probe was applied for extraction of trace fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics in water. The specially designed adsorbent gave the probe desirable enrichment capacity towards fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics, with enrichment factors of approximately 100-500 folds for six target analytes. After extraction, the loaded SCWT-SPME probe was directly applied for ambient MS analysis. With the application of a high voltage and some spray solvent on the SCWT-SPME probe, analytes enriched on the probe was desorbed and ionized for mass spectrometric analysis under ambient and open-air conditions. The method was sensitive, with limits of detection and quantification of 1.8-4.5 ng/L and 5.9-15.1 ng/L, respectively. The method also showed good linearity, with correlation coefficient values (r(2)) of no less than 0.9940 for six target analytes. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of six fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics in tap and river water samples, and no antibiotic was found in tap water but some antibiotics were detected in river water with concentrations at dozens to hundreds nanogram-per-liter level. Standard addition experiments were also performed, and the obtained recoveries were 89-102% for tap waters and 82-92% for river waters, respectively. All the experimental results demonstrated that our proposed SCWT-ESI-MS method was rapid, sensitive, and reliable for analyzing trace antibiotics in water.

  15. 形态模拟在儿童居室设计中的应用研究%Research of Shape Simulation Apply to Family Children Bedroom Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兵; 张书鸿

    2016-01-01

    儿童的审美情趣是活泼的,利用形态模拟的设计方法增强儿童居室空间的趣味性,包括室内界面和家具设计,通过借用自然界或人造物的典型特征,创造有想象力的空间,是创造性思维方法中最常用的设计方法,在对生理心理具体分析的基础上,儿童家庭居室设计又有其特殊性,其意义表现在激发设计灵感,有效提高设计效率,把自然生态带入到室内空间等,形态模拟在室内设计中的应用有具体的造型方法,包括具象模拟法和抽象模拟法,这种造型方法必须遵循形式美法则,设计可以根据不同需求从形态、色彩、肌理与纹路、声音模拟四个方面为入手点。%Aesthetic taste of children is lively, using simulation to design methods that enhance the interest of children bedroom space .Including interior interface and furniture design, by borrowing the nature or the typical characteristics of creation project, creating imaginative space,is a kind of creative design method,on the basis of analysis of the specific physiological psychological condition,child family bedroom design also has its particularity,can inspiring design and improving design efciency,put the natural ecology into the interior space.Form simulation application in interior design have specific modeling method.Including representational simulation method and abstract simulation method,this method of modeling aesthetic principles must be followed,space can be designed according to different requirements from the shape, color, texture and grain, sound simulation four aspects as the starting point.

  16. Associations between selected allergens, phthalates, nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and bedroom ventilation and clinically confirmed asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callesen, M; Bekö, G; Weschler, C J; Sigsgaard, T; Jensen, T K; Clausen, G; Toftum, J; Norberg, L A; Høst, A

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies, often using data from questionnaires, have reported associations between various characteristics of indoor environments and allergic disease. The aim of this study has been to investigate possible associations between objectively assessed indoor environmental factors and clinically confirmed asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis. The study is a cross-sectional case-control study of 500 children aged 3-5 years from Odense, Denmark. The 200 cases had at least two parentally reported allergic diseases, while the 300 controls were randomly selected from 2835 participating families. A single physician conducted clinical examinations of all 500 children. Children from the initially random control group with clinically confirmed allergic disease were subsequently excluded from the control group and admitted in the case group, leaving 242 in the healthy control group. For most children, specific IgE's against various allergens were determined. In parallel, dust samples were collected and air change rates were measured in the children's bedrooms. The dust samples were analyzed for phthalate esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nicotine, and various allergens. Among children diagnosed with asthma, concentrations of nicotine were higher (P allergens were lower (P allergens were higher for specific IgE+ cases compared with healthy controls (P allergens in dust and current wheeze.

  17. Air supersaturation, release of wooden fibres and upstream migration of Atlantic salmon at Rygene power plant in the River Nidelva, Aust Agder county; Vurdering av luftovermetning, trefiberutslipp og oppvandring av laks ved Rygene kraftverk i Nidelva, Aust-Agder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorstad, Eva B.; Kroglund, Frode; Oekland, Finn; Heggberget, Tor G.

    1997-12-31

    Incidents of dead fish have been reported in connection with a power plant at Rygene on the River Nidelva in the Aust-Agder county, Norway. Air supersaturation has been used in a bypass construction of the power plant tunnel system. In addition, wooden fibres from a fabric have been released into the water of the tunnel. Results from relevant studies concerning air saturation, wooden fibres and upstream migration are summarised in this report. 148 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. 木工字梁在高大模板体系中的应用%Application of wooden I- beams in high and large formwork system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海章; 张奎

    2015-01-01

    木工字梁是国际通用的建筑模板体系中的重要部件,具有重量轻、刚度大、不易变形等特点,可多次周转使用且成本摊销费用低廉。文章研究分析了木工字梁的力学特性,介绍了木工字梁模板的拼装方法,结合港珠澳大桥岛隧工程东人工岛现浇隧道暗埋段结构施工实际,阐述了木工字梁在高大模板体系中的施工技术。特别适用于断面高度较大的混凝土结构。%Wooden I -beam is an important part of international general construction formwork system. It has the characteristics of light weight, high stiffness and is not easily deformed. Moreover, it can be used repeatedly and the cost is low. We studied the mechanical properties of wooden I-beam, introduced the method of assembling wooden I-beams formwork, and expounded the construction technology of the wooden I-beams in the high and large formwork system combined with structure construction of cast-in-situ buried section in the east island of the Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge island &tunnel project. The technology is especially suitable for the concrete structure which has large section height.

  19. Transfer, composition and technological characterization of the lactic acid bacterial populations of the wooden vats used to produce traditional stretched cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Gaglio, Raimondo; Macaluso, Giusi; Francesca, Nicola; Randazzo, Walter; Cardamone, Cinzia; Di Grigoli, Antonino; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2015-12-01

    The biofilms of 12 wooden vats used for the production of the traditional stretched cheeses Caciocavallo Palermitano and PDO Vastedda della valle del Belìce were investigated. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were never detected. Total coliforms were at low numbers with Escherichia coli found only in three vats. Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were below the enumeration limit, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated the surfaces of all vats. In general, the dominance was showed by coccus LAB. Enterococci were estimated at high numbers, but usually between 1 and 2 Log cycles lower than other LAB. LAB populations were investigated at species and strain level and for their technological properties relevant in cheese production. Eighty-five strains were analysed by a polyphasic genetic approach and allotted into 16 species within the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus. Enterococcus faecium was found in all wooden vats and the species most frequently isolated were Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study of the quantitative data on acidification rate, autolysis kinetics, diacetyl production, antibacterial compound generation and proteolysis by cluster and principal component analysis led to the identification of some strains with promising dairy characteristics. Interestingly, a consistent percentage of LAB was bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) producer. Thus, the microbial biofilms of the wooden vats analysed in this study might contribute actively to the stability of the final cheeses.

  20. Modal parameter identification and damping ratio estimation from the full-scale measurements of a typical Tibetan wooden structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lu; Yang, Na; Law, S. S.; Yang, Qingshan

    2016-12-01

    Tibetan heritage buildings have a high historical and cultural value. They have endured adverse environmental loadings over hundreds of years without significant damage. However, there are few reports on their structural characteristics under normal environmental loadings and their behavior under dynamic loadings. In this research, a typical Tibetan wooden wall-frame building is selected to study its dynamic characteristics. Field measurements of the structure were conducted under environmental excitation to collect acceleration responses. The stochastic subspace identification (SSI) method was adopted to calculate the structural modal parameters and obtain the out-of-plane vibration characteristics of the slab and frames. The results indicated that the wall-frame structure had a lower out-of-plane stiffness and greater in-plane stiffness due to the presence of stone walls. Due to poor identified damping ratio estimates from the SSI method, a method based on the variance upper bound was proposed to complement the existing variance lower bound method for estimating the modal damping ratio to address the significant damping variability obtained from different points and measurements. The feasibility of the proposed method was illustrated with the measured data from the floor slab of the structure. The variance lower and upper bound methods both provided consistent results compared to those from the traditional SSI method.

  1. Evaluation of ash deposits during experimental investigation of co-firing of Bosnian coal with wooden biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smajevic, Izet; Kazagic, Anes [JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d., Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Sarajevo Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The paper is addressed to the development and use different criteria for evaluation of ash deposits collected during experimental co-firing of Bosnian coals with wooden biomass. Spruce saw dust was used for the co-firing tests with the Kakanj brown coal and with a lignite blend consisted of the Dubrave lignite and the Sikulje lignite. The coal/biomass mixtures at 93:7 %w and at 80:20 %w were tested. Experimental lab-scale facility PF entrained flow reactor is used for the co-firing tests. The reactor allows examination of fouling/slagging behaviors and emissions at various and infinitely variable process temperature which can be set at will in the range from ambient to 1560 C. Ash deposits are collected on two non-cooled ceramic probes and one water-cooled metal surface. Six different criteria are developed and used to evaluate behavior of the ash deposits on the probes: ash deposit shape, state and structure, which are analyzed visually - photographically and optically by a microscope, rate of adhesion and ash deposit strength, analyzed by physic acting to the ash deposits, and finally deposition rate, determined as a mass of the deposit divided by the collecting area and the time of collecting. Furthermore, chemical composition analysis and AFT of the ash deposits were also done to provide additional information on the deposits. (orig.)

  2. 几种木质地板材料差热特性分析%Differential Thermal Analysis on Several Kinds of Wooden Floor Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗静; 樊刚; 郑艳琼; 李智; 崔飞

    2012-01-01

    为正确认识木质地板材料的燃烧特性,应用差热分析方法比较几种木质地板材料的燃烧性能.采用CRY -1型差热分析仪对8种木质地板与普通松木试样依据标准升温曲线进行差热试验,研究试样受热期间的峰特征.试验结果表明:不同品牌的复合地板在燃烧性能上基本相同,而实木地板由于所选基材材种不同,其热特征有很大的区别.总体上,复合地板火灾危险性高于实木地板.所选8种木质地板与普通松木的火灾危险性大小为试样③>试样⑦>试样⑥>试样②>普通松木>试样⑧>试样⑤>试样④>试样①.%In order to have a correct understanding of the combustion characteristics of wooden floor materials, DTA was used to study and compare the combustion performance of several kinds of wooden floor materials. Differential thermal experiments were conducted on 8 wooden floor samples and an ordinary pine sample with the differential thermal analyzer CRY - 1 according to the standard rise curve of temperature, and the peak features during heating were investigated. The results show that the composite floor materials haven t great difference in combustion function, but the wooden floor materials'caloric characteristics have much difference. On the whole, the fire risk of composite floors is much higher than that of wood floors. The fire risk of wooden floors selected is sample③, sample⑦, sample⑥, sample②, ordinary pine wood, sample⑧, sample⑤, sample④ and sample① in order.

  3. How to Make the Ghosts in my Bedroom Disappear? Focused-Attention Meditation Combined with Muscle Relaxation (MR Therapy)—A Direct Treatment Intervention for Sleep Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland

    2016-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common state of involuntary immobility occurring at sleep onset or offset. It can include terrifying hypnogogic or hypnopompic hallucinations of menacing bedroom intruders. Unsurprisingly, the experience is associated with great fear and horror worldwide. To date, there exist no direct treatment intervention for SP. In this article, I propose for the first time a type of focused inward-attention meditation combined with muscle relaxation as a direct intervention to be applied during the attack, to ameliorate and possibly eliminate it (what could be called, meditation-relaxation or MR therapy for SP). The intervention includes four steps: (1) reappraisal of the meaning of the attack; (2) psychological and emotional distancing; (3) inward focused-attention meditation; (4) muscle relaxation. The intervention promotes attentional shift away from unpleasant external and internal stimuli (i.e., terrifying hallucinations and bodily paralysis sensations) unto an emotionally pleasant internal object (e.g., a positive memory). It may facilitate a relaxed meditative state characterized by a shift from sympathetic to parasympathetic dominance, associated with greater levels of alpha activity (which may lead to drowsiness and potentially sleep). The procedure may also reduce the initial panic and arousal that occur when realizing one is paralyzed. In addition, I present a novel Panic-Hallucination (PH) Model of Sleep Paralysis; describing how through escalating cycles of fear and panic-like autonomic arousal, a positive feedback loop is created that worsens the attack (e.g., leading to longer and more fearful episodes), drives content of hallucinations, and causes future episodes of SP. Case examples are presented to illustrate the feasibility of MR therapy for SP. PMID:26858675

  4. How to make the ghosts in my bedroom disappear? Focused-attention meditation combined with muscle relaxation (MR therapy—a direct treatment intervention for sleep paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baland eJalal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep paralysis (SP is a common state of involuntary immobility occurring at sleep onset or offset. It can include terrifying hypnogogic or hypnopompic hallucinations of menacing bedroom intruders. Unsurprisingly, the experience is associated with great fear and horror worldwide. To date, there exist no direct treatment intervention for SP. In this article, I propose for the first time a type of focused inward-attention meditation combined with muscle relaxation as a direct intervention to be applied during the attack, to ameliorate and possibly eliminate it (what could be called, meditation-relaxation or MR therapy for SP. The intervention includes four steps: (1 reappraisal of the meaning of the attack; (2 psychological and emotional distancing; (3 inward focused-attention meditation; (4 muscle relaxation. The intervention promotes attentional shift away from unpleasant external and internal stimuli (i.e., terrifying hallucinations and bodily paralysis sensations unto an emotionally pleasant internal object (e.g., a positive memory. It may facilitate a relaxed meditate state characterized by a shift from sympathetic to parasympathetic dominance, associated with greater levels of alpha activity (which may lead to drowsiness and potentially sleep. The procedure may also reduce the initial panic and arousal that occur when realizing one is paralyzed. In addition, I present a novel Panic-Hallucination (PH Model of Sleep Paralysis; describing how through escalating cycles of fear and panic-like autonomic arousal a positive feedback loop is created that worsens the attack (e.g., leading to longer and more fearful episodes, drives content of hallucinations, and causes future episodes of SP. Case examples are presented to illustrate the feasibility of MR therapy for SP.

  5. How to Make the Ghosts in my Bedroom Disappear? Focused-Attention Meditation Combined with Muscle Relaxation (MR Therapy)-A Direct Treatment Intervention for Sleep Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland

    2016-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common state of involuntary immobility occurring at sleep onset or offset. It can include terrifying hypnogogic or hypnopompic hallucinations of menacing bedroom intruders. Unsurprisingly, the experience is associated with great fear and horror worldwide. To date, there exist no direct treatment intervention for SP. In this article, I propose for the first time a type of focused inward-attention meditation combined with muscle relaxation as a direct intervention to be applied during the attack, to ameliorate and possibly eliminate it (what could be called, meditation-relaxation or MR therapy for SP). The intervention includes four steps: (1) reappraisal of the meaning of the attack; (2) psychological and emotional distancing; (3) inward focused-attention meditation; (4) muscle relaxation. The intervention promotes attentional shift away from unpleasant external and internal stimuli (i.e., terrifying hallucinations and bodily paralysis sensations) unto an emotionally pleasant internal object (e.g., a positive memory). It may facilitate a relaxed meditative state characterized by a shift from sympathetic to parasympathetic dominance, associated with greater levels of alpha activity (which may lead to drowsiness and potentially sleep). The procedure may also reduce the initial panic and arousal that occur when realizing one is paralyzed. In addition, I present a novel Panic-Hallucination (PH) Model of Sleep Paralysis; describing how through escalating cycles of fear and panic-like autonomic arousal, a positive feedback loop is created that worsens the attack (e.g., leading to longer and more fearful episodes), drives content of hallucinations, and causes future episodes of SP. Case examples are presented to illustrate the feasibility of MR therapy for SP.

  6. Influence of family structure on obesogenic behaviors and placement of bedroom TVs of American children: National Survey of Children's Health 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Susan B; Sheffield-Morris, Amanda; Spicer, Paul; Lora, Karina; Latorre, Chelsea

    2014-04-01

    To explore the relation between family structure and obesogenic attributes. Publicly available data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (n=55,094; 11.6 ± 0.04 years; 51.2% male) was analyzed in fall 2012. Predictor variables included marital status (two-parent biological [referent], two-parent blended, single-mother, and other) and number of children. Outcome variables included the presence of a bedroom television (BTV), elevated television (TV) viewing time, insufficient physical activity, and infrequent family meals. Analysis of family structure revealed 63% biological, 11% blended, and 20% single-mother families. Twenty-three percent of children did not have siblings. When family structure variables were considered independently, children in blended (odds ratio (OR): 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45, 2.10) and single-mother homes (1.49; 1.28, 1.74) had higher odds of BTV. Children in blended families had higher odds of elevated TV viewing time (1.28; 1.08, 1.51). Single-mother homes had higher odds of infrequent family meals (1.28; 1.07, 1.52). Families with ≥ 2 children were less likely to have BTV (0.60; 0.54, 0.66) or elevated TV viewing time (0.74; 0.67, 0.82), and to irregularly dine together (0.89; 0.80, 0.99). Diverse family structure was associated with more obesogenic behaviors and environments. The presence of siblings diminished, but did not eliminate, the risk. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Eco-innovation of a wooden childhood furniture set: an example of environmental solutions in the wood sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; García Lozano, Raúl; Moreira, M Teresa; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    The environmental profile of a set of wood furniture was carried out to define the best design criteria for its eco-design. A baby cot convertible into a bed, a study desk and a bedside table were the objects of study. Two quantitative and qualitative environmental approaches were combined in order to propose improvement alternatives: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Design for Environment (DfE). In the first case Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to identify the hot spots in the product system. As a next step, LCA information was used in eco-briefing to determine several improvement alternatives. A wood products company located in Catalonia (NE Spain) was assessed in detail, dividing the process into three stages: assembly, finishing and packaging. Ten impact categories were considered in the LCA study: abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and photochemical oxidant formation. Two processes can be considered the key environmental factors: the production of the wooden boards and electricity, with contributions of 45-68% and 14-33% respectively depending on the impact categories. Subsequently, several improvement alternatives were proposed in the eco-design process (DfE) to achieve reductions in a short-medium period of time in the environmental impact. These eco-design strategies could reduce the environmental profile of the setup by 14%. The correct methodological adaptation of the concept of eco-briefing, as a tool for communication among environmental technicians and designers, the simplification of the analytical tool used and the LCA, could facilitate the environmental analysis of a product. The results obtained provide information that can help the furniture sector to improve their environmental performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid on-line detection and grading of wooden breast myopathy in chicken fillets by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiseth-Kent, Eva; Høst, Vibeke; Løvland, Atle

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to develop a method for rapid and non-destructive detection and grading of wooden breast (WB) syndrome in chicken breast fillets. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was chosen as detection method, and an industrial NIR scanner was applied and tested for large scale on-line detection of the syndrome. Two approaches were evaluated for discrimination of WB fillets: 1) Linear discriminant analysis based on NIR spectra only, and 2) a regression model for protein was made based on NIR spectra and the estimated concentrations of protein were used for discrimination. A sample set of 197 fillets was used for training and calibration. A test set was recorded under industrial conditions and contained spectra from 79 fillets. The classification methods obtained 99.5–100% correct classification of the calibration set and 100% correct classification of the test set. The NIR scanner was then installed in a commercial chicken processing plant and could detect incidence rates of WB in large batches of fillets. Examples of incidence are shown for three broiler flocks where a high number of fillets (9063, 6330 and 10483) were effectively measured. Prevalence of WB of 0.1%, 6.6% and 8.5% were estimated for these flocks based on the complete sample volumes. Such an on-line system can be used to alleviate the challenges WB represents to the poultry meat industry. It enables automatic quality sorting of chicken fillets to different product categories. Manual laborious grading can be avoided. Incidences of WB from different farms and flocks can be tracked and information can be used to understand and point out main causes for WB in the chicken production. This knowledge can be used to improve the production procedures and reduce today’s extensive occurrence of WB. PMID:28278170

  9. Reaction-to-fire performance of fire-retardant treated wooden facades in Japan with respect to accelerated weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Miki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood has been used for building facades to enhance the aesthetic design of buildings since the revision to the evaluation method associated with the amendment of the Building Standard Law of Japan in 2000. In response, wood that has been pressure-impregnated with fire retardants (fire-retardant treated wood is often used to ensure it is safe in the event of a fire. Currently, when fire-retardant-treated wood is tested for certification of reaction to fire performance, a cone calorimeter test is conducted in Japan. This test applies radiant heat to the surface of a square specimen, 100 mm each side, immediately after it has undergone fire-retardant treatment. However, when applying fire-retardant treatment to wood, aqueous chemical injection is the standard procedure. When wood is actually used to construct a building, there is a concern about environmental forces such as wind and rain that could cause the wood to deteriorate, and concerns about performance degradation associated with aging. One of the past studies in Japan [1] conducted a cone calorimeter test after an outdoor exposure test and accelerated weathering test, compared the post-test performance with the initial performance and confirmed the amount of remaining fire retardant in the treated wood had been reduced. However, no comparison of the fireproof performance of fire-retardant wood in actual use in a building facade had been conducted in Japan. There have been already valuable researches [e.g. 2, 3] on this issue internationally, but this paper is the first step in Japan and authors hope to focus on the wooden façade construction technique and the standard façade test in Japan.

  10. The Hadal Amphipod Hirondellea gigas possessing a unique cellulase for digesting wooden debris buried in the deepest seafloor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kobayashi

    Full Text Available The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest point in the ocean (10,994 m. Certain deep-sea animals can withstand the extreme pressure at this great depth. The amphipod Hirondellea gigas is a resident of the Challenger Deep. Amphipods are common inhabitants at great depths and serve as scavengers. However, there is relatively little information available regarding the physiology of H. gigas or this organism's ecological interactions in the hadopelagic zone. To understand the feeding behavior of this scavenger in the deepest oligotrophic hadal zone, we analyzed the digestive enzymes in whole-body extracts. We describe the detection of amylase, cellulase, mannanase, xylanase, and α-glycosidase activities that are capable of digesting plant-derived polysaccharides. Our identification of glucose, maltose, and cellobiose in the H. gigas extracts indicated that these enzymes function under great pressure in situ. In fact, the glucose content of H. gigas averaged 0.4% (w/dry-w. The purified H. gigas cellulase (HGcel converted cellulose to glucose and cellobiose at an exceptional molar ratio of 2:1 and efficiently produced glucose from dried wood, a natural cellulosic biomass, at 35 °C. The enzyme activity increased under a high hydrostatic pressure of 100 MPa at 2 °C, conditions equivalent to those found in the Challenger Deep. An analysis of the amino acid sequence of HGcel supported its classification as a family 31 glycosyl hydrolase. However, none of the enzymes of this family had previously been shown to possess cellulase activity. These results strongly suggested that H. gigas adapted to its extreme oligotrophic hadal oceanic environment by evolving digestive enzymes capable of digesting sunken wooden debris.

  11. Detection of differentially expressed genes in broiler pectoralis major muscle affected by White Striping - Wooden Breast myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambonelli, Paolo; Zappaterra, Martina; Soglia, Francesca; Petracci, Massimiliano; Sirri, Federico; Cavani, Claudio; Davoli, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    White Striping and Wooden Breast (WS/WB) are abnormalities increasingly occurring in the fillets of high breast yield and growth rate chicken hybrids. These defects lead to consistent economic losses for poultry meat industry, as affected broiler fillets present an impaired visual appearance that negatively affects consumers' acceptability. Previous studies have highlighted in affected fillets a severely damaged muscle, showing profound inflammation, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The present study investigated the differentially expressed genes and pathways linked to the compositional changes observed in WS/WB breast muscles, in order to outline a more complete framework of the gene networks related to the occurrence of this complex pathological picture. The biochemical composition was performed on 20 pectoralis major samples obtained from high breast yield and growth rate broilers (10 affected vs. 10 normal) and 12 out of the 20 samples were used for the microarray gene expression profiling (6 affected vs. 6 normal). The obtained results indicate strong changes in muscle mineral composition, coupled to an increased deposition of fat. In addition, 204 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were found: 102 up-regulated and 102 down-regulated in affected breasts. The gene expression pathways found more altered in WS/WB muscles are those related to muscle development, polysaccharide metabolic processes, proteoglycans synthesis, inflammation, and calcium signaling pathway. On the whole, the findings suggest that a multifactorial and complex etiology is associated with the occurrence of WS/WB muscle abnormalities, contributing to further defining the transcription patterns associated with these myopathies. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Superficial and deep changes of histology, texture and particle size distribution in broiler wooden breast muscle during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soglia, Francesca; Gao, Jingxian; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Puolanne, Eero; Cavani, Claudio; Petracci, Massimiliano; Ertbjerg, Per

    2017-09-01

    Recently the poultry industry faced an emerging muscle abnormality termed wooden breast (WB), the prevalence of which has dramatically increased in the past few years. Considering the incomplete knowledge concerning this condition and the lack of information on possible variations due to the intra-fillet sampling locations (superficial vs. deep position) and aging of the samples, this study aimed at investigating the effect of 7-d storage of broiler breast muscles on histology, texture, and particle size distribution, evaluating whether the sampling position exerts a relevant role in determining the main features of WB. With regard to the histological observations, severe myodegeneration accompanied by accumulation of connective tissue was observed within the WB cases, irrespective of the intra-fillet sampling position. No changes in the histological traits took place during the aging in either the normal or the WB samples. As to textural traits, although a progressive tenderization process took place during storage (P ≤ 0.001), the differences among the groups were mainly detected when raw meat rather than cooked was analyzed, with the WB samples exhibiting the highest (P ≤ 0.001) 80% compression values. In spite of the increased amount of connective tissue components in the WB cases, their thermally labile cross-links will account for the similar compression and shear-force values as normal breast cases when measured on cooked samples. Similarly, the enlargement of extracellular matrix and fibrosis might contribute in explaining the different fragmentation patterns observed between the superficial and the deep layer in the WB samples, with the superficial part exhibiting a higher amount of larger particles and an increase in particles with larger size during storage, compared to normal breasts. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Genetic Learning of Fuzzy Expert Systems for Decision Support in the Automated Process of Wooden Boards Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav MATSYSHYN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sawing solid wood (lumber, wooden boards into blanks is an important technological operation, which has significant influence on the efficiency of the woodworking industry as a whole. Selecting a rational variant of lumber cutting is a complex multicriteria problem with many stochastic factors, characterized by incomplete information and fuzzy attributes. About this property by currently used automatic optimizing cross-cut saw is not always rational use of wood raw material. And since the optimization algorithms of these saw functions as a “black box”, their improvement is not possible. Therefore topical the task of developing a new approach to the optimal cross-cutting that takes into account stochastic properties of wood as a material from biological origin. Here we propose a new approach to the problem of lumber optimal cutting in the conditions of uncertainty of lumber quantity and fuzziness lengths of defect-free areas. To account for these conditions, we applied the methods of fuzzy sets theory and used a genetic algorithm to simulate the process of human learning in the implementation the technological operation. Thus, the rules of behavior with yet another defect-free area is defined in fuzzy expert system that can be configured to perform specific production tasks using genetic algorithm. The author's implementation of the genetic algorithm is used to set up the parameters of fuzzy expert system. Working capacity of the developed system verified on simulated and real-world data. Implementation of this approach will make it suitable for the control of automated or fully automatic optimizing cross cutting of solid wood.

  14. Moisture diagnostic of a failured roof drainage situated behind a parapet wall and a subsequent condensate influence to a wooden construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remeš Josef

    2017-01-01

    increase in a layout of the building and an installation of a rainwater drainage core is not necessary in such cases. In case more of negative effects accumulate, such as an improper thermal insulation quality or insufficient thickness of the thermal insulation, significant problems may appear hand in hand with using of the building. These problems are generally represented by a moisture appearance in the inflow area. What more, this is not always detected and a major cause can be determined very hardly. This article deals with possible solutions for the wooden construction failure caused by the moisture that may emerge as an improper inflow layout consequence.

  15. Study on the reason and emotion of color purity based on bedroom wall decorative material%基于卧室墙面装饰材料探究色彩纯度的理与情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董景波; 谭向东

    2016-01-01

    The paper starts from the people on the bedroom wall decorative material selection,production,design point of view with the material color purity as the breakthrough point,and by exploring on natural color purity,painting color purity and digital color purity expatiates the source and way expressing from the reason and emotion on the color purity of bedroom wall decorative material. It emphasizes that in the social work of home beautification object-human and human-human are reason and emotion from an indivisible whole.%从人们对卧室墙面装饰材料选择、生产、设计的角度出发,以材料色彩纯度层面研究为切入点,通过对自然色彩纯度、绘画色彩纯度、数字色彩纯度的探究,提出卧室墙面装饰材料色彩纯度理对情表达的根源与途径,并强调在家居美化的社会劳动中,物与人以及人与人是理与情的整体不可分割的关系。

  16. The use of novel wooden structures to manage flooding and coarse sediment problems in responsive upland headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Addy, Steve; Ghimire, Sohan; Watson, Helen; Stutter, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Over the past decade economic losses from floods have greatly increased, with sediment related impacts as a key feature of such events. Impacts include changes in river channel course, scour of river banks, sedimentation of infrastructure (e.g. bridges), and deposition of sand and gravel on farmland. Sediment deposition can in turn reduce conveyance capacity and lead to further increased flood risk. The EU Water Framework Directive and Floods Directive highlights that sustainable approaches to flood risk reduction should be used alongside and, where possible, replace traditional structural flood defences and activities that address sediment problems. Natural Flood Management(NFM) is promoted as a method that can reduce flood risk and manage sediment by incorporating natural hydrological and morphological processes. As such, NFM measures are designed to use these fluvial processes to manage the sources and pathways of flood waters and sediments. Techniques include the restoration, enhancement and alteration of natural features and characteristics, but exclude traditional flood defence engineering that works against or disrupts these natural processes. Here we aim to assess the effectiveness of novel flood mitigation measures for reducing flood risk and capturing coarse sediment in rapidly responding headwater catchments. We present preliminary research findings from a densely instrumented research site (Bowmont catchment, Scotland (85km2)) which regularly experiences flood events with associated coarse sediment problems. NFM measures have been installed to capture course sediment and to store water more effectively on the flood plains during these flood events. For example, novel engineered wooden structures ('bar apex log jams') constructed in the river corridor are designed to trap sediment and log bank protection structures have been installed to stop bank erosion. Within a tributary catchment of the Bowmont (0.7km2), new flow restrictors have been installed on a

  17. Unilateral NMR, 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and micro-analytical techniques for studying the materials and state of conservation of an ancient Egyptian wooden sarcophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Noemi; Presciutti, Federica; Di Tullio, Valeria; Doherty, Brenda; Marinelli, Anna Maria; Provinciali, Barbara; Macchioni, Nicola; Capitani, Donatella; Miliani, Costanza

    2011-03-01

    A multi-technique approach was employed to study a decorated Egyptian wooden sarcophagus (XXV-XXVI dynasty, Third Intermediate Period), belonging to the Museo del Vicino Oriente of the Sapienza University of Rome. Portable non-invasive unilateral NMR was applied to evaluate the conservation state of the sarcophagus. Moreover, using unilateral NMR, a non-invasive analytical protocol was established to detect the presence of organic substances on the surface and/or embedded in the wooden matrix. This protocol allowed for an educated sampling campaign aimed at further investigating the state of degradation of the wood and the presence of organic substances by (13)C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectroscopy. The composition of the painted layer was analysed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Raman and surface enhanced (resonance) Raman spectroscopy (SERS/SERRS), infrared and GC-MS techniques, evidencing original components such as clay minerals, Egyptian green, indigo, natural gums, and also highlighting restoration pigments and alteration compounds. The identification of the wood, of great value for the reconstruction of the history of the artwork, was achieved by means of optical microscopy.

  18. Portable XRF as a valuable device for preliminary in situ pigment investigation of wooden inventory in the Trski Vrh Church in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desnica, V. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Academy of Fine Arts, Laboratory for Science and Technology in Art, Department for Conservation and Restoration, Zagreb (Croatia); Skaric, K.; Mudronja, D.; Pavlicic, M.; Peranic, I. [Croatian Conservation Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Jembrih-Simbuerger, D.; Schreiner, M. [Academy of Fine Arts, Institute of Science and Technology in Art, Vienna (Austria); Fazinic, S.; Jaksic, M. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this work was the investigation of pigments from the painted wooden inventory of the pilgrimage church of Saint Mary of Jerusalem in Trski Vrh - one of the most beautiful late-baroque sacral ensembles in Croatia. Being an object of high relevance for the national cultural heritage, an extensive research on the wooden polychromy was undertaken in order to work out a proposal for a conservation treatment. It consists mainly of two painted and gilded layers (the original one from the 18th century and a later one from 1903), partly overpainted during periodic conservation treatments in the past. The approach was to carry out extensive preliminary in situ pigment investigations using a portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) device, and only the problems not resolved by this method on site were further analyzed using sophisticated laboratory equipment. Therefore, the XRF results acted as a valuable guideline for subsequent targeted sampling actions, thus minimizing the sampling damage. Important questions not answered by XRF (identification of organic pigments, ultramarine, etc.) were subsequently resolved using additional ex situ laboratory methods, primarily {mu}-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) at the nuclear microprobe of the Rudjer Boskovic accelerator facility as well as {mu}-Raman spectroscopy at the Institute of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. It is shown that by the combination of these often complementary methods a thorough characterization of each pigment can be obtained, allowing for a proper strategy of the conservation treatment. (orig.)

  19. “魅力永驻”的木制玩具及其设计%Eternally Attractive Wooden Toys and the Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2012-01-01

      玩具是人与人、人与物交流的平台,是文化与社会的缩影。木制玩具以其悠久的历史、丰富的文化底蕴与恒久的玩赏价值散发着无限的魅力。生活是玩具设计不变的源头,玩具设计师从事木制玩具设计应该从生活出发,在情感交流和对人类关爱的基础上,将功能与审美有机结合,充分利用木制玩具的优势进行绿色设计和创新研发。%  Toys serve as a platform for communication between people and objects. Each toy is a miniature of the culture and society. Long history of wooden toys expressed their own attraction due to their own culture and value. The designer of toys started from daily life and made toys the constant theme of our human being. It is a must to combine the functions and beauty of toys together based on the communication of people's feeling and the care to human beings. Also, the designer should make full use of wooden toys' advantages and design them creatively and environmental-friendly.

  20. Projeto de caixa de madeira para manga (Mangifera Indica L. Project of wooden boxes for mangoes (Mangifera Indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Janet Teruel

    2009-06-01

    is proposed, based on computer simulations, optimization and experimental validation, trying to minimize the amount of wood associated with structural and ergonomic aspects and the effective area of the openings. Three box prototypes were designed and built using straight laths with different configurations and areas of openings (54% and 36%. The cooling efficiency of Tommy Atkins mango (Mangifera Indica L. was evaluated by determining the cooling time for fruit packed in the wood models and packed in the commercially used cardboard boxes, submitted to cooling in a forced-air system, at a temperature of 6ºC and average relative humidity of 85.4±2.1%. The Finite Element Method was applied, for the dimensioning and structural optimization of the model with the best behavior in relation to cooling. All wooden boxes with fruit underwent vibration testing for two hours (20 Hz. There was no significant difference in average cooling time in the wooden boxes (36.08±1.44 min; however, the difference was significant in comparison to the cardboard boxes (82.63±29.64 min. In the model chosen for structural optimization (36% effective area of openings and two side laths, the reduction in total volume of material was 60% and 83% in the cross section of the columns. There was no indication of mechanical damage in the fruit after undergoing the vibration test. Computer simulations and structural study may be used as a support tool for developing projects for boxes, with geometric, ergonomic and thermal criteria.

  1. Just a Wooden Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that sociopathy is the result of broad cultural failure and that social science has not demonstrated either the causes or the cures for sociopathy. Demonstrating social cause is beyond both the financial capacity and the ethical boundaries of society. Cultural and economic equality are potential solutions but society rejects these notions…

  2. Painted Wooden Figurines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The making of figurines can be dated back to the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (475 B.C.-221), when, instead of burying slaves with the master when he died, figurines were made for burial. This was progress for the society. Most figurines were made of wood during the Warring States Period and the early period of the Western Han Dynasty. After the Han Dynasty pottery and clay were used instead of wood.

  3. Wooden Bowl Production and Commodity Circulation:Based on Fieldwork of Shangqiaotou Village%木碗的制作及其商品流通研究--基于上桥头村的田野调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景丽; 李德庆

    2013-01-01

    Wooden bowl is loved by the Tibetans as living appliances. Based on the field work of Shangqiaotou Village, the paper first studies the history and heritage of wooden bowl by using interview and literature review, second presents the production through participation and observation. And then, it analyzes its commodity circulation from three aspects of materials purchased, production and sale. In the end, the competitiveness of wooden bowl industry by Michael Porter’s Five-force Model, and the suggestions on development of wooden bowl industry are given.%  木碗是深受藏族人喜爱的生活用具,藏族人家对木碗有一种特殊的情结,本文基于上桥头村进行的田野调查,首先通过访谈和文献总结了木碗的历史与传承,并通过参与观察得到木碗的制作过程,再者从木碗的进料、生产、销路三个方面分析了商品流通,最后结合迈克尔·波特的五力模型分析了木碗产业的竞争力,并提出木碗产业发展建议。

  4. Development and Application of CAD/CAE System for Wooden Pallet Based on Model Library%基于模型库的木质托盘 CAD/CAE 系统开发及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光; 路振静; 赵磊

    2014-01-01

    建立了木质托盘CAD/CAE系统功能模型,并基于特征造型和参数化设计技术,构建了面向木质托盘CAD和CAE的托盘模型库。利用高级程序语言Visual Basic 对SolidWorks进行二次开发,开发了木质托盘CAD/CAE软件。通过模型库可加速木质托盘设计和分析过程,改善设计与应用之间的信息交换,获得优化的结构参数,提高产品设计质量。%This paper established a function model of wooden pallet CAD /CAE system,and constructed model libraries of wooden pallet object -oriented CAD and CAE based on feature modeling and parameterized design technologies .A wooden package CAD/CAE system was developed using the secondary development tools SolidWorks API via Visual Basic language .The design and analysis process of wooden pallet were acceler-ated by using model libraries ,and the information exchange between the design and application improved sig-nificantly ,and the optimized structure parameters and high design quality were obtained .

  5. Chemical imaging techniques for the analysis of complex mixtures: New application to the characterization of ritual matters on African wooden statuettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazel, Vincent [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS UMR 171, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions 14, quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Richardin, Pascale [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS UMR 171, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions 14, quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)]. E-mail: pascale.richardin@culture.gouv.fr; Touboul, David [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse, Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, CNRS UPR 2301, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Brunelle, Alain [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse, Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, CNRS UPR 2301, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Walter, Philippe [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS UMR 171, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions 14, quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Laprevote, Olivier [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse, Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, CNRS UPR 2301, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-06-07

    Chemical imaging techniques, based on the combination of microscopy and spectroscopy, are well suited to study both the composition and the spatial organization of heterogeneous complex mixtures of organic and mineral matter. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), followed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FTIR microscopy) have been applied to non-destructive analysis of micro-samplings of ritual matters deposited on the surface of African wooden statuettes. With a very careful preparation, using ultramicrotomy on embedded samples, it was possible to perform successively all the measurements on a single fragment. Comparison and superposition of the different chemical images, obtained on a sample from a significant actual artefact, have allowed us to identify minerals (clays, quartz and calcium carbonate), proteins, starch, urate salts and lipids and to map their spatial distribution.

  6. Accelerated Aging of the Traditional Greek Distillate Tsipouro Using Wooden Chips. Part I: Effect of Static Maceration vs. Ultrasonication on the Polyphenol Extraction and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Taloumi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek traditional grape marc distillate Tsipouro was subjected to accelerated aging, using wooden chips from acacia, cherry, chestnut and oak wood. The processes included treatments under static maceration and ultrasonication and the evolution of the total polyphenol concentration was monitored over a period of 30 days. During this period, leaching of polyphenols from the chips into the distillate was found to obey first-order kinetics, but no statistical differences were shown between the two treatments regarding the enrichment of the liquid in polyphenolic substances. The determination of the antioxidant activity demonstrated that aging with chestnut chips may provide Tsipouro with particularly strong radical scavenging and reducing effects, highlighting its importance as a material that could be used to turn distillates into foods with functional properties.

  7. Status and Development Trend of Wooden Door Industry in China%我国木质门产业现状与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许方荣

    2011-01-01

    概述了我国木质门产业的发展现状;指出了现阶段木门行业存在的问题;并对中小型木门制造企业的未来发展以及业界品牌建设和市场定位提出了建设性的意见;预测了我国木质门行业未来的发展趋势.%The author of this paper summarizes the current situation of wooden door industry in China,points out the present existent problems; gives some constructive suggestions for its future development,brand build, and market positioning; and predicts its future development trend.

  8. Wooden Bell Ringing Golden Sound:Confucian Artistic Conception of Teachers%木铎金声:儒家的教师意境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢文庆

    2015-01-01

    木铎金声是儒家对教师的一种文化想象和价值推断,阐明了古代教师的基本操守和意境。家国情怀是教师的人生意境,孔颜乐处是教师的学术意境,有教无类是教师的教育意境,诲人不倦是教师的教学意境,切磋琢磨是教师的创新意境。实行合理的教育治理,放松对教育的行政干预,回归儒家的教师意境,使教师能够自由地发出木铎金声,可以为中国教育的复兴辟出一条蹊径。%Wooden bell ringing golden sound is a kind of cultural imagination and the value of Confucian to the teacher, elaborating the basic ethics and artistic conception of acient teachers. For teachers the emotion of family-country is the life artistic conception,“Confucius and Hui’s cheerfuless”is the academic artistic conception,“no child left behind”is the educational artistic conception,instructing others indefatigably learn from each other by an exchange of views is the innovational artistic conception. We should carry out reasonable educational management and relax administrative interven-tion. We should return to Confucian artistic conception of teachers,so that teachers can disseminate freely the golden sound of wooden bell. This will open up a unique path for the revival of Chinese education.

  9. Holographic Interferometry (HI), Infrared Vision and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy for the assessment of painted wooden statues: a new integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfarra, Stefano; Ambrosini, Dario; Paoletti, Domenica [University of L' Aquila, Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, Las.E.R. Laboratory, Loc. Monteluco di Roio, AQ (Italy); Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Maldague, Xavier [Laval University, Computer Vision and Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Quebec City (Canada); Ridolfi, Stefano [Ars Mensurae, Rome (Italy); Cerichelli, Giorgio [University of L' Aquila, Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Loc. Coppito, AQ (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    Wood has been routinely employed in decorative arts, as well as in sculptures and paintings (support) during the Middle Ages, because of its unique aesthetic virtues. It may safely be assumed that wood, as a material for monumental sculpture, was much more commonly employed in the mediaeval period than existing examples would seem to indicate (Bulletin of the metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013). Wood is easily obtainable; it could be carved and put in place with less difficulty than stone, it is chemically stable when dry, and its surface offers a compatible substrate for paint application. However, the use of wood is not without pitfalls, and requires an understanding of its anisotropic and hygroscopic nature. It is also dimensionally unstable and subject to deterioration by fungi and insects. Moisture-related dimensional changes are certainly among the most challenging problems in painting conservation. With the purpose of preventing important damages, the use of non-or microdestructive testing (NDT) techniques is undoubtedly of paramount interest for painted wooden statues of great value. This work has a threefold purpose: (1) to validate the effectiveness of an integrated approach using near-infrared (NIR) reflectography, square pulse thermography (SPT), and holographic interferometry (HI) techniques for discovering old repairs and/or inclusions of foreign materials in a wooden structure, (2) to confirm and approximately date the restoration carried out by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) (that is assembled with a scanning electron microscopy - SEM) techniques, and (3) to combine into a multidisciplinary approach two quantitative NDT results coming from optical and thermographic methods. The subject of the present study was a statue named ''Virgin with her Child'' (XIV century), whose origins are mysterious and not properly documented. (orig.)

  10. Holographic Interferometry (HI), Infrared Vision and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy for the assessment of painted wooden statues: a new integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfarra, Stefano; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Ridolfi, Stefano; Cerichelli, Giorgio; Ambrosini, Dario; Paoletti, Domenica; Maldague, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Wood has been routinely employed in decorative arts, as well as in sculptures and paintings (support) during the Middle Ages, because of its unique aesthetic virtues. It may safely be assumed that wood, as a material for monumental sculpture, was much more commonly employed in the mediaeval period than existing examples would seem to indicate (Bulletin of the metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013). Wood is easily obtainable; it could be carved and put in place with less difficulty than stone, it is chemically stable when dry, and its surface offers a compatible substrate for paint application. However, the use of wood is not without pitfalls, and requires an understanding of its anisotropic and hygroscopic nature. It is also dimensionally unstable and subject to deterioration by fungi and insects. Moisture-related dimensional changes are certainly among the most challenging problems in painting conservation. With the purpose of preventing important damages, the use of non-or microdestructive testing (NDT) techniques is undoubtedly of paramount interest for painted wooden statues of great value. This work has a threefold purpose: (1) to validate the effectiveness of an integrated approach using near-infrared (NIR) reflectography, square pulse thermography (SPT), and holographic interferometry (HI) techniques for discovering old repairs and/or inclusions of foreign materials in a wooden structure, (2) to confirm and approximately date the restoration carried out by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) (that is assembled with a scanning electron microscopy—SEM) techniques, and (3) to combine into a multidisciplinary approach two quantitative NDT results coming from optical and thermographic methods. The subject of the present study was a statue named "Virgin with her Child" (XIV century), whose origins are mysterious and not properly documented.

  11. Effect of genotype, gender and feed restriction on growth, meat quality and the occurrence of white striping and wooden breast in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocino, A; Piccirillo, A; Birolo, M; Radaelli, G; Bertotto, D; Filiou, E; Petracci, M; Xiccato, G

    2015-12-01

    Due to their importance for the control of meat quality in broiler chickens, the present study aimed at identifying the factors associated with the occurrence of myopathies and characterizing the meat properties when affected by myopathies. To this aim, a total of 768 broiler chickens were reared until slaughter (46 d) to evaluate the effect of genotype, gender, and feeding regime (ad libitum vs. restricted rate, 80% from 13 to 21 d of age) on performance and meat quality. Standard broilers were heavier (3,270 vs. 3,139 g; P<0.001) and showed lower feed conversion (1.56 vs. 1.61; P<0.001) than the high-yield broilers. Males showed higher final live weight (3,492 vs. 2,845 g) and lower feed conversion (1.54 vs. 1.63) than females (P<0.001). Feed restriction decreased final live weight (3,194 vs. 3,142 g; P<0.01) and feed conversion (1.60 vs. 1.57; P<0.01) compared to ad libitum feeding. At gross examination, feed restriction tended to increase white-striped breasts (69.5 vs. 79.5%; P<0.10), whereas females showed less wooden breasts than males (8.0 vs. 16.3%; P<0.05). White-striped fillets had higher pHu (5.87 vs. 5.83), and lower a* (-0.81 vs. -0.59) and b* color indexes (13.7 vs. 14.5) (P<0.05), whereas wooden breast fillets exhibited higher cooking losses (25.6 vs. 22.1%) and AK-shear force (4.23 vs. 2.84 kg/g) compared with normal fillets (P<0.001). At histological examination, 3.1% of pectoralis major were normal, 26.6% mildly degenerated, 45.3% moderately degenerated, and 25.0% severely degenerated. In conclusion, genotype had a moderate effect on growth without modifying myopathy occurrence. In contrast, gender and feed restriction affected performance, meat quality, and breast abnormalities. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. 我国木质家具出口市场结构的实证分析%An Empirical Analysis of China's Wooden Furniture Export Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高广茂; 程宝栋; 田园; 苏佑佳

    2012-01-01

    Irrational export market structure is an important factor restricting sustainability of China's foreign trade in wooden furniture.This paper conducted an empirical analysis of China's wooden furniture export market using HH index,H index and E index.The research results indicated that,in China,the wooden furniture export market concentration has been increasingly optimized,export market diversity gradually shaped and export market evenness has been increased in the process of improvement.The research results could provide a scientific basis for policy adjustments of China's wooden furniture export market.%出口市场结构不合理是制约我国木质家具对外贸易可持续发展的重要影响因素。利用出口市场集中度指数、出口市场多样性指数、出口市场均匀度指数,文中对我国木质家具出口市场结构进行实证分析。研究结果表明,我国木质家具出口市场集中度不断降低,出口市场多元化正在形成,出口市场均匀度不断提高。研究结论可以为我国木质家具出口市场政策的调整提供科学依据。

  13. 佤族木鼓文化中女性身体的社会性别分析%Gender Analysis of Female Bodies in the Wooden Drum Culture of Wa People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马祯

    2015-01-01

    木鼓崇拜是历史上佤文化的重要内容,在佤族社会中扮演着重要角色。木鼓起源神话、木鼓形制、木鼓祭祀女神、拉木鼓仪式中猎女人头等均与女性有关。整个木鼓崇拜中女性无处不在。通过对木鼓文化的人类学分析,揭示木鼓文化背后的社会性别象征,探讨佤族社会的女性观念,进而反观社会性别研究中对女性身体的讨论。%Wooden drum worship is very important of Wa culture in history.The origin of wooden drama myths,drum shape,the sacrifice to the Goddess,hunting women in drum ceremonies were related to women.Wa peoples'drum culture was closely related to women,especially their bodies.This paper trying to reveals the concept of women and gender symbol in the wooden drum cul-ture through an anthropological perspective and,in turn,to discuss the female body in the social gen-der studies.

  14. 有留守经历大学生抑郁和社交焦虑--希望和良好寝室关系的保护作用%On the Depression and Social Anxiety of College Students with Life-behind Experiences:The Protective Effect of Hope and Favorable Bedroom Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡繁; 徐学俊

    2014-01-01

    Through a questionnaire survey of 315 college stu-dents having leftbehind experiences,this paper studied the mental health status of them and verified the protective effect of the sense of hope and good bedroom relationship on their men-tal health. The results show that: a good bedroom relationship has a protective effect on depression and social anxiety; sense of hope can adjust and improve the effect of bedroom relation-ship on social anxiety, but the regulatory role for depression is not obvious.%通过对315名有留守经历大学生的问卷调查,考察了有留守经历大学生的心理健康状况,并验证了希望感和良好寝室关系对其心理健康的保护效应。结果发现:良好寝室关系对抑郁和社交焦虑有保护效应;希望感可以调节改善寝室关系对社交焦虑的影响,对抑郁的调节作用不明显。

  15. 秦皇岛滨海湿地木栈道使用后评价%Post Occupancy Evaluation of Coastal Wooden Plank in Qinhuangdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      运用使用后评价的理论,对秦皇岛滨海湿地木栈道进行深入调查研究,从使用方式、游憩服务设施、环境和管理维护4个方面进行评价,并提出场地优化策略。结果显示,滨海湿地木栈道具有很高的休闲游憩、生态保护、环境教育价值,使用者总体评价较高。%Based on the theory of Post Occupancy Evaluation, a thorough investigation was conducted in the coastal wooden plank of Qinhuangdao. From four aspects of use method, service facilities, environment and maintenance, review was made and strategies were proposed to optimize the site. The results showed that the seashore wood trail had significant value in recreation, ecological protection, environmental education and high prize from users.

  16. Occupational asthma caused by samba (Triplochiton scleroxylon wood dust in a professional maker of wooden models of airplanes: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Krawczyk-Szulc

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Wood dust is a known occupational allergen that may induce, in exposed workers, respiratory diseases including asthma and allergic rhinitis. Samba (obeche, Triplochiton scleroxylon is a tropical tree, which grows in West Africa, therefore, Polish workers are rarely exposed to it. This paper describes a case of occupational asthma caused by samba wood dust. Material and Methods: The patient with suspicion of occupational asthma due to wood dust was examined at the Department of Occupational Diseases and Clinical Toxicology in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine. Clinical evaluation included: analysis of occupational history, skin prick tests (SPT to common and occupational allergens, determination of serum specific IgE to occupational allergens, serial spirometry measurements, metacholine challenge test and specific inhalation challenge test with samba dust. Results: SPT and specific serum IgE assessment revealed sensitization to common and occupational allergens including samba. Spirometry measurements showed mild obstruction. Metacholine challenge test revealed a high level of bronchial hyperactivity. Specific inhalation challenge test was positive and cellular changes in nasal lavage and induced sputum confirmed allergic reaction to samba. Conclusions: IgE mediated allergy to samba wood dust was confirmed. This case report presents the first documented occupational asthma and rhinitis due to samba wood dust in wooden airplanes model maker in Poland.

  17. A study of the Chinese organic-inorganic hybrid sealing material used in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient wooden ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Shiqiang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang, Hui [Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhang, Bingjian, E-mail: zhangbiji@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wei, Guofeng [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Guoqing [Museum of Overseas Communication History Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhou, Yang [China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou 310002 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic-inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca{sup 2+} from the Ca(OH){sub 2} and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  18. 浅谈木寨岭隧道施工中的问题%Mainly Talks About the Wooden Village Construction of the Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙高磊; 李皓玮; 刘明道; 刘之葵

    2016-01-01

    Through analyzing the working conditions and the main geological characteristics of the Wood Village Ridge Tunnel, introduce lanzhou-chongqing railway wooden village ridge of the problems in the tunnel construction, combining with engineering examples, the article analyses the collapsed tunnel and the reason for the large soft rock deformation, and aimed at these problems puts forward the reasonable and effective construction suggestions, provide reference for similar tunnel projects in the future.%通过剖析木寨岭隧道的工况以及主要地质特征,介绍兰渝铁路木寨岭隧道施工中遇到的问题,结合工程实例分析了隧道产生塌方以及软岩大变形的原因,并针对这些问题提出了合理、有效的施工建议,为今后类似的隧道工程提供借鉴。

  19. Wooden Veneered Plywood Color and Visual Emotional Effect Analysis%木质饰面胶合板材色与视觉情感效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄赟; 武恒

    2015-01-01

    Wooden veneered plyw ood is a kind of very effective means w hich human reasonably use woodiness adornment material .Its warm color is very close to the human in emotion .In this paper , made the color sample to the market common plywood by using computer digital image processing technology ,from the perspective of chromatology ,summed up to six different chromaticity color emo‐tional effect of plywood ,and discussing the instance of visual emotional characteristics in interior de‐sign .Providing a scientific and reasonably select and use plywood proposal to create a more comforta‐ble and healthy living environment .%木质饰面胶合板是人类合理利用木质装饰材料的一种非常有效的手段,其温暖的材色在感情上十分贴近人类,本文对市场常见的木质饰面胶合板作了色彩取样,从色彩学的角度总结出六种不同色度木质饰面胶合板的色彩情感效应,并结合实例探讨了其在室内设计中的视觉情感特征。为创造更舒适、健康的生活环境提供科学合理的选材用材方案。

  20. Surface Resistance of Decorative Veneer on Wooden Door Surface by Electrostatic Spraying%静电喷涂木门装饰薄木的表面电阻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓锰; 张占宽; 李博

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic spraying technology has been applied in wooden door production for many years. Surface resistance of decorative veneer on a wood composite door surface can affect the quality of electrostatic spraying. Four species of decorative veneers which are commonly used for wood composite door surface decoration were selected, and then effects of moisture content and measuring length of the veneers on surface resistance were evaluated. The results showed that surface resistance of the veneers decreased with increased moisture content and increased with extended measuring length under the same moisture content.%静电喷涂技术在木门制造中的应用方兴未艾,实木复合门表层装饰薄木的表面电阻值直接影响静电喷涂效果。以实木复合门常用的4个树种装饰薄木为对象,探究其含水率和测量长度对表面电阻值的影响。结果表明:装饰薄木含水率越高,其表面电阻越小;在同样含水率条件下,测量长度越大,其表面电阻越大。

  1. 几种木质地板的差热特性分析%The differential thermal analysis on several kinds of wooden floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗静; 樊刚; 郑艳琼; 李智; 崔飞

    2012-01-01

    The Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) was used to analysis the combustion performance of several kinds of wooden floor with 9 samples, and standard curve of temperature was used too. The results indicated that complex floors had no great difference in combustion performance, but the wood floors' caloric characteristic had much difference. The thermal effects and fire risk of composite floors were higher than that of wood floors.%应用差热分析手段比较几种木质地板的燃烧性能.选用9种试样,采用标准升温曲线进行差热试验.试验表明:复合地板燃烧性能区别不大,而实木地板由于所选木材种类等因素的不同,其热特征有很大区别.复合地板热效应及火灾危险性高于实木地板.

  2. Study on the benefits of using the date palm trees residuals in Saudi Arabia for development of the non-traditional wooden industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulman, H. A.; Metwally, M. Nabil; Alhazmi, M. W.

    2017-02-01

    The average world consumption of wood is about 22million tones/year (Faostat,2013), representing about 50% of the total world raw materials, which represents great challenge to find out alternative sources, and the agricultural residues can share strongly in this field. Important interest was paid to the palm trees residues, such as the "date palm leaves midrib" (DPLM), leaflets, coir and spadix stems, as DPLM after drying, which can be used as an industrial substitute of raw wooden materials particularly for the manufacture of particle boards. The Kingdom of Saudi-Arabia has the date palm trees as the third place in the world after Iran and Iraq, while Islamic and Arabic countries represent more than 92% of the world date palms. Local date palms increased from 17.5 million in 1995 to about 32 million in 2014, which may save about 15% of KSA wood imports (2.5 million tons costing about 5730 SR millions, saving about SR million 855/year according to 2014 prices), with 10 pruned &dried DPLMs /tree/year, if it is used only for particle board manufacture. The study includes a survey of the KSA wood imports; the dominant species of palms and their numbers, meteorological conditions, evaluation of DPLM drying rate in open air under the effect of solar radiation, achieving final moisture content of 8-12% in about 4 weeks. Also measurements of the mechanical properties of the dried Saudi DPLM samples approved the excellent mechanical properties as well as Beech and Spruce woods.

  3. 济南木质藤本植物种类分析与评价研究%ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT RESEARCH FOR JINAN'S WOODEN CLIMBING PLANTS SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕德宇; 吉文丽

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of Jinan's wooden climbing plants resources, according to the Fuzzy Clustering Analysis method,this article divided 26 kinds of Jinan's climbing plants into 6 classes, adopting the ornamental characteristics, application in landscape,growth condition,adaptability and types evaluation index. These 6 classes are ‘Ornamental type', ‘Wild Plants Promotion type', ‘Evergreen type', ‘Universal type', ‘Introduction and Acclimatization type' and ‘Microclimate Protection type'. At the same time,we also give an analysis of the 6 classes' service conditions, and the foundation analysis of city climbing plants modes.%在对济南市木质藤本植物资源的调查基础上,将济南市26种木质藤本植物的观赏特性、园林应用状况、适生性、生长状况与类型五项指标进行量化,采用聚类分析的方法,将济南市木质藤本植物划分为园林观赏型、野生推广型、常绿型、普及型、引种驯化型、小气候保护型,并对这六类植物在城市中的应用状况进行系统分析与说明,为济南市藤本植物绿化提供借鉴与参考.

  4. The Hui Architectural Phenomenon Analysis based on the Traditional Wooden Space: A Case Study of Traditional Wooden Mosque of Ningxia Hui Nationality%基于传统木构空间的回族建筑现象解析——以宁夏回族传统木构清真寺为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕宁娜

    2013-01-01

    In China,the mosque as a typical representative of the Islamic Architecture,along with the process of the introduction and spread of Islam,experienced four periods of transplant,formed,high tide,stagnation and recession.Mosque in China has designed withthe basic rules of the World Islamic Architecture,at the same time,the formation of a unique shape and style are different from those of other religious buildings.Ningxia as the only largest Muslim population settlements,due to its unique geographical environment,sociocultural and religious history,traditional building skills and other reasons,makes the region Hui mosque have showed the significant differences with other regions.The paper selects Ningxia traditional wooden mosque building as an object of study,analyzes the monomer building space from the overall layout,timber frame and technology.It reveals a tradifional wooden frame of the Ningxia Hui mosques architectural features,provides evidence for protection and inheritance Hui wooden architecture,space design practices and reference in the Ningxia region.%在中国,伊斯兰教建筑的典型代表——清真寺,随着伊斯兰教的传入,在传播的过程中,经历了移植、形成、高潮、停滞衰退等四个时期.中国清真寺建筑在遵循了世界伊斯兰教建筑的基本规则的同时,形成了有别于其他宗教建筑的独有形制和风格.宁夏作为全国唯一的、最大的回族人口聚居地,由于其独特的地理环境、社会文化、宗教历史、传统建筑技艺等原因,使得该地区的回族清真寺表现出与其他地区显著的差异.该文选取宁夏境内传统木构清真寺建筑作为研究对象,从总体布局、单体建筑空间、木构架技术等方面对其进行深入解析,揭示了宁夏回族传统木构架清真寺建筑特征,为宁夏地区保护与传承回族木构建筑技术、空间设计手法等提供实证与参考.

  5. Comparison between different methods for inspection of wooden poles in service in electricity distribution networks; Comparacao entre diferentes metodos de inspecao de postes de madeira em servico em redes de distribuicao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, M.A.O.; Pires, M.; Dedavid, B.A.; Vidor, F.L.R.; Oliveira, W.S.; Abruzzi, R.C. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia e Tecnologia de Materiais (PGETEMA)], Email: mpires@pucrs.br

    2010-07-01

    The pole is the main support structure of the electric network and should be inspected regularly to ensure system security. The aim of this study is to compare traditional and instrumental inspection methods of the wooden poles in service in AES Sul power distribution network (Montenegro, RS). The inspections were conducted in about 180 poles in two measurement campaigns (2001 and 2010). The procedure was based on the traditional inspection (visual inspection, percussion and effort lateral) and instrumental method based on Polux equipment that measures the penetration resistance and moisture content of wood. The results were compared in search of assertiveness of the methods used to subsidize the standardization of inspection procedures. (author)

  6. Development of base-isolation system for lightweight structure. Rubber bearing isolation with soft landing system applied to 2-story wooden structure; Keiryo kozobutsuyo menshin system no kaihatsu. Mokuzo nikaidate sakagura kenchiku ni tekiyoshita soft landing menshin koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramura, A.; Nobara, A.; Inaba, S.; Tanaka, K.; Manbo, H. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-10

    When a laminated rubber bearing base-isolation system is used in a lightweight structure, it is difficult to ensure that the rubber bearing can withstand larger deformation and longer period. This report describes the application of a laminated rubber bearing and soft landing system to a 2-story wooden structure. The soft landing system can prevent buckling of the laminated rubber bearing in case of strong earthquake motion, which was confirmed by earthquake response analysis. As a result, the seismic performance of the structure and the effect of the soft landing system were verified. (author)

  7. 木质渔船对低碳渔业负面影响的量化估算%Estimation to quantify the negative effect on the "Low-Carbon Fisheries" brought by the wooden fishing vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祝利; 郑熠

    2011-01-01

    依据渔船能耗与节能技术调研提供的数据资料,将木质渔船的建造和使用对我国低碳渔业的负面影响进行量化估算.得出我国建造木质渔船大约已消耗木材5 600×10m,已破坏森林42×10hm,建造木质渔船对碳储量的消耗量约为1 680×10t.相对于钢质渔船,木质渔船每年因能耗高而多消耗燃油95×10t,增加的碳排放量约为81×10 t,增加的二氧化碳排放量约为297×10t,约占全国渔船总碳排放量的12%.增加的二氧化碳排放量需要约1.2万亩(1亩约合667 m)森林吸收10年.指出木质渔船从建造到使用,对我国低碳渔业建设的负面影响十分巨大.%According to the data of fishing boats' power consumption and energy-saving technology during 2008 to 2009 provided by Fishery Machinery and Instrument Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, the estimation to quantify the negative effect on our country' s “low-carbon fisheries” brought by the construction and usage of the wooden fishing vessels are given. Hence a conclusion can be drawn: the wood used for our country' s wooden fishing vessels is about 5 600 × 104 m3, about 42 × 104 hm2 forest got destroyed. The consumption of carbon sink is about 1 680 × 104 t. Compared to steel vessels, 95 × 104 t additional oil is used up and 81 × 104 t additional carbon emissions and 297 × 104 t CO2 emissions are increased, since the higher power consumption of wooden fishing vessel, rating 12% of fishing vessel carbon emission. Additional CO2 emissions have to be absorbed by 1.2 × 104 mu( lmu =667 m2) forest within 10 years. Based on the investigation, the construction and usage of wooden fishing vessel has a lot negative effect to the development of our “low-carbon fisheries”.

  8. Current Status and Main Restrictions of Wooden Door Industry in China%我国木质门行业现状与主要发展制约因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱一军; 付跃进; 王彩霞

    2013-01-01

    简要介绍我国木质门生产现状和企业近况,分析制约我国木质门行业发展的主要因素,并提出改进建议与措施,以促进我国木质门行业的健康、快速发展.%The authors summarized the current status of wooden door industry in China,analyzed the main existing restrictions for further development and made countermeasure suggestions in order to promote the industry to further develop sustainably and healthily.

  9. 祁门县文堂村木活字印刷技艺调查研究%The Research of the Wooden Movable Type Printing Craftsmanship from Wentang Village Qimen County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓阳; 吴丹彤

    2013-01-01

    木活字印刷术自发明以来,流布甚广,代有传承,时有创新。通过实地考察,对文堂村木活字印刷者所供奉的神祇、印刷物料、排版工具、刷墨工具以及印刷技艺等进行了较为深入的研究。指出文堂村木活字印刷技艺具有一定地方特色,部分工具与技艺具有独特性,是一种值得传承与保护的现存木活字印刷技艺之一。%The wooden movable type printing has been spread, succeeded and innovated since it was invented. According to review on the spot and research into the shrine, printing material, typesetting and brushing ink tool as well as the printing craftsmanship. Researchers came to the conclusion that the wooden movable type printing from 文堂village祁门county has some local color and particularity. It deserve protection and succession.

  10. On features of wooden carving art of ancient residential building decoration at Hong Village%论宏村古民居建筑装饰中木雕艺术特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何慧群; 邹伟民

    2012-01-01

    对宏村建筑装饰中木雕的艺术形态进行了分析,指出主观写意性是它的艺术特征之一,表现方式源于绘画图式的再现,以儒家伦理为中心的美学思想已深深渗透于宏村古民居木雕装饰艺术中,形成与民俗文化的融合形态。%The paper analyzes the artistic form of the wooden carving in the architectural decoration at Hongcun Village; indicates the subjective freehand brushwork is one of its artistic features, indicates its manifestation is the reflection of the mapping patterns, and explains the aesthetic idea centered on the Confucius ethics is leaked into the decoration art of the wooden carving at ancient residence at Hong Village, so it is the combination with the folk culture.

  11. Development of Computerized Machine for Cutting and Drilling Wooden Door Frame%木门门框角部加工专用数控锯钻机的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚遥; 姚永和; 张占宽; 李伟光

    2013-01-01

    为解决木门产业发展与机械化制造水平的矛盾,根据木门制造企业对门框加工装备的实际要求,研究机床的技术方案、参数、结构以及U型锯切技术,开发集锯切、钻削于一体的数控门框角部锯钻专用装备.一次装夹定位可完成45°角部定长锯切、定位孔以及连接件安装孔加工等工序,适用于不同种类、规格门框的加工.%The authors developed a numerical control machine for cutting and drilling door frame components based on the actual requirements for processing wooden door frames.Advanced computerized control techniques were used to set sawing and drilling patterns with a single clamping position.The machine was capable of making different wooden door frames.

  12. Africa’s wooden elephant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebauer, Jens; Adam, Yahia O.; Cuni Sanchez, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Wild edible fruits hold great potential for improving human diets, especially in agricultural societies of the developing world. In Africa, a well-known supplier of such fruits is the baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae), one of the most remarkable trees of the world. Several studies in diff...

  13. 活化工艺对木质活性炭纤维结构和碘吸附性能的影响%Effect of activation technology on wooden activated carbon fiber structure and iodine adsorption property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬娜; 马晓军

    2013-01-01

    以杉木为原料,经苯酚液化、熔融纺丝、固化处理后,CO2活化制备出木质活性炭纤维,利用扫描电镜、拉曼光谱、比表面积测定对其形态结构进行了表征,并研究了活化工艺因素对其碘吸附性能的影响。结果表明,木质活性炭纤维的表面平滑,断面呈圆形;500℃以上的木质活性炭纤维拉曼图谱都出现炭材料典型的D峰和G 峰,且随着活化温度的提高,其石墨微晶尺寸La 逐渐增大,R 值逐渐减小;木质活性炭纤维的孔结构主要以微孔为主,其微孔率达到90%,只存在少许的中孔结构。随活化温度和活化剂用量的增加,木质活性炭纤维的碘吸附值明显增加,其收率随活化温度的升高呈现降低趋势;当活化时间增加到40min时,木质活性炭纤维的碘吸附值达到最大,而后降低。%After melt-spinning by adding hexamethylenetetramine and the curing treatment,wooden activated carbon fibers are prepared from the phenolated Chinese fir (cunninghamia lanceolata)using CO2 activation,the microstructure characterization was investigated by SEM,Raman spectroscopy and BET specific surface area, and the effects of activation processes on iodine adsorption properties also are studied.The results show that wooden activated carbon fibers have smooth surface and a circular cross-section;when activating temperature reaches 500℃,Raman spectroscopy shows typical D peak and G peak of carbon materials,and the crystallite si-zes La increases and the value of the disordering R decreases with the activating temperature increasing;wooden activated carbon fibers have the highest micropores content of 90% and a little mesopores.Iodine adsorption of wooden activated carbon fibers increases significantly with the activating temperature and the flow rate of CO2 increasing,but the yield decreases with the activating temperature;iodine adsorption of wooden activated car-bon fibers was found to be maximum at the activating time 40

  14. 小木球在固液两相流中上升规律研究及Magnus力测量%Research on rising motion rule of wooden ball in solid-liquid two-phase flow and its Magnus force measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维仲; 姜远新

    2011-01-01

    The freely rising rule and Magnus force of different wooden balls rising in the static liquid were investigated using computer image processing technology and visual experiments. The results show that both the vertical and horizontal velocities of different wooden balls reach stable maximums in a short time after the wooden balls begin to rise, then the wooden balls keep rising with this maximum. The value of Magnus force is calculated by measuring the vertical and horizontal and spinning angle velocities of the wooden bails at the stable stage.%提出了一种可视化实验和计算机图像处理技术,目的是研究小木球在静止液体中自由上升的规律和测量Magnus力的大小.实验结果表明,不同小木球在开始上升后的很短时间内,水平方向和竖直方向的速度分量都会达到一个稳定的最大值,随后以这个最大速度匀速上升.小木球处于稳定上升阶段时所受Magnus力的大小是在对小木球的竖直方向和水平方向速度分量的大小及小木球自旋角速度大小测量之后通过计算得到的.

  15. Influence of wooden materials and inflaming retarding agents on the properties of particleboard panel%木质原料和阻燃剂对刨花板性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓平; 吴章康; 刘刚连; 邹全; 张清伟

    2014-01-01

    分析了5种不同阻燃剂( FR-A、FR-B、FR-C、FR-D、FR-E)、阻燃剂添加量(6%、8%、10%、12%)以及2种不同木质原料(木材刨花和工业大麻秆)对刨花板物理力学性能和燃烧性能的影响。结果表明:阻燃剂对板材的物理力学性能可产生不利影响,但随着阻燃剂添加量的增加,板材的氧指数增加,烟密度等级变小;工业大麻秆刨花板的氧指数和烟密度等级均小于木材刨花板。试验表明,阻燃剂FR-A和FR-B适合用于制备工业大麻秆阻燃刨花板,阻燃剂FR-C、FR-D和FR-E适合用于制备木材阻燃刨花板,即木质原料的物理结构以及阻燃剂化学成分对刨花板的物理力学性能和燃烧性能影响较大。%To confirm the influence of different wooden materials and inflaming retarding agents on the properties of par-ticleboard panel and manufacture the fire-retarding particleboard panel with better properties for reducing the harm due to the fire indoor. Influences of five kinds of fire-retarding agents ( FR-A, FR-B, FR-C, FR-D and FR-E) and their differ-ent added amount ( 6%, 8%, 10% and 12%) and two kinds of wooden materials ( wooden particles and hemp-shiv par-ticles) on the physical properties, mechanical properties and inflaming properties of the particleboard panels were inves-tigated to provide the information for manufacturing particle board panels with better inflaming retarding properties. The results showed that the fire-retarding agents, additive amount and wooden materials all had great influences on the physi-cal, mechanical and inflaming properties of particle board panels. The fire-retarding agents had disadvantageous influence on the physical and mechanical properties of particle panels and those were worse with the additive amount of fire-retarding agents increasing from 6% to 12%. Besides, as the additive amount of fire-retarding agents increased, the oxygen index ( OI) increased and the smoking

  16. The application of low-field MRI in the diagnosis of wooden or bamboo foreign bodies in limbs%低场MRI在四肢木、竹类异物诊治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开平; 陈莉; 孙先普; 窦斌; 陈为霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical value of low field MRI in the diagnosis of wooden or bamboo foreign bodies in limbs.Methods:Low field MRI of 27 pieces of wooden or bamboo foreign bodies in 15 patients were performed and confirmed by surgery.MRI pulse sequences included SE T1 WI、FSE T2 WI、STIR and GRE T2 *WI.Results:Of the 27 pieces of foreign bodies,13 were detected on SE-T1 WI,22 were detected on FSE-T2 WI,27 were detected on STIR,26 were detec-ted on GRE T2 *WI.The detection rates of FSE T2 WI、STIR、GRE T2 *WI were higher than SE T1 WI.The detection rate of SE T1 WI was higher than FSE T2 WI.The detection rates of SE T1 WI and GRE T2 *WI were higher than FSE T2 WI and STIR.Conclusion:MRI is an effective method in detection of wooden or bamboo foreign bodies.STIR and GRE T2 *WI is the most sensitive sequence in detection of such foreign bodies,while STIR is most sensitive in the detection of the changes around foreign bodies.Scanning of bilateral limbs for comparison is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis.%目的:探讨低场 MRI在四肢木、竹类异物诊治中的应用价值。方法:回顾性分析本院2007年-2013年行MRI检查并经手术探查取出四肢木、竹类异物的15例患者(27块异物)的临床和 MRI 资料,15例均行 SE T1 WI、FSE T2 WI、STIR及GRE T2*WI扫描,分析比较4种序列对异物及周围改变的显示情况。结果:15例患者的27块异物中,SE T1 WI显示13块,FSE T2 WI显示22块,STIR显示27块,GRE T2*WI显示26块。FSE T2 WI、STIR、GRE T2*WI对异物显示率高于SE T1 WI。SE T1 WI对出血的显示率高于FSE T2 WI。SE T1 WI 和GRE T2*WI 对挫伤的显示率均低于FSE T2 WI和STIR。结论:MRI是检出四肢木、竹类异物十分有效的方法,STIR和GRE T2*WI是检出异物最敏感的序列,STIR是显示异物周围改变最敏感的序列,综合运用多种序列可提高异物的检出率,为避免漏诊、误诊应行双侧对比检查。

  17. 探析云南佤族木鼓文化与民族武术文化的符号之缘%Analysis of the Relations between the Wooden-drum Culture of YunNan Wa Nationality and National Wushu Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹龙飞

    2012-01-01

      The article analyzes the cultural factors of Wa Nationality wooden-drum culture in Yunnan comprehensively in the views of anthropology, sociology and folklore. The study finds that there are special symbols of the wooden-drum culture and the national Wushu culture on the edge.%  文章从人类学、社会学、民俗学的角度,对云南佤族木鼓文化因子进行了较为全面、系统的分析。经研究后发现,佤族木鼓文化的孕育、形成与民族武术文化的发展有着特质性的符号之缘。

  18. Heat transfer through a well insulated external wooden frame wall. An investigation of the effects of normal defects in the insulation resulting from incident wind and air flow through the wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roots, P.

    1997-05-01

    The heat requirement of a building can turn out to be greater than was calculated at the design stage. The reason for this may be that heat transport through the building envelope is greater than expected. This in turn can be due to the structure not fulfilling the design requirements in respect to windtightness and airtightness. In addition, there may be defects in the quality of the workmanship of the insulation that significantly reduce the thermal resistance of the external wall. The objective of this investigation has been to ascertain how normal variations in the insulation can affect heat transport through a well-insulated wooden frame external wall under the influences of incident wind or wind flow through the wall. These `normal variations` have been taken to be the presence of electrical conduits, breaks in the insulation, airgaps and nogging pieces, either singly or in combination. For incident wind, measurements in a hotbox and theoretical simulations have shown that the presence of electrical conduits, breaks in the insulation, airgaps or nogging pieces in a well-insulated wooden frame external wall, whether singly or in combination, have negligible effect on thermal transport when subjected to incidnet wind. Heat transport is affected, however, by the presence of a break in the insulation: the combination of electrical conduits, airgaps, a nogging piece and a 16 mm gap in the insulation increased the U-value of the wall by 0.028 W/(m{sup 2.}K) at the most. Measuring the effects of a flow of air through the insulation involved simulating a break in the air seal. A pressure difference of between 10 Pa and 20 Pa was established, causing air to flow from the cold side to the warm side. Measurements and calculations have shown that normal variations in the insulation have a negligible effect on the transmission losses on the cold side, due to the heat exchange effect of the insulation, which raises the temperature of the air flowing through it. This has

  19. Study on shape and structure of rotten wooden artifacts excavated in Gansu,China%甘肃出土糟朽木器的形态与结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庚龄

    2012-01-01

    The wooden artifacts excavated in Gansu are typical rotted wooden objects,based on the shapes and structures of the wood.The woods used were identified as wood from Picea spp.,Sabina spp.and Abies spp.Based on the shape,structure,and effecting issues the wooden artifacts,it is concluded that after the first fundamental change,when the wood moisture content was well below the fiber saturation point,the artifacts experienced a second fundamental change stage,when wood moisture content was close or slightly higher than the moisture content balance point.The change during the second stage is devastating for the artifacts.The microstructure of the wood was observed by cross-sectional microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy.These results match those of the different decay stages of the objects.A piece of coffin wood excavated with other rotted wood artifacts was selected as a research control subject to measure its chemical compositions,volume,weight,moisture content and mechanical properties.It was found that: more than 50% of the wood fiber had degraded and that the wood had a moisture content of 10.5%.In addition,the wood's mechanical properties have declined significantly,with its density being about 60% that of normal density of the wood.It is concluded that: 1) the shape and structural condition of the rotted wood match its condition as observed by the cross-sectional method and SEM;measurement of the material composition,volume,weight and mechanical properties provide solid support for the analytical results;2) the main cause of the shape and structural change of the rotted wood is its wood moisture content,a value that changes with the surrounding environment and reflects the material properties of the rotted wood;3) the fiber saturation and moisture content balance points are very important physical parameters that could affect the shape and structure of the wooden artifact;4) depending on the properties of the rotted wood artifacts

  20. The pilot of one fire retardant liquid's application on varnish contiguous wooden houses%某阻燃液对木质结构房屋应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锦; 傅勤勇; 孟繁茂

    2012-01-01

    One fire retardant liquid was taken as flame retardant treatment in one varnish contiguous wooden houses (village). The preparation method and the fire retardant mechanism of fire retardant liquid were introduced; the national administration' s test results of this liquid were given and the method and procedure of this fire retardant liquid in Shilong village in Kaili City were introduced. The samples took from the villages which were taken flame retardant treatment by this fire retardant liquid were tested in the fire product quality supervision and inspection station in Guizhou province, and the result is that the samples' combustion performance reached the level B1.%采用某阻燃液对连片木质结构房屋(村寨)进行阻燃处理.介绍该阻燃液及阻燃清漆的制备方法、阻燃机理,国家检验机构的检验结果以及该阻燃液应用于凯里市寨石龙寨的实施方法及工序.从试点村寨抽取经该阻燃液阻燃处理的木质板材等样品,经贵州省消防产品质量监督检验站检测,其燃烧性能均达到B1级.

  1. Precise Design of Low High-density Housing the Main Bedroom Bed Space--Taking " Chengdu Long Lake Horse Heaven " Project " A1 Model " as an Example%低层高密度住宅主卧室就寝空间精细化设计初探--以“成都龙湖•牧马天堂”项目“A1套型”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江亮

    2013-01-01

      随着人们生活水平的提高以及资源的相对稀缺,低层高密度住宅逐渐成为建筑市场上的中高端产品。其主卧室就寝空间更被主人赋予功能和心理上的诸多需求。引入精细化设计的思想,可以使得就寝空间能更好地满足居住者多方面的需求。本文以笔者参与的实际案例为依据,对低层高密度住宅主卧室就寝空间的精细化设计进行了初探。%Along with the relative scarcity of the improveme-nt of people's living standard and resources, low high-density housing gradual y become the high-end products in the constr-uction market. The master bedroom bed space is more many needs master gives function and psychological. The introducti-on of fine design ideas can make the sleep space bet er meet the residents’ needs. In this paper the author participated in the actual case as the basis, the precise design of low high-densit-y housing the main bedroom bed space were studied prelimina-rily.

  2. The Poetic Space Adorned by Myths: on the Mythic Implication in Farewell on the Wooden Bridge%用神话装点的诗意空间——《板桥晓别》的神话蕴藉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜莹

    2012-01-01

    Farewell on the Wooden Bridge, one of Li Shangyin's poems, creates not only a sad and blurred atmosphere, but also a fantastic and gorgeous poetic flavor. The wonderful myth, full of fancy and romantic sentimental tone, relieves the poet's great pressure from the real world, so it is the artistic expression of his living condition. Tile value order in the myth, contrary to that of the real world, is constructed in accordance with the poeth free will and reveals his rich and sensitive emotion and his noble and straight personality. The poet insists on his independerce in spirit in life and listens to the reasonable and romantic literature voice inherited from great scholars as Qu Yuan, Li Key Bai and Li He, etc%李商隐《板桥晓别》诗营造了凄艳、迷离的氛围,用神话典故虚拟了一个奇幻绚丽的诗意空间,优美的神话典事消解了来自现实生活强大的压力感,充满了轻松浪漫的情趣,李商隐在晚唐颓流中保持了自主的立场,神话世界所体现的价值序列是诗人按照自由意志建构起来的,完全与世俗的价值观相悖离的,展示了诗人丰富灵敏的心灵场及高洁伟岸的人格。是诗人生存状态的艺术化表现,延续了屈原、李白、李贺等人理性而浪漫的文学精神。

  3. Typical Structural Problems of Wooden Columns in the Ancient Buildings of the Forbidden City%故宫古建木柱典型残损问题分析及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乾

    2015-01-01

    为保护故宫古建筑,采取现场勘查与归纳分析相结合的方法,以故宫古建大木结构的柱子为对象,研究了它们的典型残损问题,并讨论了加固方法。基于这些木柱典型构造和受力特点,归纳了其不同类型的残损问题,就这些问题产生的原因进行了讨论,并相应提出加固的方案或建议。研究得出以下结论:故宫古建木柱典型残损问题有糟朽、开裂、柱顶石风化、加固件松动等,产生这些问题的主要原因与木柱构造特点、施工工艺、构件材料及木柱受力特征等原因相关,采取传统和现代的方法均可实现木柱的有效加固。%To protect the ancient buildings in the Forbidden City ,wooden columns in the Forbidden City were taken as the research subjects .Typical structural problems were studied and strengthening methods were discussed .According to the typical structure and bearing performances of these columns ,the typical structural problems were summed up ,the causes of these problems were discussed ,and the corresponding strengthening advices were proposed .Research results indicate that typical structural problems of these columns are rot ,crack ,stone base weathering ,rust of iron strengthening material and so on ;main causes for these problems are related not only to the constitution ,construction process and the bearing performance of the columns ,but also the material properties of wood ,iron and stone ;by traditional or modern techniques ,the columns can be effectively strengthened .

  4. Influence of stiffness in bolted connections in wooden plane structure of truss type Influência da rigidez de ligações parafusadas em estruturas planas de madeira do tipo treliça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. Christoforo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trusses are structural systems commonly used in projects, being employed mainly in roof structures, present in most rural buildings. The design of trusses, as well as other structural systems, requires the determination of displacements, strains and stresses. However, the project is developed from an ideal model of calculation, considering free rotation between the elements of a connection. This paper presents a computer program for the analysis of bidimensional wooden trusses with connections formed with two screws per node. The formulation is based on the flexibility method, taking into account the influence of the effect of semi-rigid connections formed by two screws. An example of a structure is presented and analyzed by the program developed here, highlighting the importance of behavior analysis on semi-rigid connections.Treliças são sistemas estruturais comumente utilizados em projetos, empregadas principalmente em estruturas de cobertura, presentes na maioria das construções rurais. O dimensionamento de treliças, assim como o de outros sistemas estruturais, requer a determinação dos deslocamentos, esforços, tensões e deformações atuantes em seus elementos constituintes. O cálculo é desenvolvido com base em um modelo ideal, considerando-se o giro livre entre os elementos componentes de uma ligação. Este trabalho objetiva apresentar um programa computacional destinado à análise de treliças planas de madeira com ligações formadas com dois parafusos por nó. A formulação é fundamentada no Método da Flexibilidade, levando-se em consideração a influência do efeito semirrígido das ligações formadas por dois parafusos. Um exemplo de estrutura auxiliar de cobertura é apresentado e analisado pelo programa desenvolvido, evidenciando-se a importância da análise do comportamento semirrígido sobre as ligações.

  5. Penetrating facial injury by a wooden log

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Sadanandan; Varghese, George; Kumar, Sanjay; Subramanian, Dinesh Pambungal

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating facial injuries are potentially dangerous and require emergency management because of the presence of vital structures in the face and it may be life threatening especially when the injury involves airway, major blood vessels, spinal cord and cervical spines. Penetrating injuries of facial region can occur due to missile injuries, blast injuries, accidental fall on sharp objects such as sticks or glass and motor vehicle accidents etc., Indications for immediate surgical management...

  6. Wooden Geometric Puzzles: Design and Hardness Proofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alt, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Kreveld, M.J. van; Rote, G.; Tel, G.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss some new geometric puzzles and the complexity of their extension to arbitrary sizes. For gate puzzles and two-layer puzzles we prove NP-completeness of solving them. Not only the solution of puzzles leads to interesting questions, but also puzzle design gives rise to interesting

  7. Wooden Geometric Puzzles: Design and Hardness Proofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alt, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Kreveld, M.J. van; Rote, G.; Tel, G.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss some new geometric puzzles and the complexity of their extension to arbitrary sizes. For gate puzzles and two-layer puzzles we prove NP-completeness of solving them. Not only the solution of puzzles leads to interesting questions, but also puzzle design gives rise to interesting

  8. Wooden Geometric Puzzles: Design and Hardness Proofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alt, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Kreveld, M.J. van; Rote, G.; Tel, G.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss some new geometric puzzles and the complexity of their extension to arbitrary sizes. For gate puzzles and two-layer puzzles we prove NP-completeness of solving them. Not only the solution of puzzles leads to interesting questions, but also puzzle design gives rise to interesting theoretic

  9. Wooden Geometric Puzzles: Design and Hardness Proofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alt, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Kreveld, M.J. van; Rote, G.; Tel, G.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss some new geometric puzzles and the complexity of their extension to arbitrary sizes. For gate puzzles and two-layer puzzles we prove NP-completeness of solving them. Not only the solution of puzzles leads to interesting questions, but also puzzle design gives rise to interesting theoretic

  10. 几种典型木质地板材料的热重比较实验研究%Experimental study on TGA comparison of several typical wooden flooring materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠; 袁树杰; 何明霞

    2013-01-01

    利用Mettler-Toledo同步热分析仪对市场上利用率比较高的四种木质地板在不同程序控制升温,和不同气氛流量条件下的热解特性进行了研究.同时,为了更好地对地板材料的热解特性进行深入了解,以实木地板为例,验证了升温速率对热分解过程的影响.通过研究发现,四种地板样品的热解过程分为三个阶段,但每个阶段的峰值大小和峰面积各不相同.同时,气氛流量中氧气的参与使热解机理发生改变,反应时间提前,温度升高,热解速度加快.通过对比受热期间的TG、DTG和DSC曲线,确定失重范围,以及各成分的残炭百分比,可以得出四种地板材料试验成分的火灾危险性,即,实木地板的火灾危险性低于其它三种地板材料.%Mattler-Toledo thermal analyzer was applied to analysis the four wooden floors that are widely sold in the supermarket,then the characteristics in the material combusion under different program controlling at the increasing temperature and different atmosphere flow were studied.And at the same time,in order to have a better knowledge of the pyrolysis characteristics of plate material,for example,using the solid wood floor,the influence of heating rate on the thermal decomposition process was verified.Through the research,it showed that the pyrolysis procces of all the four kinds of samples of floor have three stages,but the peak value and peak area of each stage are different.In the air flow,the pyrolysis mechanism can be changed by the oxygen,Which make the reaction time to be in advance,the temperature rise,and the pyrolysis rate increase.By comparing the TG,DTG and DSC curves,the scope of the weightlessness was determined,as well as the composition of carbon residue percentage.Then the fire risk of four components was drawn,that is,the fire risk of solid wood floor is lower than tose of the other three kinds of floor.

  11. 马的意象在中国民俗与神话中的阳性指称——从维尔族民间故事《木马》说开去%Trying to Analyze Masculine Metaphor of the Horses in Chinese Folk Customs and Myths——Talking Uighur Story of Wooden Horse as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞

    2011-01-01

    跨越历史的壁障,我们发现维吾尔族与马之间有着密切的关系。由维吾尔民间故事《木马》说开去,通过探讨一些民俗现象,以及马与龙的关系,由马即是龙,龙主阳,推衍出马在中国民俗与神话中的阳性隐喻。%Looking back in history,we found between Uighur and horses there was a close relationship,through talking from a Uighur story of Wooden Horse,we mainly discuss the relationship between horses and dragons,furthermore,we discover the horses are actually dragons in some extents.Because the dragons have a masculine metaphor,we can infer horses are masculine metaphors in Chinese folk-customs and myths.

  12. Ventilation rates in the bedrooms of 500 Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Lund, Torben; Nors, F.

    2010-01-01

    when the children were sleeping in the room were calculated using a single-zone mass balance for the occupant-generated CO2. The calculated air change rates were log-normally distributed (R-2 > 0.98). The geometric mean of the air change rates in both the case and the base group was 0.46 air changes...... the measured nights. Twenty-three percent of the rooms experienced at least a 20-minute period during the night when the CO2 concentration was above 2000 ppm and 6% of the rooms experienced concentrations above 3000 ppm. The average air change rate was higher with more people sleeping in the room. The air...... the generated CO2 concentrations was found to be between 0% and 51% lower than the total air change rate defined in the input variables for the model. It was, however, higher than the true outside air change rate. The relative error depended on the position of the room in relation to the adjacent rooms...

  13. In the Arab Bedroom: The Sex Life of Arabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, P

    2016-12-01

    The sex life of Arabs is terra incognita for scientists and policy makers. Shereen El Feki's book "Sex and the Citadel" is the first serious attempt to chart sexual intimacy in the rapidly changing Arab world.

  14. More Sleep Time, Less Play Time in America's Bedrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... were younger. "Despite their reputation for hooking up, millennials and the generation after them [known as iGen ... said. "That's partially because fewer iGen'ers and millennials have steady partners." The researchers also found that ...

  15. [Sexuality and trans experiences: from the hospital to the bedroom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Berenice

    2012-10-01

    In the aftermath of studies on masculinity, it is impossible to consider the production of gender identities without linking them to the relationship aspect. This change was due to the incorporation of the relationship perspective in this field of study and criticism of the concept of gender founded upon an alleged concept of femininity and masculinity to create interpretations of the place of bodies in the gender order. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to show how a given concept of gender can render multiple expressions of gender visible, like the trans identities (transsexuals, transvestites, cross dressers, drag queens, drag kings, transgenders) or sublimate them and contribute to their pathologization. The second objective will be to present narratives of trans men and trans women, who will tell us about their sexual experiences. Psycho-physicians contend the non-existence of sexuality in their bodies as being one of the indicators to lead to a diagnosis of transsexualism. I will attempt to argue that the theoretical basis that supports the pathologization of trans identities and the assertion that trans people are asexual is based on a conception that links and renders gender identities conditional upon biological structures.

  16. Analysis on results of occupational health examination among dust-exposed workers in a wooden door manufacturing enterprise%深圳市某木门制造企业接尘工人职业健康检查结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈自然

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析木尘对作业工人的健康损害,探讨健康监护指标.方法 对深圳市某木门制造企业接触木尘作业工人257名及对照组243人进行职业健康检查.结果 接触木粉尘作业工人临床症状以咳嗽、咳痰、气促、胸部不适为主,检出率分别为18.7%、17.9%、19.1%和19.5%;接尘工人肺功能指标FEV1.0、FVC、FEV1.0/FVC分别为(3 124.3 ±432.7)ml、(4 012.6±465.6)ml、(77.9±8.32)ml,明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(t值分别为5.405、3.054、4.122,均P值<0.01),接尘工人肺功能损害随年龄、工龄呈增长而升高,差异有统计学意义(x2值分别为30.142和14.316,均P<0.01);高千伏X线胸片结果显示观察组肺纹理增多增粗比例明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(x2=6.733,P值<0.01).观察组还确诊2例尘肺,5例肺结核;对照组确诊1例肺结核.结论 木尘对作业工人呼吸系统和心血管系统有一定的损害,木粉尘暴露是否可致肺组织纤维化病变仍不确定.%[ Objective] To analyze the damage caused by wood dust in workers, discuss the indexes of health surveillance. [Methods]The occupational health examination was conducted in 257 workers exposed to wood dust and 243 controls in a wooden door manufacturing enterprise of Shenzhen City. [ Results] The clinical symptoms in workers exposed to wood dust mainly included cough, sputum, anhelation and chest discomfort, which the detection rate was 18.7%, 17.9%, 19.1% and 19.5% , respectively. The pulmonary function indexes of FEV1. 0, FVC and FEV1. 0/FVC in dust-exposed workers was respectively (3 124. 3 ±432.7) ml, (4 012.6 ±65.6) ml and (77.9±.32) ml, which was significantly lower than that in the controls (t = 5.405, 3.054,4.122, all P < 0. 01). The level of lung function impairment in dust-exposed workers increased with increasing age and length of service, and the differences were significant (x2 =30.142, 14.316, both P < 0.01). High KV chest

  17. Retailers Enliven Catalog offerings Through Apps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ New York Times reported on November 20 that when you browsed An-thropologie's stores, you would feel as if you're wandering through an artsy home, where there are sure to be closets full of eclectic outfits, bedrooms with bohemi-an quilts and kitchen tables with mismatched dishes.But when you visit its e-commerce site, you get none of that feel; you're just scrolling through an unimaginative grid of clothes worn by wooden mannequins.

  18. 蔽合的“在”与敞开的“无”——以田桑诗歌《藏身于木箱的火》为例%"Being" in Concealment and "Nothingness" in Disclosure ——Fire Hidden in the Wooden Case as a Case in Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海英

    2012-01-01

    悖论元素被看做是构成诗歌文本张力的最重要因素之一,田桑在诗歌《藏身于木箱的火》中则通过对记忆的书写向我们展示出悖论在世界、事物、诗歌与我们个体之间所造成的奇妙关系:诗中事物在逻辑构成上是悖论的,事物本性与人类情感是悖论的,诗对事物的敞开与蔽合之行动永远处在悖论之途中。在他的诗歌中对悖论的言说由诗歌本体延伸到对人类自身现世处境中诸多矛盾现象的思考,并进一步引发了我们对悖论之态度的思考。%Paradoxes are often regarded as one of the most important factors in a poem's tension.Poet TIAN Sang showed us the subtle relationship constructed by paradoxes between the world,things,poetry and human individuals through describing memories in the poem Fire Hidden in the Wooden Case.Paradoxes are ubiquitous in the poem: in physical entities' logic construction,in natural dispositions and human emotions,and in a poem's concealing and disclosing natural phenomena.In his poem,his reflections on paradoxes are extended from poetry ontology to contradictory phenomena of human existence,which further triggers us to dwell on our attitudes towards paradoxes.

  19. Reserch on Technology of Wooden Furniture CAD System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangJiping; HeYulin; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the current situation of domestic furniture production as well as world furniture CAD products,puts forward the necessity of developing a dedicated CAD system_WFCAD and its main functions,It analyzes in detail the applied technology and key techniques,including geometric modeling,assembly,joint design,database linking and management.The application of WFCAD in furniture manufacturing enterprises and its further improvement are outlined.

  20. 77 FR 12437 - Importation of Wooden Handicrafts From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... follows: Heat treatment procedures may employ steam, hot water, kilns, exposure to microwave energy, or..., or dry heat, exposure to microwave energy, or any other method that raises the temperature of the..., not solely consisting of leaves, flowers, fruits, buds, or seeds; bark; cork; laths; hog fuel;...

  1. Urban wooden architecture - traditions and significance / Leele Välja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Välja, Leele, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Miljööväärtuslikust puitarhitektuurist ja selle kaitsest Eestis, selle tähendusest linnakeskkonnale säilitamaks linnas "pehmeid väärtusi" - inimlikke mõõtmeid, õdusust, traditsioone, ajaloolist atmosfääri vastukaaluks tänapäeva tihti kõledale arhitektuurile

  2. 75 FR 57864 - Importation of Wooden Handicrafts from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to ( http://www.regulations.gov/fdmspublic/component/main?main=DocketDetail... manufactured from wood components and on other craft products imported from China. Subsequent to these... in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases and pests...

  3. Urban wooden architecture - traditions and significance / Leele Välja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Välja, Leele, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Miljööväärtuslikust puitarhitektuurist ja selle kaitsest Eestis, selle tähendusest linnakeskkonnale säilitamaks linnas "pehmeid väärtusi" - inimlikke mõõtmeid, õdusust, traditsioone, ajaloolist atmosfääri vastukaaluks tänapäeva tihti kõledale arhitektuurile

  4. Repairing the wooden frame of chambers in coking furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nador, Y.; Iruti, M.; Komiya, S.; Matsuno, T.; Ogavakhara, F.

    1983-02-12

    A method and device are proposed for hot repair of the door frames of coking chanbers. The repair is conducted prior to discharge of the coke from the chamber without its cooling or a reduction in temperature. After the doors are removed, a screening plate fettled with a heat insulation material on the chamber side is introduced into the frame, it is attached to the door frame and the required repair is conducted.

  5. Analysis of Inhalable Dust Produced in Manufacturing of Wooden Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naxin Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To provide an in-depth understanding of preventing occupational diseases and improving working conditions, characteristics of inhalable dust were studied. The results showed that total dust concentration (TDC from mechanical sanding, portable planning and sanding, putty sanding, and painting sanding with inadequate exhaust ventilation were higher than occupational exposure limits (OELs. The more the furniture material was sanded and the worse the dust exhaust apparatus, the higher the TDC was. The TDC from portable planer sanding and dry sanding and putty sanding was in the range from 8.4 mg/m3 to 8.7 mg/m3 and from 5.3 mg/m3 to 8.4 mg/m3, respectively. The TDC from mechanical sanding and painting sanding was in the range from 4.4 to 6.4 mg/m3 and from 3.4 mg/m3 to 4.9 mg/m3, respectively. More than 90% suspended particulate matter in their TDC had a PM10 in all aforementioned results. The sanding procedure produced 6.7% to 8.2% free silica in the total particulate matter, in addition to wood dust, putty dust, or painting dust. Heavy metals in dust from putty sanding and painting exceeding the OELs were lead (Pb; > 0.3 mg/m3 and cadmium (Cd; > 0.01 mg/m3. There was a large amount of granular grinding material, cluster putty, planar painting dust, and a small amount fibroid wood dust in the dust from putty sanding and painting sanding.

  6. Homemade Wooden Vernier Scales for Use by Blind Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Mike; Bidleman, Cricket; Brown, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Because she had been blind since birth, we knew that our new student, Cricket, would be unable to make the necessary measurements needed to get any meaningful lab data while all of the other students would be able to use highly accurate commercial Vernier calipers. All we had on loan for Cricket was a Brailled plastic tactile meter stick with low…

  7. The acoustics of Japanese wooden drums called ``mokugyo''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Masahiro; Furihata, Kenji; Asano, David K.; Yanagisawa, Takesaburo; Yuasa, Atsuyoshi

    2005-04-01

    A drumlike traditional Japanese instrument, the mokugyo, is experimentally discussed. First, the acoustic characteristics of 176 mokugyos with diameters ranging from 7.5 to 120 cm and three drumsticks were measured. Results show that (a) the sound spectra consist of two common peaks [F1 (Hz): first peak frequency, F2 (Hz): second peak frequency] close together, with an average ratio (F2/F1) of 1.15, and (b) a drumstick beating the mokugyo is translated into an impact force applied over a period of time from 1 to 6 ms related to the mass and stiffness of the material wrapped around the tip of the drumstick. Second, to evaluate the acoustic response of a mokugyo in the final tuning process, the mechanical and acoustical analogy between the mokugyo and a bass reflex loudspeaker is theoretically and experimentally discussed. Results show that the model can be estimated within a relative error of 0.52% from the mass of wood chips. Finally, from a psychological experiment, the timbre of the mokugyo shows higher scores on psychological scales when the ratio (F2/F1) becomes 1.15. .

  8. Comprehensive study of ignition and combustion of single wooden particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    How quickly large biomass particles can ignite and burn out when transported into a pulverized-fuel (pf) furnace and suddenly exposed to a hot gas flow containing oxygen is very important in biomass co-firing design and optimization. In this paper, the ignition and burnout of the largest possible...... for all the test conditions. As the particle is further heated up and the volume-weighted average temperature reaches the onset of rapid decomposition of hemicellulose and cellulose, a secondary homogeneous ignition occurs. The model-predicted ignition delays and burnout times show a good agreement...... with the experimental results. Homogeneous ignition delays are found to scale with specific surface areas while heterogeneous ignition delays show less dependency on the areas. The ignition and burnout are also affected by the process conditions, in which the oxygen concentration is found to have a more pronounced...

  9. Wooden Spaceships: Human-Centered Vehicle Design for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Presentation will focus on creative human centered design solutions in relation to manned space vehicle design and development in the NASA culture. We will talk about design process, iterative prototyping, mockup building and user testing and evaluation. We will take an inside look at how new space vehicle concepts are developed and designed for real life exploration scenarios.

  10. NEW TRENDS OF ACHIEVEMENT OF ECOLOGICAL LIGHTWEIGHT WOODEN MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida Cristina HONŢUŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dominant trend both abroad and in our country is phasing out heavy concrete and replace them with alternative building materials that meet tenants health and the environment. Thus arose "green homes" made with organic materials, among which the most important is wood. One such alternative material consists of chipboard with cement or concrete. Material, in the form of plates or bricks, has a configuration of several layers, with the sides of the wood fibers bonded with cement, concrete and polystyrene core. The wood used to build green houses, as we know, is the oldest material used in construction, being used both as a structural element in exterior walls, interior walls, roofs, floors, woodwork items, or integral structure as well as the furniture and decorations. In general, the construction works carried out in our country use resinous wood (fir, spruce or oak. This has extended to our country, the trend of completion of houses in natural materials, environmentally friendly and execution price that is lower.

  11. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  12. Can Modifications to the Bedroom Environment Improve the Sleep of New Parents? Two Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kathryn A.; Gay, Caryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Postpartum sleep disruption is common among new parents. In this randomized controlled trial we evaluated a modified sleep hygiene intervention for new parents (infant proximity, noise masking, and dim lighting) in anticipation of night-time infant care. Two samples of new mothers (n = 118 and 122) were randomized to the experimental intervention or attention control, and sleep was assessed in late pregnancy and first 3 months postpartum using actigraphy and the General Sleep Disturbance Scal...

  13. Pharma in the bedroom . . . and the kitchen. . . . The pharmaceuticalisation of daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nick J; Ward, Katie J

    2008-09-01

    This paper examines the consequences of a new emphasis on lifestyle in the production, marketing and consumption of pharmaceuticals. Over the past decade, a range of medicines have become available that address aspects of lifestyle, while others have been the subject of lifestyle marketing. We argue, with recourse to a broad literature from the social sciences, economics and health services research and from our study of pharmaceutical consumption, that two processes can be discerned. First, there is a domestication of pharmaceutical consumption, with drugs available via home computers, and marketing of pharmaceuticals that focuses upon private or personal conditions and addresses domestic activities such as sex and cooking. Secondly, there is a pharmaceuticalisation of everyday life as the pharmaceutical industry introduces profitable medicines for a range of daily activities and pharmaceuticals come to be seen by consumers as a 'magic bullet' to resolve problems of daily life. We suggest that the pharmaceuticalisation of daily life links the economics and politics of pharmaceutical production to the private lives of citizens.

  14. Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction in a Rapidly Changing Cultural Environment: Addressing Gender Equality versus Equivalence in the Bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Marianne; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    The socio-sexual climate in Western cultures is changing at an astounding rate. Never before have societal expectations about gender roles shifted so radically, transforming our understanding of what it means to be a sexual man or woman today. We have observed that confusion regarding masculine and feminine roles within long-term committed relationships can represent challenges for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Despite the relevance to sexual medicine, sexual medicine specialists have largely avoided this controversial topic. To review the current literature relating to heterosexual gender roles and sexual intimacy, to offer perspective and context on this issue, and to propose an approach to the man, woman, or couple based in evolutionary theory that we have found useful in our extensive clinical experiences. We reviewed the English-language peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 through 2015, that addressed the impact of heterosexual gender role expression on sexual intimacy in long-term committed relationships. Main outcomes include a review of the applicable literature and an assessment of the literature's relevance for patients and practitioners of sexual medicine. An alternative context for understanding heterosexual gender expression grounded in evolutionary theory is provided, as is a new treatment perspective based on our work as a sex therapist and an urologist. The impact of gender expression on sexual experience might be impossible to ascertain fully because it is difficult to quantify in research, independently and especially in combination. Furthermore, existing research is fraught with challenges and inadequacies. Although we acknowledge and affirm the critical importance of gender equality, modern conceptualizations of gender in the literature ignore pertinent evolutionary adaptations and might be minimally applicable to sexual medicine patients. More research is needed. We propose that equality of genders does not necessarily mean similarity of genders, at least in sexual medicine. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of CO2 controlled bedroom ventilation on sleep and next-day performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2014-01-01

    students participating as subjects, half of them women, were sleeping in their own rooms and maintained their habitual life style, with a few restrictions on alcohol and caffeine consumption. The subjects were exposed to two conditions, each for one week, with one high and one low rate of ventilation...

  16. Puitelamu Harjumaal Kiili vallas = Wooden residential building in Harju County, Kiili parish / Epp Lankots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lankots, Epp, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Tumeda vertikaalse laudisega sissepoole tõmbunud elamumahtu ümbritseb heledast ümmargusest treipuidust horisontaalse suunaga sõrestik. Arhitektid: Peeter Pere, Urmas Muru. Ill.: 3 värv. välisvaadet, sisevaade

  17. Experimental Research of Vibration Transmission in Wooden Junctions with a View Towards Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    The measurements of sound propagation in lightweight buildings often show a variation between nominally identical constructed structures. These variations can be due to variations in structural properties, measurement uncertainties or workmanship related factors. Better knowledge about the source...

  18. WOOD IDENTIFICATION OF WOODEN MARINE PILES FROM THE ANCIENT BYZANTINE PORT OF ELEUTHERIUS/THEODOSIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Dogu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the wood species of the marine and filling piles obtained from the ancient Byzantine port of Eleutherius/ Theodosius, Istanbul, Turkey. Anatomical descriptions and identifications of 12 marine and 4 filling piles were performed by microscopic evaluations. In the study, Castanea sativa Mill., Quercus ithaburensis Decne., Quercus pontica C. Koch., and Cupressus sempervirens L. species were identified. No precise identifications were completed for only six samples at the species level; however, those samples showed significant similarity to Quercus spp. and Fagus spp. It was concluded that the economically viable supply of wood was more appropriate than obtaining it from nearby regions. The people living in ancient times had solid knowledge and experience on the utilization of wood species.

  19. McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (MCAAP) Wooden Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on 40- by 48-inch pallets produced by McAlester Army Ammunition Plant...MCAAP). This report contains test results with the pallets provided failing to meet MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements due to nail failure.

  20. Thermographic analysis of the thermal properties of wood for wooden windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Cadelano, G.; Ferrarini, G.; Laguela Lopez, S.; Peron, F.

    2013-05-01

    The frames of windows are typically made of wood in Italy, even though aluminum, PVC and other materials are more and more utilized in the building manufacture. On the other hand, the growing attention on the problem of energy saving makes more stringent the attention to the insulation properties of any component of the building envelope. Therefore, it is paramount to evaluate the thermal properties of wood that will be utilized in the windows frame manufacture. Wood is a material characterized by a high anisotropy due to its characteristic growing. Mechanical properties, and thermal as well, are very different if considered along the direction of grain or perpendicular to it. In manufacturing the frame for windows, the fiber or grain direction must be selected in such a way to maximize the thermal resistance along the inside to outside direction, that means the inside/outside direction of frame (i.e. inside/outside direction of window) must be perpendicular to the grain direction. Indeed the grain direction is the one with the maximum thermal conductivity while the perpendicular one (crossing the fiber direction) owns a lower conductivity value. The anisotropic characteristics of wood made it a challenging material for the measurement of thermal conductivity. Three types of wood have been measured: oak, larch and spruce. Two instruments have been utilized: a) the hot disk apparatus; b) the IR thermography equipment in transmission (a variant of the Parker's method) and reflection scheme complemented by density and specific heat measurements. In particular, IR thermography gives the possibility to evaluate by images the preferential direction of heat propagation by looking at the deformation of a localized heat source released on the surface (i.e. a circular shape can become an ellipse as heat diffuses on the surface). Results coming from different kind of measurements are compared and critically considered.

  1. Experimental studies of local scour in the pressurized OCF below a wooden log across the flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Maji; Prashanth Reddy Hanmaiahgari; Subhasish Dey

    2014-10-01

    The proposed study examined and reviewed the published experimental results related to clear water scour below a cylinder across the flow. It also highlighted the limitations of existing methods for estimating the scour depth below a submerged cylinder. In the present study, experiments were performed for 50% and 75% submergences of a 70 mm diameter cylinder in the free surface flow over a uniform sand bed with $d_{50}\\ =$ 0.98 mm downstream of an apron. Based on the experimental results, an empirical equation was proposed to estimate the amount of gap flow between the cylinder and the bed for an equilibrium scour for a given flow depth and sediment properties. Measured scour profile consisted of a scour hole and immediately followed by a dune. However, no general sediment transport was occurring away from the cylinder due to the undisturbed bed shear stress less than or equal to the critical shear stress required for the sediment entrainment. Different submergence ratios of the cylinder resulted in different longitudinal and vertical extensions of the scour hole and the dune. The maximum equilibrium scour depth occurred when the cylinder is fully submerged in the unidirectional flow with water depth equals to the cylinder diameter. The non-dimensional measured scour profiles were found to be similar. The characteristic lengths of the scour hole and the dune were computed analytically by approximating the measured scour profile by third degree polynomials. The computed non-dimensional scour profiles compared satisfactorily with the measured profiles. It was found that analytical non-dimensional scour profiles were identical for a given diameter of a cylinder with different submergences for the same flow conditions.

  2. Metsakõlakoda Ruup = Ruup - Wooden Megaphone / Birgit Õigus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õigus, Birgit, 1988-

    2016-01-01

    Puidust installatsioon "RUUP" Võrumaal, Pähnis. Idee autor Birgit Õigus, kaasautorid Mariann Drell, Ardo Hiiuväin, Lennart Lind, Henri Kaarel Luht, Mariette Nõmm, Johanna Sepp, Kertti Soots, Sabine Suuster. Eesti Arhitektide Liidu preemia "Väike 2013-2015" laureaat

  3. Metsakõlakojad RUUP = RUUP wooden megaphones / Birgit Õigus ; kommenteerinud Marju Lauristin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õigus, Birgit, 1988-

    2016-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia üliõpilase Birgit Õiguse puidust installatsioon "RUUP" Võrumaal, Pähnis. Kaasautorid Mariann Drell, Ardo Hiiuväin, Lennart Lind, Henri Kaarel Luht, Mariette Nõmm, Johanna Sepp, Kertti Soots, Sabine Suuster

  4. Puitelamu Harjumaal Kiili vallas = Wooden residential building in Harju County, Kiili parish / Epp Lankots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lankots, Epp, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Tumeda vertikaalse laudisega sissepoole tõmbunud elamumahtu ümbritseb heledast ümmargusest treipuidust horisontaalse suunaga sõrestik. Arhitektid: Peeter Pere, Urmas Muru. Ill.: 3 värv. välisvaadet, sisevaade

  5. Metsakõlakojad RUUP = RUUP wooden megaphones / Birgit Õigus ; kommenteerinud Marju Lauristin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õigus, Birgit, 1988-

    2016-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia üliõpilase Birgit Õiguse puidust installatsioon "RUUP" Võrumaal, Pähnis. Kaasautorid Mariann Drell, Ardo Hiiuväin, Lennart Lind, Henri Kaarel Luht, Mariette Nõmm, Johanna Sepp, Kertti Soots, Sabine Suuster

  6. Metsakõlakoda Ruup = Ruup - Wooden Megaphone / Birgit Õigus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õigus, Birgit, 1988-

    2016-01-01

    Puidust installatsioon "RUUP" Võrumaal, Pähnis. Idee autor Birgit Õigus, kaasautorid Mariann Drell, Ardo Hiiuväin, Lennart Lind, Henri Kaarel Luht, Mariette Nõmm, Johanna Sepp, Kertti Soots, Sabine Suuster. Eesti Arhitektide Liidu preemia "Väike 2013-2015" laureaat

  7. Multi-analytical study of paint and varnish on a 17th century wooden polychrome antependium

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The antependium of Saint Michael's altar from the church of Saint Catherine in Osič, Croatia, is a work of the 17th century artist Matej Otoni. As a part of her Master's thesis, Aida Grga carried out a complex analysis of the paint layer (binding medium and pigments) and of the resinous varnish found on the object. Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-chemical analysis were used to identify the materials. The investigation was carried out in the Laborat...

  8. Study on establishment of Body of Knowledge of Taiwan's Traditional Wooden Structure Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M. T.; Chiou, S. C.; Hsu, T. W.; Su, P. C.

    2015-08-01

    The timber technology of the Taiwan traditional architecture is brought by the immigrants in the Southern Fujian of China in the early, which has been inherited for a hundred years. In the past, these traditional timber technologies were taught by mentoring, however, due to the change of the social form, the construction of the traditional architecture was faded away, and what is gradually replaced is the repair work of the traditional architecture, therefore, the construction method of the timber technology, use form of the tool and other factors are very different from previous one, and the core technology is faced with the dilemma of endangered loss. There are many relevant studies on architectural style, construction method of technology, schools of craftsman, technical capacity of craftsman and other timber technologies, or the technology preservation is carried out by dictating the historical record, studying the skills and other ways, but for the timber craftsman repairing the traditional architecture on the front line, there is still space for discussing whether to maintain the original construction method and maintain the due repair quality for the core technology. This paper classified the timber technology knowledge with the document analysis method and expert interview method, carried out the architecture analysis of knowledge hierarchy, and finally, built the preliminary framework of the timber technology knowledge system of the Taiwan traditional architecture, and built the standard formulation available for craftsman training and skills identification by virtue of the knowledge system, so that the craftsman did not affect the technical capacity due to the change of the knowledge instruction system, thus, affecting the repair quality of the traditional architecture; and in addition, the building of the database system can also be derived by means of the knowledge structure, so as to integrate the consistency of the contents of core technical capacity. It can be used as the interpretation data; the knowledge is standardized and the authority file is established, which is regarded as a technical specification, so that the technology is standardized, thus, avoid loss or distort.

  9. Influence of Structural Periodicity on Vibration Transmission in a Multi-Storey Wooden Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    Noise is a nuisance to people, and buildings should therefore be designed to prevent propagation of sound and vibration in the audible frequency range as well as the range of frequencies relevant to whole-body vibrations of humans. In heavy structures made of concrete and masonry, a source...

  10. TECHNIQUES OF 3D COMPONENT DATABASE ESTABLISHING AND QUALITY CONTROL FOR WOODEN BUILDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the architectural survey project of “the Chi Lin Nunnery Redevelopment "in Hong Kong,this paper attempts to investigate the techniques of building 3D digital document of large_scale timber structure and quality con trol during construction by computer_based 3D simulation for the whole project.T here were several key issues including primary data acquisition,3D modeling and display,pre_assembling the total building and quality examination,etc.In this pa per,some useful experiments,such as the new applications of CCD digital cameras,image and graph processing software packages (CAD,Photoshop,Photomod eler,Vexcel,etc.) to the architectures are also presented.These methods intr oduced in this paper are suitable for image and graph integrated database buildi ng of complicated architectures,and useful for conveniently maintaining and rec onstructing the ancient architectures.

  11. The influence of ventilation on moisture conditions in facades with wooden cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2009-01-01

    for mould growth on wood-based materials. The paper presents results from the investigation with emphasis on a discussion of the effect of cavity ventilation on moisture content in timber frame walls. In terms of moisture content behind the wind barrier, the behaviour of wood frame walls with a non......A ventilated cavity behind the cladding of timber frame walls is often considered good building practice that facilitates the removal of moisture from the construction. However, moisture will only be removed from the construction by ventilating it with dry air, whereas ventilating with humid air......-ventilated cavity was found not to be inferior to the behaviour of wood frame walls with a ventilated cavity....

  12. Cage enrichment: rabbit does prefer straw or a compressed wooden block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Gunnink, H.; Jong, de I.C.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different food related materials on the behaviour of commercial meat rabbit does was investigated to provide them enrichment. Five different treatments were tested. Control (pens without additional enrichment, C) was compared with pens containing a pinewood stick (Pine), straw in a pla

  13. Termite and boring insect ground barrier for the protection of wooden structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voris, Peter Van; Cataldo, Dominic A.

    1998-01-01

    A method and device are disclosed which prevent the intrusion of insects onto wood structures by using a controlled release device capable of releasing insecticide. In the disclosed method, the device maintains a minimal effective level of insecticide for a predetermined period of time.

  14. Multi-analytical study of paint and varnish on a 17th century wooden polychrome antependium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Grga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antependium of Saint Michael's altar from the church of Saint Catherine in Osič, Croatia, is a work of the 17th century artist Matej Otoni. As a part of her Master's thesis, Aida Grga carried out a complex analysis of the paint layer (binding medium and pigments and of the resinous varnish found on the object. Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-chemical analysis were used to identify the materials. The investigation was carried out in the Laboratory for Conservation Research at the Arts Academy of the University of Split, under the supervision of PhD Ivica Ljubenkov.L’antependium de Saint Michel provenant de l’église de Sainte Catherine à Osič, Croatie, est l’œuvre de l’artiste Matej Otoni (XVIIe siècle. Dans le cadre de sa thèse de maîtrise, Aida Grga a exécuté une analyse complexe de la couche picturale (liant et matières colorantes et du vernis trouvés sur l’objet. La chromatographie sur couche mince, la spectroscopie infrarouge (FT-IR et une analyse microchimique ont été utilisés pour identifier les matériaux. La recherche a été effectuée sous la supervision de Dr. Ivica Ljubenkov au Laboratoire de Recherche en Conservation auprès de l’Académie des Beaux Arts de l’Université de Split.

  15. The use of an electric field for the removal of alum from treated wooden objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the removal of sulfate and aluminum ions from waterlogged alum treated wood with the use of an applied electric field is in focus. Removal of alum is seen as the first step towards re-conservation of the wood with e.g. PEG. Alum treated wood samples from the Hjortspring finds (app....... 350 BC) was used in this investigation and a total of six experiments are presented here. An electric DC field was applied across the wood for 4-20 days. A constant current of 1-5 mA was applied and the corresponding voltage drop initially low, often below 10 V. At the end of the experiments sulfate...... has moved as expected towards the positively charged electrode (anode) and after 20 days only 10% of the sulfate was left in the wood. The majority of the sulfate was removed with the use of the electric field. It was shown that it is possible to apply the electric field and remove sulfate in both...

  16. Determination of stress-strain state of the wooden church log walls with software package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulkova Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of architectural monuments is going on all over the world today. The main aim of restoration is the renewal of stable functioning of building constructions in normal state. In this article, we have tried to figure out with special software the bearing capacity of log cabins of the Church of Transfiguration on Kizhi island. As shown in research results, determination of stress-strain stage with software package is necessary for the bearing capacity computation as well as field tests.

  17. Assessing Ecotourism Potential of Traditional Wooden Architecture in Rural Areas: The Case of Papart Valley

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okan, Taner; Köse, Nesibe; Arifoğlu, Elif; Köse, Coşkun

    2016-01-01

    .... Then, a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis was conducted with the participation of all stakeholders and the current situation was analyzed in terms of ecotourism practices...

  18. "This Wooden Shack Place": The Logic of an Unconventional Reading. Occasional Paper No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Glynda; Rose, Mike

    A case study examined the logic of a student's unconventional interpretation of a poem. The subject, an outgoing and well-spoken student from the lower-middle class enrolled in a remedial composition class at the University of California, offered an unconventional reading of a poem by a contemporary Japanese-American writer. Data consisted of…

  19. Wickerwork Made of Vegetal Fibers Found in “Tatarskaya (Wooden Slobodka” on Sviyazhsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizgalova Mariya Yu.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors offer a new approach to studying wickerwork of vegetal fibers, such as liber, which have not been treated as a separate category of archaeological finds so far. They describe their special methodology, which they developed for conservation and restoration of liber items. This methodology was applied to study the collection of linden liber and bast items found on excavated structures of 16th – 18th centuries in Sviyazhsk’s posad. A systemic combination of restoration activities applied by the authors has enabled restoring fragments of items of the so-called ‘bast’ industry. Further ethnographic, statistic and technological studies made it possible to distinguish the following groups in this complex: ropes; cattail bags industry; bast shoes; individual finds of unknown use. Each group has a few subgroups with certain characteristic features. This first experience of the authors’ complex approach to systemic classification of such finds will enable its broader application to items made from organic materials.

  20. Tetanus following ocular wooden foreign body in incompletely vaccinated patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneth Karunarathne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is now encountered rarely in clinical practice. There were no reported cases of tetanus due to ocular injuries in Sri Lanka. We report of a case of tetanus following an ocular injury which can be at least partly attributed to the disruption of immunization programmes due to political unrest. A 13 year-old Sri Lankan Tamil schoolgirl who had a splinter prick injury to left orbit was treated for intraorbital abscess and orbital cellulites. She developed clinical tetanus while on intravenous antibiotics. Following intensive care and ventilatory support she achieved an uncomplicated recovery. Ocular injury is a rare cause of tetanus worldwide. Adequate debridement of orbital soft tissue injuries can be difficult and demanding. Even in countries with high immunization coverage, tetanus can still occur due to lapses in immunization with conflict and war.

  1. "Their Little Wooden Bricks": A History of the Material Culture of Kindergarten in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochner, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the material culture of kindergarten in the United States in relation to the production and consumption of materials and kindergarten theory and pedagogy. The focus is on Friedrich Froebel's building gifts as they were manufactured and sold by the Milton Bradley Company from 1869 to 1939. A review of trade catalogues over the…

  2. The use of an electric field for the removal of alum from treated wooden objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Poul;

    2009-01-01

    experiments with and without presoaking. Aluminum tended to be removed more slowly and even after 20 days only minor amounts of aluminum was removed from the wood, The power consumption was low, only 1.6 Wh after 20 days. An increase in ph near the anode was found in some of the experiments. The reason......In this paper the removal of sulfate and aluminum ions from waterlogged alum treated wood with the use of an applied electric field is in focus. Removal of alum is seen as the first step towards re-conservation of the wood with e.g. PEG. Alum treated wood samples from the Hjortspring finds (app...... has moved as expected towards the positively charged electrode (anode) and after 20 days only 10% of the sulfate was left in the wood. The majority of the sulfate was removed with the use of the electric field. It was shown that it is possible to apply the electric field and remove sulfate in both...

  3. A Glimpse through the Magic Door: Ursula Moray Williams, Gobbolino and the Little Wooden Horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The first full biography of Ursula Moray Williams has been published to mark the centenary of her birth. In this article, its author, Colin Davison, assesses her work in the context of her life, paying particular attention to the way that her extraordinary childhood influenced her writing. He also examines new evidence about where her ideas came…

  4. Parameter survey of a rib stiffened wooden floor using sinus modes model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjökvist, Lars-Göran; Brunskog, Jonas; Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    that reacts onto the plate vibrations. A parameter study is performed with the aim to identify the most important parameters and their behaviour. The preliminary results show that the attenuation of the system is by far most evident in the direction across the beams. The influence from the basic input...

  5. Children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated wooden decks and playground structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemond, Harold F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2004-02-01

    CCA-treated wood is widely used in the fabrication of outdoor decks and playground equipment. Because arsenic can be removed from the surface of CCA-treated wood both by physical contact and by leaching, it is important to determine whether children who play on such structures may ingest arsenic in quantities sufficient to be of public health concern. Based on a review of existing studies, it is estimated that arsenic doses in amounts of tens of micrograms per day may be incurred by children having realistic levels of exposure to CCA-treated decks and playground structures. The most important exposure pathway appears to be oral ingestion of arsenic that is first dislodged from the wood by direct hand contact, then transferred to the mouth by children's hand-to-mouth activity. The next most important pathway appears to be dermal absorption of arsenic, while ingestion of soil that has become contaminated by leaching from CCA-treated structures appears to be of lesser importance, except possibly in the case of children with pica. Considerable uncertainty, however, is associated with quantitative estimates of children's arsenic exposure from CCA-treated wood. Priorities for refining estimates of arsenic dose include detailed studies of the hand-to-mouth transfer of arsenic, studies of the dermal and gastrointestinal absorption of dislodgeable arsenic, and studies in which doses of arsenic to children playing in contact with CCA-treated wood are directly determined by measurement of arsenic in their urine, hair, and nails.

  6. The Ilimsky Ostrog in the Taltsy Museum of Wooden Architecture near Irkutsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Kradin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on archive and field studies of the remained fragments of the fort (Spasskaya gate tower and a chapel, the article considers an attempt to restore its plan structure and different objects: a shopping arcade, a writ hut, a complex of the tsar’s military governor’s yard, a tower, and salt and sable storehouses. With the help of field studies, measurements and photofixation we have revealed compositional, planning and design features of the fort (ostrog and its structures.

  7. Wooden Supports in 12th–16th-Century European Paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Jacqueline Marette's Connaissance des primitifs par l'étude du bois du XIIe au XVIe siècle' (1961) is a unique resource on the history of painting techniques that combines scholarship in art history, conservation, and wood science. With support from the Getty Foundation's Panel Paintings Initiative...... features critical readings of the original texts and updated references, as well as commentary from specialists with technical expertise and art-historical knowledge on northern European panel paintings from the 12th to the 16th centuries....

  8. An acoustical research of the undulating wooden ceiling in the Vyborg Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about the Undulating Ceiling at the lecture hall of the Vyborg Library. Alvar Aalto himself claimed the ceiling to be "ninety-nine per cent acoustically perfect" and the sketches showing the acoustical considerations behind the ceiling-design is often reproduced. But how did...

  9. Wooden Supports in 12th–16th-Century European Paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Jacqueline Marette's Connaissance des primitifs par l'étude du bois du XIIe au XVIe siècle' (1961) is a unique resource on the history of painting techniques that combines scholarship in art history, conservation, and wood science. With support from the Getty Foundation's Panel Paintings Initiative......, the Centre for Art Technological Studies and Conservation (CATS) based at the Statens Museum for Kunst in Copenhagen, Denmark, released a new English translation of Marette's book as a free online publication, making this key reference tool accessible to a wider array of scholars. This expanded publication...

  10. STUDY UPON THE VIRTUAL RESTORATION METHODS FOR THE PAINTINGS ON A WOODEN SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiorghita Nicolaie COMSA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the improvement of a classical wood painting or wood icon-restoration method. Over time, deformations and cracks appear on the painted surface. The restoration and conservation refer to the various treatments aimed at stabilizing the surface and, eventually, the straightening of the painted layer. In this paper, I submit a non-destructive evaluation of the surface deformations, and the calculation of the correction parameters for several virtual-restoration options, to analyze and decide the optimal restoration method.

  11. Multi-sensor evaluation of a wooden panel painting using terahertz imaging and shearography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, R.M.; Pradarutti, B.; Kouloumpi, E.; Osten, W.; Notni, G.

    2009-01-01

    Cultural heritage objects are increasingly being investigated using advanced non-destructive optical measurement techniques. Holographic and speckle interferometry based instrumentation allow dimensional measurement of objects at the tens of nanometer scale. For the structural diagnostics of artwork

  12. Wooden Peg Game: Implementations as Both a Web App and as an Android App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martincic, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile application development is currently an important component of CS/IS education. Because of the rapid rate of change in the mobile application field, there are many websites that provide instructional material in tutorial format, but it is difficult to find a textbook that includes mobile application programming assignments and exercises.…

  13. A survey of indoor pollution by volatile organo halogen compounds in Katsushika, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amagai, T.; Olansandan; Matsushita, H. [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Ono, M. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakai, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Tamura, K. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Maeda, K. [Tokyo Kasel University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    A survey of indoor and outdoor pollution by 10 volatile organo halogen compounds (VOHCs) was performed in Katsushika Ward, Tokyo, Japan. Thirteen houses in February and 30 houses in July were sampled. Four consecutive 24-hour samples were collected by passive sampling from living room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom and outdoors in February and July 1995. Indoor concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene were at nearly the same as outdoor concentrations; therefore, it was concluded that indoor pollution by these compounds was primarily due to penetration of outdoor pollutants. Indoor concentrations of some VOHCs were considerably higher than outdoor concentrations and they varied widely between households. The list included: p-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and tri halomethanes, for which emission sources were insect repellents, dry-cleaned clothes, and tap water, showers and bathtub water, respectively. Indoor concentrations of these compounds were higher in reinforced concrete houses than in wooden houses or wooden houses with mortar walls. This suggests that airtightness of the rooms is responsible for high indoor VOHC concentrations. (author)

  14. Conditioning ad energetic utilization of wooden materials for landscape conservation; Aufbereitung und Energetische Nutzung von holzigem Landschaftspflegematerial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letalik, Christian [C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V., Straubing (Germany). Abt. Festbrennstoffe

    2013-10-01

    It has become common practice to energetically recover ligneous materials from landscape conservation activities in heat (and power) generation plants. The treatment of green cuttings along roads, railways or power supply lines is state of the art. Such landscaping materials are ligneous green residues e.g. from tree lopping in orchard meadows or shrub hedges - there are about 45,000 kilometers of hedgerows in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, alone. Shredder machines disintegrate the materials into any required size. By means of adjustable perforated baskets on the disintegrating engine and subsequent sieving steps, homogenous fuels of defined dimensions and low shares of fines can be provided, whichever required. Depending on the water content, such wood chips contain about 20% less energy (calorific value) than comparable forest wood chips. It is important, however, that mineral fine particles like sand, soil or small stones are being sieved out before the combustion because they do not only decrease the calorific value and hence the boiler performance but also cause problems in the combustion areas resulting in higher costs for maintenance, cleaning and ash utilization. Composting plants are regularly well-equipped. They use well-proven management concepts for the material flow to merely condition as much landscape cuttings into fuels, enable the aerobe composting process with less ligneous and more humid materials to continue. For both compost and wood fuels there is sufficient demand resulting in increasing revenues. The EEG amendment 2012 classifies landscape conservation materials as raw materials of remuneration class II (= 8 ct/kWhel on top of the basic remuneration). This is likely to further increment the demand for ligneous fuel from landscape conservation. According to the EEG 2012 there will no longer be power plants without reasonable heat concepts. (orig.)

  15. RECYCLING RECOVERED WOOD-BASED MATERIALS. FLATNESS, MOR AND MOE OF PANELS MADE FROM RECOVERED WOODEN BASED MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea DEÁK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the mechanical properties of recovered solid wood and wood-based materials, to create new panels made of strips of recovered oak and spruce wood, particleboards and blockboards and to study their mechanical properties, feasibility and use. Flatness, MOR and MOE were determined for the solid wood and wood-based materials recovered from construction and demolition sites. Four types of experimental panels (PL1, PL2, PALL1 and PALL2 were manufactured from solid wood strips alternating with either particleboard or blockboard strips glued edge to edge. Some of their physical and mechanical properties were investigated. All new panels made from recovered materials fell within allowable limits specified in European standard requirements for panel flatness. Panels type PL2, PALL1 and PALL2 show better values for MoR and MoE parallel to the grain when compared to the respective values for the recovered wood-based materials of which they are made, but panels type PL1 show no change. Panels type PALL2 are preferable to panels type PALL1 due to better mechanical properties. Panels type PL1 and PL2 show no such differences in their structure. The results also show that these new panels can be used successfully in furniture production, provided panels type PL1, PL2 ad PALL1 do not bear loads perpendicular to the grain or receive reinforcing elements.

  16. A Door Is a Big Wooden Thing with a Knob: Getting a Handle on Metaphorical Interface Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, M. J.; Cates, Ward Mitchell

    This paper chronicles the evolution of a metaphorical graphical user interface (MGUI) at Lehigh University (Pennsylvania). From its inception, "The Funeral of Edgar" has been a guided exploration of Edgar Allan Poe's poem, "The Raven," aimed at modeling high school students' critical and analytical reading skills. This product…

  17. Moving from job-shop to production cells without losing flexibility: a case study from the wooden frames industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinis-Carvalho, J.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellular production is usually seen as a hybrid approach between job-shop and flow-line paradigms, reducing the major disadvantages of these two paradigms: the low productivity of job-shops and the low flexibility (in terms of products’ variety of the flow-lines. This paper describes the implementation of a production cell in a production unit of wood- framed pictures and mirrors, which was originally configured as a traditional job-shop, without losing the necessary flexibility to face market demand and simultaneously increasing the production unit’s performance. By implementing a highly flexible cell, very significant improvements were expected for the system’s overall performance and the quality of the products. These expectations were met, and the implementation was successful, as demonstrated by the results presented.

  18. A New Baby in the Bedroom: Frequency and Severity of Postpartum Sexual Concerns and Their Associations With Relationship Satisfaction in New Parent Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagintweit, Hera E; Bailey, Kristen; Rosen, Natalie O

    2016-10-01

    New parents are faced with many novel stressors, including possible changes to their sexual relationships. Although postpartum sexual concerns appear to be pervasive in new parents, little is known about the severity of these concerns or how they relate to new mothers' and fathers' relationship satisfaction. To describe the frequency and severity of postpartum sexual concerns and examine associations between frequency and severity of postpartum sexual concerns and relationship satisfaction in new-parent couples. Participants were 239 new-parent couples of a healthy infant 3 to 12 months old. Both members of the parenting couple completed an online survey within 1 month of each other. Frequency and severity of postpartum sexual concerns were assessed using a 20-item Likert-type questionnaire adapted from a previously validated measurement. Relationship satisfaction was assessed with the Couples Satisfaction Index. A wide range of postpartum sexuality concerns was highly prevalent and moderately distressing in new mothers and fathers alike. New fathers' greater severity of postpartum sexual concerns was associated with their own and new mothers' decreased relationship satisfaction, whereas new mothers' greater severity of postpartum sexual concerns was associated only with lower relationship satisfaction in new fathers. In addition, new mothers' greater frequency of postpartum sexual concerns was associated with their own and new fathers' lower relationship satisfaction, whereas new fathers' frequency of postpartum sexual concerns was unrelated to the couples' relationship satisfaction. Postpartum sexual concerns are pervasive and moderately distressing in new parents. The increased frequency and severity of these concerns were associated with decreased relationship well-being in both members of the couple. New mothers might need more assistance adjusting to the number of sexual concerns that they are experiencing, whereas new fathers might need more help adjusting to distress related to sexual issues. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations between selected allergens, phthalates, nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and bedroom ventilation and clinically confirmed asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, M.; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies, often using data from questionnaires, have reported associations between various characteristics of indoor environments and allergic disease. The aim of this study has been to investigate possible associations between objectively assessed indoor environmental factors and clinica...

  20. Residencia para un arquitecto - Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liddle, Alan

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available It stands on a 8,000 m2 site in a suburban residential area, with abundant vegetation and on the banks of a lake. It was designed with a view for being used by a single person, but with sufficient flexibility to be adapted to a future increase in family. In a wide space, the following are placed together: the kitchen, dining-living room, and the bedroom area, the necessary separations being achieved through skillful decoration. A pleasant patio and a covered passage link this area with the main entrance and with the garage, above which a second bedroom and its respective bathroom has been placed. Structure based on loadbearing walls made of white finished bricks or wooden coated in most surfaces, both indoors and outdoors.Ocupa una parcela de 8.000 m2, en una zona residencial suburbana, de abundante vegetación y a orillas de un lago. Se proyectó pensando en servir a una sola persona, pero con la suficiente flexibilidad como para adaptarse a un futuro aumento familiar. En un amplio espacio se sitúan unidos: la cocina, el salón-comedor, y la zona del dormitorio, consiguiéndose las ocultaciones necesarias mediante una hábil decoración. Un agradable patio y un pasillo cubierto enlazan esta zona con la entrada principal y con el garaje, encima del cual se ha emplazado un segundo dormitorio y su correspondiente cuarto de baño. Estructura a base de muros de carga de ladrillo visto blanqueados, o revestidos de madera en la mayor parte de las superficies, tanto interiores como exteriores. Los sencillos materiales empleados y la habilidad en el juego de volúmenes y cubiertas consiguen la integración de esta moderna arquitectura en la belleza del entorno.

  1. Chalet en Florida - (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan, William

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available This house has been designed as a series of ascending platforms in a continuous spiral around a central staircase and the various platforms have each been assigned different room functions, such as: living room, master bedroom and children's bedroom, studio, dining room and kitchen, guest room and under the house space has been provided for a garage. The construction is entirely wooden and is lifted above the ground by 9 exposed piles to which are bolted the beams that support the exposed ceiling Joists. For these elements laminated yellow pine wood has been used as well as for the floorings, roofs and deckings. The walls are of panelled cedar plywood whereas the material of the interior doors and cabinetry is mahogany.Esta vivienda se diseñó como una secuencia de plataformas que ascienden, en espiral continua, alrededor de una escalera interior, en las cuales se dispusieron: el cuarto de estar, los dormitorios de padres y de niños, un estudio, el comedor y la cocina, una habitación para los invitados y, debajo del edificio, una plaza de aparcamiento. La construcción, realizada con madera en su totalidad, se levanta del suelo mediante nueve pilares vistos, a los que se atornillan las jácenas que soportan las viguetas, también vistas, de los forjados. Para estos elementos constructivos se empleó madera laminada de pino amarillo, al igual que para los suelos, techos y cubiertas. Los muros laterales se hicieron con un entablado de madera contrachapada de cedro, mientras que para el artesonado, las puertas interiores y las estanterías, se utilizó la madera de caoba.

  2. Performance Analysis of MIMO Schemes in Residential Home Environment via Wideband MIMO Propagation Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Gia Khanh; Dao, Nguyen Dung; Sakaguchi, Kei; Araki, Kiyomichi; Iwai, Hiroshi; Sakata, Tsutomu; Ogawa, Koichi

    This paper illustrates a large-scale MIMO propagation channel measurement in a real life environment and evaluates throughput performance of various MIMO schemes in that environment. For that purpose, 4 × 4 MIMO transceivers and a novel spatial scanner are fabricated for wideband MIMO channel measurements in the 5GHz band. A total of more than 50, 000 spatial samples in an area of 150m2, which includes a bedroom, a Japanese room, a hallway, and the living and dining areas, are taken in a real residential home environment. Statistical properties of the propagation channel and throughput performance of various MIMO schemes are evaluated by using measured data. Propagation measurement results show large dynamic channel variations occurring in a real environment in which statistical properties of the channel, such as frequency correlation and spatial correlation are not stationary any more, and become functions of the SNR. Furthermore, evaluation of throughput shows that although MIMO schemes outperform the SISO system in most areas, open loop systems perform badly in the far areas with low SNR. Paying for the cost of CSI or partial CSI at Tx, closed loop and hybrid systems have superior performance compared to other schemes, especially in reasonable SNR areas ranging from 10dB to 30dB. Spatial correlation, which is common in Japanese wooden residences, is also found to be a dominant factor causing throughput degradation of the open loop MIMO schemes.

  3. Implementation of new technologies in wood industry and their effect in wood products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELVA ÇAUSHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are about 300 companies producing furniture and about 250 small and medium enterprises (SME producing sawn timber, which operate in the field of wood industry in Albania. This wood industry production is being challenged by the increasing demand in the domestic market, ranging from kitchen furniture to office and schools furniture, bedroom furniture, doors, windows, and saw timber in different dimensions. The production from the wood industry can fulfill about 80% of the domestic market demand. The remaining 20% of domestic market needs in wood furniture are afforded by import. Small entities do not make serious investment in technology. Big enterprises such as Ardeno in Tirana, Biçaku in Durres, Shaga in Tirana, Ital-wood in Elbasan, Dafinori in Shkoder, etc., have made remarkable investments in their technology. They have installed several mechanized lines of production. So, Ital-wood has invested in a mechanized saw timber production line; Bicaku in wood panels coated with PVC lines; Dafinori in a wood handrail production technologic line; Ardeno in wooden chairs production technologic lines, and Shaga in the production of furniture with particle panels. These enterprises are using modern numerical command machines, vacuum presses for gluing PVC, cutting equipment for panels with laser ray, finishing lines with electrostatic field, modern lines of pneumatic transport for wood dust etc. These investments in new technologies have increased the quantity and quality of native wood products.

  4. Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus gattii VGII from indoor dust from typical wooden houses in the deep Amazonas of the Rio Negro basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Santos, Fábio; Barbosa, Gláucia Gonçalves; Trilles, Luciana; Nishikawa, Marília Martins; Wanke, Bodo; Meyer, Wieland; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a human fungal infection of significant mortality and morbidity, especially in the meningoencephalitis form. Cryptococcosis is distributed worldwide and its agents, C. neoformans and C. gattii, present eight major molecular types-VNI-VNIV and VGI-VGIV respectively. The primary cryptococcosis caused by molecular type VGII (serotype B, MAT alpha) prevails in immunocompetent patients in the North and Northeast of Brazil, revealing an endemic regional pattern to this molecular type. Since 1999, C. gattii VGII has been involved in an ongoing outbreak in Canada, and is expanding to the Northwest of the United States, two temperate regions. Exposure to propagules dispersed in the environment, related to various organic substrates, mainly decomposing wood in and around dwellings, initiates the infection process. The present study investigated the presence of the agents of cryptococcosis in dust from dwellings in the upper Rio Negro, municipality of Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in Amazonas state. Indoor dust was collected from 51 houses, diluted and plated on bird seed agar. Dark brown colonies were identified phenotypically, and genotypically by URA5 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The mating type was identified using pheromone-specific primers. Three of the 51 houses were positive for C. gattii molecular type VGII, MATα and MATa, showing a high prevalence of this agent. MLST studies identified eight subtypes, VGIIb (ST7), VGIIa (ST20), (ST5) and 5 new subtypes unique to the region. For the first time in the state of Amazonas, C. gattii VGII MATα and MATa were isolated from the environment and correlates with endemic cryptococcosis in this state. This is the first description of MLST subtypes on environmental isolates in the Brazilian Amazon, indicating domiciliary dust as a potential source for human infection with different subtypes of C. gattii VGII MATα and MATa.

  5. Cultural .Inheritance of Traditional Chinese Wooden Furniture Decoration%中国古典木作家具装饰文化传承探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周橙旻; 吴智慧; 关惠元

    2012-01-01

    本论文阐述了中国古典木作家具装饰的定义和种类,按照家具发展史的线索梳理了中国古典木作家具的装饰部位和内容,突出立体装饰对于现代家具设计的重要性.总结了中国古典木作家具的装饰主题和艺术特征,并对中国古典木作家具装饰文化进行现代传承提出指导性建议.

  6. Original Ecological Design Value of Ancient Wooden Furniture%古船木家具的原生态设计价值探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纳璺; 刘林

    2014-01-01

    本文结合原生态和原生态设计进行分析,论述了古船木家具在设计中,从材料的使用、设计工艺、思想和风格等方面,都体现出了原生态设计理念,并体现出较高的人文、审美和生态价值,从而提出了以原生态价值为取向的古船木家具设计方向.

  7. Development of Waterborne Wiping - Type Colorant for Wooden Products%水性木器擦涂着色剂的研制及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐述华; 许美琪

    2012-01-01

    在充分比较各种着色剂的基础上,研制出新型水性木材擦涂着色剂,讨论分析了着色剂中色粉、体质颜料、各种助剂及分散介质水等各种成分的特点、组成以及制作工艺.特别是为了减少色差和适应DIY室内涂饰需求,将色粉按所需木材色泽要求量加入,同时配方中还引入了延时干燥物质,延长了可擦涂时间,适应了大面积和工厂化生产的需求.%Based on scrutinous analysis of properties of various colorants,a novel waterborne swabbing colorant for wood is prepared. Various components of the colorant,i. e. toners,bulk pigments,additives and dispersing medium,their characteristics and compositions ads well as preparing process are discussed. The volume of toner incorporated into the colorant formula is determined as required by wood color,which is especially designed for reduction of color difference and for workability of indoor DIY decoration. In addition ,a dry - delaying agent is incorporated into formula to prolong swabbing time with the purpose of being applicable to larger scale field or factory applications.

  8. Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus gattii VGII from indoor dust from typical wooden houses in the deep Amazonas of the Rio Negro basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Brito-Santos

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is a human fungal infection of significant mortality and morbidity, especially in the meningoencephalitis form. Cryptococcosis is distributed worldwide and its agents, C. neoformans and C. gattii, present eight major molecular types-VNI-VNIV and VGI-VGIV respectively. The primary cryptococcosis caused by molecular type VGII (serotype B, MAT alpha prevails in immunocompetent patients in the North and Northeast of Brazil, revealing an endemic regional pattern to this molecular type. Since 1999, C. gattii VGII has been involved in an ongoing outbreak in Canada, and is expanding to the Northwest of the United States, two temperate regions. Exposure to propagules dispersed in the environment, related to various organic substrates, mainly decomposing wood in and around dwellings, initiates the infection process. The present study investigated the presence of the agents of cryptococcosis in dust from dwellings in the upper Rio Negro, municipality of Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in Amazonas state. Indoor dust was collected from 51 houses, diluted and plated on bird seed agar. Dark brown colonies were identified phenotypically, and genotypically by URA5 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. The mating type was identified using pheromone-specific primers. Three of the 51 houses were positive for C. gattii molecular type VGII, MATα and MATa, showing a high prevalence of this agent. MLST studies identified eight subtypes, VGIIb (ST7, VGIIa (ST20, (ST5 and 5 new subtypes unique to the region. For the first time in the state of Amazonas, C. gattii VGII MATα and MATa were isolated from the environment and correlates with endemic cryptococcosis in this state. This is the first description of MLST subtypes on environmental isolates in the Brazilian Amazon, indicating domiciliary dust as a potential source for human infection with different subtypes of C. gattii VGII MATα and MATa.

  9. Fuji Xerox Wooden Non-edible Bioplastics%富士施乐成功开发木质非食用性生物塑料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    富士施乐株式会社于9月26日宣布成功开发了木质非食用性生物塑料”及采用了这种材料的零部件,并取得了日本生物塑料协会的生物塑料(BP)认证标志”。这在数码多功能机和打印机行业尚属首次。

  10. Differential expression of genes involved in C1 metabolism and lignin biosynthesis in wooden core and bast tissues of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Ebskamp, M.J.M.; Toonen, M.A.J.; Koops, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Plants are the major source of fibres for, e.g., textile and paper applications. Fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) can be grown under a wide variety of agro-ecological conditions, is resistant to weeds and pests and, in general, drought tolerant. Fibre length and content of cellulose and lignin are im

  11. Bactericidal Activity of Aqueous Acrylic Paint Dispersion for Wooden Substrates Based on TiO2 Nanoparticles Activated by Fluorescent Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Di Gioia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic effect of TiO2 has great potential for the disinfection of surfaces. Most studies reported in the literature use UV activation of TiO2, while visible light has been used only in a few applications. In these studies, high concentrations of TiO2, which can compromise surface properties, have been used. In this work, we have developed an acrylic-water paint dispersion containing low TiO2 content (2 vol % for the inactivation of microorganisms involved in hospital-acquired infections. The nanoparticles and the coating have been characterized using spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy, showing their homogenous dispersion in the acrylic urethane coating. A common fluorescent light source was used to activate the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The paint dispersion showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The coating containing the TiO2 nanoparticles maintained good UV stability, strong adhesion to the substrate and high hardness. Therefore, the approach used is feasible for paint formulation aimed at disinfection of healthcare surfaces.

  12. Beyond Piñatas, Fortune Cookies, and Wooden Shoes: Using the World Wide Web to Help Children Explore the Whole Wide World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Donna; Shulsky, Debra; Willis, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The advent of technology and access to the internet through the World Wide Web have stretched the traditional ways of teaching social studies beyond classroom boundaries. This article explores how teachers can create authentic and contextualized cultural studies experiences for young children by integrating social studies and technology. To…

  13. Dos escudos de madera policromada del Ayuntamiento de Toledo = Two Wooden Polychromated Coat of Arms from the Town Hall of Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Perla de las Parras

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio trata de aportar información de carácter histórico sobre dos escudos de madera policromada que se encontraban descontextualizados en las Casas Consistoriales de Toledo y que muy probablemente pertenecieron a la desaparecida armadura del Salón de Capítulos del piso alto. Tras las reformas llevadas a cabo en los últimos años, aparecieron en alguna de las dependencias municipales, siendo recogidos en el Archivo Municipal de Toledo, organismo que se hizo cargo de su restauración. Una vez concluida ésta, han vuelto a ser colgados en el Ayuntamiento, en un nuevo emplazamiento.The current research tries to render information regarding the historical characteristics about two coat of arms made of polychromated wood, which were found out of his original location in the Town Hall of Toledo. It is probable that they belonged to the lost framework of the Assembly Hall in the high floor, although it is not an affirmation which pretends to be conclusive nor it is the main purpose of this article. After the repairings made during the past years, these coat of arms were found in the Town Hall premises, and were then stored by the Archivo Municipal de Toledo, organisation that has been in charge of its restoration. Once the restoration was completed, they were hanged again at the City Hall in a new emplacement. 

  14. THE STUDY OF INFLUENCE ON SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WOOD AND CARBON STOCK CHANGING WOODEN HOUSE LIFE - CASE STUDY FOR WAKAYAMA PREFECTURE USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Miho; Taenaka, Sayuri; Tanikawa, Hiroki

    The study evaluated the influence of supply and demand of residential wood on the amounts of carbon fixation and CO2 absorption by forests. The residential wood occupies most of all wood demand. The result of the analysis revealed that both the amounts of carbon fixation in the forest and the residence decreased. Moreover, it was clarified that the wood utilization for long-lived houses made the amounts of carbon fixation in the forests and residences the maximum. On the other hand, the amounts of CO2 absorption by the man-made forest would decrease in the future. However, the study showed the possibility of the increase in CO2 absorption admitted in the Kyoto Protocol.

  15. Development of a Novel, Low-Cost, Disposable Wooden Pencil Graphite Electrode for Use in the Determination of Antioxidants and Other Biological Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, James; Ervin, Emily; Olafson, Carly

    2015-07-31

    The development of portable sensors that can be used outside the lab is an active area of research in the electroanalytical field. A major focus of such research is the development of low-cost electrodes for use in these sensors. Current electrodes, such as glassy-carbon electrodes (GCEs), are costly and require time-consuming preparation. Alternatives have been proposed, including mechanical pencil-lead electrodes (MPEs). However, MPEs themselves possess numerous drawbacks, particularly structural fragility. In this paper, we present a novel pencil-graphite electrode (PGE) fabricated from a regular HB#2 pencil. This PGE is a simple, disposable, extremely low-cost alternative to GCEs ($0.30 per PGE, vs. $190 + per GCE), and possesses the structural stability that MPEs lack. PGEs were characterized by square-wave voltammetry of ferricyanide, gallic acid, uric acid, dopamine, and several foodstuffs. In all cases, PGEs demonstrated sensitivities comparable or superior to those of the GCE and MPE (LOD = 5.62 × 10(-4) M PGE, 4.80 × 10(-4) M GCE, 2.93 × 10(-4) M MPE). Signal areas and peak heights were typically four to ten times larger for the PGE relative to the GCE.

  16. Determination of true optical absorption and scattering coefficient of wooden cell wall substance by time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Ryunosuke; Inagaki, Tetsuya; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

    2016-02-22

    The true absorption coefficient (μa) and reduced scattering coefficient (μ´s) of the cell wall substance in Douglas fir were determined using time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy. Samples were saturated with hexane, toluene or quinolone to minimize the multiple reflections of light on the boundary between pore-cell wall substance in wood. μ´s exhibited its minimum value when the wood was saturated with toluene because the refractive index of toluene is close to that of the wood cell wall substance. The optical parameters of the wood cell wall substance calculated were μa = 0.030 mm(-1) and μ´s= 18.4 mm(-1). Monte Carlo simulations using these values were in good agreement with the measured time-resolved transmittance profiles.

  17. Application of CNC Machine in the Design and Manufacture of Wooden Acoustic Box%木质音箱的数控加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝孟辉; 朱南峰

    2007-01-01

    为充分利用木材的天然特性,科学高效地使用木质材料,提高木质产品附加值,本试验应用计算机辅助设计与制造(CAD/CAM)和数控加工技术探讨了复杂木质音箱的加工生产特性.试验根据产品结构要求,绘制三维模型,进行数控编程及数控加工,并对加工工艺进行优化设计.研究结果表明,CAD/CAM和数控加工技术可高效地生产高质量的木质产品.

  18. 郯城樊埝村的旋木玩具%Sharpened Wooden Toys Produced in Fannian Village in Tancheng,Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐思民

    2004-01-01

    在山东临沂的郯城县,有一个很特别的村子,说它特别是因为据说这个村子从开始有人家一直到现在,就以做旋木玩具闻名,虽然没有多少可考的史料,但的确远近知晓,这就是郯城县港上乡的樊埝村,曾被誉为“木玩具之乡”。

  19. 水性木制工艺品玩具涂料的研制%Preparation of water-borne coatings for wooden handicraft toys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏亮; 王珣

    2009-01-01

    针对国内外对木制工艺品玩具所用涂料要求的进一步提高,研制出符合各项性能测试要求的水性木制工艺品玩具涂料系列产品,对产品配方设计、操作工艺、性能检测,原材料选择进行了详细论述.

  20. Study On The Market Demand Of Wooden Toy%关于木制玩具市场需求问题的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅; 周跃朋

    2009-01-01

    木制玩具是玩具家族的一大门类,历史源远流长,以其天然性、耐用性及益智性深受人们的欢迎,尤其是在儿童的早期教育和智力开发上有着其它类别的玩具不可取代的作用,由于它卓越的性能,自问世以来创造出前所未有的市场空间.

  1. 从《阿尔的凡·高卧室》觑凡·高%A Look at Vincent van Gogh from Vincent van Gogh's Bedroom in Ale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何荷

    2002-01-01

    原认为凡·高的画缺少一种温文尔雅,读毕,惊叹于凡·高对于艺术的执着和人格的伟大,再看他的画,越发觉得那种狂放的张扬的生命是任何人都无从模仿的.这次管中窥豹,旨在浅析凡·高画作的艺术魅力,完结心中对圣者的敬意之夙愿.借佛家用语"涅槃、无色界、阿修罗道、芥子纳须弥、彼岸"勾勒凡·高.

  2. <論文>積雪寒冷地向け木造開口フレームに関する研究

    OpenAIRE

    谷口, 博; 手塚, 純一

    2003-01-01

    A life of wooden house becomes to be decreased in Japan and some valuable wooden material is consumed by its reconstruction. Recently, we ask to increase the life of house and keep the wooden material, because the wooden material is useful to keep our ear

  3. Developing Products Designing Ability and Creating Independent Brand of Wooden Toys——on Development of Wooden Toys Industry in Yunhe%提高产品设计能力打造木制玩具自主品牌——论云和县木制玩具业的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝法勤

    2009-01-01

    打造一个成功品牌的因素很多,管理模式、市场营销、产品研发能力等都是打造品牌的关键.对于长期以"三来一补"的生产方式为主的云和木制玩具产业来说,产品设计能力和营销手段是其自主品牌创建的两个关键点.企业要从以数量、价格竞争发展为品牌输出扩张,使云和木制玩具产业立于世界玩具之林.培育和发展壮大云和木制玩具设计产业、提高产品设计能力,是解决这一问题的根本出路.

  4. Possible Radiation-Induced Damage to the Molecular Structure of Wooden Artifacts Due to Micro-Computed Tomography, Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Kozachuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to ascertain whether radiation produced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, micro-computed tomography (μCT and/or portable handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF equipment might damage wood artifacts during analysis. Changes at the molecular level were monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis. No significant changes in FTIR spectra were observed as a result of μCT or handheld XRF analysis. No substantial changes in the collected FTIR spectra were observed when XPS analytical times on the order of minutes were used. However, XPS analysis collected over tens of hours did produce significant changes in the FTIR spectra.

  5. A Rapid Testing Method for Harmful Fungi on Wooden Components of Relics%遗址木构件有害真菌的快速测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏克祥; 朱幼玲; 安学芳

    2005-01-01

    介绍了 1 种快速测定遗址木构件有害真菌的方法:用孢子菌丝悬浮液直接接种于供试木块上,培养 4 d,即可确定其侵染性;培养 8 d,即可确定其侵染力.应用该方法成功地测定了灰绿曲霉(Aspergillus glaucus)、黑曲霉(Aspergillus niger)、枝孢霉(Cladosporium sp.)、顶青霉(Penicillium corylophilum)、柑桔青霉(Penicillium citrinum)、团青霉(Penicillium commune)、黄曲霉(Aspergillus flavus)、微紫青霉(Penicillium janthinellum) 、总状毛霉(Mucor racemosus)、绿木霉(Trichoderma viride)等10种真菌的侵染性和侵染力.

  6. study on the formulas and effect of floor wax for sealed wooden floor%木地板蜡水护理剂的配方研究及性能测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈韬; 李健玲

    2002-01-01

    木地板蜡水护理剂是以金属交联丙烯酸系聚合物作为主成膜剂,配合碱溶性树脂、蜡乳液、成膜助剂、润湿剂、增塑剂等配制而成.通过对木地板蜡水护理剂的配方研究及性能测试,结果表明:金属交联丙烯酸系聚合物、碱溶性树脂、蜡这三种原料的干料比对地板蜡水的光泽值有一定的影响,经过优选得出的木地板蜡水护理剂配方有较好的稳定性、光泽度、防水性、抗洗涤性、抗磨蚀性和流平性.

  7. 室内木制品用空心刨花板吸声性能的研究%Study on sound absorption performance of extruded tubular particleboard used in indoor wooden products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常乐; 吴智慧

    2011-01-01

    The coefficient of sound absorption of pressed solid particleboard and extruded tubular particleboard was measured by standing wave tube method under different conditions. The effects of material structure, porosity ratio and surface treatment on the sound absorption property were evaluated. The results showed that the sound absorption property of the extruded tubular particleboard was better than that of pressed solid particleboard. The average coefficient of noise reduction was 0.30 in extruded tubular particleboard, which was higher than that in solid particleboard. The average coefficient of sound absorption of extruded tubular particleboard was above 0.2, which proved that the extruded tubular particleboard could be used as a suitable sound absorption material. Moreover, when the holes in tubular particleboard were arranged in vertical direction, the coefficient of sound absorption was higher than that arranged in horizontal direction. The sanding was a useful method to improve the sound absorption property of these particleboards, especially for pressed solid particleboard.%采用驻波法测试了挤压法生产的空心刨花板与平压法生产的实心刨花板在不同试验条件下的吸声系数,并探讨了材料结构、孔隙率、表面处理等因素对吸声性能的影响.结果表明:挤压法生产的空心刨花板比平压法生产的实心刨花板吸声性能好.挤压法生产的空心刨花板的平均降噪系数为0.30,是平压法生产的实心刨花板的2倍,其平均吸声系数大于0.2,是理想的吸声材料.空心刨花板孔道的吸声系数纵向排列时要比横向排列时高.采用表面砂光方法对提高两种板材的吸声系数都有一定的效果,其中平压法生产的实心刨花板更明显.

  8. Conservation of Wooden Architecture Heritage in Vietnam%越南木建筑遗产的保护——关于CHU QUYEN公屋的保护案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chu Quyen公屋是越南现存传统公屋中最古老且具有典型特征的公屋之一,它是越南传统木建筑的代表,构件上仍保留有大量17世纪末18世纪初的特色雕刻. Chu Quyen公屋在进行修护措施之前的状况危急,部分木框架已经腐烂,一些木柱出现裂纹,有的地方不得不临时用柱子做支撑等等,这些最终导致了建筑变形.

  9. 内心丛林——上海相东佛像艺术馆设计理念%Inner Jungle: Design for Adobe Museum for Wooden Buddha in Juyuan District of Jiading in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家琨

    2010-01-01

    @@ 内心:指在大都市的喧嚣浮躁中为现代人创造一处获得精神休憩的静谧场所. 也指废弃的厂房大空间中的一个独特世界. 丛林:指传播和传承佛教精神的寺庙经院.

  10. The Invention which was from Wooden Kite, Paper Kite to Airplane--Realization of Mankind Flying Desire(2)%从木鸢、风筝到飞机的发明--人类飞行愿望的实现(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燮阳; 乔惠英

    2001-01-01

    @@ (续2001年第4期) 以上说的都是重于空气的古代飞行器. 如果有比重轻于空气的飞行器,那它自然就可在空中飘飞了,气球(热气球、氢气球、氦气球)和飞艇就属于这一类飞行器.

  11. Roof wave for an eco-shopping center. G3 Shopping Resort Gerasdorf at Vienna. Europe's greatest wooden building sites; Dachwelle fuer Oeko-Einkaufszentrum. G3 Shopping Resort Gerasdorf bei Wien. Europas groesste Holzbaustelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Heinz; Trefil, Gustav; Gloeggler, Jens [ATP Wien (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    In Austria, the G3 shopping resort Gerasdorf is the first shopping center which has undergone an environmental impact assessment and is built in an environmentally conscious design. The operation of this shopping center is based on biomass. The shopping center was certificated in June 2011 at the klima:aktiv mobile network conference in Vienna (Austria). Within the course of planning, the building owner has decided for a certification of the shopping resort according to the building certification system BREEAM. A sustainability certificate as an award is aspired to the final completion.

  12. "The wooden bucket law" explores Xi in skilled workers' school class application in managing%"木桶定律"在技工学校班级管理中的应用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁柳燕

    2009-01-01

    国家虽加大对职业教育的投入,但受社会大环境影响,整个技工类学校的生源质量较差.笔者曾运用"木桶定律"的原理加强对技工学校的班级管理,效果较为显著.

  13. Rapid Determination of Ortho-phenylphenol in Wooden Toys by GC-MS%气相色谱-质谱法快速检测木制玩具中的邻苯基苯酚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪灯; 许菲菲; 姜士磊; 楼赛丽; 楼巧玲; 柴明青

    2013-01-01

    使用气相色谱-质谱法快速、简单、有效检测木制玩具中邻苯基苯酚的含量.使用甲醇超声萃取,乙酸酐乙酰化对样品预处理,采用气相色谱-质谱技术进行检测.研究结果显示,方法对邻苯基苯酚的检测线性范围为0.1~4.0 mg/L,检出限为0.01 mg/L,添加回收率为85% ~ 101%,相对标准偏差为3.29%和3.52%.表明方法不仅可以用于检测木制玩具中邻苯基苯酚,也可以用于其它材料中邻苯基苯酚的分析.

  14. Heat protection in summer for wooden residential buildings - Measurements on 'Minergie' single-family homes; Sommerlicher Waermeschutz bei Wohngebaeuden in Holzbauweise - Messungen in acht MINERGIE Einfamilienhaeusern - Entwurf Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, M.; Nutt, M. [Lemon Consult GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Keller, P. [Hochschule Luzern, Technik und Architektur, Horw (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This draft final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results obtained from measurements made in eight single-family homes built to the Swiss 'Minergie' standard. The project served to validate partly simplified simulations concerning the summertime thermal behaviour of low energy consumption buildings built of wood. The eight various 'Minergie' houses are described, as is the measurement concept chosen. The results obtained and the conclusions drawn are presented in detail and discussed, as is the implementation of measures derived from the project. Heat storage effects in the various building components are discussed. The results of the measurements are compared with the theoretical values obtained from calculations. Recommendations are presented. The report is augmented with a comprehensive appendix which includes the detailed measurement results for the buildings examined.

  15. Skulptur med dobbel identitet. Gjenbruk av en katolsk madonnaskulptur i et luthersk epitafium = A statue with a dual identity : reuse of a late medieval wooden sculpture in a post-reformation memorial / Rognald Bergesen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bergesen, Rognald

    2006-01-01

    Kahese identiteediga puuskulptuurist - katoliku kirikust pärineva Madonna pühakuju kasutamisest abikaasa ja tütre hauatähisena pärast reformatsiooni Vågani kirikus Põhja-Norras. Tänapäeval säilitatakse seda Tromsø Muuseumis

  16. A research study of develops and utilizes the resources of wooden climbing ornamental plants of Jina%济南市木质攀缘植物资源调查及开发利用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕德宇

    2008-01-01

    在系统调查的基础上,摸清了济南市木质攀缘植物及最适宜生长的种类.阐述了木质攀缘植物开发利用思路,探讨了城市垂直绿化种间搭配原则,论述了棚架及长廊的绿化、破损山体植被的修复、假山及岩石的植物造景等9种开发利用模式,提出了利用木质攀缘植物造景应注意的问题,为城市垂直绿化奠定了基础.

  17. 5种木制玩具原料林树种在云和的早期生长表现%Early Growth of 5 Tree Species for Wooden Toy in Yunhe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建灵; 吴涛; 卢刚; 王永标

    2010-01-01

    自2005年开始在云和镇开展枫香(Liquidambar formosana)、木荷(Schima superba)、南酸枣(Choerospondias axillaris)、江南桤木(Alnus trabeculosa)、马褂木(Liriodendron chinense)5种木制玩具原料树种造林试验,结果表明:5种速生阔叶树种造林当年的成活率均在95%以上,最高的为枫香,达98.5%,5年后各树种的保存率均超过92%,最高的枫香为97.2%;5个树种的5年生树高总生长量最大的为江南桤木,达7.6 m,其余依次为南酸枣、枫香、木荷、马褂木;5年生胸径生长量也是江南桤木最大达6.7 cm,其余依次为南酸枣、枫香、木荷、马褂木.

  18. The Aesthetic Features and Significance of Sharpened Wooden Toys in Tancheng,South of Shandong%鲁南郯城木旋玩具的美学特征和意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉玲

    2010-01-01

    @@ 一、郯城木旋玩具的材料和制作过程 木旋玩具,顾名思义,就是"用木头旋出来的玩具",俗称"耍货".源于元末明初、已有600多年历史的鲁南郯城民间传统木质手工艺品,具有浓厚的乡土气息和地方特色.

  19. The Construction of 3D Parametric Standard Part Library for Wooden Toys%木制玩具三维参数化标准零件库的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李路川; 邵健

    2007-01-01

    该文以木制玩具中的亭塔、城堡类玩具为开发实例,通过分析其中所具有的共性件,提取出一些典型的标准零件,然后以Visual Basic 6.0为开发工具,Solid Edge为开发平台,将参数化设计技术运用于玩具标准件的设计中,在Solid Edge上开发了亭塔、城堡类的木制玩具典型零件的三维参数化零件库.

  20. 重新校补宋刻《唐柳本尊传》碑%Castigation to The Song Dynasty Version of The Wooden Tablet of The Biography of LIU Ben-zun of The Tang Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明光

    2006-01-01

    《柳碑》刊晚唐四川"唐瑜伽部主揔持王"柳本尊"十炼"化道始末.碑文漶甚,释史失载.碑可补史之缺,先年曾校补刊发,有误.今据新得资料,重新校补,使其更贴近历史真实.

  1. Research on techniques of two wooden body urushiwares from Dongyang tombs at Xuyi city of the East Hart Dynasty%盱眙东阳汉墓两件木胎漆器髹漆工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金普军; 谢元安; 李乃胜

    2009-01-01

    江苏盱眙县境内的东阳秦汉古墓群是一处重要的秦汉遗址.迄今为止,墓葬出土了大批精美的漆器,为了解汉代广陵国髹漆工艺提供了珍贵的资料.为了解其髹漆工艺特点,采用了切片技术、X射线衍射光谱(XRD)、X射线荧光光谱(XRF)和傅立叶红外吸收光谱(FTIR)等分析方法对其中两件木胎漆器进行了分析研究.漆膜切片显示素色漆器的漆膜由漆灰层和黑色漆层构成,而彩绘漆器由三层结构组成.分别为灰地、底漆层和色漆层;XRD图谱发现漆灰层中的填料主要为石英(AiO2)和钠长石(NaAISi3O8),漆膜中的红色颜料为朱砂(HgS);红色漆膜的XRF显示了其主要元素是Hg和S,包括Ca、Si、Cu和Fe等微量元素.漆膜的FTIR分析数据显示漆膜中在1630cm-1和1576cm-1处存在着可能是苯环骨架振动的红外吸收峰.研究结果说明了本地髹漆工艺主要分为三个步骤:1)髹漆灰,漆灰层是由生漆调和研磨成细粒的钠长石矿物构成,它能制作出厚度约0.1~0.2 mm薄漆灰层;2)髹底漆,厚度约为0.02~0.09 mm;3)彩绘,红色漆膜中的颜料为朱砂,朱砂含有微量的Ca、Si、Cu和Fe等杂质,表明其来自矿采.

  2. Protection and Restoration Techniques of Golden Paint Wooden Figure of Buddha at Pu'ning Temple%普宁寺金漆木佛保护与修缮技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志伟

    2009-01-01

    普宁寺始建于清乾隆二十年(1755年),是清代乾隆皇帝在承德修建的第一座寺庙,规模宏大、布局合理、体系完整,是清代承德外八庙的宗教活动中心。寺庙内主体建筑及殿堂陈设均为清代建造。

  3. On the production of wooden doors veneer hand lay process and its pros and cons%浅谈木门生产中手糊薄木的工艺及其利弊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春海; 孙克丹

    2009-01-01

    手糊薄木工艺是利用加热蒸发水分,使乳白胶产生胶结合作用的基本原理来完成的.本文主要从加工工艺及其利弊方面进行了向单的阐述.并总结工厂中的生产经验,简单的论述了其检验方法和不合格产品的处理方法.以便更大的提高产品的质量.

  4. Skulptur med dobbel identitet. Gjenbruk av en katolsk madonnaskulptur i et luthersk epitafium = A statue with a dual identity : reuse of a late medieval wooden sculpture in a post-reformation memorial / Rognald Bergesen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bergesen, Rognald

    2006-01-01

    Kahese identiteediga puuskulptuurist - katoliku kirikust pärineva Madonna pühakuju kasutamisest abikaasa ja tütre hauatähisena pärast reformatsiooni Vågani kirikus Põhja-Norras. Tänapäeval säilitatakse seda Tromsø Muuseumis

  5. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  6. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  7. Pallet standards in agri-food sector: a brief survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Trevisani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In food industry wooden pallet and fruit and vegetables crates are the most used for handling and delivering. Regulatory aspects and test procedure are relatively young as regards to the packaging sector of wooden. Currently many standards are in development or implementation. In this context the objective of the following paper is a brief overview on technical standards governing the use of wooden packaging, with particular reference to the agricultural-food sector. In this review, as wooden packaging, are taken into account, wood or its derivatives used to support, packaging and transport goods, such as cages, wooden pallets, wooden frame, wooden kegs, rods or timber. Particularly European standards are briefly described in their technical content and historic development. Market data, emerging technology and environmental problems are even recalled.

  8. 78 FR 42486 - Notice of New Recreation Fees; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII, Pub. L. 108...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... maintenance, and future improvements including historical information on the cabins. The Orange Olsen Dwelling has a front room, two bedrooms (sleeping up to six people), kitchen, and bathroom with shower. An... combination kitchen/bedroom (sleeping up to four people), bathroom with shower, and four trailer pads...

  9. The love emblem applied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, P.; Boot, P.; Stronks, E.

    2007-01-01

    What could be a more fitting environment for love emblems than the bedroom walls in a Renaissance family castle? A bedroom redecorated on the occasion of a wedding in the highest circles of French nobility? Where a series of emblems was rearranged to tell the story of a love, ending in an embrace th

  10. 76 FR 28917 - Medical Foster Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... facilitate appropriate recreational and leisure activities because this requirement will help ensure the... fellowships, Travel and transportation expenses, Veterans. Dated: May 13, 2011. Robert C. McFetridge, Director... recreational and leisure activities. (d) Residents' bedrooms. Each veteran resident must have a bedroom:...

  11. Risk factors for mosquito house entry in the Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hiscox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km(2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared with traditional homes built from poorer construction materials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys were carried out in the Nam Theun 2 resettlement area and a nearby traditional rice farming area in 2010. Mosquitoes were sampled in bedrooms using CDC light traps in 96 resettlement houses and 96 traditional houses and potential risk factors for mosquito house entry were recorded. Risk of mosquito house entry was more than twice as high in traditional bamboo houses compared with those newly constructed from wood (Putative Japanese Encephalitis (JE vector incidence rate ratio (IRR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.38-3.70, P = 0.001; Anopheline IRR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30-4.23, P = 0.005. Anophelines were more common in homes with cattle compared against those without (IRR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.29-4.17, P = 0.005.Wood smoke from cooking fires located under the house or indoors was found to be protective against house entry by both groups of mosquito, compared with cooking in a separate room beside the house (Putative JE vector IRR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.26-0.73, P = 0.002; Anopheline IRR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.10-0.51, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Construction of modern wooden homes should help reduce human-mosquito contact in the Lao PDR. Reduced mosquito contact rates could lead to reduced transmission of diseases such as JE and malaria. Cattle ownership was associated with increased anopheline house entry, so zooprophylaxis for malaria control is not recommended in this area. Whilst wood smoke was protective against putative JE vector and anopheline house entry we do not recommend indoor cooking since smoke inhalation can enhance

  12. New arrangements in force in the field of transport

    CERN Multimedia

    Tom Wegelius

    2006-01-01

    Please take note of the following information concerning new arrangements in force in the field of transport: China: Regulations applying to wooden packaging materials as of 1st January 2006 As scheduled, China introduced standard ISPM No. 15 on 1st January 2006. This was officially confirmed in a letter from the Federal Minister for Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture. Henceforth, China will apply the same conditions to the importation of wooden packaging materials as various other countries, including the United States, Mexico and Brazil. This means that items shipped to China in wooden packaging will no longer need to be accompanied by a certificate relating to the protection of plant species or other phytosanitary documents (such as heat treatment certificates). However, a guarantee that the wooden packaging complies with standard ISPM No. 15 will be required. Phase II of US regulations concerning wooden packaging material Phase II of regulations concerning the importation of wooden packaging ma...

  13. [Clinical and epidemiologic evaluation of carcinogenic pollution in the wood-processing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkova, E V; Dymova, E G; Gurvich, E B; Antonova, O N; Gutnikova, O V; Saprykova, V V; Prosina, I I

    1993-01-01

    Hygienic, clinical, epidemiologic studies in primary woodworking and chipboard production workers showed that exposure to occupational hazards (wooden dust, formaldehyde and other chemicals of wooden origin) results in frequent allergy and irritation of upper respiratory tract and skin. High oncologic risk among woodworking production employees assigns the industry to a group with oncologic jeopardy. MAC for wooden dust should be corrected taking into account the chemicals (phenol, formaldehyde, furans et al.) content.

  14. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Valentine Dam (NJ00297) Delaware River Basin, Branch of the Pequest River, Sussex County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    B WOODEN STOPLOG (4’xlx2) HOUSE a15 Via T CHANNEL SECTION APPROX. 900’ DOWNSTREAM OF DAM SEEPAGELAKE VALENTINE 15 WOODEN FOOTBRIDGE r(4’xl’xe... FOOTBRIDGE (Wooden Deck) ]HOUSE HOUSE PLAN cufl DATA FROM FIELD INSPECTION 11/9/79 Anderson- Nichols 5 Ca, Inc [U.S. ARMY ENGINEER DIST PHIL ADELPH4IA CORPS

  15. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stecher, Dave [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, PA. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems—a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms—were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  16. Kitchen Practices Used in Handling Broiler Chickens and Survival of Campylobacter spp. on Cutting Surfaces in Kampala, Uganda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irene Wanyenya; Charles Muyanja; George William Nasinyama

    2004-01-01

    .... The survival of Campylobacter spp. on kitchen cutting surfaces was determined by inoculating approximately 106 CFU of Campylobacter jejuni onto sterile plastic, wooden, and metal cutting boards...

  17. 14 CFR 23.929 - Engine installation ice protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.929 Engine installation ice protection. Propellers (except wooden propellers) and...

  18. Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Possible risk factors for disease in the home were identified during a preceding base- line survey. Results: ..... agreement with the study done in the arid rural areas in Southern ... communities bedroom sharing is a common practice regardless ...

  19. ayarkwa et al.2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    As one of the most damaging failures that occur in buildings, dampness in all its forms affects both old ..... curred internally in the other bedrooms. Moisture content distribution and detailed analysis .... tiled sealings a possible route for water.

  20. 75 FR 76780 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... insulation benefit, protects occupants from injury caused by the likelihood of a projectile striking the... following: (1) The two end doors are always unlocked when the car is in motion; (2) each bedroom is...

  1. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  2. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Dave [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the Building America team, IBACOS, sought to determine cost-effective, energy-efficient solutions for heating and cooling houses. To this end, the team performed field testing in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California, to evaluate three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. These included a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  3. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, D.; Poerschke, A.

    2014-02-01

    Field testing was performed in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. Three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems -- a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms -- were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  4. Housing Affordability in Ghana: A focus on Kumasi and Tamale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    enables a comparison of the affordable housing situation in the ..... grass/palm leaf, corrugated metal, asbestos, and concrete. ... Asbestos roofing sheets carry serious health hazards; it .... rent for a three bedroom flat in a good location.

  5. 24 CFR 968.315 - Comprehensive Plan (including five-year action plan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... estimated per unit unfunded hard cost is equal to or less than the per unit TDC for the smallest bedroom size at the development, no further computation of the TDC limit is required. The PHA shall...

  6. 75 FR 39168 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... dining room and upstairs bedroom areas for cleaning, repairing, and reinstallation by a paper conservator... activities to proceed safely and efficiently in order to carry out the protection and preservation of...

  7. Perception of personal identity at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés, Juan I; Amérigo, María; Pérez-López, Raquel

    2010-11-01

    This study aims to discover whether observers with the same cultural background as the inhabitant of a bedroom perceive common characteristics among the inhabitants. The study was carried out with 107 females who were asked to assess the inhabitants of eight bedrooms. Several slides of each bedroom were shown to participants and they had to choose from a list of seventy-six characteristics those that defined the resident of each bedroom. Results revealed that socio-demographic variables thus attributed coincided with the profiles of the inhabitants. A correspondence analysis brought to light a dimension linked to affective aspects, which was more prominent among women; whereas among men the characteristics thus attributed were more linked to practical aspects and to difficulties for social interaction. A second study was conducted to determine whether gender stereotype had any influence on the result of the previous study. The outcomes showed that this stereotype did not have any effect on the participants' judgments.

  8. Academic achievement of junior high school students with sleep disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auliyanti, Fijri; Sekartini, Rini; Mangunatmadja, Irawan

    2016-01-01

    ... status, family structure, after-hours education program, presence of TV/computer in the bedroom, sleep duration during school days, as well as bedtime and wakeup time difference in junior high school...

  9. The effect of ventilation on the indoor air concentration of PCB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    The impact of increased ventilation on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) air concentration by installation of mechanical balanced ventilation units was studied. The intervention was carried out in three PCB-contaminated rooms; one classroom in an elementary school and two small bedrooms...... in an apartment in a residential building. In the classroom, the air exchange rate (ACH) was raised from 0.2 (without mechanical ventilation) to 5.5 /h during the intervention. In the two bedrooms, the highest ACH was 6.6 /h and 0.5 /h without mechanical ventilation. The corresponding concentration decrease...... achieved from the intervention was 30% and in one of the bedrooms 45%. Emissions of PCB rose dramatically during periods of increased ventilation as the drop in concentration did not match the increased ACH. When ventilation in the bedrooms was increased incrementally from 0.5 to 2.2, 4.5, and 6.6 /h...

  10. 77 FR 5661 - Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... expectations of how a man or woman should look or act. Housing owners or operators may be liable for their own... person in a setting where bathrooms and bedrooms would be shared reinforces stereotypes and biases...

  11. Strategies for Getting Enough Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outside every day (when possible) and be physically active. Keep your bedroom quiet, cool, and dark (a dim night light is fine, if needed). Take a hot bath or use relaxation techniques before bed. Napping during the day may ...

  12. Television viewing, internet use, and self-reported bedtime and rise time in adults: implications for sleep hygiene recommendations from an exploratory cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the availability of the Internet and TV in the bedroom and overall Internet use and TV viewing were related to sleep variables in a sample of 711 residents of Flanders, Belgium. Although the relations were small, there was some evidence of time shifting: Internet access in the bedroom predicted later bedtime (β = .12, p sleep window or tiredness. Reducing media use might not be important for sleep hygiene advice to adults.

  13. Early adolescent Body Mass Index and the constructed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Randall M; Vaterlaus, J Mitchell

    2014-07-01

    Previous research has shown that macro-level environmental features such as access to walking trails and recreational facilities are correlated with adolescent weight. Additionally, a handful of studies have documented relationships between micro-level environmental features, such as the presence (or absence) of a television in the bedroom, and adolescent weight. In this exploratory study we focus exclusively on features of the micro-level environment by examining objects that are found within adolescent personal bedrooms in relation to the adolescent occupant's Body Mass Index score (BMI). Participants were 234 early adolescents (eighth graders and ninth graders) who lived with both biological parents and who had their own private bedroom. Discriminant analyses were used to identify the bedrooms belonging to adolescents with below and above average BMI using objects contained within the micro-level environment as discriminating variables. Bedrooms belonging to adolescents with above average BMI were more likely to contain objects associated with sedentary behavior (e.g., magazines, electronic games, dolls), whereas the bedrooms belonging to the average and below average BMI adolescents were more likely to contain objects that reflect past physical activity (e.g., trophies, souvenirs, pictures of places that they had visited). If causal connections between micro-environmental variables and adolescent BMI can be established in future longitudinal research, environmental manipulations may affect adolescent BMI. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Air Change Rates and Interzonal Flows in Residences, and the Need for Multi-Zone Models for Exposure and Health Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lewis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air change rates (ACRs and interzonal flows are key determinants of indoor air quality (IAQ and building energy use. This paper characterizes ACRs and interzonal flows in 126 houses, and evaluates effects of these parameters on IAQ. ACRs measured using weeklong tracer measurements in several seasons averaged 0.73 ± 0.76 h−1 (median = 0.57 h−1, n = 263 in the general living area, and much higher, 1.66 ± 1.50 h−1 (median = 1.23 h−1, n = 253 in bedrooms. Living area ACRs were highest in winter and lowest in spring; bedroom ACRs were highest in summer and lowest in spring. Bedrooms received an average of 55 ± 18% of air from elsewhere in the house; the living area received only 26 ± 20% from the bedroom. Interzonal flows did not depend on season, indoor smoking or the presence of air conditioners. A two-zone IAQ model calibrated for the field study showed large differences in pollutant levels between the living area and bedroom, and the key parameters affecting IAQ were emission rates, emission source locations, air filter use, ACRs, interzonal flows, outdoor concentrations, and PM penetration factors. The single-zone models that are commonly used for residences have substantial limitations and may inadequately represent pollutant concentrations and exposures in bedrooms and potentially other environments other where people spend a substantial fraction of time.

  15. Future Armor Tiles MIL-STD-166O Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division, was tasked by DAC to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on armor tile...containers on a wooden pallet. This report contains test results with the armor tile containers on a wooden pallet meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  16. The pallet industry: a changing hardwood market

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.P. Dempsey; D.G. Martens

    1991-01-01

    From its inception during World War II, the wooden pallet industry has grown to become the Nation's largest industrial consumer of hardwood lumber products. Since most of the raw material in wooden pallets is lower grade lumber, the pallet industry's growth, efficiency, and changing raw material inputs must be of concern to the grade hardwood lumber industry...

  17. Strategic Measures and Incentive Policies of SHP in China——Hangzhou Regional Center(Asia-Pacific) for Small Hydro Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    At the primary stage of SHP development (1960s—1970s), wooden or iron-wooden turbines manufactured by agricultural machinery works were mainly adopted in China. Before 1949, SHP equipment was generally imported due to lack of domestic manufacturing capability. In 1952, the first turbine-generator unit of 800kW capacity was successfully made in China,

  18. TYPES OF OPEN-AIR MUSEUM (SKANSEN IN UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Chervinskyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems of preservation of wooden architecture of Ukraine are discussed. The museums under opened air are organized for better preservation of the wooden architecture. The Ukrainian Museums under opened air are described and their use for tourism purposes is analyzed.

  19. Study of the influence of long horn Miao's wooden drum dance on university students' physical and mental health%长角苗木鼓舞对大学生身心健康发展的积极影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文丽; 严江

    2014-01-01

    运用文献资料法、实地考察法和逻辑推理等研究方法,总结得出了长脚苗木鼓舞所具有的特点,其中主要包含娱乐性和观赏性、趣味性与艺术性、锻炼性和教育性、趣味性与艺术性.进而分析发现长角苗木鼓舞能够在提高大学生的身体素质和改善亚健康状态,提升大学生集体主义精神、培养团队合作意识,推进大学生的素质教育等方面产生积极影响.

  20. 系统与个性——1930年代康拉德·瓦克斯曼与弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特的木制建筑%System or Individuality The Wooden Houses of Konrad Wachsmann and Frank Lloyd Wright in the 1930s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱竞翔

    2015-01-01

    介绍了1930年代康拉德·瓦克斯曼与弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特的木制建筑,分析了他们的工作侧重以及学术贡献.指出他们1930年代的工作清晰地呈现了后世轻量建筑探索的光谱的两端.

  1. La tejuela de madera en Chiloé, Chile: Estudio del borde de terminación en los poblados de Achao, Curaco de Vélez y Villa Quinchao./ The wooden tiles in Chiloe, Chile: Study of edge termination in the towns of Achao Curaco Velez and Villa Quinchao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Sotta Lazzerini, Paola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El valor de la arquitectura chilota se distingue tanto por la utilización de la madera, material único para su fabricación, como por el lenguaje estético que manifiesta en sus fachadas. Existe un trabajo de la textura, o “piel” de revestimiento de la arquitectura, como también el uso de colores llamativos, los cuales sirven para diferenciar las viviendas, y para efectos de ubicación y orientación. Considerando la situación de aislamiento en la cual se encuentra el chilote por vivir en un archipiélago, es a través de su ingenio que puede dar respuesta a sus necesidades. De esta manera, las soluciones formales y sus sistemas constructivos deben adecuarse al material y a las posibilidades de trabajo mecánico del mismo. Este estudio se inserta en la fabricación de un producto icono de la isla Grande de Chiloé, como es la tejuela de madera. / The value of chilota architecture is distinguished by the use of wood, unique material for their manufacture, for aesthetic language that manifests in their facades. There is a work of texture or "skin" covering architecture, as well as the use of bright colors, which serve to distinguish the houses, and for purposes of location and orientation. Considering the situation of isolation which is to live in the Chiloe archipelago, is through their ingenuity that can respond to their needs. This study is inserted in the manufacture of a product icon Chiloé island, the “tejuela” in wood. The formal solutions and building systems must conform to the material and the possibilities of mechanical work the same.

  2. Relacionamento, cooperação e governança em arranjos produtivos locais: o caso do APL de madeira e móveis do estado de Rondônia Relations, cooperation and governance in local production arrangements: the case of APL wooden furniture and state Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Teixeira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo identificar os agentes econômicos e institucionais do arranjo produtivo local APL de madeira e móveis do Estado de Rondônia e analisar suas formas de relacionamento, cooperação e governança. Foram utilizados os procedimentos metodológicos relativos ao estudo de caso, com a adoção de uma perspectiva de análise transversal. O nível de análise considerado foi o APL e a unidade de análise foram os gestores tanto das empresas quando das instituições envolvidas. A população abrangida na pesquisa somou trinta e cinco organizações integrantes do arranjo produtivo local de madeira e móveis de Rondônia, das quais vinte e quatro foram visitadas e seus dirigentes, entrevistados. Para a realização da pesquisa, foram utilizados dados primários, coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação direta não-participante do pesquisador, além de dados secundários. Os resultados levam a concluir que o APL de madeira e móveis do Estado de Rondônia ainda não existe como um arranjo propriamente dito, mas sim como três subgrupos com estágios diferentes em seus laços de cooperação. A colaboração foi percebida dentro de um dos subgrupos, tornando as empresas participantes mais bem preparadas e capacitadas. Portanto, o desafio é entender esse APL com necessidades e capacidades diferentes, onde as empresas se encontram em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento.This research had as objective to identify economic and institutional agents of Rondônia wood and furniture cluster and analyze its relationship, cooperation and governance. The methodological approach were the case study, with the adoption of a perspective of transversal analysis. The analysis level was the cluster and the analysis unit were the cluster and institutional management. The population was of thirty-five participant organizations of the wood and furniture cluster of Rondônia and, from those, twenty-four were visited and their managers interviewed. For the accomplishment of the research, sources of primary and secondary data were used, semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation were adopted. Results conclude that the wood and furniture cluster of Rondônia does not exist as a cluster yet, but as three sub-groups in different stages in their cooperation ties. Collaboration was perceived in one of the three sub-groups, making the companies more prepared and skilled. Thereby, the main challenge is understand this cluster with different necessities and capabilities where organizations are in the different levels of development.

  3. Pegasus ja puuhobune. James Joyce’i „Kunstniku noorpõlveportree” ja Friedebert Tuglase „Felix Ormusson”. Pegasus and the Wooden Horse: James Joyce’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Friedebert Tuglas’ Felix Ormusson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Ann Kirss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Friedebert Tuglas’ Felix Ormusson and James Joyce’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man were finished in the same year – 1914, but the writing of both novels took the writers almost a decade, a time of searching and exile for both of them. Joyce completely rewrote the initial draft of his novel, entitled Stephen Hero, experimenting with basic forms, such as the short prose piece he called the ”epiphany”. Tuglas’ Felix Ormusson was initially conceived as a three-volume picaresque novel, which was distilled into a single volume of prose fragments arranged as a diary novel: the rest was left unfinished, and exists only in the form of two novella-length fragments. A comparative juxtaposition of the two novels is suggestive, not just because of parallels between the authors’ life trajectories and creative biographies, nor because of similarities between the protagonists, not even by the somewhat deceptive placement in the rubric of the 'Künstlerroman'. Both novels partake of ironic autobiography, and both resonate with the subgenre of the ”diary novel”, increasingly in vogue in European literature of the fin-de-siècle, modelled in turn on the published journal intime. Felix Ormusson and Stephen Dedalus were their authors’ long-time fictional fellow travellers, alter ego’s, in whose confessions one can read the pressing desire to emerge from the provinces and peripheries of Europe toward broader, metropolitan cultural horizons. The protagonists’ quests open onto the problematics of modernism – the split between life and literature, and the burden of ”overreflexivity” which obstructed literary creation and sentimental education. Behind the aesthetic polemics of both novels are shadows of the politics of the era: for Felix Ormusson, the aftermath of the 1905 revolution and political exile, and in the milieu of young Stephen Dedalus, the entanglement of national politics and the Catholic church. In the first part of the article, both Tuglas’ and Joyce’s novels are considered in terms of their swerving away from the genre of the 'Künstlerroman', and the representation of the problem of the self. The language of Felix Ormusson’s diary is a conflicted mixed style, full of quotations, cliches and images that move restlessly back and forth between the registers of the ”country hick” (mats and the imitated ”city slicker” (vurle. The opposition of ”hick” and ”slicker” is also played out in the love triangle with the two sisters Helene and Marion, and Felix’s opposition to his friend Johannes. ”Over-reflexivity” culminates in Felix’ banal flight from the scene of his abortive summer romances at the end of the novel. For Joyce’s Stephen Dedalus, rebellion and self-creation grow out of the painful initiation experience of the Jesuit retreat in the centre of the novel, which catalyzes his rejection of church and faith, and the embracing of a secular aesthetic quest through the obird-girl” episode on the beach near Dublin. The second part of the article frames both novels generically in relation to the modern diary novel: if Felix Ormusson could be considered an imitation of the journal intime form, Stephen Dedalus arrives at the diary at the threshold of self-defining exile. The third part of the article compares the meanings of exile, nationalism and aesthetic cosmopolitanism in Tuglas’ and Joyce’s novels.

  4. 基于GEM模型的浙江南浔木地板产业集群竞争力的实证分析%Positive Analysis on Competitiveness of the Wooden Floor Industrial Cluster in Nanxun of Zhejiang Based on the GEM Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚

    2011-01-01

    浙江南浔木地板产业集群已具有一定的竞争优势,但是,在原料的来源、企业间的合作交流、企业研发创新等方面还存在一定的弱势.文章运用GEM模型对浙江南浔木地板产业集群竞争力进行实证分析和评价,并在上述的研究基础上,提出了进一步提升集群竞争力的建议.

  5. 介休祆神楼木雕“牛神”形象考辨——兼与姜伯勤先生商榷%Study on "Ox-God" Wooden Carving of Zoroastrianism Building in Jiexiu: Discussing with Mr.Jiang Boqin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 张铁梅

    2014-01-01

    建于北宋的介体祆神楼是祆教祠庙在海内的唯一遗构,其木雕异兽有着典型的祆教文化艺术特征然而被姜伯勤先生论证为“牛神”的木雕异兽,按其造型特征和在祆教中的地位及其所具有的神性职能来看,此木雕应是袄教中的“犬神”形象 犬在祆教中有着特殊的地位,具有着驱毒祛邪和守护主人及纳吉送福等诸多职能,因此广泛地出现在中西方祆教艺术题材中.

  6. Diagnostic value of an abnormal smear in non-pregnant women. Evaluation of positive smear from the surface of the portio obtained by the cottonswab method or by the dry wooden Ayre spatula and the relevance of positive smear from the endocervix and/or from the surface of the portio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, L; Højgaard, L L; Højgaard, K;

    1990-01-01

    During a 3-4 year period, 324 women with a positive smear were registered consecutively and prospectively and divided into two groups according to the design of the investigation. In one group the smear was taken with an Ayre spatula and in the other group with a cotton swab. The purpose of this ...

  7. METODOLOGÍA PARA LA CARACTERIZACIÓN DE COMBUSTIBLES SÓLIDOS MADERABLES DEL ÁREA METROPOLITANA DEL VALLE DE ABURRÁ “AMVA”, COLOMBIA METHODOLOGY FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID WOODEN FUELS OF THE "VALLE DE ABURRÁ" METROPOLITAN AREA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Biviana Vásquez Sierra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo exhibe la forma de realizar protocolos para la toma de muestras y muestreo en laboratorios, con fines de análisis de propiedades físicas de la madera utilizadas en el sector industrial del Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá y el beneficio que se logra al caracterizar y establecer las propiedades de las maderas más utilizadas. En esta investigación se presentan algunos de los parámetros más importantes para el muestreo, como la toma de muestras en pilas o arrumes de desperdicios, manejo de éstas en el laboratorio y otros que se hacen de gran importancia como es el punto de ignición. La metodología propuesta se basa en algunas de las normas internacionales ASTM del carbón, por la similitud que tiene con la madera y por la escasez de información en cuanto al muestreo de este tipo en maderas.This study illustrates the way to perform protocols, collect samples, and conduct laboratory analyses in order to characterize the physical properties of wood used in the industrial sector of the "Valle de Aburrá" metropolitan area and the gains obtained by characterizing the properties of the most frequently used woods. In this investigation some of the most important sampling parameters are presented, such as taking samples in piles or accumulations of waste, handling of these samples in the laboratory and others of great importance such as the ignition point. The proposed methodology is based upon some of the international ASTM coal norms, for the similarity it has with wood and for the lack of information on sampling this type in wood.

  8. Quantification of leakages and leakage pathways in wooden buildings. Part 2.: Manual for blower door measurements - advanced methods. Final report; Quantifizierung einzelner Leckagen und Leckagewege bei Gebaeuden in Holzbauart. T. 2: Handbuch zur Durchfuehrung von Blower Door-Messungen - Erweiterte Messmethoden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, M.; Geissler, A.; Hauser, G.

    2001-07-01

    The first part of the project investigated the limits of application of the Opening A Door, Adding A Hole, Guard Zone and Deduction methods in order to find out which of them is the most reliable in given circumstances. This involved comparative measurements in the roof section of a model building. The roof section was specially designed and constructed for this purpose. The second part of the investigations comprised in situ measurements using a prototype measuring system developed in an earlier project, which was further developed into a flexible system for quantification of random leakages also in corners and along edges. It can be used either as a double chamber or as a single chamber combined, e.g., with a blower door as compensating volume flow meter. The laboratory experiments were supplemented by field tests. [German] Fuer die Quantifizierung der Luftdichtheit einzelner Gebaeudebereiche werden im ersten Teil des Projektes zur Schaffung von soliden Grundlagen die bekannten Methoden Opening A Door, Adding A Hole, Guard Zone und Deduktion auf ihre Anwendungsgrenzen untersucht. Es wird erarbeitet, unter welchen Bedingungen mit welcher Methode die sichersten Ergebnisse erhalten werden. Hierfuer werden Vergleichsmessungen im Dachbereich eines Versuchsgebaeudes unter bekannten Randbedingungen durchgefuehrt. Um die Moeglichkeit zu haben, konkrete Randbedingungen einzustellen wurde das vorhandene Versuchshaus umgebaut bzw. erweitert. Ein neuer Dachaufbau wurde entsprechend den Anforderungen des Projektes konzipiert und errichtet. Die Leckagen von einzelnen Bauteilen sollen im zweiten Teil des Projektes mit Hilfe eines in situ-Messgeraetes quantifiziert werden. Ein Messsystem zur Bestimmung der Luftdichtheit von Bauteilen in situ wurde im Rahmen eines frueheren Forschungsvorhabens als Prototyp bereits entwickelt. Ausgehend von dem aelteren Prototypen wird in diesem Projekt ein flexibles Messsystem entwickelt, mit dem die Quantifizierung beliebiger einzelner Leckagen moeglich ist. Das neue Geraet bietet die Moeglichkeit an Flaechen und in Eck- und Kantenbereichen eingesetzt zu werden. Es kann sowohl als Doppelkammer, als auch als Einzelkammer in Kombination mit z.B. einer Blower Door als kompensierendes Volumenstrommessgeraet verwendet werden. Neben Laborversuchen wird auch die Tauglichkeit im Feld ueberprueft. (orig.)

  9. Analysis and restoration of pigments from Han Dynasty painted wooden horses at Mozuizi,Wuwei,Gansu province%甘肃武威磨咀子出土汉代彩绘木马颜料分析与修复保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庚龄; 韩鉴卿

    2011-01-01

    武威磨咀子考古出土的汉代彩绘木马,不仅数量多,而且形体较大,具有河西汉马的典型特征;根据彩绘木马的材质状况,其类型属于潮湿而糟朽木器,急需进行修复保护.为此,针对目前彩绘木马的保存现状.本修复工作运用现代X-射线衍射分析技术,对木马彩绘颜料进行了分析,物相结果表明:黑色为墨,白色为石膏,红色为朱砂、铅丹.同时遵循原始制作工艺,选用汉代棺板木作为复原材料对残缺部件进行了复原修复,采用无色、透明的有机玻璃(MMA)材料为其制作了辅助支撑底座,使用Paraloid B-72试剂对表面严重糟朽木质、彩绘层实施加固,使用聚醋酸乙烯酯对脱落部件实施粘接,利用原始铆眼套合与加楔技术对木马部件进行了组装;最后,通过安装辅助支撑底座使受损彩绘木马得到了妥善保护.修复取得良好效果.

  10. 气候舱法检测木家具中甲醛、VOC的主要技术参数国内外标准对比研究%Comparative Study of Main Technical Parameter of Testing Formaldehyde and VOC in Wooden Furniture by Environmental Chambers in Domestic and Foreign Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨光

    2016-01-01

    利用各类气候舱检测家具中的主要挥发性污染物已愈发成为国际主流,如何利用气候舱的技术特点,尽量模拟并还原家具实际使用的背景环境,就成了所有气候舱检测法需要解决的问题。本文将我国木家具中挥发性有机物检测标准(GB 18584.2.2报批稿)与国际、国外相关标准的各类限量指标与技术参数进行比对,分析其设定依据及推导过程的合理性与科学性,并提出了相应改进建议。%It increasingly becomes international main stream to use kinds of environmental chambers to inspect volatile pollutants in furniture. All kinds of environmental chamber methods need to solve the problem that how to simulate and restore the practical background environment as far as possible in accordance with the technical characteristics. This article compares the pollutants limit and various technical parameters in relevant international and overseas standards with GB 18584.2 and analyses the setting basis and derivation of them, proposing suggestions for improvement.

  11. Inactivation of fungal contaminants on Korean traditional cashbox by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, gamma irradiation was applied to decontaminate a Korean cultural artifact, a wooden cashbox stored in local museum. Fungi isolated from the wooden cashbox were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing methods. It was observed that the isolated fungi exhibited high similarity to Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verruculosum, and Trichoderma viride. Each strain was tested for sensitivity to gamma irradiation, and was inactivated by the irradiation at a dose of 5 kGy. The wooden cashbox was thus gamma-irradiated at this dose (5 kGy), and consequently decontaminated. Two months after the irradiation, when the wooden cashbox was retested to detect biological contamination, no fungi were found. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation at a low dose of 5 kGy can be applied for successful decontamination of wooden artifacts.

  12. The Effect of the Width of an Aluminum Plate on a Bouncing Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hathaway

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the distance between clamping supports of an aluminum alloy plate on the coefficient of restitution of a bouncing steel ball was investigated. The plate was supported on two wooden blocks with a meter stick secured on either side. A steel ball was dropped from a constant height and a motion detector was used to find the coefficient of restitution. Measurements were made with the wooden blocks at a range of distances. It was found that as the distance between the wooden blocks increased, the coefficient of restitution decreased linearly.

  13. The Effect of the Width of an Aluminum Plate on a Bouncing Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hathaway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the distance between clamping supports of an aluminum alloy plate on the coefficient of restitution of a bouncing steel ball was investigated. The plate was supported on two wooden blocks with a meter stick secured on either side. A steel ball was dropped from a constant height and a motion detector was used to find the coefficient of restitution. Measurements were made with the wooden blocks at a range of distances. It was found that as the distance between the wooden blocks increased, the coefficient of restitution decreased linearly

  14. Children’s Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Liorni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children’s health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children’s ELF-MF exposure correlated to children’s daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy. Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1 median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were <3 μT established by the Italian law as the quality target; (2 geometric mean values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly <0.4 μT; (3 seasonal variations did not significantly influence personal and bedroom measurements; (4 the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5 no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean.

  15. Children's Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Struchen, Benjamin; Fiocchi, Serena; Röösli, Martin; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2016-05-31

    Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children's health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children's ELF-MF exposure correlated to children's daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy). Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1) median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly personal and bedroom measurements; (4) the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5) no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean.

  16. Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise with respect to nighttime equivalent noise level (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum noise level (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway noise was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to noise, and personal characteristics including noise sensitivity. Individual noise exposure levels were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of noise events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported noise-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. Noise sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting noise-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the noise exposure level. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using noise levels for the most-exposed facade underestimated noise-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.

  17. Children’s Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Struchen, Benjamin; Fiocchi, Serena; Röösli, Martin; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children’s health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children’s ELF-MF exposure correlated to children’s daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy). Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1) median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were <3 μT established by the Italian law as the quality target; (2) geometric mean values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly <0.4 μT; (3) seasonal variations did not significantly influence personal and bedroom measurements; (4) the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5) no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean. PMID:27258295

  18. Experimental Study of Pollutant Transfer within Dwellings

    CERN Document Server

    Koffi, Juslin; Allard, Francis; Husaunndee, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    A mechanical ventilation principle used in French residential buildings was tested in the experimental house of the CSTB research centre. The experiments dealt with pollutant removal efficiency of this ventilation principle, mainly with air tightness and the influence of internal doors. Tracer gas constant injection method was used to simulate the pollution source in the living room. SF6 concentrations were measured in several rooms. The results showed that the air flow routes were in agreement with the theory as long as internal doors were closed. When doors were open, the air pattern was disturbed a lot; a great quantity of the emitted pollutant was measured in the bedrooms. Besides, stack effect promotes the pollutant moving towards the bedrooms under higher indoor-outdoor air temperature differences. In addition, the results showed that if the opening of the bedroom window increases the air change rate, it does not guarantee a good indoor air quality.

  19. Experimental results of a residential house fire test on tenability: temperature, smoke, and gas analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, Robert J; Stec, Anna A; Walker, Richard G; Shaw, John E A; Hull, T Richard; Rhodes, Jennifer; Garcia-Sorribes, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    A fire experiment conducted in a British 1950s-style house is described. Measurements of temperature, smoke, CO, CO2 , and O2 were taken in the Lounge, stairwell, and front and back bedrooms. The front bedroom door was wedged open, while the door to the back bedroom was wedged closed. Contrary to expectations and despite the relatively small fire load, analysis and hazard calculations show permeation of toxic fire gases throughout the property with lethal concentrations of effluent being measured at each sampling point. A generally poor state of repair and missing carpets in the upper story contributed to a high degree of gas and smoke permeation. The available egress time was calculated as the time before the main escape route became impassable. Given known human responses to fire, such an incident could have caused fatalities to sleeping or otherwise immobile occupants.

  20. A controlled intervention study concerning the effect of intended temperature rise on house dust mite load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, increased indoor temperature--producing a lower relative humidity--is associated with low house dust mite (HDM) load. Twenty-eight dwellings were allocated for either intervention (12/15 completed) or control (11/13 completed). In the intervention group, participants...... were asked to increase the bedroom temperature by at least 3 degrees C compared to the self-assessed temperature of the previous winter. Dust samples were repeatedly collected from mattress and floor, and bedroom temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly throughout one year. Dust...... C). Groups turned out not to be comparable with respect to initial (self-assessed) bedroom temperature (lowest in the intervention group). There was a significant seasonal variation, with doubled Der 1 concentrations in dust collected in July-November compared to January-May samples. No effect...

  1. 1954-2004, le CERN a 50 ans

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Presse Publications

    2004-01-01

    The most important part of the celebrations which began in March will be the inauguration of the Globe. This impressing wooden sphere will welcome on 10 October Heads of State, and national representatives (1 page)

  2. [Two-wheeled cart

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    205 x 139 mm. A view showing a two-wheeled wooden cart being pulled by two bovine quadrupeds. A man is sitting in the cart and a European man is standing to the side watching. Photograph taken circa 1900.

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRO

    Apart from the movement of pedestrians across the wooden bridge and the occasional fishing for crabs by young adults ..... pp. 339–366. New York, Plenum Press. ... The effect of road and bridge construction on the bank-root macrobenthic.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 262 - Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest and Instructions (EPA Forms 8700-22 and 8700-22A and Their...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., paper, or plastic bags. CF = Fiber or plastic boxes, cartons, cases. CM = Metal boxes, cartons, cases (including roll-offs). CW = Wooden boxes, cartons, cases. CY = Cylinders. DF = Fiberboard or plastic...

  5. Marine archaeological exploration and excavation of Vijaydurg - A naval base of the Maratha Period, Maharashtra, on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Saxena, M.K.; Sundaresh; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    into the empire of Shivaji. The marine archaeological explorations were conducted in Vijaydurg waters bringing to light a huge submerged structure, iron sling shots and pottery. Chinese ceramic ware and wooden logs of wrecked ships. The onshore exploration...

  6. 1968 Southeast of Hawaii, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This major (magnitude 7.9) earthquake caused 77 deaths (tsunami, 46; landslide, 31). It knocked almost all wooden houses off their foundations in the Keiawa,...

  7. Matsuda Natsuki

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CLAIRE LI; LIU XINLIANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ushigokoro's "creative box" concept is already popular in Japan; now Shanghai has its first such space, thanks to founder Matsuda Natsuki. Functioning as both a gallery and shop, Ushigokoro's walls are lined with small wooden boxes.

  8. EFFECT OF INFESTATION OF Dermestes maculatus on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olusola Fasunwon

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... assessment was based on weight and proximate analysis differences ... populations of matured larvae have damaged wooden structural .... The Dermestes maculatus (hide beetles) were picked with a soft (moist) camel hair.

  9. Anglophone Cameroon literature 1959–90: A brief overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... an automatic 'stagist' theory for a cultural product as polemical, complicated and ..... natural and supernatural live in one continuum of reality. .... production of Beasts, the stage props were three wooden toilet bowls and very ...

  10. 78 FR 23555 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... pushers. The existing facilities consist of three wooden piers, a retaining wall, three gravel loading ramps, and a concrete loading ramp. The additional proposed facility is a gravel loading ramp to be...

  11. 41 CFR 102-41.210 - What are some examples of drug paraphernalia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...? Some examples of drug paraphernalia are— (a) Metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic or ceramic pipes with or without screens, permanent screens, hashish heads, or punctured metal bowls; (b)...

  12. Oesophageal cancer in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for patients to present with symptoms usually indicative ... Evidence to date for a specific correlation between the mycotoxin fumonisin (produced by the mold Fusarium moniliforme—a common ..... variety of plastic, metal, or wooden prostheses.

  13. 78 FR 24891 - Office of the Chief of Protocol; Gifts to Federal Employees From Foreign Government Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... would of the United States. circumference gold and Hamad bin Khalifa al- cause embarrassment to silver..., Mexican States. depicting a turkey's face and neck, float- mounted in a red wooden frame. Large...

  14. Bartok: Der holzgeschnitzte Prinz / Bernhard Uske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uske, Bernhard

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Bartok: Der holzgeschnitzte Prinz [The Wooden Prince complete ballet] op. 13. Ungarische Bilder [Hungarian Pictures]. Philharmonia Orchestra [The Philharmonia] Neeme Järvi". Chandos/Koch Records CD 8895 (WD:65'51") DDD

  15. 33 CFR 67.50-25 - Eighth Coast Guard District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (pipes), except bamboo poles and wooden stakes less than 2 inches in diameter, placed in the water during... international orange and white horizontal bands. The buoys shall be of light construction in order that...

  16. How to Identify Drug Paraphernalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... packages Electronic-cigarettes (also called E-cigarettes) Small glass vials Pill bottles Candy or gum wrappers Baseball ... to make a blunt Pipes (metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic, ceramic) Bongs (a filtration device to ...

  17. 最伟大的力量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佚名; 于振兴

    2002-01-01

    A long time ago men hunted for their food. They often killed wild animals,birds orfish.How did they kill the beasts? They used rocks and wooden sticks.Sometimes they fought with their own hands and bodies.

  18. A Dome Amidst the Hexagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes the design of the gymnasium of York (South Carolina) Comprehensive High School, a circular 12,000 square foot structure with a prefabricated domed roof constructed of steel hubs and curved wooden beams. (JG)

  19. The Functions and Spiritual Connotations of Traditional Music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-07

    Jul 7, 2013 ... Its impact in the occasions like festivals, rituals, and significant communal events ... Introduction. Ufie music, the music played by ufie instrument (slit wooden .... almost to divide asunder, for the time being, mind and body. It is.

  20. Get a Kick Out of Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, David P.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a number of demonstrations for physics that employ techniques of the martial arts to illustrate Newton's second law of motion. Demonstrations focus on the breaking of wooden boards using weights. (DDR)

  1. Bartok: Der holzgeschnitzte Prinz / Bernhard Uske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uske, Bernhard

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Bartok: Der holzgeschnitzte Prinz [The Wooden Prince complete ballet] op. 13. Ungarische Bilder [Hungarian Pictures]. Philharmonia Orchestra [The Philharmonia] Neeme Järvi". Chandos/Koch Records CD 8895 (WD:65'51") DDD

  2. Parametric Workflow (BIM) for the Repair Construction of Traditional Historic Architecture in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.-P.; Hsu, C. C.; Lin, M.-C.; Tsai, Z.-W.; Chen, J.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    In Taiwan, numerous existing traditional buildings are constructed with wooden structures, brick structures, and stone structures. This paper will focus on the Taiwan traditional historic architecture and target the traditional wooden structure buildings as the design proposition and process the BIM workflow for modeling complex wooden combination geometry, integrating with more traditional 2D documents and for visualizing repair construction assumptions within the 3D model representation. The goal of this article is to explore the current problems to overcome in wooden historic building conservation, and introduce the BIM technology in the case of conserving, documenting, managing, and creating full engineering drawings and information for effectively support historic conservation. Although BIM is mostly oriented to current construction praxis, there have been some attempts to investigate its applicability in historic conservation projects. This article also illustrates the importance and advantages of using BIM workflow in repair construction process, when comparing with generic workflow.

  3. 46 CFR 160.037-5 - Labeling and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (Company brand or style designation) Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signal For daytime use—50 seconds burning... marking. (1) There shall be die-stamped, in the side of the wooden handle in figures not less than 3 mm...

  4. 46 CFR 160.021-5 - Labeling and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (Company brand or style designation) Hand Red Flare Distress Signal 500 Candela—2 Minutes Burning Time Use... marking. (1) There shall be die-stamped, in the side of the wooden handle in figures not less than 3...

  5. On-the-Job Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and direct flame PROTECTION: overshoes or boots of fire-resistant materials with wooden soles HAZARD: high voltage ... in the workplace. Only one out of four victims of job- related foot injury wear any type ...

  6. TENSILE STRENGTH STUDY ON REINFORCED BEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina IANASI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is shown a model (together with mathematical modeling for quantification the resistance of a wooden item, with and without composites reinforcement. As reinforcement will be used composite materials from carbon fiber (CFRP.Wooden items are from beach dry wood reinforced with special carbon fibers glued with epoxy resin so the obtained composite has a very good flexure and great stifness.

  7. Renovation of Roof Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Per Oluf H

    1997-01-01

    A 30 year old not-watertight roof based on wooden boards with roofing felt have been changed to a pitched structure with cementos plates. At the same time more thermal insulation has been placed.......A 30 year old not-watertight roof based on wooden boards with roofing felt have been changed to a pitched structure with cementos plates. At the same time more thermal insulation has been placed....

  8. MACROMYCETES OF DUMPING SITES AS BIOINDICATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC EDAPHOTOP STATUS

    OpenAIRE

    Popovych V.V.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the development of the macromycetes on anthropogenic edaphotop of dumping sites in western wooden-steppes of Ukraine. We considered principal ecological factors, namely acidity, temperature, and connectivity of edaphotop; humidity, temperature, and air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, equivalent dose of ionizing radiation in the surface ground of macromycetes habitats. The species diversity of macromycetes in dumping sites of western wooden-steppes of Ukraine was conside...

  9. Conspicuous Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China validated a new consumption tax policy on April 1 that levies higher taxes on luxury goods such as yachts and limousines, as well as wooden disposable chopsticks and wooden flooring. This marked the most profound change in the consumption tax since 1994 and is thought to be the first step in an overall tax reform in the country. Consumer tariffs, which are handed over to state coffers, consist of excise taxes and the taxes on imported goods collected by customs agencies.

  10. Wood Science for Conservation of Cultural Heritage – Florence 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Uzielli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    COST Action IE0601 "Wood Science for Conservation of Cultural Heritage" (www.woodculther.org) aims to improve the conservation (including study, preventive conservation and restoration) of European Wooden Cultural Heritage Objects (WCHOs), by fostering targeted research and multidisciplinary interaction between Researchers in various fields of Wood Science, Conservators of wooden artworks, other Scientists from related fields. This book of Proceedings contains most of the papers presented in ...

  11. One family's use of domestic fuels - a fifty year history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, W.

    1999-03-01

    The paper provides a detailed account of energy use (or rather energy purchased, since the records were of bills paid) in a family home since 1948 and discusses the lessons learned. From 1948-1958 the family lived in a 3-bed semi-detached house, from 1959-1967 in three 5-bed detached houses, from mid-1977 to late 1987 in a three-bedroomed terraced house on three floors and a three-bedroom detached house in Norfolk and from 1987 onwards lived in a detached house in London. (UK)

  12. Masterpiece Lesson & Poster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Bobbi; Hirshfeld, Goody; Rosh, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    Describes the life of artist Vincent Van Gogh, focusing on his painting of his bedroom and noting how that painting can be used to introduce elementary students to perspective drawing and visual storytelling. The article explains how to understand the painting, highlighting Van Gogh's use of bright lighting, pairs and balance, straight lines,…

  13. Nighttime exposure to electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia: an extended pooled analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Svendsen, Anne Louise; Linet, Martha S

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that nighttime bedroom measurements of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) may represent a more accurate reflection of exposure and have greater biologic relevance than previously used 24-/48-hour measurements. Accordingly, the authors extended a pooled...

  14. The Bride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The work is full of joyous atmosphere The style of carving is simple The bride is dressed in a traditional wedding costume. a phoenix coronet on her head and a red silk cape on her shoulders. Carried into the groom’s home in a dainty decorated sedan chair. she is led into the bedroom by her groom after the wedding ceremony

  15. 76 FR 12985 - Request for Comments on Trend Factor Methodology Used in the Calculation of Fair Market Rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... publication in final form in the Federal Register. Each fair market rental in effect under this subsection... Bedroom FMR, (do not remove ACS Update). 3. Determine Current Year ACS Update Factor and Apply to Value in... months (to the Midpoint of the publication Fiscal Year). A. Base Year Data FMRs start with base rents...

  16. A Sad Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小兰

    2004-01-01

    Jim met two friends in the street. “Come back to my apartment for a meal,” he said. “You can see the whole of the city from my bedroom window.” His two friends agreed and they went back with Jim to the apartment building where he lived on the 40th floor.

  17. Sleep Tips for Children's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bedroom. Avoid watching or listening to upsetting, violent, or scary materials within 2 hours of bedtime. That includes the news, conflict-filled talk shows, and high-anxiety dramas. (Ideally, don't expose younger children to such material at all. Older children and ...

  18. Haitian Universities Struggle to Rebound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Faculty of Applied Linguistics at the State University of Haiti hardly looks like an institute of higher learning. Hidden away on a quiet downtown cross street, the grimy one-story building contains just three classrooms, along with a library, the dean's office, and a teachers' lounge, each no larger than a bedroom. Two years ago, the…

  19. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 21, Number 10, October 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    behavior.” A suicide attempt may or may not result in injury. For exam - ple, if someone seizes a gun from a service member who was holding it to his head...bedroom. Don’t dwell on, or bring your problems or emotionally upsetting arguments to bed. 3. Stop caffeine at least 6 hours before bedtime. Caffeine

  20. HOTEL AND MOTEL HOUSEKEEPING AIDE, A SUGGESTED TRAINING PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    A LOCAL TRAINING PROGRAM TO PREPARE HOTEL AND MOTEL HOUSEKEEPING AIDES CAN BE DEVELOPED FROM RESOURCE MATERIAL IN THIS GUIDE. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES ARE TO PREPARE TRAINEES TO PERFORM THE JOBS INVOLVED IN KEEPING HOTEL OR MOTEL ROOMS CLEAN, TO FOLLOW CORRECT PROCEDURES IN USING EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES REQUIRED IN CARING FOR BEDROOMS AND BATHROOMS, AND…