WorldWideScience

Sample records for fr02se10p marine sanitation

  1. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  2. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section 131.940... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159. ...

  3. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section 184.704... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with...

  4. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all applicable...

  5. 46 CFR 121.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 121.704 Section 121.704... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159. [CGD 85-080...

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TYPE I MARINE SANITATION DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This performance test was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two Type I Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): the Electro Scan Model EST 12, manufactured by Raritan Engineering Company, Inc., and the Thermopure-2, manufactured by Gross Mechanical Laboratories, Inc. Performance...

  7. 36 CFR 3.13 - What conditions apply to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What conditions apply to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)? 3.13 Section 3.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)? (a) Discharging sewage from any vessel, whether...

  8. 75 FR 4379 - Maine Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Notice of Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-R01-OW-2009-0304, FRL-9106-3] Maine Marine Sanitation Device Standard--Notice of Determination AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Determination. SUMMARY: The Regional Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency--New England Region...

  9. 75 FR 72655 - Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... National Marine Sanctuary AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Oceanic and... the regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS or sanctuary) by eliminating the exemption that allows discharges from within the boundary of the sanctuary of biodegradable effluent...

  10. 77 FR 11401 - Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): No Discharge Zone (NDZ) for California State Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ..., recreational, conservation, research, educational, and aesthetic values, and are becoming increasingly more... sewage; and (2) it will improve California marine waters for commercial fisheries, tourism, aesthetics...-out facilities, educational outreach, and establishment of small NDZs under CWA Section 312(f)(3) in...

  11. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Márquez, I.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Cambero, M. I.; Cabeza, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing. PMID:23227053

  12. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. García-Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C, the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing.

  13. 77 FR 25166 - EPA-New England Region I; Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard; Receipt of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... Oyster Harbor Marine 122 Bridge 508-428-2017, VHF 9 a.m.-4 p.m 6 Street, 9, 79. Osterville. Crosby Yacht Yard 72 Crosby Circle, 508-428-6900, VHF 9 a.m.-5 p.m 6 Osterville, MA. 9. Centerville Harbor/3 Bays...

  14. 9 CFR 3.107 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in food preparation must be cleaned and sanitized after each use. Kitchens and other food handling... marine mammals except when deemed essential by an attending veterinarian. [66 FR 253, Jan. 3, 2001] ...

  15. Warehouse Sanitation Workshop Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC.

    This workshop handbook contains information and reference materials on proper food warehouse sanitation. The materials have been used at Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food warehouse sanitation workshops, and are selected by the FDA for use by food warehouse operators and for training warehouse sanitation employees. The handbook is divided…

  16. 9 CFR 3.131 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.131 Section 3.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  17. Sanitation investments in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awunyo-Akaba, Y.; Awunyo-Akaba, J.; Gyapong, M.

    2016-01-01

    with people’s willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged......Background: Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district...... communities were triangulated with multiple interview material and contextual knowledge on social structures, history of settlement, land use, livelihoods, and access to and perceptions about sanitation. Results: This study shows that the history of settlement and land ownership issues are highly correlated...

  18. Guide to ship sanitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures"--Back cover...

  19. Sanitation without pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblad, U

    2000-01-01

    The most effective way of protecting drinking water resources from domestic sewage is to use technologies that do not produce sewage. This paper gives an overview of emerging alternatives in the form of ecological sanitation systems for urban and peri-urban areas. A key feature of ecological sanitation is that it regards human excreta as a resource to be recycled rather than as waste to be disposed of. Examples given include ecological sanitation systems based on dehydration and decomposition from Mexico, El Salvador, Sweden, India and Vietnam. These systems need neither water for flushing, nor pipelines for transport, nor treatment plants and arrangements for the disposal of toxic sludge. Large scale application of ecological sanitation would lead to less environmental pollution, reduced water consumption, considerable savings on sewers and treatment plants and increased employment. In addition it would provide valuable resources for food production and wasteland development.

  20. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that resource recovery can be a potential driver to accelerate sanitation. A new sanitation decision framework for policy makers was created and tested in Indonesia. The variety of advantages and disadvantages of sanitatio...

  1. Acceptance of new sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, P.M.; Sanders, Liese; Weijma, Jan; Vries, De Jasper R.

    2018-01-01

    Current sanitation systems are inherently limited in their ability to address the new challenges for (waste)water management that arise from the rising demand to restore resource cycles. These challenges include removal of micropollutants, water (re)use, and nutrient recovery. New opportunities

  2. Sense and Sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, sanitation infrastructures have been designed to do away with sensory experiences. As in the present phase of modernity the senses are assigned a crucial role in the perception of risks, a paradigm shift has emerged in the infrastructural provision of energy, water and waste services.

  3. Sanitation and Civic Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Peña Barreto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is proposed in order to propose an action plan for environmental sanitation citizen participation in the "Manuela Sáenz" Concentrating National Basic School Parish Municipality City Bolivia Pedraza Barinas state. It is part of the qualitative approach in the form of participatory action research and supported by a narrative descriptive design. The selected scenario for performance of work was the Concentrating National School "Manuela Sáenz" key informants consist of 1 member of the community, 1 member of the community council and one teacher of the institution. The techniques used are observation and depth interview, using as instruments a field notebook and an interview script. For the presentation and analysis of results he was categorized, triangulated and theorized the information obtained, performing a thorough and detailed report on the integrated management of solid waste diagnosis. Subsequently, the proposal called Action Plan for environmental sanitation was developed with citizen participation in concentrated Manuela Saenz National Basic School. Then the proposal where participants expressed the view that activities allowed to obtain very important basic knowledge on environmental sanitation was run.

  4. Sanitizers and Disinfectants Guide. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Sanitizers and disinfectants can play an important role in protecting public health. They are designed to kill "pests," including infectious germs and other microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Unfortunately, sanitizers and disinfectants also contain chemicals that are "pesticides." Exposure to persistent toxic…

  5. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery

    Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study

  6. El Salvador - Water and Sanitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The benefits of the water and sanitation sub activity will be measured using a rigorous quasi-experimental impact evaluation methodology. An impact evaluation is a...

  7. Social Perspectives on the Sanitation Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developed countries the sanitation challenge is to initiate a transition from strongly centralized, water-based infrastructure regimes towards more sustainable, source-separation oriented, sanitation regimes. This calls for social scientific research and demonstration on different levels and

  8. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. 29 CFR 1926.27 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.27 Sanitation. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part. ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.27 Section 1926.27 Labor Regulations...

  10. Blue Bahia: an environmental sanitation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcona, Miguel Angel L.; Neuvirth, Bruno

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents actions developed to incorporate some aspects of environmental sanitation to the basic sanitation project, natural resources assessing, identification of the environmental degradation sources - in addition to those caused by lack of basic sanitation, and common action between public and private sectors

  11. 29 CFR 1926.51 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.51 Section 1926.51 Labor Regulations... Sanitation. (a) Potable water. (1) An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided in all places of...; (iv) Combustion toilets. (4) The requirements of this paragraph (c) for sanitation facilities shall...

  12. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of Salmonella...

  13. Sanitation: User perceptions and acceptance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research showed that many households that were provided with basic water and sanitation services have joined the backlog again due to the infrastructure not being used for the purpose it was intended to. Research also showed that in most cases...

  14. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  15. Paper-based plasma sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjin; Chen, Qiang; Suresh, Poornima; Roy, Subrata; White, James F; Mazzeo, Aaron D

    2017-05-16

    This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume and fuel plasma, while plasma-induced forced convection cools the substrate. When electrically driven with oscillating peak-to-peak potentials of ±1 to ±10 kV, the paper-based devices produced both volume and surface plasmas capable of killing microbes. The plasma sanitizers deactivated greater than 99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli cells with 30 s of noncontact treatment. Characterization of plasma generated from the sanitizers revealed a detectable level of UV-C (1.9 nW⋅cm -2 ⋅nm -1 ), modest surface temperature (60 °C with 60 s of activation), and a high level of ozone (13 ppm with 60 s of activation). These results deliver insights into the mechanisms and suitability of paper-based substrates for active antimicrobial sanitization with scalable, flexible sheets. In addition, this work shows how paper-based generators are conformable to curved surfaces, appropriate for kirigami-like "stretchy" structures, compatible with user interfaces, and suitable for sanitization of microbes aerosolized onto a surface. In general, these disposable plasma generators represent progress toward biodegradable devices based on flexible renewable materials, which may impact the future design of protective garments, skin-like sensors for robots or prosthetics, and user interfaces in contaminated environments.

  16. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation standard operating procedures. 120.6... Provisions § 120.6 Sanitation standard operating procedures. (a) Sanitation controls. Each processor shall have and implement a sanitation standard operating procedure (SSOP) that addresses sanitation...

  17. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.12 Development of Sanitation SOP's. (a) The Sanitation SOP's shall describe all... direct contamination or adulteration of product(s). (b) The Sanitation SOP's shall be signed and dated by...

  18. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered ‘improved sanitation’ or, in the current terminology, ‘basic sanitation’ by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapte...

  19. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Little research has been focused on the health status or the occupational protection awareness of sanitation workers. The policy recommendations on the occupational safety and health of sanitation workers based on the scientific research are also insufficient in developing countries like China. Objective: To ...

  20. Egg processing plant sanitation, SSOPs, and GMPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The basis of food safety programs in processing facilities is prerequisite programs such as sanitation and good manufacturing practices. Thoughtful, thorough, and complete sanitation programs are necessary to enhance the food safety of products and reduce the likelihood of foodborne illness. Egg p...

  1. 36 CFR 331.7 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 331.7 Section 331.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.7 Sanitation. (a) Garbage, trash, rubbish, litter, or any other waste material...

  2. Sanitation & Safety for Child Feeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…

  3. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations other...

  5. 36 CFR 261.11 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 261.11 Section 261.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.11 Sanitation. The following are prohibited: (a) Depositing in any toilet...

  6. 9 CFR 3.56 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.56 Section 3.56 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.56 Sanitation. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. (1) Primary...

  7. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that the...

  8. Enhancing governance for sanitation marketing in DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is one of the results of the ‘Sanitation Marketing in Equateur Province’ project in RDC, in which Wageningen UR and Oxfam Great Britain (Oxfam GB) work together.

    • It Describes the characteristics of different governance arrangements that address sanitation problems in Gemena

  9. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer...

  10. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the accommodation...

  11. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands, and...

  12. 36 CFR 327.9 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 327.9 Section 327.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.9 Sanitation. (a) Garbage, trash, rubbish, litter, gray water, or any other waste material or...

  13. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and

  14. 77 FR 12843 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department... diseases. The fee schedule for sanitation inspections of passenger cruise ships inspected under VSP was... sanitation inspections. These inspections are conducted by CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP). VSP assists...

  15. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.14 Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. Each official establishment shall routinely evaluate the effectiveness of the Sanitation SOP's and the procedures therein in preventing direct...

  16. Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Access to improved sanitation is a major concern in the Lao People s Democratic Republic. Only 63 percent of the population of the country had access to improved sanitation facilities in 2010. Sanitation conditions are worse in rural areas. This study aims to generate evidence on the costs and benefits of sanitation improvements Lao PDR.

  17. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in body defense, and is predisposed to disease when subjected to ... sanitation workers in Wuhan (China) for better manage- ment and ... Symptoms of facial skin photo .... ronment, diet nutrition and working environment were also poor.

  18. Water and Sanitation Standards in Humanitarian Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ERSEL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: The right to water and sanitation is an inextricable human right. Water and sanitation are critical determinants for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is necessary to prevent death from dehydration, to reduce the risk of water-related disease and to provide for consumption, cooking and personal and domestic hygienic requirements. The main objective of WASH – (Water supply, Sanitation and Hygenie promotion programmes in disasters is to reduce the transmission of faeco-oral diseases and exposure to disease-bearing vectors through the promotion of: good hygiene practices, the provision of safe drinking water, the reduction of environmental health risks, the conditions that allow people to a healthy life with dignity, comfort and security. Keywords: Water, sanitation, disasters, humanitarian response, hygenie promotion, drainage, vector control, waste disposition

  19. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Butkovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and the rest of the domestic wastewater (grey water). Different characteristics of wastewater streams facilitate recovery of energy, nutrients and fresh water. To ensure agricultural or ecological reuse ...

  20. Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella recovered from non-sanitized and sanitized broiler hatching eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitizing hatching eggs may reduce the chances that a flock will become colonized with Salmonella and reduce the numbers of other microorganisms, such as Enterobacteriaceae, that can depress hatchability. An experiment was conducted to determine if a quaternary-biguanide sanitizer applied as foam ...

  1. Assessing Women's Negative Sanitation Experiences and Concerns: The Development of a Novel Sanitation Insecurity Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Bethany A; Clasen, Thomas; Yount, Kathryn M; Cooper, Hannah L F; Hadley, Craig; Haardörfer, Regine

    2017-07-11

    Lack of access to acceptable sanitation facilities can expose individuals, particularly women, to physical, social, and mental health risks. While some of the challenges have been documented, standard metrics are needed to determine the extent to which women have urination- and defecation-related concerns and negative experiences. Such metrics also are needed to assess the effectiveness of interventions to mitigate them. We developed a sanitation insecurity measure to capture the range and frequency of women's sanitation-related concerns and negative experiences. Research was conducted in rural Odisha, India with women across various life course stages to reflect a range of perspectives. This paper documents the mixed data collection methods and the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses we employed to arrive at a final measure. The final sanitation insecurity measure includes 50 items across seven factors that reflect the physical environment, the social environment, and individual-level constraints. Most factor scores were significantly higher for unmarried women and for women who lacked access to functional latrines, indicating social and environmental influence on experiences. This measure will enable researchers to evaluate how sanitation insecurity affects health and to determine if and how sanitation interventions ameliorate women's concerns and negative experiences associated with sanitation.

  2. Water Supply and Sanitation Facility Accessibility in Off-Campus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Supply and Sanitation Facility Accessibility in Off-Campus Houses ... on drinking water source, rate of illness, type and usage of sanitation facilities. ... wells, unprotected dug wells; while others during the wet season harvest rain water.

  3. 49 CFR 229.139 - Sanitation, servicing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, servicing requirements. 229.139... Cab Equipment § 229.139 Sanitation, servicing requirements. (a) The sanitation compartment of each... intended such that: (1) All mechanical systems shall function; (2) Water shall be present in sufficient...

  4. 77 FR 50511 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department... schedule for sanitation inspections of passenger cruise ships by VSP was first published in the Federal...), announces fees for vessel sanitation inspections for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013. These inspections are conducted...

  5. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled by...

  6. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... rodents, birds, insects, and other vermin (other than laboratory animals). Trash and organic waste matter...

  7. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... therein due to leakage of the watering system, discharges from dead or dying animals, spoiled perishable...) Primary enclosures for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sanitized by washing them with hot water (180 °F... forth in this subpart. Premises shall remain free of accumulations of trash. (c) Pest control. An...

  8. Regional analysis of sanitation performance in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, Debasree; Dutta, Arijita

    2017-01-01

    India bears a disproportionate burden of open defecation in spite of investing more and more funds and ushering in several institutional efforts including the Swachh Bharat Mission in the recent past. A large share of rural households still lack basic sanitation facilities in India and members

  9. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  10. Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A sanitation programme for stamping-out viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was implemented in Denmark in 1965. The programme has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of infected rainbow trout farms, from approximate to 400 to 26. The programme is carried out on a voluntary basis...

  11. Exploring Community Sanitation Preferences for Environmental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water, poor sanitation and lack of hygiene causes 1.8 million deaths per year, .... collecting urban nightsoil is regarded as employment for people of very low ... Indeed, in some countries (e.g., India, Ghana), the ... women generally have fewer facilities than men, and the lack of provision .... deaths and gender inequality.

  12. Dry sanitation concepts with inspiration from nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hesselberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Poor sanitation is a major problem for health and water resources in many developing countries. Inexpensive but also attractive toilets could be a way to fight these problems. However, radical new ideas are needed to identify innovative solutions. Such novel ideas might be found by using systemat...

  13. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized.

  14. School environment and sanitation in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Majra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : A school child educated about the benefits of sanitation and good hygiene behavior is a conduit for carrying those messages far beyond the school walls, bringing lasting improvement to community hygienic practices. Aims : To study the status of school environment and sanitation in rural India. Settings and Design: Government schools in rural Karnataka, cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected for the study. Informed consent was taken from the Heads of the schools. A pre tested close ended questionnaire was used to get the information. The minimum standards for sanitation of the school and its environment in India were used as the guiding principles to evaluate the appropriateness/ adequacy of the various attributes. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Results : Out of 20 schools selected, one fourth of the schools were located/ sited at inappropriate places. Only half of the schools had appropriate/ adequate structure. Eighteen (90% of the schools were overcrowded. Ventilation and day light was adequate for 12(60% and 14(70% of the schools respectively. Cleanliness of school compound/classrooms was adequate in 80% of the schools. There were no separate rooms for serving the midday meals in any of the schools under study. Eighteen (90% of the schools were having drinking water points. Liquid and solid waste disposal was insanitary in six (30% and eight (40% of the schools respectively. Only half of the schools had adequate latrines for boys and 60% for girls. Only two (10% of the schools had adequate hand washing points with soap. Conclusions : Environment and sanitation facilities at many of the schools are not fully satisfactory.

  15. Rethinking Sustainable Sanitation for the Urban Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Norström, A; Mcconville, Jennifer; Lüthi, C; Panesar, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Climate change, diminishing natural resources and rural-urban demographic trends will have profound impacts on future urban infrastructure delivery in both developed and developing countries. These challenges will however, leverage new opportunities for circular urban economies in which productive sanitation will play an important role in both the North and South. In the developed world, the challenge is to initiate a transition from disposal oriented, water-based infrastructure regimes towar...

  16. History and Technology of Terra Preta Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino De Gisi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reach the Millennium Development Goals for significantly reducing the number of people without access to adequate sanitation, new holistic concepts are needed focusing on economically feasible closed-loop ecological sanitation systems rather than on expensive end-of-pipe technologies. An analysis of a former civilization in the Amazon (nowadays Brazil highlights the possibility to close the loop with a more sustainable lifestyle integrating soil fertility, food security, waste management, water protection and sanitation, renewable energy. Terra Preta do Indio is the anthropogenic black soil produced by ancient cultures through the conversion of bio-waste, fecal matter and charcoal into long-term fertile soils. These soils have maintained high amounts of organic carbon several thousand years after they were abandoned. Deriving from these concepts, Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS has been re-developed and adopted. TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting. Lacto-fermentation is a biological anaerobic process that generates a pre-stabilization of the mixture. The main advantage of lacto-fermentation is that no gas and no odor is produced. What makes it particularly interesting for in-house systems even in urban areas. Instead, vermicomposting is an aerobic decomposition process of the pre-digested materials by the combined action of earthworms and microorganisms. It transforms the carbon and nutrients into the deep black, fertile and stable soil that can be utilized in agriculture. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Starting from ancient Amazonian civilizations traditional knowledge, the aim of this work is to present TPS systems adopted nowadays.

  17. Investigation on food sanitation controlling technologies; Shokuhin eisei kanri gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Y [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Nishioka, J

    2000-03-24

    Investigation has been made on the current status of food sanitation controlling technologies. Eighty percent of food poisoning is caused by bacte such as Salmonera, enteritis vibrio, staphylococcus, and pathogenic colibacillus. Putrefaction as the cause for food poisoning occurs from proliferation of different microorganisms. Heating sterilization is the main method being performed, but non-heating method may include sterilization by flash and high voltage pulse discharge in addition to ultra-high pressure and ultraviolet ray sterilization. As a result of the questionnaire survey, what is extracted as the problems in the food sanitation controlling technologies is to establish a rinsing and sterilizing method with large sterilization effect, an effective sterilizing method and thawing of processed marine products, and a cooling method in food processing. Increasingly demanded for the future is to develop a foodstuff sanitation control system using as the core the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP, a quality control program developed by the U.S. NASA to ensure safety in manufacturing space food), and micro-organism control and sterilizing technologies to support the above system. The flash pulse and high-voltage pulse sterilizing technologies as the non-heating sterilizing technology are more effective than the conventional heating sterilization methods also from the aspect of quality retention after sterilization. More active development thereof is desired. (NEDO)

  18. A conceptual model of people's approach to sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avvannavar, Santosh M.; Mani, Monto

    2008-01-01

    Sanitation is a term primarily used to characterize the safe and sound handling (and disposal) of human excreta - or simply, people's approach to take-care of their (unavoidable) primal urge. According to the recent Human Development Report 2006 Global access to proper sanitation stands at approximately 58% with 37% being a conservative estimate both for South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Various multi-million dollar sanitation programmes the world over have had little success, often due to inadequate understanding of people's sanitation approach. Sanitation approach includes the perception, feel and practices involved in satisficing the primal need to defecate and urinate (and their disposal). This paper presents a structure to understand the nature of psycho-socio-economic influences that determine societal approach to sanitation. Societies across the globe have evolved imbibing diverse influences attributed to the local environment, religion, cultural practices, war, etc. While a civilization's living environment reflects these influences in their built-environment characteristics, the influences are often deep-rooted and can be traced to the way the community members satisfice their need to defecate and urinate (sanitation approach). The objective of this paper is to trace the various approaches that diverse societies/civilizations, over time, across the world have had towards sanitation, and present a structure to articulate and understand determining factors. Sanitation also involves other domestic (solid and liquid) waste disposal but in the context of this paper the scope of sanitation has been restricted to human excreta alone. The structure presented and discussed in this paper would be useful in understanding a community better in terms of providing appropriate sanitation. It is hoped that this structure be considered as a basis for further refinement and detailed research into each of the factors determining people's sanitation approach

  19. KfW Water Symposium 2009 : Financing Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    KfW Development Bank

    2010-01-01

    "The central objective of the International Year of Sanitation was to put the global community on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals MDG sanitation target. However, one year later, it is still difficult to keep sanitation high on the agenda, while practical action is required to encourage demand driven and sustainable solutions. With the support of the German Ministry for Development and Cooperation and together with the European Investment Bank EIB and the French Developm...

  20. Interdisciplinary Water and Sanitation Project in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    船水, 尚行

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary project on water and sanitation was performed in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2015. The title of the project was “Development of sustainable water and sanitation systems in the African Sahel region”, and the project was supported by SATREPS (JST and JICA) and collaborated with International Institute of Water and Sanitation (2iE). The main purpose of the project was to develop and demonstrate the new system of water and sanitation based on the concept of “do not mix” and “do no...

  1. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Lawrence, J.; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K.; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L.; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called “triggering.” This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12–18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia. PMID:26787149

  2. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  3. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...... of the affected community. The new model for disaster management which comprises an integrated continuous risk reduction phase, calls for a cross-disciplinary approach which combines the known life-saving response methods with modern development practices. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Jan...

  4. 75 FR 952 - Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... locations: January 21, 2010: Marathon Garden Club, 5270 Overseas Hwy (Mile Marker 50), Marathon, FL 33050... cards and verbal comments will be recorded and transcribed. Dated: December 29, 2009. Daniel J. Basta...

  5. Sanitation health risk and safety planning in urban residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this review paper was to determine the best sanitation health risk and safety planning approach for sustainable management of urban environment. This was achieved by reviewing the concept of sanitation safety planning as a tool. The review adopted exploratory research approach and used secondary data ...

  6. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an innovative community led drive to set up pit latrines in rural Kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable sanitation through behaviour change. It's a behaviour change approach based on social capital that triggers households to build pit latrines without subsidy.

  7. 78 FR 51728 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department... for vessel sanitation inspections for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. These inspections are conducted by HHS...-yearly inspections and, when necessary, re-inspection. DATES: These fees are effective October 1, 2013...

  8. Exposure-response relationship of neighbourhood sanitation and children's diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngmee Tiffany; Lou, Wendy; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2017-07-01

    To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrhoeal morbidity and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. We used the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 29 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, conducted between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was two-week incidence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age (N = 269014). We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity. A significant association between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity (OR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.62-0.76]) was found. Exposure-relationship analyses results showed improved sanitation coverage threshold at 0.6. We found marginal degree of association (OR [95% CI] = 0.82 [0.77-0.87]) below the threshold, which, beyond the threshold, sharply increased to OR of 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29-0.67) at sanitation coverage of 1 (i.e. neighbourhood-wide use of improved household sanitation). Similar exposure-response trends were identified for urban and rural subgroups. Our findings suggest that neighbourhood sanitation plays a key role in reducing diarrhoeal diseases and that increase in sanitation coverage may only have minimal impact on diarrhoeal illness, unless sufficiently high coverage is achieved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in a semi-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Department of Community Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port. Harcourt, Nigeria. ... and they formed 87.95% of the 83 facilities found to be in ... Hygiene education and social marketing of sanitation facilities are ..... India and Brazil . ... sanitation facility; it has to be reiterated that greater emphasis.

  10. Multistakeholder Partnerships in the Water and Sanitation Sector ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Multistakeholder Partnerships in the Water and Sanitation Sector within Urban Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean. According to the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), an estimated 7% of urban Latin Americans lack access to clean water and another 13%, to sanitation services. This project aims to ...

  11. 25 CFR 247.18 - What are the sanitation prohibitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the sanitation prohibitions? 247.18 Section 247.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.18 What are the sanitation prohibitions? (a) You cannot deposit...

  12. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if an...

  13. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of...

  14. Providing Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okot-Okumu, J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    After presenting background information on urbanization in Uganda, the chapter provides an overview of sanitation in the urban centres, where different social classes reside in separate zones. Factors determining sanitation provision and the use of sanitary facilities particularly in the informal

  15. Access and utilization of water and sanitation facilities and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Lack of safe water, sanitation and hygiene remains one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. Water and sanitation-related improvements are crucial in meeting the Global Sustainable Development Goals. This study was conducted to determine the access, utilization, and determinants of access ...

  16. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuehua; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Jianbo; Xu, Li

    2015-09-01

    Little research has been focused on the health status or the occupational protection awareness of sanitation workers. The policy recommendations on the occupational safety and health of sanitation workers based on the scientific research are also insufficient in developing countries like China. To study the incidence of dermatoses and the relevance with occupational exposure, protection awareness and protective measures among sanitation workers for better management and protection of the sanitation workers. 273 sanitation workers and 113 administrative staff from 11 streets of Wuhan were recruited. Dermatological problems were evaluated and recorded by physical examination. Occupational exposure, protection awareness, the use of protective equipments and personal history of skin disease were assessed by questionnaires. Compared with administrative staff, sanitation workers had much more occupational dermatological problems and had a much higher rate of harmful ultraviolet ray exposure. Young sanitation workers were more aware of occupational self-protection and a relatively higher rate of them using protective equipments compared with old ones. Exposure to multiple health hazards and the poor use of protective equipments are related to skin diseases in sanitation workers. Prejob training of self-protection and the use of protective equipments are recommended.

  17. Addressing the Sanitation Challenge in Poor Urban Areas (East Africa)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the global burden of disease could be reduced by up to 15% by improving water, sanitation and hygiene. Until recently, however, little attention has been paid to sanitation by national governments and the international community. For example, Kenya and Uganda have ...

  18. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are...

  19. Improvement of Water and Sanitation Services : a Comparative ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will support a pilot water and sanitation project that engages both the local community and the local government. The project will be informed by the findings of a field survey in Irbid, Jordan, which has similar cultural and demographic characteristics, and where water and sanitation provision has improved in ...

  20. Sanitization and Disposal of Excess Information Technology Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-21

    Report No. D-2009-104 September 21, 2009 Sanitization and Disposal of Excess Information Technology Equipment...2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sanitization and Disposal of Excess Information Technology ...Defense (Networks and Information Integration)/DOD Chief Information Officer DRMS Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service IT Information

  1. Integrated Water, Sanitation and Solid Waste Management in Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Inadequate water and sanitation services are having an negative effect on human health and polluting Lake Victoria in East Africa. At the request of the governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, UN-Habitat has undertaken an initiative to provide water and sanitation services in the region and protect the Lake basin.

  2. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the tanks...

  3. Inactivation of human norovirus using chemical sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, David H; Vincent, Emily M; Meade, Gloria K; Watson, Clytrice L; Fan, Xuetong

    2014-02-03

    The porcine gastric mucin binding magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay was used to evaluate the ability of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and trisodium phosphate to inactivate human norovirus within 10% stool filtrate. One-minute free chlorine treatments at concentrations of 33 and 189 ppm reduced virus binding in the PGM-MB assay by 1.48 and 4.14 log₁₀, respectively, suggesting that chlorine is an efficient sanitizer for inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV). Five minute treatments with 5% trisodium phosphate (pH~12) reduced HuNoV binding by 1.6 log₁₀, suggesting that TSP, or some other high pH buffer, could be used to treat food and food contact surfaces to reduce HuNoV. One minute treatments with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide dissolved in water did not reduce PGM-MB binding, suggesting that the sanitizer may not be suitable for HuNoV inactivation in liquid form. However a 60-min treatment with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide did reduce human norovirus by 2.8 log₁₀, indicating that chlorine dioxide had some, albeit limited, activity against HuNoV. Results also suggest that peroxyacetic acid has limited effectiveness against human norovirus, since 1-min treatments with up to 195 ppm reduced human norovirus binding by chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) as a HuNoV disinfectant wherever possible. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Bridging the sanitation gap between disaster relief and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka-Man; Ramirez, Claudia; Liu, Weilong; Kirilova, Darina; Vick, David; Mari, Joe; Smith, Rachel; Lam, Ho-Yin; Ostovari, Afshin; Shibakawa, Akifumi; Liu, Yang; Samant, Sidharth; Osaro, Lucky

    2015-10-01

    By interpreting disasters as opportunities to initiate the fulfilment of development needs, realise the vulnerability of the affected community and environment, and extend the legacy of relief funds and effort, this paper builds upon the concept linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD) in the sanitation sector. It aims to use a composite of case studies to devise a framework for a semi-hypothetical scenario to identify critical components and generic processes for a LRRD action plan. The scenario is based on a latrine wetland sanitation system in a Muslim community. Several sub-frameworks are developed: (i) latrine design; (ii) assessment of human waste treatment; (iii) connective sanitation promotion strategy; and (iv) ecological systems and environmental services for sanitation and development. This scenario illustrates the complex issues involved in LRRD in sanitation work and provides technical notes and references for a legacy plan for disaster relief and development. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  5. Sanitation policy and spatial planning in urban East Africa: Diverging sanitation spaces and actor arrangements in Kampala and Kisumu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sanitation policies and spatial planning in Kampala (Uganda) and Kisumu (Kenya) from colonial times to date and their implications for the sitting of sanitation technologies and involving actors. During colonial times, a strict spatial duality was maintained between immigrants

  6. The use of detergents and sanitizers in dairy farm sanitation--an updated perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, P H

    1982-06-01

    Raw milk quality in South Africa is poor and standard plate counts in the millions per ml are common. This is largely due to inefficient cleaning and sanitizing of dairy equipment. The basic constituents in milk are described and various soils are classified as soluble in water, alkali, acid, solvent or surfactant or as insoluble. The importance of water quality is highlighted and the influence of mineral salts on soil deposition described. Dairy detergents are broadly classified as alkaline or acid, the former being most effective against fatty and proteinaceous soils and the latter effective against mineral salts. Typical detergent ingredients and their properties are described. Chlorine is incorporated into alkaline detergents not as a sanitizing agent, but as a peptizing agent to aid in protein soil removal. At high pH values the antimicrobial activity of chlorine is greatly diminished. The use of a daily acidified rinse (pH 3,0-5,0) is preferred to the periodic acid wash, since the acid rinse prevents mineral deposition rather than removing accumulated milkstone. All cleaning programmes follow the same fundamental steps--Pre-rinse (40-50 degrees C), wash (60-70 degrees C), rinse (pH 3,0-5,0) and sanitize (25 ppm iodine and 100 ppm chlorine). Farms following such a programme are able to achieve Standard Plate Counts of less than 10,000/ml and coliform counts of less than 10/ml for raw milk.

  7. A study of access to sanitation profiles of rural upland and coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In developing countries, e.g., Nigeria, several communities have limited access to sanitation and sanitation facilities, thus such communities dump their solid and liquid wastes indiscriminately. The aim of this study was to assess access to sanitation, and compare basic sanitation facilities between upland and coastal ...

  8. Assessing Women’s Negative Sanitation Experiences and Concerns: The Development of a Novel Sanitation Insecurity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A. Caruso

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lack of access to acceptable sanitation facilities can expose individuals, particularly women, to physical, social, and mental health risks. While some of the challenges have been documented, standard metrics are needed to determine the extent to which women have urination- and defecation-related concerns and negative experiences. Such metrics also are needed to assess the effectiveness of interventions to mitigate them. We developed a sanitation insecurity measure to capture the range and frequency of women’s sanitation-related concerns and negative experiences. Research was conducted in rural Odisha, India with women across various life course stages to reflect a range of perspectives. This paper documents the mixed data collection methods and the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses we employed to arrive at a final measure. The final sanitation insecurity measure includes 50 items across seven factors that reflect the physical environment, the social environment, and individual-level constraints. Most factor scores were significantly higher for unmarried women and for women who lacked access to functional latrines, indicating social and environmental influence on experiences. This measure will enable researchers to evaluate how sanitation insecurity affects health and to determine if and how sanitation interventions ameliorate women’s concerns and negative experiences associated with sanitation.

  9. A sanitation technology demonstration centre to enhance decision making in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available International Conference, Nakuru, Kenya, 2013 DELIVERING WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE SERVICES IN AN UNCERTAIN ENVIRONMENT A sanitation technology demonstration centre to enhance decision making in South Africa L.C. Duncker, South Africa... for Water Services in South Africa (SFWS) defines basic sanitation services as the provision of a basic sanitation facility, the sustainable operation of this facility and the communication of good sanitation, hygiene and related practices. However...

  10. How to integrate water, sanitation, and hygiene into HIV programmes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bery, Renuka; Rosenbaum, Julia

    2010-01-01

    "Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices are essential for maintaining health, yet most countries and donors have not included WASH in national policies and programmes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV...

  11. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam. It is b......-based hygiene promotion is also recommended to curb dependency and spark initiatives in ethnic minority communities. Finally, interventions should focus on hygiene "software"--promoting hygiene behaviour changes known to effectively prevent hygiene related diseases.......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam...

  12. Sanitation Health Risk and Safety Planning in Urban Residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    affordable drinking-water and sanitation for ... systems are expensive and most communities in developing countries ... To appraise the techniques of sanitary risk assessment ..... contribution to decision making is limited to the extent that it can ...

  13. Privatization of Water and Sanitation Services in Kenya: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2009-05-14

    May 14, 2009 ... method of service delivery that also enhances quality and performance. This .... The bottom-line argument is that water and sanitation systems ... finally urged that decision-making, implementation of projects and operation.

  14. 56 original article the influence of environmental sanitation practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    2006-05-19

    May 19, 2006 ... 56% of the cases used water from unprotected wells ... encouraged to put into practice what they learn about the treatment and prevention of diarrhoea. Keywords: Sanitation, Hygiene, Practices, Diarrhoea, Koforidua.

  15. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  16. The application of appropriate technologies and systems for sustainable sanitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available and environmental factors into planning, implementation and decision-making so as to ensure that development serves present and future generations. The chapter discusses the use of appropriate technologies and systems to render sanitation technologies and services...

  17. An assessment of environmental sanitation in an urban community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Inadequate environmental sanitation has been recognized as a public health hazard worldwide. In some. Nigerian ... have a significant beneficial impact on health both in ... deaths from 222 Local Government Areas (LGAs) in 18. States of the ...

  18. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  19. Basic sanitation policy in Brazil: discussion of a path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Cristina A de; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the position of dominance enjoyed by state sanitation companies dictates the public policy decision-making process for sanitation in Brazil. These companies' hegemony is explained here through the analysis of a path that generated political and economic incentives that have permitted its consolidation over time. Through the content analysis of the legislation proposed for the sector and the material produced by the stakeholders involved in the approval of new regulations for the sector in 2007, the study identifies the main sources of incentive introduced by the adoption of the National Sanitation Plan, which explain certain structural features of the current sanitation policy and its strong capacity to withstand the innovations proposed under democratic rule.

  20. The status of hygiene and sanitation practice among rural model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status of hygiene and sanitation practice among rural model families of the Health Extension Program (HEP) in Wolayta and Kembata Tembaro Zones of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region of Ethiopia.

  1. Spectroscopic imaging technologies for online food safety and sanitation inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of the leading groups for the development of optoelectronic sensing technologies and methodologies for food quality, safety, and sanitation inspection. High throughput hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques use Ram...

  2. An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely ... East African Medical Journal ... There was a high uptake of households with treated drinking water (92%), availability of hand washing facilities in ...

  3. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a non-thermal technology based on atmospheric-pressure (AP) cold plasma to sanitize foods, food packaging materials, and other hardware...

  4. Role of the CSIR/WRC Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre in creating awareness, sharing information and in decision-making regarding sanitation technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mema, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR and the Water Research Commission (WRC) have envisioned a Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre to provide a cutting-edge environment for bringing to light old and new, as well as promising sanitation technologies. The purpose...

  5. SANitation CHoice Involving Stakeholders : a participatory multi-criteria method for drainage and sanitation system selection in developing cities applied in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: sanitation; drainage; planning; multi-criteria decision analysis; stakeholder dialogues, developing countries

    The poor living in slums and other unplanned urban areas in developing countries have no access to adequate drainage and sanitation provisions with grave consequences

  6. Brazilian Constitution and the Fundamental Right to Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Michely Vargas Delpupo; José Geraldo Romanello Bueno

    2015-01-01

    The right to basic sanitation, was elevated to the category of fundamental right by the Constitution of 1988 to protect the ecologically balanced environment, ensuring social rights to health and adequate housing and put the dignity of the human person as the foundation of the Brazilian Democratic State. Before their essentiality to humans, this article seeks to understand why universal access to basic sanitation is a goal so difficult to achieve in Brazil. Therefore, thi...

  7. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  8. Disassembly and Sanitization of Classified Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockham, Dwight J.; Saad, Max P.

    2008-01-01

    The Disassembly Sanitization Operation (DSO) process was implemented to support weapon disassembly and disposition by using recycling and waste minimization measures. This process was initiated by treaty agreements and reconfigurations within both the DOD and DOE Complexes. The DOE is faced with disassembling and disposing of a huge inventory of retired weapons, components, training equipment, spare parts, weapon maintenance equipment, and associated material. In addition, regulations have caused a dramatic increase in the need for information required to support the handling and disposition of these parts and materials. In the past, huge inventories of classified weapon components were required to have long-term storage at Sandia and at many other locations throughout the DoE Complex. These materials are placed in onsite storage unit due to classification issues and they may also contain radiological and/or hazardous components. Since no disposal options exist for this material, the only choice was long-term storage. Long-term storage is costly and somewhat problematic, requiring a secured storage area, monitoring, auditing, and presenting the potential for loss or theft of the material. Overall recycling rates for materials sent through the DSO process have enabled 70 to 80% of these components to be recycled. These components are made of high quality materials and once this material has been sanitized, the demand for the component metals for recycling efforts is very high. The DSO process for NGPF, classified components established the credibility of this technique for addressing the long-term storage requirements of the classified weapons component inventory. The success of this application has generated interest from other Sandia organizations and other locations throughout the complex. Other organizations are requesting the help of the DSO team and the DSO is responding to these requests by expanding its scope to include Work-for- Other projects. For example

  9. Improving Sanitation and Health in Rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rural Alaskan communities personal health is threatened by energy costs and limited access to clean water, wastewater management, and adequate nutrition. Fuel-­-based energy systems are significant factors in determining local accessibility to clean water, sanitation and food. Increasing fuel costs induce a scarcity of access and impact residents' health. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences (SNRAS), NASA's Ames Research Center, and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have joined forces to develop high-efficiency, low­-energy consuming techniques for water treatment and food production in rural circumpolar communities. Methods intended for exploration of space and establishment of settlements on the Moon or Mars will ultimately benefit Earth's communities in the circumpolar north. The initial phase of collaboration is completed. Researchers from NASA Ames Research Center and SNRAS, funded by the USDA­-ARS, tested a simple, reliable, low-energy sewage treatment system to recycle wastewater for use in food production and other reuse options in communities. The system extracted up to 70% of the water from sewage and rejected up to 92% of ions in the sewage with no carryover of toxic effects. Biological testing showed that plant growth using recovered water in the nutrient solution was equivalent to that using high-purity distilled water. With successful demonstration that the low energy consuming wastewater treatment system can provide safe water for communities and food production, the team is ready to move forward to a full-scale production testbed. The SNRAS/NASA team (including Alaska students) will design a prototype to match water processing rates and food production to meet rural community sanitation needs and nutritional preferences. This system would be operated in Fairbanks at the University of Alaska through SNRAS. Long­-term performance will be validated and operational needs of the

  10. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  11. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu eFernandez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation.This paper presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services.The paper first describes the context and strategies of the program which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The paper analyses social, educational, economic, demographic and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  12. Effect of hand sanitizer location on hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, Laila; Van Enk, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Hand hygiene is the most important intervention to prevent infection in hospitals. Health care workers should clean their hands at least before and after contact with patients. Hand sanitizer dispensers are important to support hand hygiene because they can be made available throughout hospital units. The aim of this study was to determine whether the usability of sanitizer dispensers correlates with compliance of staff in using the sanitizer in a hospital. This study took place in a Midwest, 404-bed, private, nonprofit community hospital with 15 inpatient care units in addition to several ambulatory units. The usability and standardization of sanitizers in 12 participating inpatient units were evaluated. The hospital measured compliance of staff with hand hygiene as part of their quality improvement program. Data from 2010-2012 were analyzed to measure the relationship between compliance and usability using mixed-effects logistic regression models. The total usability score (P = .0046), visibility (P = .003), and accessibility of the sanitizer on entrance to the patient room (P = .00055) were statistically associated with higher observed compliance rates. Standardization alone showed no significant impact on observed compliance (P = .37). Hand hygiene compliance can be influenced by visibility and accessibility of dispensers. The sanitizer location should be part of multifaceted interventions to improve hand hygiene. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of the CSIR/WRC Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre in creating awareness, sharing information and in decision-making regarding sanitation technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mema, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available sanitation technologies platform exhibits wet sanitation technologies (e.g. septic tanks, pour flush toilet unit) which may generally be constructed within a building. Wet sanitation technologies are all the sanitation technologies that require water... to wash down faeces from the pedestal either to a septic tank or centralised treatment works. In decentralised treatment systems like septic tanks, the treatment of wastewater occurs at a localised treatment facility close to the source of waste...

  14. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  15. The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Blue Book 2014 : The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities Databook

    OpenAIRE

    Danilenko, Alexander; van den Berg, Caroline; Macheve, Berta; Moffitt, L. Joe

    2014-01-01

    Well-run water utilities play an important role in ending poverty and boosting shared prosperity. Consumers need reliable access to high quality and affordable water and sanitation services. To deliver these basic services efficiently and effectively requires high-performing utilities that are able to respond to urban growth, to connect with the poor, and to improve wastewater disposal practices. The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Blue Book 2014 summarizes the water sector status from 2006...

  16. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  17. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  18. Effect of hand sanitizer use on elementary school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B; Ali, Y; Fendler, E; Dolan, M; Donovan, S

    2000-10-01

    Several studies have indicated a connection between handwashing and illness-related absenteeism in school settings. The difficulty of ensuring consistent and effective handwashing among student populations has also been noted. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in the classroom to help decrease the illness-related absentee rate for elementary school students. This study involved 5 individual school districts, 16 individual schools, and more than 6000 students in Delaware, Ohio, Tennessee, and California. Individual schools in each district were paired into product and control groups. In the product group schools, an alcohol gel hand sanitizer was used by the students and staff when entering and leaving the classroom. Absenteeism due to infection was recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. The overall reduction in absenteeism due to infection in the schools included in this study was 19.8% for schools that used an alcohol gel hand sanitizer compared with the control schools (P sanitizer was used. Elementary school absenteeism due to infection is significantly reduced when an alcohol gel hand sanitizer is used in the classroom as part of a hand hygiene program.

  19. The toilet sanitation management to meet healthy house standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studyanto, Anung B.; Musfiroh, Mujahidatul; Sholahuddin

    2018-03-01

    To increase the community participation in the toilet sanitation management at house to making a house according the healthy house standart. The toilet sanitation management is becoming complex with increasing population growth, and limited land for sanitation. The community participation determines the success of the toilet sanitation management and improving the health status of the community. This study used an observation method for the availability of latrines according the healthy house criteria, spatial layout and pit layout that meet health and safety standards. Spatial and layout include bathroom area, type of material used for wall and floor bathroom, type of latrine, distance the waste storage distance with water source, and sewerage. The respondents in this study are the people who live in Jaten Village taken by accidental sampling. The number of respondents in this study were 15 respondents.This study shows that all respondents (100%) already have toilet and 8 respondents (53%) have a good toilet sanitation management. Respondents have provided latrines as an effort to manage household waste and according the healthy house standart. The latrine spatial plan has been well implemented, but the latrine layout plan has not been properly.

  20. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  1. Estimating effects of improved drinking water and sanitation on cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Andrew J; Adusumilli, Naveen C

    2013-12-01

    Demand for adequate provision of drinking-water and sanitation facilities to promote public health and economic growth is increasing in the rapidly urbanizing countries of the developing world. With a panel of data on Asia and Africa from 1990 to 2008, associations are estimated between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, the case rates in given outbreaks, the mortality rates associated with cholera and two disease control mechanisms, drinking-water and sanitation services. A statistically significant and negative effect is found between drinking-water services and both cholera case rates as well as cholera-related mortality rates. A relatively weak statistical relationship is found between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks and sanitation services.

  2. Preventing SQL Injection through Automatic Query Sanitization with ASSIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Mui

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are becoming an essential part of our everyday lives. Many of our activities are dependent on the functionality and security of these applications. As the scale of these applications grows, injection vulnerabilities such as SQL injection are major security challenges for developers today. This paper presents the technique of automatic query sanitization to automatically remove SQL injection vulnerabilities in code. In our technique, a combination of static analysis and program transformation are used to automatically instrument web applications with sanitization code. We have implemented this technique in a tool named ASSIST (Automatic and Static SQL Injection Sanitization Tool for protecting Java-based web applications. Our experimental evaluation showed that our technique is effective against SQL injection vulnerabilities and has a low overhead.

  3. Recurrent lactic acidosis secondary to hand sanitizer ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E; Guru, P K; Park, J G

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to decrease the spread of infection, hand sanitizers are now ubiquitous in health care settings. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted with acute alcohol intoxication and had near complete recovery in 12 hrs. Subsequently, she was found unresponsive on the floor of her hospital room on two separate occasions. Evaluations revealed repeatedly elevated levels of ethanol, acetone, and lactate as well as increased anion gap and hypotension, requiring intensive care unit evaluation and intubation for airway protection. During the second episode, she was found next to an empty bottle of ethanol-based hospital hand sanitizer. She confirmed ingesting hand sanitizer in order to become intoxicated.

  4. Recurrent lactic acidosis secondary to hand sanitizer ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to decrease the spread of infection, hand sanitizers are now ubiquitous in health care settings. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted with acute alcohol intoxication and had near complete recovery in 12 hrs. Subsequently, she was found unresponsive on the floor of her hospital room on two separate occasions. Evaluations revealed repeatedly elevated levels of ethanol, acetone, and lactate as well as increased anion gap and hypotension, requiring intensive care unit evaluation and intubation for airway protection. During the second episode, she was found next to an empty bottle of ethanol-based hospital hand sanitizer. She confirmed ingesting hand sanitizer in order to become intoxicated.

  5. Sanitizing sensitive association rules using fuzzy correlation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, S.; Shahzad, F.; Asghar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Data mining is used to extract useful information hidden in the data. Sometimes this extraction of information leads to revealing sensitive information. Privacy preservation in Data Mining is a process of sanitizing sensitive information. This research focuses on sanitizing sensitive rules discovered in quantitative data. The proposed scheme, Privacy Preserving in Fuzzy Association Rules (PPFAR) is based on fuzzy correlation analysis. In this work, fuzzy set concept is integrated with fuzzy correlation analysis and Apriori algorithm to mark interesting fuzzy association rules. The identified rules are called sensitive. For sanitization, we use modification technique where we substitute maximum value of fuzzy items with zero, which occurs most frequently. Experiments demonstrate that PPFAR method hides sensitive rules with minimum modifications. The technique also maintains the modified data's quality. The PPFAR scheme has applications in various domains e.g. temperature control, medical analysis, travel time prediction, genetic behavior prediction etc. We have validated the results on medical dataset. (author)

  6. [Modified Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xunqiang; Liang, Ying; Tan, Hongzhuan; Gong, Wenjie; Deng, Jing; Luo, Jiayou; Di, Xiaokang; Wu, Yue

    2012-11-01

    To constitute school sanitation standard using modified Delphi method, and to explore the feasibility and the predominance of Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard. Two rounds of expert consultations were adopted in this study. The data were analyzed with SPSS15.0 to screen indices of school sanitation standard. Thirty-two experts accomplished the 2 rounds of consultations. The average length of expert service was (24.69 ±8.53) years. The authority coefficient was 0.729 ±0.172. The expert positive coefficient was 94.12% (32/34) in the first round and 100% (32/32) in the second round. The harmonious coefficients of importance, feasibility and rationality in the second round were 0.493 (PDelphi method is a rapid, effective and feasible method in this field.

  7. Meeting drinking water and sanitation targets of MDGs. Water use & competition in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek van der, Marjolijn

    2006-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation is of vital importance for human beings. Improving the access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation in developing countries is therefore one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be me

  8. Does global progress on sanitation really lag behind water? An analysis of global progress on community- and household-level access to safe water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Oliver; Elliott, Mark; Overbo, Alycia; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the "sanitation deficit" is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990-2015) outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post-2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both.

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ... or by any means without permission in writing from the copyright holder. ..... Journal of Chemical Engineering Research and Design 82 ... Indian Ocean Marine Science Association Technical.

  10. Marine Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  11. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  12. The human right to water and sanitation: reflections on making the system effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.; Bhaduri, A.; Bogardi, J.; Leentvaar, J.; Marx, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Millenium Development Goal (MDG) on water has been more successful than the MDG on sanitation. Does this have implications for the human right to sanitation? This chapter argues that there are key differences between access to water and sanitation in terms of the legal content of both, the

  13. 9 CFR 147.26 - Procedures for establishing isolation and maintaining sanitation and good management practices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and maintaining sanitation and good management practices for the control of Salmonella and Mycoplasma... Sanitation Procedures § 147.26 Procedures for establishing isolation and maintaining sanitation and good management practices for the control of Salmonella and Mycoplasma infections. (a) The following procedures...

  14. Evaluation of Small-Scale Providers of Water Supply and Sanitation Services in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), administered by the World Bank, helps countries find sustainable solutions to ensure efficient delivery of the quality water supply and sanitation services the population demands. The WSP is carrying out a systematic analysis in several countries to identify the role of small-scale providers (SSP) of water and sanitation services to poor populations ...

  15. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... the fundamentals of ship sanitation as prescribed by law and regulations, and shall be given intensive...

  16. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions stated...

  17. 21 CFR 111.360 - What are the requirements for sanitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for sanitation? 111.360... for Manufacturing Operations § 111.360 What are the requirements for sanitation? You must conduct all manufacturing operations in accordance with adequate sanitation principles. ...

  18. Sanitation and its Impact on the Bacteriological Quality of Water: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water constitutes about 70% of the earth's total mass and all life is dependent on water. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease worldwide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. Water and sanitation are closely related and ...

  19. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  20. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometrical mean of total bacterial count from 3.54 x 105 to 8 x 103 in mL of milk, as well as significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometric mean of somatic cell count from 3.1 x 105 to 2.4 x 105 in mL of milk was observed. The ratio of hygienically unacceptable cheeses, according to the Regulations of microbial standards for foods (NN 46/94., significantly (P<0.01 decreased as well. Because of the new requests and standards, the sanitation products are more in use in both milk and cheese production on family farms. Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production.

  1. An assessment of environmental sanitation in an urban community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadequate environmental sanitation has been recognized as a public health hazard worldwide. In some Nigerian cities, living with waste as part of the natural environment has become a way of life. This study examined the sanitary condition of an urban community in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. It used a cross sectional ...

  2. Ecological situation of Tengiz deposit and way of it's sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhegaliev, A.

    1997-01-01

    Ecological situation in Tengiz region still the day of starting first turn of complex may be considered as normal. It means that antropogenous load on the environment from the Tengiz gas refinery is insignificant little. Regime observation for purpose of sanitation carry out by TengizChevrOil J V. (author)

  3. Lessons Learned from a Third World Water and Sanitation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins-McLean, Terri

    1991-01-01

    The seven-step project cycle used in a water sanitation project in Belize from 1986-89 is described. The direct involvement of community organizations, village councils, family gatherings, parent-teacher organizations, political groups, Village Health Committees, and volunteer organizations is emphasized. (CW)

  4. WASH (Water and Sanitation for Health) Rainwater Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes project funded by U.S. Agency for International Development to provide short-term technical assistance (general, technology transfer, institutional development and training, information support) to rural and urban fringe water supply and sanitation projects. Initial steps, special collection, and future components of rainwater network…

  5. The status of hygiene and sanitation practice among rural model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2mikitser

    Background: Since the Health Extension Program (HEP) started the training and graduation ... and cultural reasons were mentioned as factors that hindered the ... of the World Health Organization (WHO) once said; ... sanitation, family health, and health education and ... model and non-model households using interviewer.

  6. water, sanitation and hygiene in community- based care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    in home-based care and the implications on people living with HIV/AIDS/TB, their ... Data was collected using participant observation of care-giving activities; ... this affects the work of CHW. ..... Using water and sanitation as an entry point.

  7. Water demand characteristics of shared water and sanitation facilities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of communal water and sanitation facilities has been mandated by the South African Government as an interim measure for informal settlement upgrading. These services form the first step in the upgrading process and are essential in meeting the basic needs of the community. The eThekwini municipality is ...

  8. Domestic Water Supply, Sanitation and Health in Rural Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research notes that adequate provision of potable water and safe ... quality of water that is consumed is well-recognised as an important transmission route ... diarrhoeal disease due to unsafe water. sanitation and hygiene the 6th highest burden or .... and 'hygiene', have direct consequences for health in relation to both.

  9. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... records are subject to the requirements of § 123.9. (d) Relationship to HACCP plan. Sanitation controls may be included in the HACCP plan, required by § 123.6(b). However, to the extent that they are monitored in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section they need not be included in the HACCP plan, and...

  10. Market Sanitation: A Case Study of Oregbeni Market Benin - City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor market sanitation is an intractable problem in Nigeria and has contributed to the spread of infectious diseases and environmental degradation. This study was undertaken to determine the awareness and practice of solid waste management in market places among market users. It involved 180 store owners and ...

  11. New sanitation techniques for controlling tephritid fruit flies (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of ...

  12. Reflections on Public Health: Captain Hart and Sanitation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast consists of segments of an interview conducted by Capt. Kathleen McDuffie, CDC, with Capt. Russell Hart, a 100 year old retired sanitary engineer of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps as he reflects on his work in environmental sanitation and the development of local health departments. The interview was conducted in 2006.

  13. Sanitation in wilderness: Balancing minimum tool policies and wilderness values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Lachapelle

    2000-01-01

    Officials with the four wilderness managing agencies are faced with balancing wilderness preservation values and the minimum tool policies of their respective agencies. One example is the management of sanitation, particularly human waste and the often intrusive infrastructure that accompanies its treatment and disposal. Because the treatment and disposal of human...

  14. Investigation into sanitation options for rural Kien Giang Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Main

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This project was developed during a three month internship with Habitat for Humanity Vietnam (HFHV supported by the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT Engineers Without Borders Australia (EWB Development Scholarship for 2010/2011. During discussions with HFHV staff, several areas of concern with regards to sanitation and hygiene practices in rural Kien Giang Province were raised. These included the widespread use of drop toilets over waterways, poor hygiene practices in impoverished households and in schools, lack of sanitation options for HFHV construction programmes and no facilities for emptying existing septic tanks of accumulated sludge. This article evaluates existing sanitation technologies for introduction into HFHV’s construction programme in Kien Giang Province. It was determined that for onsite disposal of sanitation system products, the double dehydration vault, the composting chamber and the urine collection tank were appropriate technologies. Pit latrines or variations thereof were deemed inappropriate because of the high watertables. Anaerobic reactor systems were deemed inappropriate as they accumulate pathogenic sludge and effluent for which there is currently no appropriate treatment that meets the project design criteria. As onsite disposal system demand may be low due to cultural and social taboos, an investigation and discussion into offsite treatment was also undertaken. It was determined that a co-composting facility would be the most appropriate offsite treatment technology.

  15. Focus Cities : Economic Incentives for Improving Water, Sanitation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Economic Incentives for Improving Water, Sanitation and Solid Waste Services in Jakarta (Indonesia). Since 2001 Indonesia has been ... Sewer networks serve only a small proportion of the population, solid waste collection is inconsistent and waste disposal sites are inadequate. Cholera and malaria are ...

  16. Assessing users' experience of shared sanitation facilities: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the academic literature, users' feedback and experiences of technologies in the post-implementation phase have received scarce attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate users' experience of sanitation technologies in the early post-implementation phase, when opportunities for remedial intervention are still ...

  17. Hygiene and sanitation requirements in Danish biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixen, H J

    1997-08-01

    According to Danish regulations, systematic pathogen reducing treatment is required, when industrial by-products and waste products, and urban waste, ie garbage from households and sewage sludge, are processed, before being used - without restrictions - as fertilizers on agricultural land. An adequate pathogen reducing effect (PRE) can be achieved in the digestion tanks and sanitation tanks of the biogas plants, provided they are operated correctly and respect the criteria of the official requirements. The FS-method is a microbiological indicator method based on faecal streptococci (enterococci) (FS). It may be used to check the sanitation effect achieved by the treatment in a tank. The effect is expressed numerically by the log{sub 10}-reduction of the numbers of FS measured in the biomass before and after treatment. The PRE was examined in 10 large-scale biogas plants during a period of 2-3 years. It was demonstrated that properly directed and well-functioning thermophilic digestion tanks ensure the removal of most pathogenic microorganisms from organic waste and slurry. The removal of pathogens by the treatment in mesophilic digestion tanks is incomplete. Systematic studies of the processes of inactivation of bacteria and virus in slurry and in animal tissues gave evidence that the PRE is enhanced in the microbiological environment of thermophilic digestion tanks. The sanitation criteria, ie combinations of temperature/time, for the processing of biomass in digestion tanks and sanitation tanks in biogas plants are specified. (au) 19 refs.

  18. User perceptions regarding sanitation technologies in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available , misuse/non-use and lack of proper maintenance, therefore placing the sustainability of these sanitation systems in question. Even if the technology was designed and built well, the use of the technology and its acceptance by the user proved to be the most...

  19. The status of school sanitation facilities in some selected primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a growing demand on school hygiene and sanitation facilities given the growing number of school enrolment in Ethiopia. A safe school environment plays a key role in facilitating education and enduring pupils with improved life skills. Although there is much attention given for the expansion of schools ...

  20. Water, sanitation and hygiene in community based care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the HIV/AIDS patients in South Africa receive health care services at home. However, limited studies have been conducted to examine the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) situation in the homes of the care receivers and its impact on community-based care. The main objective of this study was to explore ...

  1. Focus Cities : Economic Incentives for Improving Water, Sanitation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since 2001 Indonesia has been undergoing large-scale decentralization, transferring various responsibilities to regional and local governments. Local governments are now responsible for water and sanitation infrastructure, yet most lack the resources and technical expertise to tackle the challenge. Jakarta's largest slum ...

  2. Hygiene and sanitation risk factors of diarrhoeal disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diarrhoea diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in under-five-children (U-5C) in Nigeria. Inadequate safe water, sanitation, and hygiene account for the disease burden. Cases of diarrhoea still occur in high proportion in the study area despite government-oriented interventions.

  3. Radiation-chemical sanitation of dissolved pollutants and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrukhin, N.V.; Putilov, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-chemical sanitation of dissolved toxic pollutants resulted from the production processes of different substances and modern equipment operation is considered. The processes of fundamental industrial sewage processing and, as a result, features of practically total disposal of dissolved toxic agents are considered for the first time

  4. Design and implementation of participatory hygiene and sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study is a continuation of a research carried out in Luweero district in Uganda1. It investigated whether PHAST was a suitable tool for reducing transmission of soil transmitted helminths. PHAST means Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation; a participatory approach that uses visual tools to ...

  5. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... handling any food sold by a reservation business. (d) Any person whom the Service Unit Director of the... Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation...

  6. Influence of sanitation on the physico-chemical and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chlorinated and ozonized water on the physico-chemical characteristics of broccoli, produced under organic and conventional cultivation procedures. Organic and conventional broccolis were subjected to two sanitation treatments, using chlorine and ozone, ...

  7. 7 CFR 2902.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated... the purposes of this rule. (b) Minimum biobased content. The minimum biobased content requirement for all hand cleaners and/or sanitizers shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the...

  8. Analyzing sanitation characteristics in the urban slums of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.C.; Tukahirwa, J.; Mgana, S.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban slums in East Africa exhibit deplorable sanitary conditions. Despite (inter)national efforts, slum sanitation provision remains inadequate and the projected population growth forecasts a worsening of this crisis. The core of the problem is that available knowledge about the local feasibility

  9. Consumer Cooperatives for Delivery of Urban Water and Sanitation Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Mier, Fernando; Ginneken, Meike van

    2008-01-01

    To find the optimal delivery model for urban water supply and sanitation (WSS) services, one must look beyond ownership structures to the practices and designs that support good performance. Consumer cooperatives are often attractive institutional models. This note focuses on a Bolivian cooperative that is one of the most successful water cooperatives in Latin America. Successful cooperatives ...

  10. The status of water and sanitation among Pacific Rim nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert G; Heyworthz, Jane; Sáez, A Eduardo; Rodriguez, Clemencia; Weinstein, Phil; Ling, Bo; Memon, Saima

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of relationships among national wealth, access to improved water supply and sanitation facilities, and population health indices suggests that the adequacy of water resources at the national level is a poor predictor of economic development--namely, that low water stress is neither necessary nor sufficient for economic development at the present state of water stress among Pacific Rim nations. Although nations differ dramatically in terms of priority provided to improved water and sanitation, there is some level of wealth (per capita GNP) at which all nations promote the development of essential environmental services. Among the Pacific Rim countries for which there are data, no nation with a per capita GNP > US$18,000 per year has failed to provide near universal access to improved water supply and sanitation. Below US$18,000/person-year, however, there are decided differences in the provision of sanitary services (improved water supply and sanitation) among nations with similar economic success. There is a fairly strong relationship between child mortality/life expectancy and access to improved sanitation, as expected from the experiences of developed nations. Here no attempt is made to produce causal relationships among these data. Failure to meet Millennium Development Goals for the extension of improved sanitation is frequently evident in nations with large rural populations. Under those circumstances, capital intensive water and sanitation facilities are infeasible, and process selection for water/wastewater treatment requires an adaptation to local conditions, the use of appropriate materials, etc., constraints that are mostly absent in the developed world. Exceptions to these general ideas exist in water-stressed parts of developed countries, where water supplies are frequently augmented by water harvesting, water reclamation/reuse, and the desalination of brackish water resources. Each of these processes involves public acceptance of water

  11. Materials of research-practical conference dedicated to 70-anniversary of sanitation, hygiene and occupational diseases research institute 'Actual problems of hygiene, sanitation and ecology'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandarov, T.I.; Kamil'dzhanov, A.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    The Research-practical conference dedicated to 70-anniversary of sanitation, hygiene and occupational diseases research institute 'Actual problems of hygiene, sanitation and ecology' was held on 2004 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Specialists discussed various aspects of actual problems of sanitation, hygiene, occupational diseases and ecology. They discussed also some aspects of radiology and nuclear medicine, radiation protection and dosimetry, radiation and other environmental pollutant effect on living organisms and biological materials. More than 250 talks were presented in the meeting. (k.m.)

  12. Book review, Sanità animale, Salvatore Montinaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Un manuale strutturato per fornire un quadro d'insieme della materia e chiarire il metodo logico con il quale trovare i riferimenti scientifici e normativi necessari per affrontare il lavoro di tutti i giorni: così viene presentato Sanità animale, un volume che rispetto ai pochi testi analoghi sul mercato, si distingue per l'utilizzo parco di stralci normativi, comunque sistematicamente citati, in modo da renderne agevole la consultazione. L'attenzione maggiore è spostata verso l'analisi scientifica e normativa delle problematiche affrontate, delle peculiarità delle singole malattie e dei principi d'intervento sul campo. Il medico veterinario Salvatore Montinaro, forte dell'esperienza maturata in diverse amministrazioni (Regione, ASL, IZS riesce nell'intento di descrivere in maniera semplice, ma completa e dettagliata, il funzionamento della sanità animale e della lotta alle malattie diffusive animali. Come esplicita nell'introduzione del capitolo Norme Veterinarie e SSN: "Non si cercherà in questa sede di ripercorrere la storia della veterinaria pubblica, dal codice di Hammurabi in poi: ci si limiterà piuttosto a uno sguardo retrospettivo nella storia recente, finalizzato a identificare in modo sistematico, partendo dal generale per arrivare al particolare, i principali punti di riferimento che caratterizzano il quadro normativo della sanità pubblica veterinaria". Anche per questo il manuale è indirizzato soprattutto a coloro che già lavorano, o che intendono lavorare, nei servizi veterinari di sanità animale delle Aziende Sanitarie Locali, ponendosi come un testo "professionale" e un sussidio tecnico da avere a portata di mano. Salvatore Montinaro, classe 1967, svolge la sua attività professionale come dirigente del servizio veterinario di sanità animale della ASL di Nuoro, inoltre, fa parte del gruppo di esperti comunitari del TAIEX ed è consulente tecnico della FAO.

  13. Hydrothermal carbonization as innovative technology in sustainable sanitation in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Ariane [Engineers Without Boarders (Germany), Berlin (DE). Project ' ' Carbonization as Sanitation' ' (CaSa)

    2011-07-01

    The need for sustainable systems is apparent as climate change and other adverse anthropogenic activities continue to negatively affect the soil fertility in Africa. One of the indicators of the loss of soil fertility is the continuous decrease in soil organic matter, which is the major building block of a fertile soil. This is mainly attributed to the inappropriate practice of human-beings of taking more substances from the ecosystem than the amount replaced. As the soil fertility is increasingly lost, food insecurity, due to dropped productivity of the soil, is becoming a critical issue in many areas of Africa, Tanzania is not any different in this respect. On the other hand, most people in rural areas of Africa still lack possibilities to cover their daily energy needs in a more sustainable way and many people mainly rely on firewood. This, in turn, has an adverse impact on the climate and the soil, causing a local viscous circle of poor soil and productivity conditions. Moreover, the sanitation coverage of those areas is very low and there is a need for appropriate sanitation systems. Therefore, the aim of this project is, to conduct research on the possibility of establishing a self-sustaining system for the rural areas of Kagera, Tanzania, to address the three basic issues: sanitation, energy supply and soil fertility. The system consists of a small-scale biogas digester, a urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT) and an adaptive hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) unit. Biogas is produced from crop residues and other domestic organic waste. The fermentation residues and the dehydrated fecal matter from the UDDT is then treated with HTC. The carbonised and sanitized residue is then applied as soil amendment to improve the soil fertility as manifested by the Terra Preta in the Amazon. This holistic approach is a new development in ecological sanitation. Therefore, a comprehensive sustainability assessment including environmental, economic and socio

  14. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunga, Richard M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jenkins, Marion W; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan). Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge.

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial .... the population structure of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. and their interaction with the.

  16. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the ... tidal height and amplitude can influence light penetra- ...... to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Malaysia.

  17. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  18. Marine biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (ciguatera fish poisoning). It discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations...

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pod diversity and distribution are important especially since studies on marine biodiversity are scarce .... Method II –. Zamoum &. Furla (2012) protocol. Method III. – Geist et al (2008) protocol ..... Public Library Of Science One 8: 51273.

  20. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form ... to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an ...... Greenfield., Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards.

  2. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  3. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  4. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue .... shell growth is adversely affected. ... local stressors in action, such as ocean acidification ..... that the distribution of many intertidal sessile animals.

  5. Towards “Sustainable” Sanitation: Challenges and Opportunities in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Andersson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While sanitation is fundamental for health and wellbeing, cities of all sizes face growing challenges in providing safe, affordable and functional sanitation systems that are also sustainable. Factors such as limited political will, inadequate technical, financial and institutional capacities and failure to integrate safe sanitation systems into broader urban development have led to a persistence of unsustainable systems and missed opportunities to tackle overlapping and interacting urban challenges. This paper reviews challenges associated with providing sanitation systems in urban areas and explores ways to promote sustainable sanitation in cities. It focuses on opportunities to stimulate sustainable sanitation approaches from a resource recovery perspective, generating added value to society while protecting human and ecosystem health. We show how, if integrated within urban development, sustainable sanitation has great potential to catalyse action and contribute to multiple sustainable development goals.

  6. Testing a new alcohol-free hand sanitizer to combat infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, D L; Gerenraich, K B; Wadhams, P S

    1998-08-01

    Universal precautions require that perioperative health care personnel wash their hand before and after all patient contact. Time constraints, however, can make adhering to universal precautions, including proper hand washing, difficult. Some perioperative health care workers, therefore, routinely use rise-free hand sanitizers to supplement normal hand washing. This study evaluated immediate and persistent antimicrobial effectiveness of two alcohol--containing hand sanitizers and a novel surfactant, allantoin, benzalkonium chloride (SAB) hand sanitizer using a federally approved effectiveness protocol. Results indicate that all three products were equally effective after a single application. After repeated use, the alcohol-containing sanitizers did not meet federal performance standards, and the alcohol-free sanitizer did. These properties and others illustrated in this article indicate that the nonflammable, alcohol-free SAB hand sanitizer is the most favorable of the rise-free hand sanitizer formulas for normal hand washing.

  7. Effect of Leaf Surface Chemical Properties on Efficacy of Sanitizer for Rotavirus Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzawa, Miyu; Ku, Kang-Mo; Palma-Salgado, Sindy Paola; Nagasaka, Kenya; Feng, Hao; Juvik, John A.; Sano, Daisuke; Shisler, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of sanitizers is essential for produce safety. However, little is known about how sanitizer efficacy varies with respect to the chemical surface properties of produce. To answer this question, the disinfection efficacies of an oxidant-based sanitizer and a new surfactant-based sanitizer for porcine rotavirus (PRV) strain OSU were examined. PRV was attached to the leaf surfaces of two kale cultivars with high epicuticular wax contents and one cultivar of endive with a low epicuticular wax content and then treated with each sanitizer. The efficacy of the oxidant-based sanitizer correlated with leaf wax content as evidenced by the 1-log10 PRV disinfection on endive surfaces (low wax content) and 3-log10 disinfection of the cultivars with higher wax contents. In contrast, the surfactant-based sanitizer showed similar PRV disinfection efficacies (up to 3 log10) that were independent of leaf wax content. A statistical difference was observed with the disinfection efficacies of the oxidant-based sanitizer for suspended and attached PRV, while the surfactant-based sanitizer showed similar PRV disinfection efficacies. Significant reductions in the entry and replication of PRV were observed after treatment with either disinfectant. Moreover, the oxidant-based-sanitizer-treated PRV showed sialic acid-specific binding to the host cells, whereas the surfactant-based sanitizer increased the nonspecific binding of PRV to the host cells. These findings suggest that the surface properties of fresh produce may affect the efficacy of virus disinfection, implying that food sanitizers should be carefully selected for the different surface characteristics of fresh produce. IMPORTANCE Food sanitizer efficacies are affected by the surface properties of vegetables. This study evaluated the disinfection efficacies of two food sanitizers, an oxidant-based sanitizer and a surfactant-based sanitizer, on porcine rotavirus strain OSU adhering to the leaf epicuticular surfaces of

  8. Daya Bunuh Hand Sanitizer Berbahan Aktif Alkohol 59% dalam Kemasan Setelah Penggunaan Berulang terhadap Angka Lempeng Total (ALT)

    OpenAIRE

    Isnaeni Walidah; Bambang Supriyanta; Sujono Sujono

    2014-01-01

    Kebersihan merupakan tahap awal untuk menjaga pola hidup sehat dan terhindar dari penyakit. Pencegahan penyebaran penyakit salah satunya adalah dengan mencuci tangan menggunakan antiseptik hand sanitizer.  Hand sanitizer berbahan aktif alkohol 40 – 80%  mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri. Tetapi pemakaian hand  sanitizer yang tidak langsung habis akan mempengaruhi kualitas hand sanitizer Penggunaan berulang hand sanitizer akan mempengaruhi kemampuan bahan aktif dalam membunuh...

  9. The Role of Perceived Social Norms in Rural Sanitation: An Explorative Study from Infrastructure-Restricted Settings of South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Josef; Kolomazníková, Jana; Humňalová, Helena

    2017-07-17

    The perception of social sanitation norms (PSSNs) around unacceptability of open defecation has been a key aspect of recent sanitation interventions. However, underlying mechanisms through which "reconstructed" PSSNs affect sanitation outcomes have been a black box. This explorative cross-sectional study examines direct and indirect links between PSSNs and sanitation safety using data from structured interviews and observations in 368 households in rural South Ethiopia. In addition to a positive association between PSSNs and sanitation safety, we propose and examine the following two mechanisms: First, we confirm a potentially adverse feedback of PSSNs on future sanitation safety by enhancing the emotional satisfaction with current sanitation practice (satisfaction independent of the functionality of sanitation facilities). Second, inspired by the social amplification/attenuation of risk framework, we demonstrate that PSSNs work as a "social filter" that can amplify or attenuate the effects of other variables targeted in sanitation interventions such as perceived health-related and non-health risks and benefits associated with open defecation and private latrine ownership, respectively, and factual hygiene and sanitation knowledge. These findings imply that PSSNs are not only important per se, but they are also important instrumentally because sanitation outcomes depend upon the capacity of social influences to shape the perception of sanitation risks and benefits and sanitation-related awareness in desirable ways. The mechanisms outlined in this paper as well as the sustainability of sanitation outcomes depend on whether and how social sanitation norms are internalized.

  10. Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: Health, wealth, or prestige?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Elena; Günther, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Seventy percent of the rural population in sub-Saharan Africa does not use adequate sanitation facilities. In rural Benin, as much as 95% of the population does not use improved sanitation. By analyzing a representative sample of 2000 rural households, this paper explores why households remain without latrines. Our results show that wealth and latrine prices play the most decisive role for sanitation demand and ownership. At current income levels, sanitation coverage will only increase to 50% if costs for construction are reduced from currently 190 USD to 50 USD per latrine. Our analysis also suggests that previous sanitation campaigns, which were based on prestige and the allure of a modern lifestyle as motives for latrine construction, have had no success in increasing sanitation coverage. Moreover, improved public health, which is the objective of public policies promoting sanitation, will not be effective at low sanitation coverage rates. Fear at night, especially of animals, and personal harassment, are stated as the most important motivational factors for latrine ownership and the intention to build one. We therefore suggest changing the message of sanitation projects and introduce new low-cost technologies into rural markets; otherwise, marketing strategies will continue to fail in increasing sanitation demand.

  11. Improving Sanitation Project Management for Unsewered Rural Communities in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M MAHI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic potential in Morocco is limited, droughts are more frequent, resulting of climate change, and increasing water demand relating to the population growth and socio-economic development. Morocco has invested in the urban sanitation sector through the establishment of the National Liquid Sanitation Program. In rural Area, the intervention in this sector remains limited due to various constraints. In order to support the efforts of establishment of the National Rural Assainissment Program (PNAR, we conducted a case study that recommended the treatment of wastewater by an innovative process used for the first time in Morocco. We realized, first, a pilot experiment at the douar (Unstructured Village Talat Marghen within the rural Municipality of Aghouatim a few km from Marrakech. The innovative aspect of the project is managerial proposes covering the different technical aspects, management and institutional innovation, to meet the various constraints that characterize the rural areas.

  12. Child rights, right to water and sanitation, and human security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Ross

    2012-06-15

    The article explores the intersection between child rights, water scarcity, sanitation, and the human security paradigm. The recognition of child rights has been advanced through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international legal instruments, while water rights are increasingly affirmed in international law and through the historic July 2010 United Nations General Assembly resolution that strengthened the legal foundation for water security and human rights. Yet there remains a development gap in terms of child access to clean and secure water sources for basic human development needs. The human security paradigm provides a legal and humanitarian foundation for the extension of child rights related to water and sanitation. Copyright © 2012 Pink.

  13. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xesús Feás

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE and fresh whole head (FWH lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH and propolis (PS, during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health.

  14. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Situation in Kenya's Urban Slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Njoroge; Njiru, Haron

    2018-01-01

    Kenya has undergone rapid urbanization as people migrate to the cities in search of economic opportunities. This has given rise to informal settlements characterized by overcrowding, poor infrastructure, and inadequate social amenities. A cross-sectional study on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) status was carried out in Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi. A random sample of 380 households was used. The average household size was five people, and 26% of the household heads had completed secondary or higher level of education. The main source of income (70%) was self-employment with 41% of the households living on less than 1.5 USD per day. The WASH situation in the urban slums is below the minimum standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). There is need to improve the situation by improving and installing basic infrastructure including water, sanitation, and solid waste collection.

  15. Incentivizing Decentralized Sanitation: The Role of Discount Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alison; Blackhurst, Michael; Garland, Jay L; Lawler, Desmond F

    2016-06-21

    In adoption decisions for decentralized sanitation technologies, two decision makers are involved: the public utility and the individual homeowner. Standard life cycle cost is calculated from the perspective of the utility, which uses a market-based discount rate in these calculations. However, both decision-makers must be considered, including their differing perceptions of the time trade-offs inherent in a stream of costs and benefits. This study uses the discount rate as a proxy for these perceptions and decision-maker preferences. The results in two case studies emphasize the dependence on location of such analyses. Falmouth, Massachusetts, appears to be a good candidate for incentivizing decentralized sanitation while the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority service area in Pennsylvania appears to have no need for similar incentives. This method can be applied to any two-party decision in which the parties are expected to have different discount rates.

  16. Quantitative studies of water and sanitation utilities: a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Sanford V; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2010-01-01

    This paper performs a literature update of quantitative studies of water and sanitation services (WSS). There are 190 studies which use cost or production functions to evaluate the performance of WSS utilities. The studies examine (1) the scale, scope or density economies of utilities in a particular country or region, (2) the influence of ownership on efficiency, (3) the existence and power of incentives associated with different governance systems (including external regulation), and (4) pe...

  17. Egypt : Operational Framework for Integrated Rural Sanitation Service Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The Framework presented in this report links - for the first time in the Egyptian context - access to investment in rural sanitation services to quantifiable water quality (and health) improvements, in a given hydrologic basin. The Framework provides an integrated, institutional structure of relevant Government agencies and of serviced communities, which is built on integrated water resources management (IWRM) principles: treating water as a holistic resource, management at the lowest appropr...

  18. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  19. Use of sanitizing products: safety practices and risk situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aurélia Rocha da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the handling and risk factors for poisoning and/or digestive tract injuries associated with the use of sanitizing products at home. METHODS: interviews were conducted in 419 households from different regions, collecting epidemiological data from residents and risk habits related to the use and storage of cleaning products. RESULTS: sanitizing products considered to be a health risk were found in 98% of the households where the research was conducted, and in 54% of cases, they were stored in places easily accessible to children. Lye was found in 19%, followed by illicit products in 39% of homes. In 13% of households, people produced soap, and in 12% they stored products in non-original containers. The use of illicit products and the manufacture of handmade soap were associated with lower educational level of the household owners and with the regions and socioeconomic classes with lower purchasing power. CONCLUSIONS: risk practices such as inadequate storage, manufacturing, and use of sanitizing products by the population evidence the need for public health policies, including educational measures, as a means of preventing accidents.

  20. Sanitation of conditioned radioactive waste after a contamination accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeppli, J.

    1980-01-01

    In June 1978, there occurred in the port of Ijmuiden, Netherlands, a contamination incident involving drums originating from Switzerkand and containing radioactive wastes intended to be dumped into the sea. The batch of 207 drums excluded from the sea-dumping action had to be sanitated for the next year dumping in such a manner, that these wastes met the international requirements and could be disposed of by sinking them into the Atlantic. As a consequence of extensive sanitation work, requiring part of the wastes to be newly conditioned and several drums to be packaged again, the total weight of the wastes ready for dumping was doubled. The total radiation exposure for the personnel that took part in the individual phases of sanitation amounted to about 10 man-rem. The main causes for this contamination incident were unusual chemical composition of the concentrate to be solidified, unsufficient quality control and a position not suitabble for transport. The measures taken after this incident intend to avoid similar occurrences in the future. (orig.) [de

  1. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  2. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...

  3. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  4. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius Marine Conservation Society through their. Abstract. While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodri- gues) since 1996 and review ...

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate ..... in confined aquifers, and a lesser influence in uncon- fined systems. On the ... massive cloud cover during the critical months, some. 70% bleaching ...

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published ... 2007; Zhou et al., 2009) and they play an important role in the ... At both sites, zonal variation in TMPB was evident with significantly higher C-biomass closer to ... ton is considered to be an essential parameter in eco- systems ...... logical significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the ... between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... exploitation for timber, fuel wood, aquaculture, urban. Abstract. Given the high dependence of coastal communities on natural resources, mangrove conservation is a challenge in.

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means ... USA/Norway ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine.

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, Portugal. Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published biannually. Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) ...

  10. Marine Corps Shelterized Expeditionary Food Service System. Marine Corps ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Galley and Sanitation Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Scrambled Eggs Hard Boiled Eggs Bacon Sausage Patties Lyonnaise Potatoes Apricot Quick Coffee Cake Assorted Dry Cereals Assorted Fresh Fruits Bread and...Butter Assorted Beverages Lunch Baked Spanish Beef Patties Lyonnaise Potatoes Stewed Tomatoes Hamburger Buns Apple Crisp Assorted Beverages Dinner...Yellow Cake with Chocolate Frosting Assorted Beverages 5. 16 SEPTEMBER 1981 Breakfast Scrambled Eggs Hard Boiled Eggs Ham Creamed Beef Lyonnaise Potatoes

  11. The effect of consumer expectations and perceptions regarding sanitation on access to clean water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available and Sanitation Centre. Drangert, Jan-Olof, Louiza Christina Duncker, Gertrude Matsebe, and Victoria Abu Atukunda. 2006. “Ecological Sanitation, Urban Agriculture and Gender in Peri- Journal of Ethical Urban Living 34 urban Settlements: A Comparative Study... the author worked on. Publication Details Journal of Ethical Urban Living (ISSN: 2470-2641). August, 2017. Volume 1, Issue 1. Citation Duncker, Louiza. 2017. “The Effect of Consumer Expectations and Perceptions Regarding Sanitation on Access to Clean Water...

  12. User perceptions of shared sanitation among rural households in Indonesia and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kali B; Karver, Jonathan; Kullman, Craig; Graham, Jay P

    2014-01-01

    The practice of sharing sanitation facilities does not meet the current World Health Organization/UNICEF definition for what is considered improved sanitation. Recommendations have been made to categorize shared sanitation as improved sanitation if security, user access, and other conditions can be assured, yet limited data exist on user preferences with respect to shared facilities. This study analyzed user perceptions of shared sanitation facilities in rural households in East Java, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. Cross-sectional studies of 2,087 households in East Java and 3,000 households in Bangladesh were conducted using questionnaires and observational methods. Relative risks were calculated to analyze associations between sanitation access and user perceptions of satisfaction, cleanliness, and safety. In East Java, 82.4% of households with private improved sanitation facilities reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation compared to 68.3% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09, 1.31]. In Bangladesh, 87.7% of households with private improved facilities reported feeling satisfied compared to 74.5% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10, 1.20]. In East Java, 79.5% of households who reported a clean latrine also reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation; only 38.9% of households who reported a dirty latrine also reported feeling satisfied [RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.45, 2.08]. Simple distinctions between improved and unimproved sanitation facilities tend to misrepresent the variability observed among households sharing sanitation facilities. Our results suggest that private improved sanitation is consistently preferred over any other sanitation option. An increased number of users appeared to negatively affect toilet cleanliness, and lower levels of cleanliness were associated with lower levels of satisfaction. However, when sanitation facilities were clean and shared by a limited number

  13. Effect of hand sanitizer on the performance of fingermark detection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Scott; Neskoski, Melissa; Spindler, Xanthe; Lennard, Chris; Roux, Claude

    2017-04-01

    Hand sanitizers have seen a rapid increase in popularity amongst the general population and this increased use has led to the belief that hand sanitizers may have an effect on subsequent fingermark detection. Based on this hypothesis, three alcoholic and two non-alcoholic hand sanitizers were evaluated to determine the effect they had on the detection of fingermarks deposited after their use. The following fingermark detection methods were applied: 1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, physical developer (porous substrate); and cyanoacrylate, rhodamine 6G, magnetic powder (non-porous substrate). Comparison between hand sanitized fingermarks and non-hand sanitized fingermarks showed that the alcohol-based hand sanitizers did not result in any visible differences in fingermark quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, however, improved the quality of fingermarks developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc and ninhydrin, and marginally improved those developed with magnetic powder. Different parameters, including time since hand sanitizer application prior to fingermark deposition and age of deposited mark, were tested to determine the longevity of increased development quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitized marks showed no decrease in quality when aged for up to two weeks. The time since sanitizer application was determined to be an important factor that affected the quality of non-alcoholic hand sanitized fingermarks. It was hypothesized that the active ingredient in non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, benzalkonium chloride, is responsible for the increase in fingermark development quality observed with amino acid reagents, while the increased moisture content present on the ridges resulted in better powdered fingermarks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Kemampuan Daya Hambat Bahan Aktif Beberapa Merek Dagang Hand sanitizer terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Putri Srikartika; Netti Suharti; Eliza Anas

    2016-01-01

    AbstrakHand sanitizer sebagai pembersih tangan antiseptik inovatif saat ini, sering menjadi alternatif pengganti cuci tangan dengan sabun dan air. Mencuci tangan dengan hand sanitizer merupakan salah satu cara memelihara kebersihan tangan agar terhindar dari penyakit  yang disebabkan oleh flora normal di kulit yang berpotensi patogenik seperti bakteri Staphylococcus aureus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menilai kemampuan daya hambat beberapa merek dagang hand sanitizer terhadap pertumbuhan Sta...

  15. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Prashanth, Vishwakarma K.; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. Materials and Methods: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical i...

  16. A conceptual model of people's approach to sanitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avvannavar, Santosh M. [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012, Karnataka (India)], E-mail: santosh@astra.iisc.ernet; Mani, Monto [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012, Karnataka (India)

    2008-02-01

    Sanitation is a term primarily used to characterize the safe and sound handling (and disposal) of human excreta - or simply, people's approach to take-care of their (unavoidable) primal urge. According to the recent Human Development Report 2006 Global access to proper sanitation stands at approximately 58% with 37% being a conservative estimate both for South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Various multi-million dollar sanitation programmes the world over have had little success, often due to inadequate understanding of people's sanitation approach. Sanitation approach includes the perception, feel and practices involved in satisficing the primal need to defecate and urinate (and their disposal). This paper presents a structure to understand the nature of psycho-socio-economic influences that determine societal approach to sanitation. Societies across the globe have evolved imbibing diverse influences attributed to the local environment, religion, cultural practices, war, etc. While a civilization's living environment reflects these influences in their built-environment characteristics, the influences are often deep-rooted and can be traced to the way the community members satisfice their need to defecate and urinate (sanitation approach). The objective of this paper is to trace the various approaches that diverse societies/civilizations, over time, across the world have had towards sanitation, and present a structure to articulate and understand determining factors. Sanitation also involves other domestic (solid and liquid) waste disposal but in the context of this paper the scope of sanitation has been restricted to human excreta alone. The structure presented and discussed in this paper would be useful in understanding a community better in terms of providing appropriate sanitation. It is hoped that this structure be considered as a basis for further refinement and detailed research into each of the factors determining people's sanitation

  17. Moving up the sanitation ladder with the help of microfinance in urban Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Chunga, R; Jenkins, MW; Ensink, J; Brown, J

    2017-01-01

    We carried out a stated preference survey in Malawi to examine whether access to microfinance for sanitation would significantly increase the proportion of households upgrading to improved pit latrines or alternative improved sanitation technologies (urine diverting dry toilet, fossa alterna, pour flush). We presented a range of sanitation options at local market prices, initially without and then with a real microfinance option, to 1,300 households sampled across 27 low-income urban settleme...

  18. 77 FR 36533 - Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Notice of Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Protection, Oceans and Coastal Protection Unit, Five Post Office Square, Suite 100, OEP06-1, Boston, MA 02109..., Berkley, Freetown, Somerset, Swansea, and Fall River to the mean high tide line. The information submitted...

  19. 75 FR 28245 - Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Receipt of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    .... Environmental Protection Agency, pursuant to Section 312(f)(3) of Public Law 92-500 as amended by Public Law 95-217 and Public Law 100-4, that adequate facilities for the safe and sanitary removal and treatment of..., including 75 rare species. [[Page 28247

  20. 76 FR 39395 - Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Notice of Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... all vessels are reasonably available for the coastal waters of Chatham, Orleans, Eastham, Wellfleet... all navigational waters. The area includes the municipal waters of Chatham, Orleans, Eastham...

  1. 76 FR 24022 - Massachusetts Marine Sanitation Device Standard-Receipt of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Do not...'' N boundary of the NDA starting on the south side of Chatham is an imaginary line drawn between the... were chosen based on easy line-of-sight locations and generally represent all navigational waters...

  2. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Kristyna R S; Chase, Rachel P; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  3. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna R S Hulland

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60 and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes based on stress (high to low and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions. Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  4. [Prognostic criteria of efficacy of programmed laparoscopic sanitation of the abdominal cavity in peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakhov, E K; Vlasov, A P; Bolotskyh, V A

    To define prognostic criteria of efficacy of programmed laparoscopic sanitation of the abdominal cavity in peritonitis. There were 32 patients after programmed laparoscopic sanitation of abdominal cavity for peritonitis due to different acute surgical diseases. Subsequently 12 of them required relaparotomy due to poor effectiveness of laparoscopic sanitation. Comprehensive clinical examination and laboratory assessment of some indexes of homeostasis and oxidative status were conducted. Prognostic clinical and laboratory criteria of efficacy of laparoscopic abdominal sanitation were suggested after analysis of intraoperative data during primary surgery and laboratory values in the 1st postoperative day. The offered prognostic criteria allow to define further management of peritonitis patients after primary laparotomy.

  5. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  6. Tratamento conjugado de lixiviado de aterro sanitário e esgoto sanitário em lagoas de estabilização rasas

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Andrezza Raphaella Costa

    2012-01-01

    A busca para desenvolver alternativas viáveis e eficientes para o tratamento do lixiviado de aterro sanitário, fez com que surgisse a iniciativa de pesquisar sobre o tratamento conjugado entre lixiviado de aterro sanitário e esgoto sanitário, visando tratar o lixiviado diluindo este no esgoto, reduzindo as elevadas concentrações de matéria orgânica e nitrogênio amoniacal, deixando em proporções adequadas ao tratamento convencional. Neste estudo, foi analisada a eficiência do processo de trata...

  7. Estimating the Cost and Payment for Sanitation in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheillah Simiyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of sanitation facilities is a common occurrence in informal settlements that are common in most developing countries. One challenge with sanitation provision in these settlements is the cost and financing of sanitation. This study aimed at estimating the cost of sanitation, and investigating the social and economic dynamics within Kisumu’s informal settlements that hinder provision and uptake of sanitation facilities. Primary data was collected from residents of the settlements, and using logistic and hedonic regression analysis, we identify characteristics of residents with sanitation facilities, and estimate the cost of sanitation as revealed in rental prices. Our study finds that sanitation constitutes approximately 54% of the rent paid in the settlements; and dynamics such as landlords and tenants preferences, and sharing of sanitation facilities influence provision and payment for sanitation. This study contributes to general development by estimating the cost of sanitation, and further identifies barriers and opportunities for improvement including the interplay between landlords and tenants. Provision of sanitation in informal settlements is intertwined in social and economic dynamics, and development approaches should target both landlords and tenants, while also engaging various stakeholders to work together to identify affordable and appropriate sanitation technologies.

  8. [Water, sanitation and diarrheal risk in Nouakchott Urban Community, Mauritania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Ibrahima; Traoré, Doulo; Niang Diène, Aminata; Koné, Brama; Lô, Baidy; Faye, Ousmane; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio; Tanner, Marcel

    2017-12-05

    Drinking water and sanitation are two factors of inter-linked inextricably public health especially in the city of Nouakchott where the low availability of these services leads to a multitude of use and hygiene practices involving a complex socio-ecological system with an increased risk of waterborne diseases transmission (diarrhea, cholera, etc.). Thus, this contribution analyzes the impact of socio-ecological system on the development of diarrheal diseases by using socio-environmental and epidemiological data from various sources (national surveys and registries consultation). Overall, the results show that only 25.6% of households have access to drinking water sources while 69.8% of the populations dispose improved latrines. Hence, the weakness in environmental sanitation conditions explains the level of diarrheal morbidity averring 12.8% at the urban level, with an unequal spatial distribution showing less affected communes such as Tevragh Zeina (9.1%) and municipalities more affected like Sebkha (19.1%). The distribution according to the age categories shows that children under 5 years are the most affected with 51.7% followed by people aged over 14 with 34.2%. The correlation analysis between socio-economic, environmental and epidemiological variables reveals a number of significant associations: untreated water consumption and diarrhea (R = 0.429); collection of wastewater and occurrence of diarrhea ; existence of improved latrine and reduction of diarrheal risk (R = 0.402). Therefore, exposure to diarrheal diseases through the prism of water and sanitation is a real public health problem that requires a systemic and integrated approach to improving environmental health.

  9. Reflections on Public Health: Captain Hart and Sanitation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-01

    This podcast consists of segments of an interview conducted by Capt. Kathleen McDuffie, CDC, with Capt. Russell Hart, a 100 year old retired sanitary engineer of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps as he reflects on his work in environmental sanitation and the development of local health departments. The interview was conducted in 2006.  Created: 10/1/2006 by Coordinating Center for Health Information and Service (CCHIS), National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM).   Date Released: 1/7/2009.

  10. Evolution of Water Supply, Sanitation, Wastewater, and Stormwater Technologies Globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an outline of history of hydro-technologies in the west and the east. It is an overview of the special issue on “the evolution of hydro-technologies globally”, in which the key topics regarding the history of water and sanitation worldwide, and its importance to future cities are presented and discussed. It covers a wide range of relevant historical issues, and is presented in three categories: productivity assessment, institutional framework and mechanisms, and governance aspects. This paper concludes by discussing the challenges on future research in this field of study.

  11. Guide related to structure sanitation in basic nuclear installations. Guide Nr 14, Release of the 30 August 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This guide defines recommendations made by the ASN regarding the sanitation methodology to be applied to buildings and structures of any basic nuclear installation. After a recall of the general doctrine for the management of wastes in basic nuclear installations, the guide presents the ASN doctrine for structure sanitation which distinguishes complete sanitation, extended sanitation, and sanitation in operation phase. It presents principles for the sanitation of component structures of an area of possible production of nuclear wastes. It indicates administrative procedures to be applied before and after sanitation works, notably when the radiological condition of structures has been made compatible or not with any use. After indication of requirements in terms of quality insurance, modalities of definition of defence lines (from first to fourth) are discussed. Requirements regarding the performance of sanitation operations are reviewed

  12. A caracterização do risco sanitário nos processos administrativos da vigilância sanitária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Rogério Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo da caracterização do risco sanitário (avaliação e gerenciamento de risco nos processos administrativos da vigilância sanitária, a partir de um estudo de caso relativo ao controle sanitário de portos, aeroportos e fronteiras. A análise de decisões tomadas no âmbito de processos sanitários permitiu evidenciar que o grau de risco é superficialmente tratado neles, inferindo-se que a caracterização do risco nos referidos processos aproxima-se mais da aplicação do senso comum do que de uma abordagem científica.

  13. The true costs of participatory sanitation: Evidence from community-led total sanitation studies in Ghana and Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Saywell, Darren; Shields, Katherine F; Kolsky, Pete; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-12-01

    Evidence on sanitation and hygiene program costs is used for many purposes. The few studies that report costs use top-down costing methods that are inaccurate and inappropriate. Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory behavior-change approach that presents difficulties for cost analysis. We used implementation tracking and bottom-up, activity-based costing to assess the process, program costs, and local investments for four CLTS interventions in Ghana and Ethiopia. Data collection included implementation checklists, surveys, and financial records review. Financial costs and value-of-time spent on CLTS by different actors were assessed. Results are disaggregated by intervention, cost category, actor, geographic area, and project month. The average household size was 4.0 people in Ghana, and 5.8 people in Ethiopia. The program cost of CLTS was $30.34-$81.56 per household targeted in Ghana, and $14.15-$19.21 in Ethiopia. Most program costs were from training for three of four interventions. Local investments ranged from $7.93-$22.36 per household targeted in Ghana, and $2.35-$3.41 in Ethiopia. This is the first study to present comprehensive, disaggregated costs of a sanitation and hygiene behavior-change intervention. The findings can be used to inform policy and finance decisions, plan program scale-up, perform cost-effectiveness and benefit studies, and compare different interventions. The costing method is applicable to other public health behavior-change programs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Water and sanitation provision in eThekwini Municipality: a spatially differentiated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutherland, C.; Hordijk, M.; Lewis, B.; Meyer, C.; Buthelezi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The rescaling of responsibilities in water governance in South Africa has enabled strong water services authorities, such as the eThekwini Water and Sanitation Unit (EWS) in eThekwini Municipality, to play a leading role in shaping water and sanitation policy in South Africa. Yet water governance in

  15. Innovations in sanitation for sustainable urban growth; modernized mixtures in an east african context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanisation of poverty and informality in East Africa poses a threat to public health and environmental protection, perpetuating social exclusion and inequalities, while it creates service gaps. Neither conventional on-site sanitation nor modern centralised off-site sanitation provisions are

  16. The evolution of the right to water and sanitation: differentiating the implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, the right to water has been seen mainly as implicitly subsumed under other social human and political rights. The global recognition of the need for access to sanitation services has led to formulations of a right to sanitation that emphasizes both the responsibilities of States and the

  17. Legal pluralism in the area of human rights: water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene facilities is crucial to achieving social and environmental sustainability. We examine the global human water and sanitation right from a legal pluralism perspective to see if it is indifferent to, competes with, accommodates, or is

  18. Water and Sanitation in Urban Slum: A Case from Bandung Municipality, West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastiti, A.; Primasuri, W.A.; Setiani, B.; Sudradjat, A.; Latifah, I.; Roosmini, D.; Smits, A.J.M.; Meijerink, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    Providing equal access among urban quintiles is the main challenge in urban water and sanitation sector. This paper tries to depict the choice and behavior regarding drinking water and sanitation of 127 slum households in Bandung Municipality. Issues explored using close-ended questionnaires are

  19. Water and sanitation in Nigeria: a case study of Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and sanitation have been recognized as critical to ensure good quality of life. This paper examines the existing water supply and sanitation in Ondo State, Nigeria with a view to determine the extent of deficiency and what will be required to meet the Millennium Development Goals that seeks to halve the Population of ...

  20. Inactivation of E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on strawberries by sanitizing solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent foodborne outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 in Oregon associated with the consumption of fresh strawberries highlights the need for effective sanitizing washes, suitable for the inactivation of pathogens on fresh produce. Sanitizing solutions were screened for decontaminating E. coli O157:H7 (E...

  1. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of hand sanitizers – an in vitro study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand hygiene, particularly hand sanitizing, is essential in reducing infectious disease transmission. The recent outbreak of Ebola in Nigeria both increased public awareness of the practice of hand sanitizing and resulted in the introduction of new products to the Nigerian market. This study set out to explore the actual ...

  2. Addressing rural health and poverty through water sanitation and hygiene: Gender perspectives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngorima, E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available that it is essential to empower women in all aspects of water and sanitation, through proper hygiene education and service provision. Using the case study, the aim of this paper is to present a case for factoring in gender perspectives in water and sanitation provision...

  3. Stability of nonfouling electroless nickel-polytetrafluoroethylene coatings after exposure to commercial dairy equipment sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Application of nonfouling coatings on thermal processing equipment can improve operational efficiency. However, to enable effective commercial translation, a need exists for more comprehensive studies on the stability of nonfouling coatings after exposure to different sanitizers. In the current study, the influence of different commercial dairy equipment sanitizers on the nonfouling properties of stainless steel modified with electroless Ni-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings was determined. Surface properties, such as dynamic contact angle, surface energy, surface morphology, and elemental composition, were measured before and after the coupons were exposed to the sanitizers for 168 cleaning cycles. The fouling behavior of Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel coupons after exposure was also evaluated by processing raw milk on a self-fabricated benchtop-scale plate heat exchanger. The results indicated that peroxide sanitizer had only minor effect on the Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel surface, whereas chlorine- and iodine-based sanitizers influenced the surface properties drastically. The coupons after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide sanitizer accumulated the least amount of fouling material (4.44±0.24mg/cm(2)) compared with the coupons exposed to the other 3 sanitizers. These observations indicated that the Ni-PTFE nonfouling coating retained antifouling properties after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide-based sanitizer, supporting their potential application as nonfouling coatings for stainless steel dairy processing equipment. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Profile of Knowledge Management, Basic Sanitation and Attitudes towards Clean and Health Community in Kupang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmah; Ardi, Muhammad; Yahya, Mohamad; Upa, Muhamad D. Pua; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2017-01-01

    The objective of research is to describe the knowledge and attitude of basic sanitation management community in Kupang City. This type of research is a survey research using quantitative approach. Data were collected by using the instrument in the form of test knowledge of basic sanitation management and attitude questionnaire. The data was then…

  5. Water Supply and Sanitation in Mauritania : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The situation within the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Mauritania is somewhat contradictory: in spite of the weakness of the institutions in charge of the sector and the lack of financing for sanitation and, more recently, for the rural water supply (RWS) subsector, significant improvements have been made in the access rates since 1990. The institutional reform of the RWS sub...

  6. Sanitation services for the informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Castellano, D.; Braadbaart, O.D.; Veenstra, S.; Dijkstra, I.; Meulman, B.; Singels, A.; Wilsenach, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Sanitation coverage in the informal settlements of Cape Town is severely lagging behind. A recent inventory showed that the main barriers to the implementation of proper sanitation systems are unsuitability of the location of many settlements (more than 40% of the sites are located on private land,

  7. Benchmarking Local Government Performance on Rural Sanitation : Learning from Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Open defecation is a traditional behavior in rural India. Conventional rural sanitation programs have been based on the assumption that people defecate in the open because they are too poor to afford the cost of constructing a toilet. Therefore, subsidies for upfront capital costs were provided to generate demand for 'sanitation,' interpreted narrowly as a pour-flush toilet. These programs...

  8. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... sanitation requirements. (a) No person shall sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive...

  9. Strengthening the human right to sanitation as an instrument for inclusive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Over a third of the current 7.3 billion people worldwide are burdened with poor sanitation services. The resulting social, relational and ecological exclusion make the realisation of the human right to sanitation a critical concern development concern. However, the literature has evolved in a

  10. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to 354.247...

  11. A Kinetic Study Using Evaporation of Different Types of Hand-Rub Sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand-rub sanitizers are the types of products that hospital professionals use very often. These sanitizers can be classified into two major groups: those that contain a large quantity of thickener, and thus are a gel, and those that contain a small quantity of thickener, and thus remain a liquid. In an effort to create a laboratory…

  12. Common hand sanitizer may distort readings of breathalyzer tests in the absence of acute intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed S; Wilson, Michael P; Castillo, Edward M; Witucki, Peter; Simmons, Todd T; Vilke, Gary M

    2013-02-01

    The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers has recently become widespread. To the authors' knowledge, no previous study has examined whether application of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by the person operating a common breathalyzer machine will affect the accuracy of the readings. This was a prospective study investigating whether the use of hand sanitizer applied according to manufacturer's recommendations (Group I), applied improperly at standard doses (Group II), or applied improperly at high doses (Group III) had an effect on breathalyzer readings of individuals who had not ingested alcohol. The participants of the prospective study were divided into three groups to assess the effect of hand sanitizer on breathalyzer readings. Group I used one pump (1.5 mL) of hand sanitizer (Purell), allowing the hands to dry per manufacturer's recommendations; Group II used one pump (1.5 mL), without allowing the hands to dry; and Group III used two pumps (3 mL), without allowing the hands to dry. Breathalyzer measures for each group are presented as medians with interquartile ranges (IQR) and ranges. Differences between each sequential group (I vs. II and II vs. III) were assessed using a Mann-Whitney U-test (p hand sanitizer may cause false-positive readings with a standard hospital breathalyzer when the operator uses the hand sanitizer correctly. The breathalyzer readings are further elevated if more sanitizer is used or if it is not allowed to dry appropriately. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  13. Water, sanitation and hygiene in South Sudan: what needs to be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Involvement of local and national government,. • communities and external organisations;. The need for regulation (laws), guidance and best. • practice in sanitation;. The World Health Organization [10] also described standards for a simple, and basic form of sanitation. (latrine) called the ventilated pit latrine (VIP) that could.

  14. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.516 Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking. (a) Immediately prior to breaking, all shell eggs shall be spray rinsed...

  15. Health, hygiene and appropriate sanitation: experiences and perceptions of the urban poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, D.; Fawcett, B.; Mannan, F.

    2011-01-01

    “Don’t teach us what is sanitation and hygiene.” This quote from Maqbul, a middle-aged male resident in Modher Bosti, a slum in Dhaka city, summed up the frustration of many people living in urban poverty to ongoing sanitation and hygiene programmes. In the light of their experiences, such

  16. Water, Sanitation and Children’s Health : Evidence from 172 DHS Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Gunther, Isabel; Fink, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    This paper combines 172 Demography and Health Survey data sets from 70 countries to estimate the effect of water and sanitation on child mortality and morbidity. The results show a robust association between access to water and sanitation technologies and both child morbidity and child mortality. The point estimates imply, depending on the technology level and the sub-region chosen, that w...

  17. The sanitation value chain: its concept and new research collaboration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamizu, N.

    2017-03-01

    Sanitation is essential for promoting health, preventing environment pollution, conserving ecosystem, and recovering and recycling resources. Therefore, it can be said that sanitation is closely related to such current global issues as poverty, urban slum, conservation of ecosystem, and resources management. Namely, the question, “How can we handle the waste from 10 billion people in future?” is a global environmental problem to be solved. In developing world, population is growing rapidly especially in urban slums and they have still high under 5 mortality and poverty issues. It also reported that 2.4 billion people are still using unimproved sanitation facilities, including 946 million people who are still practicing open defecation in 2015 (UN, 2015). On the other hand, depopulation and aging are progressing especially in rural area of developed world. Based on the above mentioned background, new research project on sanitation value chain has started. This is a collaboration project with LIPI, RIHN (Research Institute of Humanity and Nature, Kyoto) and HU (Hokkaido University). The concept of the sanitation value chain and the brief summary of the project are discussed in the keynote presentation. The concept of sanitation value chain proposed in the project : The project is proposing new concept, Sanitation Value Chain, which has the following basic policies: 1) Put values of people/and community in the centre of discussion, and prepare sanitation system to drive this value chain; 2) Design the sanitation system by focusing on incentive for individual users and community; 3) Recognize a sanitation system as an integrated system with social and technical systems; 4) Design the sanitation system by making a good matching between social characteristics and prerequisites of the technologies. The goals of the research are 1) To propose the Sanitation Value Chain as a common solution for both developing and developed countries, 2) To show the validity of the

  18. Short communication: Reactivity of diacetyl with cleaning and sanitizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon-Delgadillo, M I; Lopez-Hernandez, A; Rankin, S A

    2013-01-01

    Diacetyl is used to impart a buttery flavor to numerous food products such as sour cream, cottage cheese, vegetable oil-based spreads, baked goods, and beverages. Recent studies have linked exposure to high concentrations of diacetyl and the onset of bronchiolitis obliterans. Due to the reported risks that diacetyl may pose, many food companies have altered practices to reduce worker exposure to diacetyl, including the use of personal respirators, improved air handling systems, and adequate cleaning practices. Commonly used cleaning and sanitizing agents may be reactive with diacetyl; however, the efficacy of these chemicals has not been studied in detail and remains unclear. The objective of this work was to study the reaction chemistry of diacetyl with common industrial cleaning and sanitizing chemicals. The reactions were assessed at equimolar concentrations and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Peroxyacetic acid was most reactive with diacetyl (95% reduction in diacetyl), followed by sodium hypochlorite (76% reduction), and hydrogen peroxide (26% reduction). Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) did not react with diacetyl. Acetic acid was detected as the main product of reactions of diacetyl with peroxyacetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide. 1,1-Dichloro-2-propanone and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone were also identified as volatile reaction products in the sodium hypochlorite reactions. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Herd Protection from Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, James A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2016-11-02

    Herd immunity arises when a communicable disease is less able to propagate because a substantial portion of the population is immune. Nonimmunizing interventions, such as insecticide-treated bednets and deworming drugs, have shown similar herd-protective effects. Less is known about the herd protection from drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene (WASH) interventions. We first constructed a transmission model to illustrate mechanisms through which different WASH interventions may provide herd protection. We then conducted an extensive review of the literature to assess the validity of the model results and identify current gaps in research. The model suggests that herd protection accounts for a substantial portion of the total protection provided by WASH interventions. However, both the literature and the model suggest that sanitation interventions in particular are the most likely to provide herd protection, since they reduce environmental contamination. Many studies fail to account for these indirect effects and thus underestimate the total impact an intervention may have. Although cluster-randomized trials of WASH interventions have reported the total or overall efficacy of WASH interventions, they have not quantified the role of herd protection. Just as it does in immunization policy, understanding the role of herd protection from WASH interventions can help inform coverage targets and strategies that indirectly protect those that are unable to be reached by WASH campaigns. Toward this end, studies are needed to confirm the differential role that herd protection plays across the WASH interventions suggested by our transmission model. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Access to Drinking Water and Sanitation in Rural Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussupova, Kamshat; Hjorth, Peder; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2016-11-09

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require nations to ensure adequate water supply for all. For Kazakhstan, this means that rural areas will need much stronger attention as they have been rather neglected in efforts to comply with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This study aims to establish a baseline data concerning the current situation in villages that will need interventions according to the SDGs. The study was performed by means of questionnaires. The results should be seen as initial guidelines that can help to illuminate some of the uncounted challenges in future efforts to meet the SDG targets. As hardly any information exists about sanitation in rural Kazakhstan, the study essentially focuses on water services. The results show that 65% of rural dwellers want to connect and pay for the piped water supply. At the same time, about 80% have toilets outside their home. Consequently, the water program aiming at providing 80% of rural people with access to tap water from a centralized piped system will not be possible. However, by carefully managing the existing water supply and sanitation system in joint collaboration with the local users, significant progress can be made. The present results show the important first steps that need to be taken in this direction.

  1. Characterization of contaminants from a sanitized milk processing plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cleto

    Full Text Available Milk processing lines offer a wide variety of microenvironments where a diversity of microorganisms can proliferate. We sampled crevices and junctions where, due to deficient reach by typical sanitizing procedures, bacteria can survive and establish biofilms. The sampling sites were the holding cell, cold storage tank, pasteurizer and storage tank--transfer pump junction. The culturable bacteria that were isolated after the sanitation procedure were predominantly Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp, Staphylococcus sciuri and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We assayed several phenotypic characteristics such as the ability to secrete enzymes and siderophores, as well as the capacity of the strains to form biofilms that might contribute to their survival in a mixed species environment. The Pseudomonas spp. isolates were found to either produce proteases or lecithinases at high levels. Interestingly, protease production showed an inverse correlation with siderophore production. Furthermore, all of the Serratia spp. isolates were strong biofilm formers and spoilage enzymes producers. The organisms identified were not mere contaminants, but also producers of proteins with the potential to lower the quality and shelf-life of milk. In addition, we found that a considerable number of the Serratia and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the pasteurizer were capable of secreting compounds with antimicrobial properties.

  2. Recovery of surface bacteria from and surface sanitization of cantaloupes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Chue, Bryan; Mills, Daniel C

    2003-10-01

    Practical, effective methods that could be implemented in a food service establishment (restaurant or delicatessen) for the surface sanitization of cantaloupes were microbiologically evaluated. Cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulates) were immersed in an inoculum containing Salmonella enterica serovar Poona or Pantoea agglomerans at ca. 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml. An efficient method for the recovery of bacteria from the cantaloupe surface was developed and validated. The method consisted of washing the entire melon with Butterfield's buffer containing 1% Tween 80 in a plastic bag placed inside a plastic pail affixed to an orbital shaker. Levels of S. enterica Poona recovered by washing the entire melon were significantly higher than those recovered by the more common laboratory method of blending the rind. P. agglomerans can be used as a non-pathogenic proxy for S. enterica Poona. A three-compartment surface sanitization method consisting of washing with an antimicrobial soap solution, scrubbing with a brush in tap water, and immersion in 150 ppm of sodium hypochlorite reduced the initial level of recoverable viable bacteria by 99.8%. When examined separately, scrubbing with a vegetable brush in tap water, washing with soap, and dipping in chlorine were found to reduce the bacterial load by 70, 80, and 90%, respectively.

  3. Access to Drinking Water and Sanitation in Rural Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamshat Tussupova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs require nations to ensure adequate water supply for all. For Kazakhstan, this means that rural areas will need much stronger attention as they have been rather neglected in efforts to comply with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. This study aims to establish a baseline data concerning the current situation in villages that will need interventions according to the SDGs. The study was performed by means of questionnaires. The results should be seen as initial guidelines that can help to illuminate some of the uncounted challenges in future efforts to meet the SDG targets. As hardly any information exists about sanitation in rural Kazakhstan, the study essentially focuses on water services. The results show that 65% of rural dwellers want to connect and pay for the piped water supply. At the same time, about 80% have toilets outside their home. Consequently, the water program aiming at providing 80% of rural people with access to tap water from a centralized piped system will not be possible. However, by carefully managing the existing water supply and sanitation system in joint collaboration with the local users, significant progress can be made. The present results show the important first steps that need to be taken in this direction.

  4. Making the poor pay for public goods via microfinance: Economic and political pitfalls in the case of water and sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Mader, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically assesses microfinance’s expansion into the provision of public goods. It focuses on the problem of public goods and collective action and refers to the specific example of water and sanitation. The microfinancing of water and sanitation is a private business model which requires households to recognise, internalise and capitalise the benefits from improved water and sanitation. This requirement is not assured. Water and sanitation, being closely linked to underlying c...

  5. Guide related to the sanitation of structures in basic nuclear installations. Guide Nr 14, Release of 30 August 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After having indicated the relevant regulatory texts and guides, this guide defines ASN recommendations for the sanitation methodology to be applied when, for example, some premises of buildings are subject to a change of use, are to be demolished, or are to be cleaned after events which occurred during operation. Some definitions are first specified: sanitation objective, verification criterion, singular point, structure, area. After having rather briefly recalled the general doctrine adopted for waste management in basic nuclear installations, the guide states the ASN doctrine regarding structure sanitation by presenting various concepts: complete sanitation, extensive sanitation, and sanitation during operation. It presents principles of sanitation of constituent structures of an area which may produce nuclear wastes (three defence lines are distinguished: thoughtful definition of sanitation modalities, confirmation of the conventional character of structures after sanitation, radiological control of any waste). Administrative procedures are then addressed: before sanitation works, during sanitation works, and after sanitation works (depending on the compatibility of structure radiological condition). Quality assurance requirements are evoked. The guide then describes the modalities of definition of the three different defence lines, and indicates requirements regarding sanitation works (control of contamination dissemination, conditions of intervention, case of civil engineering metallic structures, control of remaining structure elements). A peculiar case is briefly addressed: sanitation of removable structure elements. Appendices indicate the main themes addressed by the sanitation methodology, and by the sanitation assessment. A model sheet is proposed to specify the downgrading of a premise which was previously classified as an area of possible production of nuclear wastes

  6. Challenges to achieving sustainable sanitation in informal settlements of Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinda, Aime; Abbott, Pamela; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katrina; Adogo, Jane; Okurut, Kenan; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2013-12-10

    Like most cities in developing countries, Kigali is experiencing rapid urbanisation leading to an increase in the urban population and rapid growth in the size and number of informal settlements. More than 60% of the city's population resides in these settlements, where they experience inadequate and poor quality urban services including sanitation. This article discusses the issues and constraints related to the provision of sustainable sanitation in the informal settlements in Kigali. Two informal settlements (Gatsata and Kimisagara) were selected for the study, which used a mixed method approach for data collection. The research found that residents experienced multiple problems because of poor sanitation and that the main barrier to improved sanitation was cost. Findings from this study can be used by the city authorities in the planning of effective sanitation intervention strategies for communities in informal settlements.

  7. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  8. Decision-making on shared sanitation in the informal settlements of Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiyu, Sheillah; Swilling, Mark; Cairncross, Sandy

    2017-10-01

    Unlike most quantitative studies that investigate decision-making on investing in sanitation, this study adopted a qualitative approach to investigate decision-making on shared sanitation in the informal settlements of Kisumu city, in Kenya. Using a grounded theory approach, landlords and tenants were interviewed to identify sanitation decisions, individuals involved in decision-making and factors influencing decision-making. The results indicate that the main sanitation decisions are on investment, emptying, repair and cleaning. Landlords make investment, emptying and repair decisions, while tenants make cleaning decisions. Absentee landlords are less involved in most decision-making compared to live-in landlords, who rarely consult tenants in decision-making. Tenants make decisions after consultations with a third party and often collectively with other tenants. Sanitation interventions in informal settlements should thus, target landlords and tenants, with investment efforts being directed at landlords and maintenance efforts at tenants.

  9. 50 CFR 260.103 - Operations and operating procedures shall be in accordance with an effective sanitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be in accordance with an effective sanitation program. 260.103 Section 260.103 Wildlife and Fisheries... Operations and operating procedures shall be in accordance with an effective sanitation program. (a) All..., choppers, and containers which fail to meet appropriate and adequate sanitation requirements will be...

  10. Daya Bunuh Hand Sanitizer Berbahan Aktif Alkohol 59% dalam Kemasan Setelah Penggunaan Berulang terhadap Angka Lempeng Total (ALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnaeni Walidah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kebersihan merupakan tahap awal untuk menjaga pola hidup sehat dan terhindar dari penyakit. Pencegahan penyebaran penyakit salah satunya adalah dengan mencuci tangan menggunakan antiseptik hand sanitizer.  Hand sanitizer berbahan aktif alkohol 40 – 80%  mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri. Tetapi pemakaian hand  sanitizer yang tidak langsung habis akan mempengaruhi kualitas hand sanitizer Penggunaan berulang hand sanitizer akan mempengaruhi kemampuan bahan aktif dalam membunuh kuman karena alkohol sebagai bahan aktif pada hand sanitizer memiliki sifat yang mudah menguap. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui daya bunuh hand sanitizer berbahan aktif alkohol 59% dalam kemasan setelah penggunaan berulang terhadap angka lempeng total. Metode  penelitian analitik observasional, menggunakan 10 responden yang diuji angka lempeng total pada tangan setelah penggunaan berulang hand sanitizer dari volume 50 ml sampai dengan ± 25 ml dan dari volume ± 25 ml sampai dengan ± 12,5 ml. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan daya bunuh hand sanitizer berbahan aktif alkohol 59% dalam kemasan setelah penggunaan berulang dari volume 50 ml sampai volume ± 25 ml sebesar  21,38%. Sedangkan daya bunuh hand sanitizer pada penggunaan berulang  hand sanitizer dari volume ± 25 ml sampai dengan volume ± 12,5 ml sebesar 15,83%. Ada pengaruh penggunaan berulang hand sanitizer berbahan aktif alkohol 59% dalam kemasan terhadap jumlah angka lempeng total

  11. Shared sanitation versus individual household latrines: a systematic review of health outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Heijnen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 761 million people rely on shared sanitation facilities. These have historically been excluded from international sanitation targets, regardless of the service level, due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this review to identify and summarize existing evidence that compares health outcomes associated with shared sanitation versus individual household latrines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Shared sanitation included any type of facilities intended for the containment of human faeces and used by more than one household, but excluded public facilities. Health outcomes included diarrhoea, helminth infections, enteric fevers, other faecal-oral diseases, trachoma and adverse maternal or birth outcomes. Studies were included regardless of design, location, language or publication status. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the STROBE guidelines. Twenty-two studies conducted in 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. Studies show a pattern of increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation compared to individual household latrines. A meta-analysis of 12 studies reporting on diarrhoea found increased odds of disease associated with reliance on shared sanitation (odds ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18-1.76. CONCLUSION: Evidence to date does not support a change of existing policy of excluding shared sanitation from the definition of improved sanitation used in international monitoring and targets. However, such evidence is limited, does not adequately address likely confounding, and does not identify potentially important distinctions among types of shared facilities. As reliance on shared sanitation is increasing, further research is necessary to determine the circumstances, if any, under which shared sanitation can offer a safe, appropriate and acceptable alternative to individual household latrines.

  12. Effects of sanitation on cognitive development and school absence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclar, G D; Garn, J V; Penakalapati, G; Alexander, K T; Krauss, J; Freeman, M C; Boisson, S; Medlicott, K O; Clasen, T

    2017-08-01

    We undertook this systematic review to explore the relationship between sanitation and learning outcomes, specifically cognitive development and absence. We searched leading databases to identify experimental and observational studies that address the effect of sanitation on our outcomes of interest. We identified 17 studies that met the review's eligibility criteria, four reporting on measures of cognitive development, 12 on school absence (with two studies reporting on school and work absence), and one study that reported on both outcomes. We assessed the risk of bias of individual studies as well as the overall strength of evidence for each outcome. Because of fundamental differences among the studies in terms of sanitation exposure and outcome measurement, pooling results via meta-analysis was deemed inappropriate so a descriptive review is presented. Studies reported that access to household sanitation was associated with measures of improved cognitive ability in children. However, collectively these studies were rated by GRADE as poor methodological quality with significant potential for confounding and bias, including publication bias. Studies on the association between household, community or school sanitation and school absence yielded mixed results. Some sanitation studies reported lower absence while others reported higher absence. Only the two randomized controlled trials reported no overall effects on absence even when combining sanitation with water supply improvements and hygiene promotion. Study quality as assessed by GRADE was again generally poor. While studies to date provide some support for positive effects from sanitation on cognitive development, the effects on school absence are uncertain. Differences in effects may be due to differences in study settings, type of sanitation exposure and most notably in outcome definitions. Further research in multiple settings using rigorous study designs and measuring intermediate outcomes such as exposure

  13. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  14. Marine Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    PNL research in the marine sciences is focused on establishing a basic understanding of the mechanisms of stress and tolerance in marine organisms exposed to contaminants. Several environmental stressors had been investigated in earlier energy-related research. In a landmark study, for example, PNL had established that the severity of fish disease caused by the common infectious agent, Flexobacter columnaris, was seriously aggravated by thermal enhancement and certain ecological factors. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the primary immune response in fish, challenged by columnaris, could be permanently suppressed by comparatively low tritium exposures. The research has suggested that a potential exists for a significant biological impact when an aquatic stressor is added to an ambient background of other stressors, which may include heat, heavy metal ions, radiation or infectious microorganisms. More recently, PNL investigators have shown that in response to heavy metal contaminants, animals synthesize specific proteins (metallothioneins), which bind and sequester metals in the animals, thus decreasing metal mobility and effects. Companion studies with host-specific intracellular pathogens are being used to investigate the effects of heavy metals on the synthesis of immune proteins, which mitigate disease processes. The results of these studies aid in predicting the ecological effects of energy-related contaminants on valued fin and shellfish species

  15. Terra Preta sanitation: re-discovered from an ancient Amazonian civilisation - integrating sanitation, bio-waste management and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factura, H; Bettendorf, T; Buzie, C; Pieplow, H; Reckin, J; Otterpohl, R

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of the bio-waste and excreta treatment of a former civilisation in the Amazon reveals the possibility of a highly efficient and simple sanitation system. With the end product that was black soil they converted 10% of former infertile soil of the region: Terra Preta do Indio (black soil of the Indians). These soils are still very fertile 500 years after this civilisation had disappeared. Deriving from these concepts, Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS) has been re-developed and adopted. TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Natural formation processes are employed to transform excreta into lasting fertile soil that can be utilised in urban agriculture. The authors studied the lacto-fermentation of faecal matter with a minimum of 4 weeks followed by vermicomposting. The results showed that lactic-acid fermentation with addition of a charcoal mixture is a suitable option for dry toilets as the container can be closed after usage. Hardly any odour occured even after periods of several weeks. Lactic-acid fermentation alone without addition of bulking agents such as paper and sliced-cut wood to raise the C/N ratio is creating a substrate that is not accepted by worms.

  16. Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal coverage. Input data on costs and benefits from reviewed literature were combined in an economic model to estimate the costs and benefits, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). Benefits included health and access time savings. Global BCRs (Dollar return per Dollar invested) were 5.5 for sanitation, 2.0 for water supply and 4.3 for combined sanitation and water supply. Globally, the costs of universal access amount to US$ 35 billion per year for sanitation and US$ 17.5 billion for drinking-water, over the 5-year period 2010-2015 (billion defined as 10(9) here and throughout). The regions accounting for the major share of costs and benefits are South Asia, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation and drinking-water supply deliver significant economic returns to society, especially sanitation. Economic evidence should further feed into advocacy efforts to raise funding from governments, households and the private sector.

  17. Access to Sanitation Facilities among Nigerian Households: Determinants and Sustainability Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Rimi Abubakar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Access to improved sanitation facilities is key to the socioeconomic wellbeing and sustainable development of any society. This study examines access to sanitation facilities in Nigeria and explores the socioeconomic and locational factors that influence the type of facility used by households. The study utilizes cross-sectional data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, and employs descriptive and inferential statistics for data analyses. The results indicated that 44.2% of households used various kinds of pit latrines, followed by toilets that flush to septic tanks (10.3%. While only 5.3% of the respondents used toilets that connect to sewer systems, about a third (31.5% lacked sanitation facility and the remaining 8.7% used other types of sanitation facilities. Results from chi-square analysis and ANOVA revealed significant statistical differences between the type of sanitation facility households used and their place of residence, geopolitical zone, ethnicity, educational attainment and wealth. Multivariate regression results indicated that the type of household sanitation facility is significantly associated with the mentioned factors as well as household size, gender of the head of the household, type of water sources, number of rooms and access to electricity. Age of the head of the household and type of cooking fuel used were not significant. The study concludes by underscoring the implications of using unimproved sanitation facilities on human health and environmental sustainability.

  18. Why gender matters in the solution towards safe sanitation? Reflections from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Tina; Das, Madhumita

    2016-12-01

    While the topic of women and water, sanitation and hygiene is a widely accepted concern among academics and activists, it continues to be an issue in developing countries with serious consequences. Based on a qualitative research conducted in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, the paper affirms that sanitation issues for women and girls are compounded by inequitable gender norms that put them at greater risk of experiencing violence and multiple health vulnerabilities. Women, despite having a high demand for safe toilet facilities, continue to practise unsafe sanitation. The findings highlight the role of three structural constraints as the key factors influencing toilet construction and use: poverty, inadequate sanitation policy and its implementation and gender-based power dynamics at the household level. The paper concludes by emphasising the relevance of engendering sanitation programmes and policies by involving women and girls in the planning process to ensure that dignified and gender-sensitive sanitation solutions are developed. The paper also stresses the need to have measures for strengthening and effectively implementing a sanitation policy for the poor and for programmes to work with both men and women to address gender power relations which influence toilet adoption and use.

  19. The impact of alcohol hand sanitizer use on infection rates in an extended care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendler, E J; Ali, Y; Hammond, B S; Lyons, M K; Kelley, M B; Vowell, N A

    2002-06-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major problem in health care facilities, resulting in extended durations of care and substantial morbidity. Since alcohol gel hand sanitizers combine high immediate antimicrobial efficacy with ease of use, this study was carried out to determine the effect of the use of alcohol gel hand sanitizer by caregivers on infection types and rates in an extended care facility. Infection rate and type data were collected in a 275-bed extended care facility for 34 months (July 1997 to May 2000), during which an alcohol gel hand sanitizer was used by the caregivers in 2 units of the facility. The primary infection types found were urinary tract with Foley catheter, respiratory tract, and wound infections. Comparison of the infection types and rates for the units where hand sanitizer was used with those for the control units where the hand sanitizer was not used showed a 30.4% decrease in infection rates for the 34-month period in the units where hand sanitizer was used. This study indicates that use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer can decrease infection rates and provide an additional tool for an effective infection control program.

  20. Conflict of technologies for water and sanitation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, R R

    2000-01-01

    Borehole water supplies, in basement rock aquifers in the West Africa Sub-region, face potential pollution hazards as a result of their close location within the same geological environments as indiscriminately sited latrines, rubbish dumps, farms and animal watering points in the communities. The heterogeneous nature of the overburden and fractures in the bedrock constitute relatively fast flow paths for surface water contaminated mainly by bacteria and nitrates which enhance the pollution of the groundwater and boreholes. To improve the drinking water quality, some measures have been taken to minimize the hazards. Further studies are required to understand better the nature and scale of the problem and to avoid the apparent conflict of technologies. It is necessary to incorporate improvements in sanitation into rural water supply projects, if the otherwise good drinking water source should not be lost to society's wastes.

  1. Assessing willingness to pay for improved sanitation in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Thanh, Nguyen Hoang; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2013-07-01

    The willingness to pay (WTP) for the construction of bathrooms with a flush toilet was assessed in households in a rural community in northern Vietnam. We also examined the effects of socio-economic factors on the WTP. The contingent valuation method, an economic survey technique, was used. We used the iterative bidding game technique to elicit household WTP that involved a sequence of dichotomous choice questions followed by a final open-ended question. A total of 370 households that did not have toilets were selected for this study. Respondents to the questionnaire were the primary income earners and decision-makers of their respective household. Of those responding to the questionnaire, 62.1 % reported being willing to pay for the construction of bathrooms with a flush toilet. The mean and median of maximum WTP amounts were Viet Nam Dong (VND) 15.6 million and VND 13.0 million, respectively (minimum VND 2.0 million; maximum VND 45.0 million). Significant correlates of the WTP rate were: (1) gender of the head of household, (2) age of the head of household, (3) economic status of household, (4) type of current toilet, (5) satisfaction with existing toilet, and (6) knowledge of health effects of poor sanitation. The significant determinants of WTP amount were (1) geographic location and (2) economic status of household. About two-third of the households in the study area were willing to pay for an improvement in their current sanitation arrangements. Both WTP rate and WP amount were strongly influenced by the economic status of the households and health knowledge of the study respondents.

  2. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Jordan's healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef Saleh

    2017-08-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine water availability, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) services, and healthcare waste management in Jordan healthcare facilities. Design/methodology/approach In total, 19 hospitals (15 public and four private) were selected. The WSH services were assessed in hospitals using the WSH in health facilities assessment tool developed for this purpose. Findings All hospitals (100 percent) had a safe water source and most (84.2 percent) had functional water sources to provide enough water for users' needs. All hospitals had appropriate and sufficient gender separated toilets in the wards and 84.2 percent had the same in outpatient settings. Overall, 84.2 percent had sufficient and functioning handwashing basins with soap and water, and 79.0 percent had sufficient showers. Healthcare waste management was appropriately practiced in all hospitals. Practical implications Jordan hospital managers achieved major achievements providing access to drinking water and improved sanitation. However, there are still areas that need improvements, such as providing toilets for patients with special needs, establishing handwashing basins with water and soap near toilets, toilet maintenance and providing sufficient trolleys for collecting hazardous waste. Efforts are needed to integrate WSH service policies with existing national policies on environmental health in health facilities, establish national standards and targets for the various healthcare facilities to increase access and improve services. Originality/value There are limited WSH data on healthcare facilities and targets for basic coverage in healthcare facilities are also lacking. A new assessment tool was developed to generate core WSH indicators and to assess WSH services in Jordan's healthcare facilities. This tool can be used by a non-WSH specialist to quickly assess healthcare facility-related WSH services and sanitary hazards in other countries. This tool identified some areas

  3. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  4. Hand sanitizer-dispensing door handles increase hand hygiene compliance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, Lukasz S; Savoie, Brent; McGuire, Mark; McConnell, Lauren; Nagy, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Improving rates of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) has been shown to reduce nosocomial disease. We compared the HHC for a traditional wall-mounted unit and a novel sanitizer-dispensing door handle device in a hospital inpatient ultrasound area. HHC increased 24.5%-77.1% (P sanitizer-dispensing door handle, whereas it remained unchanged for the other rooms. Technical improvements like a sanitizer-dispensing door handle can improve hospital HHC. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of sanitizing agents in inactivating Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 in food cutting board surfaces. Removal E. coli using different sanitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEZAR AUGUSTO BELTRAME

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate Escherichia coli adhesion on new and used polyethylene cutting board surface and evaluate it’s removal using different sanitizer (peracetic acid,chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite and organic acids. Results indicated that the number of adherent cells increased with time in both surfaces evaluated. Evaluating the sanitizer action, 0.5%peracetic acid was more effective in removal E. coli than chlorhexidine and organic acids at same concentration in both surfaces. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite also showed effectiveness at concentrations of 0.2% and 0.5% on new surfaces, respectively. 0.8% of chlorhexidine and 2.0% of organic acids showed similar effectiveness in the removal E. coli on new and used surfaces, respectively.These results suggest that peracetic acid is considerable promise sanitizer for application in surfaces of the food processing industry.

  6. Yield of Potato as Influenced by Crop Sanitation and Reduced Fungicidal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop sanitation and reduced sprays of "Ridomil plus®" (12 % metalaxyl + 60 % cuprous oxide on the control of potato (Solanum tuberosum late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans were evaluated in two field experiments in 1993 in Dschang, Cameroon. In the first experiment, sanitation (five weekly removals of blighted leaves and two fungicidal treatments were initiated from first symptoms. In the second experiment, both fungicidal sprays were made at varying rates. Marketable yields increased by 50 % in sanitation-treated plots, by 94 % in plots sprayed with Ridomil plus (2.24 kg a. i./ha, or by 55 % in those exposed to both control methods. The fungicide equivalence of the sanitation treatment was two sprays of Ridomil plus at 0.76 kg a. i./ha. These results suggest that proper removal of diseased leaves or reduced fungicidal protection may be an effective late blight control method in potato farming.

  7. Innovative Laundering and Sanitization System to Extend Duration of Crew Clothing Wear, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will refresh crew clothing to extend the duration of wear. It is a collapsible or portable light-weight cleaning sanitizing and deodorizing...

  8. EVALUASI SANITATION STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES KERUPUKAMPLANG DI UD SARINA KECAMATAN KALIANGET KABUPATEN SUMENEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ach Triharjono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Industri pangan untuk menghasilkan produk yang memenuhi standar keamanan pangan. Standar tersebut dapat dipenuhi dengan menerapkan 8 aspek kunci Sanitation Standard Operating Prosedures (SSOP. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh hasil penerapan 8 aspek kunci Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP dan mengevaluasi penerapan Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP Di UD Sarina Kecamatan Kalianget Kabupaten Sumenep. Jenis penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif dengan lokasi penelitian di UD Sarina Kecamatan Kalianget Kabupaten Sumenep. Hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa penerapan 8 aspek kunci Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP di UD Sarina sudah terlaksana tapi terdapat 3 tahapan kunci yang belum terlaksana dengan baik yaitu pencegahan kontaminasi silang, pengawasan kondisi kesehatan personil dan menghilangkan hama dari unit pengolahan. Hal yang perlu ditingkatkan terkait dengan penerapan SSOP di UD Sarina yaitu masih perlu adanya manual prosedur untuk berbagai pelaksanaan sanitasi yang dilakukan oleh UD Sarina ini

  9. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of hand sanitizers – an in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-15

    Dec 15, 2017 ... Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Overall the only ... The hand sanitizing products tested in this study are suitable in .... repertoire of virulence factors and a high level of antibiotic ...

  10. Use of Disinfectants and Sanitizers in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This letter is to brings attention several concerns that the Agency has regarding the use of sanitizer and/or disinfectant products, and other types of antimicrobial products, to treat the surfaces of heating, ventilation

  11. Sanitation conditions in the Ururaí neighborhood in Campos, State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torquato Ferreira Pinheiro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a diagnosis of sanitation in the Ururaí neighborhood, located in Campos, Brazil. The study was based on both quantitative and qualitative data gathering methods using the following research instruments: photographic record, semi-structured interviews with residents, and physicochemical and microbiological analysis of water quality of the residences and of the Ururaí River. The photographic records did not find one consistency of the local sanitation system. Interviews conducted with one area of the neighborhood show that 63% of residents are not satisfied with the sanitation service, while questionnaires applied in the second area present a higher percentage - 83%. During the investigation, we verified the presence of coliform bacteria in water samples collected in the Ururaí River as well as at residences. Based on the results, we found precariousness of services involving sanitation in the area. Therefore, this work proposes future educational activities in the region.

  12. Kemampuan Daya Hambat Bahan Aktif Beberapa Merek Dagang Hand sanitizer terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Srikartika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHand sanitizer sebagai pembersih tangan antiseptik inovatif saat ini, sering menjadi alternatif pengganti cuci tangan dengan sabun dan air. Mencuci tangan dengan hand sanitizer merupakan salah satu cara memelihara kebersihan tangan agar terhindar dari penyakit  yang disebabkan oleh flora normal di kulit yang berpotensi patogenik seperti bakteri Staphylococcus aureus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menilai kemampuan daya hambat beberapa merek dagang hand sanitizer terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode rancangan acak lengkap pada empat macam hand sanitizer dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Data diolah secara manual dan menggunakan analisis varians (ANOVA dilanjutkan dengan uji pos-hoc dengan Tukey HSD dan independent t test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahan aktif hand sanitizer mampu mengurangi pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus secara signifikan. Perbedaan prosentase rerata pengurangan jumlah koloni pada waktu 30 detik berkisar antara 57,65%-72,45%, sedangkan pada waktu 1 menit berkisar 67,88%-82,65%. Hasil analisis menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna terhadap perlakuan, antar perlakuan dan waktu yang diujikan dengan nilai signifikasi p <0,05. Didapatkan hand sanitizer lebih efektif menghambat pertumbuhan pada waktu 1 menit daripada 30 detik. Hand sanitizer yang mengandung alkohol 70% dan triklosan 0,05% memiliki kemampuan daya hambat lebih baik terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus.Kata kunci: bahan aktif, hand sanitizer, Staphylococcus aureus AbstractHand sanitizer is one of the ways for maintaining the hand hygiene. Hand sanitizer as an innovative antiseptic product at this time, becomes an alternative hand washing with soap and water. It prevents  the disease that can be caused by normal flora that potentially pathogenic bacterium such as Staphylococcus aureus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibition ability of several trademarks hand sanitizer on the growth of

  13. Women's Rights and Access to Water and Sanitation in Asian Cities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The nongovernmental organization, Women in Cities International (WICI), is exploring methods for addressing the problem in India. ... use of the Women's Safety Audit in meeting the water and sanitation needs of poor urban women and girls.

  14. Determinants of quality of shared sanitation facilities in informal settlements: case study of Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheillah Simiyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shared facilities are not recognised as improved sanitation due to challenges of maintenance as they easily can be avenues for the spread of diseases. Thus there is need to evaluate the quality of shared facilities, especially in informal settlements, where they are commonly used. A shared facility can be equated to a common good whose management depends on the users. If users do not work collectively towards keeping the facility clean, it is likely that the quality may depreciate due to lack of maintenance. This study examined the quality of shared sanitation facilities and used the common pool resource (CPR management principles to examine the determinants of shared sanitation quality in the informal settlements of Kisumu, Kenya. Methods Using a multiple case study design, the study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods. In both phases, users of shared sanitation facilities were interviewed, while shared sanitation facilities were inspected. Shared sanitation quality was a score which was the dependent variable in a regression analysis. Interviews during the qualitative stage were aimed at understanding management practices of shared sanitation users. Qualitative data was analysed thematically by following the CPR principles. Results Shared facilities, most of which were dirty, were shared by an average of eight households, and their quality decreased with an increase in the number of households sharing. The effect of numbers on quality is explained by behaviour reflected in the CPR principles, as it was easier to define boundaries of shared facilities when there were fewer users who cooperated towards improving their shared sanitation facility. Other factors, such as defined management systems, cooperation, collective decision making, and social norms, also played a role in influencing the behaviour of users towards keeping shared facilities clean and functional. Conclusion Apart from hardware factors, quality

  15. The effect of an instant hand sanitizer on blood glucose monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John J; Ellison, John M; Glaeser, Danielle; Price, David

    2011-11-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are instructed to clean their skin prior to self-monitoring of blood glucose to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers have become popular when soap and water are not available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a hand sanitizer is compatible with glucose meter testing and effective for the removal of exogenous glucose. We enrolled 34 nonfasting subjects [14 male/20 female, mean ages 45 (standard deviation, 9.4)] years, 2 with diagnosed diabetes/32 without known diabetes]. Laboratory personnel prepared four separate fingers on one hand of each subject by (1) cleaning the second finger with soap and water and towel drying (i.e., control finger), (2) cleaning the third finger with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, (3) coating the fourth finger with cola and allowing it to air dry, and (4) coating the fifth finger with cola and then cleaning it with the instant hand sanitizer after the cola had dried. Finger sticks were performed on each prepared finger and blood glucose was measured. Several in vitro studies were also performed to investigate the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer for removal of exogenous glucose.z Mean blood glucose values from fingers cleaned with instant hand sanitizer did not differ significantly from the control finger (p = .07 and .08, respectively) and resulted in 100% accurate results. Blood glucose data from the fourth (cola-coated) finger were substantially higher on average compared with the other finger conditions, but glucose data from the fifth finger (cola-coated then cleaned with hand sanitizer) was similar to the control finger. The data from in vitro experiments showed that the hand sanitizer did not adversely affect glucose meter results, but when an exogenous glucose interference was present, the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer on glucose bias (range: 6% to 212%) depended on the surface area and degree of dilution. In our study

  16. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E T Grimes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review.We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2.Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47-0.61. Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73 and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84. Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor.Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human

  17. Water and sanitation hygiene in South Sudan: What needs to be done to bridge the gap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vuni Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water, and sanitation hygiene (WASH is a major public health challenge, not only globally, but also in the Republic of South Sudan. It is estimated that 1 in 10 (768 million of the world’s population do not have access to safe drinking water, most of whom are in developing countries, while a third of the world’s population (2.5 billion people do not have access to adequate sanitation

  18. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng; Anderson, John D; Leitner, Michael; Rheingans, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals. The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing. There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of greater needs when

  19. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jia

    Full Text Available Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals.The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing.There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of

  20. Comparison of eggshell surface sanitization technologies and impacts on consumer acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajeeli, Morouj N; Taylor, T Matthew; Alvarado, Christine Z; Coufal, Craig D

    2016-05-01

    Shell eggs can be contaminated with many types of microorganisms, including bacterial pathogens, and thus present a risk for the transmission of foodborne disease to consumers. Currently, most United States egg processors utilize egg washing and sanitization systems to decontaminate surfaces of shell eggs prior to packaging. However, previous research has indicated that current shell egg sanitization technologies employed in the commercial egg industry may not completely eliminate bacteria from the surface of eggshells, and thus alternative egg sanitization technologies with the potential for increased microbial reductions on eggshells should be investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare the antimicrobial efficacy and consumer sensory attributes of industry-available eggshell sanitization methods (chlorine and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) applied via spray) to various alternative egg sanitization technologies. Eggs (White Leghorn hens; n=195) were obtained for evaluation of sanitizer-induced reduction in mesophilic aerobic bacteria (n=90) or inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) reduction (n=105). Sanitizing treatments evaluated in this experiment were: chlorine spray (100 ppm available chlorine), QAC spray (200 ppm), peracetic acid spray (PAA; 135 ppm) alone or in combination with ultraviolet light (UV; 254 nm), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 3.5% solution) spray in combination with UV (H2O2+UV). For enumeration of aerobic bacteria, eggs were sampled at 0, 7, and 14 days of storage at 4°C; surviving SE cells from inoculated eggs were enumerated by differential plating. Sensory trials were conducted to determine consumer liking of scrambled eggs made from eggs sanitized with chlorine, QAC, H2O2+UV, or no treatment (control). The H2O2 and UV treatment resulted in the greatest reductions in eggshell aerobic plate counts compared to other treatments throughout egg storage (Peggs represents a novel technology that could have important

  1. Women's role in sanitation decision making in rural coastal Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimita Routray

    Full Text Available While women and girls face special risks from lack of access to sanitation facilities, their ability to participate and influence household-level sanitation is not well understood. This paper examines the association between women's decision-making autonomy and latrine construction in rural areas of Odisha, India.We conducted a mixed-method study among rural households in Puri district. This included a cross sectional survey among 475 randomly selected households. These were classified as either having a functional latrine, a non-functional latrine or no latrine at all. We also conducted 17 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions among household members of these three categories of households.Decisions on the construction of household level sanitation facilities were made exclusively by the male head in 80% of households; in 11% the decision was made by men who consulted or otherwise involved women. In only 9% of households the decision was made by women. Households where women were more involved in general decision making processes were no more likely to build a latrine, compared to households where they were excluded from decisions. Qualitative research revealed that women's non-involvement in sanitation decision making is attributed to their low socio-economic status and inability to influence the household's financial decisions. Female heads lacked confidence to take decisions independently, and were dependent on their spouse or other male family members for most decisions. The study revealed the existence of power hierarchies and dynamics within households, which constrained female's participation in decision-making processes regarding sanitation.Though governments and implementers emphasize women's involvement in sanitation programmes, socio-cultural factors and community and household level dynamics often prevent women from participating in sanitation-related decisions. Measures are needed for strengthening sanitation policies

  2. Women's role in sanitation decision making in rural coastal Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2017-01-01

    While women and girls face special risks from lack of access to sanitation facilities, their ability to participate and influence household-level sanitation is not well understood. This paper examines the association between women's decision-making autonomy and latrine construction in rural areas of Odisha, India. We conducted a mixed-method study among rural households in Puri district. This included a cross sectional survey among 475 randomly selected households. These were classified as either having a functional latrine, a non-functional latrine or no latrine at all. We also conducted 17 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions among household members of these three categories of households. Decisions on the construction of household level sanitation facilities were made exclusively by the male head in 80% of households; in 11% the decision was made by men who consulted or otherwise involved women. In only 9% of households the decision was made by women. Households where women were more involved in general decision making processes were no more likely to build a latrine, compared to households where they were excluded from decisions. Qualitative research revealed that women's non-involvement in sanitation decision making is attributed to their low socio-economic status and inability to influence the household's financial decisions. Female heads lacked confidence to take decisions independently, and were dependent on their spouse or other male family members for most decisions. The study revealed the existence of power hierarchies and dynamics within households, which constrained female's participation in decision-making processes regarding sanitation. Though governments and implementers emphasize women's involvement in sanitation programmes, socio-cultural factors and community and household level dynamics often prevent women from participating in sanitation-related decisions. Measures are needed for strengthening sanitation policies and effective

  3. Water and sanitation policies limits in Senegal cities : the case of Rufisque

    OpenAIRE

    Sy, I.; Handschumacher, Pascal; Wyss, K.; Piermay, Jean-Luc; Tanner, M.; Cisse, G.

    2009-01-01

    Potable water and sanitation facilities access constitutes one of the major problems faced by developing countries. In Senegal, more than 70% of urban centres lack drinking water distribution networks and satisfactory sewage systems. For this reason, public authorities have initiated series of institutional plans to strengthen the implementation of water and sanitation policies in various urban contexts as in the town of Rufisque. Geographical and epidemiological investigations were carried o...

  4. Transforming Markets, Increasing Access : Early Lessons on Base-of-the-Pyramid Market Development in Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Pedi; Will Davies

    2013-01-01

    The four billion global consumers at the base of the pyramid (BOP) - those earning less than two dollars a day - are increasingly recognized by the private sector as a major untapped market segment. The sanitation industry is no exception. Across sub-Saharan Africa, more than half of the population lives without access to minimum levels of improved sanitation. Beyond the reach of urban sew...

  5. The Sustainable Development Goal for Urban Sanitation: Africa's Statistical Tragedy Continues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Robert M; Kallergis, Achilles

    2018-06-01

    Sanitation delivery in the urban areas of sub-Saharan African countries has been a chronic issue, particularly difficult to tackle. Under the Millennium Development Goals, the sanitation target in urban sub-Saharan Africa was missed by a wide margin and witnessed almost no improvement. After 2 years of review, the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme published a new measure of access to sanitation as a baseline for the Sustainable Development Goals. There are a number of improvements in the new measure. However, despite the improvements, the new measure continues to be characterized by an important flaw: it continues to disregard how shared toilet facilities contribute towards the SDG sanitation target. As a result, the new measure does not indicate whether progress is being made in low-income urban areas where a large number of households rely on shared sanitation; nor does it provide a goal that can be achieved in cities of the poorest countries over the measurement period. But, its most egregious failing is that it directs resources towards investments which will often fail cost/benefit tests. In sum, it is not a surprise that a Working Group recommended that the measure should be changed to include some shared facilities. Following the Working Group's recommendation would have avoided the adverse consequences of continued reliance on a key component of the methodology used for monitoring sanitation improvements under the Millennium Development Goals. The paper discusses the limitations of this methodology in the context of urban sub-Saharan Africa, where current sanitation conditions are seriously lacking, and the significant future urban population growth will add more pressure for the delivery of vital sanitation services.

  6. Sanitation of overburden dumps containing organic pollutants. Soil pollution obstructs removal of overburden dumps at Ronneburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammami, R.; Fischer, D.

    1999-01-01

    Contamination of mineral oil hydrocarbons is a common problem in soil sanitation, and classic methods are employed as a rule. In one case, radioactivity of the polluted rock material, a wide spectrum of pollutants and a high pollutant level necessitated adapted solutions. The task was tackled in a joint effort by builder-owners, authorities, sanitation experts and scientific experts in consideration of economic and ecological aspects [de

  7. The relationship between water, sanitation and schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Croll, David; Harrison, Wendy E; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C; Templeton, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Access to "safe" water and "adequate" sanitation are emphasized as important measures for schistosomiasis control. Indeed, the schistosomes' lifecycles suggest that their transmission may be reduced through safe water and adequate sanitation. However, the evidence has not previously been compiled in a systematic review. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting schistosome infection rates in people who do or do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 31 December 2013, without restrictions on year of publication or language. Studies' titles and abstracts were screened by two independent assessors. Papers deemed of interest were read in full and appropriate studies included in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed through the visual inspection of funnel plots and through Egger's test. Heterogeneity of datasets within the meta-analysis was quantified using Higgins' I2. Safe water supplies were associated with significantly lower odds of schistosomiasis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.61). Adequate sanitation was associated with lower odds of Schistosoma mansoni, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.73) and Schistosoma haematobium (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84). Included studies were mainly cross-sectional and quality was largely poor. Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that increasing access to safe water and adequate sanitation are important measures to reduce the odds of schistosome infection. However, most of the studies were observational and quality was poor. Hence, there is a pressing need for adequately powered cluster randomized trials comparing schistosome infection risk with access to safe water and adequate sanitation, more studies which rigorously define water and sanitation, and new research on the relationships between water, sanitation, hygiene, human behavior

  8. Efektivitas Mencuci Tangan Menggunakan Cairan Pembersih Tangan Antiseptik (Hand Sanitizer) Terhadap Jumlah Angka Kuman

    OpenAIRE

    Desiyanto, Fajar Ardi; Djannah, Sitti Nur

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hand washing is one of the sanitation actions by washing fingers with water or other liquid for the purpose of getting clean, religious ceremony or others. Antiseptic was chemical substance to prevent multiplication of microorganism on the surface of body, by killing the microorganism or blocking the growth and activity of its metabolic. The commonly used antiseptic of hand sanitizer was alcohol; alcohol has been widely used as skin antiseptic because it had an effect of blocking ...

  9. Access to Waterless Hand Sanitizer Improves Student Hand Hygiene Behavior in Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Amy J.; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G.; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2013-01-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning...

  10. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources.

  11. Effectiveness of Hand Sanitizers with and without Organic Acids for Removal of Rhinovirus from Hands ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronald B.; Fuls, Janice L.; Rodgers, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to be determined. PMID:20047916

  12. Improving health at schools through franchising of water and sanitation services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available and sanitation services. Generically, franchising: • transfers appropriate skills transfer to local personnel, • brings ongoing performance measurement and support, and mentoring and quality control, and • provides backup at-a-distance skills together.... An innovative programme whereby emergent microenterprises are trained and mentored to clean and maintain water and sanitation facilities at schools is being piloted in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The programme is one of partnerships founded...

  13. Using microfinance to facilitate household investment in sanitation in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Kimberley H; Goldberg, Jeffrey; Leatherman, Sheila

    2016-11-01

    Improved sanitation access is extremely low in rural Cambodia. Non-governmental organizations have helped build local supply side latrine markets to promote household latrine purchase and use, but households cite inability to pay as a key barrier to purchase. To examine the extent to which microfinance can be used to facilitate household investment in sanitation, we applied a two-pronged assessment: (1) to address the gap between interest in and use of microfinance, we conducted a pilot study to assess microfinance demand and feasibility of integration with a sanitation marketing program and (2) using a household survey (n = 935) at latrine sales events in two rural provinces, we assessed attitudes about microfinance and financing for sanitation. We found substantial stated intent to use a microfinance institution (MFI) loan to purchase a latrine (27%). Five percent of current owners used an MFI loan for latrine purchase. Credit officers attended 159 events, with 4761 individuals attending. Actual loan applications were low, with 4% of sales events attendees applying for a loan immediately following the event (mean = 1.7 loans per event). Ongoing coordination was challenging, requiring management commitment from the sanitation marketing program and commitment to social responsibility from the MFI. Given the importance of improving sanitation coverage and concomitant health impacts, linking functional sanitation markets to already operational finance markets has the potential to give individuals and households more financial flexibility. Further product research and better integration of private vendors and financing modalities are necessary to create a scalable microfinance option for sanitation markets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Meine Pieter

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSmall-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10–69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important contribution to drinking water and sanitation in a situation where many governments cannot be the only one to supply drinking water and sanitary services. Theoretical and practical arguments are use...

  15. Climate proofing water and sanitation services and applying integrated water resource management in slums

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis assesses how climate change impacts water resources and communities and reviews how the resource can be managed in an integrated manner for small water and sanitation providers. This thesis was based upon a 10 month Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) between Cranfield University and Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP). The aim of the project was to assess the opportunities and vulnerabilities presented by climate change and how Integrated Water Resource ...

  16. Sanitation-related psychosocial stress: A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Hulland, Kristyna R S; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Freeman, Matthew C; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-08-01

    While sanitation interventions have focused primarily on child health, women's unique health risks from inadequate sanitation are gaining recognition as a priority issue. This study examines the range of sanitation-related psychosocial stressors during routine sanitation practices in Odisha, India. Between August 2013 and March 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 56 women in four life stages: adolescent, newly married, pregnant and established adult women in three settings: urban slums, rural villages and indigenous villages. Using a grounded theory approach, the study team transcribed, translated, coded and discussed interviews using detailed analytic memos to identify and characterize stressors at each life stage and study site. We found that sanitation practices encompassed more than defecation and urination and included carrying water, washing, bathing, menstrual management, and changing clothes. During the course of these activities, women encountered three broad types of stressors-environmental, social, and sexual-the intensity of which were modified by the woman's life stage, living environment, and access to sanitation facilities. Environmental barriers, social factors and fears of sexual violence all contributed to sanitation-related psychosocial stress. Though women responded with small changes to sanitation practices, they were unable to significantly modify their circumstances, notably by achieving adequate privacy for sanitation-related behaviors. A better understanding of the range of causes of stress and adaptive behaviors is needed to inform context-specific, gender-sensitive sanitation interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Access to Waterless Hand Sanitizer Improves Student Hand Hygiene Behavior in Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J.; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G.; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2013-01-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access. PMID:23836575

  18. Inconvenient Human Rights: Water and Sanitation in Sweden's Informal Roma Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Martha F; Ryan, Natasha

    2017-12-01

    Following an increase in Roma migration under the European "freedom of movement" laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation-central aspects of human health-are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden's obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities.

  19. An exploration of multilevel modeling for estimating access to drinking-water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennyfer; Bonjour, Sophie; Prüss-Ustün, Annette

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring progress towards the targets for access to safe drinking-water and sanitation under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) requires reliable estimates and indicators. We analyzed trends and reviewed current indicators used for those targets. We developed continuous time series for 1990 to 2015 for access to improved drinking-water sources and improved sanitation facilities by country using multilevel modeling (MLM). We show that MLM is a reliable and transparent tool with many advantages over alternative approaches to estimate access to facilities. Using current indicators, the MDG target for water would be met, but the target for sanitation missed considerably. The number of people without access to such services is still increasing in certain regions. Striking differences persist between urban and rural areas. Consideration of water quality and different classification of shared sanitation facilities would, however, alter estimates considerably. To achieve improved monitoring we propose: (1) considering the use of MLM as an alternative for estimating access to safe drinking-water and sanitation; (2) completing regular assessments of water quality and supporting the development of national regulatory frameworks as part of capacity development; (3) evaluating health impacts of shared sanitation; (4) using a more equitable presentation of countries' performances in providing improved services.

  20. Bacterial contamination on household toys and association with water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Christine E; Walters, Adam; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2013-04-18

    There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter) on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and introduced toys during an on-going randomized controlled trial of the plastic biosand filter (plastic BSF). The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children's toys: access to a latrine, access to improved sanitation and access to the plastic BSF. Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. coli and total coliforms. Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children's toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home. In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks.

  1. Validation of the cleaning and sanitization method for radiopharmaceutical production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Anita; Morote, Mario; Moore, Mariel; Castro, Delcy; Paragulla, Wilson; Novoa, Carlos; Otero, Manuel; Miranda, Jesus; Herrera, Jorge; Gonzales, Luis

    2014-01-01

    A protocol for the cleaning and sanitization method for radiopharmaceutical production facilities has been designed and developed for the inner surface of the hot cells for the production of Sodium Pertechnetate Tc-99m and Sm-153 EDTMP, considering an extreme situation for each hot cell. Cleaning is performed with double-distilled water and sanitation with two disinfectant solutions, 70 % isopropyl alcohol and 3 % hydrogen peroxide in alternate weeks. Microbiological analysis of sanitized surfaces were made after 20 minutes and 48 hours for the hot cell of Tc-99m and 72 hours for the hot cell of EDTMP Sm-153 in 3 consecutive tests by the method of direct contact with plates containing culture medium, made for each sampling point (6 in the first and five in the second). The results showed that the microbial load on surfaces sanitized was below acceptable limits and that the lifetime of cleaning and sanitization is 48 hours for the hot cell of Tc-99m and 72 hours for the one of EDTMP-Sm-153. As a conclusion, the method of cleaning and sanitization is effective to reduce or eliminate microbial contamination therefore, the process is validated. (authors).

  2. Amplifying Progress toward Multiple Development Goals through Resource Recovery from Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, John T; Cusick, Roland D; Guest, Jeremy S

    2017-09-19

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognize that current sanitation gaps must be closed to better serve those without access to safely managed systems (Target 6.2: universal sanitation coverage) and those connected to sewers without wastewater treatment (Target 6.3: halving the proportion of untreated wastewater). Beyond mitigating environmental and health concerns, implementing resource recovery sanitation systems could simultaneously improve the availability of agricultural nutrients (SDG 2) and household energy (SDG 7). This study estimates the potential for global, regional, and country-level resource recovery to impact nutrient and household electricity use through 2030. We distinguish impacts from newly installed sanitation systems (to achieve universal coverage), newly treated wastewater systems (to halve the proportion of untreated wastewater), and existing system replacement, while also considering urban and rural disparities and spatial colocation of nutrients with agricultural needs. This work points toward country-specific strategies for deriving the greatest benefit from sanitation investments while also identifying overarching trends to guide international research efforts. Globally, potential nutrient gains are an order of magnitude larger than electricity (a small fraction of total energy), and considerable impacts are possible in the least-developed countries, six of which could double or offset all projected nutrient and electricity use through newly installed sanitation systems.

  3. Clean water, sanitation and diarrhoea in Indonesia: Effects of household and community factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarulzaman, Ahmad; Smits, Jeroen; de Jong, Eelke

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhoea is an important health issue in low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. We applied a multilevel regression analysis on the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey to examine the effects of drinking water and sanitation facilities at the household and community level on diarrhoea prevalence among children under five (n = 33,339). The role of the circumstances was explored by studying interactions between the water and sanitation variables and other risk factors. Diarrhoea prevalence was reported by 4820 (14.4%) children, who on average were younger, poorer and were living in a poorer environment. At the household level, piped water was significantly associated with diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.797, 95% CI: 0.692-0.918), improved sanitation had no direct effect (OR = 0.992, 95% CI: 0.899-1.096) and water treatment was not related to diarrhoea incidence (OR = 1.106, 95% CI: 0.994-1.232). At the community level, improved water coverage had no direct effect (OR = 1.002, 95% CI: 0.950-1.057) but improved sanitation coverage was associated with lower diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.917, 95% CI: 0.843-0.998). Our interaction analysis showed that the protective effects of better sanitation at the community level were increased by better drinking water at the community level. This illustrates the importance of improving both drinking water and sanitation simultaneously.

  4. A community-randomised controlled trial promoting waterless hand sanitizer and handwashing with soap, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Stephen P; Kadir, Mohammad Abdul; Yushuf Sharker, M A; Yeasmin, Farzana; Unicomb, Leanne; Sirajul Islam, M

    2010-12-01

    To pilot two intensive hand hygiene promotion interventions, one using soap and one using a waterless hand sanitizer, in low-income housing compounds in Dhaka, Bangladesh and assess subsequent changes in handwashing behaviour and hand microbiology. Fieldworkers randomized 30 housing compounds: 10 received handwashing promotion with free soap, 10 received handwashing promotion with free waterless hand sanitizer and 10 were non-intervention controls. Fieldworkers assessed handwashing behaviour by structured observation and collected hand rinse specimens. At baseline, compound residents washed their hands with soap 26% of the time after defecation and 30% after cleaning a child's anus but hands with soap after faecal contact (85-91%), before preparing food (26%) and before eating (26%). Compounds that received waterless hand sanitizer cleansed their hands more commonly than control compounds that used soap (10.4%vs. 2.3%), but less commonly than soap intervention compounds used soap (25%). Post-intervention hand rinse samples from soap and sanitizer compounds had lower concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria compared with baseline and control compounds. Waterless hand sanitizer was readily adopted by this low-income community and reduced hand contamination but did not improve the frequency of handwashing compared with soap. Future deployments of waterless hand sanitizers may improve hand hygiene more effectively by targeting settings where soap and water is unavailable. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Access to waterless hand sanitizer improves student hand hygiene behavior in primary schools in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F; Ram, Pavani K

    2013-09-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access.

  6. Characteristics of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents reported to poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2015-02-01

    There had been reports of adolescents using hand sanitizers to obtain alcohol and ending up in emergency departments with alcohol poisoning. This study aimed to describe the pattern of adolescent ingestions of hand sanitizers reported to a statewide poison center system. Our study subjects included patients aged 13-19 years who reported hand sanitizer ingestions as reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2013. The distribution of the ingestions was determined for various demographic and clinical factors. Of 385 total cases, 61% of the patients were male, and the mean age was 15.3 years. The ingestion reason was unintentional (61%), intentional abuse/misuse (18%), and malicious (10%). Ingestion site was most frequently reported to be the patient's own residence (53%), followed by school (35%). About 77% of the patients were managed on site. The medical outcome was serious (moderate effect or unable to follow-potentially toxic) in 5% of the cases. The most frequently reported adverse clinical effects were vomiting (5%), abdominal pain (4%), nausea (4%), throat irritation (4%), and drowsiness (2%). Adolescents who ingested hand sanitizers were more likely to be male and younger. One-third of the ingestions occurred at school, suggesting that school personnel might be made aware of the potential problem of hand sanitizer ingestions by adolescents. Nevertheless, despite the potential for serious outcomes from adolescent hand sanitizer ingestion, most of the ingestions reported to poison centers are not likely to be serious and can be successfully managed outside of a healthcare facility.

  7. Predicting and explaining behavioral intention and hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Naiqing; Roberts, Kevin R

    2017-04-01

    Using hand sanitizers can reduce bacterial contamination and is an efficient and inexpensive method of preventing infections. The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention (low and absolute), attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers. A questionnaire was developed following an expert panel (N = 5) review and 2 pilot studies (N = 35) to ensure questionnaire validity and clarity. Surveys were distributed among nontrainee soldiers during lunch periods. A total of 201 surveys were collected. Results indicated that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls explained 64% of the variance in behavioral intention. Attitude remained the strongest predictor of behavior (β = 0.70, P hand sanitizers hold significantly different behavioral and normative beliefs than low intenders. Other soldiers create negative social pressure about using hand sanitizers, indicating that if other soldiers use hand sanitizers, they will refuse to do so. Intervention to ensure use of hand sanitizer should focus on strengthening behavioral and normative beliefs among low intenders. This should increase the overall well being of the military. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Household demand for improved sanitation services in Kumasi, Ghana: A contingent valuation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Dale; Lauria, Donald T.; Wright, Albert M.; Choe, Kyeongae; Hughes, Jeffrey A.; Swarna, Venkateswarlu

    1993-06-01

    A contingent valuation survey was conducted in Kumasi, Ghana, to estimate households' willingness to pay for two types of improved sanitation services: improved ventilated pit latrines and water closets connected to a sewer system. Over 1200 randomly selected households throughout the city were interviewed. Most households were willing to pay more for improved sanitation service than they were currently paying for their existing sanitation system (mostly public and bucket latrines), but in absolute terms the potential revenues from households are not large, of the order of US$1.40 per household per month (about 1-2% of household income). The results of the study confirm the conventional wisdom that conventional sewerage is not affordable to the vast majority of households without massive government subsidies. On the other hand, it appears that only modest subsidies are required to achieve relatively high levels of coverage with on-site sanitation (improved ventilated pit latrines). This is because improved ventilated pit latrines are much cheaper than conventional sewerage and because most households are willing to pay about as much for a ventilated pit latrine as for a water closet connected to a sewer. Several tests were conducted to check the accuracy of respondents' answers to contingent valuation questions. The findings indicate that contingent valuation surveys can be successfully carried out in cities in developing countries for public services such as sanitation and that reasonably reliable information can be obtained on household demand for different sanitation technologies.

  9. Human Parasites in Medieval Europe: Lifestyle, Sanitation and Medical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been infecting humans throughout our evolution. However, not all people suffered with the same species or to the same intensity throughout this time. Our changing way of life has altered the suitability of humans to infection by each type of parasite. This analysis focuses upon the evidence for parasites from archaeological excavations at medieval sites across Europe. Comparison between the patterns of infection in the medieval period allows us to see how changes in sanitation, herding animals, growing and fertilizing crops, the fishing industry, food preparation and migration all affected human susceptibility to different parasites. We go on to explore how ectoparasites may have spread infectious bacterial diseases, and also consider what medieval medical practitioners thought of parasites and how they tried to treat them. While modern research has shown the use of a toilet decreases the risk of contracting certain intestinal parasites, the evidence for past societies presented here suggests that the invention of latrines had no observable beneficial effects upon intestinal health. This may be because toilets were not sufficiently ubiquitous until the last century, or that the use of fresh human faeces for manuring crops still ensured those parasite species were easily able to reinfect the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jawidzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.

  11. Potential of irradiation technology for improved shellfish sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, J.C.; Beghian, L.E.; Metcalf, T.G.; Kaylor, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is shown capable of serving as an effective sanitizing treatment improving the sanitary quality of shellfish and providing an increased margin of safety for shellfish consumers. 60Co irradiation of the hard-shelled clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, and the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, significantly reduced virus carriage numbers without unduly affecting shellfish survival rates or desirable organoleptic qualities. A D10 value of 2 kGy was determined for depletion of hepatitis A virus in clams and oysters as measured by in situ hybridization fluorescent foci and cytopathology enumeration methods. A D10 value of 2.4 kGy was determined for depletion of rotavirus SA11 in clams and oysters as measured by a plaque forming unit enumeration method. Study results showed ionizing radiation capable of providing an extra, highly effective safeguard of shellfish sanitary quality when combined with traditional depuration treatment. Data drawn from other studies is introduced which shows D10 values as low as 1.0 kGy effectively eliminate Vibrio cholerae, and V. parahemolyticus, from shellfish

  12. The testing of sanitizers efficacy to enterococci adhered on glass surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margita Čanigová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to test the ability of 6 strains of enterococci to adhere on glass surfaces in environment with different content of milk residues and then to evaluate efficacy of 2 commercial sanitizers (alkaline and acidic used in milk production. Tested enterococci were isolated from milk, dairy products and from rinse water after sanitation milking machine. Suspension of enterococci (8 log CFU.ml-1 was prepared in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, PBS with content 0.1% and 1% of skimmed reconstituted milk. Glass plates were immersed into bacterial suspension for 1 h at 37 °C. The number of enterococci adhered on glass surface in PBS achieved an average value 3.47 log CFU.mm-2, in PBS with 0.1% of milk 2.90 CFU.mm-2, in PBS with 1% of milk 2.63 CFU.mm-2. Differences between the tested files were not statistically significant (p >0.05. In the second part of work the glass plates with adhered enterococci were exposed to the effect of alkaline sanitizer (on basis of NaOH and NaClO, respectively acidic sanitizer (on basis of H3PO4. Sanitation solutions were prepared and tested according to manufacturer recommendations (concentration 0.25%, contact time 20 min, temperature   20 °C. Alkaline sanitation solution was 100% effective against all tested enterococci regardless to content of milk residues in environment. Acidic sanitation solution was 100% effective only against E. faecalisD (isolated from rinse water after sanitation. Average value of reduction of enterococci with acidic sanitation solution, which were on glass plates in environment PBS was 2.84 CFU.mm-2, in PBS with 0.1% of milk was 2.45 CFU.mm-2 and in PBS with 1% of milk was 2.16 CFU.mm-2. It can be concluded, that increase of milk residues in environment decrease the adhesion of enterococci on glass surface, but also effectiveness of acidic sanitation solution.

  13. Assessing demand for improved sustainable sanitation in low-income informal settlements of urban areas: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okurut, Kenan; Kulabako, Robinah Nakawunde; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Charles, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Sanitation improvement is crucial in saving lives that are lost due to water contamination. Progress towards achieving full sanitation coverage is still slow in low-income informal settlements in most developing countries. Furthermore, resources are being wasted on installing facilities that are later misused or never used because they do not meet the local demand. Understanding demand for improved sanitation in the local context is critical if facilities are to be continually used. Various approaches that attempt to change peoples' behaviours or create demand have been reviewed to identify what they are designed to address. A multi-disciplinary research team using mixed methods is re-emphasised as a comprehensive approach for assessing demand for improved sanitation in low-income informal settlements, where the sanitation situation is more challenging than in other areas. Further research involving a multi-disciplinary research team and use of mixed methods to assess sanitation demand in informal settlements is needed.

  14. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  15. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  16. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  17. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  18. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  19. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  20. Seashore marine table quiz

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Develop an increasing awareness of plants and animals that live in local marine environments including the seashore, seas and oceans of Ireland. After learning all about the seashore and other marine related lessons, this quiz can be used to evaluate the student’s knowledge of the marine related living things and natural environments. The table quiz can be used as a guide, highlighting facts about the marine environment and some of the animals that live there.

  1. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  2. Capacity factor analysis for evaluating water and sanitation infrastructure choices for developing communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabid, Ali; Louis, Garrick E

    2015-09-15

    40% of the world's population lacks access to adequate supplies of water and sanitation services to sustain human health. In fact, more than 780 million people lack access to safe water supplies and about 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation (Watsan) systems is critical for sustained access to these services. Current approaches for the selection of Watsan technologies in developing communities have a high failure rate. It is estimated that 30%-60% of Watsan installed infrastructures in developing countries are not operating. Inappropriate technology is a common explanation for the high rate of failure of Watsan infrastructure, particularly in lower-income communities (Palaniappan et al., 2008). This paper presents the capacity factor analysis (CFA) model, for the assessment of a community's capacity to manage and sustain access to water supply and sanitation services. The CFA model is used for the assessment of a community's capacity to operate, and maintain a municipal sanitation service (MSS) such as, drinking water supply, wastewater and sewage treatment, and management of solid waste. The assessment of the community's capacity is based on seven capacity factors that have been identified as playing a key role in the sustainability of municipal sanitation services in developing communities (Louis, 2002). These capacity factors and their constituents are defined for each municipal sanitation service. Benchmarks and international standards for the constituents of the CFs are used to assess the capacity factors. The assessment of the community's capacity factors leads to determine the overall community capacity level (CCL) to manage a MSS. The CCL can then be used to assist the community in the selection of appropriate Watsan technologies for their MSS needs. The selection is done from Watsan technologies that require a capacity level to operate them that matches the assessed CCL of the

  3. Robust planning of sanitation services in urban informal settlements: An analytical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Rafael J P; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Larsen, Tove A

    2017-03-01

    New types of sanitation services are emerging to tackle the sanitation crisis in informal settlements. These services link toilet facilities to semi-decentralized treatment plants via frequent, road-based transport of excreta. However, information for the planning of such sanitation services is scarce, and their future operating conditions are highly uncertain. The key questions of this paper are therefore: a) what are the drivers behind success or failure of a service-based sanitation system in informal settlements and b) on what scales and under which conditions can such a system operate successfully? To answer these questions, already at an early stage of the planning process, we introduce a stochastic model to analyze a wide range of system designs under varying technical designs, socio-economic factors, and spatial condition. Based on these initial results, we design a sanitation service and use the numeric model to study its reliability and costs over a wide range of scales, i.e., system capacities, from very few to many hundred users per semi-decentralized treatment unit. Key findings are that such a system can only operate within a narrow, but realistic range of conditions. Key requirements are toilet facilities, which can be serviced rapidly, and a flexible workforce. A high density of facilities will also lower the costs. Under these premises, we develop a road-based sanitation service and model its functionality in different settings and under many scenarios. Results show that the developed sanitation system using a single vehicle is scalable (100-700 users), can provide reliable service, and can be cheap (settlements and presents a quantitative framework for designing such systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impacto do uso de microrganismos em caixas sifonadas de ambientes sanitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Soares Fernandes

    Full Text Available Resumo A preocupação com a qualidade de operação dos sistemas prediais de esgoto sanitário tem motivado empresas especializadas em biotecnologia a investir em produtos compostos por misturas de microrganismos vivos que atuam no pré-tratamento de efluentes de sistemas prediais para combater odores desagradáveis em ambientes sanitários. O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar o uso de misturas concentradas de microrganismos em caixas sifonadas para eliminar o mau cheiro em ambientes sanitários e o impacto em estações de tratamento de esgotos sanitários. O método consiste em diagnosticar o mau cheiro de um dos sanitários de um edifício escolar de nível superior, que é alvo de constantes reclamações por parte dos usuários. Em seguida, introduzir tabletes de microrganismos nas caixas sifonadas e, por fim, avaliar o impacto do uso desse produto em dois sanitários e em estações de tratamento de esgoto por meio de análises de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio e de testes de respirometria. Os resultados indicam que nestes ambientes sanitários o mau cheiro não foi reduzido com o emprego de tabletes de microrganismos e em Estações de Tratamento de Esgoto, na concentração indicada pelo fabricante, o produto não produziu alterações significativas nas características analisadas do esgoto.

  5. Do Access to Improved Water Source and Sanitation Facility Accelerate Economic Growth in Bangladesh?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip SARKER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship among access to improved water, sanitation and economic growth in Bangladesh through co-integration and vector error correction model (VECM over the period 1991 to 2014. Bangladesh has registered remarkable progress in achieving major Millennium Development Goals (MDG. Today nearly 87% of our total population has access to improved water sources and 60% have access to improved sanitation facilities which is contributing significantly towards human development in Bangladesh. Therefore we want to test whether access to improved water and sanitation accelerates economic growth in Bangladesh through a time series analysis. The Johansen co-integration tests indicate that there is long run association among the variables. The vector error correction model indicates that there is a long run causality running from improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access and improved water source (% of population with access to gross domestic product in Bangladesh. Similarly in the short run a causal relationship has been found among the variables as well. Further impulse response function and variance decomposition results say that improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access and improved water source (% of population with access can explain the major variations in our economic growth. The implication of our findings is that in Bangladesh an increase in improved access to water and sanitation is likely to positively affect our economic growth in the long run. Keeping in mind about Sustainable Development Goals (SDG, policymakers in Bangladesh need to pay special attention to ensure greater access to improved water and sanitation to boost our economic growth & development.

  6. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ2-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. RESULTS Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. CONCLUSIONS A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created. PMID:26060542

  7. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ(2)-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Leveraging Traditional Leadership on Access to Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Amy; Russpatrick, Scott; Hoehne, Alexandra; Matimelo, Selma M; Mazimba, Sharon; Nkhata, Ilenga; Osbert, Nicolas; Soloka, Geoffrey; Winters, Anna; Winters, Benjamin; Larsen, David A

    2017-11-01

    Open defecation is practiced by more than one billion people throughout the world and leads to significant public health issues including infectious disease transmission and stunted growth in children. Zambia implemented community-led total sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention to eliminate open defecation in rural areas. To support CLTS and the attainment of open defecation free communities, chiefs were considered key agents of change and were empowered to drive CLTS and improve sanitation for their chiefdom. Chiefs were provided with data on access to sanitation in the chiefdom during chiefdom orientations prior to the initiation of CLTS within each community and encouraged to make goals of universal sanitation access within the community. Using a survival regression, we found that where chiefs were orientated and mobilized in CLTS, the probability that a village would achieve 100% coverage of adequate sanitation increased by 23% (hazard ratio = 1.263, 95% confidence interval = 1.080-1.478, P = 0.003). Using an interrupted time series, we found a 30% increase in the number of individuals with access to adequate sanitation following chiefdom orientations (95% confidence interval = 28.8-32.0%). The mobilization and support of chiefs greatly improved the uptake of CLTS, and empowering them with increased CLTS knowledge and authority of the program in their chiefdom allowed chiefs to closely monitor village sanitation progress and follow-up with their headmen/headwomen. These key agents of change are important facilitators of public health goals such as the elimination of open defecation in Zambia by 2020.

  9. Use of alcohol hand sanitizer as an infection control strategy in an acute care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Jessica; Hammond, Brian S; Fendler, Eleanor J; Groziak, Patricia A

    2003-04-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major problem in health care facilities, resulting in extended durations of care, substantial morbidity and mortality, and excess costs. Since alcohol gel hand sanitizers combine high immediate antimicrobial efficacy with ease of use, this study was carried out to determine the effect of the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer by caregivers on infection types and rates in an acute care facility. Patients were educated about the study through a poster on the unit, and teachable patients were given portable bottles of the alcohol hand gel for bedside use, along with an educational brochure explaining how and why to practice good hand hygiene. Infection rate and type data were collected in 1 unit of a 498-bed acute care facility for 16 months (February 2000 to May 2001). An alcohol gel hand sanitizer was provided and used by caregivers in the orthopedic surgical unit of the facility during this period. The primary infection types (more than 80%) found were urinary tract (UTI) and surgical site (SSI) infections. Infection types and rates for the unit during the period the alcohol hand sanitizer (intervention) was used were compared with the infection types and rates for the same unit when the alcohol hand sanitizer was not used (baseline); the results demonstrated a 36.1% decrease in infection rates for the 10-month period that the hand sanitizer was used. This study indicates that use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer can decrease infection rates and provide an additional tool for an effective infection control program in acute care facilities.

  10. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Prashanth, Vishwakarma K; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical isolates of the aforementioned test organisms. The well variant of agar disk diffusion test using Mueller-Hinton agar was used for evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy of hand sanitizers. McFarland 0.5 turbidity standard was taken as reference to adjust the turbidity of bacterial suspensions. Fifty microliters of the hand sanitizer was introduced into each of the 4 wells while the 5 th well incorporated with sterile water served as a control. This was done for all the test organisms and plates were incubated in an incubator for 24 h at 37΀C. After incubation, antimicrobial effectiveness was determined using digital caliper (mm) by measuring the zone of inhibition. The mean diameters of zones of inhibition (in mm) observed in Group A (Sterillium), Group B (PureHands), Group C (Lifebuoy), and Group D (Dettol) were 22 ± 6, 7.5 ± 0.5, 9.5 ± 1.5, and 8 ± 1, respectively. Maximum inhibition was found with Group A against all the tested organisms. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, followed by post hoc test for group-wise comparisons. The difference in the values of different sanitizers was statistically significant at P hand sanitizer to maintain the hand hygiene.

  11. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  12. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  13. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  14. The Economic and Social Benefits and the Barriers of Providing People with Disabilities Accessible Clean Water and Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Resolution A/HRC/RES/16/2 adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on 8 April 2011 declared access to safe drinking water and sanitation a human right. However many people around the globe including people with disabilities do not have access to safe drinking water, hygiene or sanitation facilities. Inaccessibility of clean water sources, hygiene and sanitation facilities negatively impacts among others health, education, the ability to work, and the ability to partake in social activities. This paper looks at the benefits of, and access barriers to, clean water and sanitation for people with disabilities.

  15. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  16. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  17. A qualitative comparative analysis of well-managed school sanitation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Continued management of sanitation and hygiene services, post-intervention, is a global challenge, particularly in the school-setting. This situation threatens anticipated impacts of school sanitation and hygiene investments. To improve programming and policies, and increase the effectiveness of limited development resources, we seek to understand how and why some schools have well-managed sanitation post-intervention, while others do not. Methods Based on in-depth qualitative data from 16 case schools in Meherpur, Bangladesh, we employ fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to identify the necessary and sufficient conditions, or combinations of conditions (referred to as pathways), that lead to either well-managed or poorly managed school sanitation. We include posited sustainability determinants from the literature and factors that emerged from the cases themselves in the analysis. Results We identified three distinct pathways sufficient to support well-managed services, providing multiple options for how well-managed school sanitation could be encouraged. Two of these are applicable to both government and non-government schools: (1) quality construction, financial community support and a champion; and (2) quality construction, financial government support, a maintenance plan and school management committee involvement. On-going financial support for operations and maintenance was identified as a necessary condition for continued service management, which was absent from many schools with poorly managed services. However, financial support was insufficient alone and other conditions are needed in conjunction, including quality construction and incentivizing conditions, such as school management committee involvement in sanitation specifically, a sanitation champion, and/or one teacher clearly responsible for toilet maintenance. Surprisingly, the number of students per toilet (ranging from 18–95 students) and toilet age (ranging from 8–32

  18. Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Jamie; Brocklehurst, Clarissa; Fisher, Michael B.; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hossain, Rifat; Wardlaw, Tessa; Gordon, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries’ needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally-representative and internationally-comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation. PMID:25116635

  19. Advanced Oxidation Process sanitization of hatching eggs reduces Salmonella in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, A C; Byrd, J A; Coufal, C D; Duong, T

    2017-10-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery is an important critical control point for biosecurity, pathogen reduction, and food safety programs in poultry production. Developing interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination of eggs is important to improving the microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet light (UV) Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) has been previously demonstrated to be effective in reducing Salmonella on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating eggs with an egg-sanitizing apparatus using the H2O2/UV AOP on Salmonella contamination during incubation, hatching, and in broiler chicks during grow-out. Experimentally contaminated eggs were treated using the automated H2O2/UV AOP egg sanitizer and incubated for 21 d. AOP sanitization reduced Salmonella up to 7 log10 cfu egg-1 (P Salmonella positive eggs by up to 75% (P Salmonella-positive eggs during incubation. Additionally, Salmonella was recovered from more chicks hatched from untreated eggs than from eggs treated using the H2O2/UV AOP egg sanitizer (P Salmonella contamination on the surface of eggs using the H2O2/UV AOP egg sanitizer prior to incubation may reduce the gastrointestinal colonization of chicks by Salmonella. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Improving water, sanitation and hygiene in health-care facilities, Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrampah, Nana Mensah; Montgomery, Maggie; Baller, April; Ndivo, Francis; Gasasira, Alex; Cooper, Catherine; Frescas, Ruben; Gordon, Bruce; Syed, Shamsuzzoha Babar

    2017-07-01

    The lack of proper water and sanitation infrastructures and poor hygiene practices in health-care facilities reduces facilities' preparedness and response to disease outbreaks and decreases the communities' trust in the health services provided. To improve water and sanitation infrastructures and hygiene practices, the Liberian health ministry held multistakeholder meetings to develop a national water, sanitation and hygiene and environmental health package. A national train-the-trainer course was held for county environmental health technicians, which included infection prevention and control focal persons; the focal persons acted as change agents. In Liberia, only 45% of 701 surveyed health-care facilities had an improved water source in 2015, and only 27% of these health-care facilities had proper disposal for infectious waste. Local ownership, through engagement of local health workers, was introduced to ensure development and refinement of the package. In-county collaborations between health-care facilities, along with multisectoral collaboration, informed national level direction, which led to increased focus on water and sanitation infrastructures and uptake of hygiene practices to improve the overall quality of service delivery. National level leadership was important to identify a vision and create an enabling environment for changing the perception of water, sanitation and hygiene in health-care provision. The involvement of health workers was central to address basic infrastructure and hygiene practices in health-care facilities and they also worked as stimulators for sustainable change. Further, developing a long-term implementation plan for national level initiatives is important to ensure sustainability.

  1. Hygiene and sanitation risk factors of diarrhoeal disease among under-five children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloruntoba, Elizabeth Omoladun; Folarin, Taiwo Bukola; Ayede, Adejumoke Idowu

    2014-12-01

    Diarrhoea diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in under-five-children (U-5C) in Nigeria. Inadequate safe water, sanitation, and hygiene account for the disease burden. Cases of diarrhoea still occur in high proportion in the study area despite government-oriented interventions. To determine the hygiene and sanitation risk factors predisposing U-5C to diarrhoea in Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty pairs of children, matched on age, were recruited as cases and controls over a period of 5 months in Ibadan. Questionnaire and observation checklist were used to obtain information on hygiene practices from caregivers/mothers and sanitation conditions in the households of 30% of the consenting mothers/caregivers. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Caregivers/mothers' mean ages were 31.3 ±7.5 (cases) and 30.6 ±6.0(controls) years. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers did not wash hands with soap before food preparation (OR=3.0, pHygiene and sanitation conditions within households were risk factors for diarrhoea. This study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in sanitation in Ibadan, Nigeria.

  2. Evaluation of Sanitizing Methods for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Fresh Strawberry, Cherry Tomato, and Red Bayberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries, cherry tomatoes, and red bayberries, which are the most popular types of fresh produce in China, are vulnerable to microbial contamination. In this study, different sanitizing methods [treatment with 2% organic acids, 0.02% sodium hypochlorite (SH, 0.1% sodium chlorite (SC, and 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC] were applied to fresh strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry, and their abilities to reduce aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, mold, yeast, and Salmonella Typhimurium were evaluated. The commercially used SH method reduced the background microbiota on strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry by 0.20–2.07 log cfu/g. The ASC method reduced background microbiota (except for mold on strawberry and cherry tomato by more than 3.0 log cfu/g. ASC was the only sanitizer that significantly reduced mold on red bayberry, and lactic acid was the only organic acid sanitizer that effectively reduced yeast on red bayberry. The ASC method had the best sterilizing effect on the three fresh fruits and also required the shortest sanitizing time and low chlorite content. The application of ASC method significantly reduced the microbiota on retail grocery samples, and the effect was similar to that achieved by sanitizing methods comparison.

  3. Development of sanitation technologies in African context : how could we make it more sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakouré, M. S.; Traoré, M. B.; Sossou, S. K.; Maïga, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    Access to sanitation technologies remains one of the biggest challenges in sub-Saharan Africa. To overcome this gap, a sanitation project called “Ameli-EAUR” translated from French as improvement of water and sanitation in urban and rural areas, was implemented in Burkina Faso for 5 years (2010-2016). The technologies from the project were designed on the basis of agro-sanitation concept, leading to package containing a composting toilet, a grey water treatment facility and a set of urine collection and treatment. The study aimed to evaluate of Ameli-EAUR project, one year after the end, and identify some key factors of sustainability of technologies. As methodology, a survey and a technical diagnostic of implemented technologies were done. The results showed that, the pilot families stopped using all the technologies one year after the end of the project. However, two main lessons can be learnt: (1) in term of efficiency and effectiveness of the project the technology of composting toilet was not robust enough, leading to a rapid abandonment after the project (2) in term of impact and sustainability, the economic incentive of the resource oriented sanitation concept was very weak compared to the needed workload. The technologies development in this kind of project should be carried on and associated with a more inclusive system driven by economic incentive.

  4. Health impact caused by poor water and sanitation in district Abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, S.; Mahmood, Q.; Tariq, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Large proportions of people still do not have excess to safe drinking water and proper sanitation. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to assess the health impacts. Random households were selected. Information was collected from questionnaire through interview schedule method, group discussion and observation checklist. Results: People rated water and sanitation condition in urban as: 10% very good, 27% good, 20% bad, 43% very bad, and none of them said we don't know. While in rural areas they rated 10% very good, 36% good, 44% bad, 6% very bad, and 4% of them said we don't know. Water sources in selected urban and rural areas were different, 37% in urban and 68% in rural area depended on bore wells as water source, 22% depended on hand pumps. In urban areas, the disease ratio was typhoid 20%, hepatitis 13%, diarrhoea 27%, skin infection 23%, stomach problems 53% and allergies 33%. In rural areas, after stomach problems, diarrhoea, hepatitis and typhoid ratio was very high as compared to urban area. In rural community, 70% were unaware of poor water and sanitation consequences on health. Conclusion: The water and sanitation condition in urban as well as in rural community is poor but in rural community it is even worse. The drinking water was contaminated with E. coli, Enterobacter, Salmonella and Clostridium. This observation was correlated with prevalence of many water born diseases especially in rural communities of Abbottabad. and sanitation. (author)

  5. Local health department food safety and sanitation expenditures and reductions in enteric disease, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekemeier, Betty; Yip, Michelle Pui-Yan; Dunbar, Matthew D; Whitman, Greg; Kwan-Gett, Tao

    2015-04-01

    In collaboration with Public Health Practice-Based Research Networks, we investigated relationships between local health department (LHD) food safety and sanitation expenditures and reported enteric disease rates. We combined annual infection rates for the common notifiable enteric diseases with uniquely detailed, LHD-level food safety and sanitation annual expenditure data obtained from Washington and New York state health departments. We used a multivariate panel time-series design to examine ecologic relationships between 2000-2010 local food safety and sanitation expenditures and enteric diseases. Our study population consisted of 72 LHDs (mostly serving county-level jurisdictions) in Washington and New York. While controlling for other factors, we found significant associations between higher LHD food and sanitation spending and a lower incidence of salmonellosis in Washington and a lower incidence of cryptosporidiosis in New York. Local public health expenditures on food and sanitation services are important because of their association with certain health indicators. Our study supports the need for program-specific LHD service-related data to measure the cost, performance, and outcomes of prevention efforts to inform practice and policymaking.

  6. Local Health Department Food Safety and Sanitation Expenditures and Reductions in Enteric Disease, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michelle Pui-Yan; Dunbar, Matthew D.; Whitman, Greg; Kwan-Gett, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In collaboration with Public Health Practice–Based Research Networks, we investigated relationships between local health department (LHD) food safety and sanitation expenditures and reported enteric disease rates. Methods. We combined annual infection rates for the common notifiable enteric diseases with uniquely detailed, LHD-level food safety and sanitation annual expenditure data obtained from Washington and New York state health departments. We used a multivariate panel time-series design to examine ecologic relationships between 2000–2010 local food safety and sanitation expenditures and enteric diseases. Our study population consisted of 72 LHDs (mostly serving county-level jurisdictions) in Washington and New York. Results. While controlling for other factors, we found significant associations between higher LHD food and sanitation spending and a lower incidence of salmonellosis in Washington and a lower incidence of cryptosporidiosis in New York. Conclusions. Local public health expenditures on food and sanitation services are important because of their association with certain health indicators. Our study supports the need for program-specific LHD service-related data to measure the cost, performance, and outcomes of prevention efforts to inform practice and policymaking. PMID:25689186

  7. Development of A Multidimensional Scale to Assess Attitudinal Determinants of Sanitation Uptake and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Jenkins, Marion; Chase, Rachel P; Torondel, Belen; Routray, Parimita; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas; Freeman, Matthew C

    2015-11-17

    Over 1 billion people still practice open defecation. Low uptake and use of new sanitation technologies in a number of settings has underscored our current limited understanding of the complex attitudinal factors that influence a household's decision to adopt and use new sanitation technologies. Mokken scaling techniques were applied to series of population-based surveys in Odisha, India between September 2011 and October 2013 (sample sizes 120, 500, 2200). Surveys contained simple, agree/disagree statements about attitudes toward sanitation use and sanitation technologies. Analysis produced two scales-a 10-question General Scale, reflecting attitudes toward defecation and norms regarding latrine use for all respondents, and a 6-question Experiential Scale, reflecting personal experiences with and perceived convenience of sanitation technologies targeted at respondents with a latrine. Among all respondents, a one-point change in the General Scale was associated with a 5-percentage point change in the marginal probability of having access to a functioning latrine. Among respondents with a functional latrine at home, a one-point increase in the General and Experiential Scales were associated with a 4- and 8-percentage point decrease in the probability of engaging in any open defecation in the last 7 days, respectively.

  8. Death caused by ingestion of an ethanol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneir, Aaron B; Clark, Richard F

    2013-09-01

    The use of hand sanitizer is effective in preventing the transmission of disease. Many hand sanitizers are alcohol-based, and significant intoxications have occurred, often in health care facilities, including the emergency department (ED). We present this case to highlight potential toxicity after the ingestion of an ethanol-based hand sanitizer. A 36-year-old man presented to the ED with ethanol intoxication. Ethanol breath analysis was measured at 278 mg/dL. After 4 h, the patient was less intoxicated and left the ED. Thirty minutes later, he was found apneic and pulseless in the ED waiting room bathroom after having ingested an ethanol-based hand sanitizer. Soon after a brief resuscitation, his serum ethanol was 526 mg/dL. He never regained consciousness and died 7 days later. No other cause of death was found. The case highlights the potential for significant toxicity after the ingestion of a product found throughout health care facilities. Balancing the benefit of hand sanitizers for preventing disease transmission and their potential misuse remains a challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The politics of assessment: water and sanitation MDGs in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawahri, Neda; Sowers, Jeannie; Weinthal, Erika

    2011-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is generally considered to be making adequate progress towards meeting Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which calls for halving the proportion of the population with inadequate access to drinking water and sanitation. Progress towards achieving Target 10 is evaluated by the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), run by UNICEF and WHO. This article shows that the assessment methodologies employed by the JMP significantly overstate coverage rates in the drinking water and sanitation sectors, by overlooking and ‘not counting’ problems of access, affordability, quality of service and pollution. The authors show that states in MENA often fail to provide safe drinking water and adequate sanitation services, particularly in densely populated informal settlements, and that many centralized water and sanitation infrastructures contribute to water pollution and contamination. Despite the glaring gap between the MDG statistics and the evidence available from national and local reports, exclusionary political regimes in the region have had few incentives to adopt more accurate assessments and improve the quality of service. While international organizations have proposed some reforms, they too lack incentives to employ adequate measures that gauge access, quality and affordability of drinking water and sanitation services.

  10. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  11. A Cross Sectional Study of the Association between Sanitation Type and Fecal Contamination of the Household Environment in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Tarique Md Nurul; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Pickering, Amy J; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Islam, Mohammad Sirajul; Rahman, Md Sajjadur; Luby, Stephen P; Biran, Adam

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study to assess 1) the association between access to basic sanitation and fecal contamination of sentinel toy balls and 2) if other sanitation factors such as shared use and cleanliness are associated with fecal contamination of sentinel toy balls. We assessed sanitation facilities in 454 households with a child aged 6-24 months in rural Bangladesh. We defined "basic" sanitation as access to improved sanitation facilities (pit latrine with a slab or better) not shared with other households. In each household, an identical toy ball was given to the target child. After 24 hours, the balls were rinsed to enumerate fecal coliforms as an indicator of household fecal contamination. Households with basic sanitation had lower fecal coliform contamination than households with no access to basic sanitation (adjusted difference in means: -0.31 log 10 colony forming units [CFU]/toy ball; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.61, -0.01). Shared sanitation facilities of otherwise improved type were more likely to have visible feces on the latrine slab compared with private facilities. Among households with access to improved sanitation, households with no visible feces on the latrine slab had less toy ball contamination than households with visible feces on the latrine slab (adjusted difference in means: -0.38 log 10 CFU/toy ball; 95% CI: -0.77, 0.02). Access to basic sanitation may prevent fecal contamination of the household environment. An Improved sanitation facility used by an individual household may be better in preventing household fecal contamination compared with improved facilities shared with other households.

  12. Sanitation practices and perceptions in Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya: Comparing the status quo with a novel service-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Nyoka

    Full Text Available Globally, an estimated 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation. Unimproved sanitation increases the risk of morbidity and mortality, especially in protracted refugee situations where sanitation is based on pit latrine use. Once the pit is full, waste remains in the pit, necessitating the construction of a new latrine, straining available land and funding resources. A viable, sustainable solution is needed. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to design, implement, and pilot a novel sanitation system in Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya. An initial round of 12 pre-implementation focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with Dinka and Somali residents to understand sanitation practices, perceptions, and needs. FGDs and a supplementary pre-implementation survey informed the development of an innovative sanitation management system that incorporated the provision of urine and liquid-diverting toilets, which separate urine and fecal waste, and a service-based sanitation system that included weekly waste collection. The new system was implemented on a pilot scale for 6 weeks. During the implementation, bi-weekly surveys were administered in each study household to monitor user perceptions and challenges. At the end of the pilot, the sanitation system was assessed using a second round of four post-implementation FGDs. Those who piloted the new sanitation system reported high levels of user satisfaction. Reported benefits included odor reduction, insect/pest reduction, the sitting design, the appropriateness for special populations, and waste collection. However, urine and liquid diversion presented a challenge for users who perform anal washing and for women who had experienced female genital mutilation. Refugee populations are often culturally and ethnically diverse. Using residents' input to inform the development of sanitation solutions can increase user acceptability and provide opportunities to improve sanitation system

  13. CEDEX's supporting activities through the Cooperation fund for Water and Sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Marrero, I. del

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the activities CEDEX has being doing since 2012, Giving Technical support to the cooperation fund for Water and Sanitation (Fondo de Cooperacion para Agua y Saneamiento-FCAS), of the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation. Throughout the document, the different activities carried out by the CEDEX up to now, are briefly described. They have mainly consisted in giving technical support during the formulation, review and monitoring of the tasks derived from the FCAS programs, capacity buildings, and preparing technical guides and recommendations concerning different subjects. The FCAS programs concerns water planning water supply and sanitation planning as well as water supply and sanitation (sewerage and wastewater treatment plants) construction projects. The paper ends up presenting a set of conclusions and lessons learned extracted from this period working for the FCAS, as well as the main courses of action projected for the future collaboration works. (Author)

  14. The unit field sanitation team: a square peg in a round hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Timothy; Bridges, Davin

    2009-01-01

    Basic field sanitation and hygiene is a lost art in today's modern Army. Today, more than ever, there is a need for the unit field sanitation team (FST) to serve as advisors to unit commanders in the area of basic field sanitation and hygiene. Soldiers should know how to construct field latrines, construct waste disposal devices, conduct pest management and control activities, disinfect field water supplies, and practice personal hygiene under field conditions. The current unit FST concept is centered on company-sized formations operating in open terrain. This concept does not support current operations, transformed formations, rapidly changing doctrine, and the expeditionary nature of the Army. This article does not present a new concept, but rather a new look at an existing concept and practice based upon the lessons-learned and after-action reports from the Global War on Terrorism to support the Army in transformation during an era of persistent conflict.

  15. Resource recovery and reuse as an incentive for a more viable sanitation service chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna C. Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recovering nutrients, water and energy from domestic waste streams, including wastewater and faecal sludge, is slowly gaining momentum in low-income countries. Resource recovery and reuse (RRR offers value beyond environmental benefits through cost recovery. An expected game changer in sanitation service provision is a business model where benefits accrued via RRR can support upstream sanitation services despite the multitude of private and public stakeholders involved from waste collection to treatment. This paper shows options of how resource recovery and reuse can be an incentive for the sustainable sanitation service chain, by recovering costs where revenue can feed back internally or using generated revenues from reuse to fill financial gaps across the service chain to complement other supporting mechanisms for making waste management more attractive.

  16. Hand sanitizer dispensers and associated hospital-acquired infections: friend or fomite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiref, Simon D; Leitman, I Michael; Riley, William

    2012-06-01

    Waterless alcohol-based hand sanitizers are an increasingly popular method of hand hygiene and help prevent hospital-acquired infection (HAI). Whether hand sanitizer dispensers (HSDs) may themselves harbor pathogens or act as fomites has not been reported. All HSDs in the surgical intensive care unit of an urban teaching hospital were cultured at three sites: The dispenser lever, the rear underside, and the area surrounding the dispensing nozzle. All HSDs yielded one or more bacterial species, including commensal skin flora and enteric gram-negative bacilli. Colonization was greatest on the lever, where there is direct hand contact. Hand sanitizer dispensers can become contaminated with pathogens that cause HAI and thus are potential fomites.

  17. Water & Sanitation: An Essential Battlefront in the War on Antimicrobial Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bürgmann, Helmut; Frigon, Dominic; Gaze, William

    2018-01-01

    and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in various waste management systems, depending on the local constraints and intended re-use applications. WHO and national AMR action plans would benefit from a more holistic ‘One Water’ understanding. Here we provide a framework for research, policy, practice, and public......Water and sanitation represents a key battlefront in combating the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Basic water sanitation infrastructure is an essential first step to protecting public health, thereby limiting the spread of pathogens and the need for antibiotics. AMR presents unique human...... health risks, meriting new risk assessment frameworks specifically adapted to water and sanitation-borne AMR. There are numerous exposure routes to AMR originating from human waste, each of which must be quantified for its relative risk to human health. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play a vital...

  18. Microbiological Sampling Methods and Sanitation of Edible Plants Grown on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Charles H. II; Khodadad, Christina L.; Garland, Nathaniel T.; Larson, Brian D.; Hummreick, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes on the surfaces of salad crops and growth chambers pose a threat to the health of crew on International Space Station. For astronauts to safely consume spacegrown vegetables produced in NASA's new vegetable production unit, VEGGIE, three technical challenges must be overcome: real-time sampling, microbiological analysis, and sanitation. Raphanus sativus cultivar Cherry Bomb II and Latuca sativa cultivar Outredgeous, two saled crops to be grown in VEGGIE, were inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a bacterium known to cause food-borne illness Tape- and swab-based sampling techniques were optimized for use in microgravity and assessed for effectiveness in recovery of bacteria from crop surfaces: Rapid pathogen detection and molecular analyses were performed via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactiop using LightCycler® 480 and RAZOR® EX, a scaled-down instrument that is undergoing evaluation and testing for future flight hardware. These methods were compared with conventional, culture-based methods for the recovery of S. Typhimurium colonies. A sterile wipe saturated with a citric acid-based, food-grade sanitizer was applied to two different surface materials used in VEGGIE flight hardware that had been contaminated with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa,. another known human pathogen. To sanitize surfaces, wipes were saturated with either the sanitizer or sterile deionized water and applied to each surface. Colony forming units of P. aeruginosa grown on tryptic soy agar plates were enumerated from surface samples after sanitization treatments. Depending on the VEGGIE hardware material, 2- to 4.5-log10 reductions in colony-forming units were observed after sanitization. The difference in recovery of S. Typhimurium between tape- and swab- based sampling techniques was insignificant. RAZOR® EX rapidly detected S. Typhimurium present in both raw culture and extracted DNA samples.

  19. Screening heavy metals levels in hair of sanitation workers by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Khudzari, Jauharah; Wagiran, Husin; Hossain, I.; Ibrahim, Noorddin

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study of human hair as a bio-indicator for detection of heavy metals as part of environmental health surveillance programs project to develop a subject of interest in the biomedical and environmental sciences. A total of 34 hair samples were analyzed that consisting of 29 samples from sanitation workers and five samples from students. The hair samples were prepared and treated in accordance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations. The concentrations of heavy metals were analyzed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique by X-50 Mobile X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) at Oceanography Institute, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. The performance of EDXRF analyzer was tested by Standard Reference Material (SRM 2711) Montana Soil which was in good agreement with certified value within 14% deviations except for Hg. While seven heavy metals: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb were detected in both groups, three additional elements, i.e. As, Hg and Pb, were detected only in sanitation workers group. For sanitation workers group, the mean concentration of six elements, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb, shows elevated concentration as compared to the control samples concentration. Results from both groups were compared and discussed in relation to their respective heavy metals concentrations. - Highlights: ► We determine heavy metals in hair sample of sanitation workers and control group. ► 7 heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sb, were detected in both groups. ► Additional elements of As, Hg and Pb were discovered only in sanitation workers. ► Generally, mean concentration of sanitation workers show elevation in comparison. ► We report results in relation to their respective heavy metals concentrations.

  20. Effectiveness of sanitizing products on controlling selected pathogen surrogates on retail deli slicers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeater, Michael C; Kirsch, Katie R; Taylor, T Matthew; Mitchell, Jeff; Osburn, Wesley N

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the efficacy of quaternary ammonium chloride-based wet foam (WF) and dry foam (DF) sanitizer systems (600 ppm) for reducing Listeria innocua (a nonpathogenic surrogate of Listeria monocytogenes) or a 100.0 μg/ml rifampin-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (a nonpathogenic surrogate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) on niche and transfer point areas of an unwashed retail deli slicer as compared with traditional chlorine (Cl(-)) treatment (200 ppm) and (ii) to compare sanitizer surface contact times (10 and 15 min) for pathogen surrogate control. Turkey frankfurter slurries inoculated with L. innocua or Salmonella Typhimurium were used to inoculate seven high-risk sites on a commercial slicer. After 30 min of bacterial attachment, slicers were dry wiped to remove excess food matter, followed by a randomly assigned sanitizer treatment. Surviving pathogen surrogate cells were enumerated on modified Oxford's agar not containing antimicrobic supplement (L. innocua) or on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 100 μg/ml rifampin (Salmonella Typhimurium LT2). Replicate-specific L. innocua and Salmonella Typhimurium reductions were calculated as log CFU per square centimeter of control minus log CFU per square centimeter of enumerated survivors for each site. For both organisms, all sanitizer treatments differed from each other, with Cl(-) producing the least reduction and WF the greatest reduction. A significant (P < 0.05) site-by-treatment interaction was observed. The results of the study indicate that quaternary ammonium chloride sanitizers (600 ppm) applied by both WF and DF were more effective at reducing L. innocua and Salmonella Typhimurium than a traditional Cl sanitizer (200 ppm) on unwashed slicer surfaces.

  1. Sanitation marketing: A systematic review and theoretical critique using the capability approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, D J; Sridharan, S; Shields, K F; Saunders, S G; Souter, R T; Bartram, J

    2017-12-01

    Sanitation is a human right that benefits health. As such, technical and behavioural interventions are widely implemented to increase the number of people using sanitation facilities. These include sanitation marketing interventions (SMIs), in which external support agencies (ESAs) use a hybrid of commercial and social marketing tools to increase supply of, and demand for, sanitation products and services. However, there is little critical discourse on SMIs, or independent rigorous analysis on whether they increase or reduce well-being. Most available information is from ESAs about their own SMI implementation. We systematically reviewed the grey and peer-reviewed literature on sanitation marketing, including qualitatively analysing and calculating descriptive statistics for the parameters measured, or intended to be measured, in publications reporting on 33 SMIs. Guided by the capability approach to development we identified that publications for most SMIs (n = 31, 94%) reported on commodities, whilst fewer reported on parameters related to impacts on well-being (i.e., functionings, n = 22, 67%, and capabilities, n = 20, 61%). When evaluating future SMIs, it may be useful to develop a list of contextualised well-being indicators for the particular SMI's location, taking into account local cultural norms, with this list ideally co-produced with local stakeholders. We identified two common practices in SMIs that can reduce well-being and widen well-being inequalities; namely, the promotion of conspicuous consumption and assaults on dignity, and we discuss the mechanisms by which such impacts occur. We recommend that ESAs understand sanitation marketing's potential to reduce well-being and design SMIs to minimize such detrimental impacts. Throughout the implementation phase ESAs should continuously monitor for well-being impacts and adapt practices to optimise well-being outcomes for all involved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of a dry hydrogen peroxide (DHP) air sanitation system used in an egg cooler on hatchability and chick quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In commercial poultry production, hatcheries are a source of continual contamination. Sanitation in the hatchery is a constant process, where minimal beneficial results are seen if done correctly, but drastic negative impacts are felt when done improperly. A sanitation method that could continually ...

  3. The joint effects of water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease: a multicountry analysis of the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, James A; Westphal, Joslyn A; Kenney, Brooke; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2015-03-01

    To assess whether the joint effects of water and sanitation infrastructure, are acting antagonistically (redundant services preventing the same cases of diarrhoeal disease), independently, or synergistically; and to assess how these effects vary by country and over time. We used data from 217 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 74 countries between 1986 and 2013. We used modified Poisson regression to assess the impact of water and sanitation infrastructure on the prevalence of diarrhoea among children under 5. The impact of water and sanitation varied across surveys, and adjusting for socio-economic status drove these estimates towards the null. Sanitation had a greater effect than water infrastructure when all 217 surveys were pooled; however, the impact of sanitation diminished over time. Based on survey data from the past 10 years, we saw no evidence for benefits in improving drinking water or sanitation alone, but we estimated a 6% reduction of both combined (prevalence ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence limit 0.91-0.98). Water and sanitation interventions should be combined to maximise the number of cases of diarrhoeal disease prevented in children under 5. Further research should identify the sources of variability seen between countries and across time. These national surveys likely include substantial measurement error in the categorisation of water and sanitation, making it difficult to interpret the roles of other pathways. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Knowledge Brokerage for Environmentally Sustainable Sanitation. Position Paper and Guidelines from the EU-FP7 BESSE project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BESSE, Project team; Bijker, W.E.; Caiati, Giovanni; d'Andrea, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The EU-funded BESSE project explores how sanitation in Europe can be made more sustainable. European sanitation is still based on 19th and early 20th century technologies and management systems. These systems do not adequately respond to the sustainable development needs of the 21st century, such as

  5. Does the use of alcohol-based hand gel sanitizer reduce travellers' diarrhea and gastrointestinal upset?: A preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriey, Delphine; Delmont, Jean; Gautret, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer is recommended by the CDC to reduce the risk for travellers' diarrhoea, but its effectiveness has not been assessed. We investigated the potential protective effect of hand sanitizer use on the occurrence of diarrhoea and/or vomiting in 200 international travellers, who were returning home, at an international airport. We also conducted a knowledge, aptitude and practice survey about hand gel use among international travellers consulting for pre-travel advice at a specialized clinic. 200 returning travellers were included of which 32.5% declared having used alcohol-based hand sanitizer during travel. Travellers who used hand sanitizer reported diarrhoea and vomiting significantly less frequently than those who did not (17% vs. 30%, OR = 0.47; 95% CI [0.21-0.97], p = 0.04). A total of 257 travellers consulting for pre-travel advice were included. A majority of travellers knew that hand sanitizer may be used for hand hygiene and had already used hand sanitizer; 72% planned to bring hand sanitizer during their next travel. Use of hand sanitizer is highly acceptable by travellers and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and/or vomiting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development for Children, or Children for Development? Examining Children's Participation in School-Led Total Sanitation Programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, Deepa; Kooy, Michelle; Ouden, van den Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach is said to have radically revolutionized a poorly performing sanitation sector. The claims of CLTS programmes successfully stopping practices of open defecation have only recently begun to be critically reviewed: scholars and practitioners are

  7. NGOs fostering transitions towards sustainable urban sanitation in low-income countries : Insights from transition management and development studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Welie, M.J.; Romijn, H.A.

    Globally, 756 million people in urban areas have no access to improved sanitation, while the urban population is increasing rapidly. Providing toilets has often not been a sustainable solution because of failure to link them to the necessary service infrastructure. Resolving urban sanitation

  8. Republic of India : Service Level Benchmarking, Citizen Voice and Performance Improvement Strategies in Urban Water Supply and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This synthesis report details the process, outputs and intermediate outcomes of the Water and Sanitation Program - World Bank (WSP) Technical Assistance (TA) to Service Level Benchmarking, Citizen Voice and Performance Improvement Strategies in Urban Water Supply and Sanitation (UWSS) in India. This technical assistance (TA) sought to strengthen accountability for service outcomes in urban...

  9. Addressing Open Defecation Sanitation Problem: The case of Dry Toilet Implementation in the WA Municipality, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Musa, Essuman

    2015-01-01

    Although Ghana ranks 152 out of 182 on the Human Development Index, it has the 4th lowest rate of sanitation coverage worldwide (UNICEF/WHO 2010). The Wa municipality is no exception. Lack of toilet facilities in many homes in the municipality is something that cannot be ignored, and as a result, people form long queues early in the morning to have access to the few existing public toilets, whereby putting extreme pressure on these facilities. The worst part of the sanitation problem is that ...

  10. Tratamento anaeróbio de chorume em conjunto com esgoto sanitário

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe de Melo Sales Santos, André

    2009-01-01

    O tratamento de chorume conjuntamente com esgoto sanitário, em reatores tipo UASB, é uma alternativa que possui vantagens e desvantagens como qualquer tecnologia. Os tratamentos anaeróbios são bastante dificultados quando utilizados no tratamento de chorume bruto devido às altas concentrações de substâncias orgânicas, inorgânicas e tóxicas os microrganismos anaeróbios. A diluição do chorume em esgotos sanitário favorece o tratamento anaeróbio pela redução das concentrações de n...

  11. Description of Sanitation Clinic Implementation in Primary Health Care Services in Bukittinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vini Jamarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSanitasi yang buruk dapat menjadi media transmisi agen penyakit berbasis lingkungan. Salah satu program puskesmas yang menelaah penyakit berbasis lingkungan adalah klinik sanitasi. Bukittinggi sudah menjalankan klinik sanitasi sejak tahun 2009. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran pelaksanaan program klinik sanitasi puskesmas di Kota Bukittinggi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif. Sampel diambil seluruhnya (total sampling, yaitu tujuh puskesmas di Bukittinggi dari September sampai Oktober 2013. Berdasarkan hasil kuesioner, dari tujuh puskesmas, seluruh petugas telah memiliki pendidikan yang baik, dua petugas telah mendapatkan pelatihan klinik sanitasi, satu puskesmas memiliki ruangan khusus klinik sanitasi, enam puskesmas memiliki poster dan leaflet, tiga puskesmas memiliki dana khusus, dan enam puskesmas memiliki seluruh buku pedoman. Berdasarkan data sekunder, jumlah penyakit berbasis lingkungan bervariasi dan fluktuatif dan jumlah klien yang datang masih sedikit dan jauh dari harapan. Penelitian ini menilai empat kegiatan klinik sanitasi, yaitu kunjungan ke rumah warga, kerjasama lintas program, kerjasama lintas sektor, dan evaluasi. Jumlah kunjungan ke rumah warga masih kurang dari harapan, kerjasama lintas program klinik sanitasi sudah berjalan di seluruh puskesmas, kerjasama lintas sektor sudah berjalan hampir di seluruh puskesmas, dan evaluasi sudah berjalan dengan jangka waktu yang bervariasi. Seluruh klinik sanitasi puskesmas kota Bukittinggi dinilai baik dengan nilai bervariasi antara 50-100%.Kata kunci: klinik sanitasi, puskesmas AbstractPoor sanitation could be the transmission media for environment-based diseases’ agents. The program of Primary Health Care Service (PHCS which deals with environment-based disease is sanitation clinic. This program has been running in Bukittinggi since 2009. The objective of this study was to see how this program has been going on in PHCS in Bukittinggi. This

  12. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  13. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  14. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  15. False-positive ethyl glucuronide immunoassay screening caused by a propyl alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Torsten; Grüner, Joachim; Schröfel, Stefanie; Stemmerich, Karsten

    2012-11-30

    Urine ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is considered as a specific marker of recent ethanol consumption. We describe false-positive DRI(®) EIA EtG enzyme immunoassay results caused by propyl glucuronides in urine after using a propanol-based hand sanitizer. EtG screening was done with the DRI(®) EIA EtG assay (Microgenics), using a cut-off of 0.5 mg/L as recommended by the manufacturer and of 0.1 mg/L as demanded by the German Regulations for Reissuing Drivers Licenses. Confirmatory EtG analysis was done with the ClinMass(®) EtG LC-MS/MS testkit (Recipe), extended by the mass transitions 235.1→75.1, 235.1→85.1, and 235.1→113.1 for the detection of the 1- and 2-propyl glucuronides. Self-experiments were done by staff members of our lab (n=7), using 3 mL Sterillium(®) Classic Pure (30 g/100 g 1-propanol and 45 g/100 g 2-propanol) for hand sanitation every quarter of an hour for 8 h according to DIN EN 1500:2011-05 with and without an exhauster and by passive inhalation of the sanitizer vapor. Spot urine samples were taken immediately before and up to 24 h after the first sanitizer use. False-positive immunoassay results of up to 4 mg/L or 2.3 mg/g creatinine were obtained after normal use of the sanitizer and also after passive inhalation of the sanitizer vapor (up to 0.89 mg/L or 0.61 mg/g). Immunoassay results were positive even after 4-fold use of the sanitizer (up to 0.14 mg/L or 0.38 mg/g) and up to 6 h after the last sanitizer contact (maximum 0.63 mg/L and 0.33 mg/g for sanitizer users and 0.25 mg/g after passive inhalation). Spiking of EtG-free urine with 1-propyl glucuronide (Athena Environmental Sciences) between 0.05 and 10 mg/L clearly demonstrated a cross reaction of the immunoassay of approx. 10% as compared to EtG. LC-MS/MS of urines with a positive immunoassay EtG result did not show EtG signals, but distinct signals of 1-propyl glucuronide (n-propyl glucuronide) and 2-propyl glucuronide (iso-propyl glucuronide). An exhauster effectively prevented

  16. Inhalation but not transdermal resorption of hand sanitizer ethanol causes positive ethyl glucuronide findings in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Torsten; Schröfel, Stefanie; Güssregen, Brunhilde; Stemmerich, Karsten

    2014-04-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine is considered a specific marker of recent ethanol consumption. There is an ongoing debate about whether inhalation or transdermal resorption of sanitizer ethanol is the underlying cause for positive EtG findings after hand disinfection. Desderman(®) pure (Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt) with 78.2g 96% (v/v) ethanol/100g and approx. 10% 2-propanol was used for multiple hand disinfection without and under an exhauster. Simulating a common working day in a clinic, 5 co-workers of our lab used the sanitizer 32 fold within 8h and 2 persons were merely exposed to the sanitizer vapor but without any dermal sanitizer contact. Any additional ethanol intake or exposition was reliably excluded. Spot urine was collected at baseline, after 1, 2, 4, 6 … 14, and finally 24h after the first sanitizer use. A validated LC-MS/MS was used for MRM and MS(3) of EtG and qualitative analyses of ethyl sulfate and 2-propyl glucuronide. Multiple hand disinfection caused positive EtG findings of up to 2.1mg/L or 1.7mg/g creatinine in 4 out of 5 test persons and even of 0.6mg/L or 0.8mg/g for 2 controls which were merely exposed to the sanitizer vapor but without any sanitizer contact. EtG results between the clinical (0.5mg/g) and the forensic (0.1mg/g) cut-off were obtained even 6h after the last sanitizer exposition. An exhauster prevented the sanitizer vapor inhalation and reduced the EtG excretion to mostly below the detection limit of 0.02mg/g. The maximum value was 0.09mg/g. Ethyl sulfate and 2-propyl glucuronide (2-PpG) were detectable only in the EtG positive samples. 2-PpG is a metabolite of 2-propanol, which is quite frequently used in disinfectants. Thus, the detection of this substance can be used in cases of odd EtG results as an indicator of (unintended) sanitizer exposition. Ethanol from hand sanitizers is predominantly incorporated by the respiratory tract but not via the skin. It can cause a distinct ethyl glucuronide excretion and thus

  17. Understanding and defining sanitation insecurity: women’s gendered experiences of urination, defecation and menstruation in rural Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Hadley, Craig; Yount, Kathryn M; Haardörfer, Regine; Rout, Manaswini; Dasmohapatra, Munmun; Cooper, Hannah LF

    2017-01-01

    Background Research suggests that the lived experience of inadequate sanitation may contribute to poor health outcomes above and beyond pathogen exposure, particularly among women. The goal of this research was to understand women’s lived experiences of sanitation by documenting their urination-related, defecation-related and menstruation-related concerns, to use findings to develop a definition of sanitation insecurity among women in low-income settings and to develop a conceptual model to explain the factors that contribute to their experiences, including potential behavioural and health consequences. Methods We conducted 69 Free-List Interviews and eight focus group discussions in a rural population in Odisha, India to identify women’s sanitation concerns and to build an understanding of sanitation insecurity. Findings We found that women at different life stages in rural Odisha, India have a multitude of unaddressed urination, defecation and menstruation concerns. Concerns fell into four domains: the sociocultural context, the physical environment, the social environment and personal constraints. These varied by season, time of day, life stage and toilet ownership, and were linked with an array of adaptations (ie, suppression, withholding food and water) and consequences (ie, scolding, shame, fear). Our derived definition and conceptual model of sanitation insecurity reflect these four domains. Discussion To sincerely address women’s sanitation needs, our findings indicate that more is needed than facilities that change the physical environment alone. Efforts to enable urinating, defecating and managing menstruation independently, comfortably, safely, hygienically, privately, healthily, with dignity and as needed require transformative approaches that also address the gendered, sociocultural and social environments that impact women despite facility access. This research lays the groundwork for future sanitation studies to validate or refine the proposed

  18. Access to water and sanitation facilities in primary schools: A neglected educational crisis in Ngamiland district in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Thakadu, O. T.; Phaladze, N. A.; Bolaane, B.

    2018-06-01

    In developing countries, the sanitation and hygiene provision often receives limited resources compared to the water supply. However, water supply benefits tend to diminish if improved sanitation and hygiene are neglected. This paper presents findings of a situational analysis of water supply, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure and their utilization in three primary schools in north-western Botswana. The overall objective of the paper is to determine access and functionality of water supply, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in three primary schools. The specific objectives are: a) Learners' perspective of their water and sanitation facilities and b) gendered utilization of sanitation and hygiene facilities. Data were collected through a face-to-face administered social survey tool to 286 learners selected through proportionate stratified random sampling from three purposively selected villages in the middle and lower Okavango Delta. Findings indicate that standpipes provide 96% of potable water supply. However, the majority (65% of leaners) indicated that they 'sometimes' experienced water shortage due to dry/nonfunctioning taps/pumps and leaks/wastage. Overall, schools have relatively sufficient sanitation facilities consisting of both water borne toilets and VIP latrines. The major sanitation gap identified was that 80% flush toilets hardly work, while 77% of VIP toilets were in disrepair. Furthermore, poor water supply compromised hand washing with 65.7% learners "always" washing their hands if school standpipes had water, while the majority did not wash hands if standpipes were dry. The study concluded that availability of sanitation infrastructure does not necessarily translate into utilization in the study area due to multiple problems, such as lack of personal hygiene supplies (regular toilet paper and hand washing detergents), privacy issues and recurring water problems. The chronicity of inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in

  19. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  20. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats.

  1. Sanitation investments in Ghana: An ethnographic investigation of the role of tenure security, land ownership and livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Awunyo-Akaba

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district close to Accra, Ghana’s capital. Methods Qualitative data was gathered for this comparative ethnographic study over seven months, (June, 2011-January, 2012 using an average of 43 (bi-weekly participant observation per community and 56 in-depth interviews. Detailed observational data from study communities were triangulated with multiple interview material and contextual knowledge on social structures, history of settlement, land use, livelihoods, and access to and perceptions about sanitation. Results This study shows that the history of settlement and land ownership issues are highly correlated with people’s willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged by the increasing appropriation of their land for commercial enterprises and for governmental development projects. Interview responses suggest that increasing migrant population and the high demand for housing in the face of limited available space has resulted in general unwillingness and inability to establish private sanitation facilities in the communities. The increasing population has also created high demand for cheap accommodation, pushing tenants to accept informal tenancy agreements that provided for poor sanitation facilities. In addition, poor knowledge of tenancy rights leaves tenants in no position to demand sanitation improvements and therefore landlords feel no obligation or motivation to provide and maintain domestic

  2. Sanitation investments in Ghana: An ethnographic investigation of the role of tenure security, land ownership and livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awunyo-Akaba, Y; Awunyo-Akaba, J; Gyapong, M; Senah, K; Konradsen, F; Rheinländer, T

    2016-07-18

    Ghana's low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district close to Accra, Ghana's capital. Qualitative data was gathered for this comparative ethnographic study over seven months, (June, 2011-January, 2012) using an average of 43 (bi-weekly) participant observation per community and 56 in-depth interviews. Detailed observational data from study communities were triangulated with multiple interview material and contextual knowledge on social structures, history of settlement, land use, livelihoods, and access to and perceptions about sanitation. This study shows that the history of settlement and land ownership issues are highly correlated with people's willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged by the increasing appropriation of their land for commercial enterprises and for governmental development projects. Interview responses suggest that increasing migrant population and the high demand for housing in the face of limited available space has resulted in general unwillingness and inability to establish private sanitation facilities in the communities. The increasing population has also created high demand for cheap accommodation, pushing tenants to accept informal tenancy agreements that provided for poor sanitation facilities. In addition, poor knowledge of tenancy rights leaves tenants in no position to demand sanitation improvements and therefore landlords feel no obligation or motivation to provide and maintain domestic sanitation facilities. The study states that poor land rights, the

  3. MANUAL FOOD AND BEVERAGE DISPENSING EQUIPMENT. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NO. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THIS STANDARD COVERS THE SANITATION REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT AND DEVICES WHICH DISPENSE FOOD OR BEVERAGE EITHER IN BULK OR PORTIONS. VENDING MACHINES OR BULK MILK DISPENSING EQUIPMENT ARE NOT COVERED IN THIS STANDARD. ITEMS COVERED INCLUDE THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, FOOD PROTECTION AND FREEDOM FROM HARBORAGES. MINIMUM…

  4. Social constraints before sanitation improvement in tea gardens of Sylhet, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M; Begum, Anwara; Chowdhury, M A I

    2010-05-01

    Sylhet, the northeastern divisional city of Bangladesh, is the major tea-producing region of the country where a large number of low-income workers completely depending on extremely labor-intensive economic activity for their bread and butter, live in and around the tea gardens. The living conditions of these communities are remarkably meager due to the lack of proper utility facilities, especially in water supply and sanitation sectors. A study was conducted at Lakkatura and Ali Bahar Tea Estates to assess the deteriorated sanitation condition of the tea garden workers community and to determine the constraints before the improvement of the condition. It was found that the existing sanitary condition of both of the tea garden slums is very poor because of the same topographical condition and socioeconomic and cultural status of the dwellers. About 50% to 60% tea garden workers still are used to open defecation causing various excreta related diseases and not practiced with washing hand after defecation. Lack of knowledge and awareness about health and hygiene, unwillingness, poverty, superstitions, etc. are responsible for the deteriorated condition of the sanitation system. Based on the analysis, providing latrines free of costs, undertaking extensive motivational and awareness programs and publicity, regular consultation of tea garden workers with the health specialists, and vector control staff of concerned utilities as well as an integrated water supply, sanitation, and hygiene promotion programs should be considered as the priority in order to improve the deteriorated sanitary conditions in two tea gardens.

  5. Clean water, Sanitation and Diarrhoea in Indonesia: Effects of Household and Community Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komarulzaman, A.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Jong, E. de

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhoea is an important health issue in low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. We applied a multilevel regression analysis on the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey to examine the effects of drinking water and sanitation facilities at the household and community level on

  6. Beyond passive consumption : Dis/ordering water supply and sanitation at Hanoi’s urban edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schramm, S.; Wright-Contreras, Lucía

    2017-01-01

    In Hanoi people access, expand and create water and sanitation infrastructures in multiple ways that include, but are not restricted to, external provision of networked services. Urban master planning and the construction of large technological networks aim at integrating the urban region based on

  7. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  8. Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSmall-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10–69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important

  9. A Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Survey of Water and Sanitation in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward C.

    The terms of agreement of the Rural Water-Borne Disease Control Project called for a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study relating to water and sanitation in rural Swaziland. The purpose of the study was to provide: (1) baseline data for the design of a national health education strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of water-borne…

  10. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiyu; Wardrop, Nicola A; Bain, Robert E S; Lin, Yanzhao; Zhang, Ce; Wright, Jim A

    2016-01-01

    Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring.

  11. Human security and access to water, sanitation, and hygiene: exploring the drivers and nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Badhuri, A.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    Water security challenges are mostly covered in the literature on the food and energy nexus. This chapter however adopts a broader conception of water security in relation to lack of access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and argues that the human rights approach could be instrumental in

  12. From Handpumps to Health: The Evolution of Water and Sanitation Programmes in Bangladesh, India and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maggie

    The case histories of water and sanitation schemes described in this volume can best be understood by identifying the moments at which critical hurdles were encountered and surmounted. The first case study, which concerns Bangladesh, discusses promising prospects that existed amid the pollution and the technical and managerial expansion of the…

  13. Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Development: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.; Mgana, S.

    2014-01-01

    Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures

  14. Reduction of microbial counts during kitchen scale washing and sanitization of salad vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssemanda, James Noah; Joosten, Han; Bagabe, Mark Cyubahiro; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Reij, Martine W.

    2018-01-01

    Washing with or without sanitizers is one of the important steps designated to reduce or eliminate microbial hazards in fresh vegetables but the settings, conditions and effectiveness of this step remain contentious. In this study, we investigated kitchen scale salad preparation practices in a field

  15. 9 CFR 147.14 - Procedures to determine status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. The following monitoring procedures 10 may be applied at the discretion of the Official State Agency: 10 Laboratory procedures for monitoring operations... egg conalbumin; and (ii) Tetrathionate selective enrichment broths, competitor-controlling plating...

  16. The Role of Graphic and Sanitized Violence in the Enjoyment of Television Dramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment explores the relationship between television violence and viewer enjoyment. Over 400 participants were randomly assigned to one of 15 conditions that were created by editing five TV programs into three versions each: A graphically violent version, a sanitized violent version, and a nonviolent version. After viewing, participants…

  17. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-05-27

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  18. 9 CFR 3.84 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and pest control. 3.84 Section 3.84 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must... from becoming soiled, and to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests, and odors. Dirt floors, floors...

  19. 9 CFR 3.11 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and pest control. 3.11 Section 3.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must... contained in the primary enclosures, and to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests and odors. When steam or...

  20. sanitizing effect of acetic aci andvegetables in k ffect of acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Kabir, A.*,. Department of Microbiolog. Corresponding autho. ABSTRACT. Fruits and vegetables promote good hea contaminants. To assess the sanitizing effe. 16 samples of sliced fruits and vegetables local government Kano. Samples were anal standard plate count (SPC). The samples concentration and exposure time ...

  1. Terra Preta Sanitation: A Key Component for Sustainability in the Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS plays a key role in sustainable sanitation (SuSan and in the sustainable management of resources such as water, energy, soil (agriculture, liquid and solid organic waste streams as well as in the development of sustainable urban environment and infrastructure systems. This paper discusses the advantages of, and requirements for, SuSan systems, focusing on TPS. Case studies showing the stepwise extension and re-development of conventional sanitation systems (CSS using TPS technologies and system approaches are presented and discussed. Decentralized TPS systems integrated in sustainable urban resource management were implemented in the German cities of Hamburg and Berlin. The compilation of best practice examples and findings using the newest TPS systems illustrates the immense potential of this approach for the transformation from conventional to SuSan systems. For this purpose, the potential savings of drinking water resources and the recycling potential of nutrient components are quantified. The results strongly suggest the need to encourage the development and application of innovative decentralized sanitation technologies, urban infrastructures, and resource management systems that have TP as a key component.

  2. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hutton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  3. Literature Study on Community Participation in Community Based Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaiti, Siti Robiah; Bambang, Azis Nur

    2018-02-01

    Clean water and proper sanitation are basic human needs, existing procurement in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 2004 on Water Resources and Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 16 of 2005 on Development of Water Supply System, which the state guarantees the right of everyone water for basic daily minimum needs to meet the needs of a healthy, productive, and clean life. Norms every society has the right to get clean air to meet basic daily needs. One of the points in the goal of sustainable development goals (SDGs) in the environment sector is the guarantee of the community to achieve universal access to clean water and sanitation. The SDG High Level Panel held in 2012 calls on countries around the world to do so in 2030. Fulfillment of clean air and sanitation in Indonesia is conducted through two sectoral approaches, the first through agencies, or related agencies and the second through a Society. In accordance with its community-based principles, the role itself is a key factor in the success of the program. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to find out the forms of community participation and the factors that influence participation in community-based water supply and sanitation programs in the field of literature studies of previous research such as research journals, theses, theses, dissertations and related books This literature study topic.

  4. Sanitation in unsewered urban poor areas: technology selection, quantitative microbial risk assessment and grey water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katukiza, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The sanitation crisis in unsewered urban slums of cities in developing countries is one of the challenges that need to be addressed. It is caused by the high rate of urbanisation in developing countries and the increasing urban population with limited urban infrastructure. The major issues of

  5. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Trang Hoang,; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data

  6. Fate of pharmaceuticals in full-scale source separated sanitation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Removal of 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 of their transformation products was studied in a full-scale source separated sanitation system with separate collection and treatment of black water and grey water. Black water is treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by

  7. Civil society participation in urban sanitation and solid waste management in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukahirwa, J.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The inability of local governments to provide basic environmental services in African urban centres often results in the involvement of other actors in urban sanitation and solid waste provisioning, such as non-governmental organisations (NGOs), community-based organisations (CBOs) and private

  8. Health impact caused by poor water and sanitation in district Abbottabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Sadia; Mahmood, Qaisar; Tariq, Sumbal; Nawab, Bahadar; Elahi, Noor

    2011-01-01

    Large proportions of people still do not have excess to safe drinking water and proper sanitation. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to assess the health impacts. Random households were selected. Information was collected from questionnaire through interview schedule method, group discussion and observation checklist. People rated water and sanitation condition in urban as: 10% very good, 27% good, 20% bad, 43% very bad, and none of them said we don't know While in rural areas they rated 10% very good, 36% good, 44% bad, 6% very bad, and 4% of them said we don't know. Water sources in selected urban and rural areas were different. 37% in urban and 68% in rural area depended on bore wells as water source, 22% depended on hand pumps. In urban areas, the disease ratio was typhoid 20%, hepatitis 13%, diarrhoea 27%, skin infection 23%, stomach problems 53% and allergies 33%. In rural areas, after stomach problems, diarrhoea, hepatitis and typhoid ratio was very high as compared to urban area. In rural community, 70% were unaware of poor water and sanitation consequences on health. The water and sanitation condition in urban as well as in rural community is poor but in rural community it is even worse The drinking water was contaminated with E. coli, Enterobacter, Salmonella and Clostridium. This observation was correlated with prevalence of many water born diseases especially in rural communities of Abbottabad.

  9. Evaluation of sanitizers efficiency over spore forming bacteria isolated from whole UHT milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edite Andrade Costa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that sporulated bacteria produce proteolytic and lipolytic thermoresistant enzymes associated with technological problems such as off-flavors, age gelation and bitter taste in milk and dairy products. Preventive measures to avoid contamination of milk must be taken in consideration, e.g., the employment of a certain type of sanitizing agent, its conditions of use, concentration, contact time and temperature. The aim of this work was to evaluate the sanitation efficiency of workers of the dairy industry in relation to sporulated bacteria isolated from UHT milk. The suspension test was used to evaluate the efficiency of solutions of sodium hypocholite, biguanide, peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide against 18 strains of Bacillus sp. isolated from whole UHT milk. Although the biguanide resulted in significant decimal reduction, none of the sanitizing agents studied was effective under the evaluated conditions. The average decimal reduction values obtained were below 5 log cycles (99.999%. The effectiveness of the sanitizing agent is a primary factor in order to control the contaminations within the dairy industry. Thus, it is essential to define the ideal conditions of use of these agents.

  10. Sanitization of an Automatic Reverse-Osmosis Watering System: Removal of a Clinically Significant Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molk, Denise M; Karr-May, Charlene L; Trang, Elaine D; Sanders, George E

    2013-01-01

    During environmental monitoring of our institution's rodent watering systems, one vivarium was found to have high bacterial loads in the reverse-osmosis (RO) automatic water system. These findings prompted evaluation of the entire RO water production and distribution system. Investigation revealed insufficient rack and RO system sanitization, leading to heavy biofilm accumulation within the system. Approximately 2 wk after discovery in the water system, one of the bacterial organisms isolated in the water supply, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, was isolated from a peritoneal abscess of a severely immunodeficient B6.Cg-Slc11a1r Rag1tm1Mom/Cwi mouse housed in the same vivarium, suggesting that rodents drinking from this system were being exposed randomly to fragments of biofilm. Plans were developed to sanitize the entire system. Hypercholorination was used first, followed by treatment with a combination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Between system sanitizations, a low-level chlorine infusion was added to the system as a biocide. Heterotrophic plate counts and bacterial isolation were performed on water samples obtained before and after sanitization procedures. We here discuss the process of identifying and correcting this important water-quality issue. PMID:23562105

  11. Home hygiene and environmental sanitation: a country situation analysis for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, K J

    2003-06-01

    Problems of the environment and of domestic hygiene are always related to poverty of population and the sanitation of settlements. Most cities and towns in developing countries, like India, are characterised by over-crowding, congestion, inadequate water supply and inadequate facilities of disposal of human excreta, waste water and solid wastes. Inadequacy of housing for most urban poor invariably leads to poor home hygiene. Personal and domestic hygiene practices cannot be improved without improving basic amenities, such as water supply, waste water disposal, solid waste management and the problems of human settlements. But even under the prevailing conditions, there is significant scope of improving hygiene practices at home to prevent infection and cross-infection. Unfortunately, in developing countries, public health concerns are usually raised on the institutional setting, such as municipal services, hospitals, environmental sanitation, etc. There is a reluctance to acknowledge the home as a setting of equal importance along with the public institutions in the chain of disease transmission in the community. Managers of home hygiene and community hygiene must act in unison to optimise return from efforts to promote public health. Current practices and perceptions of domestic and personal hygiene in Indian communities, the existing levels of environmental and peri-domestic sanitation and the 'health risk' these pose will be outlined, as well as the need for an integrated action for improving hygiene behaviour and access to safe water and sanitation.

  12. Drinking water and sanitation: progress in 73 countries in relation to socioeconomic indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-02-01

    To assess progress in the provision of drinking water and sanitation in relation to national socioeconomic indicators. We used household survey data for 73 countries - collected between 2000 and 2012 - to calculate linear rates of change in population access to improved drinking water (n = 67) and/or sanitation (n = 61). To enable comparison of progress between countries with different initial levels of access, the calculated rates of change were normalized to fall between -1 and 1. In regression analyses, we investigated associations between the normalized rates of change in population access and national socioeconomic indicators: gross national income per capita, government effectiveness, official development assistance, freshwater resources, education, poverty, Gini coefficient, child mortality and the human development index. The normalized rates of change indicated that most of the investigated countries were making progress towards achieving universal access to improved drinking water and sanitation. However, only about a third showed a level of progress that was at least half the maximum achievable level. The normalized rates of change did not appear to be correlated with any of the national indicators that we investigated. In many countries, the progress being made towards universal access to improved drinking water and sanitation is falling well short of the maximum achievable level. Progress does not appear to be correlated with a country's social and economic characteristics. The between-country variations observed in such progress may be linked to variations in government policies and in the institutional commitment and capacity needed to execute such policies effectively.

  13. Simulating sanitation and waste flows and their environmental impacts in East African urban centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyoo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating Sanitation and Waste Flows and their Environmental Impacts in East African Urban Centres

    Abstract

    If improperly managed, urban waste flows can pose a significant threat to the quality of both the natural environment and public health.

  14. A pilot-scale microwave technology for sludge sanitization and drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawioo, P.M.; Garcia, Hector A.; Hooijmans, Christine M.; Velkushanova, Konstantina; Simonič, Marjana; Mijatović, Ivan; Brdanovic, Damir

    2017-01-01

    Large volumes of sludge are produced from onsite sanitation systems in densely populated areas (e.g. slums and emergency settlements) and wastewater treatment facilities that contain high amounts of pathogens. There is a need for technological options which can effectively treat the rapidly

  15. Sanitation policy in South Africa: does it address people with disabilities?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matsebe, G

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is one of the countries facing the challenge of meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for sanitation. At least five percent of the South African population consists of people with disabilities (PWDs) and the question remains...

  16. DRINKING WATER, SANITATION AND HEALTH IN KOLKATA METROPOLITAN CITY: CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS URBAN SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an urban area, the water is supplied through centralised municipal tap water system. For the present enquiry, the municipal supply of water for drinking and sanitation purposes has been assessed in terms of its availability and accessibility to the people, possible sources of water contamination and related health issues in Kolkata. The relevant data have been accessed from various secondary sources where the published data from West Bengal Pollution Control Board (WBPCB and Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC are noteworthy. The data thus obtained have been assessed qualitatively to depict the ground reality on sanitation and health related issues. The analyses of the data reveal that in Kolkata, the availability of good quality drinking water is not sufficient as the supply is low and inadequate. On the other hand, the underground water which is considered as the alternative source to the people is found to be contaminated with heavy metals like arsenic and lead. The non-availability of sufficientwater for drinking and sanitation purposes and consumption of contaminated water mayresult into poor health condition with various water borne diseases. The data on diseases from dispensaries (aided by KMC in Kolkata has revealed that people with water borne diseases are significant in number where they are found to be affected with diseases like Acute Diarrhoeal Infection and Dysenteries. Some suitable measures have been proposed whereby applying those, the availability and accessibility of water for drinking and proper sanitation could be enhanced and the occurrences of diseases might be avoided.

  17. [Rationale and knowledge for the universal implementation of sanitation in areas of social vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Ester Feche Guimarães de Arruda; Feuerwerker, Laura Camargo Macruz; Coutinho, Sonia Maria Viggiani; Malheiros, Tadeu Fabrício

    2012-11-01

    The adoption of principles of equality and universality stipulated in legislation for the sanitation sector requires discussions on innovation. The existing model was able to meet sanitary demands, but was unable to attend all areas causing disparities in vulnerable areas. The universal implementation of sanitation requires identification of the know-how that promotes it and analysis of the model adopted today to establish a new method. Analysis of how different viewpoints on the restructuring process is necessary for the definition of public policy, especially in health, and understanding its complexities and importance in confirming social practices and organizational designs. These are discussed to contribute to universal implementation of sanitation in urban areas by means of a review of the literature and practices in the industry. By way of conclusion, it is considered that accepting a particular concept or idea in sanitation means choosing some effective interventions in the network and on the lives of individual users, and implies a redefinition of the space in which it exercises control and management of sewerage networks, such that connected users are perceived as groups with different interests.

  18. Supply and Demand for Improved Sanitation: Results from Randomized Pricing Experiments in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Cock-Esteb, Alicea; Ysenburg, Dorothea; Haji, Salim; Khush, Ranjiv; Dupas, Pascaline

    2017-06-20

    Improving access to sanitation is a global public health priority. Sufficient consumer demand is required for sanitation coverage to expand through private provision. To measure consumer demand for hygienic latrine platform products in rural Tanzania, we conducted a randomized, voucher-based real-money sales trial with 1638 households with unimproved latrines. We also evaluated multiple supply chain options to determine the costs of supplying latrine platform products to rural households. For concrete latrine SanPlats, 60% of households were willing to pay US$0.48 and 10% of households were willing to pay US$4.05, yet the average cost of supplying the SanPlat to households was US$7.51. Similarly, for plastic sanitary platforms, willingness-to-pay (WTP) dropped from almost 60% at a price of US$1.43 to 5% at a price of US$12.29, compared to an average supply cost of US$23.28. WTP was not significantly different between villages that had participated in the National Sanitation Campaign and those that had not. Randomized informational interventions, including hygiene data-sharing and peer-based exposure to latrine platform products, had minimal effects on WTP. In conclusion, current household demand for latrine platform products is too low to achieve national goals for improved sanitation coverage through fully commercial distribution.

  19. Silver nanoparticles: an alternative method for sanitization of minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliane Andrade Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimal processing of vegetables basically aims to extend food shelf life, which depends on a number of factors, such as sanitization, that is considered a critical step for food microbiological quality. However, the usual antimicrobial agents reduce the microbial population in a maximum of two logarithmic cycles. Therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative sanitizers. This study aimed to increase the innocuity of minimally processed cabbage through sanitization with silver nanoparticles. It was observed that the nanoparticles promoted three logarithmic reductions, i.e. a 99.9 % reduction rate, in the Escherichia coli population inoculated on the cabbage surface. When compared to other antimicrobial agents (sodium dichloroisocyanurate and sodium hypochlorite, the nanoparticles were more efficient in sanitizing minimally processed cabbage, showing a lower count of aerobic mesophils. It was also observed that the cabbage surface presents hydrophobic characteristics, resulting in a higher propension for bacterial adhesion, which was confirmed in the thermodynamic evaluation of favorable adhesion for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

  20. Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and on the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and in alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20000 ppm cal...

  1. Environmental Awareness and School Sanitation in Calabar Metropolis of Cross Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anijaobi-Idem, F. N.; Ukata, B. N.; Bisong, N. N

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey designed study explored the influence of environmental awareness on secondary school sanitation in Calabar Metropolis. 1 hypothesis was formulated to direct the investigation. 300 subjects made up of 30 principals and 270 teachers constituted the sample drawn from the population of principals and teachers in secondary…

  2. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  3. A Review of In-Situ and Remote Sensing Technologies to Monitor Water and Sanitation Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Andres

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, announced in September 2015, present a vision of achieving a higher level of human health and well-being worldwide by the year 2030. The SDG targets specific to water and sanitation call for more detailed monitoring and response to understand the coverage and quality of safely managed sources. It is hoped that improved monitoring of water and sanitation interventions will reveal more cost-effective and efficient ways of meeting the SDGs. In this paper, we review the landscape of approaches that can be used to support and improve on the water and sanitation targets SDG 6.1, “By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all”, and SDG 6.2, “By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations”.

  4. Implications of natural occlusion of ventilated racks on ammonia and sanitation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Michelle A; Petty, Joann; Martin, Tara; Bergdall, Valerie; Hickman-Davis, Judy M

    2014-03-01

    Examination of ventilated rat racks prior to semiannual sanitation revealed silicone nozzles and ventilation ports that were partially or completely occluded with granular debris. We subsequently sought to document performance standards for rack sanitation and investigate the effect of ventilation port occlusion on rack function and animal husbandry practices. We hypothesized that individually ventilated cages with occluded airflow would require more frequent cage changes, comparable to those for static cages (that is, every 3 to 4 d). Sprague-Dawley rats were housed under one of 4 conditions: no airflow occlusion, occluded air-supply inlet, occluded air-exhaust outlet, and occlusion of both inlet and outlet. Cages were changed when daily ammonia concentration exceeded 20 ppm or after 14 d had elapsed. Most cages with unoccluded or partial airflow occlusion remained below the 20 ppm limit until day 12 or 13. Cages with occlusion of both inlet and outlet exceeded 20 ppm ammonia by as early as day 5. Airflow was significantly lower in cages with occlusion of both inlet and outlet airflow. Weekly inspection revealed that occlusion of ventilation ports was detectable by 3 mo after semiannual sanitation. This study demonstrates that silicone nozzles should be removed prior to rack sanitation to improve the effectiveness of cleaning ventilation ports and nozzles. While the rack is in use, silicone nozzles and ventilation ports should be inspected regularly to identify occlusion that is likely to diminish environmental quality in the cage. Intracage ammonia levels are significantly higher when both inlet and outlet airflow are occluded.

  5. Effectiveness of Sanitizer D7(TM) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Biofilm formation by E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica at meat processing plants poses a serious risk of meat product contamination. Available studies have shown that many common sanitizers were unable to completely eradicate biofilms by these foodborne pathogens due to the 3-dim...

  6. On the diffusion of toilets as bottom of the pyramid innovation : Lessons from sanitation entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramani, S.V.; Sadreghazi, S.; Duijsters, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    There is an emerging body of literature on product innovations for the poor at the bottom of the income pyramid. However, there is little on why delivery systems succeed or fail in this context and the present paper attempts to fill this void by examining why and how sanitation entrepreneurs are

  7. On the diffusion of toilets as bottom of the pyramid innovation : lessons from sanitation entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramani, S.V.; Sadreghazi, S.; Duysters, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    There is an emerging body of literature on product innovations for the poor at the bottom of the income pyramid. However, there is little on why delivery systems succeed or fail in this context and the present paper attempts to fill this void by examining why and how sanitation entrepreneurs are

  8. Literature Study on Community Participation in Community Based Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiah Nurbaiti Siti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean water and proper sanitation are basic human needs, existing procurement in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 2004 on Water Resources and Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 16 of 2005 on Development of Water Supply System, which the state guarantees the right of everyone water for basic daily minimum needs to meet the needs of a healthy, productive, and clean life. Norms every society has the right to get clean air to meet basic daily needs. One of the points in the goal of sustainable development goals (SDGs in the environment sector is the guarantee of the community to achieve universal access to clean water and sanitation. The SDG High Level Panel held in 2012 calls on countries around the world to do so in 2030. Fulfillment of clean air and sanitation in Indonesia is conducted through two sectoral approaches, the first through agencies, or related agencies and the second through a Society. In accordance with its community-based principles, the role itself is a key factor in the success of the program. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to find out the forms of community participation and the factors that influence participation in community-based water supply and sanitation programs in the field of literature studies of previous research such as research journals, theses, theses, dissertations and related books This literature study topic.

  9. Harnessing the plurality of actor frames in social-ecological systems : Ecological sanitation in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, M.; Vervoort, J.; Snel, D.; de Castro, F.

    2017-01-01

    This article uses a case study on ecological sanitation as a basis for lessons on identifying and harnessing the plurality of actor frames in social-ecological systems, thereby moving beyond the advocacy positions often taken by implementing NGOs. The study aimed to explore how perspectives between

  10. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Yu

    Full Text Available Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring.

  11. Water & Sanitation: An Essential Battlefront in the War on Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgmann, Helmut; Frigon, Dominic; Gaze, William; Manaia, Célia; Pruden, Amy; Singer, Andrew C; Smets, Barth; Zhang, Tong

    2018-06-05

    Water and sanitation represents a key battlefront in combating the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Basic water sanitation infrastructure is an essential first step to protecting public health, thereby limiting the spread of pathogens and the need for antibiotics. AMR presents unique human health risks, meriting new risk assessment frameworks specifically adapted to water and sanitation-borne AMR. There are numerous exposure routes to AMR originating from human waste, each of which must be quantified for its relative risk to human health. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play a vital role in centralized collection and treatment of human sewage, but there are numerous unresolved questions in terms of the microbial ecological processes occurring within and the extent to which they attenuate or amplify AMR. Research is needed to advance understanding of the fate of resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in various waste management systems, depending on the local constraints and intended re-use applications. WHO and national AMR action plans would benefit from a more holistic 'One Water' understanding. Here we provide a framework for research, policy, practice, and public engagement aimed at limiting the spread of AMR from water and sanitation in both low-, medium- and high-income countries, alike.

  12. Perceptions of Health Communication, Water Treatment and Sanitation in Artibonite Department, Haiti, March-April 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Ann Williams

    Full Text Available The international response to Haiti's ongoing cholera outbreak has been multifaceted, including health education efforts by community health workers and the distribution of free water treatment products. Artibonite Department was the first region affected by the outbreak. Numerous organizations have been involved in cholera response efforts in Haiti with many focusing on efforts to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH. Multiple types of water treatment products have been distributed, creating the potential for confusion over correct dosage and water treatment methods. We utilized qualitative methods in Artibonite to determine the population's response to WASH messages, use and acceptability of water treatment products, and water treatment and sanitation knowledge, attitudes and practices at the household level. We conducted eighteen focus group discussions (FGDs: 17 FGDs were held with community members (nine among females, eight among males; one FGD was held with community health workers. Health messages related to WASH were well-retained, with reported improvements in hand-washing. Community health workers were identified as valued sources of health information. Most participants noted a paucity of water-treatment products. Sanitation, specifically the construction of latrines, was the most commonly identified need. Lack of funds was the primary reason given for not constructing a latrine. The construction and maintenance of potable water and sanitation services is needed to ensure a sustainable change.

  13. Container-based sanitation: assessing costs and effectiveness of excreta management in Cap Haitien, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmans, Sebastien; Russel, Kory; Sklar, Rachel; Page, Leah; Kramer, Sasha; Davis, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Container-based sanitation (CBS) - in which wastes are captured in sealable containers that are then transported to treatment facilities - is an alternative sanitation option in urban areas where on-site sanitation and sewerage are infeasible. This paper presents the results of a pilot household CBS service in Cap Haitien, Haiti. We quantify the excreta generated weekly in a dense urban slum, (1) the proportion safely removed via container-based public and household toilets, and the costs associated with these systems. The CBS service yielded an approximately 3.5-fold decrease in the unmanaged share of faeces produced, and nearly eliminated the reported use of open defecation and "flying toilets" among service recipients. The costs of this pilot small-scale service were higher than those of large-scale waterborne sewerage, but economies of scale have the potential to reduce CBS costs over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of planning and policy implications of incorporating CBS into the menu of sanitation options for rapidly growing cities.

  14. Geographical information System - Tool for the administration of the services of basic sanitation and drinkable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas A, Claudia; Figueroa V, Claudia; Betancur V, Teresita

    2000-01-01

    The utility a Geographic Information System (GIS), is to develop urbane zone in this case, in the Jardin Municipality many elements and tools are supporting the management of service of potable water and basic sanitation, which constitute components of Territorial Ordering Plane (TOP)

  15. Women's Rights and Access to Water and Sanitation in Asian Cities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    WICI will partner with nongovernmental organizations at two sites in Delhi to determine how poverty, tenure, and lack of access to water, sanitation and other services affect women; develop a set of options for each community and promote it to the local government; and ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  16. The rising incidence of intentional ingestion of ethanol-containing hand sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Nicole J; Bronstein, Alvin C; Rasimas, Joseph J; Pao, Maryland; Wratney, Angela T; Sun, Junfeng; Austin, Howard A; Suffredini, Anthony F

    2012-01-01

    To describe a case of intentional ingestion of hand sanitizer in our hospital and to review published cases and those reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System. A case report, a literature review of published cases, and a query of the National Poison Data System. Medical intensive care unit. Seventeen-yr-old male 37-kg with an intentional ingestion of a hand sanitizer product into his gastrostomy tube. Intubation, ventilation, and hemodialysis. Incidence and outcome of reported cases of unintentional and intentional ethanol containing-hand sanitizer ingestion in the United States from 2005 through 2009. A literature search found 14 detailed case reports of intentional alcohol-based hand sanitizer ingestions with one death. From 2005 to 2009, the National Poison Data System received reports of 68,712 exposures to 96 ethanol-based hand sanitizers. The number of new cases increased by an average of 1,894 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1266-2521) cases per year (p =.002). In 2005, the rate of exposures, per year, per million U.S. residents was 33.7 (95% CI 28.4-39.1); from 2005 to 2009, this rate increased on average by 5.87 per year (95% CI 3.70-8.04; p = .003). In 2005, the rate of intentional exposures, per year, per million U.S. residents, was 0.68 (95% CI 0.17-1.20); from 2005 to 2009, this rate increased on average by 0.32 per year (95% CI 0.11-0.53; p = .02). The number of new cases per year of intentional hand sanitizer ingestion significantly increased during this 5-yr period. Although the majority of cases of hand sanitizer ingestion have a favorable outcome, 288 moderate and 12 major medical outcomes were reported in this National Poison Data System cohort. Increased awareness of the risks associated with intentional ingestion is warranted, particularly among healthcare providers caring for persons with a history of substance abuse, risk-taking behavior, or suicidal ideation.

  17. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  18. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  19. Marine palynology in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    One of the things which the Second International Conference on Palynology (held in Utrecht, August 29-September 3, 1966) revealed, was the rapid expansion which marine palynological research has undergone in recent years. This was the main stimulus to organize this special issue of Marine

  20. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  1. A proposed protocol for hand and table sanitizing in chiropractic clinics and education institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marion Willard; Ramcharan, Michael; Floyd, Rod; Globe, Gary; Ndetan, Harrison; Williams, Ronald; Ivie, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective By nature, chiropractic is a hands-on profession using manipulation applied to the joints with direct skin-to-skin contacts. Chiropractic tables are designed with a face piece to accommodate the prone patient's head in a neutral position and hand rests to allow for relaxed shoulders and upper spine so treatment is facilitated. The purpose of this article is to present a proposed guideline for hand and treatment table surface sanitizing for the chiropractic profession that is evidence-based and can easily be adopted by teaching institutions and doctors in the field. Methods A review of the chiropractic literature demonstrated that pathogenic microbes are present on treatment tables in teaching clinics at multiple facilities, yet no standardized protocols exist in the United States regarding table sanitizing and hand hygiene in chiropractic clinics or education institutions. This article reviews the scientific literature on the subject by using several search engines, databases, and specific reviews of documents pertaining to the topic including existing general guidelines. Results The literature has several existing guidelines that the authors used to develop a proposed protocol for hand and table sanitizing specific to the chiropractic profession. Recommendations were developed and are presented on hand hygiene and table sanitizing procedures that could lower the risk of infection for both clinical personnel and patients in chiropractic facilities. Conclusion This article offers a protocol for hand and table sanitizing in chiropractic clinics and education institutions. The chiropractic profession should consider adoption of these or similar measures and disseminate them to teaching clinics, institutions, and private practitioners. PMID:19646384

  2. Expert assessment of the resilience of drinking water and sanitation systems to climate-related hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Royster, Sarah; Sebastian, Daniel; Ojomo, Edema; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-08-15

    We conducted an expert assessment to obtain expert opinions on the relative global resilience of ten drinking water and five sanitation technologies to the following six climate-related hazards: drought, decreased inter-annual precipitation, flood, superstorm flood, wind damage, and saline intrusion. Resilience scores ranged from 1.7 to 9.9 out of a maximum resilience of 10, with high scores corresponding to high resilience. We find that for some climate-related hazards, such as drought, technologies demonstrated a large range in resilience, indicating that the choice of water and sanitation technologies is important for areas prone to drought. On the other hand, the range of resilience scores for superstorm flooding was much smaller, particularly for sanitation technologies, suggesting that the choice of technology is less of a determinant of functionality for superstorm flooding as compared to other climate-related hazards. For drinking water technologies, only treated piped utility-managed systems that use surface water had resilience scores >6.0 for all hazards, while protected dug wells were found to be one of the least resilient technologies, consistently scoring <5.0 for all hazards except wind damage. In general, sanitation technologies were found to have low to medium resilience, suggesting that sanitation systems need to be adapted to ensure functionality during and after climate-related hazards. The results of the study can be used to help communities decide which technologies are best suited for the climate-related challenges they face and help in future adaptation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Underreporting of high-risk water and sanitation practices undermines progress on global targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedachalam, Sridhar; MacDonald, Luke H; Shiferaw, Solomon; Seme, Assefa; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-01-01

    Water and sanitation indicators under the Millennium Development Goals failed to capture high-risk practices undertaken on a regular basis. In conjunction with local partners, fourteen rounds of household surveys using mobile phones with a customized open-source application were conducted across nine study geographies in Asia and Africa. In addition to the main water and sanitation facilities, interviewees (n = 245,054) identified all water and sanitation options regularly used for at least one season of the year. Unimproved water consumption and open defecation were targeted as high-risk practices. We defined underreporting as the difference between the regular and main use of high-risk practices. Our estimates of high-risk practices as the main option matched the widely accepted Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) estimates within the 95% confidence interval. However, estimates of these practices as a regular option was far higher than the DHS estimates. Across the nine geographies, median underreporting of unimproved water use was 5.5%, with a range of 0.5% to 13.9%. Median underreporting of open defecation was much higher at 9.9%, with a range of 2.7% to 11.5%. This resulted in an underreported population of 25 million regularly consuming unimproved water and 50 million regularly practicing open defecation. Further examination of data from Ethiopia suggested that location and socio-economic factors were significant drivers of underreporting. Current global monitoring relies on a framework that considers the availability and use of a single option to meet drinking water and sanitation needs. Our analysis demonstrates the use of multiple options and widespread underreporting of high-risk practices. Policies based on current monitoring data, therefore, fail to consider the range of challenges and solutions to meeting water and sanitation needs, and result in an inflated sense of progress. Mobile surveys offer a cost-effective and innovative platform to rapidly

  4. Linking human health, climate change, and food security through ecological-based sanitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Kramer, S.; Porder, S.; Andersen, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring access to clean, safe sanitation for the world's population remains a challenging, yet critical, global sustainability goal. Ecological-based sanitation (EcoSan) technology is a promising strategy for improving sanitation, particularly in areas where financial resources and infrastructure are limiting. The composting of human waste and its use as an agricultural soil amendment can tackle three important challenges in developing countries - providing improved sanitation for vulnerable communities, reducing the spread of intestinal-born pathogens, and returning nutrients and organic matter to degraded agricultural soils. The extent of these benefits and potential tradeoffs are not well known, but have important implications for the widespread adoption of this strategy to promote healthy communities and enhance food security. We quantified the effects of EcoSan on the climate and human health in partnership with Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) in Haiti. We measured greenhouse gas emissions (nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) from compost piles that ranged in age from 0 to 14 months (i.e. finished) from two compost facilities managed with or without cement lining. We also measured emissions from a government-operated waste treatment pond and a grass field where waste has been illegally dumped. The highest methane emissions were observed from the anaerobic waste pond, whereas the dump site and compost piles had higher nitrous oxide emissions. Net greenhouse gases (CO2-equivalents) from unlined compost piles were 8x lower than lined compost piles and 20 and 30x lower than the dump and waste pond, respectively. We screened finished compost for fecal pathogens using bacterial 16S sequencing. Bacterial pathogens were eliminated regardless of the type of composting process. Pilot trials indicate that the application of compost to crops has a large potential for increasing food production. This research suggests that EcoSan systems are

  5. Water sanitation, access, use and self-reported diarrheal disease in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Gabriela E; Bearman, Gonzalo; Sanogo, Kakotan; Stevens, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Only 79% of individuals living in rural Honduras use improved water sources. Inadequate drinking water quality is related to diarrheal illness, which in Honduras contributes to 18.6 episodes of diarrhea per child year in children under five years of age. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare access to drinking water and sanitation, as well as self-reported diarrheal disease incidence among three proximal communities in the Department of Yoro area of Honduras. An 11-item language-specific, interviewer-administered, anonymous questionnaire was administered to 263 randomly selected adults attending a June 2011 medical brigade held in the communities of Coyoles, La Hicaca, and Lomitas. Chi-square with Fisher exact tests were utilized to compare water access, sanitation, and self-reported diarrheal incidence among these communities. Coyoles and La Hicaca used private faucets as their primary water sources. Coyoles had the greatest use of bottled water. Lomitas used rivers as their primary water source, and did not use bottled water. Mostly, females were responsible for acquiring water. Usage of multiple water sanitation methods was most common in Coyoles, while no sanitation method was most common in Lomitas. In Lomitas and La Hicaca, water filters were mostly provided via donation by non-governmental organizations. Lomitas had the highest reported incidence of diarrhea among self and other household members. Critical differences in water access, sanitation, and self-reported diarrheal incidence among three geographically distinct, yet proximal, communities highlights the need for targeted interventions even in geographically proximal rural areas.

  6. Sewerage force adjustment technology for energy conservation in vacuum sanitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhonghua; Li, Xiaoning; Kagawa, Toshiharu

    2013-03-01

    The vacuum sanitation is the safe and sound disposal approach of human excreta under the specific environments like flights, high speed trains and submarines. However, the propulsive force of current systems is not adjustable and the energy consumption does not adapt to the real time sewerage requirement. Therefore, it is important to study the sewerage force adjustment to improve the energy efficiency. This paper proposes an energy conservation design in vacuum sanitation systems with pneumatic ejector circuits. The sewerage force is controlled by changing the systematic vacuum degree according to the amount of the excreta. In particular, the amount of the excreta is tested by liquid level sensor and mass sensor. According to the amount of the excreta, the relationship between the excreta amount and the sewerage force is studied to provide proper propulsive force. In the other aspect, to provide variable vacuum degrees for different sanitation requirements, the suction and discharge system is designed with pneumatic vacuum ejector. On the basis of the static flow-rate characteristics and the vacuum generation model, the pressure response in the ejector circuit is studied by using the static flow rate characteristics of the ejector and air status equation. The relationship is obtained between supplied compressed air and systematic vacuum degree. When the compressed air is supplied to the ejector continuously, the systematic vacuum degree increases until the vacuum degree reaches the extreme value. Therefore, the variable systematic vacuum degree is obtained by controlling the compressed air supply of the ejector. To verify the effect of energy conservation, experiments are carried out in the artificial excreta collection, and the variable vacuum-degree design saves more than 30% of the energy supply. The energy conservation is realized effectively in the new vacuum sanitation systems with good application prospect. The proposed technology provides technological

  7. Factors leading to poor water sanitation hygiene among primary school going children in Chitungwiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Dube

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the world has progressed in the area of water and sanitation, more than 2.3 billion people still live without access to sanitation facilities and some are unable to practice basic hygiene. Access to water and basic sanitation has deteriorated in Chitungwiza and children are at risk of developing illness and missing school due to the deterioration. We sought to investigate the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors that are causally related to water- and sanitation- related hygiene practices among school going children. A random sample of 400 primary school children (196 males, 204 females in four schools in Chitungwiza town, Zimbabwe was interviewed. Behavioural factors were assessed through cross examination of the PROCEED PRECEDE Model. The respondents had been stratified through the random sampling where strata were classes. A structured observation checklist was also administered to assess hygiene enabling facilities for each school. Children’s knowledge and perceptions were inconsistent with hygienic behaviour. The family institution seemed to play a more important role in life skills training and positive reinforcement compared to the school (50% vs 27.3%. There was no association between a child’s sex, age and parents’ occupation with any of the factors assessed (P=0.646. Schools did not provide a hygiene enabling environment as there were no learning materials, policy and resources on hygiene and health. The challenges lay in the provision of hygiene enabling facilities, particularly, the lack of access to sanitation for the maturing girl child and a school curriculum that provides positive reinforcement and practical life skills training approach.

  8. 75 FR 53914 - Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): Proposed Regulation To Establish a No Discharge Zone (NDZ) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... destination for tourists. Coastal tourism and recreation generate more than $10 billion per year in wages and... discharged instantaneously but at a moderate rate when the ship is en route and proceeding at a speed of at...

  9. Monitoring sanitation and hygiene in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: A review through the lens of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné-Garriga, Ricard; Flores-Baquero, Óscar; Jiménez-Fdez de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí

    2017-02-15

    International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation has been jointly carried out by WHO and UNICEF through their Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). With the end of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) era in 2015, the JMP has proposed a post-2015 framework for integrated monitoring of water and sanitation targets included in the Sustainable Development Goal no. 6. This article discusses how each element of the proposed sanitation target and corresponding indicators can be understood from a human rights perspective. Building on the MDGs, and although some of the weaknesses and gaps persist, the discussion suggests that the post-2015 proposal is a step forward towards a monitoring framework where human rights elements related to sanitation are effectively promoted. In addition, to support the interpretation and implementation of the normative content of human rights obligations related to sanitation, the study proposes a reduced set of easy-to-assess indicators to measure the normative criteria of this right, which are then grouped in a multidimensional framework to describe increasing levels of sanitation service. To do this, the study combines literature review and specific local experience from three case studies. It is shown that the proposed monitoring tools, namely the indicators and the multidimensional indicator framework, provide guidance on monitoring the human right to sanitation. In doing so, they might ultimately help sector stakeholders in the realization of this right. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. COMPARISON THE NUMBER OF BACTERIA BETWEEN WASHING HANDS USING SOAP AND HAND SANITIZER AS A BACTERIOLOGY LEARNING RESOURCE FOR STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Darmayani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hands are the principal carriers of bacterial diseases, therefore very important to know that washing hands with soap or hand sanitizer is highly effective healthy behaviors to reduce bacteria in the palm. This study aimed to determine the total number of bacteria between washing hands with soap and hand sanitizer, also applying the results of these studies as a learning resource in bacteriology. The research design was the true experiment with pretest-posttest control group research design and laboratory examination. Analysis of data using paired t-test and independent sample t-test with α = 0.05. The result using paired t-test obtained t count= 2.48921> t 0.05 (14 = 2.14479 (with liquid soap, obtained t count= 2.32937> t 0.05 (14 = 2.14479 (with hand sanitizer. As for the comparison of the total number of bacteria include washing hands with soap and hand sanitizer using independent samples t-test obtained results there were differences in the total number of bacteria include washing hands with liquid soap and hand sanitizer with t count= 2.23755> t 0.05 ( 13 = 2.16037. That results showed hand sanitizer more effective to reduce the number of bacteria than the liquid soap, that was hand sanitizer 96% and liquid soap by 95%.

  11. Faecal Pathogen Flows and Their Public Health Risks in Urban Environments: A Proposed Approach to Inform Sanitation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Freya; Petterson, Susan; Norman, Guy

    2018-01-01

    Public health benefits are often a key political driver of urban sanitation investment in developing countries, however, pathogen flows are rarely taken systematically into account in sanitation investment choices. While several tools and approaches on sanitation and health risks have recently been developed, this research identified gaps in their ability to predict faecal pathogen flows, to relate exposure risks to the existing sanitation services, and to compare expected impacts of improvements. This paper outlines a conceptual approach that links faecal waste discharge patterns with potential pathogen exposure pathways to quantitatively compare urban sanitation improvement options. An illustrative application of the approach is presented, using a spreadsheet-based model to compare the relative effect on disability-adjusted life years of six sanitation improvement options for a hypothetical urban situation. The approach includes consideration of the persistence or removal of different pathogen classes in different environments; recognition of multiple interconnected sludge and effluent pathways, and of multiple potential sites for exposure; and use of quantitative microbial risk assessment to support prediction of relative health risks for each option. This research provides a step forward in applying current knowledge to better consider public health, alongside environmental and other objectives, in urban sanitation decision making. Further empirical research in specific locations is now required to refine the approach and address data gaps. PMID:29360775

  12. Acceptance of new sanitation: The role of end-users' pro-environmental personal norms and risk and benefit perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, P Marijn; Sanders, Liese; Weijma, Jan; De Vries, Jasper R

    2017-12-18

    Current sanitation systems are inherently limited in their ability to address the new challenges for (waste)water management that arise from the rising demand to restore resource cycles. These challenges include removal of micropollutants, water (re)use, and nutrient recovery. New opportunities to address these challenges arise from new sanitation, a system innovation that combines elements of source separation, local treatment and reuse, and less use of water. New sanitation is applied, but not yet widespread, in several residential areas in Europe. Implementation is hindered by the lack of insight into the general public's willingness to engage in new sanitation, and the resulting uncertainty about this among decision makers and other stakeholders in wastewater management. Using value-belief-norm theory as a conceptual lens, this paper addresses the individual motivations (pro-environmental personal norms) and personal drivers (benefits) and barriers (risks) for acceptance of new sanitation by the Dutch general public. The results of an online survey (N = 338) indicated that both pro-environmental personal norms and risk and benefit perceptions predict consumers' willingness to accept new sanitation. More specifically, they showed that consumer acceptance is driven by perceived risks relating to the housing market and the need to change behavior, but also by environmental benefits. Overall, new sanitation was favorably evaluated by respondents: 64% indicated that they would likely use new sanitation if they were owner-occupiers. The results of this explorative study are discussed in light of the development of novel sanitation systems that are sensitive to perceptions of end-users and other key stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Middelboe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals [2].[...

  14. Seawater and marine sidements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicke, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut (DHI) is responsible for monitoring the radioactive substances (such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, H-3, Pu-239, Pu-240) in the seawater and marine sediments along the Federal German seacoasts, of the fishing grounds of the Federal German offshore fishery industry, and of marine currents moving towards these fishing grounds. The DHI has been carrying out this task since 1965, activities being placed under the responsibility of the DHI Department for Marine Radioactivity, which since 1960 is a directing centre within the Government's system for environmental radioactivity monitoring. (orig./DG) [de

  15. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  16. Will marine productivity wane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufkötter, Charlotte; Gruber, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    If marine algae are impaired severely by global climate change, the resulting reduction in marine primary production would strongly affect marine life and the ocean's biological pump that sequesters substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean's interior. Most studies, including the latest generation of Earth system models, project only moderate global decreases in biological production until 2100 (1, 2), suggesting that these concerns are unwarranted. But on page 1139 of this issue, Moore et al. (3) show that this conclusion might be shortsighted and that there may be much larger long-term changes in ocean productivity than previously appreciated.

  17. Avaliação do tratamento combinado de lixiviado de aterro sanitário e esgoto sanitário em sistema de lodos ativados

    OpenAIRE

    Edilincon Martins de Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Um dos principais resíduos gerados nos aterros é o lixiviado, que possui elevada concentração de matéria orgânica biodegradável e refratária e de matéria inorgânica, como nitrogênio amoniacal e metais pesados. O tratamento combinado de lixiviado com esgoto sanitário tem sido utilizado em algumas estações de tratamento de esgoto (ETE) brasileiras. No entanto, o processo ainda sofre vários questionamentos e incertezas, especialmente sobre os efeitos da adição do lixiviado sobre o sistema de tra...

  18. Who Delivers without Water? A Multi Country Analysis of Water and Sanitation in the Childbirth Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Gon

    Full Text Available Hygiene during childbirth is essential to the health of mothers and newborns, irrespective of where birth takes place. This paper investigates the status of water and sanitation in both the home and facility childbirth environments, and for whom and where this is a more significant problem.We used three datasets: a global dataset, with information on the home environment from 58 countries, and two datasets for each of four countries in Eastern Africa: a healthcare facility dataset, and a dataset that incorporated information on facilities and the home environment to create a comprehensive description of birth environments in those countries. We constructed indices of improved water, and improved water and sanitation combined (WATSAN, for the home and healthcare facilities. The Joint Monitoring Program was used to construct indices for household; we tailored them to the facility context-household and facility indices include different components. We described what proportion of women delivered in an environment with improved WATSAN. For those women who delivered at home, we calculated what proportion had improved WATSAN by socio-economic status, education and rural-urban status.Among women delivering at home (58 countries, coverage of improved WATSAN by region varied from 9% to 53%. Fewer than 15% of women who delivered at home in Sub-Saharan Africa, had access to water and sanitation infrastructure (range 0.1% to 37%. This was worse among the poorest, the less educated and those living in rural areas. In Eastern Africa, where we looked at both the home and facility childbirth environment, a third of women delivered in an environment with improved water in Uganda and Rwanda; whereas, 18% of women in Kenya and 7% in Tanzania delivered with improved water and sanitation. Across the four countries, less than half of the facility deliveries had improved water, or improved water and sanitation in the childbirth environment.Access to water and

  19. Geographical heterogeneity and inequality of access to improved drinking water supply and sanitation in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Jun; Lai, Ying-Si; Karmacharya, Biraj M; Dai, Bo-Feng; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Xu, Dong Roman

    2018-04-02

    Per United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, Nepal is aspiring to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water and provide access to adequate and equitable sanitation for all by 2030. For these goals to be accomplished, it is important to understand the country's geographical heterogeneity and inequality of access to its drinking-water supply and sanitation (WSS) so that resource allocation and disease control can be optimized. We aimed 1) to estimate spatial heterogeneity of access to improved WSS among the overall Nepalese population at a high resolution; 2) to explore inequality within and between relevant Nepalese administrative levels; and 3) to identify the specific administrative areas in greatest need of policy attention. We extracted cluster-sample data on the use of the water supply and sanitation that included 10,826 surveyed households from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, then used a Gaussian kernel density estimation with adaptive bandwidths to estimate the distribution of access to improved WSS conditions over a grid at 1 × 1 km. The Gini coefficient was calculated for the measurement of inequality in the distribution of improved WSS; the Theil L measure and Theil T index were applied to account for the decomposition of inequality. 57% of Nepalese had access to improved sanitation (range: 18.1% in Mahottari to 100% in Kathmandu) and 92% to drinking-water (range: 41.7% in Doti to 100% in Bara). The most unequal districts in Gini coefficient among improved sanitation were Saptari, Sindhuli, Banke, Bajura and Achham (range: 0.276 to 0.316); and Sankhuwasabha, Arghakhanchi, Gulmi, Bhojpur, Kathmandu (range: 0.110 to 0.137) among improved drinking-water. Both the Theil L and Theil T showed that within-province inequality was substantially greater than between-province inequality; while within-district inequality was less than between-district inequality. The inequality of several districts was

  20. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...