WorldWideScience

Sample records for fr04jn10n international standard-setting

  1. Internal emitter research and standard setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the use of data from internal emitter research in the derivation of safety standards is reviewed. At first, observed biological effects were correlated with body burdens or exposure levels. This direct approach is illustrated by detailed accounts of the cases of uranium and plutonium. In the 1950's, when it was decided to provide standards for over 200 isotopes, the direct approach was replaced by a system of calculations. This necessitated changes in internal emitter research programs to provide metabolic data, and the development of models such as Reference Man and the Lung and Gastrointestinal Tract models. The continuing contribution of internal emitter research to standard setting can be seen in the references quoted in the metabolic data section of the new ICRP report (ICRP Publication 30). Present trends suggest a possible return to the direct use of internal emitter effects data for obtaining risk estimates. (U.K.)

  2. Using PISA as an International Benchmark in Standard Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary W; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) can be used to internationally benchmark state performance standards. The process is accomplished in three steps. First, PISA items are embedded in the administration of the state assessment and calibrated on the state scale. Second, the international item calibrations are then used to link the state scale to the PISA scale through common item linking. Third, the statistical linking results are used as part of the state standard setting process to help standard setting panelists determine how high their state standards need to be in order to be internationally competitive. This process was carried out in Delaware, Hawaii, and Oregon, in three subjects-science, mathematics and reading with initial results reported by Phillips and Jiang (2011). An in depth discussion of methods and results are reported in this article for one subject (mathematics) and one state (Hawaii).

  3. 76 FR 65166 - International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... interactive nature of the standard-setting process, we encourage any persons who are interested in the most...] International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection..., we are informing the public of the international standard- setting activities of the World...

  4. 78 FR 1826 - International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... dynamic and interactive nature of the standard-setting process, we encourage any persons who are...] International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection..., we are informing the public of the international standard- setting activities of the World...

  5. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  6. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salinas, J. (Joel); Sprinkhuizen, S.M. (Sara M.); Ackerson, T. (Teri); Bernhardt, J. (Julie); Davie, C. (Charlie); George, M.G. (Mary G.); Gething, S. (Stephanie); Kelly, A.G. (Adam G.); Lindsay, P. (Patrice); Liu, L. (Liping); Martins, S.C.O. (Sheila C.O.); Morgan, L. (Louise); B. Norrving (Bo); Ribbers, G.M. (Gerard M.); Silver, F.L. (Frank L.); Smith, E.E. (Eric E.); Williams, L.S. (Linda S.); Schwamm, L.H. (Lee H.)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:__ Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures

  7. Constituents' formal participation in the due process of international accounting standard setting: A longitudinal analysis of stakeholder and geographical diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Jorissen, Ann; Lybaert, Nadine; Orens, Raf; Van der Tas, Leo

    2011-01-01

    Since IOSCO’s decision (May, 2000) to accept IASs for cross-border listing and since governments started to hand over accounting standard setting authority to the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) (EU Regulation EC N° 1606/2002, Australia FRC July 2002), the IASB is well under way to become the global accounting standard setter. For the IASB, being a private organization, widespread constituents’ participation in its due process of standard setting is a key element to reinforce...

  8. Standard Setting for Next Generation TOEFL Academic Speaking Test (TAST): Reflections on the ETS Panel of International Teaching Assistant Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papajohn, Dean

    2006-01-01

    While many institutions have utilized TOEFL scores for international admissions for many years, a speaking section has never before been a required part of TOEFL until the development of the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL. So institutions will need to determine how to set standards for the speaking section of TOEFL, also known as TOEFL Academic…

  9. Group versus modified individual standard-setting on multiple-choice questions with the Angoff method for fourth-year medical students in the internal medicine clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthong V

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vichai Senthong,1,* Jarin Chindaprasirt,1,* Kittisak Sawanyawisuth,1 Noppadol Aekphachaisawat,2 Suteeraporn Chaowattanapanit,1 Panita Limpawattana,1 Charoen Choonhakarn,1 Aumkhae Sookprasert1 1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Central Library, Silpakorn University, Bangkok, Thailand *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The Angoff method is one of the preferred methods for setting a passing level in an exam. Normally, group meetings are required, which may be a problem for busy medical educators. Here, we compared a modified Angoff individual method to the conventional group method. Methods: Six clinical instructors were divided into two groups matched by teaching experience: modified Angoff individual method (three persons and conventional group method (three persons. The passing scores were set by using the Angoff theory. The groups set the scores individually and then met to determine the passing score. In the modified Angoff individual method, passing scores were judged by each instructor and the final passing score was adjusted by the concordance method and reliability index. Results: There were 94 fourth-year medical students who took the test. The mean (standard deviation test score was 65.35 (8.38, with a median of 64 (range 46–82. The three individual instructors took 45, 60, and 60 minutes to finish the task, while the group spent 90 minutes in discussion. The final passing score in the modified Angoff individual method was 52.18 (56.75 minus 4.57 or 52 versus 51 from the standard group method. There was not much difference in numbers of failed students by either method (four versus three. Conclusion: The modified Angoff individual method may be a feasible way to set a standard passing score with less time consumed and more independent rather than group work by instructors. Keywords: Angoff, individual, passing score, standard-setting, multiple

  10. Repeated Interaction in Standard Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larouche, Pierre; Schütt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    As part of the standard-setting process, certain patents become essential. This may allow the owners of these standard-essential patents to hold up implementers of the standard, who can no longer turn to substitute technologies. However, many real-world standards evolve over time, with several

  11. Standard-Setting Methods as Measurement Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Paul; Twing, Jon; Mueller, Canda D.; O'Malley, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Some writers in the measurement literature have been skeptical of the meaningfulness of achievement standards and described the standard-setting process as blatantly arbitrary. We argue that standard setting is more appropriately conceived of as a measurement process similar to student assessment. The construct being measured is the panelists'…

  12. Standard Setting for the Extractive Industries: A Critical Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Cortese

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the players involved in the setting of an international accountingstandard for the extractive industries. Publicly available data is used to exposeconnections between key constituents involved in the process, to enhance understandingof how the international accounting standard setting process occurred, and to identifyfuture research possibilities.

  13. The Role of Construct Maps in Standard Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.; Tannenbaum, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors observe in this commentary that construct maps can help standard-setting panels to make realistic and internally consistent recommendations for performance-level descriptions (PLDs) and cut-scores, but the benefits may not be realized if policymakers do not fully understand the rationale for the recommendations provided by the…

  14. Development of an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)-based standard set to describe the impact of joint contractures on participation of older individuals in geriatric care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Gabriele; Fischer, Uli; von Clarenau, Stephan Clarmann; Grill, Eva; Mau, Wilfried; Meyer, Gabriele; Strobl, Ralf; Thiesemann, Rüdiger; Nadolny, Stephan; Müller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Joint contractures are characterized as impairment of the physiological movement of joints due to deformity, disuse or pain and have major impact especially for older individuals in geriatric care. Some measures for the assessment of the impact of joint contractures exist. However, there is no consensus on which aspects should constantly be measured. Our objective was to develop a standard-set based on the ICF for describing functioning and disability in older individuals with joint contractures in geriatric care settings, giving special emphasis to activities and participation. The ICF-based standard set was developed in a formal decision-making and consensus process and based on an adapted version of the protocol to develop ICF Core Sets. These are sets of categories from the ICF, serving as standards for the assessment, communication and reporting of functioning and health for clinical studies, clinical encounters and multi-professional comprehensive assessment and management. Twenty-three experts from Germany and Switzerland selected 105 categories of the ICF component Activities and Participation for the ICF-based standard set. The largest number of categories was selected from the chapter Mobility (50 categories, 47.6%). The standard set for older individuals with joint contractures provides health professionals with a standard for describing patients' activity limitations and participation restrictions. The standard set also provides a common basis for the development of patient-centered measures and intervention programs. The preliminary version of the ICF-based standard set will be tested in subsequent studies with regard to its psychometric properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Technology standard-setting under the lens of global administrative law : Accountability, participation and transparency of standard-setting organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanevskaia, Olia

    2016-01-01

    The role of transnational non-governmental bodies in international standardization has often been in the limelight of recent academic discussions. While standards developed by Standard-Setting Organizations (SSOs) are typically non-binding, they can nevertheless acquire an obligatory character,

  16. 77 FR 36984 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... stakeholders. The Update is communicated via Listserv, a free electronic mail subscription service for industry... for governmental use. The Committee held its 6th session in Berne, Switzerland, on February 20-24...

  17. 75 FR 31749 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... animal, such as meat or milk producing animals, poultry, fish or bees, whether used for therapeutic... Proposed draft maximum levels for total Aflatoxins in shelled, ready-to-eat Brazil nuts and shelled...

  18. 78 FR 37505 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... animal, such as meat or milk producing animals, poultry, fish or bees, whether used for therapeutic... for total aflatoxins in ready to eat peanuts and associated sampling plan Priority List of...

  19. 76 FR 32933 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... exiting management practices for Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids for consideration by the 6th session of CCCF of a...: 3-MCPD esters. Glycidyl esters. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Non dioxin-like PCBs. Responsible Agencies...

  20. Construct Maps as a Foundation for Standard Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    Construct maps are tools that display how the underlying achievement construct upon which one is trying to set cut-scores is related to other information used in the process of standard setting. This article reviews what construct maps are, uses construct maps to provide a conceptual framework to view commonly used standard-setting procedures (the…

  1. Investigating the Decision-Making Process of Standard Setting Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing interest of the language testing community in standard setting, primarily due to the use of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR-Council of Europe, 2001), the participants' decision-making process in the CEFR standard setting context remains unexplored. This study attempts to fill in this gap by analyzing these…

  2. The European Court of Human Rights’ Use of Standard-Setting Council of Europe Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, L.R.

    2017-01-01

    In many judgments, the European Court of Human Rights (Court) lists relevant international materials and sometimes uses these documents when determining whether the European Convention on Human Rights has been violated. These materials are often standard-setting documents that originate in the

  3. Standard setting in medical education: fundamental concepts and emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaz Hejri, Sara; Jalili, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The process of determining the minimum pass level to separate the competent students from those who do not perform well enough is called standard setting. A large number of methods are widely used to set cut-scores for both written and clinical examinations. There are some challenging issues pertaining to any standard setting procedure. Ignoring these concerns would result in a large dispute regarding the credibility and defensibility of the method. The goal of this review is to provide a basic understanding of the key concepts and challenges in standard setting and to suggest some recommendations to overcome the challenging issues for educators and policymakers who are dealing with decision-making in this field.

  4. The Objective Borderline Method: A Probabilistic Method for Standard Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulruf, Boaz; Poole, Phillippa; Jones, Philip; Wilkinson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    A new probability-based standard setting technique, the Objective Borderline Method (OBM), was introduced recently. This was based on a mathematical model of how test scores relate to student ability. The present study refined the model and tested it using 2500 simulated data-sets. The OBM was feasible to use. On average, the OBM performed well…

  5. Earnings Management and Participation in Accounting Standard-Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenigsgruber, R.; Palan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent economic and political science research suggests that the way public policy is set, and in particular the participation of those affected by it, impacts upon the outcome of the policy. Accounting standard setting has long offered such a possibility to participate via the due process approach

  6. The standard set game of a cooperative game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumb, A.F.; Hoede, C.

    2003-01-01

    We show that for every cooperative game a corresponding set game can be defined, called the standard set game. Values for set games can be applied to this standard game and determine allocations for the cooperative game. On the other hand, notions for cooperative games, like the Shapley value, the

  7. Radiological error: analysis, standard setting, targeted instruction and teamworking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology does not have objective benchmarks for acceptable levels of missed diagnoses [1]. Until now, data collection of radiological discrepancies has been very time consuming. The culture within the specialty did not encourage it. However, public concern about patient safety is increasing. There have been recent innovations in compiling radiological interpretive discrepancy rates which may facilitate radiological standard setting. However standard setting alone will not optimise radiologists' performance or patient safety. We must use these new techniques in radiological discrepancy detection to stimulate greater knowledge sharing, targeted instruction and teamworking among radiologists. Not all radiological discrepancies are errors. Radiological discrepancy programmes must not be abused as an instrument for discrediting individual radiologists. Discrepancy rates must not be distorted as a weapon in turf battles. Radiological errors may be due to many causes and are often multifactorial. A systems approach to radiological error is required. Meaningful analysis of radiological discrepancies and errors is challenging. Valid standard setting will take time. Meanwhile, we need to develop top-up training, mentoring and rehabilitation programmes. (orig.)

  8. 76 FR 28036 - Request for Comments and Announcement of Workshop on Standard-Setting Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... topics to be considered are the disclosure of patent rights during the standard- setting process, the... valuable and pro-competitive character of this kind of legitimate standard-setting process.\\1\\ It can lead..., they commonly require a patent holder to commit that after the standard- setting process is completed...

  9. Adopting Cut Scores: Post-Standard-Setting Panel Considerations for Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Kurt F.; McCormick, Carina M.

    2010-01-01

    Standard-setting studies utilizing procedures such as the Bookmark or Angoff methods are just one component of the complete standard-setting process. Decision makers ultimately must determine what they believe to be the most appropriate standard or cut score to use, employing the input of the standard-setting panelists as one piece of information…

  10. A collaborative comparison of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) standard setting methods at Australian medical schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malau-Aduli, B.S.; Teague, P.A.; D'Souza, K.; Heal, C.; Turner, R.; Garne, D.L.; Vleuten, C. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A key issue underpinning the usefulness of the OSCE assessment to medical education is standard setting, but the majority of standard-setting methods remain challenging for performance assessment because they produce varying passing marks. Several studies have compared standard-setting

  11. How Good Is Good Enough? Educational Standard Setting and Its Effect on African American Test Takers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caines, Jade; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Standard setting (the process of establishing minimum passing scores on high-stakes exams) is a highly evaluative and policy-driven process. It is a common belief that standard setting panels should be diverse and representative. There is concern, however, that panelists with varying characteristics may differentially influence the results of the…

  12. A Meta-Analytic Assessment of Empirical Differences in Standard Setting Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Brian D.; Marks, Casimer M.; Karabatsos, George

    Using meta-analysis, this research takes a look at studies included in a meta-analysis by R. Jaeger (1989) that compared the cut score set by one standard setting method with that set by another. This meta-analysis looks beyond Jaeger's studies to select 10 from the research literature. Each compared at least two types of standard setting method.…

  13. A Qualitative Investigation of Panelists' Experiences of Standard Setting Using Two Variations of the Bookmark Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Serge F.; Skaggs, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Only a small number of qualitative studies have investigated panelists' experiences during standard-setting activities or the thought processes associated with panelists' actions. This qualitative study involved an examination of the experiences of 11 panelists who participated in a prior, one-day standard-setting meeting in which either the…

  14. Efectos de la normalización contable internacional en españa y Portugal para un sector económico estratégico Effects of international accounting standard setting in spain and Portugal for a strategic economic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Esther Falcón Pérez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La estrategia armonizadora de la Unión Europea, con la adopción de las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera del IASB, supone un reto para las empresas constructoras españolas y portuguesas. Ambos países cuentan con una regulación contable específica para el sector de la construcción, que va a verse afectada por las normas internacionales. En este trabajo se analizan diversas cuestiones en torno a la representación y valoración contable del resultado obtenido por las empresas constructoras hispano-lusas en el desarrollo de sus actividades, a fin de dar respuesta a las problemáticas suscitadas por la armonización contable internacional.The present on going process in the European Union, with a strategy towards the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards from IASB, creates a challenge for Spanish and Portuguese construction enterprises. Standards setters from both countries have issued specific accounting regulations for construction enterprises, which will be affected by the International Financial Reporting Standards. The aim of this paper is to analyze several questions regarding the measurement and disclosure of earnings by Spanish and Portuguese construction enterprises, in order to face the issues raised by the international accounting standards.

  15. Standard setting of objective structured practical examination by modified Angoff method: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, M Ganesh; Pallath, Vinod; Ramnarayan, K; Kamath, Asha; Torke, Sharmila; Gonsalves, James

    2016-01-01

    The undergraduate curriculum at our institution is divided system-wise into four blocks, each block ending with theory and objective structured practical examination (OSPE). The OSPE in Physiology consists of 12 stations, and a conventional minimum score to qualify is 50%. We aimed to incorporate standard setting using the modified Angoff method in OSPE to differentiate the competent from the non-competent student and to explore the possibility of introducing standard setting in Physiology OSPE at our institution. Experts rated the OSPE using the modified Angoff method to obtain the standard set cut-off in two of the four blocks. We assessed the OSPE marks of 110 first year medical students. Chi-square test was used to compare the number of students who scored less than standard set cut-off and conventional cut-off; correlation coefficient was used to assess the relation between OSPE and theory marks in both blocks. Feedback was obtained from the experts. The standard set was 62% and 67% for blocks II and III, respectively. The use of standard set cut-off resulted in 16.3% (n=18) and 22.7% (n=25) students being declared unsuccessful in blocks II and III, respectively. Comparison between the number, who scored less than standard set and conventional cut-off was statistically significant (p=0.001). The correlation coefficient was 0.65 (p=0.003) and 0.52 (p<0.001) in blocks II and III, respectively. The experts welcomed the idea of standard setting. Standard setting helped in differentiating the competent from the non-competent student, indicating that standard setting enhances the quality of OSPE as an assessment tool.

  16. Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes, Accounting and Auditing : Module B - Institutional Framework for Corporate Financial Reporting, B.9 Auditing Standard-setting

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to gain an understanding of the governance arrangements, procedures, and capacity for setting auditing standards in a jurisdiction, covering: (a) the adoption of International Standards on Auditing (ISA) where applicable, and (b) national auditing standards. The questions are based on examples of good practice followed by international standard-setting bodies....

  17. Will the changes proposed to the conceptual framework’s definitions and recognition criteria provide a better basis for the IASB standard setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Naarding, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the International Accounting Standards Board’s (IASB) efforts, in a discussion paper (DP) of 2013, to develop a new conceptual framework (CF) in the light of its stated ambition to establish a robust and consistent basis for future standard setting, thereby guiding standard

  18. A collaborative comparison of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) standard setting methods at Australian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Teague, Peta-Ann; D'Souza, Karen; Heal, Clare; Turner, Richard; Garne, David L; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2017-12-01

    A key issue underpinning the usefulness of the OSCE assessment to medical education is standard setting, but the majority of standard-setting methods remain challenging for performance assessment because they produce varying passing marks. Several studies have compared standard-setting methods; however, most of these studies are limited by their experimental scope, or use data on examinee performance at a single OSCE station or from a single medical school. This collaborative study between 10 Australian medical schools investigated the effect of standard-setting methods on OSCE cut scores and failure rates. This research used 5256 examinee scores from seven shared OSCE stations to calculate cut scores and failure rates using two different compromise standard-setting methods, namely the Borderline Regression and Cohen's methods. The results of this study indicate that Cohen's method yields similar outcomes to the Borderline Regression method, particularly for large examinee cohort sizes. However, with lower examinee numbers on a station, the Borderline Regression method resulted in higher cut scores and larger difference margins in the failure rates. Cohen's method yields similar outcomes as the Borderline Regression method and its application for benchmarking purposes and in resource-limited settings is justifiable, particularly with large examinee numbers.

  19. Factors Influencing the Degree of Intrajudge Consistency during the Standard Setting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    The accuracy of standards obtained from judgmental methods is dependent on the quality of the judgments made by experts throughout the standard setting process. One important dimension of the quality of these judgments is the consistency of the judges' perceptions with item performance of minimally competent candidates. Several interrelated…

  20. Implementing standard setting into the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP Part 1 examination - Process and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S C; Mohd Amin, S; Lee, T W

    2016-01-01

    The College of General Practitioners of Malaysia and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners held the first Conjoint Member of the College of General Practitioners (MCGP)/Fellow of Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (FRACGP) examination in 1982, later renamed the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP examinations. The examination assesses competency for safe independent general practice and as family medicine specialists in Malaysia. Therefore, a defensible standard set pass mark is imperative to separate the competent from the incompetent. This paper discusses the process and issues encountered in implementing standard setting to the Conjoint Part 1 examination. Critical to success in standard setting were judges' understanding of the process of the modified Angoff method, defining the borderline candidate's characteristics and the composition of judges. These were overcome by repeated hands-on training, provision of detailed guidelines and careful selection of judges. In December 2013, 16 judges successfully standard set the Part 1 Conjoint examinations, with high inter-rater reliability: Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.926 (Applied Knowledge Test), 0.921 (Key Feature Problems).

  1. A conceptual analysis of standard setting in large-scale assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1994-01-01

    Elements of arbitrariness in the standard setting process are explored, and an alternative to the use of cut scores is presented. The first part of the paper analyzes the use of cut scores in large-scale assessments, discussing three different functions: (1) cut scores define the qualifications used

  2. A Comparison of Standard-Setting Procedures for an OSCE in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, David M.; Mann, Karen V.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2000-01-01

    Compared four standard-setting procedures for an objective structure clinical examination (OSCE) in medical education. Applied Angoff, borderline, relative, and holistic procedures to the data used to establish a cutoff score for a pass/fail decision. The Angoff and borderline procedures gave similar results; however, the relative and holistic…

  3. Combining the Best of Two Standard Setting Methods: The Ordered Item Booklet Angoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Russell W.; Davis-Becker, Susan L.; O'Leary, Lisa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a hybrid standard setting method that combines characteristics of the Angoff (1971) and Bookmark (Mitzel, Lewis, Patz & Green, 2001) methods. The proposed approach utilizes strengths of each method while addressing weaknesses. An ordered item booklet, with items sorted based on item difficulty, is used in combination…

  4. Comparing Panelists' Understanding of Standard Setting across Multiple Levels of an Alternate Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mary A.; Lyon, Steven R.; Heh, Peter; Zigmond, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale assessment programs, including alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), must provide evidence of technical quality and validity. This study provides information about the technical quality of one AA-AAS by evaluating the standard setting for the science component. The assessment was designed to have…

  5. Standard setting in student assessment: is a defensible method yet to come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, A

    2008-11-01

    Setting, maintaining and re-evaluation of assessment standard periodically are important issues in medical education. The cut-off scores are often "pulled from the air" or set to an arbitrary percentage. A large number of methods/procedures used to set standard or cut score are described in literature. There is a high degree of uncertainty in performance standard set by using these methods. Standards set using the existing methods reflect the subjective judgment of the standard setters. This review is not to describe the existing standard setting methods/procedures but to narrate the validity, reliability, feasibility and legal issues relating to standard setting. This review is on some of the issues in standard setting based on the published articles of educational assessment researchers. Standard or cut-off score should be to determine whether the examinee attained the requirement to be certified competent. There is no perfect method to determine cut score on a test and none is agreed upon as the best method. Setting standard is not an exact science. Legitimacy of the standard is supported when performance standard is linked to the requirement of practice. Test-curriculum alignment and content validity are important for most educational test validity arguments. Representative percentage of must-know learning objectives in the curriculum may be the basis of test items and pass/fail marks. Practice analysis may help in identifying the must-know areas of curriculum. Cut score set by this procedure may give the credibility, validity, defensibility and comparability of the standard. Constructing the test items by subject experts and vetted by multi-disciplinary faculty members may ensure the reliability of the test as well as the standard.

  6. Psychometric aspects of item mapping for criterion-referenced interpretation and bookmark standard setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Huynh

    2010-01-01

    Locating an item on an achievement continuum (item mapping) is well-established in technical work for educational/psychological assessment. Applications of item mapping may be found in criterion-referenced (CR) testing (or scale anchoring, Beaton and Allen, 1992; Huynh, 1994, 1998a, 2000a, 2000b, 2006), computer-assisted testing, test form assembly, and in standard setting methods based on ordered test booklets. These methods include the bookmark standard setting originally used for the CTB/TerraNova tests (Lewis, Mitzel, Green, and Patz, 1999), the item descriptor process (Ferrara, Perie, and Johnson, 2002) and a similar process described by Wang (2003) for multiple-choice licensure and certification examinations. While item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch and two-parameter logistic (2PL) models traditionally place a binary item at its location, Huynh has argued in the cited papers that such mapping may not be appropriate in selecting items for CR interpretation and scale anchoring.

  7. A Mapmark method of standard setting as implemented for the National Assessment Governing Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, E Matthew; Mitzel, Howard C

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a Mapmark standard setting procedure, developed under contract with the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB). The procedure enhances the bookmark method with spatially representative item maps, holistic feedback, and an emphasis on independent judgment. A rationale for these enhancements, and the bookmark method, is presented, followed by a detailed description of the materials and procedures used in a meeting to set standards for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 12 mathematics. The use of difficulty-ordered content domains to provide holistic feedback is a particularly novel feature of the method. Process evaluation results comparing Mapmark to Anghoff-based methods previously used for NAEP standard setting are also presented.

  8. Implementing standard setting into the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP Part 1 examination – Process and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sook-Ching

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The College of General Practitioners of Malaysia and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners held the first Conjoint Member of the College of General Practitioners (MCGP/Fellow of Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (FRACGP examination in 1982, later renamed the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP examinations. The examination assesses competency for safe independent general practice and as family medicine specialists in Malaysia. Therefore, a defensible standard set pass mark is imperative to separate the competent from the incompetent.

  9. Determinants of corporate lobbying intensity in the lease standard-setting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mellado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The highly controversial lease standard-setting project that will replace the standards currently in place, establishes a new approach that includes the recognition of all assets and liabilities associated with lease contracts on the balance sheet, regardless of their classification. The complex standard-setting process and the heated debate among stakeholders makes the analysis of the lobbying phenomenon an important matter for study. The aim of this paper is to find explanatory factors that predict the behaviour of corporate groups with respect to the lease standard-setting process. To achieve this objective, we scrutinize the submission of comment letters by 306 non-financial listed companies in response to the discussion paper (DP 2009 and two exposure drafts (ED 2010 and ED 2013 elaborated jointly by the IASB and the FASB by distinguishing among three degrees of intensity in lobbying activities, depending on participation in the different discussion periods. Our empirical study is conducted through a multivariate analysis that shows the intensity of lobbying by considering participation in the three consultation periods. The results show that the intensity of lobbying is associated with size, profitability, age, industry and managerial ownership. The evidence can be used to predict lobbying behaviour. The research has implications for standard setters and contributes to prior lobbying research.

  10. Comparison study of judged clinical skills competence from standard setting ratings generated under different administration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William L; Boulet, John; Sandella, Jeanne

    2017-12-01

    When the safety of the public is at stake, it is particularly relevant for licensing and credentialing exam agencies to use defensible standard setting methods to categorize candidates into competence categories (e.g., pass/fail). The aim of this study was to gather evidence to support change to the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation standard setting design and administrative process. Twenty-two video recordings of candidates assessed for clinical competence were randomly selected from the 2014-2015 Humanistic domain test score distribution ranging from the highest to lowest quintile of performance. Nineteen panelists convened at the same site to receive training and practice prior to generating judgments of qualified or not qualified performance to each of the twenty videos. At the end of training, one panel remained onsite to complete their judgments and the second panel was released and given 1 week to observe the same twenty videos and complete their judgments offsite. The two one-sided test procedure established equivalence between panel group means at the 0.05 confidence level, controlling for rater errors within each panel group. From a practical cost-effective and administrative resource perspective, results from this study suggest it is possible to diverge from typical panel groups, who are sequestered the entire time onsite, to larger numbers of panelists who can make their judgments offsite with little impact on judged samples of qualified performance. Standard setting designs having panelists train together and then allowing those to provide judgments yields equivalent ratings and, ultimately, similar cut scores.

  11. Basic Laparoscopic Skills Assessment Study: Validation and Standard Setting among Canadian Urology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Y; Andonian, Sero; Pace, Kenneth T; Grober, Ethan

    2017-06-01

    As urology training programs move to a competency based medical education model, iterative assessments with objective standards will be required. To develop a valid set of technical skills standards we initiated a national skills assessment study focusing initially on laparoscopic skills. Between February 2014 and March 2016 the basic laparoscopic skill of Canadian urology trainees and attending urologists was assessed using 4 standardized tasks from the AUA (American Urological Association) BLUS (Basic Laparoscopic Urological Surgery) curriculum, including peg transfer, pattern cutting, suturing and knot tying, and vascular clip applying. All performances were video recorded and assessed using 3 methods, including time and error based scoring, expert global rating scores and C-SATS (Crowd-Sourced Assessments of Technical Skill Global Rating Scale), a novel, crowd sourced assessment platform. Different methods of standard setting were used to develop pass-fail cut points. Six attending urologists and 99 trainees completed testing. Reported laparoscopic experience and training level correlated with performance (p standard setting methods to define pass-fail cut points for all 4 AUA BLUS tasks. The 4 AUA BLUS tasks demonstrated good construct validity evidence for use in assessing basic laparoscopic skill. Performance scores using the novel C-SATS platform correlated well with traditional time-consuming methods of assessment. Various standard setting methods were used to develop pass-fail cut points for educators to use when making formative and summative assessments of basic laparoscopic skill. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PERBANDINGAN ESTIMASI KESALAHAN PENGUKURAN STANDARD SETTING DALAM PENILAIAN KOMPETENSI AKUNTANSI SMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastianus Widanarto Prijowuntato

    2015-10-01

      ESTIMATION OF STANDARD SETTING ERROR MEASUREMENT IN ACCOUNTING COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT IN VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS Abstract This research aims to estimate the measurement error in the Angof, Ebel, and Bookmark methods in Accounting Competency Assessment in Vocational Schools in DIY used by standard setters in deciding a cut score. This research is quantitative research. Data source in this study was the cut score of seven vocational schools in Yogyakarta that were randomly established. The reseach data were students’ answers to the National Examination in Accounting Subject of Package 2 in the academic year of 2011/2012 with 338 students. The teachers who engaged in the Focus Group Discussion (FGD were nine teachers, consisting of seven women and two men. The technical analysis was divided into three stages. 1 preparation, 2 FGD, 3 estimated error measurement by using the Bootstrap method. The results show that the cut score for the Angoff method is 67.809, Ebel method is 59.034, and Bookmark method is 57.022. The Angoff method has the least estimation of the measurement errors (2.102 as compared with the Ebel method (4.004 and the Bookmark method (4.042. Therefore, the Angoff method is the right method for estimating error measurement on standard setting. Keywords: Estimation of error measurement, Bootstrap, Cut Score

  13. Reducing the number of options on multiple-choice questions: response time, psychometrics and standard setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneid, Stephen D; Armour, Chris; Park, Yoon Soo; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Bordage, Georges

    2014-10-01

    Despite significant evidence supporting the use of three-option multiple-choice questions (MCQs), these are rarely used in written examinations for health professions students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reducing four- and five-option MCQs to three-option MCQs on response times, psychometric characteristics, and absolute standard setting judgements in a pharmacology examination administered to health professions students. We administered two versions of a computerised examination containing 98 MCQs to 38 Year 2 medical students and 39 Year 3 pharmacy students. Four- and five-option MCQs were converted into three-option MCQs to create two versions of the examination. Differences in response time, item difficulty and discrimination, and reliability were evaluated. Medical and pharmacy faculty judges provided three-level Angoff (TLA) ratings for all MCQs for both versions of the examination to allow the assessment of differences in cut scores. Students answered three-option MCQs an average of 5 seconds faster than they answered four- and five-option MCQs (36 seconds versus 41 seconds; p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in item difficulty and discrimination, or test reliability. Overall, the cut scores generated for three-option MCQs using the TLA ratings were 8 percentage points higher (p = 0.04). The use of three-option MCQs in a health professions examination resulted in a time saving equivalent to the completion of 16% more MCQs per 1-hour testing period, which may increase content validity and test score reliability, and minimise construct under-representation. The higher cut scores may result in higher failure rates if an absolute standard setting method, such as the TLA method, is used. The results from this study provide a cautious indication to health professions educators that using three-option MCQs does not threaten validity and may strengthen it by allowing additional MCQs to be tested in a fixed amount

  14. Estimating the Standard Error of the Judging in a modified-Angoff Standards Setting Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. MacCann

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available For a modified Angoff standards setting procedure, two methods of calculating the standard error of the..judging were compared. The Central Limit Theorem (CLT method is easy to calculate and uses readily..available data. It estimates the variance of mean cut scores as a function of the variance of cut scores within..a judging group, based on the independent judgements at Stage 1 of the process. Its theoretical drawback is..that it is unable to take account of the effects of collaboration among the judges at Stages 2 and 3. The..second method, an application of equipercentile (EQP equating, relies on the selection of very large stable..candidatures and the standardisation of the raw score distributions to remove effects associated with test..difficulty. The standard error estimates were then empirically obtained from the mean cut score variation..observed over a five year period. For practical purposes, the two methods gave reasonable agreement, with..the CLT method working well for the top band, the band that attracts most public attention. For some..bands in English and Mathematics, the CLT standard error was smaller than the EQP estimate, suggesting..the CLT method be used with caution as an approximate guide only.

  15. Animal production food safety: priority pathogens for standard setting by the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Mylrea, G E; Kahn, S

    2010-12-01

    In this short study, expert opinion and a literature review were used to identify the pathogens that should be prioritised by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for the development of future standards for animal production food safety. Prioritisation was based on a pathogen's impact on human health and amenability to control using on-farm measures. As the OIE mandate includes alleviation of global poverty, the study focused on developing countries and those with 'in-transition' economies. The regions considered were Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America. Salmonella (from species other than poultry) and pathogenic Escherichia coli were considered to be top priorities. Brucella spp., Echinococcus granulosus and Staphylococcus aureus were also mentioned by experts. As Salmonella, and to a lesser extent pathogenic E. coli, can be controlled by on-farm measures, these pathogens should be considered for prioritisation in future standard setting. On-farm control measures for Brucella spp. will be addressed in 2010-2011 in a review of the OLE Terrestrial Animal/Health Code chapter on brucellosis. In Africa, E. granulosus, the causative agent of hydatidosis, was estimated to have the greatest impact of all pathogens that could potentially be transmitted by food (i.e. via contamination). It was also listed for the Middle East and thought to be of importance by both South American experts consulted. Taenia saginata was thought to be of importance in South America and Africa and by one expert in the Middle East.

  16. Variation in assessment and standard setting practices across UK undergraduate medicine and the need for a benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Margaret

    2015-10-31

    The principal aim of this study is to provide an account of variation in UK undergraduate medical assessment styles and corresponding standard setting approaches with a view to highlighting the importance of a UK national licensing exam in recognizing a common standard. Using a secure online survey system, response data were collected during the period 13 - 30 January 2014 from selected specialists in medical education assessment, who served as representatives for their respective medical schools. Assessment styles and corresponding choices of standard setting methods vary markedly across UK medical schools. While there is considerable consensus on the application of compensatory approaches, individual schools display their own nuances through use of hybrid assessment and standard setting styles, uptake of less popular standard setting techniques and divided views on norm referencing. The extent of variation in assessment and standard setting practices across UK medical schools validates the concern that there is a lack of evidence that UK medical students achieve a common standard on graduation. A national licensing exam is therefore a viable option for benchmarking the performance of all UK undergraduate medical students.

  17. The Effects of Different Standard Setting Methods and the Composition of Borderline Groups: A Study within a Law Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochy, Filip; Kyndt, Eva; Baeten, Marlies; Pottier, Sofie; Veestraeten, Marlies; Leuven, K. U.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different standard setting methods on the size and composition of the borderline group, on the discrimination between different types of students and on the types of students passing with one method but failing with another. A total of 107 university students were classified into 4 different types…

  18. The Impact of Process Instructions on Judges' Use of Examinee Performance Data in Angoff Standard Setting Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Janet; Clauser, Brian E.; Margolis, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being widely used and frequently studied, the Angoff standard setting procedure has received little attention with respect to an integral part of the process: how judges incorporate examinee performance data in the decision-making process. Without performance data, subject matter experts have considerable difficulty accurately making the…

  19. Evaluation of the Standard Setting on the 2005 Grade 12 National Assessment of Educational Progress Mathematics Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Hauger, Jeffrey B.; Wells, Craig S.; Shea, Christine; Zenisky, April L.

    2009-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board used a new method to set achievement level standards on the 2005 Grade 12 NAEP Math test. In this article, we summarize our independent evaluation of the process used to set these standards. The evaluation data included observations of the standard-setting meeting, observations of advisory committee meetings…

  20. Identifying a standard set of outcome parameters for the evaluation of orthogeriatric co-management for hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, I S; Kammerlander, C; Suhm, N; Blauth, M; Roth, T; Gosch, M; Hoang-Kim, A; Mendelson, D; Zuckerman, J; Leung, F; Burton, J; Moran, C; Parker, M; Giusti, A; Pioli, G; Goldhahn, J; Kates, S L

    2013-11-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are an increasing problem in the world due to the ageing of the population. Different models of orthogeriatric co-management are currently in use worldwide. These models differ for instance by the health-care professional who has the responsibility for care in the acute and early rehabilitation phases. There is no international consensus regarding the best model of care and which outcome parameters should be used to evaluate these models. The goal of this project was to identify which outcome parameters and assessment tools should be used to measure and compare outcome changes that can be made by the implementation of orthogeriatric co-management models and to develop recommendations about how and when these outcome parameters should be measured. It was not the purpose of this study to describe items that might have an impact on the outcome but cannot be influenced such as age, co-morbidities and cognitive impairment at admission. Based on a review of the literature on existing orthogeriatric co-management evaluation studies, 14 outcome parameters were evaluated and discussed in a 2-day meeting with panellists. These panellists were selected based on research and/or clinical expertise in hip fracture management and a common interest in measuring outcome in hip fracture care. We defined 12 objective and subjective outcome parameters and how they should be measured: mortality, length of stay, time to surgery, complications, re-admission rate, mobility, quality of life, pain, activities of daily living, medication use, place of residence and costs. We could not recommend an appropriate tool to measure patients' satisfaction and falls. We defined the time points at which these outcome parameters should be collected to be at admission and discharge, 30 days, 90 days and 1 year after admission. Twelve objective and patient-reported outcome parameters were selected to form a standard set for the measurement of influenceable outcome of patients

  1. Setting the standard: The IAEA safety standards set the global reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    2003-01-01

    For the IAEA, setting and promoting standards for nuclear radiation, waste, and transport safety have been priorities from the start, rooted in the Agency's 1957 Statute. Today, a corpus of international standards are in place that national regulators and industries in many countries are applying, and more are being encouraged and assisted to follow them. Considerable work is done to keep safety standards updated and authoritative. They cover five main areas: the safety of nuclear facilities; radiation protection and safety of radiation sources; safe management of radioactive waste; safe transport of radioactive material; and thematic safety areas, such as emergency preparedness or legal infrastructures. Overall, the safety standards reflect an international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety for protecting people and the environment. All IAEA Member States can nominate experts for the Agency standards committees and provide comments on draft standards. Through this ongoing cycle of review and feedback, the standards are refined, updated, and extended where needed

  2. Defining a standard set of patient-centred outcomes for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bommel, Annelotte C.M.; Stowell, Caleb; Abrahm, Janet L.; Baker, Matthew; Baldotto, Clarissa S.; Baldwin, David R.; Borthwick, Diana; Carbone, David P.; Chen, Aileen B.; Fox, Jesme; Haswell, Tom; Koczywas, Marianna; Kozower, Benjamin D.; Mehran, Reza J.; Schramel, Franz M.; Senan, Suresh; Stirling, Robert G.; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.; Wouters, Michel W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In lung cancer, outcome measurement has been mostly limited to survival. Proper assessment of the value of lung cancer treatments, and the performance of institutions delivering care, requires more comprehensive measurement of standardised outcomes. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement convened an international, multidisciplinary working group of patient representatives, medical oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, pulmonologists, palliative care specialists, registry experts and specialist nurses to review existing data and practices. Using a modified Delphi method, the group developed a consensus recommendation (“the set”) on the outcomes most essential to track for patients with lung cancer, along with baseline demographic, clinical and tumour characteristics (case-mix variables) for risk adjustment. The set applies to patients diagnosed with nonsmall cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Our working group recommends the collection of the following outcomes: survival, complications during or within 6 months of treatment and patient-reported domains of health-related quality of life including pain, fatigue, cough and dyspnoea. Case-mix variables were defined to improve interpretation of comparisons. We defined an international consensus recommendation of the most important outcomes for lung cancer patients, along with relevant case-mix variables, and are working to support adoption and reporting of these measures globally. PMID:27390281

  3. The regulatory framework of accounting and accounting standard-setting bodies in the European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Mamić-Sačer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal features of accounting in the 21st century is harmonisation and stanardisation. Regulation of the European Parliament and European Council No. 1606/2002 harmonizes financial reporting for certain companies in the EU. However, national accounting principles are of great importance for financial reporting. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the application of generally accepted accounting principles, the regulatory accounting framework and the standard-setting bodies of EU member states. The analysis of these accounting issues was conducted with respect to all 28 EU member states. The results indicate that EU member states regulate their principal accounting issues through separate accounting acts or implement those issues in companies acts. Some EU member states do not have national accounting standards, the national accounting principles being incorporated in companies acts and accounting acts. Nevertheless, national accounting standard-setting bodies are governmental organisations in almost half the member states.

  4. Validation of five minimally obstructive methods to estimate physical activity energy expenditure in young adults in semi-standardized settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Gupta, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    ActivPAL3 software (ActivPAL), ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph) and Actiheart (Actiheart), and by a combination of activity type recognition via Acti4 software and activity counts per minute (CPM) of either a hip- or thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ (AGhip + Acti4 and AGthigh + Acti4). At group level, estimated......-standardized settings compared to previously validated methods using CPM only....

  5. The grasshoppers and the great cattle: an exploration of participation in the ASB's standard-setting process

    OpenAIRE

    Gilfedder, Doreen; Ó hÓgartaigh, Ciarán

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research study of participation in the Accounting Standards Board’s (‘the ASB’) standard setting processes. It replicates studies of a similar nature carried out in the US and Australia or in specific contexts (e.g. Operating and Financial Review) in the UK. The study considers the 1,519 responses to the ASB’s proposals for accounting standards. Consistent with the findings of other studies, the study finds that there is a high level of preparer partici...

  6. Consistency of Angoff-Based Standard-Setting Judgments: Are Item Judgments and Passing Scores Replicable across Different Panels of Experts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Kannan, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Angoff-based standard setting is widely used, especially for high-stakes licensure assessments. Nonetheless, some critics have claimed that the judgment task is too cognitively complex for panelists, whereas others have explicitly challenged the consistency in (replicability of) standard-setting outcomes. Evidence of consistency in item judgments…

  7. Measuring schools' efforts to partner with parents of children served under IDEA: scaling and standard setting for accountability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaum, Batya; Fisher, William P; Coulter, W Allan

    2011-01-01

    Indicator 8 of the State Performance Plan (SPP), developed under the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004, Public Law 108-446) requires states to collect data and report findings related to schools' facilitation of parent involvement. The Schools' Efforts to Partner with Parents Scale (SEPPS) was developed to provide states with a means to address this new reporting requirement. Items suggested by stakeholder groups were piloted with a nationally representative sample of 2,634 parents of students with disabilities ages 5-21 in six states. Rasch scaling was used to calibrate a meaningful and invariant item hierarchy. The 78 calibrated items had measurement reliabilities ranging from .94-.97. Using data from the pilot study, stakeholders established a recommended performance standard set at a meaningful point in the item hierarchy. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the need for rigorous metrics within state accountability systems.

  8. Assessing the reliability of the borderline regression method as a standard setting procedure for objective structured clinical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mortaz Hejri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the methods used for standard setting is the borderline regression method (BRM. This study aims to assess the reliability of BRM when the pass-fail standard in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was calculated by averaging the BRM standards obtained for each station separately. Materials and Methods: In nine stations of the OSCE with direct observation the examiners gave each student a checklist score and a global score. Using a linear regression model for each station, we calculated the checklist score cut-off on the regression equation for the global scale cut-off set at 2. The OSCE pass-fail standard was defined as the average of all station′s standard. To determine the reliability, the root mean square error (RMSE was calculated. The R2 coefficient and the inter-grade discrimination were calculated to assess the quality of OSCE. Results: The mean total test score was 60.78. The OSCE pass-fail standard and its RMSE were 47.37 and 0.55, respectively. The R2 coefficients ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. The inter-grade discrimination score varied greatly among stations. Conclusion: The RMSE of the standard was very small indicating that BRM is a reliable method of setting standard for OSCE, which has the advantage of providing data for quality assurance.

  9. Language Selection Policies in International Standardization – Perception of the IEC Member Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Teichmann (Hans); H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractInternational standards setting organizations have different language selection policies. These policies have, besides their financial aspects, also an important cultural/ political dimension. The standards setting organizations are either bilingual (English/ French), or unilingual

  10. A comparison of two standard-setting approaches in high-stakes clinical performance assessment using generalizability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Lagha, Regina A; Boscardin, Christy K; May, Win; Fung, Cha-Chi

    2012-08-01

    Scoring clinical assessments in a reliable and valid manner using criterion-referenced standards remains an important issue and directly affects decisions made regarding examinee proficiency. This generalizability study of students' clinical performance examination (CPX) scores examines the reliability of those scores and of their interpretation, particularly according to a newly introduced, "critical actions" criterion-referenced standard and scoring approach. The authors applied a generalizability framework to the performance scores of 477 third-year students attending three different medical schools in 2008. The norm-referenced standard included all station checklist items. The criterion-referenced standard included only those items deemed critical to patient care by a faculty panel. The authors calculated and compared variance components and generalizability coefficients for each standard across six common stations. Norm-referenced scores had moderate generalizability (ρ = 0.51), whereas criterion-referenced scores showed low dependability (φ = 0.20). The estimated 63% of measurement error associated with the person-by-station interaction suggests case specificity. Increasing the number of stations on the CPX from 6 to 24, an impractical solution both for cost and time, would still yield only moderate dependability (φ = 0.50). Though the performance assessment of complex skills, like clinical competence, seems intrinsically valid, careful consideration of the scoring standard and approach is needed to avoid misinterpretation of proficiency. Further study is needed to determine how best to improve the reliability of criterion-referenced scores, by implementing changes to the examination structure, the process of standard-setting, or both.

  11. How to set the bar in competency-based medical education: standard setting after an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Tim; Wright, Sarah; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Theodoropoulos, John; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Wasserstein, David; Ringsted, Charlotte; Hodges, Brian; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell

    2016-01-04

    The goal of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Competency-based Medical Education (CBME) is to establish a minimal level of competence. The purpose of this study was to 1) to determine the credibility and acceptability of the modified Angoff method of standard setting in the setting of CBME, using the Borderline Group (BG) method and the Borderline Regression (BLR) method as a reference standard; 2) to determine if it is feasible to set different standards for junior and senior residents, and 3) to determine the desired characteristics of the judges applying the modified Angoff method. The results of a previous OSCE study (21 junior residents, 18 senior residents, and six fellows) were used. Three groups of judges performed the modified Angoff method for both junior and senior residents: 1) sports medicine surgeons, 2) non-sports medicine orthopedic surgeons, and 3) sports fellows. Judges defined a borderline resident as a resident performing at a level between competent and a novice at each station. For each checklist item, the judges answered yes or no for "will the borderline/advanced beginner examinee respond correctly to this item?" The pass mark was calculated by averaging the scores. This pass mark was compared to that created using both the BG and the BLR methods. A paired t-test showed that all examiner groups expected senior residents to get significantly higher percentage of checklist items correct compared to junior residents (all stations p cut scores determined by the modified Angoff method and the BG/BLR method. For junior residents, the cut scores determined by the modified Angoff method were lower than the cut scores determined by the BG/BLR Method (all p marks for senior and junior residents. The use of this method enables both senior and junior residents to sit the same OSCE, preferable in the regular assessment environment of CBME.

  12. Using the Many-Facet Rasch Model to Evaluate Standard-Setting Judgments: Setting Performance Standards for Advanced Placement® Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliski, Pamela; Wind, Stefanie A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Morgan, Deanna; Plake, Barbara; Reshetar, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    The Many-Facet Rasch (MFR) Model is traditionally used to evaluate the quality of ratings on constructed response assessments; however, it can also be used to evaluate the quality of judgments from panel-based standard setting procedures. The current study illustrates the use of the MFR Model by examining the quality of ratings obtained from a…

  13. Using the Many-Faceted Rasch Model to Evaluate Standard Setting Judgments: An Illustration with the Advanced Placement Environmental Science Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliski, Pamela K.; Wind, Stefanie A.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Morgan, Deanna L.; Plake, Barbara S.; Reshetar, Rosemary A.

    2013-01-01

    The many-faceted Rasch (MFR) model has been used to evaluate the quality of ratings on constructed response assessments; however, it can also be used to evaluate the quality of judgments from panel-based standard setting procedures. The current study illustrates the use of the MFR model for examining the quality of ratings obtained from a standard…

  14. The ACT/NAGB Standard Setting Process: How "Modified" Does It Have To Be before It Is No Longer a Modified-Angoff Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckase, Mark D.

    The kernel of the Angoff method of standard setting (W. Angoff, 1971) would seem to be the judgment of whether a minimally competent person could answer an item on a test correctly or not. So it would seem that any procedure that requires independent judgment of the correctness or incorrectness of a response to items for a minimally acceptable…

  15. Standard Setting in a Small Scale OSCE: A Comparison of the Modified Borderline-Group Method and the Borderline Regression Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Timothy J.; Humphrey-Murto, Susan M.; Norman, Geoffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    When setting standards, administrators of small-scale OSCEs often face several challenges, including a lack of resources, a lack of available expertise in statistics, and difficulty in recruiting judges. The Modified Borderline-Group Method is a standard setting procedure that compensates for these challenges by using physician examiners and is…

  16. Analysis of global variability in 15 established and 5 new European Standard Set (ESS) STRs using the CEPH human genome diversity panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philips, C.; Fernandez-Formoso, L.; Garcia-Magarinos, M.

    2011-01-01

    five recently introduced European Standard Set (ESS) STRs: D1S1656, D2S441, D10S1248, D12S391 and D22S1045. From the genotypes obtained for the ESS STRs we identified rare, intermediate or off-ladder alleles that had not been previously reported for these loci. Examples of novel ESS STR alleles found...

  17. A geographical analysis of constituents’ formal participation in the process of international accounting standard setting : Do we have a level playing field?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.; Lybaert, N.; Orens, R.; van der Tas, L.G.

    2013-01-01

    As a private organization, input legitimacy, being achieved when inputs received reflect the opinions of all stakeholders involved, is a key issue for the IASB’s acceptance as global standard setter. To study this input legitimacy, this paper examines the evolution of constituent participation in

  18. True communication skills assessment in interdepartmental OSCE stations: Standard setting using the MAAS-Global and EduG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyonugroho, Winny; Kropmans, Thomas; Murphy, Ruth; Hayes, Peter; van Dalen, Jan; Kennedy, Kieran M

    2018-01-01

    Comparing outcome of clinical skills assessment is challenging. This study proposes reliable and valid comparison of communication skills (1) assessment as practiced in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (2). The aim of the present study is to compare CS assessment, as standardized according to the MAAS Global, between stations in a single undergraduate medical year. An OSCE delivered in an Irish undergraduate curriculum was studied. We chose the MAAS-Global as an internationally recognized and validated instrument to calibrate the OSCE station items. The MAAS-Global proportion is the percentage of station checklist items that can be considered as 'true' CS. The reliability of the OSCE was calculated with G-Theory analysis and nested ANOVA was used to compare mean scores of all years. MAAS-Global scores in psychiatry stations were significantly higher than those in other disciplines (pMAAS-Global proportions when compared to the general practice stations. Comparison of outcome measurements, using the MAAS Global as a standardization instrument, between interdisciplinary station checklists was valid and reliable. The MAAS-Global was used as a single validated instrument and is suggested as gold standard. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  20. Creating meaningful cut-scores for Neuro-QOL measures of fatigue, physical functioning, and sleep disturbance using standard setting with patients and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Karon F; Victorson, David E; Cella, David; Schalet, Benjamin D; Miller, Deborah

    2015-03-01

    To establish clinically relevant classifications of health outcome scores for four Neuro-QOL measures (lower extremity function, upper extremity function, fatigue, and sleep disturbance). We employed a modified educational standard-setting methodology to identify cut-scores for symptom severity. Clinical vignettes were developed to represent graduated levels of symptom severity. A clinician panel and a panel of persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) were recruited, and, in separate, 1-day meetings, the panelists identified adjacent vignettes they judged to represent the threshold between two levels of severity for a given domain (e.g., threshold between a vignette that indicated "no problems" with sleep and the adjacent one that represented "mild problems" with sleep). Working independently, each panel (PwMS and clinicians) reached consensus on its recommended thresholds for each of the four targeted measures. Cut-scores were defined as the mean location for each pair of threshold vignettes. PwMS and clinician panels derived identical thresholds for severity levels of lower extremity function and sleep disturbance, but slightly different ones for upper extremity function and fatigue. In every case of divergence, PwMS set higher thresholds for more severe classifications of symptoms (by 0.5 SDs) than did clinicians. The modified bookmarking method is effective for defining thresholds for symptom severity based on self-reported outcome scores and consensus judgments. Derived cut-scores and severity levels provide an interpretative context for Neuro-QOL scores. Future studies should explore whether these findings can be replicated and evaluate the validity of the classifications compared to external criteria.

  1. ANL CP-5 decontamination and decommissioning project necessary and sufficient pilot. Report of the standards identification team on the selection of the necessary and sufficient standards set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The CP-5 reactor was a heavy-water moderated and cooled, highly-enriched uranium-fueled thermal reactor designed for supplying neutrons for research. The reactor was operated almost continuously for 25 years until its final shutdown in 1979. It is situated on approximately three acres in the southwestern section of Argonne National Laboratory. In 1980, all nuclear fuel and the heavy water that could be drained from the process systems were shipped off-site, and the CP-5 facility was placed into lay-up pending funding for decommissioning. It was maintained in the lay-up condition with a minimum of maintenance until 1990, when the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project began. This D and D project provides for the disassembly and removal of all radioactive components, equipment, and structures that are associated with the CP-5 facility. The experimental area around the CP-5 reactor has been prepared for D and D, and the area outside the facility has been remediated. The reactor primary coolant and support systems have been removed and packaged as waste. The significant remaining tasks are (1) removal of the reactor internals and the biological shield structure; (2) decontamination of the rod storage area; (3) decontamination of the various radioactive material storage and handling facilities, including the fuel pool; and (4) decontamination and dismantlement of the building. This report describes the scope of the project, identification of standards for various aspects of the project, the lessons learned, and consideration for implementation

  2. The Flaws of Fragmented Financial Standard Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mügge, Daniel; Perry, James

    2014-01-01

    In the half decade following the 2007 financial crisis, the reform of global financial governance was driven by two separate policy debates: one on the substantive content of regulations, the other on the organizational architecture of their governance. The separation of the two debates among pol...

  3. 大型資料庫國小四年級自然科學習成就評量標準設定結果之效度評估 Validation of the Standard Setting Procedure for a Large Scale 4th Grade Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    謝進昌 Jin-Chang Hsieh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available 學習成就評量資料庫建置目的之一,在於描述學生於各學科的學習成就表現概況;而學習成就表現的描述,即牽涉到標準設定議題。隨著臺灣學生學習成就評量資料庫對於國小四年級自然科之評量架構調整,致使沿用的表現標準已多不符合實務運用,而興起重新修訂之舉。本研究主要目的在於評估2009 年自然科學習成就評量國小四年級標準設定結果之效度,以Kane(1994, 2001)的效度評估證據為依據,藉由效度的過程證據、內部證據以及外部證據,作為標準設定結果之效度證據來源。結果發現,從各項效度證據來看,國小四年級自然科標準設定可由標準設定成員的組成及其回應、設定結果的一致性,以及外推論於數學成就的效度外部證據得到支持。本研究最後提出數項建議,供未來標準設定研究者參考。 One of the main purposes for constructing an academic achievement database is to understand the students’ academic performance for each content area. Standard setting is the main issue in the academic achievement. Due to the adjustment of the test blueprint for Taiwan Assessment of Student Achievement 4th grade science, the previous performance level description is outmoded for practice. Therefore, modifying the standards is necessary. The purpose of this study is to validate a science standard setting procedure designed for 2009 4th grade science students. Based on Kane’s (1994, 2001 framework for validation, this study collected procedural evidence, internal evidence, as well as external evidence using mathematics academic performance. Several suggestions are provided in the conclusion for further studies.

  4. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  5. Fourth international circumpolar arctic vegetation mapping workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Markon, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    During the week of April 10, 2001, the Fourth International Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Mapping Workshop was held in Moscow, Russia. The purpose of this meeting was to bring together the vegetation scientists working on the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM) to (1) review the progress of current mapping activities, (2) discuss and agree upon a standard set of arctic tundra subzones, (3) plan for the production and dissemination of a draft map, and (4) begin work on a legend for the final map.

  6. State Standard-Setting Processes in Brief. State Academic Standards: Standard-Setting Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about academic standards, whether created by states from scratch or adopted by states under the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) banner, have drawn widespread media attention and are at the top of many state policymakers' priority lists. Recently, a number of legislatures have required additional steps, such as waiting periods for…

  7. on International Financial Reporting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Łazarowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses and assesses proposals for changes concerning the objective of financial reportingbased on International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, presented in comments on the exposuredraft of the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting (2015. The majority of respondents thinkthat the objective of financial reporting should give more prominence to the importance of providinginformation about management’s stewardship. Moreover, some respondents suggest introducing thedefinition of stewardship into the Conceptual Framework and presenting implications of shifts in theobjective of financial reporting for the future standard setting and for preparing financial statements.Based on the analysis of comment letters and the review of accounting literature, the conclusion is thatthe objective of financial reporting should be changed. It is, however, disputable, if stewardship should bea separate object. There is too little research on the relation between the stewardship and decisionusefulnessobjectives. The findings of this research could show accounting standard-setters the potentialtrade-offs and conflicts between these objectives.

  8. What skills should new internal medicine interns have in july? A national survey of internal medicine residency program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Steven; Vu, T Robert; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Aiyer, Meenakshy; McKown, Kevin; Chmielewski, Amy F; McDonald, Furman S

    2014-03-01

    The transition from medical student to intern may cause stress and burnout in new interns and the delivery of suboptimal patient care. Despite a formal set of subinternship curriculum guidelines, program directors have expressed concern regarding the skill set of new interns and the lack of standardization in that skill set among interns from different medical schools. To address these issues, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System focuses on the development of a competency-based education continuum spanning undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education. In 2010, the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine subinternship task force, in collaboration with the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine survey committee, surveyed internal medicine residency program directors to determine which competencies or skills they expected from new medical school graduates. The authors summarized the results using categories of interest. In both an item rank list and free-text responses, program directors were nearly uniform in ranking the skills they deemed most important for new interns-organization and time management and prioritization skills; effective communication skills; basic clinical skills; and knowing when to ask for assistance. Stakeholders should use the results of this survey as they develop a milestone-based curriculum for the fourth year of medical school and for the internal medicine subinternship. By doing so, they should develop a standardized set of skills that meet program directors' expectations, reduce the stress of transitions across the educational continuum, and improve the quality of patient care.

  9. Standard setting and quality of assessment: A conceptual approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality performance standards and the effect of assessment outcomes are important in the educational milieu, as assessment remains the representative ... not be seen as a methodological process of setting pass/fail cut-off points only, but as a powerful catalyst for quality improvements in HPE by promoting excellence in ...

  10. Disciplining standard-setting : Which approach to choose (if any)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanevskaia, Olia; Jacobs, Kai; Blind, Knut

    In the world of continuous globalization, standards play a crucial role in transnational economic development. Being the drivers of harmonization and innovation, standards do not only facilitate production and exchange in goods and services, but also carry significant policy implications and create

  11. Disciplining standard-setting : Which approach to choose (if any)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanevskaia, Olia

    2017-01-01

    In the world of continuous globalization, standards play a crucial role in transnational economic development. Being the drivers of harmonization and innovation, standards do not only facilitate production and exchange in goods and services, but also carry significant policy implications and create

  12. Assessing clinical skills – standard setting in the objective structured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standardisation of the OSCE is required to define the pass mark above which a candidate performs at the level expected of a family physician. A number of standardisation processes have been described that either judge the test items prior to the exam or judge the individual during the exam. In this paper we report on an ...

  13. The Dilemma of Standard Setting for the OSCE | Sukkar | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to present station scoring forms designed to satisfy predetermined criteria and minimum pass levels. Methods: Available samples of marking sheets and checklists designed by various examining bodies were scrutinized. Criteria were prioritized according to commonly used grading systems. The station rating scale (check ...

  14. Item Disordinality with the Bookmark Standard Setting Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Gary; Tessema, Aster

    This paper presents an application of the bookmark procedure to a test comprised of increasing text difficulty levels. The Test of English Proficiency for Adults (TEPA) was used for this study. Three forms of the TEPA were field tested in 1999 with approximately 1,000 non-native English speaking students enrolled in English-as-a-Second-Language…

  15. Animal welfare and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B; Babcock, S

    2005-08-01

    Globalisation is becoming a force that is revolutionising international trade, particularly that of animals and animal products. There is increasing interest in animal welfare worldwide, and as part of its 2001-2005 Strategic Plan the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) identified the development of international standards on animal welfare as a priority. The OIE's scientific approach to standard-setting provides the foundation for the development, and acceptance by all OIE Member Countries, of these animal welfare guidelines. The paper discusses how these guidelines on animal welfare can be implemented, both within the provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and within the framework of voluntary codes of conduct. Even if animal welfare guidelines are not covered by any WTO agreements in the future, bi- and multilateral agreements, voluntary corporate codes, and transparent labelling of products should result in a progressive acceptance of OIE guidelines. Ultimately, consumer demands and demonstrable gains in animal production will result in an incremental evolution in animal welfare consciousness and adherence to international standards.

  16. Internal and International Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of availability of investments on young talents, new generations, both in the entrepreneurial and in the professional fields. In most Member States, anticorruption policies have gained an increased prominence in government agendas and the financial crisis has drawn attention to the integrity and accountability of policy-makers. Most Member States that are currently in serious financial difficulties have acknowledged the seriousness of issues related to corruption and have created (or are planning anticorruption programs in order to deal with the risks deriving from this issue and with the diversion of public funds. In some Member States, the economic adjustment programs provide for explicit obligations related to anti-corruption policies. Even when not formally connected to adjustment programs, anticorruption policies complement the adjustment measures, especially in those countries in which corruption is a serious issue.  During the European Semester of economic policy coordination, recommendations for efficiently fighting corruption have been laid out; Among the most vulnerable sectors, urban development and building projects are certainly very exposed to corruption risks and to infiltration of internal and transnational organized crime.

  17. International arbejdsdeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour.......Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour....

  18. MARC International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Coward

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative development of the Library of Congress MARC II Profect and the British National Bibliography MARC II Project is described and presented as the forerunner of an international MARC network. Emphasis is placed on the necessity for a standard MARC record for international exchange and for acceptance of international standards of cataloging.

  19. Internal Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Rathouský, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis focuses on characteristics of internal communication, its implementation in various forms in different companies and analysis of the internal communication in one selected company. After the analysis of its current state in the multinational company, the thesis will recommend improvements to the areas of internal communication and human resources, with the main focus of global implementation of these recommendations.

  20. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  1. International marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T Cannon

    1989-01-01

    The international marketplace has been transformed in recent years by shifts in trading patterns and practices. These changes have been reinforced by new technologies and evolving economic relationships. This paper is an attempt to integrate these developments into the burgeoning literature on international marketing as well as recent research findings. The research emphasis within the subject has evolved alongside changes in the stress given to key aspects of international trade. The preoccu...

  2. Internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Ramesh; Dhakal, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  3. International Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  4. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide

  5. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international

  6. International skatteret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Sørensen, Niels; Wittendorff, Jens

    1996-01-01

    De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret.......De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret....

  7. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  8. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  9. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  10. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  11. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity....

  12. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test......Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...

  13. International Harmonisation Of Accounting Standards: The Case For A Mandatory Requirement For The Direct Method Of Reporting Operating Cash Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Yap

    2011-01-01

    Even though standard setters have now embraced cash flow statements there remains ambivalence as to the best format (i.e. direct or indirect method) for disclosing cash flow from operations. In 1987 the FASB asserted that information about the gross amounts of cash receipts and cash payments is more relevant than information about the net amounts of cash receipts and payments. Yet apart from Australia and New Zealand, most standard setting bodies, including the International Accounting Standa...

  14. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  15. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  16. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.

  17. International collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the wake of the demise of the US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) project last year which empoverished both US and world science, some rapid scene shifting is going on. The SSC may be dead, but the underlying physics quest lives on. In the US, the 'future vision' subpanel of the High Energy Physics Advisory Board (HEPAP) is at work formulating its recommendations. On the international front, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) at a special meeting in Vancouver in January drafted a statement

  18. International Illiquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkhozov, Aytek; Mueller, Philippe; Vedolin, Andrea

    We build a parsimonious international asset pricing model in which deviations of government bond yields from a fitted yield curve of a country measure the tightness of investors' capital constraints. We compute these measures at daily frequency for six major markets and use them to test the model...

  19. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  20. Interne evalueringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    Det er en gennemgående tese i denne undersøgelse af interne evalueringer, at en af de vigtigste kendetegn ved den New Public Management -dominerede udvikling af den offentlige sektors reguleringspolitik, som Danmark såvel som en række andre OECD lande har gennemlevet, er en omfattende brug af alle...

  1. Cooperating Internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    A number of college and university consortia have embarked on international educational cooperation ventures, providing valuable experiences and benefits for faculty, students, alumni, and the community. For these programs to be effective, they must have high-level institutional support, equal opportunities to participate, effective marketing and…

  2. Transparency International

    OpenAIRE

    Hulten, van, M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the world”. Its stated goal is “to take action to combat corruption and prevent criminal activities arising from corruption so as to help build a world in which Government, politics, business...

  3. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  4. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisich, A.

    1992-01-01

    Europe is certainly the part of the world where the largest number of international arrangements have been established for dealing with international cooperation in cases of major oil spills at sea. Let me list the most important of these multilateral arrangements: Bonn Agreement: covers the North Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC Barcelona Convention: (protocol for emergency situations) covers the Mediterranean Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC; Helsinki Convention: covers the Baltic Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and (soon) the EEC; Lisbon Agreement: covers the NE Atlantic Contracting Parties: France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the EEC; Community Action Plan: covers the whole community waters; EEC; Members States participate in this plan. It should be underlined that, in addition to these large multilateral agreements a number of bilateral or trilateral arrangements have been set up, such as the Copenhagen Agreement, Denger Plan, Manche Plan, etc. The Commission involvement in these international frameworks is very important: as an example, it is presently chairing the Bonn Agreement Contracting Parties meeting. In addition, being the only contracting party to all these agreements, it is able to play a unique role of coordination and information to avoid duplications and contradictions. Having given this overview, I would now focus on the Community Action Plan

  5. Conceptualizing international education : From international student to international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madge, Clare; Raghuram, Parvati; Noxolo, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In a rapidly changing transnational eduscape, it is timely to consider how best to conceptualize international education. Here we argue for a conceptual relocation from international student to international study as a means to bridge the diverse literatures on international education. International

  6. International co-operation and the future of nuclear power. European Nuclear Congress '98, Nice, 26 October 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the joint Opening Session of the European Nuclear Congress'98 (ENC) and RECOD in Nice, France, on 26 october 1998. The conference emphasized the importance of strengthened international co-operation in all areas relevant to the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy, especially for power generation. As the only intergovernmental global organization dedicated to nuclear science and technology, the role of the IAEA is to serve as the international focal point for standard setting, independent analysis, technology transfer and oversight and verification

  7. International Competitiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerberg, Jan

    1988-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a model of differing trends in international competi tiveness and economic growth across countries. The model relates the development of market shares at home and abroad to the three sets of factors: the ability to compete in technology, the ability to compete in delivery (capacity), and the ability to compete in price. The tes t, using data for fifteen OECD countries for the period 1961-83, show s that, in the medium and long run, factors related to technology a...

  8. International Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Fagerberg

    1988-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a model of differing trends in international competitiveness and economic growth across countries. The model relates the development of market shares at home and abroad to three sets of factors: the ability to compete in technology, the ability to compete in delivery(capacity) and the ability to compete in price. The test, using data for 15 OECD countries for the period 1961-1983, shows that in the medium and long run, factors related to technology and capacity a...

  9. Internal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Zagorc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organization. Method: How to achieve the purpose of research, used methods and theoretical approach. Results: Specific examples and opinions of employees. Results show the importance of trainings for an organization. We can see that all employees are fairly motivated and ready to participate in trainings and can adapt to changing business environment very well. The results demonstrate that all trainings in the organization are very important and welcome. Only with continuous learning, the organization can be successful and survive in the market despite strong competition. Organization: Trainings are designed for all employees inside an organization. Different employees participate in trainings in a different way as all trainings are divided into certain work and fields that are important for each individual or department in an organization. Society: Trainings have an impact on the whole organization by contributing to its development. Originality: The originality of study is what was new in the research, what is the value and originality of research. Limitations/Future Research: Research was limited to a small number of sources.

  10. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  11. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  12. The Involvement of IRPA in the Development of ICRP and Other International Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: One of the main items in the IRPA constitution is to encourage the establishment and continuous review of universally acceptable radiation protection standards or recommendations through the international bodies concerned. This matter was discussed in depth at the Associate Societies Forum during the IRPA-10 Congress in Hiroshima in May 2000. A clear consensus existed among societies present that IRPA must play a larger role in the standard setting process. The mechanisms to fulfil this role have still to be elaborated but two processes have been identified. One for collecting and transmitting societies views on proposals by standards-setting bodies and another for quickly informing societies about the developments within international bodies on which IRPA acts as an observer. An example of the first was when IRPA invited its Member Societies to comment on Professor Roger Clarke's Controllable Dose proposal. The IRPA 10 Congress in May 2000 in Hiroshima provided the obvious focus for discussing the responses from the various Societies. These have been brought together in a report entitled IRPA Member Societies' Contributions to the development of new ICRP Recommendations and transmitted to ICRP by the IRPA Secretariat. The second procedure is more established as IRPA has observer status with a number of organisations including ICRP, IAEA and NEA and on interagency committees such as the Interagency Committee on Radiation Safety Standards (IACRS). (author)

  13. Community College Internal Auditors: Internal Audit Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronna; And Others

    This guidebook includes information compiled by the "Audit Manual" committee of Community College Internal Auditors (CCIA) from several California community college districts regarding their internal auditing practices. The first section of the guidebook discusses the purpose of internal audits, indicating that audits assist members of…

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle: international market, international constraints and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the constraints on the nuclear fuel cycle are ones arising from economic and financial reasons, those caused by uranium resources and their distribution, those arising from technical reasons, issues of public acceptance, and those quite independent of normal industrial considerations, but caused by elements of international politics. The nuclear fuel cycle and the international market, matters of nuclear non-proliferation, and international cooperation are discussed

  15. Melanoma International Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use Toll-free: 866-463-6663 International: 610-942-3432 Melanoma International Foundation 250 Mapleflower ...

  16. Ensuring safe international trade: how are the roles and responsibilities evolving and what will the situation be in ten years' time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G K

    2011-04-01

    The roles of the international standard-setting bodies that are mandated to facilitate safe trade, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Plant Protection Convention and the World Trade Organization, are well documented, as are the roles of the international organisations responsible for global health issues: the OIE, the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. However, developments in international trade, such as accelerating globalisation and the frequent emergence and re-emergence of diseases affecting both humans and animals, have brought new challenges and the need to reconsider the future roles of such organisations. New participants and new demands have also emerged to challenge these mandates, leading to potential areas of conflict. The need for countries to establish themselves as new trade partners, or to strengthen their positions while still maintaining safe trade, poses a challenge to standard-setting organisations, which must meet these demands while still remaining sensitive to the needs of developing countries. In this paper, the author describes and discusses some of these challenges and suggests how international organisations could evolve to confront such issues.

  17. Models og International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2015-01-01

    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms, the motivating factors that give rise to such firms and their growth modalities and strategies. These models reflect the merger...... of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship....

  18. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....

  19. The Internal Audit Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Gołębiowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores an issue of the internal audit outsourcing. It indicates the differences between internal audit, outsourcing and cosourcing of this service as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Drawing from the research on internal audit outsourcing the recent market trends were identified as well as motivations for choosing different forms of internal auditing.

  20. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  1. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  2. Models of international entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2012-01-01

    The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...... on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms (Figure 1), the motivating factors that give rise to such firms (Figure 2) and their growth modalities and strategies (Figure 3......). These models reflect the merger of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship. Managers in international entrepreneurial firms and students in international business and entrepreneurship can use the models as framework for understanding international...

  3. Models og International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2015-01-01

    The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...... on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms, the motivating factors that give rise to such firms and their growth modalities and strategies. These models reflect the merger...... of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship....

  4. Development of Objective Standard Setting Using Rasch Measurement Model in Malaysian Institution of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatimin, Nuraini; Aziz, Azrilah Abdul; Zaharim, Azami; Yasin, Siti Hanani Mat

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and evaluation of students' achievement are an important aspect to make sure that students really understand the course content and monitor students' achievement level. Performance is not only reflected from the numbers of high achievers of the students, but also on quality of the grade obtained; does the grade "A" truly…

  5. Are we ready to apply the de minimis concept to standard setting: a historical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    The pros and cons of the de minimis concept is discussed from a historical point of view. The purpose is first to indicate how long ago many common occupational hazards were recognized and second to conclude that there had to be exposure levels that were essentially trivial, i.e., de minimis. Some aspects of the history of radiation protection are presented. The topics of discussion include: empiricism; the tolerance dose; the maximum permissible exposure dose; as low as possible dose (ALAP) and as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA); and the challenge of the '80s. In the '80s with the strong movement to use risk as a basis for both radiation and chemical standards, the need for adding the concept of a trivial risk has taken hold. Some examples of possible de minimis levels, as well as some of the problems and current activities, are presented

  6. Process-outcome interrelationship and standard setting in medical education: the need for a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Leif; Karle, Hans; Nystrup, Jørgen

    2007-09-01

    An outcome-based approach to medical education compared to a process/content orientation is currently being discussed intensively. In this article, the process and outcome interrelationship in medical education is discussed, with specific emphasis on the relation to the definition of standards in basic medical education. Perceptions of outcome have always been an integrated element of curricular planning. The present debate underlines the need for stronger focus on learning objectives and outcome assessment in many medical schools around the world. The need to maintain an integrated approach of process/content and outcome is underlined in this paper. A worry is expressed about the taxonomy of learning in pure outcome-based medical education, in which student assessment can be a major determinant for the learning process, leaving the control of the medical curriculum to medical examiners. Moreover, curricula which favour reductionism by stating everything in terms of instrumental outcomes or competences, do face a risk of lowering quality and do become a prey for political interference. Standards based on outcome alone rise unclarified problems in relationship to licensure requirements of medical doctors. It is argued that the alleged dichotomy between process/content and outcome seems artificial, and that formulation of standards in medical education must follow a comprehensive line in curricular planning.

  7. Standard setting in the teaching and learning process in the Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standards are set at different levels to govern different requirements that collectively add up to the ingredients of quality education of a child. This study investigated whether or not there are quantitative standards of achievement for guiding teaching and learning in the school system in Kenya. It also investigated teachers' ...

  8. Formal participation in the IASB's due process of standard setting : A multi-issue/multiperiod analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.; Lybaert, N.; Orens, R.; van der Tas, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets out to enquire about the nature of constituents' participation in the IASB's due process in terms of representation (constituents' diversity and characteristics) and drivers to participate. We choose to adopt a multi-issue/multi-period approach to investigate constituents' formal

  9. Regional cooperation in energy efficiency standard-setting and labeling in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura

    2003-08-04

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) was established in 2001 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The goals of NAEWG are to foster communication and cooperation on energy-related matters of common interest, and to enhance North American energy trade and interconnections consistent with the goal of sustainable development, for the benefit of all three countries. At its outset, NAEWG established teams to address different aspects of the energy sector. One, the Energy Efficiency Expert Group, undertook activity in three areas: (1) analyzing commonalities and differences in the test procedures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and identifying specific products for which the three countries might consider harmonization; (2) exploring possibilities for increased mutual recognition of laboratory test results; and (3) looking at possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Energy Star voluntary endorsement labeling program. To support NAEWG's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, representing the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document identified 46 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations. Three products--refrigerators/freezers, room air conditioners, and integral horsepower three-phase electric motors--have identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and test procedures in the three countries. Ten other products have different MEPS and test procedures, but have the near-term potential for harmonization. NAEWG-EE is currently working to identify mechanisms for mutual recognition of test results. With consultative support from the United States and Canada through NAEWG-EE, Mexico is exploring possibilities for extending the Energy Star endorsement label to Mexico.

  10. standard setting in the teaching and learning process in the kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    6= Biology; 7= Physics; 8= Chemistry; 9= Business/Studies. Data generated in .... Research shows that such a test will have moderately difficult questions. Ebel and Frisbie (1991) record that the ideal difficulty of each item, and consequently the whole test, should ... should manifest in a 100 items multiple-choice test of ideal ...

  11. A standardized set of 3-D objects for virtual reality research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, David

    2017-06-23

    The use of immersive virtual reality as a research tool is rapidly increasing in numerous scientific disciplines. By combining ecological validity with strict experimental control, immersive virtual reality provides the potential to develop and test scientific theories in rich environments that closely resemble everyday settings. This article introduces the first standardized database of colored three-dimensional (3-D) objects that can be used in virtual reality and augmented reality research and applications. The 147 objects have been normed for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, visual complexity, and corresponding lexical characteristics of the modal object names. The availability of standardized 3-D objects for virtual reality research is important, because reaching valid theoretical conclusions hinges critically on the use of well-controlled experimental stimuli. Sharing standardized 3-D objects across different virtual reality labs will allow for science to move forward more quickly.

  12. Electricity sector standard setting through CASA : a government perspective on multi-stakeholder partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakeman, B.

    2002-01-01

    Some background information is provided concerning new air emission standards for coal-fired generation in Alberta which were announced in June 2001 by the Environment Minister. An assessment of the situation has revealed that the existing management system is effective. The author questions whether it would be suitable to meet the challenges now emerging, such as multi-pollutant approaches, airshed approaches, cumulative effects, market-based approaches, and greenhouse gases. A Statement of Opportunity was tabled by the Alberta government with the Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA) board in November 2001, with the goals of outlining future emission management expectations, maintaining the competitive electricity market in Alberta, and a reduction of environmental impacts, among others. A CASA electricity project team was formed, whose stated objective was the development of an air emissions management approach to include standards and performance expectations for the electricity sector of Alberta. Stakeholders and the public were consulted for the purpose of establishing a common information base to be used in the identification of emissions to be addressed, the identification and assessment of management options and the recommendation of management approaches. The development of the terms of reference was accomplished through the establishment of a working group in January 2002. which were then approved in March 2002 by the CASA board. The budget and work plan were approved in June 2002, and an interim review is planned for November 2002 with the final report and recommendations expected in June 2003. The members of the team were listed, and some of the challenges are reviewed

  13. 21 CFR 10.95 - Participation in outside standard-setting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Environmental Sanitation, Inc. (IAMFES). (xi) Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC). (xii) National... Food Protection (CFP). (viii) Conference of State Health and Environmental Managers (COSHEM). (ix... Environmental Health Administrators (NCLEHA). (xvi) National Conference on Weights and Measures (NCWW). (xvii...

  14. Integrated methodology for standard-setting norms of innovative product in the new competitive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Marina; Rubin, Gennadiy

    2017-07-01

    Modern theory of technological and economical development is based on long-term cycles. So far it has been proved that the technological structure of the economy can be subdivided into groups of technological complexes, which are inter-related with each other by similar technological links, so called technological modes. Technological mode is defined as a complex of interrelated production units of similar technological level, which develop simultaneously. In order to provide competitiveness of products in the new changing conditions, it is necessary to make sure that they meet all the regulatory requirements specified in standards. But the existing and the fast changing situation on the merchandise markets causes disbalance between the growing customer requirements and the technological capabilities of the manufacturer. This makes the issue of standardization development even more urgent both from the point of view of establishing the current positions and from the point of view of possible promising development trends in technology. In the paper scientific and engineering principles of developing standardization as a science are described. It is shown that further development of standardization is based on the principles of advanced standardization the main idea of which is to set up the prospective requirements to the innovative product. Modern approaches of advanced standardization are shown in this paper. The complexity of the negotiation procedure between customer and manufacturer as a whole and achieving of consensus, in particular, make it necessary to find conceptually new approaches to developing mathematical models. The developed methodology picture the process of achieving the consensus between customer and manufacturer while developing the standard norms in the form of decreasing S-curve diagram. It means that in the end of the negotiation process, there is no difference between customer and manufacturer positions. It makes it possible to provide the basics of the assessment using the differential equation of the relationship between the rate of change of quality assessment and the distance of the estimated parameter value from the best value to the worst one. The obtained mathematical model can be used in the practice of standardization decreasing time of setting standard norms.

  15. Incorporation of biomagnification in procedures for environmental risk assessment and standard setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik R; Traas TP; de Greef J

    1992-01-01

    Recently methods have been developed in the Netherlands to assess quality standards for the environment. Maximum permissible concentrations have been derived for direct exposure to environmental media. In 1991 two simple foodchains were analyzed at the RIVM. - Water --> Fish --> Fish-eating

  16. Standard Setting in Specific-Purpose Language Testing: What Can a Qualitative Study Add?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Elizabeth; McNamara, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the views of nursing and medical domain experts in considering the standards for a specific-purpose English language screening test, the Occupational English Test (OET), for professional registration for immigrant health professionals. Since individuals who score performances in the test setting are often language experts…

  17. Assessing behavior in standardized settings: The role of objective personality tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René T. Proyer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio teórico los tests objetivos de personalidad son mostrados como una posible forma de evaluar el comportamiento en situaciones concretas. Se describe una nueva generación de tests objetivos de personalidad, vinculados al uso de computadoras. Una de las principales características de estos tests es que no presentan validez aparente y son, por consiguiente, menos susceptibles de falseamiento u otras distorsiones de respuesta que habitualmente se encuentran en la evaluación subjetiva de personalidad mediante cuestionarios. Se examinan los desarrollos recientes en el área de tests de personalidad objetivos. El Hyperkinetic Syndrome Assessment Method (HKSD es descrito como ejemplo de la nueva generación de tests objetivos de personalidad. La justificación razonada de la construcción, propiedades psicométricas y resultados sobre su validez son expuestos. Los resultados de estudios con muestras clínicas y no clínicas sostienen la utilidad del HKSD en la práctica. Los tests objetivos de personalidad se discuten como alternativas en el campo de evaluación psicológica, como instrumentos válidos y económicos para la evaluación del comportamiento.

  18. Classification of Korean native pear based on a standard set of microsatellite loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    After analysis with 12 microsatellite loci previously selected for use by ECPGR, 34 Korean pear accessions were classified into 3 groups. Group I included 4 Korean pea pears and one accession of P. calleryana. Group II contained 12 cultivars including 7 accessions presumed to belong to P. pyrifolia....

  19. Internal Control: Peran Dan Perkembangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Alek

    2000-01-01

    Perhatian terhadap pentingnya internal control dalam organisasi berjalan dari waktu ke waktu untuk meningkatkan fungsi internal control yang disesuaikan dengan perkembangan lingkungan organisasi, dimulai dengan adanya internal check, kemudian internal control system, internal control structure dan terakhir adalah internal control-integrated framework. Internal control system sempat berkembang beberapa tahun di Indonesia yang selanjutnya digantikan oleh internal control structure yang digunaka...

  20. International energy outlook, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2035, : prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, including outlooks : for major energy fuels and associated carbon dioxide emissions. The International Energy Outlook 2010 (...

  1. Economics and International Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh

    1983-01-01

    A methodology linking the teaching of economics to the promotion of international understanding is discussed. The content of a course dealing with the new international economic order is examined. (Author/RM)

  2. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada L, Luis Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Topics are presented as economic theory and theory of the international trade, international dimension of the environmental problems, economic prosperity, environmental quality and lineament are given for an alternative, among others

  3. International images: business cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, S; Pucci, J

    1991-01-01

    Nursing specialists engage in a variety of international professional activities. Business cards are an important aspect of establishing a professional image. This article presents recommended business card contents, international etiquette, card design and production, and cared innovations.

  4. International aspects of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    International collaborative efforts in magnetic confinement fusion in which the USA is involved are reviewed. These efforts are carried under the auspices of international agencies and through bilateral agreements

  5. International diversification and Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Rients; Lensink, Robert; Spierdijk, Laura

    International commercial banks, institutional investors, and private investors have become increasingly interested in financing microfinance institutions (MFIs). This paper investigates whether adding microfinance funds to a portfolio of risky international assets yields diversification gains. By

  6. International diversification and Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, R.; Lensink, B.W.; Spierdijk, L.

    2011-01-01

    International commercial banks, institutional investors, and private investors have become increasingly interested in financing microfinance institutions (MFIs). This paper investigates whether adding microfinance funds to a portfolio of risky international assets yields diversification gains. By

  7. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  8. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Odarčenko, Michal

    2015-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  9. Internal wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manikandan; Peacock, Thomas

    2010-03-19

    Internal waves are a ubiquitous and significant means of momentum and energy transport in the oceans, atmosphere, and astrophysical bodies. Here, we show that internal wave propagation in nonuniform density stratifications, which are prevalent throughout nature, has a direct mathematical analogy with the classical optical problem of a Fabry-Perot multiple-beam light interferometer. We rigorously establish this correspondence, and furthermore provide the first experimental demonstration of an internal wave interferometer, based on the theory of resonant transmission of internal waves.

  10. International Courts and Tribunals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaya Castro, J.M.; Cali, B.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter introduces a type of institution that is very important in the field of international law: international courts. The last few decades have seen an enormous rise in the number and importance of such courts, not just for states but for all (international) actors. Increasingly, what

  11. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  12. National and International Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Canadian government policy dealing with internal matters of party politics and international questions of human rights. Describes the political situation in Burma as an oppressive military regime. Urges the Canadian government to take a firmer stand to influence the international community against tolerating regimes that are guilty of…

  13. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  14. Attracting International Hotels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe

    2015-01-01

    With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since thei...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations.......With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...

  15. International safeguards data authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  16. School of International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Michail M. Narinskii

    2014-01-01

    International Relations have been and remain not only one of the basic academic disciplines, but also one of the main directions of research work at MGIMO. Doing IR is closely intertwined with theory and practice, history and current events, the desire to combine a deep knowledge of the factual material and research-based evaluation in accordance with objective laws found in international life. Training of highly qualified specialists in international relations is impossible without a fundame...

  17. International New Ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2004-01-01

    The label ‘International New Ventures’ has been used to designate firms, which from their inception are oriented towards the international market place. The present article aims to test empirically whether such a type of manufacturing firms differ from comparable firms with respect to some basic characteristics. The motivation for doing so is to evaluate the usefulness of studying International New Ventures as a distinct form of economic organization.

  18. International Research Chairs Initiative | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Research Chairs Initiative (IRCI) is a seven-year, CA$8 million research program that pairs top research talent from universities in Canada with their counterparts in developing countries to address key development challenges. These specialists share their advanced skills and knowledge to confront issues ...

  19. International Ecohealth Forum 2008 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will be hosted by the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) in Mérida, Mexico, 1-4 December 2008. The Forum is expected to bring together more than 700 participants from around the world and will constitute a seminal step toward consolidating an international community of practitioners with a holistic perspective ...

  20. International Rehabilitation Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, William

    2001-01-01

    The International Rehabilitation Network's goal is to improve the quality of services for land mine survivors and other amputee's through the dissemination of educational programs to rehabilitation professionals...

  1. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  2. SME International Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Child, John; Hsieh, Linda; Elbanna, Said

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses two questions through a study of 180 SMEs located in contrasting industry and home country contexts. First, which business models for international markets prevail among SMEs and do they configure into different types? Second, which factors predict the international business...... models that SMEs follow? Three distinct international business models (traditional market-adaptive, technology exploiter, and ambidextrous explorer) are found among the SMEs studied. The likelihood of SMEs adopting one business model rather than another is to a high degree predictable with reference...... to a small set of factors: industry, level of home economy development, and decision-maker international experience....

  3. Archives: Animal Research International

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: Animal Research International. Journal Home > Archives: Animal Research International. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of 40 ...

  4. International Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This article, with a focus on North American postsecondary education, identifies international students as a strategic enrollment management institutional priority; presents themes in the international student retention, satisfaction, and success research literature; and describes related best practices. It also presents the findings from an…

  5. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  6. International Perspectives. Chapter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities that provide an international perspective on the therapeutic community (TC) movement as it is today. Papers include: (1) "What's Happening on an International Level" (William B. O'Brien); (2) "Therapeutic Communities of America"…

  7. OCRWM international procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    These international procedures provide guidance and assistance for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and for OCRWM Project Offices, contractors and subcontractors in conducting international activities. They supplement the relevant Department of Energy (DOE) orders (which are referenced), not supplant them

  8. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...

  9. International Entrepreneurship and Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Per; Zucchella, Antonella; Palamera, Giada

    2006-01-01

    This contribution focuses on international sourcing as an entrepreneurial act and aims at demonstrating that it is actually at the core of internationalization processes of small firms, both established and international new ventures. Another issue of this research is to understand how these firms...

  10. International Resource Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabel, H. G.

    The International Resource Management program enables undergraduate students of the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, College of Natural Resources to complete an academic minor in International Resource Management. The program attempts to alert students and faculty to global environmental issues and their interconnectedness with a variety of…

  11. INTERNAL AUDIT CHARTER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sblanchard

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... The Chief Audit Executive, staff and consultants do not assume any responsibility or authority over any Centre activities outside of the. Risk Management and Internal Audit unit. The performance of internal audit activities does not relieve management of any of their assigned responsibilities. The Chief Audit ...

  12. Modeling Internal Radiation Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Pellegrini, M.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique is described to model (internal) radiation therapy. It is founded on morphological processing, in particular distance transforms. Its formal basis is presented as well as its implementation via the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform. Its use for all variations of internal

  13. Research in International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolby, Nadine; Rahman, Aliya

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, international education has existed at the margins of educational research. However, in the current context of globalization, international education has moved closer to the center of educational research throughout the world. In this article, the authors identify, describe, and analyze six distinct research approaches to…

  14. International skatteret 2. udgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage

    Bogen redegør for de grundlæggende principper i den internationale skatteret, der omfatter intern dansk udlandsskatteret, herunder samspillet med fremmed ret, dobbeltbeskatningsaftalerne , herunder samspillet med dansk ret, samt EU-skatteretten, herunder samspillet mellem intern dansk ret og EU...

  15. [Internal quality control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, C; Arnaud, J; Adjidé, V; Vassault, A

    2010-12-01

    The internal quality control is a key technical requirement through accreditation by the NF EN ISO 15189. This document presents recommendations to assist the medical laboratory to design, implement and operate daily and retrospectively an efficient system of internal control quality. It identifies the important issues attached to these different steps.

  16. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  17. International Youth Nuclear Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.

    2017-01-01

    International Youth Nuclear Congress (IYNC) was Initiated by an international YG group of enthusiasts in 1997. Mission statement developed at ENC1998 in Nice, France Growth in enthusiasm and support: IAEA, Nuclear Societies, companies. IYNC run by the Young Generation with full support of experienced advisors, nuclear societies and companies. First came to African continent when IYNC 2010 was hosted by South Africa

  18. International mercury conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leaner, J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg) affects human health and the environment, it calls for immediate action. Action is needed at local, regional and international level to reduce the risk associated with mercury, which is a global international problem, as it is a...

  19. A New International Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1973-01-01

    Comments on the cooperative spirit of geophysicists which resulted in the largest scientific cooperative project ever conducted: the International Geophysical Year. Describes a new international venture (called Geodynamics Project) that is designed to exploit the many opportunities for new insights resulting from recent advances in earth science.…

  20. International New Venture Legitimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited theoretical understanding and empirical evidence for how international new ventures legitimate. Drawing from legitimation theory, this study fills in this gap by exploring how international new ventures legitimate and strive for survival in the face of critical events during...... the process of their emergence. It is a longitudinal, multiple-case study research that employs critical incident technique for data collection, analysis and interpretation. Following theory driven sampling, five international new ventures were selected that were operating in the software sector in the UK...... types of legitimation strategies: technology, operating, and anchoring. Studying international new ventures through theoretical lenses of legitimation is a promising area of research that would contribute to the advancement of international entrepreneurship theory....

  1. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  2. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    here is that of unilateral state practice and that practice has been relying, at least to some extent, on general public international law. This chapter explains how it is important to revisit international law to better understand the relative relevance of the UNCLOS in oceans governance today. Indeed......, treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding......The UNCLOS has been since its signature in 1982 the fundamental international legal reference for oceans governance. Indeed, this treaty was written “in pursuit of our common dream of writing a constitution for the oceans”. Yet much alike any dream, reality sooner or later catches up. The reality...

  3. Internal Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    2018-01-01

    Internal social media is a web-based communication arena that provides all organizational members with a communication opportunity. The media has emerged in organizations since 2004, and is increasingly seen as a way of giving employees a voice in organizations which can benefit the organization...... in terms of knowledge sharing, collaboration, and employee participation and engagement. The first wave of studies of internal social media was primarily from an information-systems perspective and focused more on its adoption, its affordances, and the outcome of its introduction. The second wave...... of studies was more concerned with studying the dynamics of communication on internal social media, in order to understand coworkers as strategic communicators and how communication on internal social media can constitute the organization. With a successful introduction of internal social media, coworkers...

  4. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  5. Cancer from internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of 226 Ra or medical injections of 224 Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes

  6. Exploring Links between Internal and International Migration in Albania : a View from Internal Migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Erka; Bailey, Ajay; Van Wissen, Leo J. G.

    Over the last 20years, Albania has experienced sweeping economic and social changes, caused in part by increasing internal and international migration flows. Migration trajectories of Albanians represent a combination of internal, international, and return migration. Whereas scholars have previously

  7. NASA International Environmental Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie; Valek, Susan

    2010-01-01

    For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the International Space Station. But as Earth's population increases, the environment is subject to increasing challenges and requires more efficient use of resources. International partnerships give NASA the opportunity to share its scientific and engineering expertise. They also enable NASA to stay aware of continually changing international environmental regulations and global markets for materials that NASA uses to accomplish its mission. Through international partnerships, NASA and this nation have taken the opportunity to look globally for solutions to challenges we face here on Earth. Working with other nations provides NASA with collaborative opportunities with the global science/engineering community to explore ways in which to protect our natural resources, conserve energy, reduce the use of hazardous materials in space and earthly applications, and reduce greenhouse gases that potentially affect all of Earth's inhabitants. NASA is working with an ever-expanding list of international partners including the European Union, the European Space Agency and, especially, the nation of Portugal. Our common goal is to foster a sustainable future in which partners continue to explore the universe while protecting our home planet's resources for future generations. This brochure highlights past, current, and future initiatives in several important areas of international collaboration that can bring environmental, economic, and other benefits to NASA and the wider international space community.

  8. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-08-05

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  9. International Students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are over three million international students worldwide, and in recent years higher education institutions compete with each other in order to receive these students to their institutions. International students are now one of the most important indicator of the internationalization of the higher education systems and institutions. In this context, the detection of the status of this indicator in our higher education system and institutions is of great importance as our higher education system shows a large expansion. This study, discusses the status of international students in our country.

  10. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  11. Internalized Meaning Factualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    The normative character of meaning creates deep problems for the attempt to give a reductive explanation of the constitution of meaning. I identify and critically examine an increasingly popular Carnap-style position, which I call Internalized Meaning Factualism (versions of which I argue...... that is internal to meaning discourse, then we can preserve the normativity of meaning and yet locate meaning in the natural world. I develop a generic motivation for this position, but argue that, since this motivation is consistent with the Ramsey-Carnap-Lewis-Jackson reductionist strategy, internalized meaning...

  12. Unilateralism in International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    international law. This note considers when and how a State or a regional organisation may legitimately take unilateral measures to protect the environment. The note will does not consider the legality of including foreign aircraft within the ETS, which has been dealt with elsewhere. Instead, it will focus...... on the legality and importance of unilateral acts for the development of international law.......The 1997 Kyoto Protocol deferred negotiations on emissions from aviation to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Also within this specialised body, agreement on how to deal with emissions from aviation has been difficult to reach.Frustrated by the lack of progress, the European...

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  14. International monitoring of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Stein, G.

    1990-01-01

    The monitoring of the civilian nuclear energy sector has been effected successfully by IAEA and EURATOM and has contributed to a reduction of fears within the communities of nations. Certainly, it will not be possible to subject the whole world and whole spectrum of technology to monitoring. However, the nations should be enabled to reduce their greatest fears concerning an abuse and a misuse of technology by verification, and to check the compliance with such international agreements which regulate the application of a number of technologies. There are some (as yet rudimentary) approaches to an international verification in the field of environmental protection and resource policies. Nuclear energy with its sophisticated verification procedure has taken one great step ahead of the other fields. The strengths and weaknesses of its verification regime should be learned from when filling the virgin fields of international technology monitoring and its instrument, i.e. international verification. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  16. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  17. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben

    in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all...... the countries/regions they operate in. Instead, they focus on a few strategic markets. International user studies tend to be large-scale studies that involve the effort of many both internal and external/local human resources. The studies typically cover 2-4 countries/regions and many end users in each country...... across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...

  18. The Internal Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Internal control comprises the plan of organization and all the coordinate methods and measures adopted within a school system to safeguard its assets, check the reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency, and encourage adherence to prescribed policies. (Author)

  19. Globalisation of international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, G

    1998-02-07

    40 years ago, activities in international health were the domain of WHO, governments (based on bilateral agreements), and non-governmental organisations. This has changed. Today, new players (such as the World Bank and, increasingly, the World Trade Organisation) have an influence on international health. As globalisation of trade and markets takes hold, new coalitions and alliances are forming to examine and deal with the direct and indirect consequences on health. This paper examines the changing context of cooperation in international health, and voices concerns about rising potential inequalities in health, both within and between countries. The question of how such changes will affect the actions of organisations working in international health is also addressed.

  20. International Transplant Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The term "clinical ladder" refers to a "grading structure which facilitates career progression and associated differentiation of ... 20-1589538 Copyright © 2006 - 2014 International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS). No materials, including graphics, may be reused, ...

  1. Seventh International Beaver Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri A. Gorshkov

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents data on the seventh international Beaver Symposium. Brief historical background about previous Beaver Symposia beaver is shown. Data on the sections of symposium, number of participants and reports are presented.

  2. Seventh International Beaver Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri A. Gorshkov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the seventh international Beaver Symposium. Brief historical background about previous Beaver Symposia beaver is shown. Data on the sections of symposium, number of participants and reports are presented.

  3. ASKME Enterprise Portal (internal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASKME Enterprise Portal Internal (AEPi) is envisioned to be an integrated, single-point-of-entry solution that contains modular components. The AEPi will provide...

  4. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  5. International Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Survey of expert opinion, feedback and final consensus. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development and the variables included in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS......: A committee of experts was established to select and define data elements. The data set was then disseminated to the appropriate committees and organizations for comments. All suggested revisions were considered and both the International Spinal Cord Society and the American Spinal Injury Association endorsed...... spinal intervention and procedure is coded (variables 1 through 7) and the spinal segment level is described (variables 8 and 9). Sample clinical cases were developed to illustrate how to complete it. CONCLUSION: The International SCI Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data Set...

  6. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Hautopp, Heidi; Nielsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    as they show an increasing interest in international personas. However, research on personas in a global context is limited. To address this gap, this paper provides an overview of extant research on international personas. Secondly, it presents an empirical study on challenges Danish IT companies experience...... when using the persona method to collect and present insights about their international users. A key finding in both the literature review and the empirical study was the ambiguity concerning the concept of culture. Therefore, the paper draws on theories about culture, and especially practice theory......, to discuss how challenges related to perceptions of culture and intercultural communication might be overcome when working with international personas. In particular, it is suggested that the persona method could benefit from creating narratives that focus more on the similar practices enacted...

  7. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  8. Cyberinfrastructure for international competitiveness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Happy M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available to these facilities, researchers in South Africa have started to produce high-quality scientific outputs. Furthermore, South Africa has managed to attract big international science projects, such as the Square Kilometre Array, and continues to contribute...

  9. International OCD Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and productive lives. Join Donate Volunteer Events International OCD Foundation Research. Resources. Respect. About OCD About IOCDF ... Donate Here Why Should You Attend the Annual OCD Conference? Watch the Video Find Help Search the ...

  10. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-09

    in Albania. Born in 1937. Graduate of Moscow Institute of International Relations. Worked for TASS starting in: 1968 , Was editor for the European...deputy chairman of the USSR Committee of Youth Organizations; chief of the international administration, " Olimpiada - 80" Organizing Committee; chief...Syrian border. As a result of conducting a racist policy of exterminating or expelling the Palestinian Arabs, Israel by 1968 (i.e., within two

  11. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  12. Marketing CANDU internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langstaff, J.H.

    1980-06-01

    The market for CANDU reactor sales, both international and domestic, is reviewed. It is reasonable to expect that between five and ten reactors can be sold outside Canada before the end of the centry, and new domestic orders should be forthcoming as well. AECL International has been created to market CANDU, and is working together with the Canadian nuclear industry to promote the reactor and to assemble an attractive package that can be offered abroad. (L.L.)

  13. The international uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.

    1984-01-01

    Shortages, glut, political manipulation and worries about security have all marked the international trade in uranium. In this book, the director of the International Energy Studies Program of the MIT Energy Laboratory sorts out these factors, looks closely at the position of a number of countries, and speculates on the future of a market in which supply will exceed demand, costs will vary widely, and governments will continue to be directly involved for as far ahead as anyone can see

  14. International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Hlušička, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to analyse one of the most used type of extrajudicial procedures, the International commercial arbitration. The reason for my research is the progress and elevation of use of the arbitration and not only on international field. The thesis is composed of six chapters, each of them dealing with different aspects of Arbitration. Chapter One is introductory and defines basic terminology used in the thesis. The chapter is subdivided into two parts. Part One describes in...

  15. International sales contract

    OpenAIRE

    Lauermannová, Irena

    2013-01-01

    75 International Sales Contract Abstract The objective of this thesis is to describe the ways of avoidance of the contract available under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (hereinafter the "Convention") and to make an analysis of its key term "fundamental breach of contract" as it is defined in its article 25. The thesis is composed of the introduction, three main chapters and the conclusion. The first chapter introduces the Convention itself. It ...

  16. International antitrust institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Budzinski, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The paper discussed the economic theory of international antitrust institutions. Economic theory shows that non-coordinated competition policies of regimes that are territorially smaller than the international markets on which business companies compete violate cross-border allocative efficiency and are deficient with respect to global welfare. At the same time, some diversity of antitrust institutions and policies promotes dynamic and evolutionary efficiency so that globally binding, worldwi...

  17. International energy outlook, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. This and other EIA reports are provided as a statistical service for use by managers and international energy analysts, not as a Government energy plan. Current US Government policies and foreign government policies are assumed to hold over the projection interval, which extends to the year 2010

  18. International oil law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkzad, B.

    1997-01-01

    The 1973 energy crisis demonstrated that the international petroleum industry is not totally free. Very often it has been the object of an organization, even during the domination of international oil companies which have established a petroleum international system with a system of concession rights. This system is based on an oligopolistic structure which had the characteristics of a monopoly. This vertically integrated structure of the world petroleum industry during the 1920-1950 era was more or less locked up by the system of concessions. The incompatibility of this system of excessively long concession contracts with the economical development needs of oil exporting countries has led to their abolishment. They have been replaced by new agreements. As soon as the creation of stable and permanent international oil organizations (OPEC, OAPEC, IEA), an institutional right has been established which has generated international rights and principles governing the contractual relations between oil exporting and oil importing countries. This international petroleum right is both original and specific, it is evolutive, contractual and normative. (J.S.)

  19. International opportunities and value creation in international entrepreneurship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainela, Tuija; Puhakka, Vesa; Wakkee, Ingrid; Marinova, Svetla; Larimo, Jorma; Nummela, Niina

    2016-01-01

    International entrepreneurship (IE) as a field of research has emerged at the intersection of internationalization and entrepreneurship theories. At this intersection it has come to emphasize the activities centered on international opportunities. International opportunities, then, are about value

  20. Managerial Attention in International SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Jiasi

    2017-01-01

    Managerial attention affects organizational strategies and the resulting consequences. In the international business context, it is noted that how much attention managers give to the international marketplace, i.e., international attention, has profound implications for large global companies’

  1. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  2. Internal targets for LEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, K.; Gspann, J.; Mohl, D.; Poth, H.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of thin internal targets in conjunction with phase-space cooling at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Topics considered include the merits of internal target operation; the most efficient use of antiprotons and of proton synchrotron (PS) protons, highest center-of-mass (c.m.) energy resolution; highest angular resolution and access to extreme angles; the transparent environment for all reaction products; a windowless source and pure targets; highest luminosity and count rates; access to lowest energies with increasing resolution; internal target thickness and vacuum requirements; required cooling performance; and modes of operation. It is demonstrated that an internal target in conjunction with phase-space cooling has the potential of better performance in terms of the economic use of antiprotons and consequently of PS protons; energy resolution; angular resolution; maximum reaction rate capability (statistical precision); efficient parasitic operation; transparency of the target for reaction products; access to low energies; and the ease of polarized target experiments. It is concluded that all p - experiments which need high statistics and high p - flux, such as studies of rare channels or broad, weak resonance structures, would profit from internal targets

  3. Internal Markets for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    of R&D to affiliated companies in the same business group. The challenges are analysed for affiliates in order to engage themselves in group-internal markets, for instance to avoid bottlenecks in the product development or to improve their technological knowledge. To research this phenomenon, a case...... study is accomplished by investigating a Multinational company whose affiliates are self-reliant and horizontally diversified. Mixed methods are applied by having structured depth interviews with the responsible R&D managers as well as by sending a survey out to associated project managers. The study...... indicates that the organizational complexity, infrastructures within the business group and the impact of external market structures play an essential role for the usage and effectiveness of group-internal markets. Hence, the insights offer valuable clues why internal markets have advantages...

  4. International power opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, A.

    1995-01-01

    Key factors in international development were discussed, using TransAlta Energy Corporation as an example. Trans-Alta is a company generating 4,500 MW of electricity from coal, hydro and natural gas. It has operating facilities in Canada, Argentina and New Zealand, including extensive coal mining interests in Canada. The climate for international opportunities in the energy field were judged to be very good in view of the projected requirement for some 900,000 MW of new power generation in different parts of the world by the year 2003. The five key factors identified for international power development were: (1) using core skills to add value, (2) have a long-term focus, (3) focus on specific countries and selected regions, (4) develop strong relationships with local partners, and (5) develop appropriate projects. 2 figs

  5. Assessment of internal doses

    CERN Document Server

    Rahola, T; Falk, R; Isaksson, M; Skuterud, L

    2002-01-01

    There is a definite need for training in dose calculation. Our first course was successful and was followed by a second, both courses were fully booked. An example of new tools for software products for bioassay analysis and internal dose assessment is the Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) were demonstrated at the second course. This suite of quality assured code modules have been adopted in the UK as the standard for regulatory assessment purposes. The intercomparison measurements are an important part of the Quality Assurance work. In what is known as the sup O utside workers ' directive it is stated that the internal dose measurements shall be included in the European Unions supervision system for radiation protection. The emergency preparedness regarding internal contamination was much improved by the training with and calibration of handheld instruments from participants' laboratories. More improvement will be gained with the handbook giving practical instructions on what to do in case of e...

  6. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, J.D.; Stasko, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    An international design team comprised of members from Canada, Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America, are designing an experimental fusion test reactor. The engineering and testing objectives of this International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are to validate the design and to demonstrate controlled ignition, extended burn of a deuterium and tritium plasma, and achieve steady state using technology expected to be available by 1990. The concept maximizes flexibility while allowing for a variety of plasma configurations and operating scenarios. During physics phase operation, the machine produces a 22 MA plasma current. In the technology phase, the machine can be reconfigured with a thicker shield and a breeding blanket to operate with an 18 MA plasma current at a major radius of 5.5 meters. Canada's involvement in the areas of safety, facility design, reactor configuration and maintenance builds on our internationally recognized design and operational expertise in developing tritium processes and CANDU related technologies

  7. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  8. International energy outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  9. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  10. International Data & Economic Analysis (IDEA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — International Data UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Price Index; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics; Millennium Challenge Corporation; and World Bank,...

  11. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  12. International nuclear agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miatello, A.; Severino, R.

    1988-01-01

    This multilingual glossary, in the laborious compilation of which the authors have been greatly assisted by a group of professional translators and experts, presents for the first time a substantial number of entries in four languages (English, French, German and Italian), whose terminology and phraseology, all bearing the appropriate normative reference, has been drawn from the official text of the most relevant international agreements on nuclear policy. It is complemented by a thorough critical study on the status of nonproliferation by Lawrence Scheinman and Josef Pilat. Librarians, translators and interpreters as well as scholars and researchers in international law will find this volume a reference tool of specific interest

  13. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  14. Internal Waves in CVX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    Near the liquid-vapor critical point, density stratification supports internal gravity waves which affect 1-g viscosity measurements in the CVX (Critical Viscosity of Xenon) experiment. Two internal-wave modes were seen in the horizontal viscometer. The frequencies of the two modes had different temperature dependences: with decreasing temperature, the higher frequency increased monotonically from 0.7 to 2.8 Hz, but the lower frequency varied non-monotonically, with a maximum of 1.0 Hz at 20 mK above the critical temperature. The measured frequencies agree with independently calculated frequencies to within 15%.

  15. International Market Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the book International Market Analysis: Theories and Methods, written by John Kuiada, professor at Centre of International Business, Department of Business Studies, Aalborg University. The book is refreshingly new in its way of looking at a classical problem. It looks at market...... analysis from the point of vie of ways of thinking about markets. Furthermore, the book includes the concept of learning in the analysis of markets og how the way we understand business reality influneces our choice of methodology for market analysis....

  16. Internal variables in thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, Arkadi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes an effective method for modeling advanced materials like polymers, composite materials and biomaterials, which are, as a rule, inhomogeneous. The thermoelastic theory with internal variables presented here provides a general framework for predicting a material’s reaction to external loading. The basic physical principles provide the primary theoretical information, including the evolution equations of the internal variables. The cornerstones of this framework are the material representation of continuum mechanics, a weak nonlocality, a non-zero extra entropy flux, and a consecutive employment of the dissipation inequality. Examples of thermoelastic phenomena are provided, accompanied by detailed procedures demonstrating how to simulate them.

  17. Bourdieu in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible....... The chapters demonstrate how these concepts can be reinterpreted and used in new ways when exposed to Bourdieusian logic. Challenging key pillars of IR scholarship, Bourdieu in International Relations will be of interest to critical theorists, and scholars of IR theory....

  18. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...

  19. Internal friction in zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyada-Naborikawa, L.T.; De Batist, R.; Eersels, L.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of type (bending, tension or torsion) and temperature (100 K, 300 K) of deformation on the internal friction spectrum of well-annealed polycrystalline zirconium has been investigated at frequencies of about 1 Hz and about 100 Hz. The result of ageing at temperatures not higher than 300 K on both the modulus and the internal friction is also described. The observed peaks are discussed in terms of either dislocation relaxation or dislocation point defect interaction effects and combined with literature data to obtain better defined values for the relaxation parameters

  20. Internal sources dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    The absorbed dose, need of estimation in risk evaluation in the application of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine practice,internal dosimetry,internal and external sources. Calculation methodology,Marinelli model,MIRD system for absorbed dose calculation based on biological parameters of radiopharmaceutical in human body or individual,energy of emitted radiations by administered radionuclide, fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed by target body.Limitation of the MIRD calculation model. A explanation of Marinelli method of dosimetry calculation,β dosimetry. Y dosimetry, effective dose, calculation in organs and tissues, examples. Bibliography .

  1. International Conference on Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    OMICS International, (conference series) the World Class Open Access Publisher and Scientific Event Organizer is hosting “International Conference on physics” which is going to be the biggest conference dedicated to Physics. The theme “Highlighting innovations and challenges in the field of Physics” and it features a three day conference addressing the major breakthroughs, challenges and the solutions adopted. The conference will be held during June 27-29, 2016 at New Orleans, USA. Will be published in: http://physics.conferenceseries.com/

  2. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  3. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  4. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  5. Analysing international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    theories to ‘explain’ international relations and distinguishes between different kinds of explanation. In Section 4 I look at how different theories have been grouped – first according to their underlying views of what is valid knowledge, and second in terms of different accounts of how history works....... matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This document is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand and trade in OECD countries.

  7. Internationalism and Globalization as Contexts for International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, James; Thompson, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    A problem with the construction of an inclusive definition of international education is that the word 'international' has a variety of connotations. It is proposed that the term 'international education' is ambiguous because it appears to refer to contrasting usages in educational studies. International education is frequently discussed in the…

  8. The international climate compromise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Moor, A.P.G.; Van Beers, C.P.

    2001-01-01

    A proposal is made to combine an international strategy for the abolition of energy subsidies and forestry subsidies with the realization of a global climate regime. This can be the argument for the USA to join the Kyoto Protocol. 6 refs

  9. International development trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Survey: World primary energy consumption balance 1976/77; world consumption of primary energy sources 1957/77; world petroleum extraction in the first half of 1978; international perspective of petroleum consumption and petroleum prices; the West German power industry in the 1st half of 1978. (HP) [de

  10. Medications and International Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-12

    This podcast answers a listener's question about her medications and an international trip she's planning.  Created: 4/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/12/2011.

  11. International Photovoltaic Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    The International Photovoltaics Program Plan is in direct response to the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (PL 95-590). As stated in the Act, the primary objective of the plan is to accelerate the widespread use of photovoltaic systems in international markets. Benefits which could result from increased international sales by US companies include: stabilization and expansion of the US photovoltaic industry, preparing the industry for supplying future domestic needs; contribution to the economic and social advancement of developing countries; reduced world demand for oil; and improvements in the US balance of trade. The plan outlines programs for photovoltaic demonstrations, systems developments, supplier assistance, information dissemination/purchaser assistance, and an informaion clearinghouse. Each program element includes tactical objectives and summaries of approaches. A program management office will be established to coordinate and manage the program plan. Although the US Department of Energy (DOE) had the lead responsibility for preparing and implementing the plan, numerous federal organizations and agencies (US Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, Treasury; Agency for International Development; ACTION; Export/Import Bank; Federal Trade Commission; Small Business Administration) were involved in the plan's preparation and implementation.

  12. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  13. INTERNAL AUDIT CHARTER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sandra Blanchard

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... IDRC supports “Innovating for Development” and is committed to excellence in all spheres of its activities including ... with the President, review of the performance of the Internal Audit function and the sufficiency ... Establishing and maintaining a quality assurance program that covers all aspects of the.

  14. International waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the international waste management conference. Topics covered include: Quality assurance in the OCR WM program; Leading the spirit of quality; Dept. of Energy hazardous waste remedial actions program; management of hazardous waste projects; and System management and quality assurance

  15. Introducing International Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Geneva is variously known as the city of peace, the world’s smallest metropolis and a place where great ideas have taken form. It has been the home to philosophers such as Rousseau and Voltaire. It was the centre of the Calvinist reformation and birthplace of the Red Cross.   I hardly need to tell you that it is also a city of great international collaboration in science. Little wonder, then, that over the years, Geneva has developed into the world’s capital of internationalism in the broadest sense of the word. Yet while we all know of the existence of modern day International Geneva, how many of us really know what it does? Here at CERN, we’re about to find out. Next week sees the first in a series of talks at the Laboratory from the heads of some of the institutions that make up International Geneva. On Friday, 20 February, it will be my pleasure to introduce you to Michael Møller, Acting Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNO...

  16. International Engagement Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    International Travel System; Expedite Lawful Flows of U.S.-Bound People and Goods; Promote Lawful Immigration; and Enhance Cybersecurity. In order to...of Intent (LOI) to support targeted engagements. S&T continually seeks improvements in cooperative activity development and delivery. Cooperative

  17. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing...

  18. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  19. Direct vision internal urethrotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L

    1984-01-01

    During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...

  20. International environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, Aart

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of environmental externalities at the global level requires international agreements between sovereign states. Game theory provides an appropriate theoretical tool for analysis. However, game theory can result in a wide range of outcomes, and therefore it is important to discuss the

  1. International thermal reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The worldwide development of nuclear power plants is reviewed. Charts are presented which show the commitment to light-water reactor capacity construction with breakdown by region and country. Additional charts show the major nuclear research centers which have substantial scope in light water reactor development and extensive international activities

  2. Intrapreneurship - An International Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, N.S.; Stam, E.; Wennekers, A.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a novel international comparative study of intrapreneurship, i.e., employees developing new business activities for their employer. This study is based on an exploratory investigation in the framework of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2008, in which

  3. Successful international negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerry, G.

    1997-01-01

    These remarks on successful international trade negotiations deal with the following topics: culture and differences in psychology; building friendly relationships and letting both sides appear to win; well written proposals; security of negotiating information; the complexity and length of nuclear negotiations

  4. International Students in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As the number of international students in Chinese higher education increases steadily, this volume is one of the first to focus on their many and varied experiences. With contributions focusing on such topics as intercultural adaptation, soft power and interculturality, language learning strateg...

  5. Gun Internal Ballistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An approximate method of analysis is formulated for gun internal ballistics. The method is incorporated in a digital computer program which is...described. The validity of the method of analysis and computational procedure is substantiated by comparison of theoretical results with experimental

  6. The international spinach database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Menting, F.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    The database concentrates on passport data of spinach of germplasm collections worldwide. All available passport data of accessions included in the International Spinach Database are downloadable as zipped Excel file. This zip file also contains the decoding tables, except for the FAO institutes

  7. The International Lactuca database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Menting, F.B.J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Lactuca Database includes accessions of species belonging to the genus Lactuca, but also a few accessions belonging to related genera. Passport data can be searched on-line or downloaded. Characterization and evaluation data can be accessed via the downloading section. Requests for

  8. Internal budget control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-06-01

    Generally, duties of internal control officers within ministries and institutions must be clearly divided to reduce the risk of inco-rrect behaviour. Operations of an efficient control mechanism influence and ensure conditions for rule of law, good governance, and democracy.

  9. International fuel bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy

  10. International nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.M. de.

    1981-01-01

    The peculiar feature of a developing nuclear law is discussed. Opinions from various writers and jurists are presented. It is concluded that it should be considered as international law, whose main sources are the various treaties, conventions and agreements. (A.L.) [pt

  11. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  12. [Internal migration studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stpiczynski, T

    1986-10-01

    Recent research on internal migration in Poland is reviewed. The basic sources of data, consisting of censuses or surveys, are first described. The author discusses the relationship between migration studies and other sectors of the national economy, and particularly the relationship between migration and income.

  13. Pathways Intern Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Daniel James

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provides a formal training program for prospective employees titled, Pathways Intern Employment. The Pathways program targets graduate and undergraduate students who strive to become an active contributor to NASA's goal of space exploration. The report herein provides an account of Daniel Huggett's Pathways experience for the Spring and Summer 2017 semesters.

  14. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  15. When managerialism meets internationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dykmann, Klaas; Lewis, Jenny; Bentzen, Sune Raahede

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether reform ideas that gained influence in national-level bureaucracies in the 1970s were also on the United Nations’ internal agenda. The Joint Inspection Unit (Bertrand) Report of 1971 is the focus of this analysis, as it addressed personnel problems in the UN Secretari...

  16. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  17. Reshaping the International Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractIn October the third report to the Club of Rome was published under the title Reshaping the International Order (RIO).1 It was formulated by a group of about twenty experts from developing as well as developed countries, including one from Romania. The initiative to undertake this study

  18. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  19. Simulation in International Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  20. International energy outlook 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  1. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ely, James H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harper, Warren W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heimbigner, Tom R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hubbard, Charles W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Humble, Paul H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Madison, Jill C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Panisko, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ripplinger, Mike D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stewart, Timothy L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  2. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  3. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  4. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Hautopp, Heidi; Nielsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    , to discuss how challenges related to perceptions of culture and intercultural communication might be overcome when working with international personas. In particular, it is suggested that the persona method could benefit from creating narratives that focus more on the similar practices enacted...

  5. International Olympiad in Informatics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. International Olympiad in Informatics. Information and Announcements Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 102-107. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/01/0102-0107. Resonance ...

  6. Internal split field generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat,; George, Thomas [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  7. International energy outlook 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA's projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA's World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts' knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs

  8. Internalized homophobia in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Yanykin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  9. International fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy of the light elements deuterium and lithium can be released if the 100 MK degree temperature required for deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fusion reactions can be achieved together with sufficient thermal insulation for a net energy yield. Progress of world-wide research shows good prospect for these physical conditions being achieved by the use of magnetic field confinement and of rapidly developing heating methods. Tokamak systems, alternative magnetic systems and inertial confinement progress are described. International co-operation features a number of bilateral agreements between countries: the Euratom collaboration which includes the Joint European Torus, a joint undertaking of eleven Western European nations of Euratom, established to build and operate a major confinement experiment; the development of co-operative projects within the OECD/IEA framework; the INTOR workshop, a world-wide study under IAEA auspices of the next major step in fusion research which might be built co-operatively; and assessments of the potential of nuclear fusion by the IAEA and the International Fusion Research Council. The INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) studies have outlined a major plant of the tokamak type to study the engineering and technology of fusion reactor systems, which might be constructed on a world-wide basis to tackle and share the investment risks of the developments which lie ahead. This paper summarizes the recent progress of research on controlled nuclear fusion, featuring those areas where international co-operation has played an important part, and describes the various arrangements by which this international co-operation is facilitated. (author)

  10. International space science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author begins his paper by noting the range of international cooperation which has occured in science since its earliest days. The brightest minds were allowed to cross international frontiers even in the face of major wars, to work on their interests and to interact with like minded scientists in other countries. There has of course been a political side to this movement at times. The author makes the point that doing science on an international basis is extemely important but it is not a way of conducting foreign policy. Even though governments may work together on scientific efforts, it is no glue which will bind them to work together on larger political or economic issues. The reason for doing science on an international basis is that it will lead to better science, not better international relations. There are a limited number of great scientists in the world, and they must be allowed to develop their talents. He then discusses two internationl space programs which have has such collaboration, the Soviet-American Space Biology Program, and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). He then touches on the NASA space exploration program, and the fact that its basic objectives were laid out in the 1940's and l950's. With this laid out he argues in favor of establishment of a lunar base, one of the key elements of NASA's plan, arguing for the value of this step based upon the infrared astronomical work which could be done from a stable lunar site, away from the earth's atmosphere

  11. Internal audit consider the implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Grant D; Hamilton, Angela

    2004-06-01

    Internal audit can not only allay external and internal concerns about appropriateness of business operations, but also help improve efficiency and the bottom line. To get an internal audit function under way, healthcare organizations need to obtain board buy-in, form an audit committee of the board, determine resources needed, perform a risk assessment, and develop an internal audit plan.

  12. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  13. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  14. Factors Affecting the Internal Audit Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mustika, Adhista Cahya

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the factors that influence the internal audit effectiveness, including internal auditor competencies, internal auditor independence, auditee support to internal audit activity, and the internal and external auditor relationship. Using the internal auditor inspectorate in Java Province, Indonesia, we found that the internal audit effectiveness can be attained through increase internal audit competence, independence and strong relationship between internal and external auditor....

  15. The Development of Customary International Law by International Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermatt, Jed

    2017-01-01

    In his Fourth Report on the Identification of Customary International Law (2016), Special Rapporteur Michael Wood confirmed that ‘[i]n certain cases, the practice of international organizations also contributes to the expression, or creation, of rules of customary international law.......’ That the practice of international organizations can be relevant when identifying customary international law is relatively uncontroversial. The practice of states within international organizations such as the UN General Assembly, for example, may contribute to the development of custom. Yet, there is little...... discussion about whether and how the practice of international organizations as such may contribute to the development of customary international law. This contribution discusses the organization that is the most capable of contributing to the development of customary international law in its own right...

  16. International plutonium policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The need to distinguish between diversion by sub-national groups and by governments is clearly stated. The paper identifies the international safeguards measures which already exist for the handling of plutonium. It proposes that the implementation of Article XII A5 of the IAEA statute concerning the international storage of plutonium could be an important additional measure. The paper also mentions the concept of using confinement as a complimentary safeguards measure and identifies the PIPEX concept. In addition, greater use is proposed of containment and surveillance procedures. The multiplication of small reprocessing plants spread over many countries is perceived as a proliferation risk. Other means such as co-location of reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities are relevant to diversion by sub-national groups

  17. Genetic discrimination: international perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlowski, M; Taylor, S; Bombard, Y

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination (GD) is a complex, multifaceted ethical, psychosocial, and legal phenomenon. It is defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. This article presents an overview of GD within the contemporary international context. It describes the concept of GD and its contextual features, reviews research evidence regarding people's experiences of GD and the impact of GD within a range of domains, and provides an overview of legal and policy responses to GD that have emerged globally. We argue that GD is a significant and internationally established phenomenon that requires multilevel responses to ensure social justice and equitable outcomes for all citizens. Future research should monitor GD and its impacts within the community as well as institutions and should evaluate the effectiveness of legislative, policy, community education, and systemic responses.

  18. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle, G.

    1996-01-01

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  19. English for international journalists

    CERN Document Server

    Gandon, Mike

    2013-01-01

    English for International Journalists is a clear and engaging step-by-step guide for non-native speakers using English in journalism across all forms of media. In-depth language analysis is provided in the specialised context of journalism, as well as a comprehensive approach to the rules and guidelines necessary for avoiding the pitfalls and errors that undermine accuracy and clarity. The book, written by Mike Gandon and edited by Heather Purdey, covers a broad range of vital subjects, including: Making contact Interviewing Grammar and journalistic writing Sensitive issues The language of argument The language of impartial and accurate reporting Bloggers and broadcasters Reporting economy, health and the environment. The book is closely supported by online resources concentrating on the spoken word, intonation and pronunciation, and also features an expansive range of exercises and tests, suitable for self-study or to be set as coursework. English for International Journalists presents readers with ...

  20. Interne eller eksterne ledere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    How family firms succeed in transferring strategically relevant knowledge from one generation to the next is the core question in this paper. In this context we differentiate between situations in which a family member takes over and such situations where an external successor is selected. Here we...... built on previous research that developed the contingency model of family business succession in order to understand when family successors are preferred because of their family-specific experiential knowledge. A case study analysis from the German-Danish border region explores how a family firm has...... used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed...

  1. Geneva international synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Geneva has a long history of hosting international organizations, which is part of the reason why CERN is here, and it makes the canton an ideal place to forge links between such organizations. Over recent weeks, CERN has signed agreements with the ITU, WIPO and the WMO. At first sight, there may not seem to be much common ground between CERN and, say, the World Meteorological Organization, but scratch the surface, and you’ll soon find a common thread. All of these organizations have a vocation to stimulate technological innovation, and together we’re stronger.   Let’s start with ITU, the International Telecommunications Union. There, the synergies are evident. When ITU organized the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003, CERN provided a significant side event examining the Role of Science in the Information Society. The current agreement builds on that, allowing our two organizations to work together on important societal issues such as the extension of b...

  2. International Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  3. International energy outlook, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. The historic political and economic changes occurring in Easter Europe and the former Soviet Union will, no doubt, transform regional markets and world trade. This report pays particular attention to energy markets and resources in those countries that were once a part of the Centrally Planned Economies (CPE's) and how prospective changes in these countries might influence the energy outlook for the rest of the world. Several major EIA estimates determine, in large part, the resulting energy projections presented here. These include estimates of the energy intensity of economic activity; oil and natural gas production capacities; nuclear and hydroelectric generation capacities; international coal trade; and the rate of incremental energy requirements met by alternatives to oil

  4. Retrievability: An international overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Using available information from the published literature and material obtained from a network of contacts, a short introductory overview of international developments in the field of retrievability of emplaced nuclear waste was produced for the Swedish National Siting Coordinator for Nuclear Waste Disposal. This examined the issue in terms of a number of basic questions: Definition, Need, Design Implications, Safeguards for Fissile Material, Public Acceptability and Safety Assessment. The report was submitted in February 1999, and acted as a catalyst for the organisation of an international seminar by KASAM, the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (these proceedings). This paper describes the report contents, and points to the invited papers at the seminar which expand on and update the limited descriptions in the original report. (author)

  5. International operations networks

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Sami; Cheng, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Although the area of International Manufacturing Network (IMN) and International Operations Network (ION) has received considerable attention in the literature, most of studies appear multifaceted and interdisciplinary, and thereby require thorough investigation from both academic and practical perspectives, in order to deepen our related understanding. The book seeks advanced contributions that will combine theoretical insights and empirical experience by offering a detailed examination of IMN and, further, ION from various perspectives. This book can be used as a reference material for scholarpractitioners, business executives, and university researchers who need to deepen their understanding on the importance and influence of IMN and ION as well as their development. The book is important because there are few reference/resource materials available related to IMN and ION.

  6. International Lunar Decade Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ; Crisafulli, J.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2017-09-01

    The International Lunar Decade is a global decadal event designed to provide a framework for strategically directed international cooperation for permanent return to the Moon. To be launched July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the giant leap for mankind marked by Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon, the ILD launch will include events around the world to celebrate space exploration, science, and the expansion of humanity into the Solar System. The ILD framework links lunar exploration and space sciences with the development of enabling technologies, infrastructure, means of financing, laws and policies aimed at lowering the costs and risks of venturing into space. Dramatically reduced costs will broaden the range of opportunities available in space and widen access to space for more states, companies and people worldwide. The ILD is intended to bring about the efflorescence of commercial business based on space resources from the Moon, asteroids, comets and other bodies in the Solar System.

  7. Dynamic international oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Linde, C.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic International Oil Market Developments and Structure 1860-1990 discusses the logic of changing market structures of the international oil industry. The market structures have, in the course of time, oscillated between competition and oligopoly, as the oil market expanded, matured, stagnated, and expanded again. This book provides a dynamic interpretation of the intensifying struggle among producer, and consumer governments, and oil companies, over the distribution of economic rents and profits. In particular, it shows the shifting fortunes of the governments and companies as they try to control the recurring capacity constraints between the upstream and downstream sectors, generated by the instability of the oil market. The first part of the book examines market conditions and developments between 1860 and 1990; the second part analyzes market structures after 1945

  8. Theorising International Monetary Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2015-01-01

    on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments...... and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From...... this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology) is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully...

  9. International Fisheries Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic function games....... Then, progres- sively, this cooperative approach was combined with non-cooperative elements such as the stability analysis of the agreements. Finally, partition function games, which model coalition formation endogenously, were introduced and became the standard approach to study the formation...

  10. What interns talk about.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Darius A; Wright, Scott M

    2005-03-01

    Peer education is an important component of residency training and it generally takes the form of informal discussions. Residents may also prepare more formal presentations for their peers and analysing the topics they choose to address can serve as a form of needs assessment by giving faculty insight into the content they believe should be taught. At our internal medicine residency program, interns participating in an evidence-based medicine rotation make a formal 30-minute presentation on the topic of their choosing. We reviewed the Power Point slides from 88 presentations given over the past 6 years and have characterized the topics that were covered. Many of the talks were innovative and dealt with subject matter not covered elsewhere in the residency curriculum. Providing housestaff with more opportunities to formally teach each other may improve the educational experience of residency training.

  11. International Water Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  12. Globalization and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Yirmibeşoğlu, Gözde

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has been a significant debate issue inthe academic research for the last decades. There is not a consensus on theinitiation of globalization. Although there are many aspects of globalizationsuch as economic, social, political and cultural features, this paper focusesmostly on its economic aspect. Globalization broke down commercial bordersbetween countries and destroyed barriers against trade among countries. As aresult, business performing in the international arena were forced...

  13. ["Charcot, international physician"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, T

    1994-01-01

    The theme of Charcot's world-wide reputation is considered from the threefold perspective of 1) the role of various countries in his professional ascension as orchestrated through contacts with foreign colleagues and travels abroad 2) his foreign students at the Salpêtrière and 3) his international clientele. After a preliminary analysis of the remarkable number and proportion of Paris medical theses written by foreign medical students over which Charcot presided, Charcot's special rapport with the international community is discussed in terms of three case examples: 1) Great Britain and the United States 2) Russia 3) German-speaking countries. The Anglo-Saxon example sheds light on the first half of Charcot's career prior to the establishment of his professorial chair in neurology, a period of increasing prestige culminating in the recognition of his preeminence by his colleagues at the London international medical congress of 1881. The Russian example emphasizes Charcot's personal charisma as a practitioner and healer with an affluent clientele. Finally the example of Charcot's rapport with German-speaking colleagues and students shows his intense scientific competitiveness in putting forward his conception of hysteria in the context of France's hostility toward the victors of 1870. In conclusion, the claim is made that Charcot's international success was not merely a passive honorific consequence of his work but a strategy actively pursued by the chief of the Salpêtrière in order to advance his Salpêtrière school at home and defeat opposition to his programme by rivals.

  14. International Seismological Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.; Hughes, A.

    1979-01-01

    The International Seismological Centre had its origins when the British seismologist Professor John Milne returned to England from Japan in 1895 to retire at Shide on the Isle of Eight. In cooperation with the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Milne had set up a number of seismographic stations around the world and, while Tokyo, had published a Catalogue of 8,33 Earthquakes Recorded in Japan, 1885-1892. 

  15. International diversity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    While the concern with demographic diversity in organizations has increased during recent years, international diversity management still remains an understudied area. This is unfortunate since the transfer of diversity management practices within multinational corporations faces particular...... challenges in balancing between global integration and local responsiveness. The aim of this paper is to illustrate some of the central problems that multinational corporations need to deal with when transferring diversity management practices from headquarters to local subsidiaries. This is illustrated...

  16. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13

    2005-01-01

    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.

  17. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  18. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2004-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  19. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  20. International Young Art 2001

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Programm 'ArtLink@Sotheby's International Young Art' valib ligi 100 kunstnikku osalema 2001. a. üritusel. Valitud tööd eksponeeritakse näitusel ja seejärel antakse Sotheby oksjonile Tel Avivis, Chicagos, Euroopas. Avalduste esitamise tähtaeg 9. II 2000. Info: www.artlink2000.net; e-post: debbie@artlink2000.net jm.

  1. Roget's international thesaurus

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Robert L

    2001-01-01

    A classic reference book that has been used by millions all over the world, Roget's International Thesaurus is the product of more than a century and a half of continuous expansion, reorganization, and improvement. Today, this book is not only the most time-tested and bestselling thesaurus ever, but, newly revised, it is also the most up-to-date and comprehensive reflection of the English language as it is currently used.

  2. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  3. Internally plasticised cellulose polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnup, M.; Hayes, G.F.; Fydelor, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Plasticised cellulose polymers comprise base polymer having a chain of β-anhydroglucose units joined by ether linkages, with at least one of said units carrying at least one chemically unreactive side chain derived from an allylic monomer or a vinyl substituted derivative of ferrocene. The side chains are normally formed by radiation grafting. These internally plasticised celluloses are useful in particular as inhibitor coatings for rocket motor propellants and in general wherever cellulose polymers are employed. (author)

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This monthly publication provides current data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication which provides current data on international oil production,demand,imports and stocks. This report has four sections which contain time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Also included is oil supply/demand balance information for the world, and data on oil imports and trade by OECD countries.

  6. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  7. USSR Report, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-08

    prepared to support their verbal condemnation of international terrorism with practical steps, but stood in the way not only of the development but also of...Crisis and Perspectives], Moscow, Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, September 1984, 255 pp] [Text] In foreign economic literature devoted to Latin America...States the Saudis then participated in the secret opera- tion to help the ’Contras.’" What, then, can explain the fact that Riyadh, while verbally

  8. IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH INTERNAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Dumitrescu

    2009-01-01

    The paper takes into consideration the role of internal marketing in enhancing and sustaining a company’s ability to compete: · much new thinking and practice in strategic marketing is concerned with managing relationships: with the customer, and with partners in strategic alliances. However, a further aspect of relationship management and relationship marketing is the relationship with the employees and managers, upon whose skills, commitment and performance the success of a marketing strate...

  9. International Data Centre (IDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, P.

    2002-01-01

    The presentation outlines the International Data Centre (Indc) mission, objective and historical background. The Indc progressive commissioning and organizational plans are presented on charts. The IMS stations providing data to Indc operations and the global communication infrastructure are plotted on world maps. The various types of IMS data are thus listed as seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide. Finally Indc products and services together with its main achievements are listed

  10. The uranium International trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez U, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the understanding of how the present dynamic of uranium International trade is developed, the variables which fall into, the factors that are affecting and conditioning it, in order to clarify which are going to be the outlook in the future of this important resource in front of the present ecological situation and the energetic panorama of XXI Century. For this purpose, as starting point, the uranium is considered as a strategic material which importance take root in its energetic potential as alternate energy source, and for this reason in Chapter I, the general problem of raw materials, its classification and present situation in the global market is presented. In Chapter II, by means of a historical review, is explain what uranium is, how it was discovered, and how since the end of the past Century and during the last three decades of present, uranium pass of practically unknown element, to the position of a strategic raw material, which by degrees, generate an International market, owing to its utilization as a basic resource in the generation of energy. Chapter III, introduce us in the roll played by uranium, since its warlike applications until its utilization in nuclear reactors for the generation of electricity. Also is explain the reason for this change in the perception at global level. Finally, in Chapter IV we enter upon specifically in the present conditions of the International market of this mineral throughout the trends of supply and demand, the main producers, users, price dynamics, and the correlation among these economical variables and other factors of political, social and ecological nature. All of these with the purpose to found out, if there exist, a meaning of the puzzle that seems to be the uranium International trade

  11. International Masterclass at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Lapka, M

    2012-01-01

    The CMS collaboration welcomed a class of French high school students to the CERN facility in Meyrin, Switzerland on the 12 of March, 2012. Students spent the day meeting with physicists, hearing talks, asking questions, and participating in a hands-on exercise using real data collected by the CMS experiment on the Large Hadron Colider. Talks and other resources are available here: http://ippog-dev.web.cern.ch/resources/2012/ippog-international-masterclass-2012-cms

  12. Project: Internal communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lydia

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceived information needs of NASA Langley employees. One hundred and twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of aero-space technologists, administrative professionals, technicians. and secretarial/clerical personnel. Results of employee perceptions are analyzed and summarized using affinity diagramming. Particular strategies to maximize use of existing internal communication networks are discussed.

  13. Dictionary of international commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, William J

    1985-01-01

    International trade is vital to the well-being of the international market. No textbook suited virtually every nation, because no nation is my purpose, so I set about to write one. capable of satisfying its material needs beyond the subsistence level entirely from domestic My first task was to define my terms-tar­ iffs, non-tariff barriers, shipping terminology, resources. As a nation's technology advances and edu­ etc. As this labor progressed over many cational levels improve, heavy industry and months, it became evident there was need for manufacturing are often supplanted by serv­ an encyclopedic reference work which fo­ ice industries, as evidenced by the economies cused upon international trade. My enquiries of Europe, North America, and Japan. The having divulged no similar work in English, I shift to a service economy increases import decided to concentrate efforts upon an reliance, especially in the areas of consumer encyclopedia. products and basic industrial commodities, In selecting entries, i...

  14. Apparatus for internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for internal irradiation wherein the radioactive material is applied in the shape of a ball row consisting of contiguous radioactive and neutral balls. This ball row is prepared beforehand and is pneumatically transferred to an applicator tube adapted to be introduced into a body cavity. In order that the balls may stay exactly in the right places during the irradiation, the applicator tube is provided with an internal channel having a narrow end portion, passing through a shoulder into the remaining wider portion, and a final ball is added to each ball row, this final ball having a larger diameter than the other balls, so that it is not admitted in the narrow end portion of the internal channel in the applicator tube. Thus, upon introduction of a ball row, the final ball is arrested by the shoulder and keeps the other balls in place. A plurality of applicator tubes may be applied, each of which is associated with an intermediate container in which the ball row is composed. After the irradiation, the ball row is returned through the intermediate container to a sorting device directing the balls to appropriate storage containers. However, the final ball is retained in the intermediate container, so that it may be added to the next ball row to be composed

  15. Rotary internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, J.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine assembly. It includes: a central rotor means formed with at least one peripheral fuel cavity. The cavity having a first surface defining a thrust surface and a second surface defining a contoured surface; a housing means enclosing the rotor and having an internal wall encircling the rotor. The internal wall being intercepted by at least two recesses defining cylinder means. The housing means and the rotor means being relatively rotatable; piston means individual to each the cylinder means and reciprocable therein; each piton means having a working face complementary to aid contoured surface; and power means for urging the working face into intimate areal contact with the contoured surface to create a first seal means. The housing means having at lest one fuel inlet port, at least one fuel ignition means and at least one exhaust port whereby during the course of a revolution of the rotor means relative to the housing means, the first seal means, the power means, the respective ports, the ignition means and the fuel cavity cooperate to develop fuel compression, fuel ignition and exhaust functions.

  16. International energy financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedavalli, Rangaswamy

    1994-01-01

    Some of the innovative financing options being considered by developing countries and economies in transition as ways of mobilizing international energy financing are discussed. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) and Transfer (BOOT) is the most commonly adopted approach. This involves limited resource financing of a project on the basis of the associated cash flow and risks and not on the credit of the project owners. The World Bank has set up the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to provide, on a fee basis, guarantees against certain non-commercial forms of risk in order to promote international capital flow to developing countries. In 1989, the World Bank introduced the Expanded Co-financing Operations (ECO) programme as an instrument to catalyze the flow of private finance into developing countries and to improve their access to international financial markets. Other financial instruments currently being established include: leasing of equipment or whole plants by foreign investors; private ownership or operation of generation and distribution facilities; exchange of specific export goods for energy imports; developing instruments to finance local costs; revenue bonds; tax-exempt bonds; sale of electricity futures to those seeking more stable, longer term electricity price contracts. (UK)

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  18. Temporary internal pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Díaz-Miguel, R; Gómez Grande, M L

    2014-12-01

    Technology and insertion techniques for cardiac temporary internal pacing have experienced a remarkable development over the last few years. Despite this fact, the procedure continues to have potentially fatal associated complications. Temporary internal pacing is indicated for the treatment of bradyarrhythmias or tachyarrhythmias refractory to conventional treatment, or arrhythmias causing cardiovascular or clinical instability of the patient. On the other hand, the indications of temporary cardiac pacing are far less well defined than those of permanent pacing. Since the decision of implementing temporary pacing is complex and delicate, it should always be carefully considered, and over-indication should be avoided. We must base these decisions on robust knowledge of the arrhythmias that may benefit from temporary internal pacing, and should also acquire the habit of considering external temporary pacing among other less aggressive treatments, and to make the best use of new technologies such as echocardiography that add accuracy to the procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. International Space Station Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

  20. International Humanitarian Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The International Humanitarian Award recognizes extraordinary humanitarian services and activism by psychologists, including professional and volunteer work conducted primarily in the field with underserved populations. Award recipients are psychologists who, by their extraordinary service at a difficult time, improve the lives and contribute to the well-being of people in a large or small geographic area anywhere in the world. The 2017 recipient of the APA International Humanitarian Award was selected by the 2016 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2016 CIRP were Melissa Morgan Consoli, PhD, and Arpana G. Inman, PhD (Co-chairs); Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD; Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Frederic Bemak, EdD; Brigitte Khoury, PhD; Susan Nolan, PhD; Nancy Sidun, PsyD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Inman, Dr. Nolan, and Doctor Sidun were members of the subcommittee for the 2017 award. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. International nuclear material safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Azmi Syed Ali

    1985-01-01

    History can be a very dull subject if it relates to events which have long since lost their relevance. The factors which led to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), however, are as important and relevant today as they were when the Agency was first created. Without understanding these factors it is impossible to realise how important the Agency is in the present world or to understand some of the controversies surrounding its future. Central to these controversies is the question of how best to promote the international transfer of nuclear technology without contributing further to the problem of proliferating nuclear explosives or explosive capabilities. One effective means is to subject nuclear materials (see accompanying article in box), which forms the basic link between the manufacture of nuclear explosives and nuclear power generation, to international safeguards. This was realized very early in the development of nuclear power and was given greater emphasis following the deployment of the first two atomic bombs towards the end of World War II. (author)

  2. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  3. English as an International Language: International Student and Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phan Le

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the literature on Asian international students, current debates surrounding English as an international language (EIL), and the conceptual tools of appropriation, this article reports the findings of a qualitative research study with eight Asian international students studying at a university in Thailand to explore their taking…

  4. New international services and the competitiveness of Tokyo International Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.; Matsumoto, H.

    2012-01-01

    With the completion of Narita International Airport (Narita) in the Greater Tokyo Area, Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) was practically downgraded to a domestic airport. It lost its position as a key traffic hub for domestic to international air transport in Japan. Now the Japanese government

  5. Director, Risk Management and Internal Audit | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Directs the establishment of the Internal Audit plans and priorities and performs risk-based Internal Audits designed to provide objective assurance and advice to the ... Establishes internal quality assessment processes and as directed by the Finance and Audit Committee ensures that external quality assessments are ...

  6. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  7. Broadening the concept of international entrepreneurship: 'Consumers as international entrepreneurs'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Y.; Coviello, N.

    2010-01-01

    We integrate theories from international business, entrepreneurship, innovation, marketing and network economics to develop a four-part typology of ‘consumers as international entrepreneurs’. This broadens the concept of international entrepreneurship and complements the firm-level focus customary

  8. International safeguards problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.; Curtis, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    To recognize the limitations of safeguards as a barrier to nuclear proliferation is not to deny their essential role in the effort to contain that problem. Without a safeguards system, international nuclear commerce and development would not, indeed could not, be what they are today. The problems evoked in the discussion of the spread of sensitive nuclear technology underscore the importance of ensuring that activities do not outpace our ability to control them. To sustain a global nuclear economy requires a readiness to live within the constraints that such an economy requires. Enhanced safeguards and strengthened national commitments to facilitate their application are key elements of those constraints. So also may be a prepardness by many nations to forego explicitly national control over all facets of the nuclear fuel cycle while still sharing fully and equally in the benefits of the peaceful atom. The challenge of the coming years will be to craft mechanisms and institutions enabling the continued growth of peaceful nuclear activity without further impairing international security. The constraints that such an outcome entails are not limited to nations lacking sophisticated nuclear technology; they apply to the most advanced nuclear nations as well--partly through adherence to the safeguards system that these countries call upon others to adopt, and partly through greater willingness to entertain solutions that may involve greater international involvement in, and control over, their own peaceful nuclear productive activities. With time, the relative incompatibility of nuclear energy with full national sovereignty, and the far-sighted wisdom of the Baruch Plan, are becoming increasingly clear. 1 table, 10 references

  9. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The 48. session of the IAEA general conference was held in Vienna from 20 to 24 september 2004 with the participation of delegates from 125 members states and representatives of various international organisations. A number of resolutions were adopted by the conference in the following fields: nuclear safety, radiation, transport and waste safety. The general conference also adopted a resolution on measures to protect against nuclear terrorism. The Director General decided in 2003 to appoint a group of experts to explore and advise on issues related to nuclear liability. This group called the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (I.N.L.E.X.) consists of 20 experts members from nuclear power and non nuclear power countries and from shipping and non shipping states. It serves three major functions: to create a forum of expertise to explore and advise on issues related to nuclear liability; to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non nuclear states to an effective nuclear liability regime, inter alia, on the basis of the convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage and the annex thereto, the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage, the Paris convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, the joint protocol relating to the application of the vienna convention and the paris convention and the amendments thereto; and to assist in the development and strengthening of the national nuclear liability legal frameworks in IAEA members states to protect the public and the environment and to enhance nuclear safety. The second part of international regulatory concerns a directive on public access to environmental information made by the European Parliament. (N.C.)

  10. Internally displaced persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leus, X; Wallace, J; Loretti, A

    2001-01-01

    There were estimated to be over 20 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) at the end of 1999, a number that surpasses global estimates of refugees. Displacement exposes IDPs to new hazards and accrued vulnerability. These dynamics result in greater risk for the development of illness and death. Often, access of IDPs to health care and humanitarian assistance is excluded deliberately by conflicting parties. Furthermore, the arrival of IDPs into another community or region strains local health systems, and the host population ends up sharing the sufferings of the internally displaced. Health outcomes are dismaying. From a health perspective, the best option is to avoid human displacement. WHO contributes to the prevention of displacement by working for sustainable development. Placing health high on the political agenda helps maintain stability, and thereby, reduce the likelihood for displacement. Primary responsibility for assisting IDPs, irrespective of the cause, rests with the national government. However, where the government is unwilling or unable to provide the necessary aid, the international humanitarian community must step in, with WHO playing a major role in the health sector. There is consensus among the partners of the World Health Organization (WHO) that, in emergencies, the WHO must: 1) take the lead in rapid health assessment, epidemiological and nutritional surveillance, epidemic preparedness, essential drugs management, control of communicable diseases, and physical and psychosocial rehabilitation; and 2) provide guidelines and advice on nutritional requirements and rehabilitation, immunisation, medical relief items, and reproductive health. If the vital health needs of IDPs--security, food, water, shelter, sanitation and household items--are not satisfied, the provision of health services alone cannot save lives. Community participation is essential, and community participation implies bolstering the assets and capacities of the beneficiaries.

  11. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  12. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This monthly publication provides international oil data for January 1998. The report presents data on oil production, demand, imports, and stocks in four sections. Section 1 containes time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 containes annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  13. International energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided

  14. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  15. Optimize Internal Workflow Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia RUSU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Workflow Management has the role of creating andmaintaining an efficient flow of information and tasks inside anorganization. The major benefit of workflows is the solutions tothe growing needs of organizations. The external and theinternal processes associated with a business need to be carefullyorganized in order to provide a strong foundation for the dailywork. This paper focuses internal workflow within a company,attempts to provide some basic principles related to workflows,and a workflows solution for modeling and deploying usingVisual Studio and SharePoint Server.

  16. International trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two reports are presented; one has been prepared by the Uranium Institute and is submitted by the United Kingdom delegation, the other by the United States delegation. The report of the Uranium Institute deals with the influence of the government on international trade in uranium. This influence becomes apparent predominantly by export and import restrictions, as well as by price controls. The contribution submitted by the United States is a uranium market trend analysis, with pricing methods and contracting modes as well as the effect of government policies being investigated in the light of recent developments

  17. International energy annual, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  18. International energy annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, stocks, imports, and exports for primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude petroleum and petroleum products in selected countries. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed with respect to primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources and from United States Embassy personnel in foreign posts. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values familiar to the American public

  19. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Hautopp, Heidi; Nielsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Personas have become a popular method in new product development. Personas have traditionally, and are still, primarily created to represent users from a single national culture at a time during the design process. This, however, is unsatisfactory for companies operating on a global market...... when using the persona method to collect and present insights about their international users. A key finding in both the literature review and the empirical study was the ambiguity concerning the concept of culture. Therefore, the paper draws on theories about culture, and especially practice theory...

  20. International energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  1. SUPERCOLLIDER: Going international

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the wake of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) debacle in the US, US particle physicists are regrouping. 'It is clear that physics interest cannot be changed by an act of Congress,' says Ed Berger of Argonne. As part of the SSC winding up, US Secretary of Energy has been requested to produce a plan to 'maximize the value of the investment in the project and minimizing the loss to the US, including recommendations as to the feasibility of utilizing SSC assets in whole or in part in pursuit of an international high energy physics endeavour.'

  2. Threats to international science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  3. STANFORD: Internal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Of burgeoning interest to many nuclear and particle physicists is a storage ring technique for fixed target experiments. It hinges on the use of gas-jet targets, shooting a narrow stream of atoms through a circulating beam of electrons or protons. Pioneered at CERN and the Soviet Novosibirsk Laboratory, more such 'internal targets' are being built or contemplated for storage rings in Europe, the Soviet Union, and the United States. From 9-12 January, physicists from around the world met at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to discuss prospects and problems in this expanding field

  4. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    issues on the boundaries of the firm. More or less advanced tasks can be found within all activities, e.g., in sales and marketing where telesales is on the less advanced end of the scale while branding and identity building are on the advanced end of the scale. This article focuses on the antecedents...... to achieve international competitiveness through access to cross-border knowledge flows and foreign knowledge resources. Furthermore, offshoring of advanced manufacturing tasks seems to be more widespread and experience-based than the offshoring of advanced service tasks....

  5. The internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The briefs compile the results of the studies the Commission worked out on the subject on the basis of experiences gained on its own part, on the part of the government and on the part of the market. The briefs are based on the schematic inventory annexed which for each energy sector points out the different existing or potential obstacles to a common energy market the most comprehensive and transparent way possible. Step by step part one and part two discuss the general problems connected with the integration of energy into the internal market, priorities which according to the Commission should be investigated into, and guidelines for such investigations. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, E.; Andrews, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  7. Internal evaluation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Meyer, Bente Tobiesen; Levinsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    It is the aim of this report to assess and evaluate the internal communication and management of the Lancelot project during the first year of the project's life (October 2005- October 2006). The report focuses on these issues through the perspective of a SWOT analysis carried out by the project...... members at the interim meeting in Manchester October 6-8. The SWOT analysis was chosen for its ability to identify problem areas within an organisation or group as well as focusing on and facilitating future actions and strategies. The report contains a summary of the issues raised by the SWOT as well...

  8. Internal evaluation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Meyer, Bente; Levinsen, Karin

    It is the aim of this report to assess and evaluate the internal communication and management of the Lancelot project during the first year of the project's life (October 2005- October 2006). The report focuses on these issues through the perspective of a SWOT analysis carried out by the project...... members at the interim meeting in Manchester October 6-8. The SWOT analysis was chosen for its ability to identify problem areas within an organisation or group as well as focusing on and facilitating future actions and strategies. The report contains a summary of the issues raised by the SWOT as well...

  9. Defining International Contracting Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    procedures laid down in the International Traffic of Arms Regulations (ITARS) and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act." ( FCPA )(56:50) 2. Main Theme Discussion...direct control of the ODTC. This helps the ODTC follow the rules and procedures outlined in the ITARS and FCPA . This list is also used in applying the...Don’t Know May Hurt You," Contract Management. 30: 18-19, 4 i-44, 50 (October 1990). 22. Ellenson, Leslie A. "A Primer on Export Control Compliance

  10. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  11. Decentralization Calls for Internal Audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCello, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Outlines internal-auditing strategies necessitated by decentralization. Describes the following areas of concern: the student activities account, student attendance, and funding delegated to the site level. Guidelines for conducting an internal audit are also included. (LMI)

  12. Reflections on international medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattad, Mohammed S; Hrevtsova, Radmyla Yu

    2011-12-01

    Does international medical law exist, in the first place, as an independent area of study? If so, is it urgently required in an era of comparative studies? Namely, to what extent, if at all, international studies differ from comparative ones? Besides, what are the particular characteristics of such international discipline? Namely, what are the particular features of this field that elaborate on our legal and scientific understanding in sketching possible definition for this notion of "international medical law?" In addition, how does international medical law correlate with health, ethics and health policies in our globalized world? And finally, what are the challenges that might face the international community, once the concept of "international medical law" is acknowledged? This papers aims at establishing the conceptual grounds for these questions, thus calling for the acknowledgment of a new field of study described as "international medical law".

  13. INTERNATIONAL LAW: HINDRANCE OR HELP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    As international Remote Sensing/Geographic Information Systems (RS/GIS) organizations develop, legal issues are becoming an important factor in promoting or limiting international cooperation. We must keep legal considerations in mind during the creation, implementation, and ...

  14. Single Sign On Internal (SSOi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides single sign-on solution for internal facing VA applications. Allows internal users access to a variety of VA systems and applications using a reduced set of...

  15. Learning Activities for International Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  16. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  17. International cooperation in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of international co-operations, co-ordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency, are presented. These co-operations are related to international safety standards, to the safety of the four hundred existing reactors in operation, to quick help and information in case of emergency, and to the already valid international conventions. The relation between atomic energy and environmental protection is also discussed briefly. (K.A.)

  18. Canada and international financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lafrance; James Powell

    1996-01-01

    International financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Bank for International Settlements, are important players in the global financial system. This article provides an overview of the major international financial institutions to which Canada belongs. The paper highlights their activities and the nature of Canada's involvement, including that of the Bank of Canada. Recent initiatives coming out of the Halifax and Lyon Summits to improve the eff...

  19. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs

  20. Hospitals' internal accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  1. The international hydrocoin project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The international co-operation project HYDROCOIN for studying groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal was initiated in 1984. Thirteen organizations from ten countries and two international organizations participate in the project which is managed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate SKI. This report summarizes the results from the first phase of HYDROCOIN. Level 1, which has been devoted to verification of 29 computer programs for groundwater hydrology. This has been done by applying the codes to seven hypothetical test cases representing different physical situations. For linear test cases, the agreement between results calculated with different codes has been satisfactory for primarily calculated entities (groundwater pressure, salt concentration and temperatures). Results for properties derived from gradients of the primary field (groundwater velocity and trajectories) show agreement to a lesser extent. Furthermore, HYDROCOIN Level 1 illustrates problems related to solving strongly non-linear cases, such as coupled flow and brine transport. HYDROCOIN Level 1 has provided an efficient means for testing strengths and weaknesses of various strategies for groundwater flow modelling and post processing. As a result of the Level 1 effort, several code enhancements have been made

  2. International Nuclear Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We are pleased to announce that the 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC2016) will take place in Adelaide (Australia) from September 11-16, 2016. The 25th INPC was held in Firenze in 2013 and the 24th INPC in Vancouver, Canada, in 2010. The Conference is organized by the Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter at the University of Adelaide, together with the Australian National University and ANSTO. It is also sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by a number of organisations, including AUSHEP, BNL, CoEPP, GSI and JLab. INPC 2016 will be held in the heart of Adelaide at the Convention Centre on the banks of the River Torrens. It will consist of 5 days of conference presentations, with plenary sessions in the mornings, up to ten parallel sessions in the afternoons, poster sessions and a public lecture. The Conference will officially start in the evening of Sunday 11th September with Registration and a Reception and will end late on the afternoon of Fri...

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  4. Overview of international teledermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen McKoy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Teledermatology is essentially “dermatology at a distance”, using one of many communication technologies to expand the reach of a dermatologist to those in need of their specialized knowledge. Most international teledermatology is store-and-forward in nature, a method in which images are stored on a computer and then transmitted electronically to a consulting dermatologist. This system is more convenient and less costly than real-time teledermatology. This review will focus on several of the store-and-forward teledermatology systems being developed and utilized successfully internationally. This discussion of “who” is practicing teledermatology is not comprehensive, but attempts to show some of the breadth of teledermatology practice around the world, including government national health plans, commercial endeavors, and charitable work by individuals and institutions. The goal in many instances is to provide better health outcomes through increased access, efficiency, and/or cost-effectiveness. More studies ultimately need to be conducted to develop a more comprehensive and sustainable model for teledermatology.

  5. International energy outlook 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year's report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  7. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  8. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada, Luis Guillermo

    1998-01-01

    The international trade conventional theory not only continues being supported upon the classic principle of comparative advantage, but also, in response to the rationality inherent to the traditional economic system, al so neglects considering the biophysical conditions under which transable goods are produced. The linkage of environment to trade is a recent concern, and it is explained on the basis that the first one has become a barrier for the second one. The environmental cause defenders, so as the free market advocates, are exposing their arguments in a context in which not necessarily to build viable solutions to the conflict is possible. The world economy behavior and tendencies do not offer the conditions needed so as that the official thesis in which the GATT - Rio - WTO thought can be summarized and the positive linkage towards the environmental quality, explicitly claimed by that thesis, becomes reality. Form these considerations, it is argument in this article in the direction of establishing a new international trade pattern and also some ideas are presented as to its characterization ecological economic view

  9. International energy outlook 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  10. Understanding Lustre Internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL; Wang, Di [ORNL; Huang, He [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  11. OBJECTIF SCIENCES INTERNATIONAL

    CERN Multimedia

    Objectif Sciences International

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIF SCIENCES INTERNATIONAL SEJOURS DE VACANCES SCIENTIFIQUES Concilier loisirs de vacances et investigations scientifiques, voilà la recette magique de l'ONG « Objectif Sciences International » qui donne la possibilité aux amateurs de sciences de 7 à 99 ans de participer à des Programmes de Recherche dédiés au Développement Durable. Les Congés Science Solidaire proposés par l'association pour les adultes émanent directement des préoccupations des populations locales pour la préservation de leur patrimoine environnemental. Les besoins et les objectifs sont définis avec les acteurs locaux pour assurer la réalisation de nos missions sur place. En cliquant sur le lien ci-dessous, vous pourrez découvrir plus en détails la liste des thèmes et destinations proposées pour ...

  12. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  14. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  15. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  16. Quantifying Nanoparticle Internalization Using a High Throughput Internalization Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sarah K; Czuba, Ewa; Selby, Laura I; Such, Georgina K; Johnston, Angus P R

    2016-10-01

    The internalization of nanoparticles into cells is critical for effective nanoparticle mediated drug delivery. To investigate the kinetics and mechanism of internalization of nanoparticles into cells we have developed a DNA molecular sensor, termed the Specific Hybridization Internalization Probe - SHIP. Self-assembling polymeric 'pHlexi' nanoparticles were functionalized with a Fluorescent Internalization Probe (FIP) and the interactions with two different cell lines (3T3 and CEM cells) were studied. The kinetics of internalization were quantified and chemical inhibitors that inhibited energy dependent endocytosis (sodium azide), dynamin dependent endocytosis (Dyngo-4a) and macropinocytosis (5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA)) were used to study the mechanism of internalization. Nanoparticle internalization kinetics were significantly faster in 3T3 cells than CEM cells. We have shown that ~90% of the nanoparticles associated with 3T3 cells were internalized, compared to only 20% of the nanoparticles associated with CEM cells. Nanoparticle uptake was via a dynamin-dependent pathway, and the nanoparticles were trafficked to lysosomal compartments once internalized. SHIP is able to distinguish between nanoparticles that are associated on the outer cell membrane from nanoparticles that are internalized. This study demonstrates the assay can be used to probe the kinetics of nanoparticle internalization and the mechanisms by which the nanoparticles are taken up by cells. This information is fundamental for engineering more effective nanoparticle delivery systems. The SHIP assay is a simple and a high-throughput technique that could have wide application in therapeutic delivery research.

  17. Causation and International State Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Jankiewicz, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work studies causation in the law of international State responsibility. It is submitted that the absence of causation as an element of the internationally wrongful act owes more to the structure of international law, than to the inadequateness of causation as a conceptual and legal construct

  18. Austrian Thinking on International Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.

    1988-01-01

    After mentioning Mises' few contributions to international monetary economics I first review Hayek's views on international economics. I then try to find out if Haberler's and Machlup's contributions to international economics do show any special Austrian traits. After that, I turn to Schumpeter.

  19. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Neonatal Jaundice in Warri. Int J Health Res, September 2011; 4(3): 122. International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published articles. The journal is devoted to the promotion of health ...

  20. International school of nuclear law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    This is a report about the second International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on August 26 to September 7, 2002, by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  1. International School of Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-12-01

    This is a report about the fourth International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on 23 August to 3 September 2004 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  2. International fashion franchise in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    The study concentrates on exploring international clothing franchise and particularly international clothing franchise in Finland. The main objective of the research is to discover obstacles Finnish franchisees encounter when bringing an international fashion franchise to Finland and recommendations that are beneficial to their success. The thesis is inclined to exploit aspects concerning franchisees’ perspectives. In the literature review, main concepts presented are franchising, franchi...

  3. Licensing Process for International Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christan

    2014-01-01

    Christan Raetzke, lawyer, then outlined why nuclear constructions were always international projects and in which cases it would make sense to also make the licensing process be international. His law consulting firm CONLAR focuses specifically on design review so he could adequately present why an international process would make a lot of sense without being a loss of sovereignty

  4. Language and the International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the issue of unilinguism and linguistic pluralism on the international scene. The need for international communication where English is the dominant force and efforts to preserve cultural equality are seen as compelling reasons for promotion of an international language such as Esperanto. (AMH)

  5. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Characterisitcs of Shea butter and Theobroma fats in Emusions. Int J Health Res, December 2010; 3(4): 222. International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published articles. The journal is ...

  6. International School of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This is a report about the fourth International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on 23 August to 3 September 2004 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  7. Internal conversion of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoun, O.

    1982-01-01

    The process of the gamma-ray internal conversion is reviewed. The principle of the calculations of the internal conversion coefficients is outlined and methods of conversion electron measurements are described. The extensive utilization of internal conversion in nuclear physics, as well as several applications in chemistry and solid state physics are also discussed. (author)

  8. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to ..... Table 1: Some antihypertensive chronotherapeutically-designed market medications.

  9. The security in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Iurie RICHICINSCHI

    2016-01-01

    Regardless the fact that concerns about the nature of relations between states, the causes of war, the peacekeeping issues, the international cooperation and recognition of international actors have preceded with millennia the emergence of the academic field of International Relations as a discipline, this one has been embedded along several centuries in much broader areas of research, whose influence is still manifested today.

  10. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-24

    Dec 24, 2009 ... International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published .... [14] and free energy change temperature diagram. The former distinguishes between monotropic and enantiotropic ...

  11. Teaching international animal agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukefahr, S D

    1999-11-01

    Students who major in animal science at U.S. institutions are generally exposed to a curriculum that emphasizes commercial, large-scale production of the few traditional food animals: cattle, poultry, sheep, and swine. Globally, most farmers live in lesser-developed countries under limited-resource conditions of land, feed supplies, equipment, and capital. The promotion of commercial animal production enterprises may not be appropriate for such farms because it can subject farmers to considerable economic risk. Rather, use of limited numbers of large livestock, locally adapted breeds, or smaller livestock (e.g., ducks, goats, guinea pigs, and rabbits) may be more appropriate under subsistence, integrated farming systems. In this global context, a course in international animal agriculture has been taught for 15 yr to undergraduate and graduate students. The course consists of a review of traditional and potential livestock species well suited for impoverished families on small farms and methods to implement sustainable livestock projects, including feasibility, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation stages. To enhance student understanding, global food issues and challenges are illustrated with case studies. A term paper is also assigned for which students choose three suitable livestock species or local breeds that would be complementary on a small crop farm (< 5 ha). Daily dietary requirements of protein and energy per family member are calculated. Itemized enterprise budgets and production tables are prepared. Early in the course, the general consensus of students was that people who are malnourished and live in poverty have low personal ambition and motivation, and that their problems should be amenable to solution by application of American technology and expertise. The course modifies such attitudes and enhances a student's critical thinking and problem-solving abilities and communication skills. Course evaluations indicated that students believed

  12. Internal friction in enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Anna; Derényi, Imre; Gráf, László; Málnási-Csizmadia, András

    2013-01-01

    The empirical concept of internal friction was introduced 20 years ago. This review summarizes the results of experimental and theoretical studies that help to uncover the nature of internal friction. After the history of the concept, we describe the experimental challenges in measuring and interpreting internal friction based on the viscosity dependence of enzyme reactions. We also present speculations about the structural background of this viscosity dependence. Finally, some models about the relationship between the energy landscape and internal friction are outlined. Alternative concepts regarding the viscosity dependence of enzyme reactions are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. International Environmental Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSibio, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The International Environmental Institute is being established at the Hanford Site to provide training and education in environmental restoration and waste management technologies and to serve as an interface for exchange of information among government laboratories, regional and federal governments, universities, and US industries. Recognized as the flagship of the nation's environmental management effort, the Hanford Site provides a unique living environmental laboratory that represents the most extensive, complex, and diverse cleanup challenges anywhere. An Environmental Institute director has been selected, the organizational structure has been established, and initial phases of operation have begun. The combined resources of the Hanford Site and the Environmental Institute offer unprecedented technological capabilities for dealing with the nation's environmental issues

  14. International Logistics Science Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hompel, Michael; Meier, J

    2014-01-01

    The importance of logistics in all its variations is still increasing. New technologies emerge, new planning methods and algorithms are developed, only to face a market with a growing complexity and the need of weighting monetary costs against ecological impact. Mastering these challenges requires a scientific viewpoint on logistics, but always with applications in mind. This volume presents up-to-date logistics research in all its diversity and interconnectedness. It grew out of the “International Logistics Science Conference” (ILSC) held in Dortmund in September 2013, bringing together leading scientists and young academics from nine different countries. The conference was jointly organized by the “Efficiency Cluster Logistics” and the “Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics”. The Program Committee used a double blind review process to choose the 12 strongest contributions, which were then grouped in four areas: - Sustainability logistics, including electric mobility, smart inform...

  15. International venture capital perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The emerging fuel cell industry is characterized by global cooperation and partnerships in commercial, technical, and financial aspects. In this talk, we would like to provide observations about international venture capital focused on fuel cells globally. The talk will refer to experiences Conduit Ventures has had with its portfolio companies and other investors in various countries. We discuss our approach to working with portfolio companies who are geographically remote from our main office in London. We also discuss the process of making investment decisions on possible investments in various countries. The talk will conclude with insights and 'lessons learned' which may be of interest to fellow members of Fuel Cells Canada. (author)

  16. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  17. International organizations as orchestrators

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Kenneth W

    2015-01-01

    International Organizations as Orchestrators reveals how IOs leverage their limited authority and resources to increase their effectiveness, power, and autonomy from states. By 'orchestrating' intermediaries - including NGOs - IOs can shape and steer global governance without engaging in hard, direct regulation. This volume is organized around a theoretical model that emphasizes voluntary collaboration and support. An outstanding group of scholars investigate the significance of orchestration across key issue areas, including trade, finance, environment and labor, and in leading organizations, including the GEF, G20, WTO, EU, Kimberley Process, UNEP and ILO. The empirical studies find that orchestration is pervasive. They broadly confirm the theoretical hypotheses while providing important new insights, especially that states often welcome IO orchestration as achieving governance without creating strong institutions. This volume changes our understanding of the relationships among IOs, nonstate actors and sta...

  18. International collaborative donor project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Zambudio, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The International Donor Collaborative Project (PCID) research group was created in 1996 in Spain with the aim of promoting research in the field of organ donation and transplantation, led by Spanish surgeons. During this period they have developed the questionnaires of the PCID, both the attitude towards cadaver and live donation, which are the most used questionnaires in publications in indexed journals. They have been the driving group of stratified studies representative of the populations under study, and of the performance of multivariate statistical analyzes in the field of psycho-social research in organ donation and transplantation. The main contributions of the group focus on the analysis of health center professionals and emerging migrant groups. In recent years, studies have been extended to the United States, Latin America (mainly Mexico) and Europe. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. International energy indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, E. K.

    1981-02-01

    Extensive data are compiled for energy on the international scene and for the US. Data included are: world crude oil production, 1975 to date; Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; Saudi Arabia: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia): capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to date; petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to date; USSR crude oil production, 1974 to date; Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to date. Data are supplied specifically for the US on US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to date; landed cost of Saudi crude in current and 1974 dollars; US trade in bituminous coal, 1973 to date; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to date; and energy/GNP ratio.

  20. Control Techtronics International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.

    1995-12-31

    Polish graded coal can be burned in existing stoker boilers and meet the 1998 Air Quality standard. This is accomplished with the Control Techtronics microprocessor-based combustion controller accurately and repeatedly: (a) matching the combustion air to the coal firing rate, with continuous stack sensor feedback; (b) continuously varying the boiler`s firing rate based on output water temperature or steam pressure; (c) continuously varying the exhaust fan`s speed to maintain minimum negative pressure in the boiler`s combustion chamber; and recirculating a portion of the flue gas, at varying amounts throughout the boiler`s firing rate. Systems for five boilers have been installed and are operating on MPEC`s Balicka plant in Krakow. Control Techtronics International has $10 million of U.S. Export-Import Bank funds available for similar projects throughout Poland.

  1. International RILEM Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Birgisson, Björn; Frost, David; Wang, Linbing

    2013-01-01

    The micro- and nano-modification of infrastructure materials and the associated multi-scale characterization and simulation has the potential to open up whole new uses and classes of materials, with wide-ranging implications for society. The use of multi-scale characterization and simulation brings the ability to target changes at the very small scale that predictably effect the bulk behavior of the material and thus allowing for the optimization of material behavior and performance.   The International RILEM Symposium on Multi-Scale Modeling and Characterization of Infrastructure Materials (Stockholm, June 10-12, 2013) brought together key researchers from around the world to present their findings and ongoing research in this field in a focused environment with extended discussion times. From asphalt to concrete, from chemistry to mechanics, from nano- to macro-scale: the collection of topics covered by the Symposium represents the width and depth of the currently ongoing efforts of developing more sustain...

  2. International EUREKA: Initialization Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner

  3. Microdosimetry of internal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Microdosimetry has been limited to irradiations characterized by uniform probabilities of charged-particle production. New methods are here presented for dealing with particles emitted by radionuclides embedded in the irradiated medium; these particles seldom emerge uniformly, because the radionuclides are not dispersed uniformly. In particular, emission from radionuclides that are agglomerated into particulates is extremely nonuniform. Microdosimetric distributions for these internal emitters can be calculated by: (1) determining the probability density in specific energy due to single energy deposition events by charged particles from a point source, (2) combining these densities by Fourier-transform methods, and (3) using existing numerical methods to evaluate the Fourier result. Examples are given calculated for 239 Pu alpha particles from point sources (particulates) and from particulates uniformly distributed through all space, a half space, and a sphere

  4. International Conference UMC 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Hübner, Wolfgang; Rasing, Theo; Chantrell, Roy

    2015-01-01

    This volume on Ultrafast Magnetism is a collection of articles presented at the international “Ultrafast Magnetization Conference” held at the Congress Center in Strasbourg, France, from October 28th to November 1st, 2013. This first conference, which is intended to be held every two years, received a wonderful attendance and gathered scientists from 27 countries in the field of Femtomagnetism, encompassing many theoretical and experimental research subjects related to the spins dynamics in bulk or nanostructured materials. The participants appreciated this unique opportunity for discussing new ideas and debating on various physical interpretations of the reported phenomena. The format of a single session with many oral contributions as well as extensive time for poster presentations allowed researchers to have a detailed overview of the field. Importantly, one could sense that, in addition to studying fundamental magnetic phenomena, ultrafast magnetism has entered in a phase where applied physics and eng...

  5. NOMA 2013 International Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier-Prunaret, Danièle; Nishio, Yoshifumi; Grácio, Clara

    2015-01-01

    In the field of Dynamical Systems, nonlinear iterative processes play an important role. Nonlinear mappings can be found as immediate models for many systems from different scientific areas, such as engineering, economics, biology, or can also be obtained via numerical methods permitting to solve non-linear differential equations. In both cases, the understanding of specific dynamical behaviors and phenomena is of the greatest interest for scientists. This volume contains papers that were presented at the International Workshop on Nonlinear Maps and their Applications (NOMA 2013) held in Zaragoza, Spain, on September 3-4, 2013. This kind of collaborative effort is of paramount importance in promoting communication among the various groups that work in dynamical systems and networks in their research theoretical studies as well as for applications. This volume is suitable for graduate students as well as researchers in the field.

  6. An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in the oil markets were reviewed in order to examine the international context for energy policy and challenges. The main elements and trends in global energy supply and demand were also reviewed along with the issues they present. Oil markets and energy supply industries in North America are influenced by industry consolidation, regulatory reform and oil pricing. Grid-based industries have been the main target of market reform policies. This presentation examined the world energy outlook in terms of fossil fuel use, demand growth in developing countries, energy security, and how to reduce greenhouse gases. It was noted that in addition to energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, unconventional oil from Canada's oil sands will appear in the oil business scene. The author emphasized that a key policy goal will be the removal of barriers to investment in energy supplies. figs

  7. International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Oral, Ahmet; Ozer, Mehmet; InterM; INTERM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress (INTERM2013) was organized on October 10-13, 2013. The aim of the congress was to bring together scientists from various branches to discuss the latest advances in the field of microscopy. The contents of the congress have been broadened to a more "interdisciplinary" scope, so as to allow all scientists working on related subjects to participate and present their work. These proceedings include 39 peer-reviewed technical papers, submitted by leading academic and research institutions from over 12 countries and representing some of the most cutting-edge research available. The 39 papers are grouped into the following sections: - Applications of Microscopy in the Physical Sciences - Applications of Microscopy in the Biological Sciences

  8. INTERNATIONAL DECOMMISSIONING SYMPOSIUM 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of IDS 2000 was to deliver a world-class conference on applicable global environmental issues. The objective of this conference was to publicize environmental progress of individual countries, to provide a forum for technology developer and problem-holder interaction, to facilitate environmental and technology discussions between the commercial and financial communities, and to accommodate information and education exchange between governments, industries, universities, and scientists. The scope of this project included the planning and execution of an international conference on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and the providing of a business forum for vendors and participants sufficient to attract service providers, technology developers, and the business and financial communities. These groups, when working together with attendees from regulatory organizations and government decision-maker groups, provide an opportunity to more effectively and efficiently expedite the decommissioning projects.

  9. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  10. International energy indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, E. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Data are tabulated and graphically represented on international energy indicators. The following are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October, 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1975 to October, 1981; summary of US merchandise trade, 1977 to October, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio

  11. Internal Ocean Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Internal waves are waves that travel within the interior of a fluid. The waves propagate at the interface or boundary between two layers with sharp density differences, such as temperature. They occur wherever strong tides or currents and stratification occur in the neighborhood of irregular topography. They can propagate for several hundred kilometers. The ASTER false-color VNIR image off the island of Tsushima in the Korea Strait shows the signatures of several internal wave packets, indicating a northern propagation direction. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 60 by 120 kilometers (37.2 by 74.4 miles) Location: 34.6 degrees North latitude, 129.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 90

  12. International law and United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Matej

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with centuries-lasting open military pretensions of world superpowers, modern diplomacy has developed, as beginning a war, as well as coming to peace demanded political activity which resulted, first in signing, and then coming into effect of international documents, on the basis of which, a foundation for the modern international order has been cast. Further on, by the formation of international organizations, codification has been allowed, as well as a progressive development of international law. Additionally, in the sense of preserving international peace and security, first the League of Nations was formed, and following the ending of World War II, the UN. Generally, the functioning of the United Nation's organs, has been regulated by legal rules, however political goals, tendencies, and mechanisms which the member states are using determine greatly the activity above all of the Security Council, but furthermore of the General Assembly, as a plenary organ. Nevertheless, the achieved results of the Commission for International Law in the meaning of creation of international conventions, as well as state adhering to the same, present unassailable achievements in the sense of development of international law. On the other hand, tendencies of motion of international relationships are aimed at establishing a multi-polar system in the international community. Today, the political scene is assuming a new appearance, by which the nearly built international system is already awaiting further progressive development.

  13. Mixture proportioning for internal curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Pietro, Lura; Roberts, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of internal concrete curing is steadily progressing from the laboratory to field practice. In terminology currently being considered by ACI Committee 308, Curing Concrete, “internal curing refers to the process by which the hydration of cement occurs because of the availability...... of additional internal water that is not part of the mixing water.” The additional internal water is typically supplied by using relatively small amounts of saturated, lightweight, fine aggregates (LWA) or superabsorbent polymer (SAP) particles in the concrete. Benefits of internal curing include increased...... hydration and strength development, reduced autogenous shrinkage and cracking, reduced permeability, and increased durability. The impact of internal curing begins immediately with the initial hydration of the cement, with benefits that are observed at ages as early as two days. Internal curing...

  14. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated in the s...... and academic life and 5) social networks and support for cultural adjustment. Insights into the characteristics of international students’ information needs and behavior may help host institutions serve international students.......This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...... in the study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...

  15. International Networking for Wellspring International Bilingual School Saigon

    OpenAIRE

    Bui Ngoc Phuong, Thao

    2014-01-01

    This thesis gave an overview of networking phenomenon and focused on building proposal for networking practices for the commissioner – Wellspring International Bilingual School Saigon. As international networking becomes more and more important to the development of business and education in the globalization era, Wellspring Saigon also recognized the need to international network with other education organisations and schools around the world. These future partnerships were expected to bring...

  16. International guidance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Allan C.B.

    1989-01-01

    International principles for setting Protective Action Guides (PAGs) are contained in two key documents that contain identical statements. One is Publication Number 40 of the ICRP, which was issued in 1985. The title is 'Protection of the Public in the Event of Major Radiation Accidents, Principles for Planning'. The other is the IAEA's Safety Series Publication Number 72, also issued in 1985, written by many of the same authors and titled, 'Principles for Establishing Intervention Levels'. The principles that were set forth in these documents were identical, were incomplete, and they are, unfortunately, the only principles that are now in effect, while proposed revisions go through one draft after another. There are several such draft revisions that are of significance. The most important is that of the ICRP. The basic guidance that applies to most planned exposure to radiation is ICRP Publication 26. That document has been under revision by the Commission for a number of years, and the new version will, for the first time, include recommendations for emergency response. They are now getting close to closure, and I think it should be a very much improved and useful document. But it isn't finished yet. Such guidance doesn't get developed in a vacuum, and there have been a couple of parallel efforts which have provided significant input to the ICRP, which is essentially a behind-closed-doors effort. These other efforts are more open. One of these is being carried out within the IAEA, which has convened annual meetings of national experts for a number of years in Vienna, to generate a replacement for Safety Series No. 72, mentioned earlier. There is a meeting scheduled this December to complete this effort; and, hopefully, we will reach closure at that meeting on at least the basic principles. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has also been at work. It has convened a group of experts from member nations that have been developing recommendations. There is an overlap

  17. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  18. Leaders produce leaders and managers produce followers. A systematic review of the desired competencies and standard settings for physicians' leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshhal, Khaid I; Guraya, Salman Y

    2016-10-01

    To elaborate the desired qualities, traits, and styles of physician's leadership with a deep insight into the recommended measures to inculcate leadership skills in physicians.   The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the full-text English-language articles published during the period 2000-2015. Further search, including manual search of grey literature, was conducted from the bibliographic list of all included articles. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords "Leadership" AND "Leadership traits" AND "Leadership styles" AND "Physicians' leadership" AND "Tomorrow's doctors" were used for the literature search. This search followed a step-wise approach defined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The retrieved bibliographic list was analyzed and non-relevant material such as abstracts, conference proceedings, letters to editor, and short communications were excluded. Finally, 21 articles were selected for this review.  The literature search showed a number of leadership courses and formal training programs that can transform doctors to physician leaders. Leaders can inculcate confidence by integrating diverse views and listening; supporting skillful conversations through dialogue and helping others assess their influence and expertise. In addition to their clinical competence, physician leaders need to acquire the industry knowledge (clinical processes, health-care trends, budget), problem-solving skills, and emotional intelligence.    This review emphasizes the need for embedding formal leadership courses in the medical curricula for fostering tomorrow doctors' leadership and organizational skills. The in-house and off-campus training programs and workshops should be arranged for grooming the potential candidates for effective leadership.

  19. Protein folding: Defining a standard set of experimental conditions and a preliminary kinetic data set of two-state proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Karen L.; Wildes, D.; Zarrine-Afsar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen the publication of both empirical and theoretical relationships predicting the rates with which proteins fold. Our ability to test and refine these relationships has been limited, however, by a variety of difficulties associated with the comparison of folding and unfolding ...... efforts is to set uniform standards for the experimental community and to initiate an accumulating, self-consistent data set that will aid ongoing efforts to understand the folding process....... constructs. The lack of a single approach to data analysis and error estimation, or even of a common set of units and reporting standards, further hinders comparative studies of folding. In an effort to overcome these problems, we define here a consensus set of experimental conditions (25°C at pH 7.0, 50 m...... rates, thermodynamics, and structure across diverse sets of proteins. These difficulties include the wide, potentially confounding range of experimental conditions and methods employed to date and the difficulty of obtaining correct and complete sequence and structural details for the characterized...

  20. PENENTUAN STANDARD SETTING MATA PELAJARAN KIMIA DENGAN METODE ANGOFF, IRT (ITEM RESPONSE THEORY, DAN SPLINES CUBIC HERMIT FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s suwahono

    2016-03-01

    Pada metode diatas, butir-butir tes ditentukan tingkat kesulitannya, ke- mudian butir-butir tersebut diurutkan berdasarkan tingkat kesulitannya yang selanjutnya menjadi nomor halaman. Pelaksanaan metode ini melibatkan guru kimia berpengala- man sebagai panelis yang menentukan pada halaman bera- pa peserta mulai tidak bisa mengerjakan, dan memerlukan suatu tes/perangkat ujian mata pelajaran kimia yang ter- standar, dan instrumen sederhana untuk menuliskan hasil tiap panelis. Tahap pelaksanaan yaitu pelatihan, putaran 1, dan putaran 2. Rerata hasil putaran 1 dan 2 merupakan hasil penentuan batas kelulusan mata pelajaran kimia

  1. Use of a standard set of profiles of open fields for photon beams in hand-held calculator (tele)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Guevara, Adrian; Rodriguez Zayas, Michael; Reyes Gonzalez, Tommy; Gonzalez Perez, Yelina; Sola Rodriguez, Yeline; Sanchez Zamora, Luis; Caballero, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Dosimetry has gone through different stages in their evolution to our days advanced computer programs for treatment planning show the 3D dose distribution, complex algorithms for calculating 3D dose, complex treatment techniques, etc. All this has made the verification field treatment time or dose given to the PTV using calculations manuals are increasingly uncertain, reaching values that can exceed ±10%. It is proposed a calculation tool that uses EXCEL parameters obtained by fitting model profiles open fields. This calculator (TELE) taking information from the fields of PTV and treatments patient anatomical data allows verification of the dose contributions any point, correction of surface heterogeneity of the tissues present in the beam to the point of calculation. (Author)

  2. The impact of altered herbicide residues in transgenic herbicide-resistant crops on standard setting for herbicide residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Unsworth, J.B.; Harris, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The global area covered with transgenic (genetically modified) crops has rapidly increased since their introduction in the mid-1990s. Most of these crops have been rendered herbicide resistant, for which it can be envisaged that the modification has an impact on the profile and level of herbicide

  3. 75 FR 181 - Notice of Determinations on the PURPA Standards Set Forth in the Energy Independence and Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... consists of the intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) and communications between the devices for feedback... Equipment provisions in subsection C employ a rate of return perspective that applies to investor-owned...

  4. A standardized set of 260 pictures for Modern Greek: norms for name agreement, age of acquisition, and visual complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulou, María; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Blitsas, Panagiotis; Carreiras, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    The appropriate selection of both pictorial and linguistic experimental stimuli requires a previous language-specific standardization process of the materials across different variables. Considering that such normative data have not yet been collected for Modern Greek, in this study normative data for the color version of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart picture set (Rossion & Pourtois, 2004) were collected from 330 native Greek adults. Participants named the pictures (providing name agreement ratings) and rated them for visual complexity and age of acquisition. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Greek language processing and constitute the first picture normative study for this language. The picture norms from this study and previous ones may be downloaded from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  5. Impacts of Culture on International Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2010-09-01

    This paper provides practical suggestions for developing a healthy and complete working relationship between the system safety practitioner and international business partners, international vendors and international customers.

  6. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  7. International Business Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lubiński

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prime stylized facts of international business cycle theory refer to positive correlation in the cyclical components of important macroeconomic variables across countries. However a number of indicators of business cycle synchronization do not point to clear trends. It can be ascribed to the fact that different forces influence level of business cycle correlation. When investigating into the forces behind the commonness in aggregate fluctuations economic research seems to have pointed in two directions. One strand of the literature examines the idea of common exogenous shocks that affect economies simultaneously. In addition to that economic interdependencies such as trade in goods and services or capital account transactions may serve as the channels through which disturbances spill over across countries.The observed degree of output co movement reflects both the nature of the shocks that have occurred and the degree of economic interdependence. In the periods when common shocks prevail level of synchronization is usually higher than in times of transmission dominance.

  8. International uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Jacoby, H.D.

    1980-12-01

    Discussed in this report are 1) how one might think about uranium demand, resources and supply, 2) how producers and consumers see the market and are likely to behave, including specifics about export and import commitments, and 3) how these actors are brought together in the international market. The general conclusion is that much of current anxiety about future uranium supply results primarily from a brief but difficult period in the mid- to late-1970's; and that current conditions and trends are favorable (at least to consumers) that there is now little basis for concern. Inventories contractual positions and producer commitments--when compared with realistic (or even unrealistic) demand estimates--imply a buyer's market for at least the next decade. The result will be considerable increases in market flexibility and resilience to shock, and real prices that are low relative to those of the past few years. There is a need to reconsider assumptions about desired directions of technological development, for many current programs were planned in an era of pessimism about uranium supply and process. Similar questions must be raided about nonproliferation policies that depend on some level of control of fuel supplies by the industrial nations. With a soft and more diversified uranium market, leverage that may have existed in the past is rapidly being eroded. Finally, as world prices turn soft, there may be significant problems created for U.S. uranium producers, who have relatively high costs in relation to several large-scale foreign suppliers

  9. Dutch radiodiagnostics viewed internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valois, J.C. de

    1990-01-01

    Dutch radiodiagnostics viewed internationally. - A quantitative description of diagnostic radiology is given in terms of radiological density (the number of radiological examinations per 1000 inhibitants), consumptions of roentgen film and contrast media. The data concerning examinations were recorded by a yearly inquiry system addressing all Dutch radiologists. The consumption of film and contrast media were derived from the data banks of the industries. In comparing these data with the data for Western Europe, Japan and the United States it is remarkable that diagnostic radiology scores lowest in regard to density, film consumption and use of contrast media. Only in the use of 35 mm cinefilm (coronary angiography) is The Netherlands number 2 on the list preceded by the United States. As a consequence radiation exposure of the population caused by diagnostic radiology is low in The Netherlands. Although the technical condition of the equipment is good due to regular and preventive service the life-span of the radiological equipment is gradually increasing beyond the limits of the normal economic depreciation. Growing arrears are found in the application of new technology: ultrasound, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The substitution of high osmolar contrast media by low osmolar media is also laggin gbehind. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tab

  10. International leadership in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ged F. Williams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the global community becomes overwhelmed by conflict, threat and scandal in many countries it is heartening to find that many of us can still find opportunity to give generously to the betterment of humanity.Recently we have both had our share of fun and excitement working and learning in various regions of the world, Ged in the Middle East and Africa and Wilson in the USA, The Netherlands and Brazil.We are often asked “how do you develop an international perspective”? The short answer is that it is an insidious accident sometimes, however like many things a deeper analysis reveals a journey that is often planned and other times blessed by unexpected surprises. However a sense of openness, generosity and adventure is always necessary to maximise every opportunity.Among other things, Ged allocated time to travel and to visit hospitals and nurses in other parts of Australia and the world, listening to people’s stories, dreams, and aspirations and providing reciprocal encouragement and fellowship, often through interpreters. (Rev Cuid 2013; 4(1:433-6.

  11. International Conference Medical Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The second edition of the international conference Medical radiation : research and applications which took place in Marrakech (Morocco) from 7 to 9 April 2010, was designed to bring together researchers and physicians from different countries who dedicated their talents and time to this endeavour. The conference's program defined goals were is to identify the most reliable techniques among the several tested so far and to establish the most practical standardized methodologies, taking into account such recent technological development in radiation medical research. The scientific objectives of this conference are as follows : present the state of the art of the various topics of the congress, give a progress report on the impact of the interaction of the various scientific and technical disciplinary fields (Medicine, Biology, Mathematics, Physics,..) on the applications of radiations in medicine, promote the interdisciplinary efforts of research among researchers, present new technologies and research and development tasks prepared in the field of medical radiations, contribute to the emergence of new ideas of research and development of new collaborations [fr

  12. International energy outlook 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  13. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  14. The international hydrocoin project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The International HYDROCOIN (Hydrologic Code Intercomparison) Project was started in May 1984. Fourteen organizations participate in the Project, with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) as managing participant and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) taking part as a member of the Project secretariat. HYDROCOIN is concerned with the assessment of groundwater movements at potential nuclear waste disposal sites with the help of mathematical models and computer codes. The Project is divided into three levels. The objective of HYDROCOIN Level 1 is to verify the accuracy of groundwater flow codes. HYDROCOIN Level 2 and Level 3 are concerned with validation of hydrological models and uncertainty/sensitivity analysis, respectively. This report, which has been prepared by the NEA Secretariat and SKI in consultation with the co-ordinating group of the HYDROCOIN Project summarizes the background and objectives of the Project and presents the results of the work performed up to the middle of 1987. It is intended to provide general information on HYDROCOIN to interested parties beyond the group of directly involved specialists

  15. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  16. International nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, P.; Rocchio, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Light water reactors (LWRs), originally developed in the United States, became the nuclear workhorses for utilities in Europe and Japan largely because the U.S. industry was willing and able to transfer its nuclear know-how abroad. In this international effort, the industry had the encouragement and support of the U.S. governement. In the case of the boiling water reactor (BWR) the program for technology transfer was developed in response to overseas customer demands for support in building local designs and manufacturing capabilities. The principal vehicles have been technology exchange agreements through which complete engineering and manufacturing information is furnished covering BWR systems and fuel. Agreements are held with companies in Germany, Japan, Italy, and Sweden. In recent years, a comprehensive program of joint technology development with overseas manufacturers has begun. The rapidly escalating cost of nuclear research and development make it desirable to minimize duplication of effort. These joint programs provide a mechanism for two or more parties jointly to plan a development program, assign work tasks among themselves, and exchange test results. Despite a slower-than-hoped-for start, nuclear power today is playing a significant role in the economic growth of some developing countries, and can continue to do so. Roughly half of the 23 free world nations that have adopted LWRs are developing countries

  17. Guidelines for dynamic international programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Matters of global concern-deforestation, global warming, biodiversity loss, sustainable development, fuelwood crises, watershed destruction, and large-scale flooding-frequently involve forests and natural resources. In the future, university students will enter a global setting that more than ever depends on a strong knowledge of international issues. USA land-grant universities are attempting to prepare students for this challenge by improving their international programs including forestry. To improve university programs, several factors will need to be addressed and are discussed, with examples, in this article: commitment of the faculty; program specialization; geographic specialization; reward systems for international contributions; international collaboration; recycled dollars within the university; active teaching programs; research; extention and outreach; language training; international faculty; travel grants; twinning relationships with sister institutions; selective in pursuit of international development assistance; and study centers. 6 refs

  18. Internal auditors meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    What does CERN have in common with INTERPOL? The answer: the challenge of managing a complex international organisation operating outside national regulations. Participants of the internal audit conference had the opportunity to visit ATLAS.On 17th &18th April CERN hosted a meeting for the Internal Audit Heads of some of the most famous international organisations in the world. Sixteen organisations were represented at the conference, including the European Commission, INTERPOL, the European Central Bank, the OECD, the European Space Agency (ESA), NATO and the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO). The objective of this annual meeting is to share best practices and benchmark performance in the fields of auditing, organizational governance, risk management and internal controls. International organisations, due to their specific legal status and the absence of applicable national legisl...

  19. International standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.

    2011-01-01

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

  20. International Criminal Law & Its Paradoxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2017-01-01

    This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...... criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures....

  1. International handling of fissionable material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The opinion of the ministry for foreign affairs on international handling of fissionable materials is given. As an introduction a survey is given of the possibilities to produce nuclear weapons from materials used in or produced by power reactors. Principles for international control of fissionable materials are given. International agreements against proliferation of nuclear weapons are surveyed and methods to improve them are proposed. (K.K.)

  2. On Interpretivism and International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Çali, Başak (Prof.)

    2017-01-01

    This article argues for the relevance of interpretivism within theoretical and normative debates about international law. To do this, the article carries out two tasks. First, it draws out the central features of interpretivism that make it a theoretically distinct contribution to understanding the nature and theory of law. Secondly, it identifies four important objections, two external and two internal, to the relevance of interpretivism to international law. External objections stem from po...

  3. Water security and international law

    OpenAIRE

    Kuokkanen Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    The article explores water security from an international law point of view. The article argues that in order to better understand water security it is important to focus on the function of international water law. Even though water security is a relatively recent concept it was latent in the process of the evolution of international water law. In addition, the article examines the relationship between man and water from the point of view of water security. The article seeks to answe...

  4. INTERNAL AUDIT IN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Internal Audit, compared with verification of transactions and compliance with established procedures, identify risks and assess the effectiveness of risk management.Internal audit based on risk analysis assesses the adequacy and effectiveness of internal control in all areas of activity, helps management in its task by analyzing the causes and consequences, with recommendations concerning the activities examined, whereas both shareholders and existing and potential investors are interested in how the entity is governed.

  5. International migration and the gender

    OpenAIRE

    Koropecká, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    My bachelor thesis explores the connection between international migration and gender. Gender, defined as a social, not a biological term, has a huge impact on the migration process. Statistics and expert studies that have been gender sensitive since 1970s demonstrate that women form half of the amount of the international migrants depending on the world region and representing a wide range of the kinds of international migration: family formation and reunification, labour migration, illegal ...

  6. International activities of the GRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, R.; Hachenberg, G.; Schally, P.

    1990-01-01

    The individual activities fall into three main subject areas, each with differing objectives and functions: Cooperation in multilateral and bilateral bodies and organizations, cooperation in international research projects, performance of safety analyses. In addition to describing the international activities of GRS, the paper also shows how complexly interwoven the safety of nuclear facilities is at the international level, and how varied initiatives are required in order to ensure effective cooperation in the various fields. (orig.) [de

  7. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  8. The security in international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurie RICHICINSCHI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regardless the fact that concerns about the nature of relations between states, the causes of war, the peacekeeping issues, the international cooperation and recognition of international actors have preceded with millennia the emergence of the academic field of International Relations as a discipline, this one has been embedded along several centuries in much broader areas of research, whose influence is still manifested today.

  9. International Organizations and Environmental Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik; Kaiser, Wolfram

    Pollution, resource depletion, habitat management, and climate change are all issues that necessarily transcend national boundaries. Accordingly, they and other environmental concerns have been a particular focus for international organizations from before the First World War to the present day...... between emerging environmental concerns and international politics during the last century. It illuminates the crucial role played by international organisations in developing environmental policies, and in particular it traces the political resolve and intellectual effort behind the concept...

  10. Time, history and international law

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, Matthew; Vogiatzi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This book examines theoretical and practical issues concerning the relationship between international law, time and history. Problems relating to time and history are ever-present in the work of international lawyers, whether understood in terms of the role of historic practice in the doctrine of sources, the application of the principle of inter-temporal law in dispute settlement, or in gaining a coherent insight into the role that was played by international law in past events. But very little has been written about the various different ways in which international lawyers approach or unders

  11. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    .... Some legal constraints will certainly apply to information warfare, either because the constraints explicitly regulate particular actions, or because more general principles of international law...

  12. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  13. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    The development of "information warfare" presents international legal issues that will complicate nations' efforts both to execute and to respond to certain information warfare attacks, specifically...

  14. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  15. Internal Audits of QMS (COTS) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This is an internal audit workflow application used to automate business processes that support the AVS Quality Management System (QMS) and several Flight Standards...

  16. Experimental and numerical studies of a lean-burn internally-staged combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhenbo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A lean-burn internally-staged combustor for low emissions that can be used in civil aviation gas turbines is introduced in this paper. The main stage is designed and optimized in terms of fuel evaporation ratio, fuel/air pre-mixture uniformity, and particle residence time using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD software. A single-module rectangular combustor is adopted in performance tests including lean ignition, lean blowout, combustion efficiency, emissions, and combustion oscillation using aviation kerosene. Furthermore, nitrogen oxides (NOx emission is also predicted using CFD simulation to compare with test results. Under normal inlet temperature, this combustor can be ignited easily with normal and negative inlet pressures. The lean blowout fuel/air ratio (LBO FAR at the idle condition is 0.0049. The fuel split proportions between the pilot and main stages are determined through balancing emissions, combustion efficiency, and combustion oscillation. Within the landing and take-off (LTO cycle, this combustor enables 42% NOx reduction of the standard set by the 6th Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP/6 with high combustion efficiency. The maximum board-band pressure oscillations of inlet air and fuel are below 1% of total pressure during steady-state operations at the LTO cycle specific conditions.

  17. International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention (ISVIP) hosted the International Conference on “Children and Injuries” in Cape Town, South Africa from 31 August to 3 September 2008. ISVIP's mission is to establish global commitment to violence and injury prevention through advocacy and public policy action, ...

  18. International Education: The International Baccalaureate, Montessori and Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunold-Conesa, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and Montessori education both claim to promote values associated with global citizenship in order to help prepare students for new challenges presented by an increasingly globalized world. While the IB's secondary programs are widespread in international schools, Montessori programs at that level are…

  19. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  20. What Is International about International Schools? An Institutional Legitimacy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Tristan; Fertig, Michael; James, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the number of International Schools around the world has increased rapidly largely as a result of growth of new forms of International Schools, which differ markedly from the traditional forms. These new forms: are often operated on a for-profit commercial basis; are usually for children from the local (indigenous), wealthy…