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Sample records for fpc

  1. The Gain Estimation of a Fabry-Perot Cavity (FPC Antenna with a Finite Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek-Sun Kwon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented an equation for estimating the gain of a Fabry-Perot cavity (FPC antenna with a finite dimension. When an FPC antenna has an infinite dimension and its height is half of a wavelength, the maximum gain of that FPC antenna can be obtained theoretically. If the FPC antenna does not have a dimension sufficient for multiple reflections between a partially reflective surface (PRS and the ground, its gain must be less than that of an FPC antenna that has an infinite dimension. In addition, the gain of an FPC antenna increases as the dimension of a PRS increases and becomes saturated from a specific dimension. The specific dimension where the gain starts to saturate also gets larger as the reflection magnitude of the PRS becomes closer to one. Thus, it would be convenient to have a gain equation when considering the dimension of an FPC antenna in order to estimate the exact gain of the FPC antenna with a specific dimension. A gain versus the dimension of the FPC antenna for various reflection magnitudes of PRS has been simulated, and the modified gain equation is produced through the curve fitting of the full-wave simulation results. The resulting empirical gain equation of an FPC antenna whose PRS dimension is larger than 1.5λ0 has been obtained.

  2. Evaluation of Different Topographic Corrections for Landsat TM Data by Prediction of Foliage Projective Cover (FPC in Topographically Complex Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisira Ediriweera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reflected radiance in topographically complex areas is severely affected by variations in topography; thus, topographic correction is considered a necessary pre-processing step when retrieving biophysical variables from these images. We assessed the performance of five topographic corrections: (i C correction (C, (ii Minnaert, (iii Sun Canopy Sensor (SCS, (iv SCS + C and (v the Processing Scheme for Standardised Surface Reflectance (PSSSR on the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM reflectance in the context of prediction of Foliage Projective Cover (FPC in hilly landscapes in north-eastern Australia. The performance of topographic corrections on the TM reflectance was assessed by (i visual comparison and (ii statistically comparing TM predicted FPC with ground measured FPC and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging-derived FPC estimates. In the majority of cases, the PSSSR method performed best in terms of eliminating topographic effects, providing the best relationship and lowest residual error when comparing ground measured FPC and LiDAR FPC with TM predicted FPC. The Minnaert, C and SCS + C showed the poorest performance. Finally, the use of TM surface reflectance, which includes atmospheric correction and broad Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF effects, seemed to account for most topographic variation when predicting biophysical variables, such as FPC.

  3. 33 CFR Appendix - List of FPC Standard Articles Forms Used in Permits and Licenses for Hydroelectric Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of FPC Standard Articles Forms Used in Permits and Licenses for Hydroelectric Projects Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF... Forms Used in Permits and Licenses for Hydroelectric Projects The following FPC standard articles Forms...

  4. A FPC-ROOT Algorithm for 2D-DOA Estimation in Sparse Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of two-dimensional direction-of-arrival (2D DOA estimation in sparse array, this paper presents a Fixed Point Continuation Polynomial Roots (FPC-ROOT algorithm. Firstly, a signal model for DOA estimation is established based on matrix completion and it can be proved that the proposed model meets Null Space Property (NSP. Secondly, left and right singular vectors of received signals matrix are achieved using the matrix completion algorithm. Finally, 2D DOA estimation can be acquired through solving the polynomial roots. The proposed algorithm can achieve high accuracy of 2D DOA estimation in sparse array, without solving autocorrelation matrix of received signals and scanning of two-dimensional spectral peak. Besides, it decreases the number of antennas and lowers computational complexity and meanwhile avoids the angle ambiguity problem. Computer simulations demonstrate that the proposed FPC-ROOT algorithm can obtain the 2D DOA estimation precisely in sparse array.

  5. IMPACT OF DIFFERENT TOPOGRAPHIC CORRECTIONS ON PREDICTION ACCURACY OF FOLIAGE PROJECTIVE COVER (FPC IN A TOPOGRAPHICALLY COMPLEX TERRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ediriweera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative retrieval of land surface biological parameters (e.g. foliage projective cover [FPC] and Leaf Area Index is crucial for forest management, ecosystem modelling, and global change monitoring applications. Currently, remote sensing is a widely adopted method for rapid estimation of surface biological parameters in a landscape scale. Topographic correction is a necessary pre-processing step in the remote sensing application for topographically complex terrain. Selection of a suitable topographic correction method on remotely sensed spectral information is still an unresolved problem. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of topographic corrections on the prediction of FPC in hilly terrain using an established regression model. Five established topographic corrections [C, Minnaert, SCS, SCS+C and processing scheme for standardised surface reflectance (PSSSR] were evaluated on Landsat TM5 acquired under low and high sun angles in closed canopied subtropical rainforest and eucalyptus dominated open canopied forest, north-eastern Australia. The effectiveness of methods at normalizing topographic influence, preserving biophysical spectral information, and internal data variability were assessed by statistical analysis and by comparing field collected FPC data. The results of statistical analyses show that SCS+C and PSSSR perform significantly better than other corrections, which were on less overcorrected areas of faintly illuminated slopes. However, the best relationship between FPC and Landsat spectral responses was obtained with the PSSSR by producing the least residual error. The SCS correction method was poor for correction of topographic effect in predicting FPC in topographically complex terrain.

  6. Study on the impact of the engineering energy gain and the FPC mass power density on the generation cost of fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Desuo; Wu Yican

    2004-01-01

    The impact of the engineering energy gain and the fusion-power-core (FPC) mass power density (MPD) on the generation cost of fusion power plant are analyzed based on the economic elasticity approach in this paper. From the functions describing the relationship of the generation cost with the engineering energy gain and the MPD, the elasticity coefficients of the generation cost with the engineering energy gain and the MPD have been derived respectively to analyze their sensitivity to the generation cost and the MPD to the generation cost decreases with increasing the engineering energy gain or the MPD. (authors)

  7. Open fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) flat plate collector (FPC) and spray network systems for augmenting the evaporation rate of tannery effluent (soak liquor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srithar, K.; Mani, A.

    2007-01-01

    Presently, tanneries in Tamilnadu, India are required to segregate the effluent of soaking and pickling sections from other wastewater streams and send it to shallow solar pans for evaporation to avoid land pollution. A large area of solar pans is required for evaporating the water in the effluent at salt concentration in the range of 4-5%. An experimental study has been made by using fibre reinforced plastic flat plate collector (FRP-FPC) and spray system in a pilot plant with a capacity to handle 5000 l per day, which increases the evaporation rate. After increasing the salt concentration level to near saturation limit, the concentrated liquid was sent to conventional solar pans for its continued evaporation and recovery of salt. In this improved system, the rate of evaporation was found to be 30-40% more than that in the conventional solar pans. The performance is compared with the theoretically simulated performance. (author)

  8. Role and capabilities of financial structures in development of fuel-power complex in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevzlin, L.B.; Kukin, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    The problems of financing the enterprises of the fuel-power complex (FPC) in Russia nowadays are discussed. The causes of the FPC hard financial situation are analyzed. The forms and methods of investing activity financing and participation of financial structures in stock-holding of FPC enterprises, which can improve the present situation, are shown

  9. Interaction between the flagellar pocket collar and the hook complex via a novel microtubule-binding protein in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Albisetti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei belongs to a group of unicellular, flagellated parasites that are responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. An essential aspect of parasite pathogenicity is cytoskeleton remodelling, which occurs during the life cycle of the parasite and is accompanied by major changes in morphology and organelle positioning. The flagellum originates from the basal bodies and exits the cell body through the flagellar pocket (FP but remains attached to the cell body via the flagellum attachment zone (FAZ. The FP is an invagination of the pellicular membrane and is the sole site for endo- and exocytosis. The FAZ is a large complex of cytoskeletal proteins, plus an intracellular set of four specialised microtubules (MtQ that elongate from the basal bodies to the anterior end of the cell. At the distal end of the FP, an essential, intracellular, cytoskeletal structure called the flagellar pocket collar (FPC circumvents the flagellum. Overlapping the FPC is the hook complex (HC (a sub-structure of the previously named bilobe that is also essential and is thought to be involved in protein FP entry. BILBO1 is the only functionally characterised FPC protein and is necessary for FPC and FP biogenesis. Here, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches to identify and characterize a new BILBO1 partner protein-FPC4. We demonstrate that FPC4 localises to the FPC, the HC, and possibly to a proximal portion of the MtQ. We found that the C-terminal domain of FPC4 interacts with the BILBO1 N-terminal domain, and we identified the key amino acids required for this interaction. Interestingly, the FPC4 N-terminal domain was found to bind microtubules. Over-expression studies highlight the role of FPC4 in its association with the FPC, HC and FPC segregation. Our data suggest a tripartite association between the FPC, the HC and the MtQ.

  10. WAVEGUIDE COUPLER KICK TO BEAM BUNCH AND CURRENT DEPENDENCY ON SRF CAVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genfa Wu; Haipeng Wang; Charles Reece; Robert Rimmer

    2008-01-01

    JLAB SRF cavities employ waveguide type fundamental power couplers (FPC). The FPC design for the 7-cell upgrade cavities was optimized to minimize the dipole field kick. For continuous wave (CW) operation, the forwarding RF power will be at different magnitude to drive the different beam current and cavity gradient. This introduces some deviation from optimized FPC field for varying beam loading. This article analyzes the beam behavior both in centroid kick and head-tail kick under different beam loading conditions

  11. Utilization of Bonga ( Ethmalosa fimbriata Bodwich) fish concentrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bonga fishmeal (BFM) used as Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC) in bread baking to address the problem of inadequate intake of protein at Njala - Mokonde community and also to determine acceptable proportion of FPC to wheat flour by consumers were bought from Tombo - the largest artisanal fish-landing site along the ...

  12. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acceptable proportion of FPC to wheat flour by consumers were bought from Tombo - the largest ... Evaluated samples differed in their proximate and mineral composition. 10% FPC had the highest percentage crude protein (33.67%), highest crude fat (3.64%) and highest crude fiber (1.42%) while ..... 2000. pp.63 – 72.

  13. Fundamentalist Protestant Christian Women: Recognizing Cultural and Gender Influences on Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Louisa L.; Warnke, Melanie A.

    2003-01-01

    Multicultural, family process and structure, and gender concepts are used to provide a framework for understanding supports for and barriers to mental health experienced by abused fundamentalist Protestant Christian (FPC) women. For FPC women who are victims of domestic violence, these factors may intersect to prohibit or facilitate healthy life…

  14. Highly enhanced adsorption of Congo red by functionalized finger-citron-leaf-based porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Hua; Fang, Yao-Yao; Dai, Wei; Ma, Na

    2018-01-01

    A novel high-performance porous carbon material, lanthanum(III)-doped finger-citron-leaf-based porous carbon (La/FPC), has been synthesized and used as an adsorbent for anion dye Congo red (CR). The La/FPC was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption performance of CR by the FPC and La/FPC composites with different contents of lanthanum(III) were evaluated in fixed-bed breakthrough experiments and batch tests at room temperature (298 K). The La/FPC had a high CR uptake capacity, which was superior to those previously reported for other adsorbents. The La/FPC sorbents can be easily regenerated using an ethanol elution technique, and after five cycles the reused La/FPC maintained about 98% of its original CR adsorption capacity. The adsorption kinetics of CR onto the lanthanum(III)-doped FPCs followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and fitted well with a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. La/FPC is a promising adsorbent for the removal of the anionic dyes from wastewater.

  15. Abnormal Functional Connectivity of Frontopolar Subregions in Treatment-Nonresponsive Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettes, Peter W; Moayedi, Massieh; Dunlop, Katharine; Mansouri, Farrokh; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Giacobbe, Peter; Davis, Karen D; Lam, Raymond W; Kennedy, Sidney H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Blumberger, Daniel M; Downar, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with major depressive disorder develop treatment-nonresponsive depression (TNRD); novel interventions targeting the substrates of this illness population are desperately needed. Convergent evidence from lesion, stimulation, connectivity, and functional neuroimaging studies implicates the frontopolar cortex (FPC) as a particularly important region in TNRD pathophysiology; regions functionally connected to the FPC, once identified, could present favorable targets for novel brain stimulation treatments. We recently published a parcellation of the FPC based on diffusion tensor imaging data, identifying distinct medial and lateral subregions. Here, we applied this parcellation to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained in 56 patients with TNRD and 56 matched healthy control subjects. In patients, the medial FPC showed reduced connectivity to the anterior midcingulate cortex and insula. The left lateral FPC showed reduced connectivity to the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex and increased connectivity to the fusiform gyri. In addition, TNRD symptom severity correlated significantly with connectivity of the left lateral FPC subregion to a medial orbitofrontal cortex region of the classical reward network. Taken together, these findings suggest that changes in FPC subregion connectivity may underlie several dimensions of TNRD pathology, including changes in reward/positive valence, nonreward/negative valence, and cognitive control domains. Nodes of functional networks showing abnormal connectivity to the FPC could be useful in generating novel candidates for therapeutic brain stimulation in TNRD. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Frontal parietal control network regulates the anti-correlated default and dorsal attention networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Lin, Weili

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports demonstrate the anti-correlated behaviors between the default (DF) and the dorsal attention (DA) networks. We aimed to investigate the roles of the frontal parietal control (FPC) network in regulating the two anti-correlated networks through three experimental conditions, including resting, continuous self-paced/attended sequential finger tapping (FT), and natural movie watching (MW), respectively. The two goal-directed tasks were chosen to engage either one of the two competing networks-FT for DA whereas MW for default. We hypothesized that FPC will selectively augment/suppress either network depending on how the task targets the specific network; FPC will positively correlate with the target network, but negatively correlate with the network anti-correlated with the target network. We further hypothesized that significant causal links from FPC to both DA and DF are present during all three experimental conditions, supporting the initiative regulating role of FPC over the two opposing systems. Consistent with our hypotheses, FPC exhibited a significantly higher positive correlation with DA (P = 0.0095) whereas significantly more negative correlation with default (P = 0.0025) during FT when compared to resting. Completely opposite to that observed during FT, the FPC was significantly anti-correlated with DA (P = 2.1e-6) whereas positively correlated with default (P = 0.0035) during MW. Furthermore, extensive causal links from FPC to both DA and DF were observed across all three experimental states. Together, our results strongly support the notion that the FPC regulates the anti-correlated default and DA networks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Is epidermal growth factor involved in development of duodenal polyps in familial polyposis coli?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1988-01-01

    Duodenal adenomas are a frequent extracolonic manifestation in patients with familial polyposis coli (FPC). Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a polypeptide that stimulates cellular growth and differentiation, is localized in Paneth cells in the small intestine. In two patients with FPC, we found EGF...... immunoreactivity in duodenal adenomas. Numerous EGF immunoreactive Paneth cells were localized, not as usually, in the bottom of the crypts, but scattered along the crypts alone or in clusters. We do not know whether EGF is involved in the development of duodenal polyps in FPC patients, or whether the present...

  18. Selection, integration, and conflict monitoring; assessing the nature and generality of prefrontal cognitive control mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badre, David; Wagner, Anthony D

    2004-02-05

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) supports flexible behavior by mediating cognitive control, though the elemental forms of control supported by PFC remain a central debate. Dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) is thought to guide response selection under conditions of response conflict or, alternatively, may refresh recently active representations within working memory. Lateral frontopolar cortex (FPC) may also adjudicate response conflict, though others propose that FPC supports higher order control processes such as subgoaling and integration. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is hypothesized to upregulate response selection by detecting response conflict; it remains unclear whether ACC functions generalize beyond monitoring response conflict. The present fMRI experiment directly tested these competing theories regarding the functional roles of DLPFC, FPC, and ACC. Results reveal dissociable control processes in PFC, with mid-DLPFC selectively mediating resolution of response conflict and FPC further mediating subgoaling/integration. ACC demonstrated a broad sensitivity to control demands, suggesting a generalized role in modulating cognitive control.

  19. [Flexible print circuit technology application in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lihua; Cao, Yi; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-06-01

    Flexible print circuit (FPC) technology has been widely applied in variety of electric circuits with high precision due to its advantages, such as low-cost, high specific fabrication ability, and good flexibility, etc. Recently, this technology has also been used in biomedical engineering, especially in the development of microfluidic chip and microelectrode array. The high specific fabrication can help making microelectrode and other micro-structure equipment. And good flexibility allows the micro devices based on FPC technique to be easily packaged with other parts. In addition, it also reduces the damage of microelectrodes to the tissue. In this paper, the application of FPC technology in biomedical engineering is introduced. Moreover, the important parameters of FPC technique and the development trend of prosperous applications is also discussed.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-10-27

    Oct 27, 2000 ... 26. Godfrey RC. Asthma and IgE levels in rural and urban communities of The Gambia. .... FPC = family planning clinic; STDC = sexually transmitted diseases clinic. ..... Mexico City: National AIDS Program of Mexico, 1996. 16.

  1. Homegrown Terror: The United Kingdom as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    mediation can disadvantage vulnerable groups, such as women, within a community. I’m concerned about how much choice the weaker party would have in...case of the Muslim population of the UK, has resulted in the acculturation or creation of a youth culture that is further economically disadvantaged ...Mark, and Griffith, Phoebe. (2005) “The European inclusion index, is Europe ready for the globalisation of people?” FPC.Org. http://fpc.org.uk/fsblob

  2. An innovative design for using flexible printed coils for magnetostrictive-based longitudinal guided wave sensors in steel strand inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, P W; Liu, X C; Wang, X J; Liu, Z H; Wu, B; He, C F

    2011-01-01

    Magnetostrictive sensors (MsSs) that can excite and receive guided waves are commonly used in detecting defects that may occur in cables and strands for supporting heavy structures. A conventional MsS has a hard sensing coil that is wound onto a bobbin with electric wires to generate the necessary dynamic magnetic field to excite the desired guided waves. This tailor-made hard coil is usually bulky and is not flexible enough to fit steel strands of various sizes. The conventional MsS also cannot be mounted to any steel strand that does not have a free end to allow the bobbin to pass through the structure of the tested strand. Such inflexibilities limit the use of conventional MsSs in practical situations. To solve these limitations, an innovative type of coil, called a flexible printed coil (FPC), which is made out of flexible printed film, has been designed to replace the inflexible hard coil. The flexible structure of the FPC ensures that the new MsS can be easily installed on and removed from steel strands with different diameters and without free ends. Moreover, the FPC-based MsS can be wrapped into multiple layers due to its thin and flexible design. Although multi-layer FPC creates a minor asymmetry in the dynamic magnetic field, the results of finite element analysis and experiments confirm that the longitudinal guided waves excited by a FPC-based MsS are comparable to those excited by a conventional hard coil MsS. No significant reduction in defect inspection performance was found; in fact, further advantages were identified when using the FPC-based MsS. When acting as the transmitter, the innovative FPC-based MsS can cover a longer inspection length of strand. When acting as the receiver, the FPC-based MsS is more sensitive to smaller defects that are impossible to detect using a hard coil MsS. Hence, the multi-layer FPC-based MsS has great potential for replacing the conventional hard coil MsS because of its convenient installation, and ease of fitting to

  3. An efficient hexagonal switched beam antenna structure based on Fabry-Perot cavity leaky-wave antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymen El Cafsi, Mohamed; Nedil, Mourad; Osman, Lotfi; Gharsallah, Ali

    2015-11-01

    A novel design of switched beam antenna (SBA) system based on Fabry-Perot cavity leaky-wave antenna (FPC LWA) is designed and fabricated for base station operating in the unlicensed ISM central frequency band at 5.8 GHz of the wireless local area network (WLAN) standard. The proposed SBA is designed with hexagonal shape of FPC LWA Arrays in order to get 360° of coverage. The single element of FPC LWA array is composed of a patch antenna and covered by a Partially Reflective Surface (PRS), which is composed of a Metal Strip Grating and printed on a high permittivity Superstrate. First, the Transmission Line Model of FPC LWA is introduced to analyse and calculate the far-field components in E- and H planes by using the Transverse Equivalent Network. This approach is then compared with other full wave's commercial software such as Ansoft HFSS and CST Microwave Studio. Second, a parametric study is performed to evaluate the effect of the angle formed by the two successive FPC LWA on the radiation efficiency of the activate sector. To examine the performance of the proposed SBA, experimental prototype was fabricated and measured. As a result, multiple orthogonal beams (six beams) of 10 dBi of gain with low Side Lobes Level and 360° of coverage are produced. This SBA structure is suitable for WLAN communication systems.

  4. A novel fast phase correlation algorithm for peak wavelength detection of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, A; Vanlanduit, S; De Pauw, B; Berghmans, F

    2014-03-24

    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) can be used as sensors for strain, temperature and pressure measurements. For this purpose, the ability to determine the Bragg peak wavelength with adequate wavelength resolution and accuracy is essential. However, conventional peak detection techniques, such as the maximum detection algorithm, can yield inaccurate and imprecise results, especially when the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and the wavelength resolution are poor. Other techniques, such as the cross-correlation demodulation algorithm are more precise and accurate but require a considerable higher computational effort. To overcome these problems, we developed a novel fast phase correlation (FPC) peak detection algorithm, which computes the wavelength shift in the reflected spectrum of a FBG sensor. This paper analyzes the performance of the FPC algorithm for different values of the SNR and wavelength resolution. Using simulations and experiments, we compared the FPC with the maximum detection and cross-correlation algorithms. The FPC method demonstrated a detection precision and accuracy comparable with those of cross-correlation demodulation and considerably higher than those obtained with the maximum detection technique. Additionally, FPC showed to be about 50 times faster than the cross-correlation. It is therefore a promising tool for future implementation in real-time systems or in embedded hardware intended for FBG sensor interrogation.

  5. Maintenance procedures for the TITAN-I and TITAN-II reversed field pinch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, S.P.; Duggan, W.; Krakowski, R.; Najmabadi, F.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The TITAN reactor is a compact, high-power-density (neutron wall loading 18 MW/m 2 ) machine, based on the reversed-field-pinch (RFP) confinement concept. Two designs for the fusion power core have been examined: TITAN-I is based on a self-cooled lithium loop with a vanadium-alloy structure for the first wall, blanket and shield; and TITAN-II is based on an aqueous loop-in-pool design with a LiNO 3 solution as the coolant and breeder. The compact design of the TITAN fusion power core, (FPC) reduces the system to a few small and relatively low mass components, making toroidal segmentation of the FPC unnecessary. A single-piece maintenance procedure is possible. The potential advantages of single-piece maintenance procedures are: (1) Short period of down time; (2) improved reliability; (3) no adverse effects resulting from unequal levels of irradiation; and (4) ability to continually modify the FPC design. Increased availability can be expected from a fully pre-tested, single-piece FPC. Pre-testing of the FPC throughout the assembly process and prior to installation into the reactor vault is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Schnurr, N.M.; Copenhaver, C.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The unique confinement properties of the poloidal-field-dominated Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) are exploited to examine physics and technical issues related to a compact high-power-density fusion reactor. This resistive-coil, steady-state, toroidal device would use a dual-media (i.e., two separate coolants) power cycle that would be driven by a fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, and coils) having a power density and mass approaching pressurized-water-fission reactor values. A 1000-MWe(net) base case is selected from a comprehensive trade-off study to examine technological issues related to operating a high-power-density FPC. A general rationale outlining the need for improved fusion concepts is given, followed by a description of the RFP principle, a detailed systems and trade-off analysis, and a conceptual FPC design for the ∝ 20-MW/m 2 (neutrons) compact RFP reactor, CRFPR(20). Key FPC components are quantified, and full power-balance, thermal, and mechanical FPC integrations are given. (orig.)

  7. Simultaneous Reduction of CO 2 and Splitting of H 2 O by a Single Immobilized Cobalt Phthalocyanine Electrocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Morlanés, Natalia

    2016-04-12

    Perfluorinated cobalt phthalocyanine (CoFPc) immobilized on carbon electrodes was found to electrocatalyze the reduction of CO2 selectively to CO in an aqueous solution. The conversion of CO2 became apparent at -0.5 V vs RHE, and the Faradaic efficiency for the CO production reached as high as 93% at -0.8 V vs RHE. Highly stable electrolysis of CO2/H2O into CO/O2 was achieved for 12 h by applying the same catalyst as the cathode for CO2 reduction and the anode for water oxidation. This result indicates the highly robust nature of the CoFPc at wide range of potentials from -0.9 V to +2.2 V vs RHE, demonstrating the potential bipolar electrolytic system for CO2/H2O electrolysis, using the single-site molecular CoFPc-based electrocatalyst, which is simple, inexpensive, robust, and efficient. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  8. Fundamental Power Couplers for Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidoro E. Campisi

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental power couplers (FPC's) for superconducting cavities must meet very strict requirements to perform at high power levels (hundreds of kilowatts) and in a variety of conditions (CS, pulsed, travelling wave, standing wave) without adversely affecting the performance of the cavities they are powering. Producing good coupler designs and achieving operational performances in accelerator environments are challenging tasks that have traditionally involved large resources from many laboratories. The designs involve state-of-the-art activities in RF, cryogenic and mechanical engineering, materials science, vacuum technology, and electromagnetic field modeling. Handling, assembly and conditioning procedures have been developed to achieve ever-increasing power levels and more reliable operation. In this paper, the technical issues associated with the design, construction, assembly, processing, and operation of FPC's will be reviewed, together with the progress in FPC activities in several laboratories during the past few years

  9. Estimating family planning coverage from contraceptive prevalence using national household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Aluisio J D; Boerma, Ties; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R; Restrepo-Méndez, María C; Wong, Kerry L M; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    Contraception is one of the most important health interventions currently available and yet, many women and couples still do not have reliable access to modern contraceptives. The best indicator for monitoring family planning is the proportion of women using contraception among those who need it. This indicator is frequently called demand for family planning satisfied and we argue that it should be called family planning coverage (FPC). This indicator is complex to calculate and requires a considerable number of questions to be included in a household survey. We propose a model that can predict FPC from a much simpler indicator - contraceptive use prevalence - for situations where it cannot be derived directly. Using 197 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys from 82 countries, we explored least-squares regression models that could be used to predict FPC. Non-linearity was expected in this situation and we used a fractional polynomial approach to find the best fitting model. We also explored the effect of calendar time and of wealth on the models explored. Given the high correlation between the variables involved in FPC, we managed to derive a relatively simple model that depends only on contraceptive use prevalence but explains 95% of the variability of the outcome, with high precision for the estimated regression line. We also show that the relationship between the two variables has not changed with time. A concordance analysis showed agreement between observed and fitted results within a range of ±9 percentage points. We show that it is possible to obtain fairly good estimates of FPC using only contraceptive prevalence as a predictor, a strategy that is useful in situations where it is not possible to estimate FPC directly.

  10. Electric utility system planning studies for OTEC power integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-30

    Florida Power Corporation (FPC) conducted an evaluation of the possible integration of OTEC into the FPC system. Existing system planning procedures, assumptions, and corporate financial criteria for planning new generating capacity were used without modification. A baseline configuration for an OTEC plant was developed for review with standard planning procedures. The OTEC plant characteristics and costs were incorporated in considerable detail. These basic inputs were examined using the FPC system planning methods. It was found that with the initial set of conditions, OTEC would not be economically viable. Using the same system planning procedures, a number of adjustments were made to the key study assumptions. It was found that two considerations dominate the analysis; the assumed rate of fuel cost escalation, and the projected capital cost of the OTEC plant. The analysis produced a parametric curve: on one hand, if fuel costs were to escalate at a rate greater than assumed (12% vs the assumed 5% for coal), and if no change were made to the OTEC input assumptions, the basic economic competitive criteria would be equivalent to the principal alternative, coal fueled plants. Conversely, if the projected cost of the OTEC plant were to be reduced from the assumed $2256/kW to $1450/kW, the economic competitiveness criterion would be satisfied. After corporate financial analysis, it was found that even if the cost competitive criterion were to be reached, the plan including OTEC could not be financed by Florida Power Corporation. Since, under the existing set of conditions for financing new plant capital requirements, FPC could not construct an OTEC plant, some other means of ownership would be necessary to integrate OTEC into the FPC system. An alternative such as a third party owning the plant and selling power to FPC, might prove attractive. (WHK)

  11. Data analysis of the ZEUS forward plug calorimeter beam test at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kasemann, M; Boettcher, S; Bohnet, I; Fernandez, J P; Goebel, F; Gottlicher, P; Gabareen, A; Garcia, G; Gendner, N; Graciani, R; Hauser, M; Horstmann, D; Inuzuka, M; Khein, L A; Lohr, B; Lewis, R; Lim, H; Lindemann, L; Markun, P; Martinez, M; Neumann, T; Park, I H; del Peso, J; Raach, H; Savin, A; Son, D; Tokushuku, K; Wolfle, S; Whitmore, J; Wick, K; Wolf, G; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    Before installation in ZEUS the Forward Plug Colorimeter FPC was tested and calibrated using the X test b eam facility of the SPS accelerator at CERN This note summarizes setup and conditions of the test b eam measurements The energy calibration of the FPC using GeV electron and pion b eams as well as GeV muon data is describ ed in some detail The detector p erformance with pion and electron b eams is studied and the results of two monitoring systems using a Co source and an LED system are presented

  12. Testing Procedures and Results of the Prototype Fundamental Power Coupler for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Stirbet; I.E. Campisi; E.F. Daly; G.K. Davis; M. Drury; P. Kneisel; G. Myneni; T. Powers; W.J. Schneider; K.M. Wilson; Y. Kang; K.A. Cummings; T. Hardek

    2001-01-01

    High-power RF testing with peak power in excess of 500 kW has been performed on prototype Fundamental Power Couplers (FPC) for the Spallation Neutron Source superconducting (SNS) cavities. The testing followed the development of procedures for cleaning, assembling and preparing the FPC for installation in the test stand. The qualification of the couplers has occurred for the time being only in a limited set of conditions (travelling wave, 20 pps) as the available RF system and control instrumentation are under improvement

  13. Portable and Transparent Message Compression in MPI Libraries to Improve the Performance and Scalability of Parallel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albonesi, David; Burtscher, Martin

    2009-04-17

    The goal of this project has been to develop a lossless compression algorithm for message-passing libraries that can accelerate HPC systems by reducing the communication time. Because both compression and decompression have to be performed in software in real time, the algorithm has to be extremely fast while still delivering a good compression ratio. During the first half of this project, they designed a new compression algorithm called FPC for scientific double-precision data, made the source code available on the web, and published two papers describing its operation, the first in the proceedings of the Data Compression Conference and the second in the IEEE Transactions on Computers. At comparable average compression ratios, this algorithm compresses and decompresses 10 to 100 times faster than BZIP2, DFCM, FSD, GZIP, and PLMI on the three architectures tested. With prediction tables that fit into the CPU's L1 data acache, FPC delivers a guaranteed throughput of six gigabits per second on a 1.6 GHz Itanium 2 system. The C source code and documentation of FPC are posted on-line and have already been downloaded hundreds of times. To evaluate FPC, they gathered 13 real-world scientific datasets from around the globe, including satellite data, crash-simulation data, and messages from HPC systems. Based on the large number of requests they received, they also made these datasets available to the community (with permission of the original sources). While FPC represents a great step forward, it soon became clear that its throughput was too slow for the emerging 10 gigabits per second networks. Hence, no speedup can be gained by including this algorithm in an MPI library. They therefore changed the aim of the second half of the project. Instead of implementing FPC in an MPI library, they refocused their efforts to develop a parallel compression algorithm to further boost the throughput. After all, all modern high-end microprocessors contain multiple CPUs on a

  14. Simultaneous Reduction of CO 2 and Splitting of H 2 O by a Single Immobilized Cobalt Phthalocyanine Electrocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Morlanes, Natalia Sanchez; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Rodionov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated cobalt phthalocyanine (CoFPc) immobilized on carbon electrodes was found to electrocatalyze the reduction of CO2 selectively to CO in an aqueous solution. The conversion of CO2 became apparent at -0.5 V vs RHE, and the Faradaic

  15. Two different cases of calorimetry in high energy physics: the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic end cap and the ZEUS forward plug calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lopez, G.

    2000-03-01

    The thesis is organised as follows: chapter 1 introduces the basic concepts of calorimetry in high energy physics; chapters 2-5 are devoted to the ATLAS EMEC calorimeter; chapters 6-7 deal with the ZEUS FPC; finally chapter 8 compares the performance of the two calorimeters

  16. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Robin M; Beeman, John W; VanderKooi, Scott P [US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis (ASCTTA) project provided information on the level of smoltification in Columbia River hatchery and wild salmonid stocks to the Fish Passage Center (FPC), for the primary purpose of in-river management of flows.

  17. A first generation integrated physical and genetic map of the rainbow trout genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rainbow trout physical map was previously constructed from DNA fingerprinting of 192,096 BAC clones using the 4-color high-information content fingerprinting (HICF) method. The clones were assembled into physical map contigs using the finger-printing contig (FPC) program. The map is composed of ...

  18. 32 CFR 149.2 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... risk management principles. (2) Report to the Security Policy Board, attention: Chair, Facilities Protection Committee (FPC), for appropriate dissemination, all-source intelligence that concerns technical... agencies, in accordance with federal law, with TSCM services of common concern. (6) Coordinate, through the...

  19. Monitoring of downstream salmon and steelhead at federal hydroelectric facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Martinson, R.D.; Absolon, R.F.

    1993-05-01

    The seaward migration of salmonid smolts was monitored by the National marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) at two sites on the Columbia River in 1992. The NMFS Smolt Monitoring Project is part of a larger Smolt Monitoring Program to index Columbia Basin juvenile salmonied stocks. It is coordinated by the Fish Passage Center (FPC) for the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Agencies and Tribes. Its purpose is to facilitate fish passage through reservoirs and at dams by providing FPC with timely smolt migration data used for flow and spill management. Data is also used for travel time, migration timing and relative run size magnitude analysis. This program is carried out under the auspices of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program and is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Sampling sites were John Day and Bonneville Dams under the 1992 Smolt Monitoring Program. All pertinent fish capture, condition, brand recovery, and flow data, were reported daily to FPC. These data were incorporated into the FPC's Fish Passage Data System (FPDS)

  20. Immobilization of molecular cobalt electrocatalyst by hydrophobic interaction with hematite photoanode for highly stable oxygen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram

    2015-07-15

    A unique modification of a hematite photoanode with perfluorinated Co-phthalocyanine (CoFPc) by strong binding associated with hydrophobic interaction is demonstrated. The resultant molecular electrocatalyst – hematite photoanode hybrid material showed significant onset shift and high stability for photoelectrochemical oxidation evolution reaction (OER).

  1. Scalable Adaptive Architectures for Maritime Operations Center Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    JTFSv«t-i 3 WAN TOMVnarMTCOM :FPCiFQPSg SSLOt, TH : Swvw Version 2 (Augment Including Reach beck to FPC CapeblMy Ashore for additional Staff...rule- baaed expert system. Al Magazine, 3(4), 16-21. Suwa, M., A. C Scott and E. H. Shortliffe (1985). Completeness and consistency in a rule-based

  2. U.S. EPA, Pesticide Product Label, MORGRO EPTAM 2.3 GRANULAR, 08/11/1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... i_. '" v_"", -- fpc,;:;. Li..l~~ :x.- ~.fttH~ ~n:t tlrlilP Ju-,ln~ tli( fll ..... l:li jt:.:;. 1\\6 111 .n~ Ml'Clur,;~ ;-OW''':lti, '_:~es . .lhr~Jh~~ ar.~ ~r:OlllJ "-('v._r ..... ...

  3. Engaging with Families Is a Challenge: Beliefs among Healthcare Professionals in Forensic Psychiatric Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrica Hörberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Being healthcare professionals in the complex field of forensic psychiatry care (FPC seems particularly challenging. Historically, families have almost been invisible in FPC. The aim of this study was to uncover beliefs among healthcare professionals concerning families of patients admitted for FPC. Using a hermeneutical approach inspired by Gadamer’s philosophy, group interviews with healthcare professionals in four Swedish forensic psychiatric clinics were analyzed. Analysis resulted in seven key beliefs. There were three beliefs about families: family belongingness is a resource for the patient; most families are broken and not possible to trust; and most families get in the way of the patient’s care. Four beliefs concerned encounters with families: it is important to achieve a balance and control over the family; it is essential to set aside one’s own values and morals; family-oriented work is an impossible mission; and family oriented work requires welcoming the families. Despite ethical dilemmas of working with families in FPC, healthcare professionals showed a willingness and desire to work in a more family-oriented manner. More knowledge, understanding, and caring tools are needed in order to meet the needs of the family as well as support the family’s resources.

  4. Rehabilitation between institutional and non-institutional forensic psychiatric care: important influences on the transition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, E; Holm, M; Flensner, G

    2012-10-01

    All patients cared for in forensic psychiatric care (FPC) have some kind of psychiatric disorder and most of them have committed one or more criminal acts. One part of the patient's rehabilitation is the transition from institutional to non-institutional FPC, but a number of patients do not succeed. The aim of this study was to elucidate different caregivers' experiences of aspects that influence the patients' ability to manage this rehabilitation. A qualitative approach was chosen. Data were collected by interviews in two focus groups, each group comprising of six caregivers representing both institutional and non-institutional FPC. The transcribed interviews were analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Important aspects influencing the patients' transition described were a well-planned care plan, together with a suitable non-institutional dwelling and a tailored occupation. Other important areas were having a well-functioning and trusting social network and a good relationship with a contact person/advocate. A major barrier to a successful transition was whether the patients managed their own finances or not. It was stated that it is important that the patients participate in the care and that different authorities create individual conditions and flexible solutions. All of these factors are important to focus on when caring for patients during their stay in the institutional FPC. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  5. The role of frontal and parietal brain areas in bistable perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, T.; Brascamp, J.; Pearson, J.; van Ee, R.; Blake, R.

    2011-01-01

    When sensory input allows for multiple, competing perceptual interpretations, observers' perception can fluctuate over time, which is called bistable perception. Imaging studies in humans have revealed transient responses in a right-lateralized network in the frontal-parietal cortex (rFPC) around

  6. 75 FR 57920 - Kerr-Philpott System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... to existing preference customers in the Virginia and North Carolina service area. The rate schedules..., Assistant Administrator, Finance and Marketing, Southeastern Power Administration, Department of Energy... Federal Power Customers, Inc. (SeFPC), made comments at the forum. Written comments were due on or before...

  7. Single-piece maintenance procedures for the TITAN reversed-field pinch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, S.P.; Creedon, R.L.; Cooke, P.I.H.; Duggan, W.P.; Krakowski, R.A.; Najmabadi, F.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The TITAN reactor is a compact (major radius of 3.9 m and minor plasma radius of 0.6 m), high neutron wall loading (--18MW/m 2 ) fusion energy system based on the reversed-field pinch (RFP) concept. The TITAN-I fusion power core (FPC) is a lithium, self-cooled design with vanadium alloy (V-3Ti-1Si) structural material. The compact design of the TITAN fusion power core (FPC) reduces the system to a few small and relatively low mass components, making toroidal segmentation of the FPC unnecessary. A single-piece maintenance procedure in which the replaceable first wall and blanket is removed as a single unit is, therefore, possible. The TITAN FPC design provides for top access to the reactor with vertical lifts used to remove the components. The number of remote handling procedures is few and the movements are uncomplicated. The annual torus replacement requires that the reusable ohmic-heating coil set and hot-shield assembly be removed and temporarily stored in a hot cell. The used first wall and blanket assembly is drained and disconnected from the coolant supply system, then lifted to a processing room where it is cooled and prepared for Class-C waste burial. The new, pre-tested first wall and blanket assembly is then lowered into position and the removal procedure is reversed to complete the replacement process

  8. Engaging with Families Is a Challenge: Beliefs among Healthcare Professionals in Forensic Psychiatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörberg, Ulrica; Erlingsson, Christen; Syrén, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Being healthcare professionals in the complex field of forensic psychiatry care (FPC) seems particularly challenging. Historically, families have almost been invisible in FPC. The aim of this study was to uncover beliefs among healthcare professionals concerning families of patients admitted for FPC. Using a hermeneutical approach inspired by Gadamer's philosophy, group interviews with healthcare professionals in four Swedish forensic psychiatric clinics were analyzed. Analysis resulted in seven key beliefs. There were three beliefs about families: family belongingness is a resource for the patient; most families are broken and not possible to trust; and most families get in the way of the patient's care. Four beliefs concerned encounters with families: it is important to achieve a balance and control over the family; it is essential to set aside one's own values and morals; family-oriented work is an impossible mission; and family oriented work requires welcoming the families. Despite ethical dilemmas of working with families in FPC, healthcare professionals showed a willingness and desire to work in a more family-oriented manner. More knowledge, understanding, and caring tools are needed in order to meet the needs of the family as well as support the family's resources. PMID:26448874

  9. A Relational Account of Call-by-Value Sequentiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riecke, Jon Gary; Sandholm, Anders Bo

    2002-01-01

    We construct a model for FPC, a purely functional, sequential, call-by-value language. The model is built from partial continuous functions, in the style of Plotkin, further constrained to be uniform with respect to a class of logical relations. We prove that the model is fully abstract....

  10. Immobilization of molecular cobalt electrocatalyst by hydrophobic interaction with hematite photoanode for highly stable oxygen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram; Morlanes, Natalia; Maloney, Edward; Rodionov, Valentin; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    A unique modification of a hematite photoanode with perfluorinated Co-phthalocyanine (CoFPc) by strong binding associated with hydrophobic interaction is demonstrated. The resultant molecular electrocatalyst – hematite photoanode hybrid material showed significant onset shift and high stability for photoelectrochemical oxidation evolution reaction (OER).

  11. Performance evaluation of free piston compressor coupling organic Rankine cycle under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yongqiang; Kang, Jianjian; Zhang, Guangpan; Liu, Zhongchang; Tian, Jing; Chai, Jiahong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An ORC-FPC is proposed to recover the waste heat of exhaust gas. • The simulation model has been established in GT-Suite ver. 7.0. • Performances of ORC-FPC under different operating conditions have been evaluated. • Performances prediction of the ORC-FPC for real application has been made in the paper. - Abstract: An organic Rankine cycle coupling free piston compressor (ORC-FPC) system has been proposed, which is used in recovering the waste heat of exhaust gas from the stationary compressed nature gas (CNG) fueled internal combustion compressor. The free piston compressor functions as an expander in ORC and operates reciprocally to compress natural gas in compression cylinders to demanded pressure. After capturing the waste heat available and turning into vapor in evaporator, the working fluid R245ca can provide power to drive the free piston moving reciprocally in expander. The model of ORC-FPC built up in the GT-suite ver. 7.0 assists evaluating performances of this system under different operating conditions. In this paper, the operating condition includes two aspects: thermodynamic state of working fluid and input power. The purpose of simulation based on the model is to specify appropriate thermodynamic states of working fluid which yield high value of η (the ratio of work produced by the power piston to enthalpy reduction of working fluid in the power cylinder) and k (the ratio of output CNG’s mass to enthalpy reduction of working fluid in the power cylinder) value. Performances of the ORC-FPC under different input power, which determined by the operating frequency and injection quantity of the heated working fluid, have also been evaluated. Results show that when the heated working fluid is at 11.5 bar and 383 K, the system achieves better performances than other thermodynamic states, of which k is 601.1 mg/kJ and η is 44.3%. Based on the optimum thermodynamic state and the principle of obtaining the maximum k, the specific input

  12. Effect of reaction temperature on structure and fluorescence properties of nitrogen-doped carbon dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lyuliang University, Lyuliang 033001 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Yaling [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Feng, Xiaoting [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhang, Feng [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Yang, Yongzhen, E-mail: yyztyut@126.com [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Xuguang, E-mail: liuxuguang@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) from ammonia solution and citric acid were synthesized at different temperatures. • Quantum yield (QY) of NCDs depends largely on the amount of fluorescent polymer chains (FPC), more FPC gives higher QY. • The law of QY of NCDs first increase and then decrease with the reaction temperature increased is found and explained. • Nitrogen doping plays significant role in getting increased UV–vis absorption and QY. - Abstract: To investigate the effect of reaction temperature and nitrogen doping on the structure and fluorescence properties of carbon dots (CDs), six kinds of nitrogen-doped CDs (NCDs) were synthesized at reaction temperatures of 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 and 220 °C, separately, by using citric acid as carbon source and ammonia solution as nitrogen source. Nitrogen-free CDs (N-free CDs-180) was also prepared at 180 °C by using citric acid as the only carbon source for comparison. Results show that reaction temperature has obvious effect on carbonization degree, quantum yield (QY), ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra but less effect on functional groups, nitrogen doping degree and fluorescence lifetime of NCDs. Compared with N-free CDs-180, NCDs-180 possesses enchanced QY and longer fluorescence lifetime. Doping nitrogen has obvious effect on UV–vis absorption and PL spectra but less effect on particles sizes and carbonization degree. The formation mechanism of NCDs is explored: QY of NCDs depends largely on the number of fluorescent polymer chains (FPC), the competition between FPC formation on the surface of NCDs and carbon core growth leads to the change in number of FPC, and consequently to the NCDs with highest QY at appropriate hydrothermal temperature.

  13. Solar water heating systems feasibility for domestic requests in Tunisia: Thermal potential and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Naili, Nabiha; Attar, Issam; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using Domestic Solar Water Heating systems. • The payback period is between 8 and 7.5 years. • The annual savings in electrical energy is between 1316 and 1459 kW h/year. • The savings by using the solar systems is about 3969–4400.34 $. • The annual GHG emission per house is reduced by 27,800 tCO 2 . - Abstract: The main goal of the present work is to study the energetic and the economic potential of the deployment of Domestic Solar Water Heating systems (DSWHs) instead of using electric/gas/town gas water heaters. A case study related to Tunisian scenario was performed according to a typical Tunisian households composed of 4–5 persons. In this scenario we evaluated the performance and the life cycle perspective of the two most popular DSWHs over the recent years (i.e. DSWH with flat-plate solar collector, FPC, and DSWHs with evacuated-tube solar collector, ETC). The dynamic behavior of DSWHs according to Tunisian data weather was achieved by means of TRNSYS simulation. The Results showed that the FPC and ETC provide about 8118 and 12032 kW h/year of thermal energy. The economic potential of DSWHs in saving electricity and reducing carbon dioxide emissions was also investigated. Results showed that the annual savings in electrical energy relatively to the FPC and ETC are about 1316 and 1459 kW h/year, with a payback period of around 8 and 10 years, respectively. Based on gas/town gas water heater, the FPC and ETC save about 306 m 3 and 410 m 3 of gas/town gas with a payback period about 6 and 7.5 years, respectively. We found that the life cycle savings by installing the solar system instead of buying electricity to satisfy hot water needs are about $3969 (FPC) and $4400 (ETC). We establish also that the use of the DSWHs instead of installing gas/town gas water heaters save about $1518 (FPC) and $2035 (ETC). From an environmental point of view the annual GHG emission per house is reduced by 27800

  14. Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Hagenson, R.L.; Copenhaver, C.; Werley, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    The unique confinement properties of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) are exploited to examine physics and technical issues related to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor. This resistive-coil, steady-state, toroidal device would use a dual-media power cycle driven by a fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, and coils) with a power density and mass approaching values characteristic of pressurized-water fission rectors. A 1000-MWe(net) base case is selected from a comprehensive trade-off study to examine technological issues related to operating a high-power-density FPC. After describing the main physics and technology issues for this base-case reactor, directions for future study are suggested

  15. Monitoring of downstream salmon and steelhead at federal hydroelectric facilities -- 1995. Annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, R.D.; Graves, R.J.; Langeslay, M.J.; Killins, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    The seaward migration of juvenile salmonids was monitored by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) at Bonneville and John Day Dams on the Columbia river in 1995. The NMFS Smolt Monitoring Project is part of a larger Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) coordinated by the Fish Passage Center (FPC) for the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. This program focuses on protecting, mitigating, and enhancing fish populations affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The purpose of the SMP is to monitor the migration of the juvenile salmonid stocks in the Columbia basin and make flow and spill recommendations designed to facilitate fish passage. Data are also used for travel time, migration timing, and relative run size analysis. The purpose of the NMFS portion of the program is to provide FPC with species and project specific real time data from John Day and Bonneville Dams

  16. Principal State Analysis for a Compact in-Line Fiber Polarization Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zheng-Yong; Wu Chong-Qing; Wang Zhi-Hao; Qin Tao; Wang Yi-Xu

    2013-01-01

    A compact in-line fiber-based polarization controller (FPC) made of a rotatable fiber squeezer is investigated in detail with the Mueller matrix model established based on the generalized principal state of polarization (PSP). The PSP caused by the fiber squeezing is in the equator plane, which turns around S 3 axis on the Poincaré sphere when rotating the squeezer. Subsequently, a programmable polarization control method is proposed to realize the polarization conversion between arbitrary polarization states, in which only two parameters of phase shift and rotation angle need to be controlled. This type of FPC, which has a highly compact structure, lower insertion loss, and can be directly embedded into any fiber devices without any extra delay, will be an ideal PC for high-speed optical communication and all-optical signal processing

  17. Baking Arithmetic and Error Analyses for PEFP Fundamental Power Couplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liping; An, Sun; Tang, Yazhe; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) is considering developing and using SRF technology to accelerate a proton beam at 700 MHz in its present project and its extended project (PEP). The first section of the PEFP SRF linac (SCL) is composed of low-beta cryomodules. Each cryomodule has three 5-cell cavities and each cavity has one fundamental power coupler (FPC). Before the high power RF processing, each FPC needs to be baked out for 24 hours at 200 degrees Celsius ( .deg. C). The whole control system is described in reference, in this system, the temperature in the baking-box need to be changed according to three straight lines with different slope. This paper described how we can make the temperature of the baking-box changed according to the required values.

  18. Baking Arithmetic and Error Analyses for PEFP Fundamental Power Couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; An, Sun; Tang, Yazhe; Cho, Yong Sub

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) is considering developing and using SRF technology to accelerate a proton beam at 700 MHz in its present project and its extended project (PEP). The first section of the PEFP SRF linac (SCL) is composed of low-beta cryomodules. Each cryomodule has three 5-cell cavities and each cavity has one fundamental power coupler (FPC). Before the high power RF processing, each FPC needs to be baked out for 24 hours at 200 degrees Celsius ( .deg. C). The whole control system is described in reference, in this system, the temperature in the baking-box need to be changed according to three straight lines with different slope. This paper described how we can make the temperature of the baking-box changed according to the required values

  19. Changing foreign policy: the Obama Administration’s decision to oust Mubarak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Céu Pinto Arena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper analyses the decision of the Obama administration to redirect its foreign policy towards Egypt in the wake of the Arab Spring. It attempts to highlight the issue of how governments deal with decision-making at times of crisis, and under which circumstances they take critical decisions that lead to major shifts in their foreign policy track record. It focuses on the process that led to a reassessment of US (United States foreign policy, shifting from decades of support to the autocratic regime of Hosni Mubarak, towards backing his ouster. Specifically, the paper attempts to assess to what extent the decision to withdraw US support from a longstanding state-leader and ally in the Middle East can be seen as a foreign policy change (FPC. A relevant research question this paper pursues is: how can the withdrawal of US support to a regime considered as an ally be considered, in itself, as a radical FPC?

  20. Monitoring of downstream salmon and steelhead at federal hydroelectric facilities - 1996. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, R.D.; Graves, R.J.; Mills, R.B.; Kamps, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    The seaward migration of juvenile salmonids was monitored by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) at Bonneville and John Day Dams on the Columbia River in 1996 The NMFS Smolt Monitoring Project is part of a larger Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) coordinated by the Fish Passage Center (FPC) for the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The purpose of the SMP is to monitor the migration of the juvenile salmonid stocks in the Columbia basin and make flow and spill recommendations designed to facilitate fish passage. Data are also used for travel time, migration timing, and relative run size analysis. The purpose of the NMFS portion of the program is to provide the FPC with species and project specific real time data from John Day and Bonneville Dams. Monitoring data collected included: river conditions; total numbers of fish; numbers of fry, adult salmon, and incidental catch; daily and seasonal passage patterns; and fish condition. 10 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs

  1. An effective approach for iris recognition using phase-based image matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Kazuyuki; Ito, Koichi; Aoki, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Koji; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for iris recognition using phase-based image matching--an image matching technique using phase components in 2D Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFTs) of given images. Experimental evaluation using CASIA iris image databases (versions 1.0 and 2.0) and Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE) 2005 database clearly demonstrates that the use of phase components of iris images makes possible to achieve highly accurate iris recognition with a simple matching algorithm. This paper also discusses major implementation issues of our algorithm. In order to reduce the size of iris data and to prevent the visibility of iris images, we introduce the idea of 2D Fourier Phase Code (FPC) for representing iris information. The 2D FPC is particularly useful for implementing compact iris recognition devices using state-of-the-art Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology.

  2. Feature and Pose Constrained Visual Aided Inertial Navigation for Computationally Constrained Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian; Hudson, Nicolas; Tweddle, Brent; Brockers, Roland; Matthies, Larry

    2011-01-01

    A Feature and Pose Constrained Extended Kalman Filter (FPC-EKF) is developed for highly dynamic computationally constrained micro aerial vehicles. Vehicle localization is achieved using only a low performance inertial measurement unit and a single camera. The FPC-EKF framework augments the vehicle's state with both previous vehicle poses and critical environmental features, including vertical edges. This filter framework efficiently incorporates measurements from hundreds of opportunistic visual features to constrain the motion estimate, while allowing navigating and sustained tracking with respect to a few persistent features. In addition, vertical features in the environment are opportunistically used to provide global attitude references. Accurate pose estimation is demonstrated on a sequence including fast traversing, where visual features enter and exit the field-of-view quickly, as well as hover and ingress maneuvers where drift free navigation is achieved with respect to the environment.

  3. Identifying functional transcription factor binding sites in yeast by considering their positional preference in the promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jou Lai

    Full Text Available Transcription factor binding site (TFBS identification plays an important role in deciphering gene regulatory codes. With comprehensive knowledge of TFBSs, one can understand molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. In the recent decades, various computational approaches have been proposed to predict TFBSs in the genome. The TFBS dataset of a TF generated by each algorithm is a ranked list of predicted TFBSs of that TF, where top ranked TFBSs are statistically significant ones. However, whether these statistically significant TFBSs are functional (i.e. biologically relevant is still unknown. Here we develop a post-processor, called the functional propensity calculator (FPC, to assign a functional propensity to each TFBS in the existing computationally predicted TFBS datasets. It is known that functional TFBSs reveal strong positional preference towards the transcriptional start site (TSS. This motivates us to take TFBS position relative to the TSS as the key idea in building our FPC. Based on our calculated functional propensities, the TFBSs of a TF in the original TFBS dataset could be reordered, where top ranked TFBSs are now the ones with high functional propensities. To validate the biological significance of our results, we perform three published statistical tests to assess the enrichment of Gene Ontology (GO terms, the enrichment of physical protein-protein interactions, and the tendency of being co-expressed. The top ranked TFBSs in our reordered TFBS dataset outperform the top ranked TFBSs in the original TFBS dataset, justifying the effectiveness of our post-processor in extracting functional TFBSs from the original TFBS dataset. More importantly, assigning functional propensities to putative TFBSs enables biologists to easily identify which TFBSs in the promoter of interest are likely to be biologically relevant and are good candidates to do further detailed experimental investigation. The FPC is implemented as a web tool at http://santiago.ee.ncku.edu.tw/FPC/.

  4. SODA-IIoT4Factory: Blockchain to keep the A.I. of your Intrusion Detection System up-to-date

    OpenAIRE

    Planchon , Frederic; Costa , Fernand; Nicaise , Vincent; Bouzerna , Nabil

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Co-designed with FPC Ingénierie, SODA-IIoT4Factory offers a secure way to update CyPRES rule engines & cyber security/attack models.CyPRES is an intelligent IDS that strengthens industrial information systems. It learns then verifies the operation and behaviour of the system to the lowest level of detail. It detects the first signs of attacks before damage is incurred.

  5. Caspian Sea International Environmental Security Game. Held at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania on 16-17 November 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Department 1995; FAO 1996). Further, Iran has developed export products based on fish protein concentrate (FPC) targeted at a far east market in Japan...program for the local populace, a major dietary change program involving a shift to fish as a protein source, and an export product-generating...Sea Basin. Env. Biol. of Fishes 48: 209-219. Khrushchev, S. 1997. Caviar Will Go the Way of Dinosaur Eggs. In Asia Inc. Ltd. Available online: http

  6. Caspian Sea Environmental Security Game: 16-17 November 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Further, Iran has developed export products based on fish protein concentrate (FPC) targeted at a far east market in Japan and China (Shojaei 1998). At...a major dietary change program involving a shift to fish as a protein source, and an export product-generating program, with several foreign...Fishes 48: 209-219. Khrushchev, S. 1997. Caviar Will Go the Way of Dinosaur Eggs. In Asia Inc. Ltd. Available online: http://www.asia-inc.com:80

  7. Frontal Parietal Control Network Regulates the Anti-Correlated Default and Dorsal Attention Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wei; Lin, Weili

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports demonstrate the anti-correlated behaviors between the default and the dorsal attention (DA) networks. We aimed to investigate the roles of the frontal parietal control (FPC) network in regulating the two anti-correlated networks through three experimental conditions, including resting, continuous self-paced/attended sequential finger tapping (FT), and natural movie watching (MW), respectively. The two goal-directed tasks were chosen to engage either one of the two competing net...

  8. Automation of the electromagnetic filter applied for condensation water treatment in the secondary cooling system of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, Gyoergy

    1989-01-01

    A full-flow condensation water purification system is applied in the secondary cooling circuit of the Paks NPP. The electromagnetic filter of the filtering system eliminates ferromagnetic impurities. The filter consists of a high current coil and an automatic control unit. During the improvement of this unit, a FESTO FPC-404 type controller based on an extended capability PLC was installed. (R.P.) 5 figs

  9. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, Jorge; Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  10. Assessing prescription drug abuse using functional principal component analysis (FPCA) of wastewater data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Stefania; Røislien, Jo; Baz-Lomba, Jose A; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2017-03-01

    Wastewater-based epidemiology is an alternative method for estimating the collective drug use in a community. We applied functional data analysis, a statistical framework developed for analysing curve data, to investigate weekly temporal patterns in wastewater measurements of three prescription drugs with known abuse potential: methadone, oxazepam and methylphenidate, comparing them to positive and negative control drugs. Sewage samples were collected in February 2014 from a wastewater treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The weekly pattern of each drug was extracted by fitting of generalized additive models, using trigonometric functions to model the cyclic behaviour. From the weekly component, the main temporal features were then extracted using functional principal component analysis. Results are presented through the functional principal components (FPCs) and corresponding FPC scores. Clinically, the most important weekly feature of the wastewater-based epidemiology data was the second FPC, representing the difference between average midweek level and a peak during the weekend, representing possible recreational use of a drug in the weekend. Estimated scores on this FPC indicated recreational use of methylphenidate, with a high weekend peak, but not for methadone and oxazepam. The functional principal component analysis uncovered clinically important temporal features of the weekly patterns of the use of prescription drugs detected from wastewater analysis. This may be used as a post-marketing surveillance method to monitor prescription drugs with abuse potential. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The spheromak as a compact fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1987-03-01

    After summarizing the economic and utility-based rationale for compact, higher-power-density fusion reactors, the gun-sustained spheromak concept is explored as one of a number of poloidal-field-dominated confinement configurations that might improve the prospects for economically attractive and operationally simplified fusion power plants. Using a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model for the spheromak, guided by realistic engineering constraints and physics extrapolation, a range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported. The results presented herein provide the basis for conceptual engineering designs of key fusion-power-core (FPC) subsystems and more detailed plasma modeling of this promising, high mass-power-density concept, which stresses single-piece FPC maintenance, steady-state current drive through electrostatic magnetic helicity injection, a simplified co-axial electrode-divertor, and efficient resistive-coal equilibrium-field coils. The optimal FPC size and the cost estimates project a system that competes aggressively with the best offered by alternative energy sources while simplifying considerably the complexity that has generally been associated with most approaches to magnetic fusion energy

  12. The spheromak as a compact fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1987-03-01

    After summarizing the economic and utility-based rationale for compact, higher-power-density fusion reactors, the gun-sustained spheromak concept is explored as one of a number of poloidal-field-dominated confinement configurations that might improve the prospects for economically attractive and operationally simplified fusion power plants. Using a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model for the spheromak, guided by realistic engineering constraints and physics extrapolation, a range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported. The results presented herein provide the basis for conceptual engineering designs of key fusion-power-core (FPC) subsystems and more detailed plasma modeling of this promising, high mass-power-density concept, which stresses single-piece FPC maintenance, steady-state current drive through electrostatic magnetic helicity injection, a simplified co-axial electrode-divertor, and efficient resistive-coal equilibrium-field coils. The optimal FPC size and the cost estimates project a system that competes aggressively with the best offered by alternative energy sources while simplifying considerably the complexity that has generally been associated with most approaches to magnetic fusion energy.

  13. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  14. Development of patterned carbon nanotubes on a 3D polymer substrate for the flexible tactile sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chih-Fan; Fang, Weileun; Su, Wang-Shen

    2011-01-01

    This study reports an improved approach to implement a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible tactile sensor, which is integrated with a flexible print circuit (FPC) connector and is capable of detecting normal and shear forces. The merits of the presented tactile sensor by the integration process are as follows: (1) 3D polymer tactile bump structures are naturally formed by the use of an anisotropically etched silicon mold; (2) planar and 3D distributed CNTs are adopted as piezoresistive sensing elements to enable the detection of shear and normal forces; (3) the processes of patterning CNTs and metal routing can be easily batch fabricated on rigid silicon instead of flexible polymer; (4) robust electrical routing is realized using parylene encapsulation to avoid delamination; (5) patterned CNTs, electrical routing and FPC connector are integrated and transferred to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate by a molding process. In application, the CNT-based flexible tactile sensor and its integration with the FPC connector are implemented. Preliminary tests show the feasibility of detecting both normal and shear forces using the presented flexible sensor.

  15. Acoustic leak detection at complicated geometrical structures using fuzzy logic and neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, G.; Schmitt, W.; Weiss, F.P.

    1993-10-01

    An acoustic method based on pattern recognition is being developed. During the learning phase, the localization classifier is trained with sound patterns that are generated with simulated leaks at all locations endangered by leak. The patterns are extracted from the signals of an appropriate sensor array. After training unknown leak positions can be recognized through comparison with the training patterns. The experimental part is performed at an acoustic 1:3 model of the reactor vessel and head and at an original VVER-440 reactor in the former NPP Greifswald. The leaks were simulated at the vessel head using mobile sound sources driven either by compressed air, a piezoelectric transmitter or by a thin metal blade excited through a jet of compressed air. The sound patterns of the simulated leaks are simultaneously detected with an AE-sensor array and with high frequency microphones measuring structure-borne sound and airborne sound, respectively. Pattern classifiers based on Fuzzy Pattern Classification (FPC) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are currently tested for validation of the acoustic emission-sensor array (FPC), leak localization via structure-borne sound (FPC) and the leak localization using microphones (ANN). The initial results show the used classifiers principally to be capable of detecting and locating leaks, but they also show that further investigations are necessary to develop a reliable method applicable at NPPs. (orig./HP)

  16. Is screening for pancreatic cancer in high-risk groups cost-effective?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Maiken Thyregod; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sørensen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, symptoms are few and diffuse, and when the diagnosis has been made only 10-15% would benefit from resection. Surgery is the only potentially curable treatment for pancreatic cancer, and the prognosis seems to......$ per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: With a threshold value of 50,000 US$ per QALY this screening program appears to constitute a cost-effective intervention although screening of HP patients appears to be less cost-effective than FPC patients....... with Hereditary pancreatitis or with a disposition of HP and 40 first-degree relatives of patients with Familial Pancreatic Cancer (FPC) were screened for development of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with yearly endoscopic ultrasound. The cost-effectiveness of screening in comparison with no......-screening was assessed by the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICER). RESULTS: By screening the FPC group we identified 2 patients with PDAC who were treated by total pancreatectomy. One patient is still alive, while the other died after 7 months due to cardiac surgery complications. Stratified analysis of patients...

  17. Detuning related coupler kick variation of a superconducting nine-cell 1.3 GHz cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellert, Thorsten; Dohlus, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Superconducting TESLA-type cavities are widely used to accelerate electrons in long bunch trains, such as in high repetition rate free electron lasers. The TESLA cavity is equipped with two higher order mode couplers and a fundamental power coupler (FPC), which break the axial symmetry of the cavity. The passing electrons therefore experience axially asymmetrical coupler kicks, which depend on the transverse beam position at the couplers and the rf phase. The resulting emittance dilution has been studied in detail in the literature. However, the kick induced by the FPC depends explicitly on the ratio of the forward to the backward traveling waves at the coupler, which has received little attention. The intention of this paper is to present the concept of discrete coupler kicks with a novel approach of separating the field disturbances related to the standing wave and a reflection dependent part. Particular attention is directed to the role of the penetration depth of the FPC antenna, which determines the loaded quality factor of the cavity. The developed beam transport model is compared to dedicated experiments at FLASH and European XFEL. Both the observed transverse coupling and detuning related coupler kick variations are in good agreement with the model. Finally, the expected trajectory variations due to coupler kick variations at European XFEL are investigated and results of numerical studies are presented.

  18. Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): fusion-power-core integration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, C.; Krakowski, R.A.; Schnurr, N.M.

    1985-08-01

    Using detailed two-dimensional neutronics studies based on the results of a previous framework study (LA-10200-MS), the fusion-power-core (FPC) integration, maintenance, and radio-activity/afterheat control are examined for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR). While maintaining as a base case the nominal 20-MW/m 2 neutron first-wall loading design, CRFPR(20), the cost and technology impact of lower-wall-loading designs are also examined. The additional detail developed as part of this follow-on study also allows the cost estimates to be refined. The cost impact of multiplexing lower-wall-loading FPCs into a approx. 1000-MWe(net) plant is also examined. The CRFPR(20) design remains based on a PbLi-cooled FPC with pressurized-water used as a coolant for first-wall, pumped-limiter, and structural-shield systems. Single-piece FPC maintenance of this steady-state power plant is envisaged and evaluated on the basis of a preliminary layout of the reactor building. This follow-on study also develops the groundwork for assessing the feasibility and impact of impurity/ash control by magnetic divertors as an alternative to previously considered pumped-limiter systems. Lastly, directions for future, more-detailed power-plant designs based on the Reversed-Field Pinch are suggested

  19. Human cortical activity evoked by the assignment of authenticity when viewing works of art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengfei eHuang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The expertise of others is a major social influence on our everyday decisions and actions. Many viewers of art, whether expert or naïve, are convinced that the full aesthetic appreciation of an artwork depends upon the assurance that the work is genuine rather than fake. Rembrandt portraits provide an interesting image set for testing this idea, as there is a large number of them and recent scholarship has determined that quite a few fakes and copies exist. Use of this image set allowed us to separate the brain's response to images of genuine and fake pictures from the brain's response to external advice about the authenticity of the paintings. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, viewing of artworks assigned as ‘copy’, rather than ‘authentic’, evoked stronger responses in frontopolar cortex (FPC and right precuneus, regardless of whether the portrait was actually genuine. Advice about authenticity had no direct effect on the cortical visual areas responsive to the paintings, but there was a significant psychophysiological interaction between the FPC and the lateral occipital area, which suggests that these visual areas may be modulated by FPC. We propose that the activation of brain networks rather than a single cortical area in this paradigm supports the art-scholars’ view that aesthetic judgments are multi-faceted and multi-dimensional in nature.

  20. Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus pyrenaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, J A; Stoffel, M; Bollschweiler, M; Bodoque, J M; Díez-Herrero, A

    2010-06-01

    Flash floods may influence the development of trees growing on channel bars and floodplains. In this study, we analyze and quantify anatomical reactions to wounding in diffuse-porous (Alnus glutinosa L.) and ring-porous (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees in a Mediterranean environment. A total of 54 cross-sections and wedges were collected from trees that had been injured by past flash floods. From each of the samples, micro-sections were prepared at a tangential distance of 1.5 cm from the injury to determine wounding-related changes in radial width, tangential width and lumen of earlywood vessels, and fibers and parenchyma cells (FPC). In diffuse-porous A. glutinosa, the lumen area of vessels shows a significant (non-parametric test, P-value <0.05) decrease by almost 39% after wounding. For ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, significant decreases in vessel lumen area are observed as well by 59 and 42%, respectively. Radial width of vessels was generally more sensitive to the decrease than tangential width, but statistically significant values were only observed in F. angustifolia. Changes in the dimensions of earlywood FPC largely differed between species. While in ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica the lumen of FPC dropped by 22 and 34% after wounding, we observed an increase in FPC lumen area in diffuse-porous A. glutinosa of approximately 35%. Our data clearly show that A. glutinosa represents a valuable species for flash-flood research in vulnerable Mediterranean environments. For this species, it will be possible in the future to gather information on past flash floods with non-destructive sampling based on increment cores. In ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, flash floods leave less drastic, yet still recognizable, signatures of flash-flood activity through significant changes in vessel lumen area. In contrast, the use of changes in FPC dimensions appears less feasible for the determination of

  1. Real-time graphic display utility for nuclear safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.; Huang, X.; Taylor, J.; Stevens, J.; Gerardis, T.; Hsu, A.; McCreary, T.

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing interests in the nuclear energy, new nuclear power plants will be constructed and licensed, and older generation ones will be upgraded for assuring continuing operation. The tendency of adopting the latest proven technology and the fact of older parts becoming obsolete have made the upgrades imperative. One of the areas for upgrades is the older CRT display being replaced by the latest graphics displays running under modern real time operating system (RTOS) with safety graded modern computer. HFC has developed a graphic display utility (GDU) under the QNX RTOS. A standard off-the-shelf software with a long history of performance in industrial applications, QNX RTOS used for safety applications has been examined via a commercial dedication process that is consistent with the regulatory guidelines. Through a commercial survey, a design life cycle and an operating history evaluation, and necessary tests dictated by the dedication plan, it is reasonably confirmed that the QNX RTOS was essentially equivalent to what would be expected in the nuclear industry. The developed GDU operates and communicates with the existing equipment through a dedicated serial channel of a flat panel controller (FPC) module. The FPC module drives a flat panel display (FPD) monitor. A touch screen mounted on the FPD serves as the normal operator interface with the FPC/FPD monitor system. The GDU can be used not only for replacing older CRTs but also in new applications. The replacement of the older CRT does not disturb the function of the existing equipment. It not only provides modern proven technology upgrade but also improves human ergonomics. The FPC, which can be used as a standalone controller running with the GDU, is an integrated hardware and software module. It operates as a single board computer within a control system, and applies primarily to the graphics display, targeting, keyboard and mouse. During normal system operation, the GDU has two sources of data

  2. Correlation of same-visit HbA1c test with laboratory-based measurements: A MetroNet study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Patricia A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c results vary by analytical method. Use of same-visit HbA1c testing methodology holds the promise of more efficient patient care, and improved diabetes management. Our objective was to test the feasibility of introducing a same-visit HbA1c methodology into busy family practice centers (FPC and to calculate the correlation between the same-visit HbA1c test and the laboratory method that the clinical site was currently using for HbA1c testing. Methods Consecutive diabetic patients 18 years of age and older having blood samples drawn for routine laboratory analysis of HbA1c were asked to provide a capillary blood sample for same-visit testing with the BIO-RAD Micromat II. We compared the results of the same-visit test to three different laboratory methods (one FPC used two different laboratories. Results 147 paired samples were available for analysis (73 from one FPC; 74 from the other. The Pearson correlation of Micromat II and ion-exchange HPLC was 0.713 (p Conclusion For each of the laboratory methods, the correlation coefficient was lower than the 0.96 reported by the manufacturer. This might be due to variability introduced by the multiple users of the Micromat II machine. The mean HbA1c results were also consistently lower than those obtained from laboratory analysis. Additionally, the amount of dedicated time required to perform the assay may limit its usefulness in a busy clinical practice. Before introducing a same-visit HbA1c methodology, clinicians should compare the rapid results to their current method of analysis.

  3. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF) of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences) to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account: pgml; password: 123qwe123

  4. An Approach to Mapping Forest Growth Stages in Queensland, Australia through Integration of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carreiras

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst extensive clearance of forests in the eastern Australian Brigalow Belt Bioregion (BBB has occurred since European settlement, appropriate management of those that are regenerating can facilitate restoration of biomass (carbon and biodiversity to levels typical of relatively undisturbed or remnant formations. However, maps of forests are different stages of regeneration are needed to facilitate restoration planning, including prevention of further re-clearing. Focusing on the Tara Downs subregion of the BBB and on forests with brigalow (Acacia harpophylla as a component, this research establishes a method for differentiating and mapping early, intermediate and remnant growth stages from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased-Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR Fine Beam Dual (FBD L-band HH- and HV-polarisation backscatter and Landsat-derived Foliage Projective Cover (FPC. Using inventory data collected from 74 plots, located in the Tara Downs subregion, forests were assigned to one of three regrowth stages based on their height and cover relative to that of undisturbed stands. The image data were then segmented into objects with each assigned to a growth stage by comparing the distributions of L-band HV and HH polarisation backscatter and FPC to that of reference distributions using a z-test. Comparison with independent assessments of growth stage, based on time-series analysis of aerial photography and SPOT images, established an overall accuracy of > 70%, with this increasing to 90% when intermediate regrowth was excluded and only early-stage regrowth and remnant classes were considered. The proposed method can be adapted to respond to amendments to user-definitions of growth stage and, as regional mosaics of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat FPC are available for Queensland, has application across the state.

  5. The neural system of metacognition accompanying decision-making in the prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lirong; Su, Jie; Ni, Yinmei; Bai, Yang; Zhang, Xuesong; Li, Xiaoli

    2018-01-01

    Decision-making is usually accompanied by metacognition, through which a decision maker monitors uncertainty regarding a decision and may then consequently revise the decision. These metacognitive processes can occur prior to or in the absence of feedback. However, the neural mechanisms of metacognition remain controversial. One theory proposes an independent neural system for metacognition in the prefrontal cortex (PFC); the other, that metacognitive processes coincide and overlap with the systems used for the decision-making process per se. In this study, we devised a novel “decision–redecision” paradigm to investigate the neural metacognitive processes involved in redecision as compared to the initial decision-making process. The participants underwent a perceptual decision-making task and a rule-based decision-making task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that the anterior PFC, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and lateral frontopolar cortex (lFPC), were more extensively activated after the initial decision. The dACC activity in redecision positively scaled with decision uncertainty and correlated with individual metacognitive uncertainty monitoring abilities—commonly occurring in both tasks—indicating that the dACC was specifically involved in decision uncertainty monitoring. In contrast, the lFPC activity seen in redecision processing was scaled with decision uncertainty reduction and correlated with individual accuracy changes—positively in the rule-based decision-making task and negatively in the perceptual decision-making task. Our results show that the lFPC was specifically involved in metacognitive control of decision adjustment and was subject to different control demands of the tasks. Therefore, our findings support that a separate neural system in the PFC is essentially involved in metacognition and further, that functions of the PFC in metacognition are dissociable. PMID:29684004

  6. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account

  7. Geometry and Width of the Ringwoodite - Bridgmanite+Ferropericlase Binary Loop in the System (Mg,Fe)2SiO4: Interpretation of the Sharpness of the 660-km Discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, T.; Ishii, T.; Huang, R.; Maeda, F.; Yuan, L.; Bhat, S.; Farla, R. J.; Kawazoe, T.; Tsujino, N.; Liu, Z.; Fei, H.; Wang, L.; Druzhbin, D.; Yamamoto, T.; Kulik, E.; Koemets, I.; Higo, Y.; Tange, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Short wave-length seismic reflections from the 660 km discontinuity (D660) indicated an extreme sharp, namely less than 2 km thick boundary. To explain this observation, Ito and Takahashi [1989] estimated that the pressure interval of the dissociation of ringwoodite (Rw) to bridgmanite (Brg) plus ferropericlase (fPc) is work to estimate the Rw-Brg-fPc pressure interval at 1700 K with uncertainty in the pressure estimation as low as 0.05 GPa. The majority of our efforts have been made to determine difference in transition pressure between Fo100 and Fo70 compositions. For this purpose, we prepared fine-grained mixtures of olivine (Ol), enstatite (En) and fPc with these two compositions and loaded in a MAP cell together with an MgO pressure marker and a WRe thermocouple. The cell was compressed to ca. 6 MN, heated to 1100 K to convert Ol and En to Rw and akimotoite (Ak), respectively, and further compressed until the sample pressure reached 22 24 GPa. Then, the sample was heated to 1700 K, and the temperature was maintained for 1-2 hours. Simultaneously, after several trials, the press load was increased at the right rate at the temperature to maintain nearly constant pressure within 0.2 GPa. X-ray diffractions of the samples and pressure maker were taken to determine pressure and phases present. An important finding is that the transition pressure in Fo70 is 0.1 GPa higher than that in Fo100. Namely, the hypothetical transition pressure in Fe2SiO4 is 0.3 GPa higher than the transition pressure in Mg2SiO4. This geometry is contrary to the previous understanding. The obtained pressure difference and the partition coefficients of Fe and Mg among Brg, Rw and fPc suggest that the pressure interval is almost zero, which explains the sharpness of the D660.

  8. Lithium battery using sulfur infiltrated in three-dimensional flower-like hierarchical porous carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Noelia; Caballero, Alvaro [Dpto.Química Inorgánica, Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Química Fina y Nanoquímica, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales (Spain); Morales, Julián, E-mail: iq1mopaj@uco.es [Dpto.Química Inorgánica, Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Química Fina y Nanoquímica, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales (Spain); Agostini, Marco [Department of Chemistry, SapienzaUniversity, P.zzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome (Italy); Hassoun, Jusef, E-mail: jusef.hassoun@unife.it [Università di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Via Fossato di Mortara 17, Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Three dimensional, flower-like hierarchical porous carbon (FPC) and its CO{sub 2}-activation (AFPC) are reported as sulfur-hosting matrixes in Li/S battery. The composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms as well as by galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in lithium-cell. Both samples show well defined micrometric morphology and a sulfur content as high as 66% expected to reflect into rather high practical energy density of the electrode in lithium-sulfur battery. The lithium sulfur cell using the FPC-S composite exhibits at 25 °C a moderate cycling stability with delivered capacity ranging from 1000 to about 610 mAh g{sup −1} upon 50 cycles at 100 mA g{sup −1}. The AFPC-S composite reveals increased cycling stability and delivers a capacity ranging from 1000 to 680 mAh g{sup −1}. Improved capacity is achieved by slightly increasing the temperature, as demonstrated by cycling the FPC-S at 35 °C using a current as high as 500 mA g{sup −1}. The excellent rate capability of the electrode is associated to the carbon texture and morphology that significantly lower the cell resistance, as indeed demonstrated by EIS measurement upon cycling. - Highlights: • Sulfur electrode basing on activated, flower-like hierarchical porous carbon is reported. • Defined micrometric morphology and a sulfur content as high as 66% are obtained. • Lithium sulfur cell using the composite exhibits remarkable performances. • A specific capacity of about 1000 mAh g{sup −1} is obtained at high current rate. • The resulting Li/S battery has relevant energy content.

  9. Rest but busy: Aberrant resting-state functional connectivity of triple network model in insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaojuan; Qin, Haixia; Wu, Taoyu; Hu, Hua; Liao, Keren; Cheng, Fei; Gao, Dong; Lei, Xu

    2018-02-01

    One classical hypothesis among many models to explain the etiology and maintenance of insomnia disorder (ID) is hyperarousal. Aberrant functional connectivity among resting-state large-scale brain networks may be the underlying neurological mechanisms of this hypothesis. The aim of current study was to investigate the functional network connectivity (FNC) among large-scale brain networks in patients with insomnia disorder (ID) during resting state. In the present study, the resting-state fMRI was used to evaluate whether patients with ID showed aberrant FNC among dorsal attention network (DAN), frontoparietal control network (FPC), anterior default mode network (aDMN), and posterior default mode network (pDMN) compared with healthy good sleepers (HGSs). The Pearson's correlation analysis was employed to explore whether the abnormal FNC observed in patients with ID was associated with sleep parameters, cognitive and emotional scores, and behavioral performance assessed by questionnaires and tasks. Patients with ID had worse subjective thought control ability measured by Thought Control Ability Questionnaire (TCAQ) and more negative affect than HGSs. Intriguingly, relative to HGSs, patients with ID showed a significant increase in FNC between DAN and FPC, but a significant decrease in FNC between aDMN and pDMN. Exploratory analysis in patients with ID revealed a significantly positive correlation between the DAN-FPC FNC and reaction time (RT) of psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). The current study demonstrated that even during the resting state, the task-activated and task-deactivated large-scale brain networks in insomniacs may still maintain a hyperarousal state, looking quite similar to the pattern in a task condition with external stimuli. Those results support the hyperarousal model of insomnia.

  10. Reduced but broader prefrontal activity in patients with schizophrenia during n-back working memory tasks: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Ryu; Nishimura, Yukika; Kinou, Masaru; Kawasaki, Shingo; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2013-09-01

    Caudal regions of the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsolateral (DLPFC) and ventrolateral (VLPFC) prefrontal cortex, are involved in essential cognitive functions such as working memory. In contrast, more rostral regions, such as the frontopolar cortex (FpC), have integrative functions among cognitive functions and thereby contribute crucially to real-world social activity. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown patients with schizophrenia had different DLPFC activity pattern in response to cognitive load changes compared to healthy controls; however, the spatial relationship between the caudal and rostral prefrontal activation has not been evaluated under less-constrained conditions. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 age-, sex-, and premorbid-intelligence-matched healthy controls participated in this study. Hemodynamic changes during n-back working memory tasks with different cognitive loads were measured using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Healthy controls showed significant task-related activity in the bilateral VLPFC and significant task-related decreased activity in the DLPFC, with greater signal changes when the task required more cognitive load. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia showed activation in the more rostral regions, including bilateral DLPFC and FpC. Neither decreased activity nor greater activation in proportion to elevated cognitive load occurred. This multi-channel NIRS study demonstrated that activation intensity did not increase in patients with schizophrenia associated with cognitive load changes, suggesting hypo-frontality as cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. On the other hand, patients had broader prefrontal activity in areas such as the bilateral DLPFC and FpC regions, thus suggesting a hyper-frontality compensatory response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Solar Thermal Utilization: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    SO•C NON-FOCUSSING FLAT PLATE / (FPC) 100- 150•C For low temperature 50- 200•C COMPOUND applications PARABOLIC EVACUATED CONCENTRATOR ~ (ETC...2030 Ø 200GW BY 2050 Ø 20 MILLION SQ.METER SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS (20GW power) Ø 20 MILLION SOLAR LIGHTS LAUNCHING OF SOLAR INDIA SOLAR THERMAL...Temperature (20oC- 80oC) NALSUN ApplicationsThermal Conversion range SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTORS 40- GO•C UNGLAZED COLLECTORS 60- 90•C SOLAR POND 60

  12. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 64 interstate pipeline companies required to file the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 15, ''Interstate Pipeline's Annual Report of Gas Supply.'' Data reported on this form are not considered to be confidential. This publication is the 29th in a series of annual reports on the total gas supplies of interstate pipeline companies since the inception of individual company reports to the Federal Power Commission (FPC) in 1964 for report year 1963

  13. Large-Area, High-Resolution Tree Cover Mapping with Multi-Temporal SPOT5 Imagery, New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fisher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree cover maps are used for many purposes, such as vegetation mapping, habitat connectivity and fragmentation studies. Small remnant patches of native vegetation are recognised as ecologically important, yet they are underestimated in remote sensing products derived from Landsat. High spatial resolution sensors are capable of mapping small patches of trees, but their use in large-area mapping has been limited. In this study, multi-temporal Satellite pour l’Observation de la Terre 5 (SPOT5 High Resolution Geometrical data was pan-sharpened to 5 m resolution and used to map tree cover for the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW, an area of over 800,000 km2. Complete coverages of SPOT5 panchromatic and multispectral data over NSW were acquired during four consecutive summers (2008–2011 for a total of 1256 images. After pre-processing, the imagery was used to model foliage projective cover (FPC, a measure of tree canopy density commonly used in Australia. The multi-temporal imagery, FPC models and 26,579 training pixels were used in a binomial logistic regression model to estimate the probability of each pixel containing trees. The probability images were classified into a binary map of tree cover using local thresholds, and then visually edited to reduce errors. The final tree map was then attributed with the mean FPC value from the multi-temporal imagery. Validation of the binary map based on visually assessed high resolution reference imagery revealed an overall accuracy of 88% (±0.51% standard error, while comparison against airborne lidar derived data also resulted in an overall accuracy of 88%. A preliminary assessment of the FPC map by comparing against 76 field measurements showed a very good agreement (r2 = 0.90 with a root mean square error of 8.57%, although this may not be representative due to the opportunistic sampling design. The map represents a regionally consistent and locally relevant record of tree cover for NSW, and

  14. Advances in enzyme immobilisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2009-07-10

    Full Text Available commercially for glucose isomerase production of high fructose syrup (Lalonde 8 and Margolin 2002). Alternatively functionalised macroporus acrylic polymer resins such as Amberlite™ FPC3500 (cationic) or FPA54 (anionic) can be used. Binding... for producing PEI based resins. The PEI dissolves in the aqueous phase of a water-in-oil emulsion. By addition of a limited quantity of water-soluble cross-linker (such as glutaraldehyde) spherical particles of cross-linked PEI are formed. The particles can...

  15. Monitoring of downstream salmon and steelhead trout at federal hydroelectric facilities, annual report 2001.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife.

    2002-01-01

    The seaward migration of juvenile salmonids was monitored by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) at John Day Dam, located at river mile 216, and at Bonneville Dam, located at river mile 145 on the Columbia River (Figure 1). The PSMFC Smolt Monitoring Project is part of a larger Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) coordinated by the Fish Passage Center (FPC) for the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. This program is carried out under the auspices of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program and is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration

  16. Engineering design of a compact RFP reactor (CRFPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a previously-reported comprehensive parametric systems analysis of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) give strong indications for minimum-cost systems that would operate with resistive water-cooled copper coils and higher first-wall neutron current (15 to 20 MW/m 2 ). These minimum-cost, compact RFP reactors (CRFPRs) have system power densities that can be comparable with fission power plants and, therefore, are 10 to 30 times smaller than most superconducting approaches. Reported herein are initial results of a conceptual engineering design of key fusion-power-core (FPC) subsystems

  17. Weight loss decreases self-reported appetite and alters food preferences in overweight and obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Pia; Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard

    2018-01-01

    consumption (p meal. An interaction effect (visit x time) was found for hunger ratings (p ... preferences were measured before and after the LCD, in response to a standardized meal test, using visual analogue rating scales (VAS) and the Leeds Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). After the LCD, participants reported increased fullness (p ....9%. Preference for low-energy products measured by the Food Preference Checklist (FPC) decreased by 1.9% before the test meal and by 13.5% after the test meal (p meal and by 17.4% and 22.7% after the meal (p 

  18. Fish Protein Concentrate Fortification Siam Patin on Amplang Snack Products and Mi Sago Instant Product as a Leading Regional Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Buchari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To enhance fish consumption in the community especially children, fortification on processed fish product is conducted. The processed fish products are developed to fill the requirements as the fish based food products that own characterizations such as ready to eat, easy to carry, and less time to cook. Amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles are defined as the products that fills the requirements. The research was aimed to process catfish into fish protein concentrate to become amplang snack and instant sagoo noodles. These products were designed as the effort to develop the local priority products in Riau by using diversification and fortification methods. Experimental method with fortification treatments on Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC extract from Catfish that generate products of amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles and fish tofu were carried out. The fortified products were examined by organoleptics test that involved panelists. The results showed that the proximate analysis on fortified Catfish Protein Concentrate products were presented as following :1. water contents of 3,13 %, ash of 2,85 %, protein content of 16,13 % and fat content of 18, 66 % for ampang snacks; and 2. water contents of 11,77 %, ash of 1,30 %, protein content of 12,35 % and fat content of 1,86 % for instant sagoo nodles. All fortified FPC products filled the Indonesian Nasional Standard (SNI.Keywords: Fortification, Catfish, and Fish Protein Concentrate

  19. Prospects for improved fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Ideally, a new energy source must be capable of displacing old energy sources while providing both economic opportunities and enhanced environmental benefits. The attraction of an essentially unlimited fuel supply has generated a strong impetus to develop advanced fission breeders and, even more strongly, the exploitation of nuclear fusion. Both fission and fusion systems trade a reduced fuel charge for a more capital-intensive plant needed to utilize a cheaper and more abundant fuel. Results from early conceptual designs of fusion power plants, however, indicated a capital intensiveness that could override cost savings promised by an inexpensive fuel cycle. Early warnings of these problems appeared, and generalized routes to more economically attractive systems have been suggested; specific examples have also recently been given. Although a direct reduction in the cost (and mass) of the fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, coils, and primary structure) most directly reduces the overall cost of fusion power, with the mass power density (MPD, ratio of net electric power to FPC mass, kWe/tonne) being suggested as a figure-of-merit in this respect, other technical, safety/environmental, and institutional issues also enter into the definition of and direction for improved fusion concepts. These latter issues and related tradeoffs are discussed

  20. Complex sparse spatial filter for decoding mixed frequency and phase coded steady-state visually evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Naoki; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Islam, Md Rabiul

    2018-07-01

    Mixed frequency and phase coding (FPC) can achieve the significant increase of the number of commands in steady-state visual evoked potential-based brain-computer interface (SSVEP-BCI). However, the inconsistent phases of the SSVEP over channels in a trial and the existence of non-contributing channels due to noise effects can decrease accurate detection of stimulus frequency. We propose a novel command detection method based on a complex sparse spatial filter (CSSF) by solving ℓ 1 - and ℓ 2,1 -regularization problems for a mixed-coded SSVEP-BCI. In particular, ℓ 2,1 -regularization (aka group sparsification) can lead to the rejection of electrodes that are not contributing to the SSVEP detection. A calibration data based canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and CSSF with ℓ 1 - and ℓ 2,1 -regularization cases were demonstrated for a 16-target stimuli with eleven subjects. The results of statistical test suggest that the proposed method with ℓ 1 - and ℓ 2,1 -regularization significantly achieved the highest ITR. The proposed approaches do not need any reference signals, automatically select prominent channels, and reduce the computational cost compared to the other mixed frequency-phase coding (FPC)-based BCIs. The experimental results suggested that the proposed method can be usable implementing BCI effectively with reduce visual fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): preliminary engineering considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Schnurr, N.M.; Battat, M.E.; LaBauve, R.J.; Davidson, J.W.

    1984-08-01

    The unique confinement physics of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) projects to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor that promises a significant reduction in the cost of electricity. The compact reactor also promises a factor-of-two reduction in the fraction of total cost devoted to the reactor plant equipment [i.e., fusion power core (FPC) plus support systems]. In addition to operational and developmental benefits, these physically smaller systems can operate economically over a range of total power output. After giving an extended background and rationale for the compact fusion approaches, key FPC subsystems for the Compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR) are developed, designed, and integrated for a minimum-cost, 1000-MWe(net) system. Both the problems and promise of the compact, high-power-density fusion reactor are quantitatively evaluated on the basis of this conceptual design. The material presented in this report both forms a framework for a broader, more expanded conceptual design as well as suggests directions and emphases for related research and development

  2. Brain-to-brain synchrony in parent-child dyads and the relationship with emotion regulation revealed by fNIRS-based hyperscanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Vanessa; Gerloff, Christian; Scharke, Wolfgang; Konrad, Kerstin

    2018-05-25

    Parent-child synchrony, the coupling of behavioral and biological signals during social contact, may fine-tune the child's brain circuitries associated with emotional bond formation and the child's development of emotion regulation. Here, we examined the neurobiological underpinnings of these processes by measuring parent's and child's prefrontal neural activity concurrently with functional near-infrared spectroscopy hyperscanning. Each child played both a cooperative and a competitive game with the parent, mostly the mother, as well as an adult stranger. During cooperation, parent's and child's brain activities synchronized in the dorsolateral prefrontal and frontopolar cortex (FPC), which was predictive for their cooperative performance in subsequent trials. No significant brain-to-brain synchrony was observed in the conditions parent-child competition, stranger-child cooperation and stranger-child competition. Furthermore, parent-child compared to stranger-child brain-to-brain synchrony during cooperation in the FPC mediated the association between the parent's and the child's emotion regulation, as assessed by questionnaires. Thus, we conclude that brain-to-brain synchrony may represent an underlying neural mechanism of the emotional connection between parent and child, which is linked to the child's development of adaptive emotion regulation. Future studies may uncover whether brain-to-brain synchrony can serve as a neurobiological marker of the dyad's socio-emotional interaction, which is sensitive to risk conditions, and can be modified by interventions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Reduced Prefrontal Cortex Activation in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder during Go/No-Go Task: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Miao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders in children and affects 3 to 5% of school-aged children. This study is to demonstrate whether functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS can detect the changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-HB in children with ADHD and typically developing children (TD children.Method: In this study, 14 children with ADHD and 15 TD children were studied. Metabolic signals of functional blood oxygen were recorded by using fNIRS during go/no-go task. A statistic method is used to compare the fNIRS between the ADHD children and controls.Results: A significant oxy-HB increase in the left frontopolar cortex (FPC in control subjects but not in children with ADHD during inhibitory tasks. Moreover, ADHD children showed reduced activation in left FPC relative to TD children.Conclusion: Functional brain imaging using fNIRS showed reduced activation in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC of children with ADHD during the inhibition task. The fNIRS could be a promising tool for differentiating children with ADHD and TD children.

  4. Reconfiguration of Cortical Networks in MDD Uncovered by Multiscale Community Detection with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Lim, Sol; Fortunato, Santo; Sporns, Olaf; Zhang, Lei; Qiu, Jiang; Xie, Peng; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2018-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is known to be associated with altered interactions between distributed brain regions. How these regional changes relate to the reorganization of cortical functional systems, and their modulation by antidepressant medication, is relatively unexplored. To identify changes in the community structure of cortical functional networks in MDD, we performed a multiscale community detection algorithm on resting-state functional connectivity networks of unmedicated MDD (uMDD) patients (n = 46), medicated MDD (mMDD) patients (n = 38), and healthy controls (n = 50), which yielded a spectrum of multiscale community partitions. we selected an optimal resolution level by identifying the most stable community partition for each group. uMDD and mMDD groups exhibited a similar reconfiguration of the community structure of the visual association and the default mode systems but showed different reconfiguration profiles in the frontoparietal control (FPC) subsystems. Furthermore, the central system (somatomotor/salience) and 3 frontoparietal subsystems showed strengthened connectivity with other communities in uMDD but, with the exception of 1 frontoparietal subsystem, returned to control levels in mMDD. These findings provide evidence for reconfiguration of specific cortical functional systems associated with MDD, as well as potential effects of medication in restoring disease-related network alterations, especially those of the FPC system.

  5. Conservation endocrinology: A noninvasive tool to understand relationships between carnivore colonization and ecological carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J.; Testa, J.W.; Roffe, T.; Monfort, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Reproductive technology, especially the diagnosis of pregnancy by radioimmunoassay of fecal steroid metabolites, is an important component of captive propagation, but its role in our understanding of ecological interactions and in situ biological restoration has been more limited. Where large herbivores have been 'released' from predation by the extirpation of carnivores, controversy often exists about possible detrimental effects at the ecosystem level A related concern is that the reestablishment of large carnivores may decrease the availability of prey populations for human subsistence. We suggest that pregnancy assays can be a valuable tool to help distinguish between the roles of predation versus food-imposed limitations on population size and their effects on juvenile recruitment in wild species. We explored this issue through analyses of fecal progestagen concentration (FPC) levels to document pregnancy in moose (Alces alces) in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a site where wolves (Canis lupus) and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) are recolonizing former habitats after an absence of more than 60 years. Pregnancy was clearly discernible (mean FPC for pregnant and nonpregnant females, respectively: 10.60 vs. 2.57 ??g/g; p endocrinology can be applied to issues involving reproductive events within an ecological context. They also affirm that noninvasive and generally inexpensive endocrinological procedures will be applicable to understanding interactions between recolonizing predators and prey, an issue that will continue to arise because of global restoration efforts, and to the study of rare ungulates in remote systems where data on reproductive events are difficult to obtain.

  6. Monitoring of downstream salmon and steelhead at Federal hydroelectric facilities. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.A.; Martinson, R.D.; Graves, R.J.; Carroll, D.R.; Killins, S.D.

    1994-04-01

    The seaward migration of juvenile salmonids was monitored by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) at Bonneville and John Day Dams on the Columbia River in 1993 (river mile 145 and 216, respectively, Figure 1). The NMFS Smolt Monitoring Project is part of a larger Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) coordinated by the Fish Passage Center (FPC) for the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. This program is carried out under the auspices of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program and is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration. The purpose of the SMP is to index Columbia Basin juvenile salmonid stocks and develop and implement flow and spill requests intended to facilitate fish passage. Data is also used for travel time, migration timing and relative run size magnitude analysis. The purpose of the NMFS portion of the program is to provide FPC with species specific data; numbers, condition, length, brand recaptures and flow data from John Day, and Bonneville Dams on a daily basis

  7. Materials needs for compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The economic prospects for magnetic fusion energy can be dramatically improved if for the same total power output the fusion neutron first-wall (FW) loading and the system power density can be increased by factors of 3 to 5 and 10 to 30, respectively. A number of compact fusion reactor embodiments have been proposed, all of which would operate with increased FW loadings, would use thin (0.5 to 0.6 m) blankets, and would confine quasi-steady-state plasma with resistive, water-cooled copper or aluminum coils. Increased system power density (5 to 15 MWt/m 3 versus 0.3 to 0.5 MW/m 3 ), considerably reduced physical size of the fusion power core (FPC), and appreciably reduced economic leverage exerted by the FPC and associated physics result. The unique materials requirements anticipated for these compact reactors are outlined against the well documented backdrop provided by similar needs for the mainline approaches. Surprisingly, no single materials need that is unique to the compact systems is identified; crucial uncertainties for the compact approaches must also be addressed by the mainline approaches, particularly for in-vacuum components (FWs, limiters, divertors, etc.)

  8. The Prototype Fundamental Power Coupler For The Spallation Neutron Source Superconducting Cavities: Design And Initial Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. M. Wilson; I. E. Campisi; E. F. Daly; G. K. Davis; M. Drury; J. E. Henry; P. Kneisel; G. Myneni; T. Powers; W. J. Schneider; M. Stirbet; Y. Kang; K. Cummings; T. Hardek

    2001-01-01

    Each of the 805 MHz superconducting cavities of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is powered via a coaxial Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC) with a 50 Omega impedance and a warm planar alumina window. The design is derived from the experience of other laboratories; in particular, a number of details are based on the coupler developed for the KEK B-Factory superconducting cavities. However, other design features have been modified to account for the fact that the SNS FPC will transfer a considerably lower average power than the KEK-B coupler. Four prototypes have been manufactured so far, and preliminary tests performed on two of them at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). During these tests, peak powers of over 500 kW were transferred through the couplers in the test stand designed and built for this purpose. This paper gives details of the coupler design and of the results obtained from the RF tests on the test stand during the last few months. A more comprehensive set of tests is planned for the near future

  9. Recruiting patients for postgraduate medical training in a community family planning clinic: how do patients want to be asked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    To look at patients' views about the way in which they are recruited to assist with postgraduate medical training (i.e. Who is the best person to ask patients to participate? When is the best time for patients to be asked?) and to compare these with clinical practice. Questionnaire surveys of 103 female family planning clinic (FPC) patients and 40 Diploma of the Faculty of Family Planning (DFFP) instructing doctors. Patients were recruited from the waiting room of a community FPC, and DFFP instructing doctors from the North West of England were recruited at an updating meeting. Patients preferred to be recruited by non-medical staff (i.e. receptionist and nurses). Few patients wanted to be asked by the training doctor. Only 9% would find it difficult to refuse a receptionist, 47% would find it difficult to refuse the instructing doctor and 65% would find it difficult to refuse the training doctor. In practice, the commonest person to recruit patients is the instructing doctor. Patients wanted to be given some time to consider the request; this was not always given. Patients may feel coerced into seeing training doctors because they find it difficult to refuse requests, particularly when they are being recruited by doctors. Non-medical staff may be more appropriate for the initial recruitment of patients. Patients need time to consider their involvement. The provision of written information may be useful. Further research is indicated to empower patients' decision-making and reduce the likelihood of coercion.

  10. Combined solar organic Rankine cycle with reverse osmosis desalination process: Energy, exergy, and cost evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafey, A.S.; Sharaf, M.A. [Department of Engineering Science, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    Organic Rankine cycles (ORC) have unique properties that are well suited to solar power generation. In this work design and performance calculations are performed using MatLab/SimuLink computational environment. The cycle consists of thermal solar collectors (Flat Plate Solar Collector (FPC), or Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC), or Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)) for heat input, expansion turbine for work output, condenser unit for heat rejection, pump unit, and Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit. Reverse osmosis unit specifications used in this work is based on Sharm El-Shiekh RO desalination plant. Different working fluids such as: butane, isobutane, propane, R134a, R152a, R245ca, and R245fa are examined for FPC. R113, R123, hexane, and pentane are investigated for CPC. Dodecane, nonane, octane, and toluene are allocated for PTC. The proposed process units are modeled and show a good validity with literatures. Exergy and cost analysis are performed for saturation and superheated operating conditions. Exergy efficiency, total exergy destruction, thermal efficiency, and specific capital cost are evaluated for direct vapor generation (DVG) process. Toluene and Water achieved minimum results for total solar collector area, specific total cost and the rate of exergy destruction. (author)

  11. How does the body representation system develop in the human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, Aurelie; Cignetti, Fabien; Nazarian, Bruno; Anton, Jean-Luc; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Assaiante, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Exploration of the body representation system (BRS) from kinaesthetic illusions in fMRI has revealed a complex network composed of sensorimotor and frontoparietal components. Here, we evaluated the degree of maturity of this network in children aged 7-11 years, and the extent to which structural factors account for network differences with adults. Brain activation following tendon vibration at 100Hz ('illusion') and 30Hz ('no illusion') were analysed using the two-stage random effects model, with or without white and grey matter covariates. The BRS was already well established in children as revealed by the contrast 'illusion' vs 'no illusion', although still immature in some aspects. This included a lower level of activation in primary somatosensory and posterior parietal regions, and the exclusive activation of the frontopolar cortex (FPC) in children compared to adults. The former differences were related to structure, while the latter difference reflected a functional strategy where the FPC may serve as the 'top' in top-down modulation of the activity of the other BRS regions to facilitate the establishment of body representations. Hence, the development of the BRS not only relies on structural maturation, but also involves the disengagement of an executive region not classically involved in body processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; De Pisapia, Nicola; Jovicich, Jorge; Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-05-25

    Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule following. Twenty-six healthy young adult participants were presented with a series of images of cards, each consisting of a set of circles numbered in sequence with one colored blue. Participants had to predict the position of the blue circle on the next card. The rules that had to be acquired pertained to the relationship among succeeding stimuli. Responses given by subjects were categorized in a series of phases either tapping rule acquisition (responses given up to and including rule discovery) or rule following (correct responses after rule acquisition). Mid-dorsolateral PFC (mid-DLPFC) was active during rule search and remained active until successful rule acquisition. By contrast, rule following was associated with activation in temporal, motor, and medial/anterior prefrontal cortex. Moreover, frontopolar cortex (FPC) was active throughout the rule acquisition and rule following phases before a rule became familiar. We attributed activation in mid-DLPFC to hypothesis generation and in FPC to integration of multiple separate inferences. The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases.

  13. Relational complexity modulates activity in the prefrontal cortex during numerical inductive reasoning: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao; Peng, Li; Chang-Quan, Long; Yi, Lei; Hong, Li

    2014-09-01

    Most previous studies investigating relational reasoning have used visuo-spatial materials. This fMRI study aimed to determine how relational complexity affects brain activity during inductive reasoning, using numerical materials. Three numerical relational levels of the number series completion task were adopted for use: 0-relational (e.g., "23 23 23"), 1-relational ("32 30 28") and 2-relational ("12 13 15") problems. The fMRI results revealed that the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed enhanced activity associated with relational complexity. Bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL) activity was greater during the 1- and 2-relational level problems than during the 0-relational level problems. In addition, the left fronto-polar cortex (FPC) showed selective activity during the 2-relational level problems. The bilateral DLPFC may be involved in the process of hypothesis generation, whereas the bilateral IPL may be sensitive to calculation demands. Moreover, the sensitivity of the left FPC to the multiple relational problems may be related to the integration of numerical relations. The present study extends our knowledge of the prefrontal activity pattern underlying numerical relational processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface characterization of an energetic material, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), having a thin coating achieved through a starved addition microencapsulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, C.M.

    1986-05-07

    The objective of this research was to: (1) determine the nature of a thin coating on an explosive material which was applied using a starved addition microencapsulation technique, (2) understand the coating/crystal bond, and (3) investigate the wettability/adhesion of plastic/solvent combinations using the coating process. The coating used in this work was a Firestone Plastic Company copolymer (FPC-461) of vinylchloride/trifluorochloroethylene in a 1.5/1.0 weight ratio. The energetic explosive examined was pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN). The coating process used was starved addition followed by a solvent evaporation technique. Surface analytical studies, completed for characterization of the coating process, show (1) evidence that the polymer coating is present, but not continuous, over the surface of PETN; (2) the average thickness of the polymer coating is between 16-32 A and greater than 44 A, respectively, for 0.5 and 20 wt % coated PETN; (3) no changes in surface chemistry of the polymer or the explosive material following microencapsulation; and (4) the presence of explosive material on the surface of 0.5 wt % FPC-461 coated explosives. 5 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Micro structure processing on plastics by accelerated hydrogen molecular ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Nishikawa, H.

    2017-08-01

    A proton has 1836 times the mass of an electron and is the lightest nucleus to be used for accelerator in material modification. We can setup accelerator with the lowest acceleration voltage. It is preferable characteristics of Proton Beam Writer (PBW) for industrial applications. On the contrary ;proton; has the lowest charge among all nuclei and the potential impact to material is lowest. The object of this research is to improve productivity of the PBW for industry application focusing on hydrogen molecular ions. These ions are generated in the same ion source by ionizing hydrogen molecule. There is no specific ion source requested and it is suitable for industrial use. We demonstrated three dimensional (3D) multilevel micro structures on polyester base FPC (Flexible Printed Circuits) using proton, H2+ and H3+. The reactivity of hydrogen molecular ions is much higher than that of proton and coincident with the level of expectation. We can apply this result to make micro devices of 3D multilevel structures on FPC.

  16. Out of gas: Tenneco in the era of natural gas regulation, 1938--1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, David

    2011-12-01

    Federal regulation over the natural gas industry spanned 1938--1978, during which time both the industry and the nature of the regulation changed. The original intent of the law was to reform an industry stagnating because of the Depression, but regulation soon evolved into a public-private partnership to win World War II, then to a framework for the creation and management of a nationwide natural gas grid in the prosperous post-war years, and finally to a confused and chaotic system of wellhead price regulation which produced shortages and discouraged new production during the 1950s and 1960s. By the 1970s, regulation had become ineffective, leading to deregulation in 1978. The natural gas industry operated under the oversight of the Federal Power Commission (FPC) which set gas rates, regulated profits and competition, and established rules for entry and exit into markets. Over the course of four decades, the FPC oversaw the development of a truly national industry built around a system of large diameter pipelines. Tennessee Gas Transmission Company (later Tenneco) was an integral part of this industry. At first, Tenneco prospered under regulation. Regulation provided Tenneco with the means to build its first pipeline and a secure revenue stream for decades. A series of conflicts with the FPC and the difficulties imposed by the Phillips vs. Wisconsin case in 1954 soon interfered with the ambitious long-term goals of Tenneco CEO and president Gardiner Symonds. Tenneco first diversified into unregulated businesses in the 1940s, which accelerated as regulatory changes constrained the company's growth. By the 1960s the company was at the forefront of the conglomeration movement, when Tenneco included a variety of disparate businesses, including oil and gas production, chemicals, consumer packaging, manufacturing, shipbuilding, and food production, among others. Gas transmission became a minority interest in Tenneco's portfolio as newer and larger divisions

  17. Decision-making in female fertility preservation is balancing the expected burden of fertility preservation treatment and the wish to conceive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ö; Bastings, L; Beerendonk, C C M; Postma, S A E; IntHout, J; Verhaak, C M; Braat, D D M; Nelen, W L D M

    2015-07-01

    What are the decisive factors in fertility preservation (FP) decision-making in young women scheduled for gonadotoxic therapy? FP decision-making in young women scheduled for gonadotoxic therapy is mainly based on weighing two issues: the intensity of the wish to conceive a child in the future and the expected burden of undergoing FP treatment. Future fertility is of importance for young cancer patients whose reproductive function is being threatened by oncological therapy. To prevent or reduce severe psychological effects of infertility as well as feelings of regret about their FP decision after cancer treatment, the quality of fertility preservation counselling (FPC) should be improved. To improve care, those issues forming a decisive factor in FP decision-making for patients should be clarified, as these issues deserve extensive discussion during FPC. Until now, decisive factors have not been isolated from the complex interplay of all aspects of FP that women contemplate during FP decision-making. By using a mixed methods methodology, a questionnaire developed after qualitative research involving a selected group of five women who previously received FPC was retrospectively sent to eligible patients (n = 143) who had received FPC (1999 - July 2013) and to whom at least one FP option was offered. Patients had received FPC at a university hospital in the Netherlands, in a setting where financial factors do not play a role in FP. They were aged ≥16 years and were scheduled for gonadotoxic treatment. The relationship between patients' baseline characteristics, their attributed importance to 28 relevant importance items and their FP choices was investigated. After five interviews, 28 importance items for FP decision-making were identified and included in our questionnaire. Of these 28 importance items, 24 items could be clustered into seven importance themes. A total of 87 patients (61%) responded to our questionnaire. After performing a multivariable logistic

  18. Exploring terra incognita of cognitive science: Lateralization of gene expression at the frontal pole of the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolina I.A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rostral prefrontal cortex, or frontopolar cortex (FPC, also known as Brodmann area 10 (BA10, is the most anterior part of the human brain. It is one of the largest cytoarchitectonic areas of the human brain that has significantly increased its volume during evolution. Anatomically the le (BA10L and right (BA10R parts of FPC show slight asymmetries and they may have distinctive cognitive functions. Objective. In the present study, we investigated differential expression of the transcriptome in the le and right parts of BA10. Design. Postmortem samples of human brain tissue from fourteen donors (male/ female without history of psychiatric and neurological diseases, mean age 39.79±3.23 years old, mean postmortem interval 12.10±1.76 h were obtained using the resources of three institutions: the Partner Institute of Computational Biology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, and NIH Neuro-BioBank. Results. By using a standard RNA-sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis, we identified 61 genes with differential expression in the le and right FPC. In general, gene expression was increased in BA10R relative to BA10L: 40 vs. 21 genes, respectively. According to gene ontology analysis, the majority of up-regulated genes in BA10R be- longed to the protein-coding category, whereas protein-coding and non-coding genes were equally up-expressed in BA10L. Most of the up-regulated genes in BA10R were involved in brain plasticity and activity-dependent mechanisms also known for their role in the hippocampus. 24 out of 30 mental disorder-related genes in the dataset were disrupted in schizophrenia. No such a wide association with other mental disorders was found. Conclusion. Discovered differences point at possible causes of hemispheric asymmetries in the human frontal lobes and at the molecular base of higher-order cognitive processes in health and disease.

  19. LTC: a novel algorithm to improve the efficiency of contig assembly for physical mapping in complex genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feuillet Catherine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical maps are the substrate of genome sequencing and map-based cloning and their construction relies on the accurate assembly of BAC clones into large contigs that are then anchored to genetic maps with molecular markers. High Information Content Fingerprinting has become the method of choice for large and repetitive genomes such as those of maize, barley, and wheat. However, the high level of repeated DNA present in these genomes requires the application of very stringent criteria to ensure a reliable assembly with the FingerPrinted Contig (FPC software, which often results in short contig lengths (of 3-5 clones before merging as well as an unreliable assembly in some difficult regions. Difficulties can originate from a non-linear topological structure of clone overlaps, low power of clone ordering algorithms, and the absence of tools to identify sources of gaps in Minimal Tiling Paths (MTPs. Results To address these problems, we propose a novel approach that: (i reduces the rate of false connections and Q-clones by using a new cutoff calculation method; (ii obtains reliable clusters robust to the exclusion of single clone or clone overlap; (iii explores the topological contig structure by considering contigs as networks of clones connected by significant overlaps; (iv performs iterative clone clustering combined with ordering and order verification using re-sampling methods; and (v uses global optimization methods for clone ordering and Band Map construction. The elements of this new analytical framework called Linear Topological Contig (LTC were applied on datasets used previously for the construction of the physical map of wheat chromosome 3B with FPC. The performance of LTC vs. FPC was compared also on the simulated BAC libraries based on the known genome sequences for chromosome 1 of rice and chromosome 1 of maize. Conclusions The results show that compared to other methods, LTC enables the construction of highly

  20. Functional Data Analysis Applied to Modeling of Severe Acute Mucositis and Dysphagia Resulting From Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, Jamie A.; Wong, Kee H.; Gay, Hiram; Welsh, Liam C.; Jones, Ann-Britt; Schick, Ulrike; Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya; Newbold, Kate L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Nutting, Christopher M.; Gulliford, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Current normal tissue complication probability modeling using logistic regression suffers from bias and high uncertainty in the presence of highly correlated radiation therapy (RT) dose data. This hinders robust estimates of dose-response associations and, hence, optimal normal tissue–sparing strategies from being elucidated. Using functional data analysis (FDA) to reduce the dimensionality of the dose data could overcome this limitation. Methods and Materials: FDA was applied to modeling of severe acute mucositis and dysphagia resulting from head and neck RT. Functional partial least squares regression (FPLS) and functional principal component analysis were used for dimensionality reduction of the dose-volume histogram data. The reduced dose data were input into functional logistic regression models (functional partial least squares–logistic regression [FPLS-LR] and functional principal component–logistic regression [FPC-LR]) along with clinical data. This approach was compared with penalized logistic regression (PLR) in terms of predictive performance and the significance of treatment covariate–response associations, assessed using bootstrapping. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models was 0.65, 0.69, and 0.67, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 0.81, 0.83, and 0.83, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The calibration slopes/intercepts for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models were 1.6/−0.67, 0.45/0.47, and 0.40/0.49, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 2.5/−0.96, 0.79/−0.04, and 0.79/0.00, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The bootstrapped odds ratios indicated significant associations between RT dose and severe toxicity in the mucositis and dysphagia FDA models. Cisplatin was significantly associated with severe dysphagia in the FDA models. None of the covariates was significantly associated with severe

  1. Functional Data Analysis Applied to Modeling of Severe Acute Mucositis and Dysphagia Resulting From Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Jamie A., E-mail: jamie.dean@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Wong, Kee H. [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Gay, Hiram [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Welsh, Liam C.; Jones, Ann-Britt; Schick, Ulrike [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Newbold, Kate L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Harrington, Kevin J. [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Nutting, Christopher M. [Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Gulliford, Sarah L. [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: Current normal tissue complication probability modeling using logistic regression suffers from bias and high uncertainty in the presence of highly correlated radiation therapy (RT) dose data. This hinders robust estimates of dose-response associations and, hence, optimal normal tissue–sparing strategies from being elucidated. Using functional data analysis (FDA) to reduce the dimensionality of the dose data could overcome this limitation. Methods and Materials: FDA was applied to modeling of severe acute mucositis and dysphagia resulting from head and neck RT. Functional partial least squares regression (FPLS) and functional principal component analysis were used for dimensionality reduction of the dose-volume histogram data. The reduced dose data were input into functional logistic regression models (functional partial least squares–logistic regression [FPLS-LR] and functional principal component–logistic regression [FPC-LR]) along with clinical data. This approach was compared with penalized logistic regression (PLR) in terms of predictive performance and the significance of treatment covariate–response associations, assessed using bootstrapping. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models was 0.65, 0.69, and 0.67, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 0.81, 0.83, and 0.83, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The calibration slopes/intercepts for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models were 1.6/−0.67, 0.45/0.47, and 0.40/0.49, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 2.5/−0.96, 0.79/−0.04, and 0.79/0.00, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The bootstrapped odds ratios indicated significant associations between RT dose and severe toxicity in the mucositis and dysphagia FDA models. Cisplatin was significantly associated with severe dysphagia in the FDA models. None of the covariates was significantly associated with severe

  2. Functional Data Analysis Applied to Modeling of Severe Acute Mucositis and Dysphagia Resulting From Head and Neck Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jamie A; Wong, Kee H; Gay, Hiram; Welsh, Liam C; Jones, Ann-Britt; Schick, Ulrike; Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya; Newbold, Kate L; Bhide, Shreerang A; Harrington, Kevin J; Deasy, Joseph O; Nutting, Christopher M; Gulliford, Sarah L

    2016-11-15

    Current normal tissue complication probability modeling using logistic regression suffers from bias and high uncertainty in the presence of highly correlated radiation therapy (RT) dose data. This hinders robust estimates of dose-response associations and, hence, optimal normal tissue-sparing strategies from being elucidated. Using functional data analysis (FDA) to reduce the dimensionality of the dose data could overcome this limitation. FDA was applied to modeling of severe acute mucositis and dysphagia resulting from head and neck RT. Functional partial least squares regression (FPLS) and functional principal component analysis were used for dimensionality reduction of the dose-volume histogram data. The reduced dose data were input into functional logistic regression models (functional partial least squares-logistic regression [FPLS-LR] and functional principal component-logistic regression [FPC-LR]) along with clinical data. This approach was compared with penalized logistic regression (PLR) in terms of predictive performance and the significance of treatment covariate-response associations, assessed using bootstrapping. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models was 0.65, 0.69, and 0.67, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 0.81, 0.83, and 0.83, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The calibration slopes/intercepts for the PLR, FPC-LR, and FPLS-LR models were 1.6/-0.67, 0.45/0.47, and 0.40/0.49, respectively, for mucositis (internal validation) and 2.5/-0.96, 0.79/-0.04, and 0.79/0.00, respectively, for dysphagia (external validation). The bootstrapped odds ratios indicated significant associations between RT dose and severe toxicity in the mucositis and dysphagia FDA models. Cisplatin was significantly associated with severe dysphagia in the FDA models. None of the covariates was significantly associated with severe toxicity in the PLR models. Dose levels greater than

  3. Pharmacy-based interventions for initiating effective contraception following the use of emergency contraception: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, L; Cameron, S T; Glasier, A; Larke, N; Muir, A; Lorimer, A

    2014-10-01

    In Scotland most women get emergency contraception (EC) from pharmacies. Pharmacists currently cannot provide effective ongoing contraception after EC. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine the feasibility of a larger study designed to ascertain if pharmacy-based interventions can increase the uptake of effective contraception after EC. This is a pilot study of women presenting for levonorgestrel EC to community pharmacies in Edinburgh, UK, in 2012. Pharmacies were cluster randomized to provide either standard care or one of two interventions: (a) one packet of progestogen-only pills (POPs), giving women 1 month to arrange ongoing contraception; (b) invitation to present the empty EC packet to a family planning clinic (FPC) for contraceptive advice (rapid access). One hundred sixty-eight women were recruited from 11 pharmacies to POP (n=56), rapid access (n=58) and standard care (N=54) groups, respectively. Telephone follow-up was conducted successfully in 102 women (61%) 6-8 weeks later to determine current contraceptive use. In the POP arm, 35/39 (90%) women used the pills provided, and 9/28 women (32%) in the rapid access arm attended the FPC. The proportion of women using effective contraception at follow-up was significantly greater in both POP [56% (22/39), p=contraception versus barrier/no method, after use of EC, was 3.13 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.90-5.13] in the POP group and 2.57 (95% CI, 1.55-4.27) in the rapid access group. This promising pilot study suggests that simple pharmacy-based interventions may increase the uptake of effective contraception after EC. A larger study is required to provide further validation of these findings. For women obtaining EC from a pharmacy, simple interventions such as supplying 1 month of a POP, or offering rapid access to a FPC, hold promise as strategies to increase the uptake of effective contraception after EC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ANALYSIS OF MEASURED AND MODELED SOLAR RADIATION AT THE TARS SOLAR HEATING PLANT IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    , such as solar radiation, inlet and outlet temperature for the solar collector field, flow rate and pressure, ambient temperature, Wind speed and wind direction were measured. Global horizontal radiation, direct normal irradiation (DNI) and total radiation on the tilted collector plane of the flat plate...... collector field have been measured in Tars solar heating plant. To determine the accuracy of modeled and measured solar radiation in Tars solar heating plant, monthly comparisons of measured and calculated radiation using 6 empirical models have been carried out. Comparisons of measured and modeled total......A novel combined solar heating plant with tracking parabolic trough collectors (PTC) and flat plate collectors (FPC) has been constructed and put into operation in Tars, 30 km north of Aalborg, Denmark in August 2015. To assess the operation performance of the plant, detailed parameters...

  5. Application of gamma radiation and heat treatment for the preparation of fish protein concentrates from Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, S.B.K.; Ninjoor, V.; Kumta, U.S.

    1976-01-01

    Limitations in the conventional procedures for the manufacture of fish protein concentrate (FPG), such as residual toxicity of the solvents and loss in functional properties necessitate the need for evolving newer methods. A simple method has been developed for the preparation of FPC from the muscle of Bombay duck employing radiation-heat combination treatments. This involves extraction of the muscle proteins in 0.01 M phosphate buffer containing 5 percent sodium chloride, pH 7.5, irradiation at a dose of 100-250 krad followed by heat treatment at 60 degC for 10 min. The procedure permits the precipitation of fibrillar proteins to the extent of 83 percent. There is no change in the digestibility of the precipitated proteins as revealed by the tryptic hydrolysis. These results point to the synergestic effect of radiation and heat on the precipitation of proteins - an observation that has high potential for scaling up as a new process. (author)

  6. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  7. Development of fundamental power coupler for C-ADS superconducting elliptical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kui-Xiang; Bing, Feng; Pan, Wei-Min; Huang, Tong-Ming; Ma, Qiang; Meng, Fan-Bo

    2017-06-01

    5-cell elliptical cavities have been selected for the main linac of the China Accelerator Driven sub-critical System (C-ADS) in the medium energy section. According to the design, each cavity should be driven with radio frequency (RF) energy up to 150 kW by a fundamental power coupler (FPC). As the cavities work with high quality factor and high accelerating gradient, the coupler should keep the cavity from contamination in the assembly procedure. To fulfil the requirements, a single-window coaxial type coupler was designed with the capabilities of handling high RF power, class 10 clean room assembly, and heat load control. This paper presents the coupler design and gives details of RF design, heat load optimization and thermal analysis as well as multipacting simulations. In addition, a primary high power test has been performed and is described in this paper. Supported by China ADS Project (XDA03020000) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475203)

  8. Characterization of a Novel MMS-Sensitive Allele of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mcm4+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranatunga, Nimna S.; Forsburg, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is the conserved helicase motor of the eukaryotic replication fork. Mutations in the Mcm4 subunit are associated with replication stress and double strand breaks in multiple systems. In this work, we characterize a new temperature-sensitive allele of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mcm4+. Uniquely among known mcm4 alleles, this mutation causes sensitivity to the alkylation damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Even in the absence of treatment or temperature shift, mcm4-c106 cells show increased repair foci of RPA and Rad52, and require the damage checkpoint for viability, indicating genome stress. The mcm4-c106 mutant is synthetically lethal with mutations disrupting fork protection complex (FPC) proteins Swi1 and Swi3. Surprisingly, we found that the deletion of rif1+ suppressed the MMS-sensitive phenotype without affecting temperature sensitivity. Together, these data suggest that mcm4-c106 destabilizes replisome structure. PMID:27473316

  9. Feasibility study on development of plate-type heat exchanger for BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Nobuhiro; Suda, Kenichi; Ogata, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shinichi; Nagasaka, Kazuhiro; Fujii, Toshi; Nozawa, Toshiya; Ishihama, Kiyoshi; Higuchi, Tomokazu

    2004-01-01

    In order to apply plate-type heat exchanger to RCW, TCW and FPC system in BWR plants, heat test and seismic test of RCW system heat exchanger sample were carried out. The results of these tests showed new design plate-type heat exchanger satisfied the fixed pressure resistance and seismic resistance and keep the function. The evaluation method of seismic design was constructed and confirmed by the results of tests. As anti-adhesion measure of marine organism, an ozone-water circulation method, chemical-feed method and combination of circulation of hot water and air bubbling are useful in place of the chlorine feeding method. Application of the plate-type heat exchanger to BWR plant is confirmed by these investigations. The basic principles, structure, characteristics, application limit and reliability are stated. (S.Y.)

  10. Spring outmigration of wild and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts from the Imnaha River: March 1, 1994--June 15, 1994; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, B.L.; Miller, A.C.; Kucera, P.A.; Blenden, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began a smolt monitoring study on the Imnaha River in cooperation with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from March 1 to June 15, 1994. We PIT tagged and released 956 wild chinook salmon, 661 hatchery chinook salmon, 1,432 wild steelhead trout and 2,029 hatchery steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 62.2% for wild chinook salmon, 45.2% for hatchery chinook salmon, 51.3% for wild steelhead trout, and 34.3% for hatchery steelhead trout

  11. RHEOLOGY AND SCALING BEHAVIOR OF SWELLING CLAY DISPERSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chaoui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and scaling of rheological properties of colloidal gels of bentonite investigated as a function of volume fraction and strength of interparticle interaction over a range of volume fractions, elastic modulus is well described with a scaling law functions of volume fractions, while the role of interparticle attractions can be accounted for by expressing these rheological properties as (f/fg-1n, where fg captures the strength of particle interaction and n the microstructure. The scaling variable (fp/fpc-1, suggested in percolation theory to describe rheological behavior near percolation transition, acts to collapse G’ data suggesting that along lines of constant (f/fg-1 these gels are rheologically identical.

  12. Desertification in 1957-2015 Estimated from Vegetation Coverage and Climate Conditions on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuo, L.

    2017-12-01

    Desert is an area that receives less than 25 cm precipitation in cold climate or 50 cm precipitation in hot climate (Miller, 1961). Others defined true desert as a region having no recorded precipitation in 12 consecutive months (McGinnies et al., 1968). According to Koppen-Gieger climate classification system, if mean annual precipitation is less than 50% of the value A calculated by mean annual temperature times 20 plus 280 if 70% or more precipitation falls in April-September, the region has desert climate; if the mean annual precipitation is within 50%-100% of the value A, the region has semi-arid or steppe climate. On the Tibetan Plateau, the above definitions will result in no desert at all or the majority of the region falling into the category of desert which is not consistent with reality based on field exploration. In this study, the fractional vegetation coverage (FPC), precipitation, soil moisture and extreme wind days are used as indices to define areas of various degrees of desertification which produces much more realistic distribution of desert areas on the plateau. The Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Vegetation model (LPJ) is used to simulate vegetation growth, succession and vegetation properties such as FPC and soil moisture on the Tibetan Plateau. Gridded daily climate data are generated to drive the model and to analyze the status and changes of various deserts including light desert, medium desert, severe desert, extremely severe desert and desert proned area. The study will reveal the status and changes of possible driving factors of desertification, as well as various kinds of desert on the Tibetan Plateau during 1957-2015.

  13. Energetic and financial evaluation of solar assisted heat pump space heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellos, Evangelos; Tzivanidis, Christos; Moschos, Konstantinos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Four solar heating systems are presented in this work. • Various combinations between solar collectors and heat pumps are presented. • The systems are compared energetically and financially. • The use of PV and an air source heat pump is the best choice financially. • The use of PVT with a water source heat pump is the best solution energetically. - Abstract: Using solar energy for space heating purposes consists an alternative way for substituting fossil fuel and grid electricity consumption. In this study, four solar assisted heat pump heating systems are designed, simulated and evaluated energetically and financially in order to determine the most attractive solution. The use of PV collectors with air source heat pump is compared to the use of FPC, PVT and FPC with PV coupled with a water source heat pump. A sensitivity analysis for the electricity cost is conducted because of the great variety of this parameter over the last years. The final results proved that for electricity cost up to 0.23 €/kW h the use of PV coupled with an air source heat pump is the most sustainable solution financially, while for higher electricity prices the coupling of PVT with an water source heat pump is the best choice. For the present electricity price of 0.2 €/kW h, 20 m"2 of PV is able to drive the air source heat pump with a yearly solar coverage of 67% leading to the most sustainable solution. Taking into account energetic aspects, the use of PVT leads to extremely low grid electricity consumption, fact that makes this technology the most environmental friendly.

  14. Comparison of integration options for gasification-based biofuel production systems – Economic and greenhouse gas emission implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina M.; Berntsson, Thore S.; Andersson, Eva; Rydberg, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The impact of different integration options for gasification-based biofuel production systems producing synthetic natural gas, methanol and FT (Fischer-Tropsch) fuels on the NAP (net annual profit), FPC (fuel production cost) and the GHG (greenhouse gas) emission reduction potential are analysed. The considered integration options are heat deliveries to DH (district heating) systems or to nearby industries and integration with infrastructure for CO_2 storage. The comparison is made to stand-alone configurations in which the excess heat is used for power production. The analysis considers future energy market scenarios and case studies in southwestern Sweden. The results show that integration with DH systems has small impacts on the NAP and the FPC and diverging (positive or negative) impacts on the GHG emissions. Integration with industries has positive effects on the economic and GHG performances in all scenarios. The FPCs are reduced by 7–8% in the methanol case and by 12–13% in the FT production case. The GHG emission reductions are strongly dependent on the reference power production. The storage of separated CO_2 shows an increase in the GHG emission reduction potential of 70–100% for all systems, whereas the impacts on the economic performances are strongly dependent on the CO_2_e-charge. - Highlights: • Three gasification-based biofuel production systems at case study sites are analysed. • Greenhouse gas emissions reduction potential and economic performance are evaluated. • Impact of integration with adjacent industry or district heating systems is analysed. • The assessment comprises future energy market scenarios including CCS infrastructure. • Utilisation options for excess heat significantly impact the evaluated parameters.

  15. Cross-linking of polymer and ionic liquid as high-performance gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiongwei; Tang, Jun; Cao, Lujie; Kong, Weiguang; Sun, Zheng; Cheng, Hua; Lu, Zhouguang; Pan, Hui; Xu, Baomin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A facile method to prepare gel polymer electrolyte with high conductivity is proposed. •A flexible symmetric capacitor based on the prepared GPE shows ultra-flexibility. •The capacitor with high voltage can power up a 3.0 V LED even bended to a angle of 180°. -- Abstract: It is highly desirable to develop flexible solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) with non-liquid electrolyte. However, it is still a great challenge to prepare gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) possessing high ionic conductivity and good mechanical property. In this work, a simple and novel method to improve the conductivity and mechanical properties of GPE film for their applications as electrolyte and separator in EDLC is presented. The GPE film is prepared by cross-linking ionic liquid (IL) with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and benzophenone (Bp) followed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Then, a non-woven cellulose separator (FPC) is used to absorb the GPE. By tuning the mass ratio (n) between IL and PEO, the flexible EDLC cooperated with low-cost active carbon and the electrolyte film with n = 10 has a high capacitance of 70.84 F∙g −1 , a wide and stable electrochemical window of 3.5 V, an energy density of 30.13 Wh∙kg −1 and a power density of 874.8 W∙kg −1 at a current density of 1 A∙g −1 , which can drive a 3.0 V light-emitting diode (LED). Importantly, the excellent performance of the flexible and low-cost EDLC can be maintained at a bending angle up to 180°, indicating the ultra-flexibility. It is expected that the IL-PEO-FPC electrolyte film is a promising candidate of GPE for flexible devices and energy storage systems.

  16. Chemical Decontamination at Browns Ferry Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, Ed; Reid, Richard

    2003-01-01

    In May, 2002, the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Board of Directors approved the recovery and restart of Unit 1 at Browns Ferry Nuclear Station. As an initial step in the site characterization and restart feasibility review, a majority of the primary reactor circuit was chemically decontaminated. Close cooperation between TVA and vendor personnel resulted in project completion ahead of schedule with outstanding results. The final average decontamination factors were excellent, and the final dose rates were very low, with contact readings on most points between one and three mRem/hr. In addition to allowing TVA to do a complete and thorough job of determining the feasibility of the Unit 1 restart, the decontamination effort will greatly reduce personnel exposure during plant recovery, both whole body exposure to gamma radiation and airborne exposure during pipe replacement efforts. The implementation of lessons learned from previous decontamination work performed at Browns Ferry, as well as decontamination efforts at other plants aided greatly in the success. Specific items of note are: (1) The initial leak check of the temporary decontamination system should include ancillary systems such as the spent resin system, as well as the main circulation loop. This could save time and dose exposure if leaks are discovered before the use of such systems is required. (2) Due to the quick turnaround time from the award of contract, a vendor representative was onsite early in the project to help with engineering efforts and procedures. This aided greatly in completing preparations for the decontamination. (3) The work was performed under a single maintenance activity. This resulted in great craft and plant support. (4) The constant coverage by the site's decontamination flush directors provided timely plant support and interface. (5) The FPC system isolation and back flushing to prevent residual chemicals from being left in the FPC system should have been addressed in more

  17. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disorder due to two novel compound heterozygote mutations in PKHD1 gene: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Miryounesi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disorder (ARPCKD is one of the most prevalent hereditary disorders in neonates and children. Its frequency is between 1/6000 to 1/55000 births. In the most severe cases, it can be diagnosed prenatally by the presence of enlarged, echogenic kidneys and oligohydramnios. However, in the milder forms, clinical manifestations are usually detected in neonatal and childhood period. PKHD1 gene located on chromosome 6 is linked with this disorder. About half of detected mutations in this gene are missense ones. The largest protein product of this gene is called the FPC/polyductin complex (FPC. It is a single-membrane spanning protein whose absence leads to abnormal ciliogenesis in the kidneys. Case presentation: Here we present a 5-year-old female patient affected with ARPCKD. She has been born to a non-consanguineous healthy Iranian parents. No similar disorder has been seen in the family. Prenatal history has been normal. In order to find the genetic background, DNA was extracted from patient's peripheral blood lymphocytes. PKHD1 gene exons and exon-intron boundaries were sequenced using next generation sequencing platform. Two novel variants have been detected in compound heterozygote state in the patient (c.6591C>A, c.8222C>A. Bioinformatics tools predicted these variants to be pathogenic. Conclusion: In the present study, we detected two novel variants in PKHD1 gene in a patient with ARPCKD. The relatively mild phenotype of this patient is in accordance with the missense mutations found. Molecular genetic tools can help in accurate risk assessment as well as precise genotype-phenotype correlation establishment in families affected with such disorder to decrease the birth of affected individuals through preimplantation genetic diagnosis or better management of disorder.

  18. The functional condition of fetoplacental system in pregnant women with thyroid gland autoimmune pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Melikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some kind of specific system: placenta - thyroid gland - is said to be formed during pregnancy. Regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism depends on the state of the fetoplacental complex (FPC. The nature of the relationship of thyroid gland (TG with the FPC affects the course of pregnancy, fetal growth and the formation of his own pituitary-thyroid system. Goal. To study the characteristics of the hormonal function of fetoplacental complex in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease. Materials and methods. The study included 102 pregnant women: group I – 29 women with euthyroid as the outcome of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT, 25 women with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism as a form of AIT were included into the second group, in III group – 23 women with autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The control group consisted of 25 healthy women. Hypophysial and thyroid system hormonal profile and FPK of pregnant women were detected in dynamics. Results. It is revealed that reliable change of hormonal indexes of function of hypophysial and thyroid system leads to weighable changes of indexes of FPK and the AFP level in mother's blood, i.e. to a placentary failure, are result of it: early and late gestosis (54.5 %, chronic fetal hypoxia (21.7 %, discoordination of patrimonial activity (5.2 %, premature births (17.2 %, threat of an abortion (7.4 %. Conclusions. According to our data the most accurate diagnostic criterion for the development of primary placental insufficiency in pregnant women with thyroid conditions can be considered the change in the level of estriol, progesterone, placental lactogen and AFP in the dynamics of gestation. Their determination can be considered as predictor for early treatment and prevention of placental insufficiency.

  19. The sizes of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tube Collectors with Heat Pipe area as a function of the share of solar system in the heat demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olek Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of solar collectors in Poland is still increasing. The correct location of the collectors and a relatively high density of solar radiation allow delivering heat even in spite of relatively low ambient temperature. Moreover, solar systems used for heating domestic heat water (DHW in summer allow nearly complete elimination of conventional energy sources (e.g. gas, coal. That is why more and more house owners in Poland decide to install solar system installations. In Poland the most common types of solar collectors are flat plate collectors (FPC and evacuated tube collectors with heat pipe (ETCHP; both were selected for the analysis. The heat demand related to the preparation of hot water, connected with the size of solar collectors’ area, has been determined. The analysis includes FPC and ETCHP and heat demand of less than 10 000 kWh/year. Simulations were performed with the Matlab software and using data from a typical meteorological year (TMY. In addition, a 126–year period of measurements of insolation for Krakow has been taken into account. The HDKR model (Hay, Davis, Klucher, Reindl was used for the calculation of solar radiation on the absorber surface. The monthly medium temperature of the absorber depends on the amount of solar system heat and on the heat demand. All the previously mentioned data were used to determine solar efficiency. Due to the fact that solar efficiency and solar system heat are connected, the calculations were made with the use of an iterative method. Additionally, the upper limit for monthly useful solar system heat is resulted from the heat demand and thus the authors prepared a model of statistical solar system heat deviations based on the Monte Carlo method. It has been found that an increase in the useful solar system heat in reference to the heat demand is associated with more than proportional increase in the sizes of the analyzed surfaces of solar collector types.

  20. Cerebral blood flow response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh A Sorond

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Farzaneh A Sorond1,2, Lewis A Lipsitz2,4, Norman K Hollenberg3,5, Naomi DL Fisher31Department of Neurology, Stroke Division; 2Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA; 3Department of Medicine, Endocrine-Hypertension Division; 4Department of Medicine, Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MABackground and Purpose: Cerebral ischemia is a common, morbid condition accompanied by cognitive decline. Recent reports on the vascular health benefits of flavanol-containing foods signify a promising approach to the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Our study was designed to investigate the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa (FRC consumption on cerebral blood flow in older healthy volunteers.Methods: We used transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasound to measure mean blood flow velocity (MFV in the middle cerebral artery (MCA in thirty-four healthy elderly volunteers (72 ± 6 years in response to the regular intake of FRC or flavanol-poor cocoa (FPC.Results: In response to two weeks of FRC intake, MFV increased by 8% ± 4% at one week (p = 0.01 and 10% ± 4% (p = 0.04 at two weeks. In response to one week of cocoa, significantly more subjects in the FRC as compared with the FPC group had an increase in their MFV (p < 0.05.Conclusions: In summary, we show that dietary intake of FRC is associated with a significant increase in cerebral blood flow velocity in the MCA as measured by TCD. Our data suggest a promising role for regular cocoa flavanol’s consumption in the treatment of cerebrovascular ischemic syndromes, including dementias and stroke.Keywords: cerebral blood flow, flavanol, cocoa, transcranial Doppler ultrasound

  1. Superstructures: First Cold Test and Future Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Sekutowicz; C Albrecht; V Ayvazyan; R Bandelmann; T Buttner; P Castro; S Choroba; J Eschke; B Faatz; A Gossel; K Honkavaara; B Horst; J Iverson; K Jensch; H Kaiser; R Kammering; G Kreps; D Kostin; J Lorkiewicz; R Lange; A Matheisen; W -D Moller; H -B Peters; D Proch; K Rehlich; H Schlarb; S Schrieber; D Reschke; S Simrock; W Singer; X Singer; K Twarowski; T Weichert; M Wojtkiewicz; G Wendt; K Zapfe; M Liepe; M Huening; M Ferrario; E Plawski; C Pagani; P Kneisel; G Wu; N Baboi; C Thomas; H Chen; W Huang; C Tang; S Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Superstructures, chains of superconducting multi-cell cavities (subunits) connected by e/2 long tube(s) have been proposed as an alternative layout for the TESLA main accelerator [1]. After three years of preparation, two superstructures, each made of two weakly coupled superconducting 7-cell subunits driven by a single Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC), have been installed in the Tesla Test Facility linac for beam tests. Energy stability, HOM damping, frequency and field adjustment methods were tested. The measured results confirme Superstructures, chains of superconducting multi-cell cavities (subunits) connected by e/2 long tube(s) have been proposed as an alternative layout for the TESLA main accelerator [1]. After three years of preparation, two superstructures, each made of two weakly coupled superconducting 7-cell subunits driven by a single Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC), have been installed in the Tesla Test Facility linac for beam tests. Energy stability, HOM damping, frequency and field adjustment methods were tested. The measured results confirmed expectation on the superstructure performance and proved that an alternative layout for the 800 GeV upgrade of the TESLA collider is feasible. We report on the test and give here an overview of its results. The tests confirmed very good damping of HOMs in superstructures and thus has opened a possible new application of this concept to high current energy recovery machines. We have built two 1.5 GHz copper models of two superstructures: 2x5-cells and 2x2-cells to prove further improvement of HOM damping. This contribution presents also measured results on these models. d expectations on the superstructure performance and proved that an alternative layout for the 800 GeV upgrade of the TESLA collider is feasible. We report on the test and give here an overview of its results

  2. Connecting landscape function to hyperspectral reflectance in a dry sub-humid native grassland in southern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy; Apan, Armando; Alchin, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Native grasslands cover over 80% of significant ecosystems in Australia, stretching across arid, semi-arid, tropical, sub-tropical and savannah landscapes. Scales of pastoral operations in Australia range from hundreds of hectares to thousands of square kilometres and are predominately found in regions with highly variable rainfall. Land use is governed by the need to cope with droughts, floods and fires. Resilience to climatic extremes can be attained through effective soil management. Connecting landscape function on the fine scale to broad land management objectives is a critical step in evaluation and requires an understanding of the relevant spectral properties in remotely sensed images. The aim of this study was to assess key landscape function indices across spatial scales in order to examine their correlation with hyperspectral reflectance measurements. The results from this study could be applied as a model for land management centred on remote sensing. The study site is located at Stonehenge (southern Queensland) on a moderately deep texture contrast soil with hard setting gravelly topsoil. Mean annual rainfall of 667 mm supports open forest and native perennial pastures with a diverse biocrust dominated by N-fixing cyanobacteria. Land use history is continuous grazing however; it had been destocked for several years prior to our study. There was some evidence of cattle, kangaroos and feral herbivores (rabbits, deer and goats) although impacts appeared to be minimal. We established four land cover types: native pasture - NP1 (~100% FPC - foliage projective cover), native pasture - NP2 (~50% FPC, 50% biocrust), natural bare soil - BC (>80% biocrust), bare and eroded soil - BE (<1% biocrust). Duplicate 0.25 m2 quadrats of each land cover type were selected contiguous with a 100 m transect across the slope. The quadrats were analysed as five micro-transects with each row consisting of five sub-cells. Stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling indices were

  3. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task: preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects Ativação do córtex frontopolar e temporal anterior em uma tarefa de julgamento moral: resultados preliminares de ressonância magnética funcional em indivíduos normais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moll

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. METHOD: Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either "right" or "wrong". Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ("We break the law when necessary", the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ("Stones are made of water". After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemodynamically modeled for event-related fMRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. RESULTS: Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC, medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (BA 10/46 and 9 were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. CONCLUSIONS: These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct.OBJETIVO: Estudar, com ressonância magnética funcional (RMf, as áreas cerebrais normalmente ativadas por julgamentos morais em tarefa de verificação de sentenças. MÉTODO: Dez adultos normais foram estudados com RMf-BOLD durante a apresentação auditiva de sentenças cujo conteúdo foram instruídos a julgar como "certo" ou "errado". Metade das sentenças possuía um conteúdo moral explícito ("Transgredimos a lei se necess

  4. Generation of a BAC-based physical map of the melon genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigdomènech Pere

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumis melo (melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among horticulture crops is second only to Solanaceae. Melon has high intra-specific genetic variation, morphologic diversity and a small genome size (450 Mb, which make this species suitable for a great variety of molecular and genetic studies that can lead to the development of tools for breeding varieties of the species. A number of genetic and genomic resources have already been developed, such as several genetic maps and BAC genomic libraries. These tools are essential for the construction of a physical map, a valuable resource for map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole genome sequencing data. However, no physical map of any Cucurbitaceae has yet been developed. A project has recently been started to sequence the complete melon genome following a whole-genome shotgun strategy, which makes use of massive sequencing data. A BAC-based melon physical map will be a useful tool to help assemble and refine the draft genome data that is being produced. Results A melon physical map was constructed using a 5.7 × BAC library and a genetic map previously developed in our laboratories. High-information-content fingerprinting (HICF was carried out on 23,040 BAC clones, digesting with five restriction enzymes and SNaPshot labeling, followed by contig assembly with FPC software. The physical map has 1,355 contigs and 441 singletons, with an estimated physical length of 407 Mb (0.9 × coverage of the genome and the longest contig being 3.2 Mb. The anchoring of 845 BAC clones to 178 genetic markers (100 RFLPs, 76 SNPs and 2 SSRs also allowed the genetic positioning of 183 physical map contigs/singletons, representing 55 Mb (12% of the melon genome, to individual chromosomal loci. The melon FPC database is available for download at http://melonomics.upv.es/static/files/public/physical_map/. Conclusions Here we report the construction

  5. Spring outmigration of wild and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, February 6, 1995--June 20, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenden, M.L.; Osborne, R.S.; Kucera, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    For the second consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 6 to June 20, 1995. We PIT tagged and released 421 wild chinook salmon smolts, 747 hatchery chinook salmon smolts (445 HxW and 302 HxH), 227 wild steelhead trout smolts and 1,296 hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 78.4% for wild chinook salmon, 58.9% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxW), 56.6% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxH), 76.2% for wild steelhead trout, and 69.2% for hatchery steelhead trout. Peak outmigration of NPT tagged wild Imnaha River chinook salmon smolts occurred from early to mid-May at Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental Dams. Median and 90% passage dates for wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam were May 1 and May 11, respectively. Continuous spill at Lower Granite Dam was initiated on May 3 and lasted for 51 days. The 90% passage date of wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam (May 11) preceded peak Snake River and Lower Granite (June 6) flows by 26 days. Although hatchery chinook salmon exhibited a shorter outmigration period through the Snake River than their wild counterparts, peak arrival for both groups occurred at approximately the same time. Median and 90% passage dates at Lower Granite Dam for other PIT tagged groups were: hatchery chinook salmon (NPT-HxW) - May 2 and May 13; hatchery chinook salmon (FPC-HxH) - May 8 and May 15; wild steelhead trout - May 2 and May 9; and hatchery steelhead trout (NPT and FPC) - May 31 and June 16. Hatchery steelhead trout displayed small peaks in arrival timing at Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams in mid-May to mid-June

  6. Preparing Landsat Image Time Series (LITS for Monitoring Changes in Vegetation Phenology in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Bhandari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Time series of images are required to extract and separate information on vegetation change due to phenological cycles, inter-annual climatic variability, and long-term trends. While images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM sensor have the spatial and spectral characteristics suited for mapping a range of vegetation structural and compositional properties, its 16-day revisit period combined with cloud cover problems and seasonally limited latitudinal range, limit the availability of images at intervals and durations suitable for time series analysis of vegetation in many parts of the world. Landsat Image Time Series (LITS is defined here as a sequence of Landsat TM images with observations from every 16 days for a five-year period, commencing on July 2003, for a Eucalyptus woodland area in Queensland, Australia. Synthetic Landsat TM images were created using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM algorithm for all dates when images were either unavailable or too cloudy. This was done using cloud-free scenes and a MODIS Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR product. The ability of the LITS to measure attributes of vegetation phenology was examined by: (1 assessing the accuracy of predicted image-derived Foliage Projective Cover (FPC estimates using ground-measured values; and (2 comparing the LITS-generated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and MODIS NDVI (MOD13Q1 time series. The predicted image-derived FPC products (value ranges from 0 to 100% had an RMSE of 5.6. Comparison between vegetation phenology parameters estimated from LITS-generated NDVI and MODIS NDVI showed no significant difference in trend and less than 16 days (equal to the composite period of the MODIS data used difference in key seasonal parameters, including start and end of season in most of the cases. In comparison to similar published work, this paper tested the STARFM algorithm in a new (broadleaf forest environment and also

  7. Forma pulmonar crônica da esquistossomose mansoni: avaliação clínico-radiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lunardi Rocha

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 115 pacientes esquistossomóticos, 31 com radiologia torácica normal sem sinais de hipertensão pulmonar (HP; 73 com alterações radiológicas cardiopulmonares sem sinais de HP e 11 com alterações clínicas de HP. A forma pulmonar crônica (FPC sem HP é de alta incidência e benigna. Nao se associa à forma hepatosplênica (FHE da esquistossomose mansoni, à faixa etária, sexo ou naturalidade. As alterações radiológicas torácicas predominantes são hilares, seguidas das parenquimatosas (micronodulação, especialmente base direita. Associa-se às cargas parasitárias baixa ou média. A FPC com HP é de baixa incidência, mas determina repercussão cardíaca significativa. Associa-se à faixa etária superior a 12 anos e a FHE; não se relaciona ao sexo, cor e naturalidade. As alterações radiológicas torácicas são observadas no hilo e parênquima em igual proporção (arco médio abaulado e micronodulação em ambas as bases.One hundred and fifteen patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni were studied: 31 with a normal chest x-rays and no signs of pulmonary hypertension (PH and 84 with x-rays compatible with cardiopulmonary abnormalities (73 without symptoms and 10 with symptoms of PH. The chronic pulmonary form (CPF without pulmonary hypertension is frequent and benign. There was no association between the CPF and the hepatosplenic form (HEF,nor with age, sex or patient origin. Pulmonary hilum alterations were the most common x-ray findings, followed by parenchymatous abnormalities (micronodules. The CPF was associated with a low to medium worm burden. The incidence of CPF with pulmonary hypertension is low but usually related to significant heart abnormalities. It is more common in patients over 12 years, with the HEF of the disease and has no correlation with sex, race or place of birth. Chest x-ray alterations are seen with similar frequency both in parenchymatous and hilar regions.

  8. Upgrades of the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hungyuan B.; Brugger, R.M.; Rorer, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    The first epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) was installed in 1988 and produced a neutron beam that was satisfactory for the development of NCT with epithermal neutrons. This beam was used routinely until 1992 when the beam was upgraded by rearranging fuel elements in the reactor core to achieve a 50% increase in usable flux. Next, after computer modeling studies, it was proposed that the Al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} moderator material in the shutter that produced the epithermal neutrons could be rearranged to enhance the beam further. However, this modification was not started because a better option appeared, namely to use fission plates to move the source of fission neutrons closer to the moderator and the patient irradiation position to achieve more efficient moderation and production of epithermal neutrons. A fission plate converter (FPC) source has been designed recently and, to test the concept, implementation of this upgrade has started. The predicted beam parameters will be 12 x 10{sup 9} n{sub epi}/cm{sup 2}sec accompanying with doses from fast neutrons and gamma rays per epithermal neutron of 2.8 x 10{sup -11} and < 1 x 10{sup -11} cGycm{sup 2}/n, respectively, and a current-to-flux ratio of epithermal neutrons of 0.78. This conversion could be completed by late 1996.

  9. GDR (Genome Database for Rosaceae): integrated web-database for Rosaceae genomics and genetics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Staton, Margaret; Lee, Taein; Blenda, Anna; Svancara, Randall; Abbott, Albert; Main, Dorrie

    2008-01-01

    The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) is a central repository of curated and integrated genetics and genomics data of Rosaceae, an economically important family which includes apple, cherry, peach, pear, raspberry, rose and strawberry. GDR contains annotated databases of all publicly available Rosaceae ESTs, the genetically anchored peach physical map, Rosaceae genetic maps and comprehensively annotated markers and traits. The ESTs are assembled to produce unigene sets of each genus and the entire Rosaceae. Other annotations include putative function, microsatellites, open reading frames, single nucleotide polymorphisms, gene ontology terms and anchored map position where applicable. Most of the published Rosaceae genetic maps can be viewed and compared through CMap, the comparative map viewer. The peach physical map can be viewed using WebFPC/WebChrom, and also through our integrated GDR map viewer, which serves as a portal to the combined genetic, transcriptome and physical mapping information. ESTs, BACs, markers and traits can be queried by various categories and the search result sites are linked to the mapping visualization tools. GDR also provides online analysis tools such as a batch BLAST/FASTA server for the GDR datasets, a sequence assembly server and microsatellite and primer detection tools. GDR is available at http://www.rosaceae.org.

  10. Pervious concrete using fly ash aggregate as coarse aggregate-an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Subhakanta; Kar, Biswabandita; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2018-05-01

    The present study deals with the fabrication of pervious concrete from fly ash aggregates. The pervious concrete were obtained by the mixture of three different size fly ash aggregates (4.75 mm,9.5 mm,12.5 mm), Portland cement, water with little amount of sand or without sand. Admixtures like Silica fume(SF) and Super plasticizer are added to the mixture to enhance the strength of concrete. Trial being taken on preparation of Fly ash based pervious concrete (FPC) with different w/c ratio i.e. 0.30, 0.35 and 0.40 respectively. Tests such as porosity, permeability and compressive, strength are studied for this concrete material and the result concluded that the concrete when cured for 28 days its compressive strength falls in between 7.15 - 15.74 MPa and permeability 9.38 - 16.07 mm/s with porosity 27.59 - 34.05% and these are suited to be used as for use as an environment friendly concrete.

  11. Potential Evaluation of Solar Heat Assisted Desiccant Hybrid Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thien Nha; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    The solar thermal driven desiccant dehumidification-absorption cooling hybrid system has superior advantage in hot-humid climate regions. The reasonable air processing of desiccant hybrid air conditioning system and the utility of clean and free energy make the system environment friendly and energy efficient. The study investigates the performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning systems with solar thermal assistant. The investigation is performed for three cases which are combinations of solar thermal and absorption cooling systems with different heat supply temperature levels. Two solar thermal systems are used in the study: the flat plate collector (FPC) and the vacuum tube with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The single-effect and high energy efficient double-, triple-effect LiBr-water absorption cooling cycles are considered for cooling systems. COP of desiccant hybrid air conditioning systems are determined. The evaluation of these systems is subsequently performed. The single effect absorption cooling cycle combined with the flat plate collector solar system is found to be the most energy efficient air conditioning system.

  12. A BAC-based physical map of the Drosophila buzzatii genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Josefa; Nefedov, Michael; Bosdet, Ian; Casals, Ferran; Calvete, Oriol; Delprat, Alejandra; Shin, Heesun; Chiu, Readman; Mathewson, Carrie; Wye, Natasja; Hoskins, Roger A.; Schein, JacquelineE.; de Jong, Pieter; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2005-03-18

    Large-insert genomic libraries facilitate cloning of large genomic regions, allow the construction of clone-based physical maps and provide useful resources for sequencing entire genomes. Drosophilabuzzatii is a representative species of the repleta group in the Drosophila subgenus, which is being widely used as a model in studies of genome evolution, ecological adaptation and speciation. We constructed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) genomic library of D. buzzatii using the shuttle vector pTARBAC2.1. The library comprises 18,353 clones with an average insert size of 152 kb and a {approx}18X expected representation of the D. buzzatii euchromatic genome. We screened the entire library with six euchromatic gene probes and estimated the actual genome representation to be {approx}23X. In addition, we fingerprinted by restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis a sample of 9,555 clones, and assembled them using Finger Printed Contigs (FPC) software and manual editing into 345 contigs (mean of 26 clones per contig) and 670singletons. Finally, we anchored 181 large contigs (containing 7,788clones) to the D. buzzatii salivary gland polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization of 427 representative clones. The BAC library and a database with all the information regarding the high coverage BAC-based physical map described in this paper are available to the research community.

  13. Magnetic Diagnosis Upgrade and Analysis for MHD Instabilities on the J-TEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daojing; Hu, Qiming; Zhuang, Ge; Wang, Nengchao; Ding, Yonghua; Tang, Yuejin; Yu, Qingquan; Huazhong University of Science; Technology Team; Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic diagnostic system on the J-TEXT tokamak has been upgraded to measure the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities with diverse bands of frequencies. 12 saddle loop probes and 73 Mirnov probes are newly developed. The fabrication and installment of the new probes are elaborately designed, in consideration of higher spatial resolution and better amplitude-frequency characteristic. In this case, the probes utilize two kinds of novel fabrication craft, one of which is low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC), the other is flexible printed circuit (FPC). A great deal of experiments on the J-TEXT have validated the stability of the new system. Some typical discharges observed by the new diagnostic system are reviewed. In order to extract useful information from raw signals, several efficient signal processing methods are reviewed. An analytical model based on lumped eddy current circuits is used to compensate equilibrium flux and the corresponding eddy current fluxes, a visualization processing based on singular value decomposition (SVD) and cross-power spectrum are applied to detect the mode number. Fusion Science Program of China (Contract Nos. 2015GB111001 and 2014GB108000) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Contract Nos. 11505069 and 11405068).

  14. Development of aircraft lavatory compartments with improved fire resistance characteristics. Phase 4: Sandwich panel decorative ink development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarajan, A.; Johnson, G. A.; Korver, G. L.; Anderson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Five chemically different resin systems with improved fire resistance properties were studied for a possible screenprinting ink application. Fire resistance is hereby defined as the cured ink possessing improvements in flammability, smoke emission, and thermal stability. The developed ink is for application to polyvinyl fluoride film. Only clear inks without pigments were considered. Five formulations were evaluated compared with KC4900 clear acrylic ink, which was used as a baseline. The tests used in the screening evaluation included viscosity, smoke and toxic gas emission, limiting oxygen index (LOI), and polyvinyl fluoride film (PVF) printability. A chlorofluorocarbon resin (FPC461) was selected for optimization studies. The parameters for optimization included screenprinting process performance, quality of coating, and flammability of screenprinted 0.051-mm (0.002-in.) white Tedlar. The quality of the screenprinted coating on Tedlar is dependent on viscosity, curing time, adhesion to polyvinyl fluoride film, drying time (both inscreen and as an applied film), and silk screen mesh material and porosity.

  15. Modafinil alters intrinsic functional connectivity of the right posterior insula: a pharmacological resting state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Cera

    Full Text Available Modafinil is employed for the treatment of narcolepsy and has also been, off-label, used to treat cognitive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. In a previous study, we have reported that single dose administration of modafinil in healthy young subjects enhances fluid reasoning and affects resting state activity in the Fronto Parietal Control (FPC and Dorsal Attention (DAN networks. No changes were found in the Salience Network (SN, a surprising result as the network is involved in the modulation of emotional and fluid reasoning. The insula is crucial hub of the SN and functionally divided in anterior and posterior subregions.Using a seed-based approach, we have now analyzed effects of modafinil on the functional connectivity (FC of insular subregions.Analysis of FC with resting state fMRI (rs-FMRI revealed increased FC between the right posterior insula and the putamen, the superior frontal gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the modafinil-treated group.Modafinil is considered a putative cognitive enhancer. The rs-fMRI modifications that we have found are consistent with the drug cognitive enhancing properties and indicate subregional targets of action.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684306.

  16. Effect of the Tuner on the Field Flatness of SNS Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, A

    2004-01-01

    Field flatness in a multi-cell superconducting cavity affects not only the net accelerating voltage, but also the peak surface field and the Lorenz Force detuning coefficient. Our measurement indicates that the field flatness changes both external Q of the Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC) and external Q of the Field Probe (FP). The field amplitude tilts linearly to the distance between the cell center and the cavity’s geometry center (pivot point). The tilt rate has been measured in a cryomodule cold (2 K) test, being about 2%/100 kHz, relative the field flatness at the cavity’s center frequency of 805 MHz. Bead-pull measurements confirmed that the field flatness change is 2.0%/100 kHz for a medium β cavity with helium vessel, and 1.72%/100 kHz without helium vessel. These results matched the predictions of simulations using ANSYS and SUPERFISH. A detailed analysis reveals that longitudinal capacitive gap deformation is the main cause of the frequency change. Field flatness change ...

  17. Optimal Coordinated Management of a Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Station under a Flexible Penalty Contract for Voltage Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jip Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs may cause a low-voltage problem in the distribution network. In particular, the introduction of charging stations where multiple PEVs are simultaneously charged at the same bus can aggravate the low-voltage problem. Unlike a distribution network operator (DNO who has the overall responsibility for stable and reliable network operation, a charging station operator (CSO may schedule PEV charging without consideration for the resulting severe voltage drop. Therefore, there is a need for the DNO to impose a coordination measure to induce the CSO to adjust its charging schedule to help mitigate the voltage problem. Although the current time-of-use (TOU tariff is an indirect coordination measure that can motivate the CSO to shift its charging demand to off-peak time by imposing a high rate at the peak time, it is limited by its rigidity in that the network voltage condition cannot be flexibly reflected in the tariff. Therefore, a flexible penalty contract (FPC for voltage security to be used as a direct coordination measure is proposed. In addition, the optimal coordinated management is formulated. Using the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E 69-bus test distribution network, the effectiveness of the coordination was verified by comparison with the current TOU tariff.

  18. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Broyan, James L.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas; Casteel, Michael; Callahan, Michael; Carrier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project (UPA PPP), multiple technologies were explored to prevent CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum) precipitation during the on-orbit distillation process. Gypsum precipitation currently limits the water recovery rate onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to 70% versus the planned 85% target water recovery rate. Due to its ability to remove calcium cations in pretreated augmented urine (PTAU), ion exchange was selected as one of the technologies for further development by the PPP team. A total of 13 ion exchange resins were evaluated in various equilibrium and dynamic column tests with solutions of dissolved gypsum, urine ersatz, PTAU, and PTAU brine at 85% water recovery. While initial evaluations indicated that the Purolite SST60 resin had the highest calcium capacity in PTAU (0.30 meq/mL average), later tests showed that the Dowex G26 and Amberlite FPC12H resins had the highest capacity (0.5 meq/mL average). Testing at the Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) integrates the ion exchange technology with a UPA ground article under flight-like pulsed flow conditions with PTAU. To date, no gypsum precipitation has taken place in any of the initial evaluations.

  19. Federal regulation of the pipeline industry: a summary review. [Effects on use of energy-conservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-05-31

    The principal purposes of this report are: (1) identification of the jurisdiction areas of the Federal pipeline-regulating agencies, and (2) examination of the amenability of the regulatory system to the introduction of energy-conservative new technology into the pipeline industry. The history, scope, and agency structure of state and Federal regulation are recounted and some gaps, overlaps, and ambiguities are identified. The only significant inhibitory effects upon technological innovation are found to derive from the FPC and ICC limits upon profit, the 1941 Justice Department consent decree limiting dividends to shipper-owned pipelines, and the income tax rules governing recovery of investment credits and startup losses. Effects of these limits are explored by simulation studies using the Systems, Science and Software pipeline economic model (PEM). Two new concepts of regulation are proposed which would neutralize the inhibitory effect of the present regulatory system and would motivate pipeline operators to conserve energy: (1) use of a ''national equivalent value'' in the economic tradeoff analyses which justify entry of a technological innovation into the rate base (valuation), and (2) a ''valuation allowance'' which would reverse the presently often-existing situation and insure that the pipeline operator would realize a greater profit from saving energy than from wasting it.

  20. Adhesion mechanisms of nanoparticle silver to substrate materials: identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Sungchul; Baldwin, Daniel F

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticle silver (NPS) conductors are increasingly being investigated for printed electronics applications. However, the adhesion mechanism of the nanoparticle silver to substrate materials has not been identified yet. In particular, the adhesion of NPS to organic materials such as the widely used polyimide Kapton HN and Kapton FPC dry films is concerned with low adhesion strength because the processed polymer surface is chemically inert. Moreover, its adhesion to substrate materials such as benzocyclobutene (BCB), copper and aluminum was found to be very weak. Therefore, in this paper, the mechanisms of NPS adhesion to organic and inorganic materials are identified as the first step in improving NPS adhesion strength. Improving the adhesion strength of NPS will be the key issue for printed electronics applications. The adhesion of NPS to substrate materials was found to be mainly attributed to van der Waals forces based on particle adhesion mechanisms. This finding provides the initiative of developing an adhesion prediction model of NPS to substrate materials in order to provide guidelines for improving the NPS adhesion strength to the substrate materials used in printed electronics.

  1. Compressive Sensing with Cross-Validation and Stop-Sampling for Sparse Polynomial Chaos Expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huan, Xun; Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Vane, Zachary Phillips; Lacaze, Guilhem; Oefelein, Joseph C.; Najm, Habib N.

    2017-07-01

    Compressive sensing is a powerful technique for recovering sparse solutions of underdetermined linear systems, which is often encountered in uncertainty quanti cation analysis of expensive and high-dimensional physical models. We perform numerical investigations employing several com- pressive sensing solvers that target the unconstrained LASSO formulation, with a focus on linear systems that arise in the construction of polynomial chaos expansions. With core solvers of l1 ls, SpaRSA, CGIST, FPC AS, and ADMM, we develop techniques to mitigate over tting through an automated selection of regularization constant based on cross-validation, and a heuristic strategy to guide the stop-sampling decision. Practical recommendations on parameter settings for these tech- niques are provided and discussed. The overall method is applied to a series of numerical examples of increasing complexity, including large eddy simulations of supersonic turbulent jet-in-cross flow involving a 24-dimensional input. Through empirical phase-transition diagrams and convergence plots, we illustrate sparse recovery performance under structures induced by polynomial chaos, accuracy and computational tradeoffs between polynomial bases of different degrees, and practi- cability of conducting compressive sensing for a realistic, high-dimensional physical application. Across test cases studied in this paper, we find ADMM to have demonstrated empirical advantages through consistent lower errors and faster computational times.

  2. ATM-deficiency increases genomic instability and metastatic potential in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Yiannis; Escobar, David; Chiang, Ming-Yi; Roys, Kathryn; Valentine, Virginia; Valentine, Marc B; Rehg, Jerold E; Sahai, Vaibhav; Begley, Lesa A; Ye, Jianming; Paul, Leena; McKinnon, Peter J; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz

    2017-09-11

    Germline mutations in ATM (encoding the DNA-damage signaling kinase, ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated) increase Familial Pancreatic Cancer (FPC) susceptibility, and ATM somatic mutations have been identified in resected human pancreatic tumors. Here we investigated how Atm contributes to pancreatic cancer by deleting this gene in a murine model of the disease expressing oncogenic Kras (Kras G12D ). We show that partial or total ATM deficiency cooperates with Kras G12D to promote highly metastatic pancreatic cancer. We also reveal that ATM is activated in pancreatic precancerous lesions in the context of DNA damage and cell proliferation, and demonstrate that ATM deficiency leads to persistent DNA damage in both precancerous lesions and primary tumors. Using low passage cultures from primary tumors and liver metastases we show that ATM loss accelerates Kras-induced carcinogenesis without conferring a specific phenotype to pancreatic tumors or changing the status of the tumor suppressors p53, p16 Ink4a and p19 Arf . However, ATM deficiency markedly increases the proportion of chromosomal alterations in pancreatic primary tumors and liver metastases. More importantly, ATM deficiency also renders murine pancreatic tumors highly sensitive to radiation. These and other findings in our study conclusively establish that ATM activity poses a major barrier to oncogenic transformation in the pancreas via maintaining genomic stability.

  3. Electric utilities and the demand for natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uri, N D; Atkinson, S

    1976-03-01

    The scarcity of natural gas has given rise to a series of priorities of deliveries based on end use and drafted by the Federal Power Commission. The U.S. Supreme Court, on June 7, 1972, held that the Commission has jurisdiction over curtailments in the service of gas in interstate commerce to both resale and direct industrial customers. This decision reversed a Fifth Circuit Court ruling that protected direct industrial customers from curtailments. The FPC priority curtailments are classed from 1 to 9, for which electric utilities are concentrated in classes 4 to 9. As weather conditions become more severe, not only do the residential and commercial consumers demand more electrical energy, they also demand more natural gas. The result is that there is less natural gas available for electric utilities to use for generation so they change to an alternative fuel. A demand model for the short term for natural gas for electric utilities is given; primary factors involve the price of natural gas, the prices of substitute fuels, and the demand for electrical energy by the various consumer classes. (MCW)

  4. Battery-Free Smart Sock for Abnormal Relative Plantar Pressure Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoyou; Seet, Boon-Chong

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new design of a wearable plantar pressure monitoring system in the form of a smart sock for sensing abnormal relative pressure changes. One advantage of this approach is that with a battery-free design, this system can be powered solely by radio frequency (RF) energy harvested from a radio frequency identification (RFID) reader unit hosted on a smartphone of the wearer. At the same time, this RFID reader can read foot pressure values from an embedded sensor-tag in the sock. A pressure sensing matrix made of conductive fabric and flexible piezo-resistive material is integrated into the sock during the knitting process. Sensed foot pressures are digitized and stored in the memory of a sensor-tag, thus allowing relative foot pressure values to be tracked. The control unit of the smart sock is assembled on a flexible printed circuit board (FPC) that can be strapped to the lower limb and detached easily when it is not in use. Experiments show that the system can operate reliably in both tasks of RF energy harvesting and pressure measurement.

  5. Community Characteristics and Leaf Stoichiometric Traits of Desert Ecosystems Regulated by Precipitation and Soil in an Arid Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tianyu; Zhou, Jihua; Cai, Wentao; Gao, Nannan; Du, Hui; Jiang, Lianhe; Lai, Liming; Zheng, Yuanrun

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation is a key environmental factor determining plant community structure and function. Knowledge of how community characteristics and leaf stoichiometric traits respond to variation in precipitation is crucial for assessing the effects of global changes on terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we measured community characteristics, leaf stoichiometric traits, and soil properties along a precipitation gradient (35–209 mm) in a desert ecosystem of Northwest China to explore the drivers of these factors. With increasing precipitation, species richness, aboveground biomass, community coverage, foliage projective cover (FPC), and leaf area index (LAI) all significantly increased, while community height decreased. The hyperarid desert plants were characterized by lower leaf carbon (C) and nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) levels, and stable N and P, and these parameters did not change significantly with precipitation. The growth of desert plants was limited more by N than P. Soil properties, rather than precipitation, were the main drivers of desert plant leaf stoichiometric traits, whereas precipitation made the biggest contribution to vegetation structure and function. These results test the importance of precipitation in regulating plant community structure and composition together with soil properties, and provide further insights into the adaptive strategy of communities at regional scale in response to global climate change. PMID:29320458

  6. Community Characteristics and Leaf Stoichiometric Traits of Desert Ecosystems Regulated by Precipitation and Soil in an Arid Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Guan, Tianyu; Zhou, Jihua; Cai, Wentao; Gao, Nannan; Du, Hui; Jiang, Lianhe; Lai, Liming; Zheng, Yuanrun

    2018-01-10

    Precipitation is a key environmental factor determining plant community structure and function. Knowledge of how community characteristics and leaf stoichiometric traits respond to variation in precipitation is crucial for assessing the effects of global changes on terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we measured community characteristics, leaf stoichiometric traits, and soil properties along a precipitation gradient (35-209 mm) in a desert ecosystem of Northwest China to explore the drivers of these factors. With increasing precipitation, species richness, aboveground biomass, community coverage, foliage projective cover (FPC), and leaf area index (LAI) all significantly increased, while community height decreased. The hyperarid desert plants were characterized by lower leaf carbon (C) and nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) levels, and stable N and P, and these parameters did not change significantly with precipitation. The growth of desert plants was limited more by N than P. Soil properties, rather than precipitation, were the main drivers of desert plant leaf stoichiometric traits, whereas precipitation made the biggest contribution to vegetation structure and function. These results test the importance of precipitation in regulating plant community structure and composition together with soil properties, and provide further insights into the adaptive strategy of communities at regional scale in response to global climate change.

  7. Novel and conventional working fluid mixtures for solar Rankine cycles: Performance assessment and multi-criteria selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrou, Paschalia; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I.; Stijepovic, Mirko Z.; Seferlis, Panos; Linke, Patrick; Voutetakis, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of working fluid mixtures for use in solar ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems) with heat storage employing FPC (Flat Plate Collectors). Several mixtures are considered including conventional choices often utilized in ORC as well as novel mixtures previously designed using advanced computer aided molecular design methods (Papadopoulos et al., 2013). The impact of heat source variability on the ORC performance is assessed for different working fluid mixtures. Solar radiation is represented in detail through actual, hourly averaged data for an entire year. A multi-criteria mixture selection methodology unveils important trade-offs among several important system operating parameters and efficiently highlights optimum operating ranges. Such parameters include the ORC thermal efficiency, the net generated power, the volume ratio across the turbine, the mass flow rate of the ORC working fluid, the evaporator temperature glide, the temperature drop in the storage tank, the ORC total yearly operating duration, the required collector aperture area to generate 1 kW of power and the irreversibility. A mixture of neopentane – 2-fluoromethoxy-2-methylpropane at 70% neopentane is found to be the most efficient in all the considered criteria simultaneously. - Highlights: • Investigation of novel and conventional working fluid mixtures for solar ORCs. • Systematic, multi-criteria assessment methodology for mixture selection. • Simultaneous consideration of multiple important mixture performance criteria. • Effects of year-round solar variability in a solar ORC with heat storage tank

  8. Demonstrating the efficiency of the EFPC criterion by means of Sensitivity analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, Raymond

    2007-04-01

    Within the framework of a project to characterise large fractures, a modelling effort was initiated to evaluate the use of a pair of full perimeter criteria, FPC and EFPC, for detecting fractures that could jeopardize the integrity of the canisters in the case of a large nearby earthquake. Though some sensitivity studies were performed in the method study of these mainly targeted aspects of Monte-Carlo simulations. The impact of uncertainties in the DFN model upon the efficiency of the FPI criteria was left unattended. The main purpose of this report is, therefore, to explore the impact of DFN variability upon the efficiency of the FPI criteria. The outcome of the present report may thus be regarded as complementary analyses to the ones presented in SKB-R-06-54. To appreciate the details of the present report, the reader should be acquainted with the simulation procedure described the earlier report. The most important conclusion of this study is that the efficiency of the EFPC is high for all tested model variants. That is, compared to blind deposition, the EFPC is a very powerful tool to identify unsuitable deposition holes and it is essentially insensitive to variations in the DFN Model. If information from adjacent tunnels is used in addition to EFPC, then the probability of detecting a critical deposition hole is almost 100%

  9. Molten salt destruction as an alternative to open burning of energetic material wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput unit to test the destruction of energetic materials using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process. We have modified the unit described in the earlier references to inject energetic waste material continuously into the unit. In addition to the HMX, other explosives we have destroyed include RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. We have also destroyed a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyl ammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, we have destroyed a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10 (HMX/Viton), LX-16 (PETN/FPC461, LX-17 (TATB/Kel F), and PBX-9404 (HMX)/CEF/Nitro cellulose). Our experiments have demonstrated that energetic materials can be safely and effectively treated by MSD.We have also investigated the issue of steam explosions in molten salt units, both experimentally and theoretically, and concluded that steam explosions can be avoided under proper design and operating conditions. We are currently building a larger unit (nominal capacity 5 kg/hr,) to investigate the relationship between residence time, temperature, feed concentration and throughputs, avoidance of back-burn, a;nd determination of the products of combustion under different operating conditions

  10. The effect of the FPI-rule on the suitability of the KBS-3H concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkarinen, M.

    2014-12-01

    In the KBS-3H design the spent nuclear fuel canisters are placed in horizontal depositions drifts. In this work the degree of utilization, the number of placed canisters, the number of canisters in critical positions, and other related figures are estimated with Monte Carlo simulations. For comparison, the results are also computed for the KBS-3V design, where the canisters are placed in vertical deposition holes below tunnels. Different FPI criteria are evaluated for their performance in detecting the critical positions, i.e. positions where the super-container of the canister intersects a fracture with diameter over 150 m. Two different canister placement algorithms are considered, and the simulations are run with and without considering modeled site scale fault zones. The simple FPI criterion, where all full perimeter intersections are considered critical, was found overly conservative, leading to low degree of utilization (46-73 %). FPI criteria that require that a fracture is an FPI in multiple drifts are better, although the degree of utilization is still poor at the outskirts of the repository. The number of canisters in critical position is also 2-20 times as large as with the simple criterion. In KBS-3V design the criteria reject a much smaller number of canister positions, because the number of FPIs is smaller. A larger number of canisters are placed in critical position in KBS-3V design, because the FPC cannot detect the large fractures below the tunnels. (orig.)

  11. Altered organization of GABAA receptor mRNA expression in the depressed suicide brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O Poulter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inter-relationships ordinarily exist between mRNA expression of GABA-A subunits in the frontopolar cortex (FPC of individuals that had died suddenly from causes other than suicide. However, these correlations were largely absent in persons that had died by suicide. In the present investigation, these findings were extended by examining GABA-A receptor expression patterns (of controls and depressed individuals that died by suicide in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC, hippocampus, amygdala. locus coeruleus (LC,and paraventricular nucleus (PVN, all of which have been implicated in either depression, anxiety or stress responsivity. Results Using QPCR analysis, we found that in controls the inter-relations between GABA-A subunits varied across brain regions, being high in the hippocampus and amygdala, intermediate in the LC, and low in the OFC and PVN. The GABA-A subunit inter-relations were markedly different in persons that died by suicide, being reduced in hippocampus and amygdala, stable in the LC, but more coordinated in the OFC and to some extent in the PVN. Conclusions It seems that altered brain region-specific inhibitory signaling, stemming from altered GABA-A subunit coordination, are associated with depression/suicide. Although, it is unknown whether GABA-A subunit re-organization was specifically tied to depression, suicide, or the accompanying distress, these data show that the co-ordinate expression of this transcriptome does vary depending on brain region and is plastic.

  12. A 3D clustering approach for point clouds to detect and quantify changes at a rock glacier front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, Natan; Tonini, Marj; Lane, Stuart N.

    2016-04-01

    points (i) at a maximum distance (ii) around each core-point. Under this condition, seed points are said to be density-reachable by a core point delimiting a cluster around it. A chain of intermediate seed-points can connect contiguous clusters allowing clusters of arbitrary shape to be defined. The novelty of the proposed approach consists in the implementation of the DBSCAN 3D-module, where the xyz-coordinates identify each point and the density of points within a sphere is considered. This allows detecting volumetric features with a higher accuracy, depending only on actual sampling resolution. The approach is truly 3D and exploits all TLS measurements without the need of interpolation or data reduction. Using this method, enhanced geomorphological activity during the summer of 2015 in respect to the previous two years was observed. We attribute this result to the exceptionally high temperatures of that summer, which we deem responsible for accelerating the melting process at the rock glacier front and probably also increasing creep velocities. References: - Tonini, M. and Abellan, A. (2014). Rockfall detection from terrestrial LiDAR point clouds: A clustering approach using R. Journal of Spatial Information Sciences. Number 8, pp95-110 - Hennig, C. Package fpc: Flexible procedures for clustering. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/fpc/index.html, 2015. Accessed 2016-01-12.

  13. Using observations in deposition tunnels to avoid intersections with critical fractures in deposition holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond

    2006-04-15

    We evaluate the efficiency of utilising a Full Perimeter Intersection (hereafter denoted FPI) criterion, for identifying discriminating fractures in deposition tunnels and deposition holes. We also evaluate the consequences of using FPI, expressed in terms of the degree of utilisation. This is achieved by means of stochastic fracture simulation consisting of two steps. The first consists of computing intersection statistics between the tunnel and the fracture array. The second step consists of computing the degree of utilisation based on the statistics derived from the first step. We base our simulations upon the DFN models produced for the Laxemar and Forsmark study sites, versions 1.2. We anticipate that these models will mature further within the framework of SKB's on-going site investigations and Site Modelling (versions 2.2 and onwards) and though we here discuss the impact of various DFN parameters on our results, it is beyond the scope of the work presented here to evaluate the validity of the published models. The DFN models have been used with no modifications and accepted as they were published. The uncertainties presented here thus mirror the uncertainties of the DFN models.The consequence of using the FPC has been quantified in terms of degree of utilisation which was judged reasonable. The degree of utilisation is higher in Forsmark as compared to Laxemar due to, mainly; the latter's higher intensity of the steep fracture sets in the studied size interval. The FPC was found insufficient to detect all potentially discriminating fractures. It needed to be complemented and we defined a new criterion, EFPC, to also address large fractures in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel, which remain undetected by tunnel mapping. We here proposed a criterion consisting in discriminating also all fractures that intersect 5 or more canister positions. The use of EFPC decreased the degree of utilisation further, though we still judge it to be reasonable. A

  14. Using observations in deposition tunnels to avoid intersections with critical fractures in deposition holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, Raymond

    2006-04-01

    We evaluate the efficiency of utilising a Full Perimeter Intersection (hereafter denoted FPI) criterion, for identifying discriminating fractures in deposition tunnels and deposition holes. We also evaluate the consequences of using FPI, expressed in terms of the degree of utilisation. This is achieved by means of stochastic fracture simulation consisting of two steps. The first consists of computing intersection statistics between the tunnel and the fracture array. The second step consists of computing the degree of utilisation based on the statistics derived from the first step. We base our simulations upon the DFN models produced for the Laxemar and Forsmark study sites, versions 1.2. We anticipate that these models will mature further within the framework of SKB's on-going site investigations and Site Modelling (versions 2.2 and onwards) and though we here discuss the impact of various DFN parameters on our results, it is beyond the scope of the work presented here to evaluate the validity of the published models. The DFN models have been used with no modifications and accepted as they were published. The uncertainties presented here thus mirror the uncertainties of the DFN models.The consequence of using the FPC has been quantified in terms of degree of utilisation which was judged reasonable. The degree of utilisation is higher in Forsmark as compared to Laxemar due to, mainly; the latter's higher intensity of the steep fracture sets in the studied size interval. The FPC was found insufficient to detect all potentially discriminating fractures. It needed to be complemented and we defined a new criterion, EFPC, to also address large fractures in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel, which remain undetected by tunnel mapping. We here proposed a criterion consisting in discriminating also all fractures that intersect 5 or more canister positions. The use of EFPC decreased the degree of utilisation further, though we still judge it to be reasonable. A substantial

  15. The research design: a proposal for integration in the third year of the program of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marbelia Cantillo Vento

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a future competent graduate from the Faculty of Physical Culture (FPC, it is important to develop a high quality teaching, where the evaluation is the component of the PDE, that allows issuing a valuable judgment about the appropriation of knowledge. Under the assumption that the evaluation is «a complex and continuous process of assessment of pedagogical situations, their results and the contexts and conditions in which they occur. In this framework, we propose the significance and meaning of «integrative evaluation», which is a privileged integrator moment in the process of construction of scholar knowledge. Even if, the integrative evaluation may be considered in a clearly differentiated moment, its construction may face a procedural and final character. Taking this definition as a starting point and taking into consideration the major shortcomings shown in previous exercises, we find that there are: -limitations when addressing the evaluations, that aim a content integration, -insufficient integration of previous knowledge knowledge and the role of the students, -poor guidance to follow the logic of the systematic principle, and the spiral evolution of knowledge by transferring the knowledge to new situations, -difficulties in building a reflective and creative thinking, that allows the student to «get to the core», by establishing links and relationships, necessary to apply the content to social practice, so that it gives solutions to problems in general. The following investigation aim to find an approach to a more efficient and integrating exam in the third year of the program of Physical Culture.

  16. The physical and genetic framework of the maize B73 genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusheng Wei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Maize is a major cereal crop and an important model system for basic biological research. Knowledge gained from maize research can also be used to genetically improve its grass relatives such as sorghum, wheat, and rice. The primary objective of the Maize Genome Sequencing Consortium (MGSC was to generate a reference genome sequence that was integrated with both the physical and genetic maps. Using a previously published integrated genetic and physical map, combined with in-coming maize genomic sequence, new sequence-based genetic markers, and an optical map, we dynamically picked a minimum tiling path (MTP of 16,910 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC and fosmid clones that were used by the MGSC to sequence the maize genome. The final MTP resulted in a significantly improved physical map that reduced the number of contigs from 721 to 435, incorporated a total of 8,315 mapped markers, and ordered and oriented the majority of FPC contigs. The new integrated physical and genetic map covered 2,120 Mb (93% of the 2,300-Mb genome, of which 405 contigs were anchored to the genetic map, totaling 2,103.4 Mb (99.2% of the 2,120 Mb physical map. More importantly, 336 contigs, comprising 94.0% of the physical map ( approximately 1,993 Mb, were ordered and oriented. Finally we used all available physical, sequence, genetic, and optical data to generate a golden path (AGP of chromosome-based pseudomolecules, herein referred to as the B73 Reference Genome Sequence version 1 (B73 RefGen_v1.

  17. Neural activity in ventral medial prefrontal cortex is modulated more before approach than avoidance during reinforced and extinction trial blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Ronny N; Roesch, Matthew R

    2018-04-16

    Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is thought to provide regulatory control over Pavlovian fear responses and has recently been implicated in appetitive approach behavior, but much less is known about its role in contexts where appetitive and aversive outcomes can be obtained and avoided, respectively. To address this issue, we recorded from single neurons in vmPFC while male rats performed our combined approach and avoidance task under reinforced and non-reinforced (extinction) conditions. Surprisingly, we found that cues predicting reward modulated cell firing in vmPFC more often and more robustly than cues preceding avoidable shock; additionally, firing of vmPFC neurons was both response (press or no-press) and outcome (reinforced or extinction) selective. These results suggest a complex role for vmPFC in regulating behavior and supports its role in appetitive contexts during both reinforced and non-reinforced conditions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Selecting context-appropriate behaviors to gain reward or avoid punishment is critical for survival. While the role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in mediating fear responses is well-established, vmPFC has also been implicated in the regulation of reward-guided approach and extinction. Many studies have used indirect methods and simple behavioral procedures to study vmPFC, which leaves the literature incomplete. We recorded vmFPC neural activity during a complex cue-driven combined approach and avoidance task and during extinction. Surprisingly, we found very little vmPFC modulation to cues predicting avoidable shock, while cues predicting reward approach robustly modulated vmPFC firing in a response- and outcome-selective manner. This suggests a more complex role for vmPFC than current theories suggest, specifically regarding context-specific behavioral optimization. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  18. GDR (Genome Database for Rosaceae: integrated web resources for Rosaceae genomics and genetics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ficklin Stephen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peach is being developed as a model organism for Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes fruits and ornamental plants such as apple, pear, strawberry, cherry, almond and rose. The genomics and genetics data of peach can play a significant role in the gene discovery and the genetic understanding of related species. The effective utilization of these peach resources, however, requires the development of an integrated and centralized database with associated analysis tools. Description The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR is a curated and integrated web-based relational database. GDR contains comprehensive data of the genetically anchored peach physical map, an annotated peach EST database, Rosaceae maps and markers and all publicly available Rosaceae sequences. Annotations of ESTs include contig assembly, putative function, simple sequence repeats, and anchored position to the peach physical map where applicable. Our integrated map viewer provides graphical interface to the genetic, transcriptome and physical mapping information. ESTs, BACs and markers can be queried by various categories and the search result sites are linked to the integrated map viewer or to the WebFPC physical map sites. In addition to browsing and querying the database, users can compare their sequences with the annotated GDR sequences via a dedicated sequence similarity server running either the BLAST or FASTA algorithm. To demonstrate the utility of the integrated and fully annotated database and analysis tools, we describe a case study where we anchored Rosaceae sequences to the peach physical and genetic map by sequence similarity. Conclusions The GDR has been initiated to meet the major deficiency in Rosaceae genomics and genetics research, namely a centralized web database and bioinformatics tools for data storage, analysis and exchange. GDR can be accessed at http://www.genome.clemson.edu/gdr/.

  19. GDR (Genome Database for Rosaceae): integrated web resources for Rosaceae genomics and genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Jesudurai, Christopher; Staton, Margaret; Du, Zhidian; Ficklin, Stephen; Cho, Ilhyung; Abbott, Albert; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Main, Dorrie

    2004-09-09

    Peach is being developed as a model organism for Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes fruits and ornamental plants such as apple, pear, strawberry, cherry, almond and rose. The genomics and genetics data of peach can play a significant role in the gene discovery and the genetic understanding of related species. The effective utilization of these peach resources, however, requires the development of an integrated and centralized database with associated analysis tools. The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database. GDR contains comprehensive data of the genetically anchored peach physical map, an annotated peach EST database, Rosaceae maps and markers and all publicly available Rosaceae sequences. Annotations of ESTs include contig assembly, putative function, simple sequence repeats, and anchored position to the peach physical map where applicable. Our integrated map viewer provides graphical interface to the genetic, transcriptome and physical mapping information. ESTs, BACs and markers can be queried by various categories and the search result sites are linked to the integrated map viewer or to the WebFPC physical map sites. In addition to browsing and querying the database, users can compare their sequences with the annotated GDR sequences via a dedicated sequence similarity server running either the BLAST or FASTA algorithm. To demonstrate the utility of the integrated and fully annotated database and analysis tools, we describe a case study where we anchored Rosaceae sequences to the peach physical and genetic map by sequence similarity. The GDR has been initiated to meet the major deficiency in Rosaceae genomics and genetics research, namely a centralized web database and bioinformatics tools for data storage, analysis and exchange. GDR can be accessed at http://www.genome.clemson.edu/gdr/.

  20. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The CE marking in the dimension stone sector: difficulties, contradictions, possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavori, Piero

    2017-04-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the CPR 305/11, no stone products (covered by harmonized standards) can be introduced in the EU market, irrespective of their country of origin, unless they are supported with a Declaration of Performance (DoP) and CE certificate (= CE Marking). The CE marking became compulsory for all stone and marble products as early as 2003, under the legal framework of the CPD 89/106/CE, the EU Directive which, on July 1st, 2013, has been officially replaced by the CPR 305/11. The CE Marking of construction products has been described as one of the most significant change being faced by the construction industry for a decade. Nevertheless, after thirteen years from the introduction of the first products standard, serious difficulties for the CE Marking application still exist. The aim of this contribution is to draw the attention on the effective meaningfulness, applicability and reliability of the CE Marking, on the related aspects for the economic operators (manufacturers, authorized representatives, importers, distributors etc.) and, most of all, for the customers. The following topics and issues are dealt with: - Criteria of the mandatory tests; - Criteria for testing procedures (meaningfulness/reliability/frequency of the TT); - Non-applicability of the testing methods in particular circumstances; - Economic aspects for the companies; - Interpretation of the FPC philosophy; - Formulation of the finished products standards; - Traceability criteria of the stone material; - Threshold-values for the acceptance of a stone material; - Guarantees for the manufacturers and for the customers; - Effective precision and reliability of the DoP and related consequences for manufacturers and customers.

  2. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Human Cerebellar Pathways and their Interplay with Cerebral Macrostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer eKeser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar white matter connections to the central nervous system are classified functionally into the spinocerebellar, vestibulocerebellar, and cerebrocerebellar subdivisions. The Spinocerebellar (SC pathways project from spinal cord to cerebellum, whereas the vestibulocerebellar (VC pathways project from vestibular organs of the inner ear. Cerebrocerebellar connections are composed of feed forward and feedback connections between cerebrum and cerebellum including the cortico-ponto-cerebellar (CPC pathways being of cortical origin and the dentate-rubro-thalamo-cortical (DRTC pathway being of cerebellar origin. In this study we systematically quantified the whole cerebellar system connections using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI. Ten right-handed healthy subjects (7 males and 3 females, age range 20-51 years were studied. DT-MRI data were acquired with a voxel size = 2mm x 2mm x 2 mm at a 3.0 Tesla clinical MRI scanner. The DT-MRI data were prepared and analyzed using anatomically-guided deterministic tractography methods to reconstruct the SC, DRTC, fronto-ponto-cerebellar (FPC, parieto-ponto-cerebellar (PPC, temporo-ponto-cerebellar (TPC and occipito-ponto-cerebellar (OPC. The DTI-attributes or the cerebellar tracts along with their cortical representation (Brodmann areas were presented in standard Montréal Neurological Institute space. All cerebellar tract volumes were quantified and correlated with volumes of cerebral cortical, subcortical gray matter (GM, cerebral white matter (WM and cerebellar GM, and cerebellar WM. On our healthy cohort, the ratio of total cerebellar GM-to-WM was ~ 3.29 ± 0.24, whereas the ratio of cerebral GM-to-WM was approximately 1.10 ± 0.11. The sum of all cerebellar tract volumes is ~ 25.8 ± 7.3 mL, or a percentage of 1.52 ± 0.43 of the total intracranial volume.

  3. Optical links in handheld multimedia devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, S.; Duis, J.; Miller, R.

    2008-04-01

    Ever emerging applications in handheld multimedia devices such as mobile phones, laptop computers, portable video games and digital cameras requiring increased screen resolutions are driving higher aggregate bitrates between host processor and display(s) enabling services such as mobile video conferencing, video on demand and TV broadcasting. Larger displays and smaller phones require complex mechanical 3D hinge configurations striving to combine maximum functionality with compact building volumes. Conventional galvanic interconnections such as Micro-Coax and FPC carrying parallel digital data between host processor and display module may produce Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and bandwidth limitations caused by small cable size and tight cable bends. To reduce the number of signals through a hinge, the mobile phone industry, organized in the MIPI (Mobile Industry Processor Interface) alliance, is currently defining an electrical interface transmitting serialized digital data at speeds >1Gbps. This interface allows for electrical or optical interconnects. Above 1Gbps optical links may offer a cost effective alternative because of their flexibility, increased bandwidth and immunity to EMI. This paper describes the development of optical links for handheld communication devices. A cable assembly based on a special Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) selected for its mechanical durability is terminated with a small form factor molded lens assembly which interfaces between an 850nm VCSEL transmitter and a receiving device on the printed circuit board of the display module. A statistical approach based on a Lean Design For Six Sigma (LDFSS) roadmap for new product development tries to find an optimum link definition which will be robust and low cost meeting the power consumption requirements appropriate for battery operated systems.

  4. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) fusion reactor study is a multi-institutional research effort to determine the technical feasibility and key developmental issues of an RFP fusion reactor, especially at high power density, and to determine the potential economics, operations, safety, and environmental features of high-mass-power-density fusion systems. The TITAN conceptual designs are DT burning, 1000 MWe power reactors based on the RFP confinement concept. The designs are compact, have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m 2 and a mass power density of 700 kWe/tonne. The inherent characteristics of the RFP confinement concept make fusion reactors with such a high mass power density possible. Two different detailed designs have emerged: the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium design, incorporating the integrated-blanket-coil concept; and the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design with ferritic steel structure. This report contains a collection of 16 papers on the results of the TITAN study which were presented at the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology. This collection describes the TITAN research effort, and specifically the TITAN-I and TITAN-II designs, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions and recommendations. Overall, the basic conclusions are that high-mass power-density fusion reactors appear to be technically feasible even with neutron wall loadings up to 20 MW/m 2 ; that single-piece maintenance of the FPC is possible and advantageous; that the economics of the reactor is enhanced by its compactness; and the safety and environmental features need not to be sacrificed in high-power-density designs. The fact that two design approaches have emerged, and others may also be possible, in some sense indicates the robustness of the general findings

  5. Exploring neural dysfunction in 'clinical high risk' for psychosis: a quantitative review of fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Anirban; Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Fonville, Leon; Drakesmith, Mark; Su, Liang; Evans, John; Zammit, Stanley; Jones, Derek; Lewis, Glyn; David, Anthony S

    2015-02-01

    Individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis present with widespread functional abnormalities in the brain. Cognitive deficits, including working memory (WM) problems, as commonly elicited by n-back tasks, are observed in CHR individuals. However, functional MRI (fMRI) studies, comprising a heterogeneous cluster of general and social cognition paradigms, have not necessarily demonstrated consistent and conclusive results in this population. Hence, a comprehensive review of fMRI studies, spanning almost one decade, was carried out to observe for general trends with respect to brain regions and cognitive systems most likely to be dysfunctional in CHR individuals. 32 studies were included for this review, out of which 22 met the criteria for quantitative analysis using activation likelihood estimation (ALE). Task related contrast activations were firstly analysed by comparing CHR and healthy control participants in the total pooled sample, followed by a comparison of general cognitive function studies (excluding social cognition paradigms), and finally by only looking at n-back working memory task based studies. Findings from the ALE implicated four key dysfunctional and distinct neural regions in the CHR group, namely the right inferior parietal lobule (rIPL), the left medial frontal gyrus (lmFG), the left superior temporal gyrus (lSTG) and the right fronto-polar cortex (rFPC) of the superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Narrowing down to relatively few significant dysfunctional neural regions is a step forward in reducing the apparent ambiguity of overall findings, which would help to target specific neural regions and pathways of interest for future research in CHR populations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The first generation of a BAC-based physical map of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Brassica includes the most extensively cultivated vegetable crops worldwide. Investigation of the Brassica genome presents excellent challenges to study plant genome evolution and divergence of gene function associated with polyploidy and genome hybridization. A physical map of the B. rapa genome is a fundamental tool for analysis of Brassica "A" genome structure. Integration of a physical map with an existing genetic map by linking genetic markers and BAC clones in the sequencing pipeline provides a crucial resource for the ongoing genome sequencing effort and assembly of whole genome sequences. Results A genome-wide physical map of the B. rapa genome was constructed by the capillary electrophoresis-based fingerprinting of 67,468 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones using the five restriction enzyme SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs by means of FPC v8.5.3. After contig validation and manual editing, the resulting contig assembly consists of 1,428 contigs and is estimated to span 717 Mb in physical length. This map provides 242 anchored contigs on 10 linkage groups to be served as seed points from which to continue bidirectional chromosome extension for genome sequencing. Conclusion The map reported here is the first physical map for Brassica "A" genome based on the High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF technique. This physical map will serve as a fundamental genomic resource for accelerating genome sequencing, assembly of BAC sequences, and comparative genomics between Brassica genomes. The current build of the B. rapa physical map is available at the B. rapa Genome Project website for the user community.

  7. Physical Mapping of Bread Wheat Chromosome 5A: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfina Barabaschi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The huge size, redundancy, and highly repetitive nature of the bread wheat [ (L.] genome, makes it among the most difficult species to be sequenced. To overcome these limitations, a strategy based on the separation of individual chromosomes or chromosome arms and the subsequent production of physical maps was established within the frame of the International Wheat Genome Sequence Consortium (IWGSC. A total of 95,812 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones of short-arm chromosome 5A (5AS and long-arm chromosome 5A (5AL arm-specific BAC libraries were fingerprinted and assembled into contigs by complementary analytical approaches based on the FingerPrinted Contig (FPC and Linear Topological Contig (LTC tools. Combined anchoring approaches based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR marker screening, microarray, and sequence homology searches applied to several genomic tools (i.e., genetic maps, deletion bin map, neighbor maps, BAC end sequences (BESs, genome zipper, and chromosome survey sequences allowed the development of a high-quality physical map with an anchored physical coverage of 75% for 5AS and 53% for 5AL with high portions (64 and 48%, respectively of contigs ordered along the chromosome. In the genome of grasses, [ (L. Beauv.], rice ( L., and sorghum [ (L. Moench] homologs of genes on wheat chromosome 5A were separated into syntenic blocks on different chromosomes as a result of translocations and inversions during evolution. The physical map presented represents an essential resource for fine genetic mapping and map-based cloning of agronomically relevant traits and a reference for the 5A sequencing projects.

  8. The Recent Situation of Fukushima Daiichi Plants and the Related Water Chemistry Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihira, Atsutoshi; GOTO, Akira; Ishikawa, Keiji

    2012-09-01

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was hit by the big earthquake and tsunami, which caused the station black out and subsequent loss of cooling functions for reactors and spent fuel pools (SFPs). Consequently the fuels were damaged, hydrogen explosion blew off top of the reactor buildings and radioactive materials were released to the atmosphere and the ocean. In the accident, one of the most important mission is to cool the reactors and SFPs stably with removing radionuclides and impurities in the water. The water injected into the reactors has been leaked off and accumulated in the basement of the reactor and turbine buildings. Hence the water was highly contaminated, we had to purify it and reused for cooling by 'circulating water cooling system'. The system is mainly composed of removal of radioactive materials and desalination. With improving the equipment reliability, sufficient quantity of cooling water is being able to supply for the reactors. We have achieved the inside reactor temperatures of units 1,2,3 approximately below 100 degrees C as of December 2011. The SFPs were firstly cooled by spraying water from the outside at rooftop areas, or seawater was injected through a piping of Fuel Pool Cooling System (FPC). Afterwards, alternative circulating cooling systems were installed that allowed SFPs of unit 1 to 4 for cooling. The water purification system was also introduced for preventing corrosion of SFP lining. By using the system, SFP water quality has been improved and each temperature is stable at approximately 30 degree C as of June 2012. (authors)

  9. Crew of Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission visits Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Hubble Space telescope servicing mission in December (STS-61) was a great success and the fully refurbished orbiting telescope produced absolutely remarkable first results just two weeks ago. The 7-member crew who carried out the mission will soon be in Europe to share their experience with the Press, ESA space specialists and the European space community. Public conferences will also be held in Switzerland, the home country of ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier. The visit of the STS-61 crew is scheduled as follows: Friday 11 February, 1994 - ESA Paris, France Presentation and Press Conference Location: ESA, 8/10 Rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris time: 16:00 hrs - 17:30 hrs contact: ESA, Public Relations Office Tel. (+33) 1 42 73 71 55 Fax. (+33) 1 42 73 76 90 Monday 14 February, 1994 - British Aerospace, Bristol, United Kingdom Presentation and Press Conference Location: British Aerospace, FPC 333, Filton, Bristol BS12 7QW time: 10:00 hrs - 12:00 hrs contact: BAe, Public Relations Tel. (+44) 272 36 33 69 Tel. (+44) 272 36 33 68 Tuesday 15 February, 1994 - ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands Presentation and Press Conference Location: Noordwijk Space Expo, Keplerlaan 3, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, the Netherlands time: 09:30 hrs - 12:00 hrs contact: ESTEC Public Relations Office Tel. (+31) 1719 8 3006 Fax. (+31) 1719 17 400 Wednesday 16 February, 1944 - ESO, Garching - Munich, Germany Presentation and Press Conference Location: European Southern Observatory, Karl- Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching -Munich, Germany time: to be decided contact: ESO Information Service Tel. (+49) 89 32 006 276 Fax. (+49) 89 320 23 62 Thursday 17 February, 1994 - Bern, Switzerland a. Presentation and Press Conference Location: Hotel Bern, Zeughausgasse 9, 3001 Bern, Switzerland time: 09:30 hrs contact: Press & Information Service of the Federal Dept. for Education & Sciences Tel. (+41) 31 322 80 34 Fax. (+41) 31 312 30 15 b. Public conference Location: University of Bern, Institute of Physics

  10. Economic viability of large-scale fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helsley, Charles E., E-mail: cehelsley@fusionpowercorporation.com; Burke, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A typical modern power generation facility has a capacity of about 1 GWe (Gigawatt electric) per unit. This works well for fossil fuel plants and for most fission facilities for it is large enough to support the sophisticated generation infrastructure but still small enough to be accommodated by most utility grid systems. The size of potential fusion power systems may demand a different viewpoint. The compression and heating of the fusion fuel for ignition requires a large driver, even if it is necessary for only a few microseconds or nanoseconds per energy pulse. The economics of large systems, that can effectively use more of the driver capacity, need to be examined. The assumptions used in this model are specific for the Fusion Power Corporation (FPC) SPRFD process but could be generalized for any system. We assume that the accelerator is the most expensive element of the facility and estimate its cost to be $20 billion. Ignition chambers and fuel handling facilities are projected to cost $1.5 billion each with up to 10 to be serviced by one accelerator. At first this seems expensive but that impression has to be tempered by the energy output that is equal to 35 conventional nuclear plants. This means the cost per kWh is actually low. Using the above assumptions and industry data for generators and heat exchange systems, we conclude that a fully utilized fusion system will produce marketable energy at roughly one half the cost of our current means of generating an equivalent amount of energy from conventional fossil fuel and/or fission systems. Even fractionally utilized systems, i.e. systems used at 25% of capacity, can be cost effective in many cases. In conclusion, SPRFD systems can be scaled to a size and configuration that can be economically viable and very competitive in today's energy market. Electricity will be a significant element in the product mix but synthetic fuels and water may also need to be incorporated to make the large system

  11. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the rainbow trout genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorgaard Gary H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are the most-widely cultivated cold freshwater fish in the world and an important model species for many research areas. Coupling great interest in this species as a research model with the need for genetic improvement of aquaculture production efficiency traits justifies the continued development of genomics research resources. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified for production and life-history traits in rainbow trout. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC physical map is needed to facilitate fine mapping of QTL and the selection of positional candidate genes for incorporation in marker-assisted selection (MAS for improving rainbow trout aquaculture production. This resource will also facilitate efforts to obtain and assemble a whole-genome reference sequence for this species. Results The physical map was constructed from DNA fingerprinting of 192,096 BAC clones using the 4-color high-information content fingerprinting (HICF method. The clones were assembled into physical map contigs using the finger-printing contig (FPC program. The map is composed of 4,173 contigs and 9,379 singletons. The total number of unique fingerprinting fragments (consensus bands in contigs is 1,185,157, which corresponds to an estimated physical length of 2.0 Gb. The map assembly was validated by 1 comparison with probe hybridization results and agarose gel fingerprinting contigs; and 2 anchoring large contigs to the microsatellite-based genetic linkage map. Conclusion The production and validation of the first BAC physical map of the rainbow trout genome is described in this paper. We are currently integrating this map with the NCCCWA genetic map using more than 200 microsatellites isolated from BAC end sequences and by identifying BACs that harbor more than 300 previously mapped markers. The availability of an integrated physical and genetic map will enable detailed comparative genome

  12. Economic viability of large-scale fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsley, Charles E.; Burke, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A typical modern power generation facility has a capacity of about 1 GWe (Gigawatt electric) per unit. This works well for fossil fuel plants and for most fission facilities for it is large enough to support the sophisticated generation infrastructure but still small enough to be accommodated by most utility grid systems. The size of potential fusion power systems may demand a different viewpoint. The compression and heating of the fusion fuel for ignition requires a large driver, even if it is necessary for only a few microseconds or nanoseconds per energy pulse. The economics of large systems, that can effectively use more of the driver capacity, need to be examined. The assumptions used in this model are specific for the Fusion Power Corporation (FPC) SPRFD process but could be generalized for any system. We assume that the accelerator is the most expensive element of the facility and estimate its cost to be $20 billion. Ignition chambers and fuel handling facilities are projected to cost $1.5 billion each with up to 10 to be serviced by one accelerator. At first this seems expensive but that impression has to be tempered by the energy output that is equal to 35 conventional nuclear plants. This means the cost per kWh is actually low. Using the above assumptions and industry data for generators and heat exchange systems, we conclude that a fully utilized fusion system will produce marketable energy at roughly one half the cost of our current means of generating an equivalent amount of energy from conventional fossil fuel and/or fission systems. Even fractionally utilized systems, i.e. systems used at 25% of capacity, can be cost effective in many cases. In conclusion, SPRFD systems can be scaled to a size and configuration that can be economically viable and very competitive in today's energy market. Electricity will be a significant element in the product mix but synthetic fuels and water may also need to be incorporated to make the large system economically

  13. Deep drawing experiences of niobium disk for PEFP SRF cavity prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Sung; An, Sun; Zhang, Liping; Tang, Yazhe; Li, Ying Min; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2009-01-01

    A superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity with a geometrical beta of 0.42 has been designed to accelerate a proton beam after 100 MeV for an extension of Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP). The designed cavity shape is an elliptical and the resonant frequency is 700 MHz. In order to confirm the RF and mechanical properties of the cavity, two prototypes of copper cavities have been fabricated and tested. Based on the experiences gained with the copper prototypes, two niobium prototypes have been designed. One is two-cell cavity and the other is five cell cavity. The two-cell cavity is for finalizing the niobium cavity production procedure and testing the cavity RF properties at a low temperature and moderate power level. The five-cell cavity is for checking the production quality and testing vertical test system in the future. Both of them are under fabrication. Through the fabrication of the niobium prototype, several issues such as deep drawing, electron beam welding and surface treatment will be addressed. The drawing of the PEPF SRF low beta cavity is shown in Fig. 1. Major parameters for the cavity are like following. - Frequency: 700 MHz - Operating mode: TM010 pi mode - Cavity type: Elliptical - Geometrical beta: 0.42 - Number of cells: 5 per cavity - Accelerating gradient: 8 MV/m - Epeak/Eacc: 3.71 - Bpeak/Eacc: 7.47 mT/(MV/m) - R/Q: 102.3 ohm - Epeak: 29.68 MV/m - Field flatness: 1.56 % - Cell to cell coupling: 1.41 % - Geometrical factor: 121.68 ohm - Cavity wall thickness: 4.3 mm - Lorentz force detuning: 0.4 Hz/(MV/m)2 - Stiffening structure: Double ring - Effective length: 0.45 m - External Q of FPC: 8.0E5 ±20 % - HOM load: less than 2 W - HOM Qext requirement: less than 3.0E5 At present, all the niobium disk and plates for cavity and NbTi flanges for beam pipe flange are prepared

  14. UTCI—Why another thermal index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendritzky, Gerd; de Dear, Richard; Havenith, George

    2012-05-01

    Existing procedures for the assessment of the thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, precautionary planning, urban design, tourism and recreation and climate impact research exhibit significant shortcomings. This is most evident for simple (mostly two-parameter) indices, when comparing them to complete heat budget models developed since the 1960s. ISB Commission 6 took up the idea of developing a Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) based on the most advanced multi-node model of thermoregulation representing progress in science within the last three to four decades, both in thermo-physiological and heat exchange theory. Creating the essential research synergies for the development of UTCI required pooling the resources of multidisciplinary experts in the fields of thermal physiology, mathematical modelling, occupational medicine, meteorological data handling (in particular radiation modelling) and application development in a network. It was possible to extend the expertise of ISB Commission 6 substantially by COST (a European programme promoting Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action 730 so that finally over 45 scientists from 23 countries (Australia, Canada, Israel, several Europe countries, New Zealand, and the United States) worked together. The work was performed under the umbrella of the WMO Commission on Climatology (CCl). After extensive evaluations, Fiala's multi-node human physiology and thermal comfort model (FPC) was adopted for this study. The model was validated extensively, applying as yet unused data from other research groups, and extended for the purposes of the project. This model was coupled with a state-of-the-art clothing model taking into consideration behavioural adaptation of clothing insulation by the general urban population in response to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was then derived conceptually as an equivalent temperature (ET). Thus, for any combination of air

  15. The velocity of the arterial pulse wave: a viscous-fluid shock wave in an elastic tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Page R

    2008-07-29

    The arterial pulse is a viscous-fluid shock wave that is initiated by blood ejected from the heart. This wave travels away from the heart at a speed termed the pulse wave velocity (PWV). The PWV increases during the course of a number of diseases, and this increase is often attributed to arterial stiffness. As the pulse wave approaches a point in an artery, the pressure rises as does the pressure gradient. This pressure gradient increases the rate of blood flow ahead of the wave. The rate of blood flow ahead of the wave decreases with distance because the pressure gradient also decreases with distance ahead of the wave. Consequently, the amount of blood per unit length in a segment of an artery increases ahead of the wave, and this increase stretches the wall of the artery. As a result, the tension in the wall increases, and this results in an increase in the pressure of blood in the artery. An expression for the PWV is derived from an equation describing the flow-pressure coupling (FPC) for a pulse wave in an incompressible, viscous fluid in an elastic tube. The initial increase in force of the fluid in the tube is described by an increasing exponential function of time. The relationship between force gradient and fluid flow is approximated by an expression known to hold for a rigid tube. For large arteries, the PWV derived by this method agrees with the Korteweg-Moens equation for the PWV in a non-viscous fluid. For small arteries, the PWV is approximately proportional to the Korteweg-Moens velocity divided by the radius of the artery. The PWV in small arteries is also predicted to increase when the specific rate of increase in pressure as a function of time decreases. This rate decreases with increasing myocardial ischemia, suggesting an explanation for the observation that an increase in the PWV is a predictor of future myocardial infarction. The derivation of the equation for the PWV that has been used for more than fifty years is analyzed and shown to yield

  16. Analysis of the Cause of High External Q Modes in the JLab High Gradient Prototype Cryomodule Renascence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Akcelik, V.; Xiao, L.; Lee, L.; Ng, C.; Ko, K.; /SLAC; Wang, H.; Marhauser, F.; Sekutowicz, J.; Reece, C.; Rimmer, R.; /Jefferson Lab

    2008-06-27

    The Renascence cryomodule [1] installed in CEBAF in 2007 consists of 8 cavities as shown in Figure 1. The first three cavities (No.1-No.3) in the upstream end are of the Low Loss (LL) shape design, and the remaining 5 cavities (No.4-No.8) on the beam downstream end are the High Gradient (HG) shape design. The fundamental power couplers (FPCs) are the rectangular waveguides, and the little cylindrical structures are the HOM couplers. The locations of the FPC in the last four cavities are mirrored about the beam z axis. Cavities No.4 and No.5 form a back-to-back cavity pair. Among the HG cavities installed in the Renascence cryomodule, the only identifiable difference from their fabrication documentation is that cavity No.5 received an extra EBW pass on one equator weld, specifically cell 5. The non-uniform mechanical tuning required to compensate the fundamental mode tune and flatness for the extra shrinkage of this cell is believed to contribute the most significant differences from the other HG cavities. Beam based instability studies on this cryomodule in CEBAF have shown a significant beam breakup (BBU) threshold current reduction, well below design value. Frequency spectrum peaked by the off-sided beam power indicated the cause is due to abnormal high Q modes in the cavity No.5. Measured beam off-axis position at the cavity No.5 does not correspond to the shunt impedances calculated for an ideal cavity. Low power RF measurements have identified that the problematic modes are in the second dipole band (TM110 like). Three of the modes have external Qs two orders magnitude higher than the others, while the rest of modes in the first two dipole bands are normal in terms of the design values. The cause of this abnormality and the future impact on the BBU was not able to be resolved due to the limitations of information that can be obtained from the measurements. It is important to understand the cause of this abnormality so that effective QA/QC measures can be

  17. Insights into the control of the release of iodine, cesium, strontium and other fission products in the containment by severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    atmosphere; - discussion of various possibilities to retain the fission products in the sumps, on surfaces or in filters; - discussion of the possible measures. The first three items had been described in a fair amount of detail in other documents. It was agreed that PWG4's Task Group on Fission Product Phenomena in the Primary Circuit and the Containment (FPC) would be responsible for preparing this part of the report. In a second phase, members of PWG4's task Group on Containment Aspects of Severe Accident Management (CAM) 'enriched' the report with severe accident management considerations. These can be found at the end of Chapters III to VIII. The report does not aim at exhaustiveness, nor at direct applicability to severe accident management situations. Its aim is to give a picture of what is known in the area of fission product sources and how this knowledge can be put to use to mitigate them. Implementation has to be developed on a plant-by-plant basis, taking account of plant specifics. This is the task of the utilities

  18. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEA PATRICIA AMALIA

    2018-02-01

    target digital coin concepts, use in distributed real-time payment systems of blockchain technologology, artificial intelligence, and information security. However, a large number of economists admit that the current crisis has emphasized the overcoming of the limits of (mainstream economics and its implications in the field of financial regulation and the sphere of monetary policy that should focus not only on price stability, but also on financial stability. In other words, the banks, the financial institutions must be obliged to hold a minimal countercyclical capital and mandatory reserves that should be large enough to cope with the turmoil generated by the decrease of the asset prices and the liquidity risk. In macroprudential policy, the “shadow banking system” (investment banks, hedge funds, private equity funds must also be included.Last but not least, the central banks have to cooperate with the other categories of systemic risk managers: Financial Stability Oversight Council-FSOC (USA, European Systemic Risk Board-ESRB (EU, Financial Policy Committee-FPC (Great Britain, National Committee for Financial Stability-CNSF (Romania.

  19. International standard problem (ISP) No. 41. Containment iodine computer code exercise based on a radioiodine test facility (RTF) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    International Standard Problem (ISP) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of the tools, which were used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. Moreover, they enable code users to gain experience and demonstrate their competence. The ISP No. 41 exercise, computer code exercise based on a Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment on iodine behaviour in containment under severe accident conditions, is one of such ISP exercises. The ISP No. 41 exercise was borne at the recommendation at the Fourth Iodine Chemistry Workshop held at PSI, Switzerland in June 1996: 'the performance of an International Standard Problem as the basis of an in-depth comparison of the models as well as contributing to the database for validation of iodine codes'. [Proceedings NEA/CSNI/R(96)6, Summary and Conclusions NEA/CSNI/R(96)7]. COG (CANDU Owners Group), comprising AECL and the Canadian nuclear utilities, offered to make the results of a Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) test available for such an exercise. The ISP No. 41 exercise was endorsed in turn by the FPC (PWG4's Task Group on Fission Product Phenomena in the Primary Circuit and the Containment), PWG4 (CSNI Principal Working Group on the Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases), and the CSNI. The OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored forty-five ISP exercises over the last twenty-four years, thirteen of them in the area of severe accidents. The criteria for the selection of the RTF test as a basis for the ISP-41 exercise were; (1) complementary to other RTF tests available through the PHEBUS and ACE programmes, (2) simplicity for ease of modelling and (3) good quality data. A simple RTF experiment performed under controlled

  20. 糖尿病视网膜病变在不同糖代谢状态的检出率及其危险因素分析%Detection rate of diabetic retinopathy in different glucose metabolism status and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢林娜; 高政南; 牛敏; 李欣宇; 侯桂梅; 朱珠

    2012-01-01

    glucose tolerance group, 0.41% in impaired glucose tolerance group, 7.21% in duration of diabetes less than 10 years group and 26.65% in diabetes greater than 10 years group. Compared with no retinopathy group, age, duration of diabetes, fasting plasma glucose (FPC), postprandial 2 hours plasma glucose(2hPG), glycated hemoglobin Aic(HbAlc) of retinopathy group were significantly higher, while BMI was significantly lower (Ac0.05). Duration of diabetes and HbA,r had a significant positive correlation with DR. Conclusions: Group with duration of diabetes greater than 10-year had the highest positive rate of DR. Duration of diabetes and HbAk were independent risk factors for DR.

  1. Development of an electronic ballast with high power factor, using cd/cd conversion techniques for fluorescent lamps; Desarrollo de un balastro electronico con alto factor de potencia, utilizando tecnicas de conversion cd/cd para lamparas fluorescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Raul Antonio

    1995-02-01

    ballast formerly proposed (chapter 2) are presented, as well as the critical aspects in the design of it in the PFC as well as in the handling stage of the fluorescent lamp. The results obtained in each one of the stages formerly mentioned appear. In chapter 4 the comparative analysis of the different schemes from topologies (Cuk, Sepic and Boost) is approached, used as circuits for the active correction of the PF. Also, the results obtained from each one of the topologies formerly mentioned as FPC stages, will be given. The results presented are the THD (Total Harmonic Distortion), PF and normalized output voltage based on the feeding AC line voltage variations. The control type implemented for the different studied topologies is mentioned. The conclusions of this thesis project, as well as some suggestions for future investigations as possible extensions of this work, are presented in chapter 5. Int he final part of this thesis the bibliographical references used for the development of this work are presented. In addition to the conclusion are two appendices. In appendix A the definitions of the important parameters in the electronic ballast design are presented. Appendix B covers the works published in relation to this thesis work. [Spanish] Los recientes avances y mejoramiento en las tecnologias de lamparas fluorescentes y balastros ha tenido como resultado una ganancia sustancial de eficiencia, en iluminacion (lm/w), en la vida util de la lampara, en balastros (caracteristicas electricas), y por consiguiente un incremento en el ahorro de energia de los sistemas de iluminacion fluorescentes. En este trabajo de tesis se propone el desarrollo de un balastro electronico, que incorpore correccion activa del FP, para el manejo de lamparas fluorescentes del tipo arranque rapido F4OW T-12. Para lo cual se concibio que el prototipo fuera implementado en dos etapas. En la primera etapa, para la CFP se escogio un convertidor CD/CD del tipo elevador (Boost) en Modo de Conduccion

  2. Submarine earthquake rupture, active faulting and volcanism along the major Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone and implications for seismic hazard assessment in the Patagonian Andes Ruptura sísmica submarina, tectónica y volcanismo activo a lo largo de la Falla Liquiñe-Ofqui e implicancias para el peligro sísmico en los Andes patagónicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vargas

    2013-01-01

    largo de orientación norte-sur denominada Falla Punta Cola (FPC. Este sistema se localiza unos kilómetros al este de un sistema mayor de orientación norte-sur denominado Falla Río Cuervo (FRC. La mayoría de los epicentros de los terremotos y temblores durante la crisis sísmica del año 2007 ocurrieron entre estas estructuras o a lo largo de ellas. El área de estudio es una zona de transferencia entre sistemas regionales de orientación N-S de la Zona de Falla Liquiñe-Ofqui. La cartografía de segmentos de falla junto con datos geológicos y antecedentes geofísicos sugiere que terremotos de magnitud del orden de Mw6,2-6,5 son típicamente esperables a lo largo de la mayoría de los sistemas activos descritos en este trabajo. Además de esto, en los sistemas principales como a lo largo de la FRC, es posible esperar terremotos de magnitud del orden de Mw7,1, lo cual debería ser considerado en la evaluación del peligro sísmico de la región.