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Sample records for fowler-nordheim-like local injection

  1. Physics of the current injection process during localized helicity injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Edward Thomas

    An impedance model has been developed for the arc-plasma cathode electron current source used in localized helicity injection tokamak startup. According to this model, a potential double layer (DL) is established between the high-density arc plasma (narc ˜ 1021 m-3) in the electron source, and the less-dense external tokamak edge plasma (nedge ˜ 10 18 m-3) into which current is injected. The DL launches an electron beam at the applied voltage with cross-sectional area close to that of the source aperture: Ainj ≈ 2 cm 2. The injected current, Iinj, increases with applied voltage, Vinj, according to the standard DL scaling, Iinj ˜ V(3/2/ inj), until the more restrictive of two limits to beam density nb arises, producing Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj), a scaling with beam drift velocity. For low external tokamak edge density nedge, space-charge neutralization of the intense electron beam restricts the injected beam density to nb ˜ nedge. At high Jinj and sufficient edge density, the injected current is limited by expansion of the DL sheath, which leads to nb ˜ narc. Measurements of narc, Iinj , nedge, Vinj, support these predicted scalings, and suggest narc as a viable control actuator for the source impedance. Magnetic probe signals ≈ 300 degrees toroidally from the injection location are consistent with expectations for a gyrating, coherent electron beam with a compact areal cross-section. Technological development of the source has allowed an extension of the favorable Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj) to higher power without electrical breakdown.

  2. Lake destratification induced by local air injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical and physical modelling makes possible quantitative predictions regarding the destratification process brought about by the local injection of air at the bottom of a thermally stratified lake or reservoir. The mathematical model developed distinguishes between a near field and a far

  3. Ultrasound guided local steroid injection versus extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nayera Saber

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in plantar fascia .... Several previous studies evaluate the effects of either local ... The choice of ultrasound guided technique of steroid injection was related to the accuracy of application and supe- ..... chronic proximal plantar fasciitis: a meta analysis.

  4. Tennis elbow: role of local steroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Gulzar Saeed; Ali, Muhammad; Trago, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Tennis elbow is a condition, characterised by pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and pain on resisted dorsiflexion of the wrist, middle finger, or both. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the short term efficacy of local steroid injection compared with oral and topical NSAIDs. Sixty patients (45 male and 15 female) were included in the study. The mean age was 42 years for men and 40 years for women. They were placed in group A and B (30 cases each). Group A received local steroid injection (triamcinolone 20 mg mixed with lignocaine 2% 1 cc) and topical NSAID cream application (diclofenac diethylammonium) twice a day, tab. diclofenac sodium 50 mg twice a day for 3 weeks. Group B received tab diclofenac 50 mg twice a day and, topical NSAID cream application twice a day for 3 weeks. Assessment of patients was made 3 times; first at the start of the study, 2nd time after 6 weeks, and 3rd time after 12 weeks. A blinded assessor rated the elbow complaints of the patients at resisted dorsiflexion of wrist using VAS (0 = no severity, 1-3 mild, 4-6 moderate, 7-9 sever, 10 = maximum severity). At six weeks, 22 (73.33%) patient in group A had no pain as compared to 7 (23.33%) patients in group B who were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 38.75). At 12 weeks 27 (90%) patients in group A were pain free compared to group B in which 7 (23.33%) patients were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 27.56). In patients with tennis elbow, the use of local steroid injection in combination with topical and oral NSAIDs is superior to the use of combination of topical and oral NSAIDs. Better results with combination therapy using local steroid injection may be limited to the short term.

  5. Local corticosteroid injections: Rational use in common orthopaedic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of local corticosteroid injections in orthopaedic practice is common due to their anti- inflammatory and analgesic effect. However, the use may result in local or systemic complications. Moreover, the conflicting reports on their benefits versus side effects, throws the average user in confusion or fear. This review ...

  6. Local measurement of transport parameters for laser injected trace impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannella, R; Lauro-Taroni, L [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    A procedure has been developed that determines local measurements of transport parameters`s profiles for injected impurities. The measured profiles extend from the plasma centre up to a certain radial position (usually {rho} = 0.6-0.7). In the outer region of the plasma the procedure supplies ``most suitable extensions`` up to the plasma edge of the measured transport profiles. The procedure intrinsically assures consistency and excellent agreement between the simulated and experimental data of local broad band soft X-ray emissivity and intensities of individual emission lines from different ion states of the injected impurities. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Nocebo-induced hyperalgesia during local anesthetic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelmann, Dirk; Pancaro, Carlo; Cappiello, Eric C; Camann, William R

    2010-03-01

    Common practice during local anesthetic injection is to warn the patient using words such as: "You will feel a big bee sting; this is the worst part." Our hypothesis was that using gentler words for administration of the local anesthetic improves pain perception and patient comfort. One hundred forty healthy women at term gestation requesting neuraxial analgesia were randomized to either a "placebo" ("We are going to give you a local anesthetic that will numb the area and you will be comfortable during the procedure") or "nocebo" ("You are going to feel a big bee sting; this is the worst part of the procedure") group. Pain was assessed immediately after the local anesthetic skin injection using verbal analog scale scores of 0 to 10. Median verbal analog scale pain scores were lower when reassuring words were used compared with the harsher nocebo words (3 [2-4] vs 5 [3-6]; P words improves the subjective experience during invasive procedures.

  8. Enhanced Control for Local Helicity Injection on the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierren, C.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Perry, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Local helicity injection (LHI) experiments on Pegasus rely upon programmable control of a 250 MVA modular power supply system that drives the electromagnets and helicity injection systems. Precise control of the central solenoid is critical to experimental campaigns that test the LHI Taylor relaxation limit and the coupling efficiency of LHI-produced plasmas to Ohmic current drive. Enhancement and expansion of the present control system is underway using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology for digital logic and control, coupled to new 10 MHz optical-to-digital transceivers for semiconductor level device communication. The system accepts optical command signals from existing analog feedback controllers, transmits them to multiple devices in parallel H-bridges, and aggregates their status signals for fault detection. Present device-level multiplexing/de-multiplexing and protection logic is extended to include bridge-level protections with the FPGA. An input command filter protects against erroneous and/or spurious noise generated commands that could otherwise cause device failures. Fault registration and response times with the FPGA system are 25 ns. Initial system testing indicates an increased immunity to power supply induced noise, enabling plasma operations at higher working capacitor bank voltage. This can increase the applied helicity injection drive voltage, enable longer pulse lengths and improve Ohmic loop voltage control. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  9. The effect of local tramadol injection in post appendectomy pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khazaei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been demonstrated that tramadol, asemisynthetic opioid, is an effective analgesic with systemic (central and local (peripheral anesthetic effects. The aim of this study was to compare the post-operative anesthetic effect of subcutaneous wound infiltration of tramadol with normal saline as placebo in the incision wounds after appendectomy and measuring the average need to petidine during the next 24 hours after the appendectomy. Materials and Method: This double blind study was carried out on 60 patients over 15 years old. Patients were randomly divided in two equal groups. At the end of procedure after repairing fascia 100mg of tramadol that was diluted with water for injection up to 10 cc in one syringe or 10 cc of normal saline in another syringe was infiltrated subcutaneously by surgeon before suturing the skin. The intensity of pain (NRS was recorded in the recovery room, after 6 and 24 hours post-operation as well as total amount of administered petidine in the same period. At the end of study the intensity of pain in the mentioned times and the average use of petidine compared in two groups. Results: A significant difference was noted in the severity of pain between two groups in recovery time, 6 and 24 hours afetr operation that was lower in tramadol group (p<0.0001. Also the average use of petidine was significantly lower in tramadol group in 24 hours (p<0.05. The average severity of pain by NRS in recovery was 5.36 for control (N and 3.08 for tramadol (T groups; and after 6 hours it was 5.36 for (N and 3.36 for (T and after 24 hours reached to 3.08 for (N and 2.08 for (T and the average number of injected 25mg ampoules of petidine was 1.56 in (N and 0.76 in (T.Conclusion: Local wound infiltration of tramadol is a good choice for reduction of post appendectomy pain and decreasing need for high potent opioid analgesics

  10. Evaluation of new injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yekta, S.S.; Lampert, F.; Kazemi, S.; Kazemi, R.; Brand, H.S.; Baart, J.A.; Mazandarani, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a recently developed preclinical injection and cavity preparation model in local anesthesia. Thirty-three dental students administered an inferior alveolar nerve block injection in the model, followed by preparation on a tooth. The injection was evaluated by

  11. Autologous platelet lysate local injections for the treatment of refractory lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xun-xiang; Ju, Hai-yang; Yan, Wei; Jiang, Hong-jiang; Su, Jin-ping; Dong, Hua-jun; Wang, Ling-shuang; Zou, De-bao

    2016-01-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of autologous platelet lysate (APL) local injections in reducing pain and improving function in patients with refractory lateral epicondylitis. A total of 56 patients with refractory lateral epicondylitis were enrolled in this study. All the patients received three injections in one course of treatment. Subjective assessments include visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and Mayo elbow score before injection (baseline) and at 1, 6, and 12 months after injection. Significant differences were observed in VAS and Mayo scores at baseline and at 1, 6, and 12 months after injection. Overall, the injections of APL improved local symptoms and all the patients recovered to normal elbow function with 12 months follow-up. Local injections of APL resulted in favorable clinical outcomes for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. APL could be clinically effective in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

  12. Treatment of metastasis localizations by intratumoral injection of radionuclide microsphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo Peiyu; Pang Yan; Zhu Dianqing; Chang Keli; Zhu Yanjia

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of radionuclide-labeled microsphere by intratumoral injection into 18 patients with superficial metastasis tumor for treatment. Methods: 18 patients with superficial metastasis were treated with radionuclide-labeled microsphere ( 90 Y-GTMS and 32 P-GTMS) by multi-point intratumoral injection. Each injection dose was 11.1-18.5 MBq/g (tumor). Results: 1 patient was relieved completely, 9 were relieved partly, 5 were improved and 3 kept stable. The total rate of relief and virtual value were 55.6% and 83.3% respectively. Conclusion: Topical treatment by using radionuclide may help diminish the tumor, control its progress and ease the symptoms. Thus it can be used as a supplement of routine treatment of tumors and it should do some work in therapy of malignant tumors in late stages

  13. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Idris; Nasil Sakkir; Kishore Gopalakrishna Naik; Nandakishore Kunijal Jayaram

    2014-01-01

    Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alve...

  14. Treatment of lateral epicondilitis using three different local injection modalities: a randomized prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Yunus; Kalaci, Aydiner; Savaş, Nazan; Duman, I Gokhan; Yanat, A Nedim

    2009-10-01

    To determine the effectiveness of three different local injection modalities in the treatment of lateral epicondilitis. In a prospective randomized study on lateral epicondilitis, 75 patients were divided into three equal groups A, B and C (n = 25) and were treated using three different method of local injection. The patients in group A were treated with local injection of a steroid (1 mL triamcinolone) combined with local anaesthetic (1 mL lidocaine), those in group B were treated with injection of local anaesthetic (1 mL lidocaine) combined with peppering technique and those in group C with local injection of a steroid (1 mL triamcinolone) combined with local anaesthetic (1 mL lidocaine) and peppering technique. The outcome was defined by measuring the elbow pain during the activity using a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) and satisfaction with the treatment using a scoring system based on the criteria of the Verhaar et al. at 3 weeks and 6 months after the injection and compared with the pre-treatment condition. There were significant (P = 0.006) differences in the successful outcomes between the three groups at 6 months. In group C in which local steroid + peppering injection technique were used; excellent results were obtained in 84% of patients comparing to 36% and 48% for patients in groups A and B, respectively. The successful outcomes were statistically higher in group C comparing to group A (P = 0.002) and group B (P = 0.011). In all groups, there was a significantly lower pain (VAS) at the 3-week and 6-month follow-ups comparing to the pre-treatment condition. VAS measured at 6-month follow-up were significantly lower in group C comparing to other groups (P = 0.002). In the treatment of lateral epicondilitis, combination of corticosteroid injections with peppering is more effective than corticosteroid injections or peppering injections alone and produces better clinical results.

  15. Injectable bulking agents for urinary incontinence after radical prostaectomy, mimicking local recurrence: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Je Hong; Ahn, Sung Eun; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Park, Seong Jin; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Sun Ju [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Periurethral bulking agent injection (or transurethral submucosal injection) is a comparatively less invasive procedure for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in patients who develop incontinence after radical prostatectomy, and who are more frequently being treated with transurethral submucosal injection. However, as the radiologic findings of bulking agents are not very well known, they can be mistaken for local recurrence in prostate cancer patients who have undergone prostatectomy. Unlike some of the literatures, in which the radiologic features of collagen injections have been reported, the radiologic findings of silicone injections are yet to be determined. Thus, it is our intention to report this case along with the literature review as the authors have experienced an actual case of a silicone injection mistaken as local recurrence.

  16. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Background. The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry. Methods. The study included data sets of annual sales of local...

  17. Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sung Mi; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Suk Jung; Kang, Han Saem; Kim, Kwang Yoon [ECOBIO INC., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space.

  18. Severe Bradycardia Possibly due to a Local Anesthetic Oral Mucosal Injection during General Anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Kenichi; Ohashi, Ayako; Kumagai, Miho; Hoshi, Hideki; Otaka, Kousei; Joh, Shigeharu

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthesia may induce systemic complications leading to parasympathetic activity leading to bradycardia and hypotension. We report a case of a 50-year-old man undergoing dental surgery under general anesthesia who experienced severe bradycardia and hypotension after local anesthesia infiltration. Concerns regarding the utilization of a relatively large lumen injection needle for local anesthesia during general anesthesia are discussed.

  19. Cost analysis of injection laryngoplasty performed under local anaesthesia versus general anaesthesia: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, D; Woods, C M; Schar, M; Ma, N; Ooi, E H; Athanasiadis, T

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a cost analysis of injection laryngoplasty performed in the operating theatre under local anaesthesia and general anaesthesia. The retrospective study included patients who had undergone injection laryngoplasty as day cases between July 2013 and March 2016. Cost data were obtained, along with patient demographics, anaesthetic details, type of injectant, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, length of stay, total operating theatre time and surgeon procedure time. A total of 20 cases (general anaesthesia = 6, local anaesthesia = 14) were included in the cost analysis. The mean total cost under general anaesthesia (AU$2865.96 ± 756.29) was significantly higher than that under local anaesthesia (AU$1731.61 ± 290.29) (p costs. Procedures performed under local anaesthesia in the operating theatre are associated with shorter operating theatre time and length of stay in the hospital, and provide significant cost savings. Further savings could be achieved if local anaesthesia procedures were performed in the office setting.

  20. The effect of local tramadol injection in post appendectomy pain

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Khazaei; Farshid Arbabi-Kalati; Soheil Borumand; Reza Rooshanravan

    2012-01-01

    Background: It has been demonstrated that tramadol, asemisynthetic opioid, is an effective analgesic with systemic (central) and local (peripheral) anesthetic effects. The aim of this study was to compare the post-operative anesthetic effect of subcutaneous wound infiltration of tramadol with normal saline as placebo in the incision wounds after appendectomy and measuring the average need to petidine during the next 24 hours after the appendectomy. Materials and Method: This double blind stud...

  1. Modern technologies of local injection anesthesia in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohov S.Т.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the importance of using the new system Quick Sleeper for local anesthesia, to highlight benefits of quick and comfortable anesthesia. Material and Methods. The examination of effectiveness, convenience of this kind of anesthesia has been carried out. Results. All patients, taking part in this examination, confirmed more comfortable condition after this anesthesia than conductor and infiltration methods of anesthesia. The effect of anesthesia is better than after conductor anesthesia. Conclusion. This technology guarantees equal introduction and spread of anesthetic, independently of tissue density, eliminating the risk of carpule breakage.

  2. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohamed; Sakkir, Nasil; Naik, Kishore Gopalakrishna; Jayaram, Nandakishore Kunijal

    2014-09-01

    The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40%) had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ≤ 54 mm) on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%), except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  3. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohamed; Sakkir, Nasil; Naik, Kishore Gopalakrishna; Jayaram, Nandakishore Kunijal

    2014-01-01

    Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40%) had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ≤ 54 mm) on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Results: Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%), except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:25298642

  4. Randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Veluthamaningal, Cyriac; Winters, Jan C.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Meyboom-deJong, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Background: De Quervain's tenosynovitis is a stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and leads to wrist pain and to impaired function of the wrist and hand. It can be treated by splinting, local corticosteroid injection and operation. In this study effectiveness of local

  5. Three cases of unresectable locally advanced breast cancer treated with local injection of the new radiosensitization (KORTUC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimbo, Taijyu; Yosikawa, Nobuhiko; Yoshioka, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Yoshida, Ken; Uesugi, Yasuo; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Inomata, Taisuke

    2013-01-01

    New radiosensitization therapy named Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectabe carcinomas (KORTUC) using a new agent containing 0.5% hydrogen peroxide and 0.83% sodium hyaluronate is the world first treatment developed in Japan. The agent was injected into tumor two times per week under ultrasonographic guidance. Unresectable locally advanced breast cancer is radiation resistance. The local control is difficult in a conventional radiation therapy. In 3 cases, KORTUC was enforced safety, and remarkable effects was admitted. (author)

  6. Impact of local anaesthetics and needle calibres used for painless PRP injections on platelet functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausset, Olivier; Magalon, Jeremy; Giraudo, Laurent; Louis, Marie-Laure; Serratrice, Nicolas; Frere, Corrine; Magalon, Guy; Dignat-George, Françoise; Sabatier, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous biotherapy commonly used for its healing properties. Once activated, platelets released a real "cocktail" of growth factor and cytokines implied in numerous regenerative processes. However the impact of medical practices associated to PRP therapeutic use on platelets functionality remains poorly known. we evaluated the in vitro effects of two commonly used local anesthetics (Xylocaine(*) and Naropin(*)) on PRP functionality. We also investigated the quantity and quality of PRP that passed through the smallest gauge needle commercialized. PRP from 9 healthy volunteers were prepared using our previously described home made purification protocol. Platelet aggregation capacity was evaluated by aggregometry assays and the growth factor release was determined by ELISA after platelet activation. We also evaluated the platelet activation status, reactivity and stability of platelets by flow cytometry using the P-selectin expression marker. the association of local anaesthetics with PRP injections resulted in a significant decrease of platelets functionality, assessed by their capacity of aggregating. Local anaesthetics did not interfere with the growth factor release. The different needle sizes and calibres tested for PRP injections did not influence the platelet functionality. the use of local anaesthetics to prevent pain during PRP injections could compromise the therapeutic potential of PRP. These results suggest using carefully local anaesthetics or limiting their use as often is possible. To minimize injection pain, we recommend using 30 G needles. These data will lead to clinical recommendations for painless and controlled PRP injections.

  7. Local Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide: A Forgotten Aetiology of Cushing’s Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhumthammarat, Weera; Putthapiban, Prapaipan; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2017-01-01

    Many different non systemic corticosteroid administrations can cause iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome (CS). We herein report a case series of iatrogenic CS from keloid scars treatment and aesthetic regimen called mesotherapy. Our first patient developed CS after having exceeded recommended dose of intralesional injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TAC). Second case presented with CS followed by unidentified mesotherapy treatment for local fat reduction. Subcutaneous injections of dexamethasone ...

  8. Therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic muscles after local injection of fragmented fibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyan; Wan, Huiying; Xia, Tian; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis remains the most effective method to re-establish a proper blood flow in ischemic tissues. There is a great clinical need to identify an injectable format to achieve a well accumulation following local administration and a sustained delivery of biological factors at the ischemic sites. In the current study, fragmented nanofibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicines, astragaloside IV (AT), the main active ingredient of astragalus, and ferulic acid (FA), the main ingredient of angelica, were proposed to promote the microvessel formation after intramuscular injection into ischemic hindlimbs. Fragmented fibers with average lengths of 5 (FF-5), 20 (FF-20) and 80 μm (FF-80) were constructed by the cryocutting of aligned electrospun fibers. Their dispersion in sodium alginate solution (0.2%) indicated good injectability. After injection into the quadriceps muscles of the hindlimbs, FF-20 and FF-80 fiber fragments showed higher tissue retentions than FF-5, and around 90% of the injected doses were determined after 7 days. On a hindlimb ischemia model established by ligating the femoral arteries, intramuscular injection of the mixtures of FA-loaded and AT-loaded FF-20 fiber fragments substantially reduced the muscle degeneration with minimal fibrosis formation, significantly enhanced the neovessel formation and hindlimb perfusion in the ischemic tissues, and efficiently promoted the limb salvage with few limb losses. Along with the easy manipulation and lower invasiveness for in vivo administration, fragmented fibers should become potential drug carriers for disease treatment, wound recovery and tissue repair after local injection.

  9. Transmicrocatheter local injection of ethanol to treat hepatocellular carcinoma with high flow arteriovenous shunts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Shouhai; Shan Hong; Jiang Zaibo; Huang Mingsheng; Zhu Kangshun; Li Zhengran; Meng Xiaochun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical effect of embolization therapy in treating the high flow hepatic arteriovenous shunts in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by locally injected ethanol through microcatheter. Methods: Forty-one branches of arteriovenous shunts were treated by local ethanol infusion through microcatheter in 29 patients suffered with HCC. Angiography was performed to observe the embolization effect and influence to non-targeted vessels. Result: Forty-one branches of arteriovenous shunts in 29 patients were injected with ethanol locally. Each single shunt was infused 1-6 times. The dose of ethanol was 2-3 ml per time, and the total dose of ethanol was 2-12 ml. All shunting tracts were embolized, and all non-target vessels were protected fluently. Iodine-oil deposition was well in continued TACE. Their syndromes were improved or disappeared. Conclusion: Transmicrocatheter injection of ethanol could safely and effectively treat the hepatic arteriovenous shunts and make advantages to TACE in HCC

  10. Local injection of high-molecular hyaluronan promotes wound healing in old rats by increasing angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luying; Wang, Yi; Liu, Hua; Huang, Jianhua

    2018-02-02

    Impaired angiogenesis contributes to delayed wound healing in aging. Hyaluronan (HA) has a close relationship with angiogenesis and wound healing. However, HA content decreases with age. In this study, we used high molecular weight HA (HMW-HA) (1650 kDa), and investigated its effects on wound healing in old rats by local injection. We found that HMW-HA significantly increases proliferation, migration and tube formation in endothelial cells, and protects endothelial cells against apoptosis. Local injection of HMW-HA promotes wound healing by increasing angiogenesis in old rats. HMW-HA increases the phosphorylation of Src, ERK and AKT, leading to increased angiogenesis, suggesting that local injection of HMW-HA promotes wound healing in elderly patients.

  11. Application of Local Injection of Botulinum Toxin A in Cosmetic Patients with Congenital Drooping Mouth Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Zhang, Yan-Kun; Lv, Wei; Hou, Ying; Cao, Qian; Fan, Ju-Feng

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical application and efficacy of local injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at the depressor anguli oris in patients with congenital drooping mouth corner. From September 2013 to March 2015, 36 cosmetic patients received local injections of botulinum toxin A at the depressor anguli oris, with 1-3 injection sites in the moving region of the depressor anguli oris on each side. At each injection site, 2-4 U of BTX-A was injected, and the total dose for any unilateral treatment did not exceed 8 U. The change in the degree of drooping of the mouth corner before and after the injection was analyzed using statistical methods. The clinical efficacy, preservation time, and adverse reactions were observed. The degree of drooping of the mouth corners of the cosmetic patients before the treatment was compared with that at 1 month after using a paired t test, and the difference was statistically significant, with P injection. The local injection of BTX-A at the depressor anguli oris can effectively lift a drooping mouth corner, thereby improving the depressed, stern, and aged appearance of the face. The performance of this treatment is simple, safe, and easy to perform in clinical applications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  12. Local Helicity Injection Systems for Non-solenoidal Startup in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Lewicki, B. T.; Redd, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Local helicity injection is being developed in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment for non-solenoidal startup in spherical tokamaks. The effective loop voltage due to helicity injection scales with the area of the injectors, requiring the development of electron current injectors with areas much larger than the 2 cm2 plasma arc injectors used to date. Solid and gas-effused metallic electrodes were found to be unusable due to reduced injector area utilization from localized cathode spots and narrow operational regimes. An integrated array of 8 compact plasma arc sources is thus being developed for high current startup. It employs two monolithic power systems, for the plasma arc sources and the bias current extraction system. The array effectively eliminates impurity fueling from plasma-material interaction by incorporating a local scraper-limiter and conical-frustum bias electrodes to mitigate the effects of cathode spots. An energy balance model of helicity injection indicates that the resulting 20 cm2 of total injection area should provide sufficient current drive to reach 0.3 MA. At that level, helicity injection drive exceeds that from poloidal induction, which is the relevant operational regime for large-scale spherical tokamaks. Future placement of the injector array near an expanded boundary divertor region will test simultaneous optimization of helicity drive and the Taylor relaxation current limit. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  13. Tissue localization and fate in mice of injected multipotential colony-stimulating factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, D.; Nicola, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    The hemopoietic regulator multipotential colony-stimulating factor [Multi-CSF (interleukin 3)] has proliferative effects on a wide range of hemopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo. Native or recombination Multi-CSF injected intravenoulsy into adult mice had an initial half-life of 3-5 min and a second phase of 50 min. Clear labeling of hemopoietic cells was observed in the bone marrow and spleen of mice injected intravenously with recombinant 125 I-labeled Multi-CSF showing that injected Multi-CSF can obtain access to such cells in situ. A high proportion of injected 125 I-labeled Multi-CSF of both types became localized in the liver and in the kidney (in cells of the Bowman's capsule and proximal renal tubules). The kidney appeared to be an active site of degradation of Multi-CSF with the early appearance of low molecular weight labeled material in the urine

  14. Local corticosteroid injection versus Cyriax-type physiotherapy for tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); G.H.I.M. Walenkamp; H. van Mameren; A.D.M. Kester; A.J. van der Linden

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe performed a prospective, randomised trial on 106 patients to compare the effects of local corticosteroid injections with physiotherapy as advocated by Cyriax in the treatment of tennis elbow. The main outcome measures were the severity of pain, pain provoked by resisted dorsiflexion

  15. To what extent can charge localization influence electron injection efficiency at graphene-porphyrin interfaces?

    KAUST Repository

    Parida, Manas R.

    2015-04-28

    Controlling the electron transfer process at donor- acceptor interfaces is a research direction that has not yet seen much progress. Here, with careful control of the charge localization on the porphyrin macrocycle using β -Cyclodextrin as an external cage, we are able to improve the electron injection efficiency from cationic porphyrin to graphene carboxylate by 120% . The detailed reaction mechanism is also discussed.

  16. Autologous blood versus corticosteroid local injection for treatment of Lateral Epicondylosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Singh,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present single blinded prospective randomized control trial was assessment of efficacy of autologous blood injection versus local steroid injection in treatment of lateral epicondylosis of elbow. Methodology: Using a pre-post experimental design, a total of sixty patients of previously untreated lateral epicondylosis were selected; Group 1 (n=30 was administered single injection of autologous blood and Group 2 (n=30 single local corticosteroid injection. Assessment was done at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks using PRTEE (Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation score. Results: Pre injection parameters showed no difference between groups (chi square test, p > 0.005. Analysis between groups showed significant decrease in steroid group at very short term - 2 weeks (unpaired t test, p < 0.005.There was no difference between groups at 6 weeks. There was a significant improvement in blood group at medium term -12 weeks (unpaired t test, p < 0.05. Conclusion: Both the interventions were effective in reducing pain and improving functional status of patients in short term, but autologous blood was more effective in longer run.

  17. Effectiveness of new vibration delivery system on pain associated with injection of local anesthesia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangalampally Shilpapriya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pain is highly subjective and it is neurologically proven that stimulation of larger diameter fibers - e.g., using appropriate coldness, warmth, rubbing, pressure or vibration - can close the neural "gate" so that the central perception of itch and pain is reduced. This fact is based upon "gate control" theory of Melzack and Wall. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of vibration stimuli on pain experienced during local anesthetic injections. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients aged 6-12 years old of both the genders with Frankel′s behavior rating scale as positive and definitely positive requiring bilateral local anesthesia injections for dental treatment were included in the split-mouth cross over design. Universal pain assessment tool was used to assess the pain with and without vibration during the administration of local anesthesia and the results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Local anesthetic administration with vibration resulted in significantly less pain (P = 0.001 compared to the injections without the use of vibe. Conclusion: The results suggest that vibration can be used as an effective method to decrease pain during dental local anesthetic administration.

  18. Effectiveness of new vibration delivery system on pain associated with injection of local anesthesia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpapriya, Mangalampally; Jayanthi, Mungara; Reddy, Venumbaka Nilaya; Sakthivel, Rajendran; Selvaraju, Girija; Vijayakumar, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Pain is highly subjective and it is neurologically proven that stimulation of larger diameter fibers - e.g., using appropriate coldness, warmth, rubbing, pressure or vibration - can close the neural "gate" so that the central perception of itch and pain is reduced. This fact is based upon "gate control" theory of Melzack and Wall. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of vibration stimuli on pain experienced during local anesthetic injections. Thirty patients aged 6-12 years old of both the genders with Frankel's behavior rating scale as positive and definitely positive requiring bilateral local anesthesia injections for dental treatment were included in the split-mouth cross over design. Universal pain assessment tool was used to assess the pain with and without vibration during the administration of local anesthesia and the results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Local anesthetic administration with vibration resulted in significantly less pain (P = 0.001) compared to the injections without the use of vibe. The results suggest that vibration can be used as an effective method to decrease pain during dental local anesthetic administration.

  19. Thrust Vectoring of a Continuous Rotating Detonation Engine by Changing the Local Injection Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shi-Jie; Lin Zhi-Yong; Sun Ming-Bo; Liu Wei-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The thrust vectoring ability of a continuous rotating detonation engine is numerically investigated, which is realized via increasing local injection stagnation pressure of half of the simulation domain compared to the other half. Under the homogeneous injection condition, both the flow-field structure and the detonation wave propagation process are analyzed. Due to the same injection condition along the inlet boundary, the outlines of fresh gas zones at different moments are similar to each other. The main flow-field features under thrust vectoring cases are similar to that under the baseline condition. However, due to the heterogeneous injection system, both the height of the fresh gas zone and the pressure value of the fresh gas in the high injection pressure zone are larger than that in the low injection pressure zone. Thus the average pressure in half of the engine is larger than that in the other half and the thrust vectoring adjustment is realized. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  20. Randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenier Klaas H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background De Quervain's tenosynovitis is a stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and leads to wrist pain and to impaired function of the wrist and hand. It can be treated by splinting, local corticosteroid injection and operation. In this study effectiveness of local corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis provided by general practitioners was assessed. Methods Participants with de Quervain's tenosynovitis were recruited by general practitioners. Short-term outcomes (one week after injections were assessed in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Long-term effectiveness was evaluated in an open prospective cohort-study of steroid responders during a follow-up period of 12 months. Participants were randomised to one or two local injections of 1 ml of triamcinolonacetonide (TCA or 1 ml of NaCl 0.9% (placebo. Non-responders to NaCl were treated with additional TCA injections. Main outcomes were immediate treatment response, severity of pain, improvement as perceived by participant and functional disability using sub items hand and finger function of the Dutch Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (Dutch AIMS-2-HFF. Results 11 general practitioners included 21 wrists in 21 patients. The TCA-group had better results for short-term outcomes treatment response (78% vs. 25%; p = 0.015, perceived improvement (78% vs. 33%; p = 0.047 and severity of pain (4.27 vs. 1.33; p = 0.031 but not for the Dutch-AIMS-HFF (2.71 vs. 1.92; p = 0.112. Absolute risk reduction for the main outcome short-term treatment response was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.76 with a number needed to treat of 2 (95% CI: 1, 3. In the cohort of steroid responders (n = 12 the beneficial effects of steroid injections were sustained during the follow-up of 12 months regarding severity of pain (p = 0.67 and scores of Dutch AIMS-2-HFF (p = 0.36, but not for patient perceived improvement (p = 0.02. No adverse events were observed during the 12

  1. Comparative efficacy and safety of local and systemic methotrexate injection in cesarean scar pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ping Peng,1 Ting Gui,1 Xinyan Liu,1 Weilin Chen,1 Zhenzhen Liu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Ultrasonography, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX injection in treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP. Method: A randomized controlled study was performed in 104 CSP patients receiving either local or systemic MTX injection at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from the year 2008 to 2013. Results: Complete cure was defined as regression of ultrasonographic findings and normalization of serum β-hCG within 60 days. It was regarded as delayed cure if additional dilation and curettage (D&C was needed. The overall cure rate (complete cure plus delayed cure was 69.2% versus 67.3% for local injection versus systemic administration (P>0.05. The median time for serum β-hCG remission and uterine mass disappearance after systemic administration (42 [21–69] days and 40 [20–67] days were significantly lower than those receiving local injection (56 [24–92] days and 53 [23–88] days, with P=0.029 and 0.046, respectively. The mean pretreatment serum β-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin level and lesion size in cured group (21,941±18,351 mIU/mL and 2.9±1.3 cm, respectively were significantly lower than those in the failed group (37,047±30,864 mIU/mL and 3.6±1.3 with P=0.038 and 0.044, respectively. Conclusion: MTX injection is effective in CSP treatment. Systemic administration shows similar overall cure rate compared to local injection, but requires shorter time for serum β-hCG remission and uterine mass disappearance. Keywords: cesarean scar pregnancy, methotrexate injection, local, systemic

  2. Study of local currents in low dimension materials using complex injecting potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shenglai; Covington, Cody; Varga, Kálmán

    2018-04-01

    A complex potential is constructed to inject electrons into the conduction band, mimicking electron currents in nanoscale systems. The injected electrons are time propagated until a steady state is reached. The local current density can then be calculated to show the path of the conducting electrons on an atomistic level. The method allows for the calculation of the current density vectors within the medium as a function of energy of the conducting electron. Using this method, we investigate the electron pathway of graphene nanoribbons in various structures, molecular junctions, and black phosphorus nanoribbons. By analyzing the current flow through the structures, we find strong dependence on the structural geometry and the energy of the injected electrons. This method may be of general use in the study of nano-electronic materials and interfaces.

  3. Treatment of cervical pregnancy with ultrasound-guided local methotrexate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Honda, R; Erdenebaatar, C; Monsur, M; Honda, T; Sakaguchi, I; Okamura, Y; Ohba, T; Katabuchi, H

    2017-12-01

    Cervical pregnancy (CP) is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy. While methotrexate (MTX) is generally the first-line method of choice for clinically stable women, there is still no consensus on the most appropriate treatment for this abnormal pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a single local MTX injection under transvaginal ultrasound guidance for the initial treatment of CP and to assess post-treatment fertility. We reviewed retrospectively 15 patients with CP treated with local MTX injection under transvaginal ultrasound guidance. In all patients, the serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels were monitored and the gestational sac was evaluated using ultrasonography after treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed as necessary. We evaluated the patients' clinical characteristics and clinical course after treatment, the efficacy of the treatment and the post-treatment fertility in patients desiring subsequent pregnancy. The median estimated gestational age at the time of MTX injection was 6 + 2 (range, 5 + 2 to 11 + 0) weeks. All 15 patients were treated successfully, without the need for blood transfusion or surgical procedures; however, three patients required an additional local MTX injection due to a poor decline in serum hCG level following the initial injection, while one patient required uterine artery embolization due to persistent vaginal bleeding and an enlarging gestational sac with blood vessels visible on contrast-enhanced MRI. The mean time following initial MTX injection for hCG normalization was 43.8 (95% CI, 33.3-54.3) days and for resumption of menses was 68.4 (95% CI, 51.9-84.9) days. Seven of the 10 women desiring subsequent pregnancy following treatment had uneventful pregnancy, one became pregnant but miscarried spontaneously at 8 weeks of gestation, one was treated by laparoscopic surgery after diagnosis of a tubal pregnancy and one did not conceive. A single, ultrasound

  4. Local myogenic pulp-derived cell injection enhances craniofacial muscle regeneration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J E; Song, M J; Shin, S; Choi, Y J; Kim, K H; Chung, C J

    2017-02-01

    To enhance myogenic differentiation in pulp cells isolated from extracted premolars by epigenetic modification using a DNA demethylation agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), and to evaluate the potent stimulatory effect of 5-Aza-treated pulp cell injection for craniofacial muscle regeneration in vivo. Pulp cells were isolated from premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes from four adults (age range, 18-22.1 years). Levels of myogenic differentiation and functional contraction response in vitro were compared between pulp cells with or without pre-treatment of 5-Aza. Changes in muscle regeneration in response to green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled myogenic pulp cell injection in vivo were evaluated using a cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury model of the gastrocnemius as well as the masseter muscle in mice. Pre-treatment of 5-Aza in pulp cells stimulated myotube formation, myogenic differentiation in terms of desmin and myogenin expression, and the level of collagen gel contraction. The local injection of 5-Aza pre-treated myogenic pulp cells was engrafted into the host tissue and indicated signs of enhanced muscle regeneration in both the gastrocnemius and the masseter muscles. The epigenetic modification of pulp cells from extracted premolars and the local injection of myogenic pulp cells may stimulate craniofacial muscles regeneration in vivo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparison of Two Local Anesthesia Injection Methods During a Transrectal Ultrasonography-guided Prostate Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Song Ee; Oh, Young Taik [Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To compare the effectiveness of 2 injection methods of lidocaine during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy for pain control and complication rates. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from March 2005 to March 2006. One hundred patients were categorized into two groups based on injection method. For group 1, 10 mL of 1% lidocaine was injected bilaterally at the junction of the seminal vesicle and prostate and for group 2, into Denonvilliers' fascia. Pain scores using a visual analog scale (VAS) as well as immediate and delayed complication rates were evaluated. The mean VAS score showed no significant differences between the groups (group 1, 3.4{+-}1.78: group 2, 2.8{+-}1.3: p = 0.062). The difference in delayed complication rates and incidence of hematuria, hemospermia, and blood via the rectum was not significant between groups. However, two patients in group 1 complained of symptoms immediately after local anesthesia: one of tinnitus and the other of mild dizziness. There were no significant differences between pain control and complication rates between the 2 lidocaine injection methods. However, injection into Denonvilliers' fascia is thought to have less potential risk

  6. Comparison of Two Local Anesthesia Injection Methods During a Transrectal Ultrasonography-guided Prostate Biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Song Ee; Oh, Young Taik; Kim, Jang Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul

    2010-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of 2 injection methods of lidocaine during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy for pain control and complication rates. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from March 2005 to March 2006. One hundred patients were categorized into two groups based on injection method. For group 1, 10 mL of 1% lidocaine was injected bilaterally at the junction of the seminal vesicle and prostate and for group 2, into Denonvilliers' fascia. Pain scores using a visual analog scale (VAS) as well as immediate and delayed complication rates were evaluated. The mean VAS score showed no significant differences between the groups (group 1, 3.4±1.78: group 2, 2.8±1.3: p = 0.062). The difference in delayed complication rates and incidence of hematuria, hemospermia, and blood via the rectum was not significant between groups. However, two patients in group 1 complained of symptoms immediately after local anesthesia: one of tinnitus and the other of mild dizziness. There were no significant differences between pain control and complication rates between the 2 lidocaine injection methods. However, injection into Denonvilliers' fascia is thought to have less potential risk

  7. Comparison of Two Local Anesthesia Injection Methods During a Transrectal Ultrasonography-guided Prostate Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Song Ee; Oh, Young Taik [Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To compare the effectiveness of 2 injection methods of lidocaine during a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy for pain control and complication rates. We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent a TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from March 2005 to March 2006. One hundred patients were categorized into two groups based on injection method. For group 1, 10 mL of 1% lidocaine was injected bilaterally at the junction of the seminal vesicle and prostate and for group 2, into Denonvilliers' fascia. Pain scores using a visual analog scale (VAS) as well as immediate and delayed complication rates were evaluated. The mean VAS score showed no significant differences between the groups (group 1, 3.4{+-}1.78: group 2, 2.8{+-}1.3: p = 0.062). The difference in delayed complication rates and incidence of hematuria, hemospermia, and blood via the rectum was not significant between groups. However, two patients in group 1 complained of symptoms immediately after local anesthesia: one of tinnitus and the other of mild dizziness. There were no significant differences between pain control and complication rates between the 2 lidocaine injection methods. However, injection into Denonvilliers' fascia is thought to have less potential risk

  8. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tok, Chung Hong; Kaur, Shaleen; Gangi, Afshin

    2011-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  9. Non-local electrical spin injection and detection in germanium at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rortais, F.; Vergnaud, C.; Marty, A.; Vila, L.; Attané, J.-P.; Widiez, J.; Zucchetti, C.; Bottegoni, F.; Jaffrès, H.; George, J.-M.; Jamet, M.

    2017-10-01

    Non-local carrier injection/detection schemes lie at the very foundation of information manipulation in integrated systems. This paradigm consists in controlling with an external signal the channel where charge carriers flow between a "source" and a well separated "drain." The next generation electronics may operate on the spin of carriers in addition to their charge and germanium appears as the best hosting material to develop such a platform for its compatibility with mainstream silicon technology and the predicted long electron spin lifetime at room temperature. In this letter, we demonstrate injection of pure spin currents (i.e., with no associated transport of electric charges) in germanium, combined with non-local spin detection at 10 K and room temperature. For this purpose, we used a lateral spin valve with epitaxially grown magnetic tunnel junctions as spin injector and spin detector. The non-local magnetoresistance signal is clearly visible and reaches ≈15 mΩ at room temperature. The electron spin lifetime and diffusion length are 500 ps and 1 μm, respectively, the spin injection efficiency being as high as 27%. This result paves the way for the realization of full germanium spintronic devices at room temperature.

  10. Early response of local steroid injection versus mini incision technique in treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, A.S.; Khan, A.; Afridi, S.A.; Khan, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the commonest peripheral neuropathies which effects mainly middle aged women. Different techniques are being tried to decrease the post-operative pain in patients operated for CTS. The objective of this study was to compare effectiveness of local injection of steroid and mini incision technique in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted at department of Orthopedics and department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from Aug 2011 to Feb 2013. A total of 116 patients of CTS were randomly allocated to either of the two groups. Fifty-eight Patient in Group A were subjected to local steroid injection and the same number of patient in Group B underwent mini incision technique. All patients of were advised to report to the OPD after one month to determine intervention effectiveness in terms of improvement in at least one grade of pain. Results: In this study mean age of the patients was 32.8 ± 5.1 years. Female gender was in dominance with 99 (86.3%) cases. In this study we compared the effectiveness of local steroid injection and mini incision technique in the treatment of carpel tunnel syndrome. We found out that the steroid injection was effective in 69.0% cases while mini incision technique was effective in 56.9% cases. The difference being statistically insignificant with a p-value of 0.17. Conclusion: The difference in pain after 1 month of the intervention was not statistically significant. (author)

  11. Effect of the Local Heat on the Pain of Vitamin K Injection in the Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Zahed Pasha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe absence of pain relief in infants can lead to harmful effects; so, this study aimed to investigate the effect of local heat on the pain of vitamin K injection in the infants.Materials and MethodsThis randomized clinical trial was conducted on 80 healthy infants. For the control group, 1 mg vitamin K was injected into the vastus lateralis muscle by a nurse. In the 3 intervention groups, respectively 5, 10 and 15 minutes before the injection, hot-water bag at 37 °C was placed on the quadriceps muscle and then injection was done with the same condition as in the control group. Immediately after the injection, the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS was completed. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21.0 software.Results41(51.25% girls and 39 (48.75% boys were participated. First-minute Apgar of all samples were 8.64±0.557. Birth weight was 3335.37±339.51 grams and the minimum gestational age 36.37±1.01 weeks. The mean pain score in the first minute in the control group was 3.6± 2.136, which was 3.3± 1.976 in the 5-minute warm-up group, and this amount was reached to 1.6± 1.569 in 10-minute warm up group, and 0.6± 0.821 in 15 minute warm-up group (P=0.008. The mean pain scores in the control group for the second minute was 1.0±1.835, which was reduced to 0.25± 0.716 in the 10-minute and 15-minute warm-up group (P=0.023.ConclusionLocal heating before the injection procedure can be effective in reducing pain in infants and the pain will reduce by increasing the local heating time (15 minutes.

  12. Non-solenoidal Startup with High-Field-Side Local Helicity Injection on the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. M.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Pachicano, J. L.; Pierren, C.; Richner, N. J.; Rodriguez Sanchez, C.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Weberski, J. D.

    2017-10-01

    Local Helicity Injection (LHI) is a non-solenoidal startup technique utilizing electron current injectors at the plasma edge to initiate a tokamak-like plasma at high Ip . Recent experiments on Pegasus explore the inherent tradeoffs between high-field-side (HFS) injection in the lower divertor region and low-field-side (LFS) injection at the outboard midplane. Trade-offs include the relative current drive contributions of HI and poloidal induction, and the magnetic geometry required for relaxation to a tokamak-like state. HFS injection using a set of two increased-area injectors (Ainj = 4 cm2, Vinj 1.5 kV, and Iinj 8 kA) in the lower divertor is demonstrated over the full range of toroidal field available on Pegasus (BT 0 = 10) attainable with LHI and the favorable stability of the ultra-low aspect ratio, low-li LHI-driven plasmas allow access to high βt-up to 100 % , as indicated by kinetically-constrained equilibrium reconstructions. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  13. Antibody against progesterone in local rabbit following low dose of progesterone injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyadi Suyadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Antibody against progesgerone was produced from serum of local rabbit following low dose of progesterone injection: While a control group (Control; n=5 was injected with Freund's adjuvant solution in aquadest, the treatment groups were either firstly injected with progesterone conjugated to Freund's Adjuvant (P--CFA, 150 p.l : 150 pl or progesterone conjugated to Freund's Adjuvant and bovine serum albumin (P-CFA-BSA; 135 p;l : 150 tt1 : 15 gl. Twice boostering injections were adminstered using incomplete Freund's Adjuvant on day 14 and 52 after first immunization. Weekly bleeding for serum collection were done from 1 week following first booster immunization to week 10, Using ELISA technique it was shown that the antibody titer to progesterone after first and second booster immunization in the P-CFA groug was higher than Control- and P-CFA-BSA groups. The antibody titer in the P-CFA-BSA remained low similar in the Control group: Key words: antibody; progesterone; rabbit

  14. Prompt triggering of edge localized modes through lithium granule injection on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Robert; Sun, Z.; Hu, J. S.; Xu, W.; Zuo, G. Z.; Gong, X. Z.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Huang, M.; Maingi, R.; Diallo, A.; Tritz, K.; the EAST Team

    2017-10-01

    We report successful triggering of edge localized mode (ELMs) in EAST with Lithium (Li) micropellets, and the observed dependence of ELM triggering efficiency on granule size. ELM control is essential for successful ITER operation throughout the entire campaign, relying on magnetic perturbations for ELM suppression and ELM frequency enhancement via pellet injection. To separate the task of fueling from ELM pacing, we initiate the prompt generation of ELMs via impurity granule injection. Lithium granules ranging in size from 200 - 1000 microns are mechanically injected into upper-single null EAST long pulse H-mode discharges. The injections are monitored for their effect on high Z impurity accumulation and to assess the pressure perturbation required for reliable ELM triggering. We have determined that granules of diameter larger than 600 microns (corresponding to 5.2 x 1018 Li atoms) are successful at triggering ELMs more than 90% of the time. The triggering efficiency drops precipitously to less than 40% as the granule size is reduced to 400 microns (1.5 x 1018 Li atoms), indicating a triggering threshold has been crossed. Using this information an optimal impurity granule size which will regularly trigger a prompt ELM in these EAST discharges is determined. Coupling these results with alternate discharge scenarios on EAST and similar experiments performed on DIII-D provides the possibility of extrapolation to future devices.

  15. Acceleration of Medpor implant fibrovascularization with local vascular endothelial growth-factor injections: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Demirel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medpor is a biocompatible, high-density porous polyethylene implant that is used for multiple indications in plastic surgery. The most frequent complications associated with the Medpor implant are infection and implant exposure. The primary cause of these complications is poor fibrovascularization of the Medpor implant and poor nourishment of the overlying skin. The present experimental study aimed to determine whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF could accelerate and increase Medpor implant fibrovascularization in vivo, and thereby improve local nourishment and prevent complications. Materials and Methods: The Medpor implant was inserted under the dorsal skin area in 40 Sprague-Dawley rats. 20 rats receiving local VEGF injections comprised the study group. The control group received saline injections. Fibrovascularization of the Medpor implants was compared. Results: In the rats injected with VEGF, the Medpor implant fibrovascularized faster, and there were more newly formed blood vessels, as compared with those in the control group. Conclusion: These findings have led to our use of VEGF-like agents that the accelerate angiogenesis in the Medpor implant as a means to reduce the incidence of such complications as infection and implant exposure. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(4.000: 196-201

  16. Local Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide: A Forgotten Aetiology of Cushing’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhumthammarat, Weera; Putthapiban, Prapaipan

    2017-01-01

    Many different non systemic corticosteroid administrations can cause iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome (CS). We herein report a case series of iatrogenic CS from keloid scars treatment and aesthetic regimen called mesotherapy. Our first patient developed CS after having exceeded recommended dose of intralesional injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TAC). Second case presented with CS followed by unidentified mesotherapy treatment for local fat reduction. Subcutaneous injections of dexamethasone were found to be the part of mesotherapy regimen in one case. Physicians should be insightful in prescribing TAC especially in those patients who have high predisposing factors for developing CS. In the same way, off-label mesotherapy combine with corticosteroid can lead to iatrogenic CS and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis suppression. Currently, there are no standard guidelines for mesotherapy treatment. Therefore, further clinical trials on dosage, duration and effective combination of mesotherapy regimens are needed to increase safety uses. PMID:28764237

  17. Treatment of frozen shoulder with subcutaneous TNF-alpha blockade compared with local glucocorticoid injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schydlowsky, Pierre; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effect of subcutaneous adalimumab injections with intraarticular glucocorticoid injections on frozen shoulder of 18 patients with unilateral joint involvement. Ten patients were randomised to subcutaneous injections with adalimumab and eight to intraarticular glucocorticoid inject...

  18. Mapping of local argon impingement on a virtual surface: an insight for gas injection during FEBID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanzenboeck, H.D.; Hochleitner, G.; Mika, J.; Shawrav, M.M.; Gavagnin, M.; Bertagnolli, E. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Solid State Electronics, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    During the last decades, focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) has become a successful approach for direct-write fabrication of nanodevices. Such a deposition technique relies on the precursor supply to the sample surface which is typically accomplished by a gas injection system using a tube-shaped injector nozzle. This precursor injection strategy implies a position-dependent concentration gradient on the surface, which affects the geometry and chemistry of the final nanodeposit. Although simulations already proposed the local distribution of nozzle-borne gas molecules impinging on the surface, this isolated step in the FEBID process has never been experimentally measured yet. This work experimentally investigates the local distribution of impinging gas molecules on the sample plane, isolating the direct impingement component from surface diffusion or precursor depletion by deposition. The experimental setup used in this work maps and quantifies the local impinging rate of argon gas over the sample plane. This setup simulates the identical conditions for a precursor molecule during FEBID. Argon gas was locally collected with a sniffer tube, which is directly connected to a residual gas analyzer for quantification. The measured distribution of impinging gas molecules showed a strong position dependence. Indeed, a 300-μm shift of the deposition area to a position further away from the impingement center spot resulted in a 50 % decrease in the precursor impinging rate on the surface area. With the same parameters, the precursor distribution was also simulated by a Monte Carlo software by Friedli and Utke and showed a good correlation between the empirical and the simulated precursor distribution. The results hereby presented underline the importance of controlling the local precursor flux conditions in order to obtain reproducible and comparable deposition results in FEBID. (orig.)

  19. Mapping of local argon impingement on a virtual surface: an insight for gas injection during FEBID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanzenboeck, H.D.; Hochleitner, G.; Mika, J.; Shawrav, M.M.; Gavagnin, M.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) has become a successful approach for direct-write fabrication of nanodevices. Such a deposition technique relies on the precursor supply to the sample surface which is typically accomplished by a gas injection system using a tube-shaped injector nozzle. This precursor injection strategy implies a position-dependent concentration gradient on the surface, which affects the geometry and chemistry of the final nanodeposit. Although simulations already proposed the local distribution of nozzle-borne gas molecules impinging on the surface, this isolated step in the FEBID process has never been experimentally measured yet. This work experimentally investigates the local distribution of impinging gas molecules on the sample plane, isolating the direct impingement component from surface diffusion or precursor depletion by deposition. The experimental setup used in this work maps and quantifies the local impinging rate of argon gas over the sample plane. This setup simulates the identical conditions for a precursor molecule during FEBID. Argon gas was locally collected with a sniffer tube, which is directly connected to a residual gas analyzer for quantification. The measured distribution of impinging gas molecules showed a strong position dependence. Indeed, a 300-μm shift of the deposition area to a position further away from the impingement center spot resulted in a 50 % decrease in the precursor impinging rate on the surface area. With the same parameters, the precursor distribution was also simulated by a Monte Carlo software by Friedli and Utke and showed a good correlation between the empirical and the simulated precursor distribution. The results hereby presented underline the importance of controlling the local precursor flux conditions in order to obtain reproducible and comparable deposition results in FEBID. (orig.)

  20. Mapping of local argon impingement on a virtual surface: an insight for gas injection during FEBID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzenboeck, H. D.; Hochleitner, G.; Mika, J.; Shawrav, M. M.; Gavagnin, M.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2014-12-01

    During the last decades, focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) has become a successful approach for direct-write fabrication of nanodevices. Such a deposition technique relies on the precursor supply to the sample surface which is typically accomplished by a gas injection system using a tube-shaped injector nozzle. This precursor injection strategy implies a position-dependent concentration gradient on the surface, which affects the geometry and chemistry of the final nanodeposit. Although simulations already proposed the local distribution of nozzle-borne gas molecules impinging on the surface, this isolated step in the FEBID process has never been experimentally measured yet. This work experimentally investigates the local distribution of impinging gas molecules on the sample plane, isolating the direct impingement component from surface diffusion or precursor depletion by deposition. The experimental setup used in this work maps and quantifies the local impinging rate of argon gas over the sample plane. This setup simulates the identical conditions for a precursor molecule during FEBID. Argon gas was locally collected with a sniffer tube, which is directly connected to a residual gas analyzer for quantification. The measured distribution of impinging gas molecules showed a strong position dependence. Indeed, a 300-µm shift of the deposition area to a position further away from the impingement center spot resulted in a 50 % decrease in the precursor impinging rate on the surface area. With the same parameters, the precursor distribution was also simulated by a Monte Carlo software by Friedli and Utke and showed a good correlation between the empirical and the simulated precursor distribution. The results hereby presented underline the importance of controlling the local precursor flux conditions in order to obtain reproducible and comparable deposition results in FEBID.

  1. Inadvertent injection of formalin mistaken for local anesthetic agent: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Brennan, Peter A

    2012-05-01

    Chemical facial cellulitis, while commonly seen in domestic accidents or attempted suicide, is uncommon in the dental office and hence rarely addressed in the dental literature. We present an unusual case of chemical facial cellulitis caused by inadvertent injection of formalin into the soft tissues of the oral cavity, which was mistaken for local anesthesia solution. This report comprises the immediate symptoms, possible root cause, and management of the difficult situation. We also provide some guidelines to avoid such unfortunate events. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Types of rabies vaccines which were locally injected to the subjects bitten by animals abroad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, N

    1997-08-01

    In recent years there have been a number of subjects who were bitten by supposed rabid animals in foreign rabies-epizootic countries and visited our hospital to received post-exposure therapy after their return to Japan. WHO recommends immediate washing of the wound with soap and water, application of human anti-rabies immunoglobulin and administration of tissue-culture rabies vaccine at 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, and 90 days after exposure. However, tissue-culture vaccines, are expensive and they are not always used in all parts of the world. The author checked whether the victims of animal bite were injected with rabies vaccines abroad or not and investigated the type of rabies vaccine when they were vaccinated. About a half of the consulted victims were locally injected with rabies vaccine. By mean of certificates of inoculation or empty boxes of vaccine, types of rabies vaccines were proved in 40 subjects of which 38 received tissue-culture vaccines. Sample-type vaccine was administered to one subject and suckling mouse vaccine was done to another one. When post-exposure prophylaxis was continued after return to Japan, it is important to know the sort of rabies vaccine injected abroad, because brain-tissue vaccines are less effective in inducing antibody than tissue-culture vaccines. Consequently both physicians and travelers should keep in mind that even now brain-tissue vaccines are used in some areas of the world.

  3. Local corticosteroid versus autologous blood injections in lateral epicondylitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirico, Felice; Ricca, Flavia; DI Meglio, Franca; Nurzynska, Daria; Castaldo, Clotilde; Spera, Rocco; Montagnani, Stefania

    2017-06-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common painful elbow disorder. Several approaches to treatment have been proposed, with a local injection of corticosteroids being the most frequently used. Recent insights into the pathophysiology encouraged the introduction of autologous blood injections as an alternative treatment method. The aim of this meta-analysis is to summarize quantitatively the evidence regarding the efficacy of corticosteroids and autologous blood injections for treatment of pain in lateral epicondylitis. Studies were considered eligible based on the following inclusion criteria: adult human, diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis, randomized controlled trials comparing corticosteroids versus autologous blood injections, pain assessment. Exclusion criteria were previous surgery for lateral epicondylitis or for other elbow disorders, concurrent treatment with drugs or physiotherapy, diagnosis of musculoskeletal systemic disorder. A systematic search of literature was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Effect size of each included study was calculated and analyzed in a random-effects model. Four studies, enrolling total of 218 patients (139 females and 79 males), were included in quantitative analysis. At 2 weeks, there was a trend towards a reduction of VAS score in the corticosteroid group (WMD=2.12 [95% CI: 4.38 to 0.14], P=0.07). No significant differences were recorded in the medium-term (4-12 weeks; WMD=0.85 [95% CI: -0.44 to 2.15], P=0.19) and long-term (24 weeks; WMD=0.63 [95% CI: -2.40 to 3.66], P=0.68) follow-up. Few high-quality trials compare the efficacy of corticosteroid and autologous blood injections in the control of pain related to lateral epicondylitis. Available data indicate that corticosteroids tend to reduce VAS score in short-term follow-up, although these data are not statistically significant. No differences were recorded in the medium and long term. Contrary to popular opinion among medical professionals, and despite

  4. Direct Injection of Blood Products Versus Gelatin Sponge as a Technique for Local Hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaga, John [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Rahim, Shiraz, E-mail: Shiraz.rahim@uhhospitals.org

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo provide a method of reducing risk of minimally invasive procedures on patients with abnormal hemostasis and evaluate efficacy of direct fresh frozen plasma injection through a procedure needle tract compared to Gelfoam (gelatin sponge) administration.Materials and MethodsEighty patients with elevated international standardized ratio (INR) undergoing minimally invasive procedures using imaging guidance were selected retrospectively. Forty patients had received Gelfoam as a means of tract embolization during the procedure. The other 40 received local fresh frozen plasma (FFP) through the needle tract. The number of complications and clinically significant bleeding events were recorded. A threshold of 30 cc of blood loss after a procedure was used to identify excess bleeding.ResultsNo patients experienced clinically significant bleeding after administration of FFP. Five patients experienced postoperative drops in hemoglobin or hematomas after administration of Gelfoam.ConclusionLocal injection of blood products can reduce postprocedure bleeding in patients undergoing minimally invasive procedures and provides a safe alternative to the use of synthetic fibrin plugs.

  5. Ion Heating During Local Helicity Injection Plasma Startup in the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Plasmas in the Pegasus ST are initiated either through standard, MHD stable, inductive current drive or non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive with strong reconnection activity, providing a rich environment to study ion dynamics. During LHI discharges, a large amount of impurity ion heating has been observed, with the passively measured impurity Ti as high as 800 eV compared to Ti ~ 60 eV and Te ~ 175 eV during standard inductive current drive discharges. In addition, non-thermal ion velocity distributions are observed and appear to be strongest near the helicity injectors. The ion heating is hypothesized to be a result of large-scale magnetic reconnection activity, as the amount of heating scales with increasing fluctuation amplitude of the dominant, edge localized, n =1 MHD mode. An approximate temporal scaling of the heating with the amplitude of higher frequency magnetic fluctuations has also been observed, with large amounts of power spectral density present at several impurity ion cyclotron frequencies. Recent experiments have focused on investigating the impurity ion heating scaling with the ion charge to mass ratio as well as the reconnecting field strength. The ion charge to mass ratio was modified by observing different impurity charge states in similar LHI plasmas while the reconnecting field strength was modified by changing the amount of injected edge current. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  6. Automatic and remote controlled ictal SPECT injection for seizure focus localization by use of a commercial contrast agent application pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Michael; Eder, Hans; Holl, Alexander; Körner, Eva; Zmugg, Gerda; Aigner, Reingard; Fazekas, Franz; Ott, Erwin

    2007-07-01

    In the presurgical evaluation of patients with partial epilepsy, the ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for seizure focus localization. To achieve optimal SPECT scan quality, ictal tracer injection should be carried out as quickly as possible after the seizure onset and under highest safety conditions possible. Compared to the commonly used manual injection, an automatic administration of the radioactive tracer may provide higher quality standards for this procedure. In this study, therefore, we retrospectively analyzed efficiency and safety of an automatic injection system for ictal SPECT tracer application. Over a 31-month period, 26 patients underwent ictal SPECT by use of an automatic remote-controlled injection pump originally designed for CT-contrast agent application. Various factors were reviewed, including latency of ictal injection, radiation safety parameters, and ictal seizure onset localizing value. Times between seizure onset and tracer injection ranged between 3 and 48 s. In 21 of 26 patients ictal SPECT supported the localization of the epileptogenic focus in the course of the presurgical evaluation. In all cases ictal SPECT tracer injection was performed with a high degree of safety to patients and staff. Ictal SPECT by use of a remote-controlled CT-contrast agent injection system provides a high scan quality and is a safe and confirmatory presurgical evaluation technique in the epilepsy-monitoring unit.

  7. Local mechanical properties of LFT injection molded parts: Numerical simulations versus experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplentere, F.; Soete, K.; Bonte, H.; Debrabandere, E.

    2014-05-01

    In predictive engineering for polymer processes, the proper prediction of material microstructure from known processing conditions and constituent material properties is a critical step forward properly predicting bulk properties in the finished composite. Operating within the context of long-fiber thermoplastics (LFT, length Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight 2014 software has been used. In this software, a fiber breakage algorithm for the polymer flow inside the mold is available. Using well known micro mechanic formulas allow to combine the local fiber length with the local orientation into local mechanical properties. Different experiments were performed using a commercially available glass fiber filled compound to compare the measured data with the numerical simulation results. In this investigation, tensile tests and 3 point bending tests are considered. To characterize the fiber length distribution of the polymer melt entering the mold (necessary for the numerical simulations), air shots were performed. For those air shots, similar homogenization conditions were used as during the injection molding tests. The fiber length distribution is characterized using automated optical method on samples for which the matrix material is burned away. Using the appropriate settings for the different experiments, good predictions of the local mechanical properties are obtained.

  8. [The effect of locally injected betamethasone on collagen deposition in benign central airway stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y F; Xu, D F; Zeng, Y M; Zhang, H P; Yang, D Y; Chen, X Y; Zhang, J

    2016-08-01

    To assess the effects of locally injected betamethasone on cicatricial tissue hyperplasia in patients with benign central airway stenosis. A prospective study was conducted with 2 treatment modalities: conventional interventional(CI)therapy, and CI combined with local betamethasone injection(LBI). The average optical density value of TGF-β1 and collagen density in the local airway tissues were compared before therapy and 7 d after the CI treatment and the LBI treatment, respectively. Six patients were recruited in this study from May 2013 to June 2015.The results showed significant statistical differences by paired t-test in TGF-β1: 92±38 vs 164±47(t=-7.984, P=0.000)before and after the CI treatment, respectively; 128±45 vs 78±40 (t=10.055, P=0.000)before and after the LBI treatment, respectively. The collagen density was 91 932±59 520 vs 150 252±76 673(t=-8.105, P=0.000) before and after the CI treatment, respectively; 107 024±54 880 vs 114 038±50 772(t=-0.621, P=0.54) before and after the LBI treatment, respectively.Trend comparisons made before and after the treatments showed significant statistical differences in TGF-β1(F=712.139, P=0.000) and in the collagen density (F=261.256, P=0.000)between the CI treatment and the LBI treatment groups. The CI treatment was shown to stimulate the production of TGF-β1 and the deposition of collagen, while the LBI treatment was shown to reduce the production of TGF-β1 and alleviate the deposition of collagen from the stimulation of the CI treatment.

  9. Local inflammation, lethality and cytokine release in mice injected with Bothrops atrox venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Barros

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We have provided evidence that: (a lethality of mice to crude Bothrops venom varies according the isogenic strain (A/J > C57Bl/6 > A/Sn > BALB/c > C3H/ HePas > DBA/2 > C3H/He; (bBALB/c mice (LD50=100.0 μg were injected i.p. with 50 μg of venom produced IL-6, IL-10, INF-γ, TNF-α and NO in the serum. In vitro the cells from the mice injected and challenged with the venom only released IL-10 while peritoneal macrophages released IL-10, INF-γ and less amounts of IL-6; (c establishment of local inflammation and necrosis induced by the venom, coincides with the peaks of TNF-α, IFN-γ and NO and the damage was neutralized when the venom was incubated with a monoclonal antibody against a 60 kDa haemorrhagic factor. These results suggest that susceptibility to Bothrops a trox venom is genetically dependent but MHC independent; that IL-6, IL10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and NO can be involved in the mediation of tissue damage; and that the major venom component inducers of the lesions are haemorrhagins.

  10. Usefulness of injecting local anesthetic before compression in stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Akiko; Urashima, Masaki; Nishihara, Reisuke

    2009-01-01

    Stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a useful method of breast biopsy. However, some patients feel unbearable breast pain due to compression. Breast pain due to compression caused the fact that the breast cannot be compressed sufficiently. Sufficient compression is important to fix the breast in this method. Breast pain during this procedure is problematic from the perspectives of both stress and fixing the breast. We performed biopsy in the original manner by injecting local anesthetic before compression, in order to relieve breast pain due to compression. This was only slightly different in order from the standard method, and there was no need for any special technique or device. This way allowed for even higher breast compression, and all of the most recent 30 cases were compressed at levels greater than 120N. This approach is useful not only for relieving pain, but also for fixing the breast. (author)

  11. Does ultrasound-guided lidocaine injection improve local anaesthesia before femoral artery catheterization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.; Katsanos, K.; Diamantopoulos, A.; Karnabatidis, D.; Siablis, D.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To present the results of a prospective, randomized, single-centre study investigating local anaesthesia before percutaneous common femoral artery (CFA) puncture and catheterization with the use of ultrasound-guided injection of lidocaine versus standard infiltration by manual palpation. Materials and methods: Patients scheduled to undergo diagnostic or therapeutic transfemoral catheter-based procedures gave informed consent and were randomized in two groups. In the first arm local anaesthesia with lidocaine hydrochloride 1% was performed under ultrasound guidance (group U/S), while in the second arm the standard method of manual artery palpation was applied (group M). In both groups, subsequent CFA catheterization was achieved under ultrasound guidance. The primary study endpoint was peri-procedural pain level evaluated with a visual-analogue scale (VAS score 0-10). Results: Between January 2009 and 2010, 200 patients (161 men, mean age 63 ± 12 years) were equally assigned to each group without any significant differences in baseline demographics. Patients in group U/S experienced significantly less pain during CFA catheterization in comparison with group M with a difference of three points in mean VAS score reported (1.6 ± 1.6 versus 4.6 ± 1.9, p < 0.0001). In addition, significantly less volume of lidocaine was used in group U/S compared to group M (16 ± 2.7 versus 19 ± 0.8 ml, p < 0.001).Total vascular access time was similar in both groups (4.4 ± 1.3 versus 4.5 ± 1.3 min). Overall complications included two small groin haematomas in each group. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided local anaesthesia of the CFA prior to percutaneous transcatheter procedures is safe and achieves superior levels of analgesia with minimal patient pain and discomfort compared to the standard method of manual palpation.

  12. Does ultrasound-guided lidocaine injection improve local anaesthesia before femoral artery catheterization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S., E-mail: stavspiliop@upatras.g [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Patras University Hospital, School of Medicine, Patras (Greece); Katsanos, K.; Diamantopoulos, A.; Karnabatidis, D.; Siablis, D. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Patras University Hospital, School of Medicine, Patras (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    Aim: To present the results of a prospective, randomized, single-centre study investigating local anaesthesia before percutaneous common femoral artery (CFA) puncture and catheterization with the use of ultrasound-guided injection of lidocaine versus standard infiltration by manual palpation. Materials and methods: Patients scheduled to undergo diagnostic or therapeutic transfemoral catheter-based procedures gave informed consent and were randomized in two groups. In the first arm local anaesthesia with lidocaine hydrochloride 1% was performed under ultrasound guidance (group U/S), while in the second arm the standard method of manual artery palpation was applied (group M). In both groups, subsequent CFA catheterization was achieved under ultrasound guidance. The primary study endpoint was peri-procedural pain level evaluated with a visual-analogue scale (VAS score 0-10). Results: Between January 2009 and 2010, 200 patients (161 men, mean age 63 {+-} 12 years) were equally assigned to each group without any significant differences in baseline demographics. Patients in group U/S experienced significantly less pain during CFA catheterization in comparison with group M with a difference of three points in mean VAS score reported (1.6 {+-} 1.6 versus 4.6 {+-} 1.9, p < 0.0001). In addition, significantly less volume of lidocaine was used in group U/S compared to group M (16 {+-} 2.7 versus 19 {+-} 0.8 ml, p < 0.001).Total vascular access time was similar in both groups (4.4 {+-} 1.3 versus 4.5 {+-} 1.3 min). Overall complications included two small groin haematomas in each group. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided local anaesthesia of the CFA prior to percutaneous transcatheter procedures is safe and achieves superior levels of analgesia with minimal patient pain and discomfort compared to the standard method of manual palpation.

  13. Initial Thomson Scattering Survey of Local Helicity Injection and Ohmic Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    A multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been installed on the Pegasus ST. The system utilizes a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ0 ~ 532 nm), spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings, and a gated, intensified CCD camera. It provides measurements of Te and ne at 8 spatial locations for each spectrometer once per discharge. A new multiple aperture and beam dump system has been implemented to mitigate interference from stray light. This system has provided initial measurements in the core region of plasmas initiated by local helicity injection (LHI), as well as conventional Ohmic L- and H-mode discharges. Multi-shot averages of low-density (ne ~ 3 ×1018 m-3) , Ip ~ 0 . 1 MA LHI discharges show central Te ~ 75 eV at the end of the helicity injection phase. Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA Ohmic plasmas at moderate densities (ne ~ 2 ×1019 m-3) have core Te ~ 150 eV in L-mode. Generally, these plasmas do not reach transport equilibrium in the short 25 ms pulse length available. After an L-H transition, strong spectral broadening indicates increasing Te, to values above the range of the present spectrometer system with a high-dispersion VPH grating. Near-term system upgrades will focus on deploying a second spectrometer, with a lower-dispersion grating capable of measuring the 0.1-1.0 keV range. The second spectrometer system will also increase the available number of spatial channels, enabling study of H-mode pedestal structure. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  14. Power Balance Modeling of Local Helicity Injection for Non-Solenoidal ST Startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberski, J. D.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    A zero-dimensional power balance model for predicting Ip(t) for Local Helicity Injection (LHI) discharges has been used to interpret experimental results from recent experimental campaigns using high-field-side (HFS) helicity injection. This model quantifies LHI's effective drive (Veff) through helicity balance while enforcing the Taylor relaxation current limit and tracking inductive effects to determine Ip(t) . Recent analysis of HFS LHI discharges indicate LHI is the dominant source of drive and provides Veff up to 1.3 V while geometric effects and inductive drive provide < 0.1 V throughout much of the discharge. In contrast to previous analysis of low-field-side (LFS) LHI discharges, which were driven by Veff = 0.3 V and 2.0 V from geometric effects and inductive drive. A significant remaining uncertainty in the model is the resistive dissipation of LHI discharges. This requires greater understanding of LHI confinement scaling and impurity content, which are currently under investigation. However, the model and experimental Ip(t) exhibit good agreement for parameters consistent with previous experimental findings. Extrapolation of plasma parameters and shaping from recent experiments allow for the model to project the performance of LHI systems. These projections indicate Ip 0.3 MA can be accessed on Pegasus via HFS LHI through changes to injector geometry to provide more Veff. This regime can be accessed via a LFS system by increasing the Taylor relaxation current limit early in the discharge. Work supported by US DOE Grants DE-FG02-96ER54375 and DE-SC0006928.

  15. Increased localized delivery of piroxicam by cationic nanoparticles after intra-articular injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SR

    2016-11-01

    , polymeric nanoparticles, electrostatic interaction, intra-articular injection, local delivery, hyaluronic acid

  16. Effect of liposomes on rheological and syringeability properties of hyaluronic acid hydrogels intended for local injection of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kechai, Naila; Bochot, Amélie; Huang, Nicolas; Nguyen, Yann; Ferrary, Evelyne; Agnely, Florence

    2015-06-20

    The aim of this work was to thoroughly study the effect of liposomes on the rheological and the syringeability properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels intended for the local administration of drugs by injection. Whatever the characteristics of the liposomes added (neutral, positively or negatively charged, with a corona of polyethylene glycol chains, size), the viscosity and the elasticity of HA gels increased in a lipid concentration-dependent manner. Indeed, liposomes strengthened the network formed by HA chains due to their interactions with this polymer. The nature and the resulting effects of these interactions depended on liposome composition and concentration. The highest viscosity and elasticity were observed with liposomes covered by polyethylene glycol chains while neutral liposomes displayed the lowest effect. Despite their high viscosity at rest, all the formulations remained easily injectable through needles commonly used for local injections thanks to the shear-thinning behavior of HA gels. The present study demonstrates that rheological and syringeability tests are both necessary to elucidate the behavior of such systems during and post injection. In conclusion, HA liposomal gels appear to be a promising and versatile formulation platform for a wide range of applications in local drug delivery when an injection is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of local high-frequency perturbation on a turbulent boundary layer by synthetic jet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hao; Huang, Qian-Min; Liu, Pei-qing; Qu, Qiu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the local high-frequency perturbation effects of a synthetic jet injection on a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. Parameters of the synthetic jet are designed to force a high-frequency perturbation from a thin spanwise slot in the wall. In the test locations downstream of the slot, it is found that skin-friction is reduced by the perturbation, which is languishingly evolved downstream of the slot with corresponding influence on the near-wall regeneration mechanism of turbulent structures. The downstream slot region is divided into two regions due to the influence strength of the movement of spanwise vortices generated by the high-frequency perturbation. Interestingly, the variable interval time average technique is found to be disturbed by the existence of the spanwise vortices’ motion, especially in the region close to the slot. Similar results are obtained from the analysis of the probability density functions of the velocity fluctuation time derivatives, which is another indirect technique for detecting the enhancement or attenuation of streamwise vortices. However, both methods have shown consistent results with the skin-friction reduction mechanism in the far-away slot region. The main purpose of this paper is to remind researchers to be aware of the probable influence of spanwise vortices’ motion in wall-bounded turbulence control. (paper)

  18. The Physics of Local Helicity Injection Non-Solenoidal Tokamak Startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, A. J.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Jardin, S.

    2013-10-01

    Non-solenoidal startup via Local Helicity Injection (LHI) uses compact current injectors to produce toroidal plasma current Ip up to 170 kA in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment, driven by 4-8 kA injector current on timescales of 5-20 milliseconds. Increasing the Ip buildup duration enables experimental demonstration of plasma position control on timescales relevant for high-current startup. LHI-driven discharges exhibit bursty MHD activity, apparently line-tied kinking of LHI-driven field lines, with the bursts correlating with rapid equilibrium changes, sharp Ip rises, and sharp drops in the injector impedance. Preliminary NIMROD results suggest that helical LHI-driven current channels remain coherent, with Ip increases due to reconnection between adjacent helical turns forming axisymmetric plasmoids, and corresponding sharp drops in the bias circuit impedance. The DC injector impedance is consistent with a space charge limit at low bias current and a magnetic limit at high bias current. Internal measurements show the current density profile starts strongly hollow and rapidly fills in during Ip buildup. Simulations of LHI discharges using the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) will provide insight into the detailed current drive mechanism and guide experiments on PEFASUS and NSTX-U. Work supported by US DOE Grants DE-FG02-96ER54375 and DE-SC0006928.

  19. PET imaging of TSPO in a rat model of local neuroinflammation induced by intracerebral injection of lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ory, Dieter; Planas, Anna; Dresselaers, Tom; Gsell, Willy; Postnov, Andrey; Celen, Sofie; Casteels, Cindy; Himmelreich, Uwe; Debyser, Zeger; Van Laere, Koen; Verbruggen, Alfons; Bormans, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to measure functional and structural aspects of local neuroinflammation induced by intracerebral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats using TSPO microPET imaging with [ 18 F]DPA-714, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in vitro autoradiography and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in order to characterize a small animal model for screening of new PET tracers targeting neuroinflammation. Methods: Rats were injected stereotactically with LPS (50 μg) in the right striatum and with saline in the left striatum. [ 18 F]DPA-714 microPET, MRI, in vitro autoradiography and IHC studies were performed at different time points after LPS injection for 1 month. Results: Analysis of the microPET data demonstrated high uptake of the tracer in the LPS injected site with an affected-to-non-affected side-binding potential ratio (BP right-to-left ) of 3.0 at 3 days after LPS injection. This BP ratio decreased gradually over time to 0.9 at 30 days after LPS injection. In vitro autoradiography ([ 18 F]DPA-714) and IHC (CD68, GFAP and TSPO) confirmed local neuroinflammation in this model. Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI demonstrated BBB breakdown near the LPS injection site at day 1, which gradually resolved over time and was absent at 1 month after LPS injection. Conclusion: The LPS model is useful for first screening of newly developed tracers because of the easy design and the robust, unilateral inflammatory reaction allowing the use of the contralateral region as control. Additionally, this model can be used to test and follow up the benefits of anti-inflammatory therapies by non-invasive imaging

  20. Prospective Randomized Comparison of the Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy and Local Steroid Injection for the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canyilmaz, Emine; Canyilmaz, Fatih; Aynaci, Ozlem; Colak, Fatma; Serdar, Lasif; Uslu, Gonca Hanedan; Aynaci, Osman; Yoney, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for plantar fasciitis and to compare radiation therapy with local steroid injections. Methods and Materials: Between March 2013 and April 2014, 128 patients with plantar fasciitis were randomized to receive radiation therapy (total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy three times a week) or local corticosteroid injections a 1 ml injection of 40 mg methylprednisolone and 0.5 ml 1% lidocaine under the guidance of palpation. The results were measured using a visual analog scale, a modified von Pannewitz scale, and a 5-level function score. The fundamental phase of the study was 3 months, with a follow-up period of up to 6 months. Results: The median follow-up period for all patients was 12.5 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). For the radiation therapy patients, the median follow-up period was 13 months (range, 6.5-18.5 months), whereas in the palpation-guided (PG) steroid injection arm, it was 12.1 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). After 3 months, results in the radiation therapy arm were significantly superior to those in the PG steroid injection arm (visual analog scale, P<.001; modified von Pannewitz scale, P<.001; 5-level function score, P<.001). Requirements for a second treatment did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, but the time interval for the second treatment was significantly shorter in the PG steroid injection group (P=.045). Conclusion: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy compared to mean PG steroid injection on plantar fasciitis for at least 6 months after treatment

  1. Prospective Randomized Comparison of the Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy and Local Steroid Injection for the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canyilmaz, Emine, E-mail: dremocan@ktu.edu.tr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Canyilmaz, Fatih [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Yavuz Selim Bone Disease and Rehabilitation Hospital, Trabzon (Turkey); Aynaci, Ozlem; Colak, Fatma; Serdar, Lasif [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Uslu, Gonca Hanedan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kanuni Research and Education Hospital, Trabzon (Turkey); Aynaci, Osman [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Yoney, Adnan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for plantar fasciitis and to compare radiation therapy with local steroid injections. Methods and Materials: Between March 2013 and April 2014, 128 patients with plantar fasciitis were randomized to receive radiation therapy (total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy three times a week) or local corticosteroid injections a 1 ml injection of 40 mg methylprednisolone and 0.5 ml 1% lidocaine under the guidance of palpation. The results were measured using a visual analog scale, a modified von Pannewitz scale, and a 5-level function score. The fundamental phase of the study was 3 months, with a follow-up period of up to 6 months. Results: The median follow-up period for all patients was 12.5 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). For the radiation therapy patients, the median follow-up period was 13 months (range, 6.5-18.5 months), whereas in the palpation-guided (PG) steroid injection arm, it was 12.1 months (range, 6.5-18.6 months). After 3 months, results in the radiation therapy arm were significantly superior to those in the PG steroid injection arm (visual analog scale, P<.001; modified von Pannewitz scale, P<.001; 5-level function score, P<.001). Requirements for a second treatment did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, but the time interval for the second treatment was significantly shorter in the PG steroid injection group (P=.045). Conclusion: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy compared to mean PG steroid injection on plantar fasciitis for at least 6 months after treatment.

  2. Analysis of clinical records of dental patients attending Jordan University Hospital: Documentation of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Dar-Odeh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Najla Dar-Odeh1, Soukaina Ryalat1, Mohammad Shayyab1, Osama Abu-Hammad21Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Oral Medicine and Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Jordan; 2Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, JordanObjectives: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical records of dental patients attending the Dental Department at the University of Jordan Hospital: a teaching hospital in Jordan. Analysis aimed at determining whether dental specialists properly documented the drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections given to their patients.Methods: Dental records of the Dental Department at the Jordan University Hospital were reviewed during the period from April 3rd until April 26th 2007 along with the issued prescriptions during that period.Results: A total of 1000 records were reviewed with a total of 53 prescriptions issued during that period. Thirty records documented the prescription by stating the category of the prescribed drug. Only 13 records stated the generic or the trade names of the prescribed drugs. Of these, 5 records contained the full elements of a prescription. As for local anesthetic injections, the term “LA used” was found in 22 records while the names and quantities of the local anesthetics used were documented in only 13 records. Only 5 records documented the full elements of a local anesthetic injection.Conclusion: The essential data of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections were poorly documented by the investigated group of dental specialists. It is recommended that the administration of the hospital and the dental department implement clear and firm guidelines for dental practitioners in particular to do the required documentation procedure.Keywords: dental records, documentation, prescriptions, local anesthesia

  3. Oral Mucosal Injection of a Local Anesthetic Solution Containing Epinephrine Enhances Muscle Relaxant Effects of Rocuronium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Asako; Terakawa, Yui; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how submucosal injection of a clinically relevant dose of a lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing epinephrine affects the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. Sixteen patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery participated in this study. All patients were induced with fentanyl citrate, a target-controlled infusion of propofol and rocuronium bromide. Anesthesia was maintained by total intravenous anesthesia. After nasotracheal intubation, an infusion of rocuronium bromide was started at 7 µg/kg/min, and the infusion rate was then adjusted to maintain a train of four (TOF) ratio at 10 to 15%. The TOF ratio just prior to oral mucosal injection of a 1% lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing 10 µg/mL epinephrine (LE) was taken as the baseline. TOF ratio was observed for 20 minutes, with 1-minute intervals following the start of injection. Mean epinephrine dose was 85.6 ± 18.6 µg and mean infusion rate of rocuronium bromide was 6.3 ± 1.6 µg/kg/min. TOF ratio began to decrease 2 minutes after the injection of LE, reached the minimum value at 3.1 ± 3.6% 12 minutes after the injection, and then began to recover. We conclude that oral mucosal injection of LE enhances the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. PMID:22428970

  4. The Effect of 2 Injection Speeds on Local Anesthetic Discomfort During Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Melo, Marcelo Rodrigo; Sabey, Mark Jon Santana; Lima, Carla Juliane; de Almeida Souza, Liane Maciel; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This randomized double-blind crossover trial investigated the discomfort associated with 2 injection speeds, low (60 seconds) and slow (100 seconds), during inferior alveolar nerve block by using 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine. Three phases were considered: (a) mucosa perforation, (b) needle insertion, and (c) solution injection. Thirty-two healthy adult volunteers needing bilateral inferior alveolar nerve blocks at least 1 week apart were enrolled in the present study. The anesthetic procedure discomfort was recorded by volunteers on a 10-cm visual analog scale in each phase for both injection speeds. Comparison between the 2 anesthesia speeds in each phase was performed by paired t test. Results showed no statistically significant difference between injection speeds regarding perforation (P = .1016), needle placement (P = .0584), or speed injection (P = .1806). The discomfort in all phases was considered low. We concluded that the 2 injection speeds tested did not affect the volunteers' pain perception during inferior alveolar nerve blocks.

  5. The effect of local injection of the human growth hormone on the mandibular condyle growth in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Feizbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of local injection of human growth hormone (GH in stimulating cartilage and bone formation in a rabbit model of temporomandibular joint (TMJ. Materials and Methods: In an experimental animal study, 16 male Albino New Zealand white rabbits aged 12 weeks were divided into two groups: In the first group (7 rabbits 2 mg/kg/1 ml human GH and in the control group (9 rabbits 1 ml normal saline was administered locally in both mandibular condyles. Injections were employed under sedation and by single experienced person. Injections were made for 6 times with 3 injections a week in the all test and control samples. Rabbits were sacrified at the 20th day from the beginning of study and TMJs were histologically examined. ANOVA (two-sided with Dunnett post hoc test was used to compare data of bone and cartridge thickness while chi-square test was used to analyze hyperplasia and disk deformity data. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Cartilage layer thickness was greater in the GH-treated (0.413 ± 0.132 than the control group (0.287 ± 0.098 (P value = 0.02. Although bone thickness and condylar cartilage hyperplasia were greater in the GH-treated group, these differences were not statistically significant (P value = 0.189 and 0.083, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding the disc deformity (P value = 0.46. Conclusion: Local injection of human GH in the TMJ is able to accelerate growth activity of condylar cartilage in rabbit.

  6. Short-term muscle atrophy caused by botulinum toxin-A local injection impairs fracture healing in the rat femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yongqiang; Ma, Yongcheng; Wang, Xuepeng; Jin, Fangchun; Ge, Shengfang

    2012-04-01

    Damaged bone is sensitive to mechanical stimulation throughout the remodeling phase of bone healing. Muscle damage and muscular atrophy associated with open fractures and subsequent fixation are not beneficial to maintaining optimum conditions for mechanical stability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether local muscle atrophy and dysfunction affect fracture healing in a rat femur fracture model. We combined the rat model of a short period atrophy of the quadriceps with femur fracture. Forty-four-month-old male Wistar rats were adopted for this study. Two units of botulinum toxin-A (BXTA) were administered locally into the right side of the quadriceps of each rat, while the same dose of saline was injected into the contralateral quadriceps. After BXTA had been fully absorbed by the quadriceps, osteotomy was performed in both femurs with intramedullary fixation. Gross observation and weighing of muscle tissue, X-ray analysis, callus histology, and bone biomechanical testing were performed at different time points up to 8 weeks post-surgery. Local injection of BXTA led to a significant decrease in the volume and weight of the quadriceps compared to the control side. At the eighth week, the left side femurs of the saline-injected quadriceps almost reached bony union, and fibrous calluses were completely calcified into woven bone. However, a gap was still visible in the BXTA-treated side on X-ray images. As showed by bone histology, there were no mature osseous calluses or woven bone on the BXTA-treated side, but a resorption pattern was evident. Biomechanical testing indicated that the femurs of the BXTA-treated side exhibited inferior mechanical properties compared with the control side. The inferior outcome following BXTA injection, compared with saline injection, in terms of callus resistance may be the consequence of unexpected load and mechanical unsteadiness caused by muscle atrophy and dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  7. The Efficacy of Local Injection of Methylprednisolone and Lidocaine with and Without Splint, in Treating Patients with De Quervain's Tenosynovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suffering from de Quervain's tenosynovitis due to repetitive and routine activities leads to considerable referrals to orthopedic clinics and increasing health care costs and wasting of patients' time. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of local injection of methylprednisolone with and without splint for treatment of patients suffering from de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Methods: In a clinical trial study, 72 patients with de Quervain's tenosynovitis were selected in 2010 and were randomly divided into two groups. Therapeutic intervention in the first group was injection of 40 mg methylprednisone and 1 ml lidocaine with splint, and in the second group it was injection 40 mg methylprednisone and 1ml lidocaine without splint. Both groups followed this treatment for three periods(21 day. The related data were collected by visual analogue scale. Then data was analyzed by SPSS (ver. 16 using Fisher exact test and t test. Results: The findings of this study revealed that after the 3-week period of treatment the mean reduced pain intensity and improvement in the first group was significantly lower than the second group(p<0/05. Conclusion: Therefore, local injection of methylprednisone and lidocaine with splint is an effective method in the treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis.

  8. Comparison of the effectiveness of local corticosteroid injection and extracorporeal shock wave therapy in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazal, Münevver Serdaroğlu; Devrimsel, Gül

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine and compare the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy and local corticosteroid injection in patients with lateral epicondylitis. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients with lateral epicondylitis were randomly divided into extracorporeal shock wave therapy and steroid injection groups. Patients were evaluated using hand grip strength, visual analog scale, and short-form McGill pain questionnaire at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks post-treatment. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant increase in hand grip strength and decreases on the visual analog scale and short form McGill pain questionnaire overtime. There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of improvement in hand grip strength and on the short-form McGill pain questionnaire between groups at 4 weeks post-treatment, whereas the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group showed better results on the visual analog scale. The percentages of improvements in all 3 parameters were higher in the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group than in the injection group at 12 weeks post-treatment. [Conclusion] Both the extracorporeal shock wave therapy and steroid injection were safe and effective in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. However, extracorporeal shock wave therapy demonstrated better outcomes than steroid injection at the long-term follow-up.

  9. Development and experimental basis of local subretinal technique of xenogenic’s injection stem cells labelled by magnetic perticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to develop a technique for local subretinal injection of xenogeneic stem cells labeled with magnetic particles and to prove experimentally its effectiveness.Material and methods: We used a line of stem cells HEK-293 GFP,labeled with magnetic particles. The study was made on 84 eyes of 42 chinchilla rabbits 6 months of age, the weight were from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. All right eyes were experimental (42 eyes and all left eyes (42 eyes were the control group. In the experimental group we used original complex of polymer elastic magnetic implant (PEMI with laser probe and fixed it to the sclera, then we made a median vitrectomy and injected HEK-293 GFP under the retina using a specially designed dispenser. In the control group PEMI was not fixed. We examined animals using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound scanning, optical coherence tomography  OCT, computer tomography (CT, morphological study (cryohistological sections in 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 day and 1 month after surgery.Results: According the results of biomicroscopy in observation periods up to 3 days the vascular injection was visualized in the area operation. According the results of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scanning in 1 day the local retinal detachment was visualized in the area of local injection of the stem cells, which was not visualized in terms of further observations. CT helped us to confirm the local place of PEMI fixation. The morphological study results showed that cells were located in the subretinal space up to 14 days in the experimental group, and only up 3 days in the control group.Conclusion: The suggested surgical technique enables to control the injection of cells into the subretinal space, reduces the risk of tissue damage and exit cells in the vitreous space. The suggested methodology allows the fixing of the cellular material in the local place of the injection and enables to predict cells`s movement.

  10. Development of a local anesthetic lidocaine-loaded redox-active injectable gel for postoperative pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Yukio; Mizukoshi, Yutaro; Gao, Zhenyu; Feliciano, Chitho P; Chang, Kyungho; Sekiyama, Hiroshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-15

    Although local anesthesia is commonly applied for pain relief, there are several issues such as its short duration of action and low effectiveness at the areas of inflammation due to the acidic pH. The presence of excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to induce inflammation and aggravate pain. To resolve these issues, we developed a redox-active injectable gel (RIG) with ROS-scavenging activity. RIG was prepared by mixing polyamine-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polyamine with nitroxide radical moieties as side chains on the polyamine segments (PMNT-b-PEG-b-PMNT) with a polyanion, which formed a flower-type micelle via electrostatic complexation. Lidocaine could be stably incorporated in its core. When the temperature of the solution was increased to 37°C, the PIC-type flower micelle transformed to gel. The continuous release of lidocaine from the gel was observed for more than three days, without remarkable initial burst, which is probably owing to the stable entrapment of lidocaine in the PIC core of the gel. We evaluated the analgesic effect of RIG in carrageenan-induced arthritis mouse model. Results showed that lidocaine-loaded RIG has stronger and longer analgesic effect when administered in inflamed areas. In contrast, while the use of non-complexed lidocaine did not show analgesic effect one day after its administration. Note that no effect was observed when PIC-type flower micelle without ROS-scavenging ability was used. These findings suggest that local anesthetic-loaded RIG can effectively reduce the number of injection times and limit the side effects associated with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs for postoperative pain management. 1. We have been working on nanomaterials, which effectively eliminate ROS, avoiding dysfunction of mitochondria in healthy cells. 2. We designed redox injectable gel using polyion complexed flower type micelle, which can eliminates ROS locally. 3. We could prepare local anesthesia-loaded redox injectable

  11. Treatment of recurrent chronic bacterial prostatitis by local injection of thiamphenicol into prostate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, T.A.; Baert, L.; Maes, R.A.

    Twenty-nine patients were treated for recurrent chronic bacterial prostatitis by an injection of 2 Gm. thiamphenicol glycinate via the perineal route directly into the prostate. Escherichia coli was identified as the pathogen responsible for this infection in 83 per cent of the cases. Using this

  12. [Local reactions after diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines in mice; changes in histopathology at the injection site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Chiharu; Katsuta, Tomohiro; Honjo, Ayako; Tateyama, Satoshi; Tokutake, Tadaomi; Arimoto, Yutaka; Nakajima, Natsuki; Goshima, Toshiro; Kato, Tatsuo

    2006-03-01

    Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) developed in Japan is now widely used worldwide. DTaP is safer than the diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) and has fewer severe side effects, but local reactions such as redness, swelling, and induration are still reported. The pathophysiological mechanism of these reactions is controversial. To clarify the cause of local reactions, we conducted studies using the mouse model. After administering either one or two abdominal subcutaneous DTaP inoculations, we observed changes in histopathology at the injection site at 24h, 48h, and 7 days. The control group, inoculated with physiologic saline, showed no significant changes either pathologically or with the naked eye. All mice after DTaP vaccination showed indurations at the injection site. Pathologically, we watched leukocyte invasion into or around the site, especially neutrophils and eosinophils. After the first vaccination, the extent of the invasion was strong 24h and 7 days later. At 24h following the second vaccination, a dramatic leukocyte invasion seen persisted at 7days. At 7 days after the first vaccination, peripheral fibrosis had begun, and when a second vaccination was administered, it began even earlier at the second site. These histopathological changes show that local reactions are caused by both inflammatory and allergic responses. Because this mouse study resulted in the same pattern of reactions observed in humans, this method will be useful for studies focusing on local reactions.

  13. Effects of levothyroxine on visual evoked potential impairment following local injections of lysolecithin into the rat optic chiasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobra Payghani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which has no any known definitive treatment. Studies have shown that thyroid hormones (THs in addition to their roles in the development of the nervous system and the production of myelin have important roles in the adult's brain function. Since the only way to treat MS is the restoration of myelin, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of levothyroxine on visual evoked potential (VEP impairment following local injections of lysolecithin into the rat optic chiasm. Methods: To induce demyelination, lysolecithin was injected into the optic chiasm of male Wistar rats. VEP recording was used to evaluate demyelination and remyelination before and 10, 17, and 24 days after the lysolecithin injection. The rats received an intraperitoneal injection of levothyroxine with doses 20, 50, and 100 μg/kg in different experimental groups. Results: VEP latency and amplitude showed demyelination at 10 and 17 days after an induced lesion in MS group which was reversed at day 24. Levothyroxine prevented these impairments, especially in high doses. Conclusions: According to the results, lysolecithin-induced demyelination at optic chiasm and VEP impairments can be restored by administration of levothyroxine. Therefore, THs probably have positive effects in demyelinating diseases.

  14. Local and distant chemical burns due to cetrimide injection in a massive dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kumar

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty ml of 20% cetrimide shampoo solution was injected subcutaneously around the left elbow by a drug addict to commit suicide. Edema, blisters with skip areas and, cellulitis were noted within 6 hours, not only around the site of the injection but also upto the wrist and the pectoral region. Muscles were protected by the tough deep fascia. There was no systemic toxidcity despite receiving at least 4 times the reported fatal dose. The patient was treated with multiple fasciotomies, broad spectrum antibiotics, an atory drugs, iunb elevation and daily dressings, followed by secondary suturing of fasciotomy wounds when the limb edema regressed. The cutaneous bums healed without needing skin grafts.

  15. Maximization of ICRF power by SOL density tailoring with local gas injection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jacquet, P.; Goniche, M.; Bobkov, V.; Lerche, E.; Pinsker, R.I.; Pitts, R.A.; Zhang, W.; Colas, L.; Hosea, J.; Moriyama, S.; Wang, S.-J.; Wukitch, S.; Zhang, X.; Bilato, R.; Bufferand, H.; Guimarais, L.; Faugel, H.; Hanson, G.R.; Kocan, M.; Monakhov, I.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Petržílka, Václav; Shaw, A.; Stepanov, I.; Sips, A.C.C.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2016), s. 046001 ISSN 0029-5515 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ICRF power * antenna loading * gas injection * SOL density Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/56/4/046001

  16. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and local tolerance at injection site of marbofloxacin administered by regional intravenous limb perfusion in standing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Elodie; Trencart, Pierre; Tahier, Carine; Dron, Frederic; Paulin, Angelique; Tessier, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic variables and local tolerance at injection-site of marbofloxacin administered via regional intravenous limb perfusion (RIVLP) in standing horses. Adult horses (n = 6). RIVLP were performed with rubber tourniquets applied to the forelimbs of standing sedated horses. Marbofloxacin (0.67 mg/kg) was randomly injected in 1 forelimb, with the contralateral limb serving as a control (0.9% NaCl solution). Samples of jugular blood and synovial fluid from the radiocarpal joint of the marbofloxacin-perfused limb were collected before and at intervals after RIVLP for determination of drug concentrations. All injection sites were evaluated before, 24 and 48 hours after RIVLP by means of ultrasonographic examination, circumferential measurements and subjective visible inflammation scores by veterinarians unaware of treatment received. No adverse effects associated with the technique or antibiotic were observed. High marbofloxacin concentrations were obtained in the synovial fluid, AUCINF was significantly higher in synovial fluid than in plasma (78.64 ± 49.41 and 2.85 ± 0.60 µg h/mL respectively, P = .028). The efficacy indices, AUC0-24 /MIC90 and Cmaxobs/MIC90 , predicted a favorable outcome in the treatment of synovial fluid infections caused by enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. After RIVLP, there was no statistically significant difference between marbofloxacin-injected and control limbs for lameness, visual inflammation score, limb circumference, and ultrasonographic appearance of the veins. Marbofloxacin injected limbs had a significantly greater subcutaneous thickness, compared with control limbs. These data suggest that RIVLP of marbofloxacin (0.67 mg/kg) could be a safe and effective method for treatment of infections of the distal portion of the limb for susceptible organisms. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. The efficacy of an intraosseous injection system of delivering local anesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, M S

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the clinical testing of a new system for the intraosseous delivery of local anesthesia. The author concluded that the system delivered local anesthetic very effectively (in some situations more effectively than the traditional delivery method), thus offering a great potential advantage to both dentists and patients.

  18. Trigeminal nerve injury associated with injection of local anesthetics: needle lesion or neurotoxicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren; Jensen, Rigmor H; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors used comprehensive national registry and clinical data to conduct a study of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in particular neurosensory disturbance (NSD), associated with local anesthetics used in dentistry METHODS: The study included data sets of annual sales of local anes...

  19. A Fast pH-Switchable and Self-Healing Supramolecular Hydrogel Carrier for Guided, Local Catheter Injection in the Infarcted Myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Bastings, Maartje M. C.; Koudstaal, Stefan; Kieltyka, Roxanne E.; Nakano, Yoko; Pape, A. C. H.; Feyen, Dries A. M.; van Slochteren, Frebus J.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Meijer, E. W.; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.; Dankers, Patricia Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive intervention strategies after myocardial infarction use state-of-the-art catheter systems that are able to combine mapping of the infarcted area with precise, local injection of drugs. To this end, catheter delivery of drugs that are not immediately pumped out of the heart is still challenging, and requires a carrier matrix that in the solution state can be injected through a long catheter, and instantaneously gelates at the site of injection. To address this unmet need, a ...

  20. EFFICACY OF LOCAL INFILTRATION OF AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD VERSUS LOCAL CORTICOSTEROID INJECTION- THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TENNIS ELBOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Roy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic painful tendon disorders are common in both sport persons and common individuals. 1,2 Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow is relatively more common among active individuals in the general population. 3 Typical signs and symptoms include pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle, exacerbated by resisted wrist extension and passive wrist flexion and impaired grip strength. The aim of the study is to find whether autologous blood provides comparable functional outcome over local steroids and hence whether it can replace steroids in treatment of tennis elbow. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients with nontraumatic elbow pain attending the Orthopaedics Outpatient Department of Nalanda Medical College Hospital from January 2016 to August 2016. The participating subjects were randomly grouped into two groups (steroid (Group A and autologous blood (Group B. Pain in the subject’s affected elbow was measured using Visual Analogue Score (VAS. RESULTS Initially, both the groups had comparable initial VAS scores. At 1 month follow up, steroid group showed a significantly greater improvement in mean VAS scores when compared to autologous blood group. However, at 6 months follow up, steroid group showed no statistically significant difference in mean VAS scores when compared to autologous blood group. CONCLUSION From the current study, we concluded that both local corticosteroid and autologous blood were equally efficacious in the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis of elbow.

  1. Injectable iodine-125 labeled tissue marker for radioactive localization of non-palpable breast lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Andreas Ingemann; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2018-01-01

    to be spatially well-defined and stable over a seven day period with excellent CT contrast (>1500 HU), enabling fluoroscopic visualization of markers during placement. The radioactivity remains strongly associated with the marker during the implantation period, which limits exposure to healthy tissue....... The surgical guidance marker is based on derivatives of the biomaterial sucrose acetate isobutyrate and unlike currently used markers it is injectable in the tissue using thin needles, reducing the discomfort to the patients significantly. The marker confers CT contrast and has radioactive properties, meaning...

  2. A novel vehicle for local protein delivery to the inner ear: injectable and biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Long, Wei; Liang, Zhongping; Wen, Lu; Yang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Delivery of biomacromolecular drugs into the inner ear is challenging, mainly because of their inherent instability as well as physiological and anatomical barriers. Therefore, protein-friendly, hydrogel-based delivery systems following local administration are being developed for inner ear therapy. Herein, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) containing interferon α-2 b (IFN α-2 b) were loaded in chitosan/glycerophosphate (CS/GP)-based thermosensitive hydrogel for IFN delivery by intratympanic injection. The injectable hydrogel possessed a physiological pH and formed semi-solid gel at 37 °C, with good swelling and deswelling properties. The CS/GP hydrogel could slowly degrade as visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of NPs in CS/GP gel largely influenced in vitro drug release. In the guinea pig cochlea, a 1.5- to 3-fold increase in the drug exposure time of NPs-CS/GP was found than those of the solution, NPs and IFN-loaded hydrogel. Most importantly, a prolonged residence time was attained without obvious histological changes in the inner ear. This biodegradable, injectable, and thermosensitive NPs-CS/GP system may allow longer delivery of protein drugs to the inner ear, thus may be a potential novel vehicle for inner ear therapy.

  3. Comparison of Local Injection of Platelet Rich Plasma and Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis of Humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raman; Kothari, S Y; Borah, Diganta

    2015-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis or Tennis Elbow is one of the most common causes of upper extremity pain with various treatment options. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) offers a new option for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. This study was conducted with an aim to compare the efficacy of PRP versus methyl-prednisolone local injection in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Sixty five patients with lateral epicondylitis were included in the study and randomized into two groups. Group A was treated with single injection of 1ml PRP with absolute platelet count of at least 1 million platelets/ mm(3). Group B was treated with single injection of 1ml (40mg) methyl-prednisolone. Pain, grip strength and functional improvements were assessed using visual analogue scale, dynamometer and quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scale respectively at baseline, 15 days, 1 month and 3 months. Sixty patients completed the follow up. All assessment parameters improved significantly in both the Groups at each follow up compared to baseline. At the end of three months group A showed significantly better improvement as compared to Group B. PRP and methyl-prenisolone both are effective in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. However, PRP is a superior treatment option for longer duration efficacy.

  4. Innovative evaluation of local injective gel of curcumin on the orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Asefi

    2018-01-01

    Materials and Methods: Forty rats were used as follows in each group: (1 negative control: Did not receive any appliance or injection; (2 positive control: received 0.03 cc normal saline and appliance; (3 gelatin plus curcumin (G: Received 0.03 cc hydrogel and appliance; and (4 chitosan plus curcumin (Ch: Received 0.03 cc hydrogel and appliance. They were anesthetized and closed nickel-titanium coil springs were installed between the first molars and central incisors unilaterally as the orthodontic appliance. After 21 days, the rats were decapitated, and the distance between the first and second molars was measured by a leaf gauge. Howship's lacunae, blood vessels, osteoclast-like cells, and root resorption lacunae were evaluated in the histological analysis. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, and t-test (P 0.05.

  5. Acrylic injectable and self-curing formulations for the local release of bisphosphonates in bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lorenzo, L M; Fernández, M; Parra, J; Vázquez, B; López-Bravo, A; Román, J San

    2007-11-01

    Two bisphosphonates (BPs), namely 1-hydroxy-2-[4-aminophenyl]ethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (APBP) and 1-hydroxy-2-[3-indolyl]ethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (IBP), have been synthesized and incorporated to acrylic injectable and self-curing formulations. Alendronic acid monosodium trihydrated salt (ALN) containing cement was formulated as control. These systems have potential applications in low density hard tissues affected by ailments characterized by a high osteoclastic resorption, i.e. osteoporosis and osteolysis. Values of curing parameters of APBP and IBP were acceptable to obtain pastes with enough fluency to be injected through a biopsy needle into the bone cavity. Working times ranged between 8 and 15 min and maximum temperature was around 50 degrees C. Cured systems stored for a month in synthetic body fluid had compressive strengths between 90 and 96 MPa and modulus between 1.2 and 1.3 GPa, which suggest mechanical stabilization after setting and in the short time. BPs were released in PBS at an initial rate depending on the corresponding chemical structure in the order ALN > APBP > IBP to give final concentrations in PBS of 2.21, 0.44, and 0.19 mol/mL for ALN, APBP, and IBP, respectively. Cytotoxicities of bisphosphonates were evaluated, IC(50) values being in the order APBP > ALN > IBP. Absence of cytotoxicity coming from leachables of the cured systems was observed in all cases independently of the BP. An improved cell growth and proliferation for the systems loaded with APBP and IBP compared with that loaded with ALN was observed, as assessed by measuring cell adhesion and proliferation, and total DNA content.

  6. Increased localized delivery of piroxicam by cationic nanoparticles after intra-articular injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Rae; Ho, Myoung Jin; Kim, Sang Hyun; Cho, Ha Ra; Kim, Han Sol; Choi, Yong Seok; Choi, Young Wook; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Piroxicam (PRX), a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is prescribed to relieve postoperative and/or chronic joint pain. However, its oral administration often results in serious gastrointestinal adverse effects including duodenal ulceration. Thus, a novel cationic nanoparticle (NP) was explored to minimize the systemic exposure and increase the retention time of PRX in the joint after intra-articular (IA) injection, by forming micrometer-sized electrostatic clusters with endogenous hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial cavity. PRX-loaded NPs consisting of poly(lactic- co -glycolic acid), Eudragit RL, and polyvinyl alcohol were constructed with the following characteristics: particle size of 220 nm, zeta potential of 11.5 mV in phosphate-buffered saline, and loading amount of 4.0% (w/w) of PRX. In optical and hyperspectral observations, the cationic NPs formed more than 50 μm-sized aggregates with HA, which was larger than the intercellular gaps between synoviocytes. In an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-24 h ) and maximum plasma concentration ( C max ) of PRX after IA injection of the cationic NPs were <70% ( P <0.05) and 60% ( P <0.05), respectively, compared to those obtained from drug solution. Moreover, the drug concentration in joint tissue 24 h after dosing with the cationic NPs was 3.2-fold ( P <0.05) and 1.8-fold ( P <0.05) higher than that from drug solution and neutrally charged NPs, respectively. Therefore, we recommend the IA cationic NP therapy as an effective alternative to traditional oral therapy with PRX, as it increases drug retention selectively in the joint.

  7. Use of Pre-Injection Diffusion of Local Anaesthetic as a Means of Reducing Needle Penetration Discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Sandalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine if pre-injection diffusion of local anaesthetic solution influences the discomfort of needle penetration in the palate. Methods: A placebo-controlled, randomised, doubleblind split-mouth investigation was conducted. 25 healthy adult volunteers were recruited and each received two needle penetrations in a random order during one visit. The penetration sites were 1 cm from the gingival margin of the first maxillary premolars on each side of the mouth. 30 gauge-13 mm needles which were attached to syringes that contained either 2% lidocaine with 0.125mg/ml epinephrine or physiological saline were used. For each penetration an operator encouraged a drop of solution to appear at the end of the needle and placed this drop with the bevel of the needle flat on the palate for 20 seconds. The discomfort was noted on a 100 mm visual analogue scale with end points marked “No pain” and “Unbearable pain”. Results: There was no significant difference in penetration discomfort between solutions, (mean VAS = 26.80±19.36mm for lidocaine and 26.20±18.39mm for saline however the 2nd penetration was significantly more uncomfortable than the first (mean VAS = 31.00±19.84 mm and 22.00±16.65 mm respectively. Conclusion: Pre-injection diffusion of local anaesthetic solution did not influence the discomfort of needle penetration in the palate.

  8. Effects of single injection of local anesthetic agents on intervertebral disc degeneration: ex vivo and long-term in vivo experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Analgesic discography (discoblock can be used to diagnose or treat discogenic low back pain by injecting a small amount of local anesthetics. However, recent in vitro studies have revealed cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on intervertebral disc (IVD cells. Here we aimed to investigate the deteriorative effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on rabbit IVDs using an organotypic culture model and an in vivo long-term follow-up model.For the organotypic culture model, rabbit IVDs were harvested and cultured for 3 or 7 days after intradiscal injection of local anesthetics (1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine. Nucleus pulposus (NP cell death was measured using confocal microscopy. Histological and TUNEL assays were performed. For in vivo study, each local anesthetic was injected into rabbit lumbar IVDs under a fluoroscope. Six or 12 months after the injection, each IVD was prepared for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological analysis.In the organotypic culture model, both anesthetic agents induced time-dependent NP cell death; when compared with injected saline solution, significant effects were detected within 7 days. Compared with the saline group, TUNEL-positive NP cells were significantly increased in the bupivacaine group. In the in vivo study, MRI analysis did not show any significant difference. Histological analysis revealed that IVD degeneration occurred to a significantly level in the saline- and local anesthetics-injected groups compared with the untreated control or puncture-only groups. However, there was no significant difference between the saline and anesthetic agents groups.In the in vivo model using healthy IVDs, there was no strong evidence to suggest that discoblock with local anesthetics has the potential of inducing IVD degeneration other than the initial mechanical damage of the pressurized injection. Further studies should be performed to investigate the deteriorative effects of the local injection of analgesic agents

  9. Randomized clinical trial of prevention of seroma formation after mastectomy by local methylprednisolone injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvamme, G; Axelsson, C. K.; Lanng, C

    2015-01-01

    : This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled intervention study of a single dose of 80 mg methylprednisolone versus saline on seroma formation after mastectomy. Patients were further classified according to the surgical axillary procedure: mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy (M + SLNB) or mastectomy......BACKGROUND: Seroma formation, the most prevalent postoperative complication after mastectomy, is an inflammatory process that is potentially preventable via local steroid administration. This study investigated the effect of local steroid administration on seroma formation. METHODS...... with level I-II axillary lymph node dissection (M + ALND). Treatments were administered into the wound cavity via the drain orifice following removal of the drain on the first day after surgery. The primary endpoint was seroma formation; secondary endpoints included the frequency of side...

  10. Innovative evaluation of local injective gel of curcumin on the orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi, Sohrab; Seifi, Massoud; Fard, Ghazal Hatami; Lotfi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: Curcumin is the most active compound in turmeric. It can suppress the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway and prevent the osteoclastogenesis procedure. This study aimed to be the first to evaluate the effect of curcumin on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). Materials and Methods: Forty rats were used as follows in each group: (1) negative control: Did not receive any appliance or injection; (2) positive control: received 0.03 cc normal saline and appliance; (3) gelatin plus curcumin (G): Received 0.03 cc hydrogel and appliance; and (4) chitosan plus curcumin (Ch): Received 0.03 cc hydrogel and appliance. They were anesthetized and closed nickel-titanium coil springs were installed between the first molars and central incisors unilaterally as the orthodontic appliance. After 21 days, the rats were decapitated, and the distance between the first and second molars was measured by a leaf gauge. Howship's lacunae, blood vessels, osteoclast-like cells, and root resorption lacunae were evaluated in the histological analysis. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, and t-test (P orthodontic forces. Curcumin inhibited root and bone resorption, osteoclastic recruitment, and angiogenesis significantly. Conclusion: Curcumin had no significant inhibitory effect on OTM. While it had a significant role on decreasing bone or root resorption (P > 0.05). PMID:29497446

  11. Hydrogel injection reduces rectal toxicity after radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Berneking, Vanessa; Koenig, Liane; Frank, Dilini; Bretgeld, Marilou; Eble, Michael J. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Injection of a hydrogel spacer before prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT) is known to reduce the dose to the rectal wall. Clinical results from the patient's perspective are needed to better assess a possible benefit. A group of 167 consecutive patients who received prostate RT during the years 2010 to 2013 with 2-Gy fractions up to 76 Gy (without hydrogel, n = 66) or 76-80 Gy (with hydrogel, n = 101) were included. The numbers of interventions resulting from bowel problems during the first 2 years after RT were compared. Patients were surveyed prospectively before RT, at the last day of RT, and at a median of 2 and 17 months after RT using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Baseline patient characteristics were well balanced. Treatment for bowel symptoms (0 vs. 11 %; p < 0.01) and endoscopic examinations (3 vs. 19 %; p < 0.01) were performed less frequently with a spacer. Mean bowel function scores did not change for patients with a spacer in contrast to patients without a spacer (mean decrease of 5 points) >1 year after RT in comparison to baseline, with 0 vs. 12 % reporting a new moderate/big problem with passing stools (p < 0.01). Statistically significant differences were found for the items ''loose stools'', ''bloody stools'', ''painful bowel movements'' and ''frequency of bowel movements''. Spacer injection is associated with a significant benefit for patients after prostate cancer RT. (orig.) [German] Bei der Radiotherapie (RT) des Prostatakarzinoms kann die Dosis an der Rektumwand durch die Injektion eines Hydrogelabstandhalters gesenkt werden. Klinische Ergebnisse aus der Sicht des Patienten sind zur Einschaetzung eines moeglichen Vorteils erforderlich. Eine Gruppe von 167 konsekutiven Patienten, die in den Jahren 2010-2013 eine Prostata-RT mit Einzeldosen von 2 bis 76 Gy (ohne Hydrogel, n = 66) bzw. 76-80 Gy (mit Hydrogel, n = 101

  12. Umbilical cord mesenchyme stem cell local intramuscular injection for treatment of uterine niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Shuzhen; Ye, Shaoxin; Wang, Wen; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uterine niche is defined as a triangular anechoic structure at the site of the scar or a gap in the myometrium at the site of a previous caesarean section. The main clinical manifestations are postmenstrual spotting and intrauterine infection, which may seriously affect the daily life of nonpregnant women. Trials have shown an excellent safety and efficacy for the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a therapeutic option for scar reconstruction. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using MSCs in the treatment for the uterine niche. Methods/design: This phase II clinical trial is a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled with 2 arms. One hundred twenty primiparous participants will be randomly (1:1 ratio) assigned to receive direct intramuscular injection of MSCs (a dose of 1∗107 cells in 1 mL of 0.9% saline) (MSCs group) or an identical-appearing 1 mL of 0.9% saline (placebo-controlled group) near the uterine incision. The primary outcome of this trial is to evaluate the proportion of participants at 6 months who is found uterine niche in the uterus by transvaginal utrasonography. Adverse events will be documented in a case report form. The study will be conducted at the Department of Obstetric of Southern Medical University Affiliated Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Foshan. Discussion: This trial is the first investigation of the potential for therapeutic use of MSCs for the management of uterine niche after cesarean delivery. Conclusion: This protocol will help to determine the efficacy and safety of MSCs treatment in uterine niche and bridge the gap with regards to the current preclinical and clinical evidence. Trial registration number: NCT02968459 (Clinical Trials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/). PMID:29095305

  13. An Injectable System for Local and Sustained Release of Antimicrobial Agents in the Periodontal Pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Laura; Cappelluti, Martino Alfredo; Ricotti, Leonardo; Lenardi, Cristina; Gerges, Irini

    2017-08-01

    Periodontitis treatments usually require local administration of antimicrobial drugs with the aim to reduce the bacterial load inside the periodontal pocket. Effective pharmaceutical treatments may require sustained local drug release for several days in the site of interest. Currently available solutions are still not able to fulfill the clinical need for high-quality treatments, mainly in terms of release profiles and patients' comfort. This work aims to fill this gap through the development of an in situ gelling system, capable to achieve controlled and sustained release of antimicrobial agents for medium-to-long-term treatments. The system is composed of micrometer-sized β-cyclodextrin-based hydrogel (bCD-Jef-MPs), featured by a strong hydrophilic character, suspended in a synthetic block-co-polymer solution (Poloxamer 407), which is capable to undergo rapid thermally induced sol-gel phase transition at body temperature. The chemical structure of bCD-Jef-MPs was confirmed by cross-correlating data from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, swelling test, and degradation kinetics. The thermally induced sol-gel phase transition is demonstrated by rheometric tests. The effectiveness of the described system to achieve sustained release of antimicrobial agents is demonstrated in vitro, using chlorhexidine digluconate as a drug model. The results achieved in this work disclose the potential of the mentioned system in effectively treating periodontitis lesions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Local injection of Lenti-Olig2 at lesion site promotes functional recovery of spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo-Tao; Jiang, Long; Liu, Li; Yin, Ying; Luo, Ze-Ru-Xin; Long, Zai-Yun; Li, Sen; Yu, Le-Hua; Wu, Ya-Min; Liu, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Olig2 is one of the most critical factors during CNS development, which belongs to b-HLH transcription factor family. Previous reports have shown that Olig2 regulates the remyelination processes in CNS demyelination diseases models. However, the role of Olig2 in contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the possible therapeutic effects remain obscure. This study aims to investigate the effects of overexpression Olig2 by lentivirus on adult spinal cord injury rats. Lenti-Olig2 expression and control Lenti-eGFP vectors were prepared, and virus in a total of 5 μL (10 8 TU/mL) was locally injected into the injured spinal cord 1.5 mm rostral and caudal near the epicenter. Immunostaining, Western blot, electron microscopy, and CatWalk analyzes were employed to investigate the effects of Olig2 on spinal cord tissue repair and functional recovery. Injection of Lenti-Olig2 significantly increased the number of oligodendrocytes lineage cells and enhanced myelination after SCI. More importantly, the introduction of Olig2 greatly improved hindlimb locomotor performances. Other oligodendrocyte-related transcription factors, which were downregulated or upregulated after injury, were reversed by Olig2 induction. Our findings provided the evidence that overexpression Olig2 promotes myelination and locomotor recovery of contusion SCI, which gives us more understanding of Olig2 on spinal cord injury treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Systemic and local immune response in pigs intradermally and intramuscularly injected with inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, P; Saleri, R; Cavalli, V; De Angelis, E; Ferrari, L; Benetti, M; Ferrarini, G; Merialdi, G; Borghetti, P

    2014-01-31

    The systemic and respiratory local immune response induced by the intradermal administration of a commercial inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae whole-cell vaccine (Porcilis(®) MHYO ID ONCE - MSD AH) in comparison with two commercial vaccines administered via the intramuscular route and a negative control (adjuvant only) was investigated. Forty conventional M. hyopneumoniae-free pigs were randomly assigned to four groups (ten animals each): Group A=intradermal administration of the test vaccine by using the needle-less IDAL(®) vaccinator at a dose of 0.2 ml; Group B=intramuscular administration of a commercially available vaccine (vaccine B); Group C=intramuscular administration of the adjuvant only (2 ml of X-solve adjuvant); Group D=intramuscular administration of a commercially available vaccine (vaccine D). Pigs were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were collected at vaccination (blood only), 4 and 8 weeks post-vaccination. Serum and BAL fluid were tested for the presence of antibodies by ELISA test. Peripheral blood monomorphonuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated to quantify the number of IFN-γ secreting cells by ELISpot. Moreover, cytokine gene expression from the BAL fluid was performed. Total antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae and specific IgG were detected in serum of intradermally and intramuscularly (vaccine B only) vaccinated pigs at 4 and 8 weeks post-vaccination. M. hyopneumoniae specific IgA were detected in BAL fluid from vaccinated animals (Groups A and B) but not from controls and animals vaccinated with the bacterin D (padministration of an adjuvanted bacterin induces both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Moreover, the intramuscularly administered commercial vaccines each had a different ability to stimulate the immune response both systemically and locally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. EMC3-EIRENE modeling of toroidally-localized divertor gas injection experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lore, J.D., E-mail: lorejd@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Reinke, M.L. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); LaBombard, B. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lipschultz, B. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Churchill, R.M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Feng, Y. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod with toroidally and poloidally localized divertor nitrogen injection have been modeled using the three-dimensional edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE to elucidate the mechanisms driving measured toroidal asymmetries. In these experiments five toroidally distributed gas injectors in the private flux region were sequentially activated in separate discharges resulting in clear evidence of toroidal asymmetries in radiated power and nitrogen line emission as well as a ∼50% toroidal modulation in electron pressure at the divertor target. The pressure modulation is qualitatively reproduced by the modeling, with the simulation yielding a toroidal asymmetry in the heat flow to the outer strike point. Toroidal variation in impurity line emission is qualitatively matched in the scrape-off layer above the strike point, however kinetic corrections and cross-field drifts are likely required to quantitatively reproduce impurity behavior in the private flux region and electron temperatures and densities directly in front of the target.

  17. Urinary bladder blood flow. I. Comparison of clearance of locally injected 99mtechnetium pertechnate and radioactive microsphere technique in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøyer, Kristian; Bülow, J; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    The blood flow of the dog urinary bladder measured by radioactive microsphere technique was compared to the clearance of locally injected 99mTechnetium pertechnate (99mTc) in the bladder wall. In semilogarithmic plots the 99mTc washout curves showed a multiexponential course. From the initial...... slopes (median 5.7 min) the bladder blood flow was calculated to be only 30-62% of the results obtained from the radioactive microsphere technique (blood flow in the muscular layer 21.7-44.8 ml/100 g/min). These lower values imply that the rate of removal of the hydrophilic tracer 99mTc at these flow...... blood flow....

  18. Subdural spread of injected local anesthetic in a selective transforaminal cervical nerve root block: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofuku Katsuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although uncommon, selective cervical nerve root blocks can have serious complications. The most serious complications that have been reported include cerebral infarction, spinal cord infarction, transient quadriplegia and death. Case presentation A 40-year-old Japanese woman with a history of severe right-sided cervical radicular pain was scheduled to undergo a right-sided C6 selective cervical nerve root block using a transforaminal approach under fluoroscopic guidance. An anterior oblique view of the C5-C6 intervertebral foramen was obtained, and a 23-gauge spinal needle, connected to the normal extension tube with a syringe filled with contrast medium, was introduced into the posterior-caudal aspect of the C5-C6 intervertebral foramen on the right side. In the anteroposterior view, the placement of the needle was considered satisfactory when it was placed no more medial than halfway across the width of the articular pillar. Although the spread of the contrast medium along the C6 nerve root was observed with right-sided C6 radiculography, the subdural flow of the contrast medium was not observed with real-time fluoroscopy. The extension tube used for the radiculography was removed from the spinal needle and a normal extension tube with a syringe filled with lidocaine connected in its place. We performed a negative aspiration test and then injected 1.5 mL of 1.0% lidocaine slowly around the C6 nerve root. Immediately after the injection of the local anesthetic, our patient developed acute flaccid paralysis, complained of breathing difficulties and became unresponsive; her respiratory pattern was uncoordinated. After 20 minutes, she regained consciousness and became alert, and her muscle strength in all four limbs returned to normal without any sensory deficits after receiving emergent cardiorespiratory support. Conclusions We believe that confirming maintenance of the appropriate needle position in the anteroposterior

  19. A brief review on the efficacy of different possible and nonpharmacological techniques in eliminating discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Rismanchian, Mansour; Akhavan, Ali; Nosouhian, Saeid; Bajoghli, Farshad; Haghighat, Abbas; Arbabzadeh, Farahnaz; Samimi, Pouran; Fiez, Atiyeh; Shadmehr, Elham; Tabari, Kasra; Jahadi, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Dental anxiety and fear of needle injection is one of the most common problems encountered by dental practitioners, especially in the pediatric patient. In consequences, it might affect the patient's quality of life. Several methods are suggested to lower the discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures. Desensitization of injection site is one of the recommended strategies. Among chemical anesthetic topical agents that are effective but might have allergic side effects, using some nonpharmacological and safe techniques might be useful. This study aimed to overview the efficacy of using cooling techniques, mostly by ice or popsicles, warming or pH buffering of drug, and using modern devices to diminish the discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures. PMID:26957683

  20. Local gas injection as a scrape-off layer diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, D.F.

    1996-05-01

    A capillary puffing array has been installed on Alcator C-Mod which allows localized introduction of gaseous species in the scrape-off layer. This system has been utilized in experiments to elucidate both global and local properties of edge transport. Deuterium fueling and recycling impurity screening are observed to be characterized by non-dimensional screening efficiencies which are independent of the location of introduction. In contrast, the behavior of non-recycling impurities is seen to be characterized by a screening time which is dependent on puff location. The work of this thesis has focused on the use of the capillary array with a camera system which can view impurity line emission plumes formed in the region of an injection location. The ionic plumes observed extend along the magnetic field line with a comet-like asymmetry, indicative of background plasma ion flow. The flow is observed to be towards the nearest strike-point, independent of x-point location, magnetic field direction, and other plasma parameters. While the axes of the plumes are generally along the field line, deviations are seen which indicate cross-field ion drifts. A quasi-two dimensional fluid model has been constructed to use the plume shapes of the first charge state impurity ions to extract information about the local background plasma, specifically the temperature, parallel flow velocity, and radial electric field. Through comparisons of model results with those of a three dimensional Monte Carlo code, and comparisons of plume extracted parameters with scanning probe measurements, the efficacy of the model is demonstrated. Plume analysis not only leads to understandings of local edge impurity transport, but also presents a novel diagnostic technique

  1. Local gas injection as a scrape-off layer diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, David F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A capillary puffing array has been installed on Alcator C-Mod which allows localized introduction of gaseous species in the scrape-off layer. This system has been utilized in experiments to elucidate both global and local properties of edge transport. Deuterium fueling and recycling impurity screening are observed to be characterized by non-dimensional screening efficiencies which are independent of the location of introduction. In contrast, the behavior of non-recycling impurities is seen to be characterized by a screening time which is dependent on puff location. The work of this thesis has focused on the use of the capillary array with a camera system which can view impurity line emission plumes formed in the region of an injection location. The ionic plumes observed extend along the magnetic field line with a comet-like asymmetry, indicative of background plasma ion flow. The flow is observed to be towards the nearest strike-point, independent of x-point location, magnetic field direction, and other plasma parameters. While the axes of the plumes are generally along the field line, deviations are seen which indicate cross-field ion drifts. A quasi-two dimensional fluid model has been constructed to use the plume shapes of the first charge state impurity ions to extract information about the local background plasma, specifically the temperature, parallel flow velocity, and radial electric field. Through comparisons of model results with those of a three dimensional Monte Carlo code, and comparisons of plume extracted parameters with scanning probe measurements, the efficacy of the model is demonstrated. Plume analysis not only leads to understandings of local edge impurity transport, but also presents a novel diagnostic technique.

  2. A novel segmentation method for uneven lighting image with noise injection based on non-local spatial information and intuitionistic fuzzy entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Fan, Jiulun

    2017-12-01

    Local thresholding methods for uneven lighting image segmentation always have the limitations that they are very sensitive to noise injection and that the performance relies largely upon the choice of the initial window size. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for segmenting uneven lighting images with strong noise injection based on non-local spatial information and intuitionistic fuzzy theory. We regard an image as a gray wave in three-dimensional space, which is composed of many peaks and troughs, and these peaks and troughs can divide the image into many local sub-regions in different directions. Our algorithm computes the relative characteristic of each pixel located in the corresponding sub-region based on fuzzy membership function and uses it to replace its absolute characteristic (its gray level) to reduce the influence of uneven light on image segmentation. At the same time, the non-local adaptive spatial constraints of pixels are introduced to avoid noise interference with the search of local sub-regions and the computation of local characteristics. Moreover, edge information is also taken into account to avoid false peak and trough labeling. Finally, a global method based on intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is employed on the wave transformation image to obtain the segmented result. Experiments on several test images show that the proposed method has excellent capability of decreasing the influence of uneven illumination on images and noise injection and behaves more robustly than several classical global and local thresholding methods.

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Versus Landmark-Guided Local Corticosteroid Injection for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei-Ghazani, Arash; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Forogh, Bijan; Moeini-Taba, Seyed-Mohammad; Abedini, Amin; Kadkhodaie, Mona; Jahanjoo, Fateme; Eftekharsadat, Bina

    2018-04-01

    To review the literature and assess the comparative effectiveness of ultrasound-guided versus landmark-guided local corticosteroid injections in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), and Web of Science (from inception to February 1, 2017). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ultrasound-guided injection with landmark-guided injection in patients with CTS were included. Two authors independently screened abstracts and full texts. The outcomes of interest were Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Functional Status Scale (FSS) scores of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and 4 electrodiagnostic parameters, including compound muscle action potential (CMAP), sensory nerve action potential (SNAP), distal motor latency (DML), and distal sensory latency (DSL). Overall, 569 abstracts were retrieved and checked for eligibility; finally, 3 RCTs were included (181 injected hands). Pooled analysis showed that ultrasound-guided injection was more effective in SSS improvement (mean difference [MD], -.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.59 to -.32; P.99), DML (MD, .05; 95% CI, -.30 to .39; P=.80), or DSL (MD, .00; 95% CI, -.65 to .65; P>.99). This review suggested that ultrasound-guided injection was more effective than landmark-guided injection in symptom severity improvement in patients with CTS; however, no significant differences were observed in functional status or electrodiagnostic improvements between the 2 methods. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The safety of peri-articular local anaesthetic injection for patients undergoing total knee replacement with autologous blood transfusion: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D F; Emmett, S R; Kang, K K; Chahal, G S; Hiskens, R; Balasubramanian, S; McGuinness, K; Parsons, H; Achten, J; Costa, M L

    2012-12-01

    Intra-operative, peri-articular injection of local anaesthesia is an increasingly popular way of controlling pain following total knee replacement. At the same time, the problems associated with allogenic blood transfusion have led to interest in alternative methods for managing blood loss after total knee replacement, including the use of auto-transfusion of fluid from the patient's surgical drain. It is safe to combine peri-articular infiltration with auto-transfusion from the drain. We performed a randomised clinical trial to compare the concentration of local anaesthetic in the blood and in the fluid collected in the knee drain in patients having either a peri-articular injection or a femoral nerve block. Clinically relevant concentrations of local anaesthetic were found in the fluid from the drains of patients having peri-articular injections (4.92 μg/ml (sd 3.151)). However, none of the patients having femoral nerve blockade had detectable levels. None of the patients in either group had clinically relevant concentrations of local anaesthetic in their blood after re-transfusion. The evidence from this study suggests that it is safe to use peri-articular injection in combination with auto-transfusion of blood from peri-articular drains during knee replacement surgery.

  5. Does pain relief by CT-guided indirect cervical nerve root injection with local anesthetics and steroids predict pain relief after decompression surgery for cervical nerve root compression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Alexander; Dietrich, Tobias J; Farshad, Mazda

    2016-10-01

    The relationship of pain relief from a recently presented CT-guided indirect cervical nerve root injection with local anesthetics and steroids to surgical decompression as a treatment for single-level cervical radiculopathy is not clear. This retrospective study aimed to compare the immediate and 6-week post-injection effects to the short- and long-term outcomes after surgical decompression, specifically in regard to pain relief. Patients (n = 39, age 47 ± 10 years) who had undergone CT-guided indirect injection with local anesthetics and steroids as an initial treatment for single cervical nerve root radiculopathy and who subsequently needed surgical decompression were included retrospectively. Pain levels (VAS scores) were monitored before, immediately after, and 6 weeks after injection (n = 34), as well as 6 weeks (n = 38) and a mean of 25 months (SD ± 12) after surgical decompression (n = 36). Correlation analysis was performed to find potential associations of pain relief after injection and after surgery to investigate the predictive value of post-injection pain relief. There was no correlation between immediate pain relief after injection (-32 ± 27 %) and 6 weeks later (-7 ± 19 %), (r = -0.023, p = 0.900). There was an association by tendency between immediate pain relief after injection and post-surgical pain relief at 6 weeks (-82 ± 27 %), (r = 0.28, p = 0.08). Pain relief at follow-up remained high at -70 ± 21 % and was correlated with the immediate pain amelioration effect of the injection (r = 0.37, p = 0.032). Five out of seven patients who reported no pain relief from injection had a pain relief from surgery in excess of 50 %. The amount of immediate radiculopathic pain relief after indirect cervical nerve root injection is associated with the amount of pain relief achieved at long-term follow-up after surgical decompression of single-level cervical radiculopathy

  6. Comparative evaluation of effectiveness of intra-pocket anesthetic gel and injected local anesthesia during scaling and root planing – A split-mouth clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Chintala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Pain control is an important outcome measure for successful periodontal therapy. Injected local anesthesia has been used to secure anesthesia for scaling and root planing (SRP and continues to be the anesthetic of choice for pain control. Alternatively, intra-pocket anesthetic gel has been used as an anesthetic during SRP. Hence, this clinical trial was done to compare the effectiveness of intra-pocket anesthetic gel and injected local anesthesia during SRP and also to assess the influence of intra-pocket anesthetic gel on treatment outcomes in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Fifteen systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients were recruited. The dental quadrants on right side received either intra-pocket 20% benzocaine gel (Gel group or infiltration/block by 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 adrenaline (injection group. Quadrants on the left side received the alternative. Pain perception and patients preference for the type of anesthesia was recorded. Clinical parameters: plaque index, modified gingival index, modified sulcular bleeding index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline and 1 month after treatment. Results: No difference was observed in visual analog scale (P > 0.05 and verbal rating scale (P > 0.05 pain perception between gel group and injection group. A slightly increased preference to gel as anesthesia (53% vs. 47% was observed. The treatment outcome after SRP did not show a significant difference between gel and injection group (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Intra-pocket administration of 20% benzocaine gel may be effective for pain control during SRP and may offer an alternative to conventional injection anesthesia.

  7. Repeated dose intramuscular injection of the CIMAvax-EGF vaccine in Sprague Dawley rats induces local and systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, A; Casacó, A; González, B; Ledón, N; Sorlozabal, J; León, A; Gómez, D; González, Y; Bada, A M; González, C; Arteaga, M E; Ramírez, H; Fuentes, D

    2012-05-09

    CIMAvax-EGF consists of a human recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF), coupled to P64k, a recombinant carrier protein from N. meningitis, and Montanide ISA 51 as adjuvant. The vaccine immunization induces a specific antibody production, inhibiting the EGF/EGF-R interaction through EGF deprivation. The objective of this study was to assess the CIMAvax-EGF toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats after intramuscular administration of repeated doses (6 months) and at the same time to determine if rat is a relevant species for studying CIMAvax-EGF vaccine. Rats were randomly distributed into four groups: control, Montanide ISA 51, treated with 1× and 15× of human total dose of the antigen. Animals were immunized weekly during 9 weeks, plus 9 immunizations every 14 days. Rats were inspected daily for clinical signs. Body weight, food consumption, and rectal temperature were measured during the administration of doses. Blood samples were collected for hematological, serum biochemical determinations and EGF titles at the beginning, three months and at the end of experimentation. Gross necropsy and histological examination of tissues were performed on animals at the end of the assay. Vaccine provoked the apparition of antibodies against EGF in the rats, demonstrating rat species relevance in these studies. Body weight gain, food and water consumption were not affected. CIMAvax-EGF and Montanide ISA 51 produced local damage at the administration site, showing multiple cysts and granulomas. Both vaccine-treated groups showed neutrophil elevation, besides an AST increase probably related to the damage at the administration site. Rectal temperature was found to be significantly higher in 15× treated group after immunizations, probably induced by the inflammatory process at the injection site. In summary, the clinical pathology findings together with the body temperature results, appear to be caused by the inflammatory reaction at the administration site of the vaccine, mainly

  8. A Case of Sublingual Ranula That Responded Successfully to Localized Injection Treatment with OK-432 after Healing from Drug Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshizawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ranula is a mucus retention cyst or pseudocyst caused by leakage of mucus from the sublingual gland and generally occurs in the oral floor. In addition, drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS is a rare but well-recognized serious adverse effect characterized by fever, skin rashes, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, and hepatosplenomegaly and oral stomatitis. This paper presents the first case of successfully treated sublingual ranula with localized injection of OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome, which has previously been unreported in the literature. We present the case of a 38-year-old Japanese woman with sublingual ranula that responded successfully to localized injection treatment with OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome. She was affected with cutaneous myositis and interstitial lung disease when she was 26 years old. At the age 34 years, she received additional oral treatment of diaminodiphenyl-sulfone due to deterioration of the cutaneous myositis, which resulted in drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS with severe oral stomatitis. Local injection of OK-432 to the ranula may be a very safe and useful treatment method even if the patient has a history of drug allergy and has connective tissue disease such as cutaneous myositis.

  9. [Case-control study on local injection of autoallergic platelet rich plasma or whole blood for the treatment of tennis elbow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Lai; Tong, Pei-Jian; Xiao, Lu-Wei; Zhu, Qiu-Liang; Xu, Bin; Yan, Mao-Hua

    2014-11-01

    To compare therapeutic effects of local injection with autoallergic platelet rich plasma (PRP) or autoallergic whole blood (AWB) for the treatment of chronic tennis elbow. From January 2011 to January 2014, 40 patients with chronic tennis elbow were divided into 2 groups, 20 cases in each group: PRP group and AWB group. There were 20 patients in PRP group treated with local injection of autoallergic platelet rich plasma, including 5 males and 15 females, with an average age of (47.50 ± 9.86) years old; and the average course of disease was (4.67 ± 3.27) months. Among the 20 patients in AWB group treated with local injection of autoallergic whole blood, 3 patients were male and 17 patients were female, with an average age of (46.50 ± 9.96) years old;and the average course of disease was (4.53 ± 2.27) months. The elbow joint was fixed with elastic stockings after injection. All the patients were guided to do strengthening and extension exercises during the follow-up period. Visual analog scale (VAS), Mayo scores for elbow and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were used to evaluate clinical effects after injection immediately and 4,8 weeks after treatment. Results:All the patients were followed up,there were no infections and swelling occurred. The VAS, Mayo and PPT scores of patients in PRP group were improved from pre-therapy 7.22 ± 1.32, 56.71 ± 10.90 and 17.47 ± 4.62 to 2.73 ± 1.00, 91.59 ± 6.95 and 21.35 ± 4.80 respectively 8 weeks after treatment. The VAS, Mayo and PPT scores of patients in AWB group were improved from pre-therapy 7.16 ±1.27, 54.72 ± 8.36 and 17.06 ± 4.83 to 3.81 ± 1.36, 82.06 ± 7.89 and 20.12 ± 4.97 respectively 8 weeks after treatment. All the pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores were improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. On the 4th week after injection, there was no statistically significant difference in PPT between two groups; while the VAS and Mayo score of AWB group were

  10. A miniature silicon diode matrix detector for in vivo measurement of 133Xe disappearance following local tissue injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, K; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Rasmussen, H B

    1992-01-01

    have the capability of measuring the lowest energies (25-40 keV) of gamma and x-ray emitters with sufficient efficiency when applied on the skin surface and close to the indicator depot. The purpose of the present study was firstly to evaluate a portable Si photodiode matrix detector system, composed...... and sensitivity within the range 20-38 degrees C and calibrated to +/- 1% between diodes. The in vivo investigations comprised two SC injections on humans with four measuring periods for comparison, and four SC and five SM injections on dogs, resulting in eight and five measuring periods for comparison. Only when...

  11. Hemodynamic changes following injection of local anesthetics with different concentrations of epinephrine during simple tooth extraction: A prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Mostafa, Nedal; Al-Showaikhat, Fatimah; Al-Shubbar, Fatimah; Al-Zawad, Kawther; Al-Zawad, Fatimah

    2015-10-01

    Presence of epinephrine in local anesthetic cartridge increases the duration of local anesthesia (LA), decreases the risk of toxicity, and provides hemostasis. However, the unfavorable effects are increasing heart rate (HR) and raising blood pressure (BP). The aim was to evaluate hemodynamic changes in the BP, HR, and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of normal patients undergoing tooth extraction using LA with various epinephrine concentrations. A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 patients who were divided randomly into 3 parallel groups according to the LA received. Group 1: lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000 (L80). Group 2: articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:100,000 (A100). Group 3: articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:200,000 (A200). normal patients whose BP extraction. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly increased after injection of L80 and continued after extraction to be significant than pre-injection. SBP significantly increased after injection of A100 then decreased after extraction. In the group of A200, SBP insignificantly decreased after injection then increased after extraction. The increasing of SBP between time point 1and 2 was significantly higher in G1 than G3 (p=0.014). Diastolic blood pressure decreased after LA in the 3 groups; however it was significant only with L80, then increased after extraction for all. The changings of DBP, HR and SpO2 after anesthesia and extraction showed no significant difference among the three groups. However, A200 had significant lesser effect on SBP than L80 and the least effect on other parameters. Therefore, A200 is considered safer than L80 and A100 and is recommended for LA before teeth extraction in normal patient. Local anesthesia, lidocaine, epinephrine 1:80,000, articaine, epinephrine 1:100,000, epinephrine 1:200,000, tooth extraction.

  12. 99mTc-HDP SPECT-CT Aids Localization of Joint Injections in Degenerative Joint Disease of the Foot and Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthipun, Arum; Moser, Joanna; Mok, Wing; Paramithas, Anton; Hamilton, Paul; Sott, Andrea Helene

    2015-08-01

    Pain relating to degenerative joint disease within the foot and ankle can be difficult to localize with clinical examination alone due to the complex anatomy of the joints. The aim of this study was to determine whether single-photon emission computed tomography combined with conventional computed tomography (SPECT-CT) could be used to localize the site of degenerative joint disease for intra-articular injection and thereby improve the clinical success of the procedure. A prospective study was performed involving 203 patients who had undergone triple-phase (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate bone scans with SPECT-CT of the foot and ankle for degenerative joint disease. Fifty-two patients went on to have joint injections for degenerative joint disease, with clinical follow-up. Correlation with the clinical diagnosis and the outcome of intra-articular injections with 0.5% bupivacaine and 80 mg of Depo-Medrone was performed. A successful outcome was determined by an improvement in the visual analog pain score of at least 50%. In 19 (37%) patients, the site of degenerative joint disease determined by SPECT-CT differed from the initial clinical assessment and resulted in a change in management. Overall, 46 (88%) patients showed an improvement in symptoms. The study demonstrated a high clinical success rate for SPECT-CT-guided joint injections. The technique was useful in localizing degenerative joint disease of the ankle, hindfoot, and midfoot as an adjunct to clinical examination. Level IV, case series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. A Prodrug Approach Involving In Situ Depot Formation to Achieve Localized and Sustained Action of Diclofenac After Joint Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Mette; Agårdh, Li; Larsen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Long-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations for intra-articular injection might be effective in the management of joint pain and inflammation associated sports injuries and osteoarthritis. In this study, a prodrug-based delivery system was evaluated. The synthesized diclofenac...

  14. Exchange Sex Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in the New York Metropolitan Area: The Importance of Local Context, Gender and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Suzan M; Rivera, Alexis V; Reilly, Kathleen H; Anderson, Bridget J; Bolden, Barbara; Wogayehu, Afework; Neaigus, Alan; Braunstein, Sarah

    2018-02-21

    Exchanging sex for money or drugs is known to increase risk for HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID). To better understand determinants of exchange sex among PWID we examined factors associated with exchange sex in the New York metropolitan area-defined as New York City (NYC), NY; Newark, NJ; and Long Island, NY-using data from the 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system cycle on injection drug use. Of the 1160 PWID in this analysis, 24% reported exchange sex, with differences in gender and sexual identity by location. In multivariable analysis gay/bisexual men, heterosexual women, and lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) women were more likely to exchange sex compared to heterosexual men. Exchange sex was also associated with race/ethnicity, homelessness, incarceration, location, and non-injection crack and cocaine use. We find that heterosexual women and LGB women who injected drugs residing in Newark were more likely to report exchange sex compared to NYC. This study highlights how local conditions impact exchange sex.

  15. Combined Use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Sheet Transplantation and Local Injection of SDF-1 for Bone Repair in a Rat Nonunion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangnan; Fang, Tingting; Qi, Yiying; Yin, Xiaofan; Di, Tuoyu; Feng, Gang; Lei, Zhong; Zhang, Yuxiang; Huang, Zhongming

    2016-10-01

    Bone nonunion treatments pose a challenge in orthopedics. This study investigated the joint effects of using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets with local injection of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) on bone formation. In vitro, we found that migration of MSCs was mediated by SDF-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, stimulation with SDF-1 had no direct effect on the proliferation or osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, the results indicated elevated expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and vascular endothelial growth factor in MSC sheets compared with MSCs cultured in medium. New bone formation in fractures was evaluated by X-ray, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Safranin-O staining, and immunohistochemistry in vivo. In the rat bone fracture model, the MSC sheets transplanted into the injured site along with injection of SDF-1 showed significantly more new bone formation within the gap. Moreover, at 8 weeks, complete bone union was obtained in this group. In contrast, the control group showed nonunion of the bone. Our study suggests a new strategy involving the use of MSC sheets with a local injection of SDF-1 for hard tissue reconstruction, such as the healing of nonunions and bone defects.

  16. The Effect of Progesterone on Lipid Peroxidation and in Rat Alzheimer Model by Local Injection of Streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mozafari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most prevalent brain neurodegenerative diseases and the most common cognitive deficits are memory dysfunction and spatial perception impairment. Progesterone has a neorostroid action in hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic stability and spatial learning and memory and has antioxidant effect. Since oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and conflicting results were reported about the effects of progesterone on therefore in Alzheimer’s, the present study investigated the effect of microinjection of three doses of progesterone on the process of spatial memory and lipid peroxidation and total peroxidation in the hippocampus in the experimental model of AD. Methods: 42 adult male Wistar rats weighting 250±50 g were randomly divided into six main groups (n=7: control group, sham group, Alzheimer’s model (intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin, Alzheimer model + progesterone (0.5, 1.5, 2µg/kg. 2 weeks after injection of streptozotocin (3 mg/kg, Alzheimer's was induced then progesterone injected in different doses. After termination of behavioral testing days, the hippocampus was removed to measure the levels of oxidative stress parameter to measure levels of oxidative stress parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Results showed that intraventricular injection of STZ decreased spatial memory in comparison to control group (P<0.001. Administration progesterone significantly improved spatial memory in experimental models of Alzheimer's rats (P<0.001. MDA and SOD in all doses of progesterone showed a significant reduction compared to the AD animals (P<0.001. Conclusion: Progesterone can prevent a decrease in spatial learning and memory by reducing oxidative stress in the hippocampus of rats with Alzheimer's.

  17. Elevated Hemoglobin A1C Levels Correlate with Blood Glucose Elevation in Diabetic Patients following Local Corticosteroid Injection in the Hand: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Schroeder, Jake; Hoffler, C Edward; Matzon, Jonas L; Lutsky, Kevin F; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic patients develop hand conditions that are managed with local corticosteroid injections. Injections can result in a transient elevation in serum glucose in diabetic patients. Hemoglobin A1c is the accepted measure of long-term plasma glucose control in diabetics (levels ≥7 percent reflect poor blood glucose control). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between hemoglobin A1c levels and increased blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injections. Twenty-five diabetic patients were evaluated prospectively. One milliliter containing 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide was used. The most recent hemoglobin A1c level and normal average blood glucose levels were obtained. Glucose levels were obtained from patient recall of their daily blood glucose self- monitoring on the day of the injection. Postinjection blood glucose levels were recorded until levels returned to preinjection baseline. Twenty patients (80 percent) had elevation of their blood glucose level from baseline. No patient had elevated blood glucose levels after 5 days. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent had a higher blood glucose elevation and maintained this for longer than those who had a lower hemoglobin A1c level. Patients in the higher hemoglobin A1c group also had a higher number of hyperglycemic events. There was a strong or moderate correlation between hemoglobin A1c and elevated blood glucose levels during days 1 to 4. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent have elevations in blood glucose that are higher and last longer than patients with lower levels. Hemoglobin A1c levels can be used to roughly predict the degree of blood glucose elevation after corticosteroid injections into the hands of diabetic patients.

  18. Evaluating the Effects of local Injections of Bupivacaine and Triamcinolone Acetate on Shoulder Joint Pain and Restricted Range of Motion Following Cerebrovascular Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadollah Saadat Niaki M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder pain is a common complication of cerebrovascular accidents. This study was conducted to assess the effects of local injections of bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate on shoulder joint pain and on restricted range of motion following brain events. Methods: This single-blind clinical trial study included 35 patients with chronic shoulder pain (the controls and 35 patients with chronic shoulder pain due to brain events (the case group. The study was done at Imam Hossein Hospital & Gandhi Day Clinic during the year 2008-2010. The patients in the two groups received bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate for subacromial bursa injection and suprascapular nerve block by following the protocol described by Dangoisse et al. The patients were followed up for 12 weeks and they were evaluated for pain and range of motion 1, 6, and 12 weeks after the injections.Results: The mean age of the patients was 60.9±9.07 years. Statistically significant improvements in pain score (P=0.001 and shoulder joint range of motion (P=0.001 were observed in patients with chronic shoulder pain versus patients with brain events 12 weeks after suprascapulare nerve block and subacromial bours injections by bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate.Conclusion: Suprascapular nerve block and subacromial bursa injections of bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate is a safe and efficacious treatment for the treatment of chronic shoulder pain and restricted range of motion but it is not efficacious or of significant value for the treatment of shoulder pain in patients with brain events.

  19. Children's behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherian, Ali; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Topical anesthesia has been widely advocated as an important component of atraumatic administration of intraoral local anesthesia. The aim of this study was to use direct observation of children's behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia. Forty-eight children participated in this randomized controlled clinical trial. They received two separate inferior alveolar nerve block or primary maxillary molar infiltration injections on contralateral sides of the jaws by both cotton-roll vibration (a combination of topical anesthesia gel, cotton roll, and vibration for physical distraction) and control (routine topical anesthesia) methods. Behavioral pain reactions of children were measured according to the author-developed face, head, foot, hand, trunk, and cry (FHFHTC) scale, resulting in total scores between 0 and 18. The total scores on the FHFHTC scale ranged between 0-5 and 0-10 in the cotton-roll vibration and control methods, respectively. The mean ± standard deviation values of total scores on FHFHTC scale were lower in the cotton-roll vibration method (1.21 ± 1.38) than in control method (2.44 ± 2.18), and this was statistically significant (P anesthesia in reducing behavioral pain reactions in children during local anesthesia administration.

  20. Local injection of the 90Y-labelled peptidic vector DOTATOC to control gliomas of WHO grades II and III: an extended pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, T.; Mueller-Brand, J.; Hofer, S.; Wasner, M.; Zimmerer, S.; Gratzl, O.; Merlo, A.; Eichhorn, K.; Freitag, P.; Probst, A.; Reubi, J.-C.; Maecke, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    We have previously presented preliminary observations on targeting somatostatin receptor-positive malignant gliomas of all grades by local injection of the radiolabelled peptidic vector 90 Y-DOTATOC. We now report on our more thorough clinical experience with this novel compound, focussing on low-grade and anaplastic gliomas. Small peptidic vectors have the potential to target invisible infiltrative disease within normal surrounding brain tissue, thereby opening a window of opportunity for early intervention. Five progressive gliomas of WHO grades II and III and five extensively debulked low-grade gliomas were treated with varying fractions of 90 Y-DOTATOC. The vectors were locally injected into the resection cavity or into solid tumour. The activity per single injection ranged from 555 to 1,875 MBq, and the cumulative activity from 555 to 7,030 MBq, according to tumour volumes and eloquence of the affected brain area, yielding dose estimates from 76±15 to 312±62 Gy. Response was assessed by the clinical status, by steroid dependence and, every 4-6 months, by magnetic resonance imaging and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. In the five progressive gliomas, lasting responses were obtained for at least 13-45 months without the need for steroids. Radiopeptide brachytherapy had been the only modality applied to counter tumour progression. Interestingly, we observed the slow transformation of a solid, primarily inoperable anaplastic astrocytoma into a resectable multi-cystic lesion 2 years after radiopeptide brachytherapy. Based on these observations, we also assessed the feasibility of local radiotherapy following extensive debulking, which was well tolerated. Targeted beta-particle irradiation based on diffusible small peptidic vectors appears to be a promising modality for the treatment of malignant gliomas. (orig.)

  1. Blockade of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors in the Dorsal Periaqueductal Gray Unmasks the Antinociceptive Effect of Local Injections of Anandamide in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego C. Mascarenhas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Divergent results in pain management account for the growing number of studies aiming at elucidating the pharmacology of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid anandamide (AEA within several pain-related brain structures. For instance, the stimulation of both Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 and Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptors led to paradoxical effects on nociception. Here, we attempted to propose a clear and reproducible methodology to achieve the antinociceptive effect of exogenous AEA within the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG of mice exposed to the tail-flick test. Accordingly, male Swiss mice received intra-dPAG injection of AEA (CB1/TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist, WIN (CB1 agonist, AM251 (CB1 antagonist, and 6-iodonordihydrocapsaicin (6-IODO (TRPV1 selective antagonist and their nociceptive response was assessed with the tail-flick test. In order to assess AEA effects on nociception specifically at vanilloid or cannabinoid (CB substrates into the dPAG, mice underwent an intrinsically inactive dose of AM251 or 6-IODO followed by local AEA injections and were subjected to the same test. While intra-dPAG AEA did not change acute pain, local injections of capsaicin or WIN induced a marked TRPV1- and CB1-dependent antinociceptive effect, respectively. Regarding the role of AEA specifically at CB/vanilloid substrates, while the blockade of TRPV1 did not change the lack of effects of intra-dPAG AEA on nociception, local pre-treatment of AM251, a CB1 antagonist, led to a clear AEA-induced antinociception. It seems that the exogenous AEA-induced antinociception is unmasked when it selectively binds to vanilloid substrates, which might be useful to address acute pain in basic and perhaps clinical trials.

  2. Methodical bias for comparison of periodontal ligament injection and local infiltration anesthesia for routine extractions in the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kämmerer PW

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peer W Kämmerer, Monika Daubländer Department of Oral, Maxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery, University Medical Centre Mainz, Mainz, GermanyWe read the article by Al-Shayyab1 with great interest, though we think that there is a methodical bias. Usage of standard dental syringes with 27-gauge needles is not recommended for periodontal ligament (PDL injections as they are very unlikely to achieve the correct pressure needed for successful single tooth anesthesia. In accordance with this, specialized syringes with short 30-gauge needles are commonly used all over the literature.2 The author addresses this in the “Discussion” section and writes that “a standard conventional dental syringe was used in the present study, not a special PDL syringe, since the former is readily available in the clinic and proves equally successful when a standard 27-gauge short needle was used,” citing Malamed from 1982 (a time during which the modern PDL syringes were not developed yet3 and Madan et al who write that “intraligamentary injection technique is equally effective when a standard 27-gauge needle is used”.4 The second assumption refers to the needle only, not the syringe. In addition, this needle issue is not proven by any reference or study. Therefore, one might come to the conclusion that PDL was not carried out correctly. Also, the authors did not evaluate pulp or tissue anesthesia and started the extraction procedure after a latency period of 5 minutes in all cases. In accordance with this, the success rates of the PDL injection cannot be given, but would be of interest.View the original paper by Al-Shayyab and colleagues.

  3. Acute Neuroinflammatory Response in the Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta of Rats after a Local Injection of Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmin M. Flores-Martinez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Models of Parkinson’s disease with neurotoxins have shown that microglial activation does not evoke a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra, questioning whether neuroinflammation leads to neurodegeneration. To address this issue, the archetypal inflammatory stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, was injected into the rat substantia nigra. LPS induced fever, sickness behavior, and microglial activation (OX42 immunoreactivity, followed by astrocyte activation and leukocyte infiltration (GFAP and CD45 immunoreactivities. During the acute phase of neuroinflammation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 responded differentially at mRNA and protein level. Increased NO production and lipid peroxidation occurred at 168 h after LPS injection. At this time, evidence of neurodegeneration could be seen, entailing decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunoreactivity, irregular body contour, and prolongation discontinuity of TH+ cells, as well as apparent phagocytosis of TH+ cells by OX42+ cells. Altogether, these results show that LPS evokes a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra that is followed by dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  4. A prodrug approach involving in situ depot formation to achieve localized and sustained action of diclofenac after joint injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thing, Mette; Ågårdh, Li; Larsen, Susan; Rasmussen, Rune; Pallesen, Jakob; Mertz, Nina; Kristensen, Jesper; Hansen, Martin; Østergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Claus Selch

    2014-12-01

    Long-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations for intra-articular injection might be effective in the management of joint pain and inflammation associated sports injuries and osteoarthritis. In this study, a prodrug-based delivery system was evaluated. The synthesized diclofenac ester prodrug, a weak base (pKa 7.52), has relatively high solubility at low pH (6.5 mg mL(-1) at pH 4) and much lower solubility at physiological pH (4.5 μg mL(-1) at pH 7.4) at 37°C. In biological media including 80% (v/v) human synovial fluid (SF), the prodrug was cleaved to diclofenac mediated by esterases. In situ precipitation of the prodrug was observed upon addition of a concentrated slightly acidic prodrug solution to phosphate buffer or SF at pH 7.4. The degree of supersaturation accompanying the precipitation process was more pronounced in SF than in phosphate buffer. In the rotating dialysis cell model, a slightly acidic prodrug solution was added to the donor cell containing 80% SF resulting in a continuous appearance of diclofenac in the acceptor phase for more than 43 h after an initial lag period of 8 h. Detectable amounts of prodrug were found in the rat joint up to 8 days after knee injection of the acidic prodrug solution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Acute Neuroinflammatory Response in the Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta of Rats after a Local Injection of Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan A.; Gutierrez-Castillo, Maria E.

    2018-01-01

    Models of Parkinson's disease with neurotoxins have shown that microglial activation does not evoke a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra, questioning whether neuroinflammation leads to neurodegeneration. To address this issue, the archetypal inflammatory stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was injected into the rat substantia nigra. LPS induced fever, sickness behavior, and microglial activation (OX42 immunoreactivity), followed by astrocyte activation and leukocyte infiltration (GFAP and CD45 immunoreactivities). During the acute phase of neuroinflammation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10) responded differentially at mRNA and protein level. Increased NO production and lipid peroxidation occurred at 168 h after LPS injection. At this time, evidence of neurodegeneration could be seen, entailing decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, irregular body contour, and prolongation discontinuity of TH+ cells, as well as apparent phagocytosis of TH+ cells by OX42+ cells. Altogether, these results show that LPS evokes a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra that is followed by dopaminergic neurodegeneration. PMID:29854828

  6. Three-dimensional simulation of H-mode plasmas with localized divertor impurity injection on Alcator C-Mod using the edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lore, J. D.; Reinke, M. L.; Lipschultz, B.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Feng, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in Alcator C-Mod to assess the level of toroidal asymmetry in divertor conditions resulting from poloidally and toroidally localized extrinsic impurity gas seeding show a weak toroidal peaking (∼1.1) in divertor electron temperatures for high-power enhanced D-alpha H-mode plasmas. This is in contrast to similar experiments in Ohmically heated L-mode plasmas, which showed a clear toroidal modulation in the divertor electron temperature. Modeling of these experiments using the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE [Y. Feng et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 241, 930 (1997)] qualitatively reproduces these trends, and indicates that the different response in the simulations is due to the ionization location of the injected nitrogen. Low electron temperatures in the private flux region (PFR) in L-mode result in a PFR plasma that is nearly transparent to neutral nitrogen, while in H-mode the impurities are ionized in close proximity to the injection location, with this latter case yielding a largely axisymmetric radiation pattern in the scrape-off-layer. The consequences for the ITER gas injection system are discussed. Quantitative agreement with the experiment is lacking in some areas, suggesting potential areas for improving the physics model in EMC3-EIRENE

  7. Phase I/II study of radiotherapy in combination with local injection of H2O2 (KORTUC II) for advanced or relapsed cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, Kenichi; Honda, Chikara; Yamashita, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Between January 2009 and June 2011, 29 patients with advanced or relapsed cancer were treated with radiotherapy and local injection of H 2 O 2 as a radiation sensitizer (KORTUC II) in our Clinic. They included head and neck cancer (n=8), breast cancer (n=7), GI tract cancer (n=6) and others (n=8). The 10/29 patients had a history of local irradiation at the previous hospitals. The 4/29 patients stopped during the treatment, 3 of them were due to the poor general conditions not due to this treatment, and only one was due to local pain. This therapy was tolerable for almost patients. We analysed the local response of twelve patients irradiated more than BED2.050 Gy. One patient with breast DCIS had stable disease at 1 month after the therapy. The local effectiveness of 11/12 patients was PR. Radiotherapy with KORTUG II is safe and effective, it may become a main treatment for radio-resistant tumor. (author)

  8. Autoradiographic localization of glucocorticosteriod binding sites in rat brain after in vivo injection of [3H]RU 28362

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrieau, Alain; Dussaillant, Monique; Rostene, William

    1988-01-01

    The autoradiographic distribution of glucocorticosteriod binding sites in the brain of adrenalectomized rats was studied following in vivo injection of a potent synthetic glucocorticosteriod agonist [ 3 H]RU 28362. Analysis of the autoradiograms revealed a specific and dense labelling in the pyramidal cell layer of the Ammon's horn and in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In the hypothalmus, the labelling was particularly high in the paraventricular nucleus (site of CRF synthesis), the arcuate, periventricular and the supraoptic nuclei as well as in the median eminence. Autoradiograms also revealed the presence of[ 3 H]RU 28362 binding sites in several brain regions including the amygdala, the pineal gland, the entorhinal cortex, the interpeduncular, interfascicular and dorsal raphe nuclei, the central grey and the substantia nigra suggesting possible effects of glucocorticosteriods in these structures (author)

  9. How Much Volume of Local Anesthesia and How Long Should You Wait After Injection for an Effective Wrist Median Nerve Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Lyndsay M; Chishti, Yasmin Z; Woodland, Jennifer L; Lalonde, Donald H

    2018-05-01

    Many surgeons and emergentologists use non-ultrasound-guided wrist nerve blocks. There is little evidence to guide the ideal volume of local anesthesia or how long we should wait after injection before performing pain-free procedures. This pilot study examined time to maximal anesthesia to painful needle stick in 14 volunteer participants receiving bilateral wrist blocks of 6 versus 11 mL of local. One surgeon performed all 14 bilateral wrist median nerve blocks in participants who remained blinded until after bandages were applied to their wrist. No one could see which wrist received the larger 11-mL volume injection versus the 6-mL block. Blinded sensory assessors then measured perceived maximal numbness time and numbness to needle stick pain in the fingertips of the median nerve distribution. Failure to get a complete median nerve block occurred in seven of fourteen 6-mL wrist blocks versus failure in only one of fourteen 11-mL blocks. Perceived maximal numbness occurred at roughly 40 minutes after injection, but actual numbness to painful needle stick took around 100 minutes. Incomplete median nerve numbness occurred with both 6- and 11-mL non-ultrasound-guided blocks at the wrist. In those with complete blocks, it took a surprisingly long time of 100 minutes for maximal anesthesia to occur to painful needle stick stimuli to the fingertips of the median nerve distribution. Non-ultrasound-guided median nerve blocks at the wrist as described in this article lack reliability and take too long to work.

  10. Hemodynamic response after injection of local anesthetics with or without adrenaline in adult Nigerian subjects undergoing simple tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olutayo James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the changes in the blood pressure (BP and the pulse rate (PR of normotensive patients having dental extraction under the administration of 2% lignocaine local anesthetic with or without adrenaline. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 325 consecutive normotensive patients who presented at the exodontia clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH, Lagos, Yoruba State, Nigeria from December 2004 to August 2005 for simple tooth extraction. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups according to the type of anesthetic solution employed. Group A had tooth extraction done under the administration of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (1:80,000 while group B had tooth extraction done under the administration of 2% lignocaine local anesthetic without vasoconstrictor (plain lignocaine. Each patient had single tooth extracted. The following parameters were monitored in each of the surgical interventions: systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and PR. Measurements were taken in the waiting room before surgery, during the surgery after local anesthesia, during tooth extraction, and 15 min after tooth extraction. Results: The sample consisted of 176 females and 149 males. Age range of the patients was 18-89 years with the mean age of 35.08 ± 15.60 years. The hemodynamic responses to lignocaine with adrenaline (1:80,000 and plain lignocaine essentially follow the same pattern in the study. There was no statistically significant difference between the measured parameters in the two groups after the administration of local anesthetics. Conclusion: This study, therefore, shows that there was no difference in the hemodynamic changes observed with the use of lignocaine with adrenaline or plain lignocaine during a simple tooth extraction in healthy adults.

  11. An injectable and biodegradable hydrogel based on poly(α,β-aspartic acid) derivatives for localized drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Caicai; Wang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Guolin; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Yinong; Gao, Hui; Ma, Jianbiao

    2014-03-01

    An injectable hydrogel via hydrazone cross-linking was prepared under mild conditions without addition of cross-linker or catalyst. Hydrazine and aldehyde modified poly(aspartic acid)s were used as two gel precursors. Both of them are water-soluble and biodegradable polymers with a protein-like structure, and obtained by aminolysis reaction of polysuccinimide. The latter can be prepared by thermal polycondensation of aspartic acid. Hydrogels were prepared in PBS solution and characterized by different methods including gel content and swelling, Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy, and in vitro degradation experiment. A scanning electron microscope viewed the interior morphology of the obtained hydrogels, which showed porous three-dimensional structures. Different porous sizes were present, which could be well controlled by the degree of aldehyde substitution in precursor poly(aspartic acid) derivatives. The doxorubicin-loaded hydrogels were prepared and showed a pH-sensitive release profile. The release rate can be accelerated by decreasing the environmental pH from a physiological to a weak acidic condition. Moreover, the cell adhesion and growth behaviors on the hydrogel were studied and the polymeric hydrogel showed good biocompatibility. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effectiveness of injection of local anesthetic into the retrobulbar space for postoperative analgesia following eye enucleation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrna, Kathern E; Bentley, Ellison; Smith, Lesley J

    2010-07-15

    To assess the efficacy of a retrobulbar bupivacaine nerve block for postoperative analgesia following eye enucleation in dogs. Randomized controlled trial. 22 dogs. Client-owned dogs admitted to the hospital for routine eye enucleation were enrolled with owner consent and randomly assigned to a treatment (bupivacaine hydrochloride) or control (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) group. Baseline subjective pain scores were recorded. Anesthesia consisted of hydromorphone and midazolam preoperatively, thiopental or propofol for induction, and isoflurane in oxygen for maintenance. An inferior-temporal palpebral retrobulbar injection of either saline solution or bupivacaine was administered. Transpalpebral eye enucleation was performed. Pain scores were recorded at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after extubation (time 0) by observers masked to treatment groups. Dogs were given hydromorphone (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], IM or IV) as a rescue analgesic if the subjective pain score totaled >or= 9 (out of a maximum total score of 18) or >or= 3 in any 1 category. 9 of 11 control dogs required a rescue dose of hydromorphone, but only 2 of 11 dogs in the bupivacaine treatment group required rescue analgesia. Mean time to treatment failure (ie, administration of rescue analgesia following extubation) was 0.56 hours (95% confidence interval, 0.029 to 1.095 hours) for the 11 dogs that received hydromorphone. Retrobulbar administration of bupivacaine in dogs in conjunction with traditional premedication prior to eye enucleation was an effective form of adjunctive analgesia and reduced the need for additional postoperative analgesics.

  13. Departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in argon plasmas sustained in a Torche à Injection Axiale sur Guide d'Ondes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincón, R.; Muñoz, J.; Calzada, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma torches are suitable plasma sources for a wide range of applications. The capability of these discharges to produce processes like sample excitation or decomposition of molecules inside them depends on the density of the plasma species and their energies (temperatures). The relation between these parameters determines the specific state of thermodynamic equilibrium in the discharge. Thus, the understanding of plasma possibilities for application purposes is related to the knowledge of the plasma thermodynamic equilibrium degree. In this paper a discussion about the equilibrium state for Ar plasmas generated by using a Torche à Injection Axiale sur Guide d'Ondes, TIAGO device, is presented. Emission spectroscopy techniques were used to measure gas temperature and electron density at the exit of the nozzle torch and along the dart. Boltzmann-plots as well as b p parameters were calculated to characterize the type and degree of departure from partial Local Saha Equilibrium (pLSE). This study indicates that the closer situation to Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) of the plasma corresponds to larger Ar flows which highlights the importance of the nitrogen (atmosphere surrounding the plasma) in the kinetics of Ar-TIAGO discharges. - Highlights: • Discharges sustained in Ar using a TIAGO Torch show a significant departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. • Nitrogen entrance from surrounding air highly influences Thermodynamic Equilibrium. • Departure from LTE has been studied by means of Boltzmann plots and b p parameters. • The discharge is ionizing at the nozzle exit plasma, while along the dart it becomes recombining

  14. Therapeutic application of injectable thermosensitive hydrogel in preventing local breast cancer recurrence and improving incision wound healing in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Na; Gong, Changyang; Qian, Zhiyong; Luo, Feng; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Helan; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-08-01

    Many drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been investigated for local targeting of malignant disease with the intention of increasing anti-tumor activity and minimizing systemic toxicity. An injectable thermosensitive hydrogel was applied to prevent locoregional recurrence of 4T1 breast cancer in a mouse model. The presented hydrogel, which is based on poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE), flows freely at normal temperature, forms a gel within seconds in situ at body temperature, and eventually releases the drug in a consistent and sustained fashion as it gradually biodegrades. Locoregional recurrence after primary tumor removal was significantly inhibited in mice treated with the paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PECE hydrogel subcutaneously (9.1%) administered, compared with the blank hydrogel (80.0%), systemic (77.8%) and locally (75.0%) administered PTX, and the control group (100%) (P 0.05), in agreement with histopathological examinations. This novel DDSs represents a promising approach for local adjuvant therapy in malignant disease.

  15. Local intra-articular injection of resveratrol delays cartilage degeneration in C57BL/6 mice by inducing autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Na; Wei, Liwei; Li, Wuyin; Yang, Wei; Cai, Litao; Qian, Zhuang; Wu, Shufang

    2017-07-01

    Autophagy is an essential cellular homeostasis mechanism that was found to be compromised in aging and osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage. Previous studies showed that resveratrol can effectively regulate autophagy in other cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the chondroprotective effect of resveratrol was related to chondrocyte autophagy and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. OA model was induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) in 10-week-old male mice. OA mice were treated with resveratrol with/without 3-MA for 8 weeks beginning 4 weeks after surgery. The local intra-articular injection of resveratrol delayed articular cartilage degradation in DMM-induced OA by OARSI scoring systems and Safranin O-fast green. Resveratrol treatment increased Unc-51-like kinase1, Beclin1, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, phosphorylated AMPK, collagen-2A1, Aggrecan expressions, but decreased hypoxia inducible factor-2α, phosphorylated mTOR, matrix metalloproteinases13 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 expressions. The effects of resveratrol were obviously blunted by 3-MA except HIF and AMPK. These findings indicate that resveratrol intra-articular injection delayed articular cartilage degeneration and promoted chondrocyte autophagy in an experimental model of surgical DMM-induced OA, in part via balancing HIF-1α and HIF-2α expressions and thereby regulating AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectral dependence efficiency and localization of non-inductive current-drive via helicity injection by global Alfven waves in Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.

    1996-01-01

    The non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by Global Alfven eigenmode (GAE) waves is studied. For illustration, the first radial mode of the discrete resonant GAE spectrum is considered. The following aspects are given special attention: spectral analysis, radial dependence and efficiency - all these as functions of the characteristics of the waves launched by an external, concentric antenna (i.e, wave frequency and poloidal and toroidal wave numbers). The results reveal the following conclusions. Generation of GAE waves. In the range of poloidal wave numbers -3 0 for m = -l, -2, -3 and -20 10; I-BAR < 0 for m = +1, +2, +3 and n < 10. (iv) The efficiency of the current drive, η = absolute I-BAR/absolute P-BAR, increases in the cases m = -1, -2, -3 with absolute m and absolute 1/n. (v) Detailed information on the relative direction and radial (core) localization of the current drive is obtained. (authors)

  17. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  18. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  19. Effect of local injection of Zolena, zoledronic acid made in Iran, on orthodontic tooth movement and root and bone resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Asefi, Sohrab; Hatamifard, Ghazal; Lotfi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background. Anchorage control is an essential part of orthodontic treatment planning, especially in adult patients who demand a more convenient treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA) is an effective choice to address this problem. It is the most potent member of the bisphosphonates family that has an inhibitory effect on bone resorption by suppressing osteoclast function. Therefore, ZA might be a good option for orthodontic anchorage control. The current study evaluated the effect of local administration of Zolena (ZA made in Iran) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and root and bone resorption. Methods. The experimental group consisted of 30 rats in 3 subgroups (n=10). Anesthesia was induced, and one closed NiTi coil spring was installed between the first molar and central incisor unilaterally, except for the negative control group. The positive control group received vestibular injection of 0.01 mL of saline next to the maxillary first molar, and 0.01 mL of the solution was injected at the same site in the ZA group. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and the distance between the first and second molars was measured with a leaf gauge. Histological analysis was conducted by a blind pathologist for the number of Howship's lacunae, blood vessels, osteoclast-like cells and root resorption lacunae. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Tukey test and t-test. Results. There were no significant differences in OTM between the force-applied groups. ZA significantly inhibited bone/root resorption and angiogenesis compared to the positive control group. Conclusion. Zolena did not decrease OTM but significantly inhibited bone and root resorption. Zolena might be less potent than its foreign counterparts.

  20. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  1. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  3. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  4. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  5. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  7. Spectral dependence, efficiency and localization of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by global Alfven waves in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences

    1997-04-01

    A systematic study of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by global Alfven eigenmode (GAE) waves is carried out. For illustration, the first radial mode of the discrete resonant GAE spectrum is considered. The following aspects are given special attention: spectral analysis, radial dependence and efficiency - all of these functions of the characteristics of the waves launched by an external, concentric antenna (i.e. wave frequency and poloidal and toroidal wavenumbers). The tokamak plasma is simulated by a current-carrying cylindrical plasma column surrounded by a helical sheet current and situated inside a perfectly conducting shell, with incorporation of equilibrium (simulated) toroidal field, magnetic shear and a relatively large poloidal magnetic field component. Within the framework of low-{beta} MHD model equations and for typical tokamak physical parameters, the following basic results are obtained: (1) in the range of poloidal wavenumbers -3{<=} m {<=} 3 and toroidal wavenumbers -20{<=} n {<=}20, resonant GAE peaks below the Alfven continuum are found; (2) the power absorption (P), current drive (I) and corresponding frequency of the GAE modes depend strongly on the sets of (m,n) values considered; (3) the `net` current drive is positive (i.e. flows in the direction of the equilibrium current j{sub 0z} for m = -1, -2, -3 and -20 {<=} n {<=} -1 as well as for m +1, +2, +3 and n > 10); (4) in the cases m = -1, -2, -3, the efficiency of current drive, I/P, increases with /m/ and I/n/; (5) the radial localization of the current drive in each of the cases considered is determined and tabulated. (Author).

  8. Spectral dependence, efficiency and localization of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by global Alfven waves in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by global Alfven eigenmode (GAE) waves is carried out. For illustration, the first radial mode of the discrete resonant GAE spectrum is considered. The following aspects are given special attention: spectral analysis, radial dependence and efficiency - all of these functions of the characteristics of the waves launched by an external, concentric antenna (i.e. wave frequency and poloidal and toroidal wavenumbers). The tokamak plasma is simulated by a current-carrying cylindrical plasma column surrounded by a helical sheet current and situated inside a perfectly conducting shell, with incorporation of equilibrium (simulated) toroidal field, magnetic shear and a relatively large poloidal magnetic field component. Within the framework of low-β MHD model equations and for typical tokamak physical parameters, the following basic results are obtained: (1) in the range of poloidal wavenumbers -3≤ m ≤ 3 and toroidal wavenumbers -20≤ n ≤20, resonant GAE peaks below the Alfven continuum are found; (2) the power absorption (P), current drive (I) and corresponding frequency of the GAE modes depend strongly on the sets of (m,n) values considered; (3) the 'net' current drive is positive (i.e. flows in the direction of the equilibrium current j 0z for m = -1, -2, -3 and -20 ≤ n ≤ -1 as well as for m +1, +2, +3 and n > 10; (4) in the cases m = -1, -2, -3, the efficiency of current drive, I/P, increases with /m/ and I/n/; (5) the radial localization of the current drive in each of the cases considered is determined and tabulated. (Author)

  9. Arterio-venous concentration difference of [51Cr]EDTA after a single injection in man. Significance of renal function and local blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehling, M; Hyldstrup, L; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1989-01-01

    , whereas the difference was very sensitive to even small changes in forearm blood flow within the physiological range. For measurement of renal plasma clearance it is recommended to use one long period: from the time of injection until 300 min p.i. or longer. If the clearance period is too short, the use...... introduced in the measurement of renal plasma clearance and total plasma clearance by using venous blood samples instead of arterial. In 13 patients with GFR ranging from 29 to 150 ml min-1, Ca was higher than Cv immediately after the injection. After mean 38 min (range 12-82 min) the two curves crossed...... of venous samples will overestimate the true renal clearance. Plasma clearance determined by venous and arterial blood samples does not differ significantly as long as the concentration is followed from the time of injection and a long period is applied. When simplified plasma clearance techniques are used...

  10. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  11. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  12. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  13. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  14. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  15. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  16. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  17. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  18. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  19. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  20. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  1. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  2. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  3. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  4. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  5. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  6. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  7. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  8. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  9. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  10. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  11. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  12. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  13. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  14. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  15. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  16. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  17. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  18. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  19. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  20. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  1. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  2. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...

  3. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Evolocumab injection may ...

  4. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  5. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  6. Children′s behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherian

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: It may be concluded that the cotton-roll vibration method can be more helpful than the routine topical anesthesia in reducing behavioral pain reactions in children during local anesthesia administration.

  7. Local injection of d-lys-3-GHRP-6 in the rat amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area impairs memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Siamak; Aslani, Neda

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that the hormone ghrelin affects learning and memory in different experimental models of learning. Though, the effect of antagonism of ghrelin receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) in various regions of the brain and on different stages of learning has not been examined. In this study the effect of injection of a GHS-R1a selective antagonist (d-Lys-3-GHRP-6) into the basolateral amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area was examined on memory consolidation in the passive avoidance task. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-280g were used. Animals underwent stereotaxic surgery and cannulated in their amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area. One week after surgery, the rats received different doses of d-Lys-3-GHRP-6 (0.08, 0.8, and 8nM), immediately after training. The control groups received solvent of the drug. Twenty four hours later in the test day, memory retrieval was assessed. In all groups, post-training injection of d-Lys-3-GHRP-6 decreased step-through latency and increased entries into the dark compartment and time spent in the dark compartment, significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that antagonism of the GHS-R1a in the rat amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area impairs memory consolidation and show that the ghrelin signaling has a widespread influence on cognitive performance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  9. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  10. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  11. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein localized to the nucleus restores HBx-deficient virus replication in HepG2 cells and in vivo in hydrodynamically-injected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keasler, Victor V.; Hodgson, Amanda J.; Madden, Charles R.; Slagle, Betty L.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the requirements for the regulatory HBx protein in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is an important goal. A plasmid-based HBV replication assay was used to evaluate whether HBx subcellular localization influences its ability to promote virus replication, as measured by real time PCR quantitation of viral capsid-associated DNA. HBx targeted to the nucleus by a nuclear localization signal (NLS-HBx) was able to restore HBx-deficient HBV replication, while HBx containing a nuclear export signal (NES-HBx) was not. Both NLS-HBx and NES-HBx were expressed at similar levels (by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting), and proper localization of the signal sequence-tagged proteins was confirmed by deconvolution microscopy using HBx, NLS-HBx, and NES-HBx proteins fused to GFP. Importantly, these findings were confirmed in vivo by hydrodynamic injection into mice. Our results demonstrate that in these HBV replication assays, at least one function of HBx requires its localization to the nucleus.

  12. Générateur de timing local pour l'acquisition des transformateurs rapides (LEIR, LINAC 3, LINAC 2, Ligne d'injection PSB)

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, J D

    2006-01-01

    Dans le cadre des acquisitions des transformateurs rapides des deux LINACS, de la ligne d'injection PSB et de la machine LEIR, un nouveau hardware a été mis en opération [1]. Celui-ci assure la digitalisation des signaux analogiques et aussi de certains signaux de timing devant cadrer la mesure. Pour ce faire des ADC SIS3300 (SIS3320) et des DPRAM 80408 sont mis en service. Ces unités nécéssitent pour leur fonctionnement des horloges et des timings qui normalement sont intégralement fournis par l'équipement standard CO, notamment des CTRV et autres TG8. Suite à des problèmes d'approvisionnement, il existe des cas où l'on ne dispose pas (du moins pour le court terme) de suffisemment de ressources standard pour pourvoir au timing mentionné plus haut. Le tiroir qui fait l'objet de la présente description assure, avec certaines limitations, la génération des timings et autres horloges utilisées par les DPRAM 80408 et les ADC SIS3300.

  13. Umbilical cord mesenchyme stem cell local intramuscular injection for treatment of uterine niche: Protocol for a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Shuzhen; Ye, Shaoxin; Wang, Wen; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-11-01

    Uterine niche is defined as a triangular anechoic structure at the site of the scar or a gap in the myometrium at the site of a previous caesarean section. The main clinical manifestations are postmenstrual spotting and intrauterine infection, which may seriously affect the daily life of nonpregnant women. Trials have shown an excellent safety and efficacy for the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a therapeutic option for scar reconstruction. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using MSCs in the treatment for the uterine niche. This phase II clinical trial is a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled with 2 arms. One hundred twenty primiparous participants will be randomly (1:1 ratio) assigned to receive direct intramuscular injection of MSCs (a dose of 1*10 cells in 1 mL of 0.9% saline) (MSCs group) or an identical-appearing 1 mL of 0.9% saline (placebo-controlled group) near the uterine incision. The primary outcome of this trial is to evaluate the proportion of participants at 6 months who is found uterine niche in the uterus by transvaginal utrasonography. Adverse events will be documented in a case report form. The study will be conducted at the Department of Obstetric of Southern Medical University Affiliated Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Foshan. This trial is the first investigation of the potential for therapeutic use of MSCs for the management of uterine niche after cesarean delivery. This protocol will help to determine the efficacy and safety of MSCs treatment in uterine niche and bridge the gap with regards to the current preclinical and clinical evidence. NCT02968459 (Clinical Trials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/).

  14. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staying asleep extreme changes in mood changes in personality depression increased sweating muscle weakness joint pain irregular ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  15. Quantification of TSPO overexpression in a rat model of local neuroinflammation induced by intracerebral injection of LPS by the use of [18F]DPA-714 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ory, Dieter; Celen, Sofie; Verbruggen, Alfons; Bormans, Guy; Postnov, Andrey; Koole, Michel; Laat, Bart de; Laere, Koen van; Casteels, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    [ 18 F]DPA-714 is a radiotracer with high affinity for TSPO. We have characterized the kinetics of [ 18 F]DPA-714 in rat brain and evaluated its ability to quantify TSPO expression with PET using a neuroinflammation model induced by unilateral intracerebral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Dynamic small-animal PET scans with [ 18 F]DPA-714 were performed in Wistar rats on a FOCUS-220 system for up to 3 h. Both plasma and perfused brain homogenates were analysed using HPLC to quantify radiometabolites. Full kinetic modelling of [ 18 F]DPA-714 brain uptake was performed using a metabolite-corrected arterial plasma input function. Binding potential (BP ND ) calculated as the distribution volume ratio minus one (DVR-1) between affected and healthy brain tissue was used as the outcome measure and evaluated against reference tissue models. The percentage of intact [ 18 F]DPA-714 in arterial plasma samples was 92 ± 4 % at 10 min, 75 ± 8 % at 40 min and 52 ± 6 % at 180 min. The radiometabolite fraction in brain was negligible (<3 % at 30 min). Among the models investigated, the reversible two-tissue (2T) compartment model best described [ 18 F]DPA-714 brain kinetics. BP ND values obtained with a simplified and a multilinear reference tissue model (SRTM, MRTM) using the contralateral striatum as the reference region correlated well (Spearman's r = 0.96, p ≤ 0.003) with 2T BP ND values calculated as DVR-1, and showed comparable bias (bias range 17.94 %, 20.32 %). Analysis of stability over time suggested that the acquisition time should be at least 90 min for SRTM and MRTM. Quantification of [ 18 F]DPA-714 binding to TSPO with full kinetic modelling is feasible using a 2T model. SRTM and MRTM can be suggested as reasonable substitutes with the contralateral striatum as the reference region and a scan duration of at least 90 min. However, selection of the reference region depends on the disease model used. (orig.)

  16. Quantification of TSPO overexpression in a rat model of local neuroinflammation induced by intracerebral injection of LPS by the use of [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ory, Dieter; Celen, Sofie; Verbruggen, Alfons; Bormans, Guy [KU Leuven, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); Postnov, Andrey; Koole, Michel; Laat, Bart de; Laere, Koen van; Casteels, Cindy [University Hospital and KU Leuven, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-01-15

    [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 is a radiotracer with high affinity for TSPO. We have characterized the kinetics of [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 in rat brain and evaluated its ability to quantify TSPO expression with PET using a neuroinflammation model induced by unilateral intracerebral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Dynamic small-animal PET scans with [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 were performed in Wistar rats on a FOCUS-220 system for up to 3 h. Both plasma and perfused brain homogenates were analysed using HPLC to quantify radiometabolites. Full kinetic modelling of [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 brain uptake was performed using a metabolite-corrected arterial plasma input function. Binding potential (BP{sub ND}) calculated as the distribution volume ratio minus one (DVR-1) between affected and healthy brain tissue was used as the outcome measure and evaluated against reference tissue models. The percentage of intact [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 in arterial plasma samples was 92 ± 4 % at 10 min, 75 ± 8 % at 40 min and 52 ± 6 % at 180 min. The radiometabolite fraction in brain was negligible (<3 % at 30 min). Among the models investigated, the reversible two-tissue (2T) compartment model best described [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 brain kinetics. BP{sub ND} values obtained with a simplified and a multilinear reference tissue model (SRTM, MRTM) using the contralateral striatum as the reference region correlated well (Spearman's r = 0.96, p ≤ 0.003) with 2T BP{sub ND} values calculated as DVR-1, and showed comparable bias (bias range 17.94 %, 20.32 %). Analysis of stability over time suggested that the acquisition time should be at least 90 min for SRTM and MRTM. Quantification of [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 binding to TSPO with full kinetic modelling is feasible using a 2T model. SRTM and MRTM can be suggested as reasonable substitutes with the contralateral striatum as the reference region and a scan duration of at least 90 min. However, selection of the reference region depends on the disease model used. (orig.)

  17. Miniature silicon diode matrix-detector for in vivo measurement of 133xenon disappearance in the canine myocardium following local tissue injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Rasmussen, H B; Damgaard, Y

    1992-01-01

    recording appearing from the gamma-energy of the photopeak. The detector matrix concept allows elimination of motion artefacts and indicator distribution in the myocardial tissue. Due to the uniformity and low cost of Si-diodes the perspective may be the introduction as a disposable transducer useful during......After local tissue depositioning of 133Xenon (133Xe) the regional washout is usually registered by a NaI(Tl) detector. The residual radioactivity of 133Xe is usually measured at its 81 keV photopeak. However, using small Silicon (Si) photodiodes it is feasible to measure only the low-energy...... activity in the X-ray energy range. In the myocardium of open chest dogs 133Xe washout measurements by a matrix of Si diodes composed in a 4 x 4 array and a conventional NaI(Tl) detector were carried out simultaneously. Fourteen separate pairs of measurements were performed in 3 dogs. When the Si...

  18. Accidental epidural injection of Atropine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayan Bakshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal injection of drugs for anesthesia, regional analgesia, and chronic pain management are common practice now. Local anesthetic, adjuvants, and opioids are in common use. Human error in the Operation Theater and the Intensive Care Unit setup is also known and reported, due to stress and overwork. A case of unintentional atropine injection intrathecally, which was closely observed for any untoward effects, is reported here.

  19. Complicações locais após a injeção de silicone líquido industrial: série de casos Local complications after industrial liquid silicone injection: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Francisco Mello

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar uma série de casos de pacientes submetidos à injeção de silicone líquido industrial de maneira clandestina e por pessoas não habilitadas. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de prontuários de pacientes atendidos no período de setembro de 2003 a dezembro de 2010. Foram avaliados: sexo, idade, local e volume de silicone injetado, tempo decorrido entre a aplicação e as manifestações clínicas, complicações, tratamento e evolução. Definiu-se como precoce as manifestações ocorridas até 30 dias da injeção e manifestações tardias após este período. RESULTADOS: Foram atendidos 12 pacientes, oito eram do sexo masculino, sendo sete transexuais. O volume injetado variou de 5ml a 2000ml, sendo desconhecido em três casos. Os locais mais frequentemente utilizados para injeção foram a região de coxas e glúteos. Oito casos apresentaram manifestações precoces, com quadros de inflamação e/ou infecção. Foi necessária a realização de desbridamento cirúrgico em cinco casos. Três pacientes com histórico de injeção na região mamária foram submetidas à adenomastectomia. Houve um óbito por quadro de choque séptico refratário. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do silicone líquido industrial deve ser totalmente contraindicado como material de preenchimento e modificação do contorno corporal, podendo apresentar graves complicações e até mesmo óbito.OBJECTIVE: To analyze a case series of patients who underwent injection of industrial liquid silicone in a clandestine manner and by unauthorized persons. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients treated between September 2003 and December 2010. Data regarding gender, age, location and volume of silicone injected, time between application and clinical manifestations, complications, treatment and outcome were collected. Early manifestations were defined as occurring within 30 days of injection and late manifestations, the ones arising

  20. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  1. Skin regeneration with conical and hair follicle structure of deep second-degree scalding injuries via combined expression of the EPO receptor and beta common receptor by local subcutaneous injection of nanosized rhEPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert S

    2012-03-01

    analyzed with respect to grade of re-epithelialization (wound closure and stage of epidermal maturation. This was investigated using different histological parameters of epithelial covering, such as depth of the epidermal layer, epidermal stratification, and presence of conical and hair follicle structures.Results: Expression of EPOR, βCR, and growth hormone receptor at the mRNA and protein levels was demonstrated with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. After rhEPO treatment, the rate of re-epithelialization of the scalding injury was increased and the time to final wound closure was reduced. In addition, the quality of regenerated skin was improved. In this investigation, for the first time, we demonstrated coexpression of EPOR and βCR at the RNA and protein levels in vivo using a deep second-degree scalding injury mouse model. These results highlight the potential role of rhEPO in the improved treatment of burns patients, which might be crucial for the development of innovative new therapy regimes.Conclusion: Local injection of nanosized rhEPO directly to the injury site rather than systemic administration for deep second-degree scalding injuries achieved complete skin regeneration with conical and hair follicle structure via combined expression of EPOR and βCR.Keywords: burns, nanosize, common β subunit, erythropoietin, receptor, local injection

  2. Botulinum Toxin A for Oral Cavity Cancer Patients: In Microsurgical Patients BTX Injections in Major Salivary Glands Temporarily Reduce Salivary Production and the Risk of Local Complications Related to Saliva Stagnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolo Corradino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In patients suffering from oral cavity cancer surgical treatment is complex because it is necessary to remove carcinoma and lymph node metastasis (through a radical unilateral or bilateral neck dissection and to reconstruct the affected area by means of free flaps. The saliva stagnation in the post-operative period is a risk factor with regard to local complications. Minor complications related to saliva stagnation (such as tissue maceration and wound dehiscence could become major complications compromising the surgery or the reconstructive outcome. In fact the formation of oro-cutaneous fistula may cause infection, failure of the free flap, or the patient’s death with carotid blow-out syndrome. Botulinum injections in the major salivary glands, four days before surgery, temporarily reduces salivation during the healing stage and thus could reduce the incidence of saliva-related complications. Forty three patients with oral cancer were treated with botulinum toxin A. The saliva quantitative measurement and the sialoscintigraphy were performed before and after infiltrations of botulinum toxin in the major salivary glands. In all cases there was a considerable, but temporary, reduction of salivary secretion. A lower rate of local complications was observed in the post-operative period. The salivary production returned to normal within two months, with minimal side effects and discomfort for the patients. The temporary inhibition of salivary secretion in the post-operative period could enable a reduction in saliva-related local complications, in the incidence of oro-cutaneous fistulas, and improve the outcome of the surgery as well as the quality of residual life in these patients.

  3. Botulinum toxin A for oral cavity cancer patients: in microsurgical patients BTX injections in major salivary glands temporarily reduce salivary production and the risk of local complications related to saliva stagnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradino, Bartolo; Di Lorenzo, Sara; Moschella, Francesco

    2012-10-24

    In patients suffering from oral cavity cancer surgical treatment is complex because it is necessary to remove carcinoma and lymph node metastasis (through a radical unilateral or bilateral neck dissection) and to reconstruct the affected area by means of free flaps. The saliva stagnation in the post-operative period is a risk factor with regard to local complications. Minor complications related to saliva stagnation (such as tissue maceration and wound dehiscence) could become major complications compromising the surgery or the reconstructive outcome. In fact the formation of oro-cutaneous fistula may cause infection, failure of the free flap, or the patient’s death with carotid blow-out syndrome. Botulinum injections in the major salivary glands, four days before surgery, temporarily reduces salivation during the healing stage and thus could reduce the incidence of saliva-related complications. Forty three patients with oral cancer were treated with botulinum toxin A. The saliva quantitative measurement and the sialoscintigraphy were performed before and after infiltrations of botulinum toxin in the major salivary glands. In all cases there was a considerable, but temporary, reduction of salivary secretion. A lower rate of local complications was observed in the post-operative period. The salivary production returned to normal within two months, with minimal side effects and discomfort for the patients. The temporary inhibition of salivary secretion in the post-operative period could enable a reduction in saliva-related local complications, in the incidence of oro-cutaneous fistulas, and improve the outcome of the surgery as well as the quality of residual life in these patients.

  4. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  5. Ultrasound guided local steroid injection versus extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nayera Saber

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... inflammatory drugs; PF, plantar fasciitis; Mayo CSS, Mayo clinical scoring system. .... and the recruitment of appropriate stem cells ;leading to an enhancement .... Paired sample Student's t-test was done to compare between.

  6. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene ... injection practices lead to high prevalence of NSSIs in operating rooms. .... guidelines, the availability of training courses to HCWs, and provi-.

  7. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  8. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  9. Injeção de gordura na prega vocal: efeitos do local de injeção sobre a configuração glótica e a distribuição espacial da gordura injetada Fat injection into the vocal fold: effects of the place of injection on the configuration of the glottis and the spatial distribution of the fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Imamura

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A injeção intracordal de gordura tem sido utilizada para medializar a prega vocal em casos de paralisia laríngea, com resultados variáveis. A ausência de consenso entre os autores em relação a diversos aspectos técnicos, como o local de injeção, pode contribuir, em parte, para essa variação. OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito do local de injeção em relação à distribuição espacial da gordura dentro da prega vocal e à configuração glótica após essas injeções. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Seis laringes adultas excisadas foram utilizadas. Gordura colhida por lipoaspiração foi injetada, por meio de uma seringa de pressão, no ponto médio da prega vocal em três laringes e lateralmente ao processo vocal da aritenóide em outras três. Fotografias digitais em vista cranial da glote foram obtidas antes e após as injeções. Após fixação e descalcificação, as laringes foram cortadas no plano frontal nos terços anterior, médio e posterior da prega vocal e no nível da cartilagem aritenóide, para estudar a distribuição da gordura. RESULTADOS: Somente a injeção de gordura lateralmente ao processo vocal da aritenóide permitiu o fechamento da glote posterior. A gordura tendeu a ocupar um espaço cilíndrico dentro do músculo tireoaritenóideo, ao longo do maior eixo da prega vocal, mesmo quando injetada próximo ao processo vocal. CONCLUSÕES: O local de injeção da gordura teve influência sobre a configuração glótica após a injeção, apesar da gordura tender a ocupar um espaço cilíndrico ao longo da prega vocal em ambos os grupos.Intracordal fat injection has been used for vocal fold medialization in cases of laryngeal paralysis with variable results. A lack of consensus among the authors concerning various technical aspects, such as the site of injection, may contribute, in part, to this variation. AIM: To study the effects of the place of fat injection on the spatial distribution of fat and

  10. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  11. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  12. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  13. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  14. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  15. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  16. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  18. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  19. The energetic ion substorm injection boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.E.; Sibeck, D.G.; McEntire, R.W.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The substorm injection boundary model has enjoyed considerable success in explaining plasma signatures in the near-geosynchronous region. However, the injection boundary has remained primarily a phenomenological model. In this paper the authors examine 167 dispersionless energetic ion injections which were observed by AMPTE CCE. The radial and local time distribution of the events as a function of Kp is qualitatively similar to that envisioned in the injection boundary model of Mauk and McIlwain (1974). They argue that particles observed during dispersionless injections are locally energized during the disruption of the cross-tail current sheet. Therefore they identify the injection boundary, as derived from the spatial distribution of dispersionless injections, with the earthward edge of the region of the magnetotail which undergoes current sheet disruption during the substorm expansion phase. The authors show that this qualitative model for the generation of the injection boundary can provide an explanation for the dispersionless nature, the double spiral shape, and the Kp dependence of the boundary

  20. Ventricular fibrillation after accidental injection of bupivacaine into the pericardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Even, B. J.; de Jongh, R. F.; de Hert, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    A postoperative cardiac surgical patient developed ventricular fibrillation immediately after accidental pericardial injection of bupivacaine at room temperature. The possible causes, which include systemic toxicity, local vasoconstriction with myocardial ischaemia, local toxic effect of bupivacaine

  1. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.; Harding, J.; Kingsly, A.; Bradley, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  2. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  3. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Fasciitis after Intramuscular Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Abbate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing soft tissue fasciitis (NSTIs or necrotizing fasciitis is an infrequent and serious infection. Herein, we describe the clinical course of a female patient who received a diagnosis of NSTIs after gluteus intramuscular injection. We also report the results of our review of published papers from 1997 to 2017. Since now, 19 cases of NSTIs following intramuscular injections have been described. We focus on the correlation between intramuscular injection and NSTIs onset, especially in immunosuppressed patients treated with corticosteroids, suffering from chronic diseases or drug addicted. Intramuscular injections can provoke severe tissue trauma, representing local portal of infection, even if correctly administrated. Otherwise, it is important not to inject drug in subcutaneous, which is a less vascularized area and therefore more susceptible to infections. Likewise, a proper injecting technique and aspiration prior to injection seem to be valid measure to prevent intra-arterial or para-arterial drug injection with the consequent massive inflammatory reaction. Necrosis at the infection site appears to be independent of the drug, and it is a strong additional risk factor for NSTIs.

  4. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  5. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  6. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... and disorders: physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lobo ...

  7. Electron injection in microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the methods of injecting electrons in the microtron is presented. A special attention is paid to efficient injection systems developed by Wernholm and Kapitza. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages of both systems is made in relation to the purpose of the microtron. (author)

  8. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  9. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump inje...

  10. Blindness following cosmetic injections of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Agostini, Tommaso; Figus, Michele; Nardi, Marco; Pantaloni, Marcello; Lazzeri, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Complications following facial cosmetic injections have recently heightened awareness of the possibility of iatrogenic blindness. The authors conducted a systematic review of the available literature to provide the best evidence for the prevention and treatment of this serious eye injury. The authors included in the study only the cases in which blindness was a direct consequence of a cosmetic injection procedure of the face. Twenty-nine articles describing 32 patients were identified. In 15 patients, blindness occurred after injections of adipose tissue; in the other 17, it followed injections of various materials, including corticosteroids, paraffin, silicone oil, bovine collagen, polymethylmethacrylate, hyaluronic acid, and calcium hydroxyapatite. Some precautions may minimize the risk of embolization of filler into the ophthalmic artery following facial cosmetic injections. Intravascular placement of the needle or cannula should be demonstrated by aspiration before injection and should be further prevented by application of local vasoconstrictor. Needles, syringes, and cannulas of small size should be preferred to larger ones and be replaced with blunt flexible needles and microcannulas when possible. Low-pressure injections with the release of the least amount of substance possible should be considered safer than bolus injections. The total volume of filler injected during the entire treatment session should be limited, and injections into pretraumatized tissues should be avoided. Actually, no safe, feasible, and reliable treatment exists for iatrogenic retinal embolism. Nonetheless, therapy should theoretically be directed to lowering intraocular pressure to dislodge the embolus into more peripheral vessels of the retinal circulation, increasing retinal perfusion and oxygen delivery to hypoxic tissues. Risk, V.

  11. Use of localized human growth hormone and testosterone injections in addition to manual therapy and exercise for lower back pain: a case series with 12-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubick MN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marc N Dubick,1 Thomas H Ravin,2 Yvonne Michel,3 David C Morrisette4 1Interventional Pain Management, Division of Anesthesiology, Bon Secours St Francis Hospital, Charleston, SC, USA; 2Musculoskeletal Medicine, Val d'Isere Health Clinic, Denver, CO, USA; 3Statistical Consultant, Private Practice, Daniel Island, SC, USA; 4Division of Physical Therapy, Medical University of South Carolina, SC, USA Objective: The objective of this case series was to investigate the feasibility and safety of a novel method for the management of chronic lower back pain. Injections of recombinant human growth hormone and testosterone to the painful and dysfunctional areas in individuals with chronic lower back pain were used. In addition, the participants received manual therapies and exercise addressing physical impairments such as motor control, strength, endurance, pain, and loss of movement. Pain ratings and self-rated functional outcomes were assessed.Study design: This is a case series involving consecutive patients with chronic lower back pain who received the intervention of injections of recombinant human growth hormone and testosterone, and attended chiropractic and/or physical therapy. Outcomes were measured at 12 months from the time of injection.Setting: A community based hospital affiliated office, and a private practice block suite.Participants: A total of 60 consecutive patients attending a pain management practice for chronic lower back pain were recruited for the experimental treatment. Most participants were private pay.Interventions: Participants who provided informed consent and were determined not to have radicular pain received diagnostic blocks. Those who responded favorably to the diagnostic blocks received injections of recombinant human growth hormone and testosterone in the areas treated with the blocks. Participants also received manipulation- and impairment-based exercises.Outcome measures: Outcomes were assessed at 12 months through pain

  12. Targeting the Plantar Fascia for Corticosteroid Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Andrea Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is often a difficult condition to treat. It is related to repetitive strain of the fascia at its attachment to the heel bone. This condition quite often appears with the concomitant presence of a plantar calcaneal heel spur. Corticosteroid injection is a popular treatment choice for plantar fasciitis, and accurate localization of the injected medication is essential for successful resolution of symptoms after the injection. In the present brief technical communication, a method for targeting the attachment of the plantar fascia to the medial tubercle of the tuberosity of the calcaneus is described. The targeting method uses the lateral radiograph of the foot to aid in localization of the proximal attachment of the plantar fascia to the calcaneus. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spin-injection into epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Keita; Cui, Zhixin; Hiraki, Takahiro; Yoh, Kanji

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the spin-injection properties in epitaxial graphene on SiC. The ferromagnetic metal (FM) electrodes were composed of a tunnel barrier layer AlOx (14 Å) and a ferromagnetic Co (600 Å) layer. We have successfully observed the clear resistance peaks indicating spin-injection both in the "local" and "non-local" spin measurement set-ups at low temperatures. We estimate spin-injection rate of 1% based on "non-local" measurement and 1.6% based on local measurements. Spin-injection rate of multilayer graphene by mechanical exfoliation method was twice as high as single layer graphene on SiC based on "local" measurement.

  14. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  15. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  16. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  17. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine into the joint. The provider uses a real-time x-ray (fluoroscopy) to see where to place ... Wakefield RJ. Arthrocentesis and injection of joints and soft tissue. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, ...

  18. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  19. Imipenem and Cilastatin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imipenem and cilastatin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria, including ... area), gynecological, blood, skin, bone, and joint infections. Imipenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  20. Quinupristin and Dalfopristin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are in a class of medications called streptogramin antibiotics. They work by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as quinupristin and dalfopristin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  1. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox - larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography - guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy - guided botulinum toxin treatment; ...

  2. The PEP injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Avery, R.T.; Peterson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A system to transport 10-to-15-GeV electron and positron beams from the Stanford Linear Accelerator and to inject them into the PEP storage ring under a wide variety of lattice configurations has been designed. Optically, the transport line consists of three 360/degree/ phase-shift sections of FODO lattice, with bending magnets interspersed in such a way as to provide achromaticity, convenience in energy and emittance definition, and independent tuning of the various optical parameters for matching into the ring. The last 360/degree/ of phase shift has 88 milliradians of bend in a vertical plane and deposits the beam at the injection septum via a Lambertson magnet. Injection is accomplished by launching the beam with several centimeters of radial betatron amplitude in a fast bump provided by a triad of pulsed kicker magnets. Radiation damping reduces the collective amplitude quickly enough to allow injection at a high repetition rate

  3. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  4. A complex dissected chronic occlusion: targeted balloon dilatation of false lumen to access true lumen, combined localized subintimal tracking and reentry, parallel wire, contralateral injection and a useful antegrade lumen re-entry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Tam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic total occlusion (CTO angioplasty is one of the most challenging procedures remaining for the interventional operator. Recanalizing CTOs can improve exercise capacity, symptoms, left ventricular function and possibly reduce mortality. Multiple strategies such as escalating wire, parallel wire, seesaw, contralateral injection, subintimal tracking and re-entry (STAR, retrograde wire techniques (controlled antegrade retrograde subintimal tracking, CART, reverse CART, confluent balloon, rendezvous in coronary, and other techniques have all been described. Selection of the most appropriate approach is based on assessment of vessel course, length of occluded segment, presence of bridging collaterals, presence of bifurcating side branches at the occlusion site, and other variables. Today, with significant operator expertise and the use of available techniques, the literature reports a 50-95% success rate for recanalizing CTOs.

  5. Magnetic and in vitro heating properties of implants formed in situ from injectable formulations and containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) embedded in silica microparticles for magnetically induced local hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Renard, Pol-Edern; Lortz, Rolf; Senatore, Carmine; Rapin, Jean-Philippe; Buchegger, Franz; Petri-Fink, Alke; Hofmann, Heinrich; Doelker, Eric; Jordan, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The biological and therapeutic responses to hyperthermia, when it is envisaged as an anti-tumor treatment modality, are complex and variable. Heat delivery plays a critical role and is counteracted by more or less efficient body cooling, which is largely mediated by blood flow. In the case of magnetically mediated modality, the delivery of the magnetic particles, most often superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), is also critically involved. We focus here on the magnetic characterization of two injectable formulations able to gel in situ and entrap silica microparticles embedding SPIONs. These formulations have previously shown suitable syringeability and intratumoral distribution in vivo. The first formulation is based on alginate, and the second on a poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL). Here we investigated the magnetic properties and heating capacities in an alternating magnetic field (141 kHz, 12 mT) for implants with increasing concentrations of magnetic microparticles. We found that the magnetic properties of the magnetic microparticles were preserved using the formulation and in the wet implant at 37 o C, as in vivo. Using two orthogonal methods, a common SLP (20 W g -1 ) was found after weighting by magnetic microparticle fraction, suggesting that both formulations are able to properly carry the magnetic microparticles in situ while preserving their magnetic properties and heating capacities. - Research highlights: → Magnetic formulations that form implants on injection into tissues are proposed for hyperthermia. → Superparamagnetic properties of the SPION-silica composite microparticles are preserved in the wet implants. → Heat-dissipating properties (SLP of 20 W/g of implant) support in vivo use.

  6. Less promising results with sclerosing ethoxysclerol injections for midportion achilles tendinopathy: a retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, Maayke N.; de Jonge, Milko C.; Sierevelt, Inger N.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Local injections of the sclerosing substance polidocanol (Ethoxysclerol) have shown good clinical results in patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. After training by the inventors of the technique, sclerosing Ethoxysclerol injections were applied on a group of patients

  7. Outcomes After Diagnostic Hip Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Steinhaus, Michael E; Popkin, Charles A; Ahmad, Christopher S; Rosneck, James

    2016-08-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of outcomes associated with local anesthetic (LA) or LA and corticosteroid (CS) diagnostic hip injections, and how well response predicts subsequent operative success. A systematic review from database (PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Embase) inception to January 2015 for English-language articles reporting primary patient outcomes data was performed, excluding studies with >50% underlying osteoarthritis. Studies were assessed by 2 reviewers who collected pertinent data. Seven studies were included, reporting on a total 337 patients undergoing diagnostic hip injection. The mean age was 34.4 years, with 5 studies reporting 94 (35.2%) males and 173 (64.8%) females. One study examined the rate of pain relief with LA (92.5%); 2 CS studies reported relief on a scale from 0% to 100% (no to complete relief), ranging from 61% to 82.3%; and 3 studies used 10-point pain scales, with a CS study noting a pain score of 1.0, an LA study with a score of 3.03, and 1 study using either CS or LA scores of 3 to 5.6. Duration of pain relief was 9.8 (CS) and 2.35 days (LA). By pathology, greatest relief was achieved in acetabular chondral injury (93.3%) and least in cam impingement (81.6%), with clinical and imaging findings being unreliable predictors of relief. One study showed nonresponse to be a strong predictor of negative surgical outcome for femoroacetabular impingement. Diagnostic hip injections provide substantial pain relief for patients with various hip pathologies, with limited data to suggest greatest relief for those with chondral injury. Clinical and imaging findings are unreliable predictors of injection response, and nonresponse to injection is a strong negative predictor of surgical outcome. Future research should focus on elucidating differences by underlying pathology and predicting future operative success. Level IV, systematic review. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Nicolau syndrome caused by the "self-injection" of diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Yaylaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome (NS is a rare injection-related local complication. Some drugs have been implicated to cause this syndrome. Several cases were previously reported in the literature. In this paper, an interesting case of NS in a 30-year-old male patient after intramuscular self-injection of diclofenac was presented.

  9. Intramuscular Injection of “Site Enhancement Oil”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Louise; Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Jensen, Thomas Hartvig Lindkær

    2015-01-01

    The use of intramuscular injection of foreign substances for aesthetic purposes is well known. Complications are usually local to the site of injection but can be potentially lethal. Here, we present a case of "site enhancement oil" use in a 42-year-old man who died from asphyxia due to hanging. ...

  10. Delivery and utilisation of injectable contraceptives services in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in four rural Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Trained ... Besides selling injectable contraceptives, 14.9% of the PMVs reported administering injectables and 43.9% reported referring clients to a formal health facility for this contraceptive. Slightly over ...

  11. Botulinum Toxin A for Oral Cavity Cancer Patients: In Microsurgical Patients BTX Injections in Major Salivary Glands Temporarily Reduce Salivary Production and the Risk of Local Complications Related to Saliva Stagnation

    OpenAIRE

    Corradino, Bartolo; Lorenzo, Sara Di; Moschella, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In patients suffering from oral cavity cancer surgical treatment is complex because it is necessary to remove carcinoma and lymph node metastasis (through a radical unilateral or bilateral neck dissection) and to reconstruct the affected area by means of free flaps. The saliva stagnation in the post-operative period is a risk factor with regard to local complications. Minor complications related to saliva stagnation (such as tissue maceration and wound dehiscence) could become major complicat...

  12. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  13. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  14. Frequency of booster injections of allergoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, P S; Creticos, P S; Marsh, D G

    1990-01-01

    In 1982, 43 ragweed-sensitive patients receiving maintenance injections of full doses of ragweed allergoid were selected for a study of the immunologic and clinical efficacy of booster injections only four times a year. These patients had participated for 2 to 7 years as part of a trial of mixes of up to four allergoids to common pollens in the mid-Atlantic area tailored to each patient's skin test sensitivity. They were divided into a group (21 patients) to receive injections every 3 months and a group (22 patients) to receive injections about every 6 weeks (eight injections per year). Patients were rerandomized after 1 year so that half of each original group switched to the alternate treatment, and this program was continued until after the ragweed season of 1985. Thirty-four patients were still under study the last year. Doses, per injection, were 100 allergoid units (1 allergoid unit equals 100 PNU) of each allergen in the mixture. Symptom scores during the 8 weeks of each of the four ragweed seasons were not significantly higher in the 3-month treated group. IgG antibody levels to Amb a I (antigen E) were followed until early 1984 and were not significantly different in the two groups, even though the 6-week treated patients received a two times higher cumulative dose per year. Rates of local and systemic reactions (percent of injections eliciting reactions) were not different in the groups, which means that the 3-month treated group had about half as many reactions by virtue of taking half as many injections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Reactor water injection facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-05-02

    A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

  16. Alterações histoquímicas das glicosaminoglicanas na cérvice uterina no final da prenhez da rata albina após ministração local de hialuronidase Histochemical changes of the glycosaminoglycans in the uterine cervix of pregnant rats after local injection of hyaluronidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Almeida de Alcântara Lopes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar as alterações histoquímicas relacionadas às glicosaminoglicanas da cérvice uterina da rata albina, após ministração local de hialuronidase no final da prenhez. MÉTODOS: dez ratas com teste de prenhez positivo foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos, numericamente iguais. O Grupo Controle (Gc foi constituído pelas ratas que receberam 1 mL de água destilada, dose única, no 18º dia da prenhez, sob anestesia, ministrado na cérvice uterina. O Grupo Experimental (Gex constou de ratas que receberam, sob as mesmas condições do Gc, 0,02 mL de hialuronidase, diluído em 0,98 mL de água destilada (total de 1 mL. No 20º dia de prenhez, as ratas foram novamente anestesiadas e submetidas à dissecção, preparando-se a cérvice uterina para estudo histoquímico com coloração de alcian blue e seus bloqueios (pH=0,5, pH=2,5, metilação e saponificação. RESULTADOS: verificou-se na lâmina própria no Gc, reação fortemente positiva (+3 e, no Gex, reação negativa, na coloração de alcian blue no pH=0,5. Em pH=2,5 a coloração também se apresentou fortemente positiva (+4 no Gc e fracamente positiva (+1 no Gex. Após metilação, tanto o Gc quanto o Gex mostraram reação negativa após coloração de alcian blue no pH=2,5. Com a reação de metilação seguida de saponificação e na digestão enzimática em lâmina, a coloração da lâmina própria se mostrou negativa em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: há uma nítida predominância de glicosaminoglicanas sulfatadas no Gc em relação ao Gex e uma tênue quantidade de glicosaminoglicanas carboxiladas identificadas no Gex. As modificações evidenciadas na matriz extracelular sugerem que a hialuronidase injetada localmente na cérvix uterina promoveu alterações bioquímicas compatíveis com maturação cervical.PURPOSE: to study the histochemical changes related to the uterine cervix glycosaminoglycan of the albino female rat, after local ministration of

  17. Adjuncts to local anesthesia: separating fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J K

    2001-01-01

    Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection, computer-controlled delivery systems, periodontal ligament injection and needleless jet injection, have been proposed to hold particular advantages over conventional means of achieving local anesthesia. This article describes the use of each technique and proprietary armamentarium and reviews the literature appraising their use.

  18. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  19. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  20. Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... botulinum neurotoxin as much art as it is science. It is in your best interest to locate the most well-trained and experienced doctor you can find. Before making an appointment to receive botulinum neuro toxin injections, ask the office personnel which doctor ...

  1. Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called penicillin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection. Tazobactam is ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying piperacillin.Antibiotics ... injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  2. Meropenem and Vaborbactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Vaborbactam is in a class ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying meropenem.Antibiotics such as meropenem and vaborbactam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  3. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  4. Pellet injection in WVIIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.; Wuersohing, E.; Weller, A.; Jaeckel, H.; Hartfuss, H.; Hacker, H.; Ringler, H.; Buechl, K.

    1986-01-01

    The results of pellet injection experiments in the Wendelstein VII A stellarator are presented. The injector was a single shot pneumatic gun using deuterium pellets. Experiments were carried out in both ECRH and NI plasmas. Data is shown for plasma density, energy confinement, penetration depth and pellet ablation. Results are compared to a neutral gas shielding model

  5. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

  6. RHIC injection kicker impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Zhang, W.

    1995-01-01

    The longitudinal impedance of the RHIC injection kicker is measured using the wire method up to a frequency of 3 GHz. The mismatch between the 50 ohm cable and the wire and pipe system is calibrated using the TRL calibration algorithm. Various methods of reducing the impedance, such as coated ceramic pipe and copper strips are investigated

  7. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets. Lifting the tank-lid reveals the inner structure. For a more detailed description see 7502072X. See also 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, p.162. To the left: Roland Tröhler; to the right: Giacomo Busetta.

  8. Radiotracer injections through microfilters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.; Maschek, G.; Pichler, R.; Giesen, I.; Hatzl-Griesenhofer, M.; Maschek, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Problems with the injection of radiotracers ( 99m Tc-HAMS, 99m Tc-DPD) to infants when administered through polar-filter-protected venous pathways caused us to get a closer look of what happens to a tracer in such a system. We simulated injections of the tracers mainly used at our institution in an in-vitro array and measured full and empty tracer syringes, filters (0.2 μm micropores) and the post-filter receptacle of the radioactivity. We calculated the percentage of filter-trapped activity and of activity in the receptacle. For several tracers we repeated this process with a neutral filter of the same pore size to get a comparison between the behavior in polarized and electrically inert filters. In general injection of a soluble radiotracer through a polar filter system means a dose loss in the filter of about 10 %, up to the tracer molecule size of IgG-antibodies. Suspended tracers, which consist of comparatively large particles, like RES- or pulmonary perfusion markers, are blocked by the filter, as can be foreseen with a particle size of >> 0.2 μm. DMSA and DPD (a biphosphonate), although both being soluble and rather small molecules, were blocked by the polar filter to a high extent, and by the neutral filter to a much lower, almost neglectable degree. The conclusions are: if possible avoid any use of a filter in your tracer injection pathway. Never use a filter with bone scan or DMSA applications. When doing uptake calculations you have to add the filter counts to the empty syringe value in the formula. If you cannot avoid to inject the radiotracer through a filter you have to replace the filter afterwards and treat the used filter as radioactive waste. The polarity of the filter material might severely affect retention of radiotracer in the filter. (author)

  9. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  10. Ceramic injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1988-01-01

    Interest in making complex net-shape ceramic parts with good surface finishing and sharp tolerances without machining is a driving force for studying the injection molding technique. This method consists of softhening the ceramic material by means of adding some plastic and heating in order to inject the mixture under pressure into a relatively cold mold where solidification takes place. Essentially, it is the same process used in thermoplastic industry but, in the present case, the ceramic powder load ranges between 80 to 90 wt.%. This work shows results obtained from the fabrication of pieces of different ceramic materials (alumina, barium titanate ferrites, etc.) in a small scale, using equipments developed and constructed in the laboratory. (Author) [es

  11. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. SPEAR 3 INJECTION KICKER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straight-forward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed

  13. Gallium arsenide injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.B.

    1975-01-01

    The semiconductor injection laser includes a thin inner GaAs p-n junction layer between two outer GaAlAs layers which are backed by further thin outer GaAlAs layers with a heavier doping of AlAs. This reduces optical losses. Optical energy is further confined within the inner layers and the lasing threshold reduced by added outer GaAs layers of low electrical and thermal resistivity

  14. Hydrogen pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Masahiro.

    1992-01-01

    In a hydrogen pellet injection device, a nozzle block having a hydrogen gas supply channel is disposed at the inner side of a main cryogenic housing, and an electric resistor is attached to the block. Further, a nozzle block and a hydrogen gas introduction pipe are attached by way of a thermal insulating spacer. Electric current is supplied to the resistor to positively heat the nozzle block and melt remaining solid hydrogen in the hydrogen gas supply channel. Further, the effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor is prevented from reaching the side of the hydrogen gas introduction pipe by the thermal insulation spacer. That is, the temperature of the nozzle block is directly and positively elevated, to melt the solid hydrogen rapidly. Preparation operation from the injection of the hydrogen pellet to the next injection can be completed in a shorter period of time compared with a conventional case thereby enabling to make the test more efficient. Further, only the temperature of the nozzle block is elevated with no effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor to other components by the thermal insulation flange. (N.H.)

  15. New perineal injection technique for pudendal nerve infiltration in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinschenk, Stefan; Hollmann, Markus W.; Strowitzki, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pudendal nerve injection is used as a diagnostic procedure in the vulvar region and for therapeutic purposes, such as in vulvodynia. Here, we provide a new, easy-to-perform perineal injection technique. We analyzed 105 perineal injections into the pudendal nerve with a local anesthetic (LA),

  16. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G injection is used to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ...

  17. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  18. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  19. Water injection profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

  20. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  1. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  2. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appetite weight gain irritability changes in mood or personality abnormally happy or excited mood difficulty falling asleep ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  3. Epidural Steroid Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confirm that the medication is traveling into the desired area. Often, local anesthetic is added along with ... several days and can be accompanied by a feeling of warmth or even a low grade increase ...

  4. Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, M.A.I.

    2010-06-01

    Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)

  5. Giant tunnel-electron injection in nitrogen-doped graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagoute, Jerome; Joucken, Frederic; Repain, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments have been performed to measure the local electron injection in nitrogen-doped graphene on SiC(000) and were successfully compared to ab initio calculations. In graphene, a gaplike feature is measured around the Fermi level due to a phonon-mediated tunneling...... and at carbon sites. Nitrogen doping can therefore be proposed as a way to improve tunnel-electron injection in graphene....

  6. Squeezing in an injection-locked semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, S.; Machida, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ohzu, H.

    1993-09-01

    The intensity-noise properties of an injection-locked semiconductor laser were studied experimentally. The constant-current-driven semiconductor laser producing the amplitude-squeezed state whose intensity noise was reduced below the standard quantum limit (SQL) by 0.72 dB was injection-locked by an external master laser. The measured intensity-noise level of the injection-locked semiconductor laser was 0.91 dB below the SQL. This experimental result indicates that a phase-coherent amplitude-squeezed state or squeezed vacuum state together with a reference local oscillator wave can be generated directly by semiconductor laser systems.

  7. Evolution of the dispersionless injection boundary associated with substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sarris

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available One manifestation of energetic particle acceleration during magnetospheric substorms is the sudden appearance of particle injections into the inner magnetosphere, often observed near geosynchronous orbit. Injections that show simultaneous flux increases in all energy ranges of a detector are called dispersionless injections, and are most often observed in a narrow region around local midnight. In these events it is assumed that the satellite is located close to or inside the region where acceleration and/or transport processes are taking place, called the injection region. We present a study of the location, extent and temporal evolution of the injection region, based on simulation results of a model of the expansion of the electric and magnetic fields associated with a substorm. The model simulates the fields during a substorm onset with an electric field and consistent magnetic field pulse that propagates towards the Earth with a decreasing speed. Our simulation shows that the dispersionless injection boundary can be considered coincident with the leading edge of the pulse field, which transports particles toward the Earth across a certain range of local time. Under the same model field, the dispersionless injection boundary shifts eastward for electrons and westward for protons, consistent with the observation results deduced from statistical analysis of multiple spacecraft measurements.

  8. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greer, SC; Lacy, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  9. One-month injectables are popular choice in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In Latin America over 100,000 women use monthly injectable contraceptives. These injectables are not part of any national program and are manufactured by local companies. Convenience and secretiveness were 2 primary reasons given by a group of injectable contraceptive users for preferring this method to all other forms of birth control. This was 1 of the findings of a study undertaken by Promotora de Planificacion Familiar A.C. (PROFAM) in Mexico to assess the market for a 1 month injectable, to include in its contraceptive social marketing program. In depth information was obtained about the attitudes and perceptions of present users of injectables with regard to the advantages of the method compared to other contraceptives and the motivation to use the 1 month rather than the 3 month product. In December 1983 PROFAM conducted a motivational study of injectable contraceptive users, utilizing 4 discussion groups composed of women who used 1 month injectables and were residents of several randomly selected lower middle income and low income areas of metropolitan Mexico City. The older women in the study had generally begun to use injectables after other methods were deemed unsatisfactory. They had either had physical or psychological complaints about their previous methods or were worried about effectiveness. Injectables were considered by all the women to be "less troublesome" than but as effective as either oral contraceptives (OCs) or the IUD. Features most often cited in favor of injectables were their effectiveness, lack of rumors about side effects, the possibility of secrecy, and ease of correct use. Knowledge about injectables was widespread, and the women reported no difficulty in getting the information they wanted from friends, drugstore personnel, or doctors. The product usually reached the consumer without a medical prescription. Finding someone to administer the shot was the principal drawback of an injectable contraceptive. Middle class women usually

  10. Local Anesthesia Part 2: Technical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kenneth L.; Malamed, Stanley F.; Fonner, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    An earlier paper by Becker and Reed provided an in-depth review of the pharmacology of local anesthetics. This continuing education article will discuss the importance to the safe and effective delivery of these drugs, including needle gauge, traditional and alternative injection techniques, and methods to make injections more comfortable to patients. PMID:23050753

  11. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  12. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification

  13. Office-based endoscopic botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderbay, A; Righini, C A; Castellanos, P F; Atallah, I

    2018-06-01

    Botulinum toxin injection is widely used for the treatment of laryngeal movement disorders. Electromyography-guided percutaneous injection is the technique most commonly used to perform intralaryngeal botulinum toxin injection. We describe an endoscopic approach for intralaryngeal botulinum toxin injection under local anaesthesia without using electromyography. A flexible video-endoscope with an operating channel is used. After local anaesthesia of the larynx by instillation of lidocaine, a flexible needle is inserted into the operating channel in order to inject the desired dose of botulinum toxin into the vocal and/or vestibular folds. Endoscopic botulinum toxin injection under local anaesthesia is a reliable technique for the treatment of laryngeal movement disorders. It can be performed by any laryngologist without the need for electromyography. It is easy to perform for the operator and comfortable for the patient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Stability of fault submitted to fluid injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, N.; Passelegue, F. X.; Mitchell, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated pore pressure can lead to slip reactivation on pre-existing fractures and faults when the coulomb failure point is reached. From a static point of view, the reactivation of fault submitted to a background stress (τ0) is a function of the peak strength of the fault, i.e. the quasi-static effective friction coefficient (µeff). However, this theory is valid only when the entire fault is affected by fluid pressure, which is not the case in nature, and during human induced-seismicity. In this study, we present new results about the influence of the injection rate on the stability of faults. Experiments were conducted on a saw-cut sample of westerly granite. The experimental fault was 8 cm length. Injections were conducted through a 2 mm diameter hole reaching the fault surface. Experiments were conducted at four different order magnitudes fluid pressure injection rates (from 1 MPa/minute to 1 GPa/minute), in a fault system submitted to 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure. Our results show that the peak fluid pressure leading to slip depends on injection rate. The faster the injection rate, the larger the peak fluid pressure leading to instability. Wave velocity surveys across the fault highlighted that decreasing the injection-rate leads to an increase of size of the fluid pressure perturbation. Our result demonstrate that the stability of the fault is not only a function of the fluid pressure requires to reach the failure criterion, but is mainly a function of the ratio between the length of the fault affected by fluid pressure and the total fault length. In addition, we show that the slip rate increases with the background effective stress and with the intensity of the fluid pressure pertubation, i.e. with the excess shear stress acting on the part of the fault pertubated by fluid injection. Our results suggest that crustal fault can be reactivated by local high fluid overpressures. These results could explain the "large" magnitude human-induced earthquakes

  15. Intrathecal Spread of Injectate Following an Ultrasound-Guided Selective C5 Nerve Root Injection in a Human Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falyar, Christian R; Abercrombie, Caroline; Becker, Robert; Biddle, Chuck

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound-guided selective C5 nerve root blocks have been described in several case reports as a safe and effective means to anesthetize the distal clavicle while maintaining innervation of the upper extremity and preserving diaphragmatic function. In this study, cadavers were injected with 5 mL of 0.5% methylene blue dye under ultrasound guidance to investigate possible proximal and distal spread of injectate along the brachial plexus, if any. Following the injections, the specimens were dissected and examined to determine the distribution of dye and the structures affected. One injection revealed dye extended proximally into the epidural space, which penetrated the dura mater and was present on the spinal cord and brainstem. Dye was noted distally to the divisions in 3 injections. The anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve were stained in all 4 injections. It appears unlikely that local anesthetic spread is limited to the nerve root following an ultrasound-guided selective C5 nerve root injection. Under certain conditions, intrathecal spread also appears possible, which has major patient safety implications. Additional safety measures, such as injection pressure monitoring, should be incorporated into this block, or approaches that are more distal should be considered for the acute pain management of distal clavicle fractures.

  16. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, J Bart; de Bie, Rob; de Vet, Henrica Cw; Hildebrandt, Jan; Nelemans, Patty

    2008-07-16

    The effectiveness of injection therapy for low-back pain is still debatable. Heterogeneity of target tissue, pharmacological agent and dosage generally found in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) points to the need for clinically valid comparisons in a literature synthesis. To determine if injection therapy is more effective than placebo or other treatments for patients with subacute or chronic low-back pain. We updated the search of the earlier systematic review and searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from January 1999 to March 2007 for relevant trials reported in English, French, German, Dutch and Nordic languages. We also screened references from trials identified. RCTs on the effects of injection therapy involving epidural, facet or local sites for subacute or chronic low-back pain were included. Studies which compared the effects of intradiscal injections, prolotherapy or Ozone therapy with other treatments, were excluded unless injection therapy with another pharmaceutical agent (no placebo treatment) was part of one of the treatment arms. Studies about injections in sacroiliac joints and studies evaluating the effects of epidural steroids for radicular pain were also excluded. Two review authors independently assessed the quality of the trials. If study data were clinically and statistically too heterogeneous to perform a meta-analysis, we used a best evidence synthesis to summarize the results. The evidence was classified into five levels (strong, moderate, limited, conflicting or no evidence), taking into account the methodological quality of the studies. 18 trials (1179 participants) were included in this updated review. The injection sites varied from epidural sites and facet joints (i.e. intra-articular injections, peri-articular injections and nerve blocks) to local sites (i.e. tender- and trigger points). The drugs that were studied consisted of corticosteroids, local anesthetics and a variety of

  17. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  18. Ducted fuel injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Charles J.

    2018-03-06

    Various technologies presented herein relate to enhancing mixing inside a combustion chamber to form one or more locally premixed mixtures comprising fuel and charge-gas with low peak fuel to charge-gas ratios to enable minimal, or no, generation of soot and other undesired emissions during ignition and subsequent combustion of the locally premixed mixtures. To enable sufficient mixing of the fuel and charge-gas, a jet of fuel can be directed to pass through a bore of a duct causing charge-gas to be drawn into the bore creating turbulence to mix the fuel and the drawn charge-gas. The duct can be located proximate to an opening in a tip of a fuel injector. The duct can comprise of one or more holes along its length to enable charge-gas to be drawn into the bore, and further, the duct can cool the fuel and/or charge-gas prior to combustion.

  19. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  20. Effects of pilot injection parameters on low temperature combustion diesel engines equipped with solenoid injectors featuring conventional and rate-shaped main injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Ambrosio, S.; Ferrari, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of the principal pilot injection parameters is discussed for low-temperature combustion systems. • Swirl-sweep and dwell-time sweep results are combined to analyze soot emissions. • The pilot injection effects are investigated in injection profiles featuring rate-shaped main injections. - Abstract: The potential of pilot injection has been assessed on a low-temperature combustion diesel engine for automotive applications, which was characterized by a reduced compression-ratio, high EGR rates and postponed main injection timings. Dwell time sweeps have been carried out for pilot injections with distinct energizing times under different representative steady-state working conditions of the medium load and speed area of the New European Driving Cycle. The results of in-cylinder analyses of the pressure, heat-release rate, temperature and emissions are presented. Combustion noise has been shown to decrease significantly when the pilot injected mass increases, while it is scarcely affected by the dwell time between the pilot and main injections. The HC, CO and fuel consumption trends, with respect to both the pilot injection dwell time and mass, are in line with those of conventional combustion systems, and in particular decreasing trends occur as the pilot injection energizing time is increased. Furthermore, a reduced sensitivity of NO_x emissions to both dwell time and pilot injected mass has been found, compared to conventional combustion systems. Finally, it has been observed that soot emissions diminish as the energizing time is shortened, and their dependence on dwell time is influenced to a great extent by the presence of local zones with reduced air-to-fuel ratios within the cylinder. A combined analysis of the results of swirl sweeps and dwell time sweeps is here proposed as a methodology for the detection of any possible interference between pilot combustion burned gases and the main injected fuel. The effect of pilot

  1. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  2. Injection and lessons for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, C.; Barnes, M.J.; Bartmann, W.; Cornelis, K.; Drosdal, L.N.; Goddard, B.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mertens, V.; Uythoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and one nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the Transfer Line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking de-bunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by- shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular re-steering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches. (authors)

  3. Injection and lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Bartmann, W; Cornelis, K; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and a nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished during MD time. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the transfer line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking debunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by-shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular resteering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches.

  4. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  5. Periodontal ligament and intraosseous anesthetic injection techniques: alternatives to mandibular nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Cuddy, Michael A; Cooke, Matthew R; Sokolowski, Chester J

    2011-09-01

    and Overview. The provision of mandibular anesthesia traditionally has relied on nerve block anesthetic techniques such as the Halsted, the Gow-Gates and the Akinosi-Vazirani methods. The authors present two alternative techniques to provide local anesthesia in mandibular teeth: the periodontal ligament (PDL) injection and the intraosseous (IO) injection. The authors also present indications for and complications associated with these techniques. The PDL injection and the IO injection are effective anesthetic techniques for managing nerve block failures and for providing localized anesthesia in the mandible. Dentists may find these techniques to be useful alternatives to nerve block anesthesia.

  6. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  7. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, Hernan, E-mail: htb@forsmark.vattenfall.s [Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, SE-742 03 Osthammar (Sweden); Buchwald, Przemyslaw [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, Wiktor, E-mail: wiktor@reactor.sci.kth.s [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of

  8. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, Hernan; Buchwald, Przemyslaw; Frid, Wiktor

    2010-01-01

    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of several

  9. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  10. Seizure After Local Anesthesia for Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jing Tsai

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a young male patient who experienced seizure after local injection of 3 mL 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:200,000 around a recurrent nasal angiofibroma. After receiving 100% oxygen via mask and thiamylal sodium, the patient had no residual neurologic sequelae. Seizure immediately following the injection of local anesthetics in the nasal cavity is probably due to injection into venous or arterial circulation with retrograde flow to the brain circulation. Further imaging study or angiography should be done before head and neck surgeries, especially in such highly vascular neoplasm.

  11. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  12. Bioluminescence imaging of chondrocytes in rabbits by intraarticular injection of D-luciferin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sung Mi; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Suk Jung; Kang, Han Saem; Kim, Kwang Yoon [ECOBIO INC., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [College of Natural Science, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of in vivo optical imaging. D-luciferin, the substrate for firefly luciferase has very high cost that allows this kind of experiment limited to small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in the articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (Fluc). Chondrocytes expressing Fluc were injected or implanted in the left knee joint. The rabbits underwent optical imaging studies after local injection of D-luciferin at 1, 5, 7, 9 days after cellular administration. We sought whether optimal imaging signals was could be by a cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. Imaging signal was not observed from the left knee joint after intraperitoneal injection of D-luciferin (15 mg/kg), whereas it was observed after intraarticular injection. Photon intensity from the left knee joint of rabbits was compared between cell injected and implanted groups after intraarticular injection of D-luciferin. During the period of imaging studies, photon intensity of the cell implanted group was 5-10 times higher than that of the cell injected group. We successfully imaged chondrocytes expressing Fluc after intraarticular injection of D-luciferin. This technique may be further applied to develop new drugs for knee joint disease.

  13. Safe injection practice among health care workers, Gharbiya, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nanees A; Aboul Ftouh, Aisha M; El Shoubary, Waleed H

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 health care facilities in Gharbiya governorate to assess safe injection practices among health care workers (HCWs). Two questionnaires, one to collect information about administrative issues related to safe injection and the other to collect data about giving injections, exposure to needle stick injuries, hepatitis B vaccination status and safe injection training. Practices of injections were observed using a standardized checklist. The study revealed that there was lack of both national and local infection control policies and lack of most of the supplies needed for safe injection practices. Many safe practices were infrequent as proper needle manipulation before disposal (41%), safe needle disposal (47.5%), reuse of used syringe & needle (13.2%) and safe syringe disposal (0%). Exposure to needle stick injuries were common among the interviewed HCWs (66.2%) and hand washing was the common post exposure prophylaxis measure (63.4%). Only 11.3% of HCWs had full course hepatitis B vaccination. Infection control -including safe injections- training programs should be afforded to all HCWs.

  14. Accidental deposition of local anaesthetic in the subdural space ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of accidental injection of local anaesthetic into the subdural space during neuraxial blockade is rare. The presentation of unexplainable clinical signs that do not match the clinical picture of subarachnoid or intravascular injection of the local anaesthetic agent should invoke high suspicion of unintentional ...

  15. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dadaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection that leads to local ischemic necrosis of the skin and adipose tissue. In this paper, we discuss etiologies, risk factors, and treatment options for gluteal Nicolau syndrome referring to patients treated in our hospital. Our study includes 17 women who visited our clinic with symptoms of gluteal necrosis secondary to intramuscular injection. The following variables were taken into account: injection site, drug administered, frequency of injections, the person who administered the injections, needle size, and needle tip color. Magnetic resonance images obtained in the aftermath of intramuscular injection application were carefully analyzed for presence of necrosis, cyst formation and the thickness of the gluteal fat tissue layer. Drugs that had been received in intramuscular injection were exclusively non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Mean patient BMI was 41.8 (all patients were considered as obese, and mean gluteal fat thickness was 54 mm. Standard length of needles (3.8 cm had been used in procedures. The wounds were treated with primary closure in 11 patients and with local flap therapy in 6 patients. The observed necrosis was a consequence of misplaced gluteal injection, where drugs were injected into the adipose tissue instead of the muscle due to the extreme thickness of the fat layer, on one hand, and the inappropriate length of standard needles, on the other hand. Intramuscular injection should be avoided in obese patients whenever possible: if it is necessary, proper injection technique should be used.

  16. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  18. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  19. Drug injecting and HIV risk among injecting drug users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Long, Thanh Nguyen; Huong, Phan Thi; Stewart, Donald Edwin

    2015-01-29

    Hai Phong, located in northern Vietnam, has become a high HIV prevalence province among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) since the infection shifted from the southern to the northern region of the country. Previous research indicates high levels of drug and sex related risk behaviour especially among younger IDUs. Our recent qualitative research provides a deeper understanding of HIV risk behaviour and highlights views and experiences of IDUs relating to drug injecting and sharing practices. Fifteen IDUs participated in semi-structured interviews conducted in September-October, 2012. Eligible participants were selected from those recruited in a larger scale behavioural research project and identified through screening questions. Interviews were conducted by two local interviewers in Vietnamese and were audiotaped. Ethical procedures, including informed consent and participants' understanding of their right to skip and withdraw, were applied. Transcripts were translated and double checked. The data were categorised and coded according to themes. Thematic analysis was conducted and a qualitative data analysis thematic framework was used. Qualitative analysis highlighted situational circumstances associated with HIV risks among IDUs in Hai Phong and revealed three primary themes: (i) places for injecting, (ii) injecting drugs in small groups, and (iii) sharing practices. Our results showed that shared use of jointly purchased drugs and group injecting were widespread among IDUs without adequate recognition of these as HIV risk behaviours. Frequent police raids generated a constant fear of arrest. As a consequence, the majority preferred either rail lines or isolated public places for injection, while some injected in their own or a friend's home. Price, a heroin crisis, and strong group norms encouraged collective preparation and group injecting. Risk practices were enhanced by a number of factors: the difficulty in getting new syringes, quick withdrawal management

  20. Injection Pressure as a Marker of Intraneural Injection in Procedures of Peripheral Nerves Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilvana Vučković

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The blockade of peripheral nerves carries a certain risk of unwanted complications, which can follow after unintentional intraneural injection of a local anesthetic. Up till today, the research of measuring injection pressure has been based on animal models, even though the histological structure of periphery nerve is different for animal and human population, so the application pressure which presages intraneural injection in human population is still unknown. As material in performing this study there have been used 12 Wistar rats and 12 delivered stillborns. After bilateral access to the median nerve, we applied 3 ml of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine, with the help of automatic syringe charger. The needle was at first placed perineural on one side, and then intraneural on the other side of both examination groups. During every application the pressure values were monitored using the manometer, and then they were analyzed by special software program BioBench. All perineural injections resulted with the pressure < or = 27.92 kPa, while the majority of intraneural injections were combined with the injectionpressure > or = 69.8 kPa. The difference between intraneural and perineural injection pressures for the two different examination groups (rats and delivered stillborns was not statistically significant (P>0.05. As prevention from intraneural injections today are in use two methods: the method of causing paresthesia or the method of using the peripheral nerve stimulator. However the nerve injury can still occur, independent from the technique used. If our results are used in clinical practice on human population, than the high injection pressure could be the markerof intraneural lodging of a needle.

  1. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  2. Mechanical performance of injection molded polypropylene : characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van T.B.; Govaert, L.E.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that predictions of local mechanical properties in a product can be made from the orientation only using an anisotropic viscoplastic model. Due to processing-induced crystalline orientations, the mechanical properties of injection-molded polymer products are anisotropic and exhibit

  3. Sonoanatomy and injection technique of the iliolumbar ligament.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, Dominic

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The iliolumbar ligament plays an important biomechanic role in anchoring the spine to the pelvic ring and stabilizing the sacroiliac joint. Iliolumbar syndrome is a back pain condition caused by pathology of the iliolumbar ligament. History and physical examination are important in the assessment of back pain, but they lack sufficient specificity. Injection of small volumes of local anesthetic into the structure considered to be the source of the pain (i.e. the iliolumbar ligament) increases the specificity of the diagnostic workup. OBJECTIVE: To describe an ultrasound - guided technique for injecting the iliolumbar ligament. STUDY DESIGN: Case report based on knowledge of topographic anatomy and sonoanatomy. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. METHODS: A patient with a clinical picture suggestive of iliolumbar syndrome was selected. An ultrasound-guided injection of the iliolumbar ligament with local anesthetic was performed. We recorded the patient\\'s subjective assessment of pain and the change in range of movement and pain scores during provocative tests. RESULTS: Following the injection, the patient\\'s pain score decreased, provocation tests became negative, and the range of movement increased. LIMITATIONS: Case report. Target specificity and dispersion of local anesthetic spread not confirmed with an independent technique (i.e. magnetic resonance imaging). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound guidance allows the selective deposition of small volumes of local anesthetic into structures believed to cause soft tissue back pain and thus to confirm or exclude the working diagnosis. Further studies are needed to confirm our conclusions and to prove the clinical feasibility of this technique.

  4. Effects of pancreatic intraductal injection of a radioisotope in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devonec, M.; Faure, J.L.; Blanc-Brunat, N.; Dubernard, J.M.; Traeger, J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects on exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions of local irradiation by the intraductal injection of Rhenium 186 were investigated as an alternative to neoprene for exocrine secretion suppression. The results indicate that Rhenium 186 irradiation suppressed exocrine secretion of the pancreas while conserving the endocrine function. Although some edema and fibrosis were observed, the effects were not excessive

  5. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  6. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with chronic ... severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  7. [THREE CASES OF ACCIDENTAL AUTO-INJECTION OF ADRENALINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Iikura, Katsuhito; Ogura, Kiyotake; Wang, Ling-jen; Asaumi, Tomoyuki; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2015-12-01

    Reports on accidental auto-injection of adrenaline are few. We encountered three cases of accidental injection of adrenaline. In this study, we have examined and reported the clinical courses and symptoms of our cases. CASE 1 involved a female physician in her 50s who had attended an explanatory meeting on auto-injection of adrenaline. She mistook EpiPen® to be the EpiPen trainer and accidentally injected herself with 0.3 mg EpiPen®. Her systolic/diastolic pressure peaked at 7 min to reach 144/78 mmHg and decreased to 120/77 mmHg at 14 min. Except for palpitation after 7 min, the only subjective symptom was local pain at the injection site. CASE 2 was noted in a 6-year-old boy. He accidentally pierced his right forefinger with 0.15 mg EpiPen®, and after 20 min, his right forefinger was swollen. The swelling improved 80 min after the accidental injection. CASE 3 was noted in a 4-year-old girl. She accidentally injected herself with 0.15 mg EpiPen®. Her systolic/diastolic pressure peaked at 23 min to reach 123/70 mmHg and decreased to 96/86 mmHg at 28 min. Severe adverse effects of accidental auto-injection of adrenaline were not observed in these three cases. Our findings suggest that while handling adrenaline auto-injectors, we should keep in mind the possibility of accidental injection.

  8. Injecting drug use: Gendered risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnow, Renee; Winstock, Adam R; Maier, Larissa J; Levy, Jay; Ferris, Jason

    2018-06-01

    Research demonstrates gender related differences in drug-use practices and risk behaviours. Females' structural vulnerability stemming from traditional gender roles and gender-power relations may enhance their propensity to experience injecting related risk. In this paper we explore gender differences in injection practices at the initiation event, during the first year of injecting and in the most recent 12-month period, to inform more effective harm reduction strategies. Data used in this study were drawn from the Global Drug Survey 2015. The study employs chi-square and logistic regression to assess gender differences in injection behaviours in a sample of current injectors residing in six global regions: North-West Europe; Southern Eastern Europe; North America. South America and Oceania. Females were more likely than males to report being injected by an intimate partner at initiation (OR = 4.4, 95%CI: 2.2-8.8), during the first year of injecting (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.4-9.3) and in the most recent 12-month period (OR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.0-6.2). Females reported greater difficulties accessing sterile equipment (X 2 (2,N = 453) = 8.2, p = 0.02) and were more likely to share injecting equipment than males (X 2 (1,N = 463) = 3.9, p = 0.05). Our findings highlight females' continued dependence on their intimate partner to administer the injection into the first year of their injecting career. Females remained more likely than males to rely on intimate partners for injection during the most recent 12-month period. Females report greater difficulties in sourcing sterile equipment and are more likely to share injecting equipment. We suggest that these findings reflect the broader social structure in which females are disempowered through traditional gender roles and the lack of gender appropriate harm reduction services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Vikash K

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can cause glottic insufficiency that can result in hoarseness, chronic cough, dysphagia, and/or aspiration. In rare circumstances, UVFP can cause airway obstruction necessitating a tracheostomy. The treatment options for UVFP include observation, speech therapy, vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty, thyroplasty, and laryngeal reinnervation. In this chapter, the author will discuss the technique of vocal fold injection for medialization of a UVFP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, P.

    1994-01-01

    External ion sources for cyclotrons are needed for polarised and heavy ions. This calls for injection systems, either radial or axial. Radial injection is also needed when a cyclotron works as a booster after another cyclotron or a linear accelerator (usually tandem). Requirements for injection differ from separated sector cyclotrons where there is plenty of room to house inflectors and/or strippers, to superconducting cyclotrons where the space is limited by a small magnet gap, and high magnetic field puts other limitations to the inflectors. Several extraction schemes are used in cyclotrons. Stripping injection is used for H - and also for heavy ions where the q/m ratio is usually doubled. For other cases, electric and magnetic deflection has to be used. To increase the turn separation before the first deflector, both resonant and non-resonant schemes are used. In this lecture, external injection systems are surveyed and some rules to thumb for injection parameters are given. Extraction schemes are also reviewed. (orig.)

  11. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  12. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal

  13. Comparative study of the novel and conventional injection approach for inferior alveolar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiriseth, K; Sirintawat, N; Arunakul, K; Wongsirichat, N

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anesthesia obtained with a novel injection approach for inferior alveolar nerve block compared with the conventional injection approach. 40 patients in good health, randomly received each of two injection approaches of local anesthetic on each side of the mandible at two separate appointments. A sharp probe and an electric pulp tester were used to test anesthesia before injection, after injection when the patients' sensation changed, and 5 min after injection. This study comprised positive aspiration and intravascular injection 5% and neurovascular bundle injection 7.5% in the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block, but without occurrence in the novel injection approach. A visual analog scale (VAS) pain assessment was used during injection and surgery. The significance level used in the statistical analysis was pinferior alveolar nerve block by the novel injection approach provided adequate anesthesia and caused less pain and greater safety during injection. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison Between the Two-Injection Technique and the Four-Injection Technique in Axillary Brachial Plexus Block with Articaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertikin, Aysun; Argun, Güldeniz; Mısırlıoğlu, Mesut; Aydın, Murat; Arıkan, Murat; Kadıoğulları, Nihal

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare axillary brachial plexus block using the two-injection and four-injection techniques assisted with ultrasonography (USG) and nerve stimulator in patients operated for carpal tunnel syndrome with articaine. To evaluate which technique is more effective, we compared the onset time, effectiveness, and duration of block procedures, patient satisfaction, adverse effect of the drug, and complication rates of the motor and sensory blocks. Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups. A mixture of physiologic serum added to articain with NaHCO 3 (30 mL) was injected into the patients' axilla in both the groups. After the blockage of the musculocutaneous nerve in both the groups, the median nerve in the two-injection group and the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and radial nerve in the four-injection group were blocked. In brachial plexus nerves, sensorial blockage was evaluated with pinprick test, and motor block was evaluated by contraction of the muscles innervated by each nerve. The adverse effects and complications, visual analog scale (VAS) values during the operation, and post-operative patient satisfaction were recorded. Sufficient analgesia and anaesthesia were achieved with no need for an additional local anaesthetics in both the groups. Furthermore, additional sedation requirements were found to be similar in both the groups. A faster rate and a more effective complete block were achieved in more patients from the four-injection group. In the two-injection group, the block could not be achieved for N. radialis in one patient. All other nerves were successfully blocked. Whereas the blockage procedure lasted longer in the four-injection group, the VAS values recorded during the blockage procedure were higher in the four-injection group. No statistical difference was found with regard to patient satisfaction, and no adverse effects and complications were observed in any group. Although the multi-injection method takes more time

  15. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  16. Injection practices in a metropolis of North India: perceptions, determinants and issues of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, A; Priya, R; Thakur, R; Gupta, V; Kotwal, J; Seth, T

    2004-08-01

    At least 50 percent of the injections administered each year are unsafe, more particularly in developing countries, posing serious health risks. An initial assessment to describe injection practices; their determinants and adverse effects can prevent injection-associated transmission of blood borne pathogens by reducing injection frequency and adoption of safe injection practices. To assess the injection practices in a large metropolitan city encompassing varied socio-cultural scenarios. STUDY SETTING AND DESIGN: Field based cross sectional survey covering urban non-slum, slum and peri-urban areas of a large metropolitan city. Injection prescribers, providers and community members selected by random sampling from the study areas. Pre tested questionnaires assessed knowledge and perceptions of study subjects towards injections and their possible complications. Observation of the process of injection and prescription audit also carried out. MS Access for database and SPSS ver 11 for analysis. Point estimates, 95% confidence intervals, Chi Square, t test, one-way ANOVA. The per capita injection rate was 5.1 per year and ratio of therapeutic to immunization injections was 4.4:1. Only 22.5%of injections were administered with a sterile syringe and needle. The level of knowledge about HIV and HBV transmission by unsafe injections was satisfactory amongst prescribers and community, but inadequate amongst providers. HCV was known to a very few in all the groups. The annual incidence of needle stick injuries among providers was quite high. A locally relevant safe injection policy based on multi disciplinary approach is required to reduce number of injections, unsafe injections and their attendant complications.

  17. Magnetic surfaces, particle orbits and neutral injection in conventional and ultimate torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.T.; Derr, J.A.; Kruckewitt, T.; Shohet, J.L.; Rehker, S.; Tataronis, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Capabilities in fully non-axisymmetric numerical methods have resulted in a parametric study of various conventional and ultimate torsatron configurations. No superbananas are found in torsatrons without local magnetic wells. Neutral injection calculations show that, if the vacuum magnetic surfaces are well defined, tangential injection is very efficient

  18. Proton accumulator ring injection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Protons may be created in an accelerator or storage ring by stripping electrons from neutral hydrogen atoms that have been injected into the machine. Because Liouville's theorem is violated by this type of injection, particles may be continually injected into a region of phase space that is already populated, and the density in that region increases with time. A computational investigation was made of the evolution of the distribution of particles in longitudinal phase space during such an injection process for a storage ring operating below the transition energy. In one calculation, an rf cavity is present in the ring and particles are injected into the stable phase region once each revolution. The purpose of this calculation is to determine the rf voltage necessary to overcome the longitudinal self-forces and contain the particles within the region of stable phase. In a second calculation, the rf is turned off, so that there is spreading in azimuth of the injected particles (i.e., de-bunching). The de-bunching occurs because of the initial energy spread and the action of the self-forces. One purpose of the calculation is to determine the total energy spread after a given number of revolutions. Another purpose is to elucidate the effect of finite resistance in the vacuum tank walls. For sufficiently high current, the finite resistance can cause bunching of a beam that is initially uniform in azimuth. Therefore it might be expected that the finite resistance would inhibit or prevent de-bunching once the number of particles injected reaches some threshold, and that this threshold would depend upon the energy spread in the beam

  19. Gallium-67 detection of intramammary injection sites secondary to intravenous drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swayne, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    A case of gallium localization within the breast occurred secondary to intravenous drug abuse. In the appropriate clinical setting, prior self-administered injections should be considered as a cause of Ga-67 accumulation at unusual sites

  20. Spinal CT-guided injections. Clinical applications-limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatakis, V.; Vlachou, I.; Petrocheilou, G.; Safarika, V.; Geroukis, I.; Petinelli, A.; Stathopoulou, S.; Kokkinis, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Chronic spinal pain is an important health issue with serious social and financial consequences. Thus, application of minimal invasive procedures is a popular technique for immediate relief of pain. Objectives and tasks: Our purpose is to present CT guided intraspinal injection of pharmaceutical agents for the relief of persistent pain. Material and methods: Chronic localized or radicular spinal pain may be treated safely and efficiently with injection of various pharmaceutical agents (local anesthetic, opioid analgesic and steroids or combination of these). The possible sites of infiltration include: a) intervertebral joints (facets), b) sacroiliac joints, c)perineural infiltration of the affected nerve roots and d) the epidural space. We will mention the patients choice criteria (combination of clinical symptoms and specific pain evaluation questionnaire) as they are reported in the international bibliography. Finally, we will discuss the repeatability criteria of the method as well as its limitations. Results: CT-guided pharmaceutical agents injection for the relief of persistent spinal pain have an advantage against other methods because of the precision and safety that they offer to the localization and diagnosis of the pain cause. Conclusion: Small complications percentage and satisfactory results have made CT-guided spinal injections a popular technique for chronic back pain relief. In order to apply these techniques the good knowledge of the method, its possibilities and limitations is necessary

  1. Rituals in nursing: intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Kathleen

    2014-12-01

    To consider to what extent intramuscular injection technique can be described to remain entrenched in ritualistic practice and how evidence-based practice should be considered and applied to the nursing practice of this essential skill. The notion of rituals within nursing and the value or futile impact they afford to this essential nursing skill will be critically reviewed. Discursive paper. Literature review from 2002-2013 to review the current position of intramuscular injection injections. Within the literature review, it became clear that there are several actions within the administration of an intramuscular injection that could be perceived as ritualistic and require consideration for contemporary nursing practice. The essential nursing skill of intramuscular injection often appears to fit into the description of a ritualised practice. By providing evidence-based care, nurses will find themselves empowered to make informed decisions based on clinical need and using their clinical judgement. For key learning, it will outline with rationale how site selection, needle selection, insertion technique and aspiration can be cited as examples of routinised or ritualistic practice and why these should be rejected in favour of an evidence-based approach. The effect on some student nurses of experiencing differing practices between what is taught at university and what is often seen in clinical practice will also be discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Behavior of pellet injected Li ions into heliotron E plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Christou, C.; Ida, K.

    1996-07-01

    Li pellet injection has provided a complex plasma with a large fraction of Li ions, which is characterized by intense emissions from Li I and III. The spatial profiles of the fully ionized Li 3+ ions are measured by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy with a resolution of 13 mm, and the local decay time of the injected Li ion has been estimated. The spectral profile of the charge exchange recombination line of Li 2+ from n=5 to n=4 shows a complicated structure, which depends of Li 3+ density. The effects on other intrinsic impurities and recycled Li are also discussed. (author)

  3. Modification of SRIM-calculated dose and injected ion profiles due to sputtering, injected ion buildup and void swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing, E-mail: jing.wang@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Toloczko, Mychailo B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Bailey, Nathan [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garner, Frank A.; Gigax, Jonathan; Shao, Lin [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    In radiation effects on materials utilizing self-ion irradiations, it is necessary to calculate the local displacement damage level and ion injection profile because of the short distance that self-ions travel in a material and because of the strong variation of displacement rate with depth in a specimen. The most frequently used tool for this is the software package called Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM). A SRIM-calculated depth-dependent dose level is usually determined under the implicit assumption that the target does not undergo any significant changes in volume during the process, in particular SRIM ignores the effect of sputtering, injected ions, and void swelling on the redistribution of the dose and injected ion profiles. This approach become increasingly invalid as the ion fluence reaches ever higher levels, especially for low energy ion irradiations. The original surface is not maintained due to sputter-induced erosion, while within the irradiated region of the specimen, injected ions are adding material, and if void swelling is occurring, it is creating empty space. An iterative mathematical treatment of SRIM outputs to produce corrected dose and injected ion profiles based on these phenomenon and without regard to diffusion is presented along with examples of differences between SRIM-calculated values and corrected values over a range of typical ion energies. The intent is to provide the reader with a convenient tool for more accurately calculating dose and injected ion profiles for heavy-ion irradiations.

  4. Distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retina after intravitreal and intravascular injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcho, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of [ 35 S] taurine in mouse retinae was studied by autoradiographic techniques after either intravitreal or intravascular injection. The route of injection did not affect the final localization. The major sites of label accumulation were the outer nuclear layer, the inner nuclear layer, and Mueller cell processes adjacent to the vitreal surface. The distribution was consistent with the interpretation that taurine was localized within two cellular compartments of mouse retina, photoreceptor cells and Mueller cells. (author)

  5. TARA beamline and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.S.; Brindza, P.; Coleman, J.W.; Torti, R.P.; Blackfield, D.T.; Goodrich, P.

    1983-01-01

    The TARA beamline for neutral beam injection will permit one to three sources to fire into each plug (60 degree or optional 90 degree injection with respect to the TARA axis) or into each anchor (90 degree injection only). The sources, pre-aimed on their mounting plate at the NB test stand, may be fired into neutralizer ducts or optionally through a magnesium curtain, and the unneutralized fraction is dumped by the TARA fringing field onto a receiver plate. The beamline is housed in a cylindrical tank with the beam axis along the tank diameter at the midplane. The tank will be sorption pumped using LN + T/sub I/ or N/sub B/ and/or e-beam gettering. The beam burial tank contains sed arrays and a thin foil dump which reaches sufficiently high temperatures during the shot to boil out gas between shots

  6. Automated injection of slurry samples in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, M.H.F.M.; Hulsman, M.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of injectors are described for introducing solid samples as slurries in flow analysis systems. A time-based and a volume-based injector based on multitube solenoid pinch valves were built, both can be characterized as hydrodynamic injectors. Reproducibility of the injections of dispersed

  7. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    This paper discusses the feasibility study on the utilization of biodiesel ester of Honge oil (EHO) in common rail direct injection. (CRDI) engine. Biodiesel of EHO has been obtained by transesterification process and characterization has been done. Existing single cylinder diesel engine fitted with conventional mechanical ...

  8. Foam injection method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, W C; Parmley, J B; Shepard, J C

    1977-05-10

    A method is described for more efficiently practicing in situ combustion techniques by generating a gas-water mist or foam adjacent to the combustion formation within the injection well. The mist or foam is forced out of the well into the formation to transport heat away from the burned region of the formation toward the periphery of the combustion region to conserve fuel. Also taught are a method and system for fluid treating a formation while maintaining enhanced conformance of the fluid injection profile by generating a mist or foam down-hole adjacent to the formation and then forcing the mist or foam out into the formation. (19 claims)

  9. Injection heating scenarios for TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Holmes, J.A.

    1977-07-01

    Neutral beam injection heating is a prime contender for heating TNS. However, injection into a full bore high density plasma during start-up will not give adequate beam penetration even with deuteron energies up to 300 keV and Z/sub eff/ < 1.5. But low density start-up may be feasible with deuteron energies of approximately 150 keV if advantage is taken of the α-heating and flux surface shifts which occur when β is increased

  10. Beam Scraping for LHC Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, H; Fischer, C; Gras, J-J; Koschik, A; Kramer, Daniel; Pedersen, S; Redaelli, S

    2007-01-01

    Operation of the LHC will require injection of very high intensity beams from the SPS to the LHC. Fast scrapers have been installed and will be used in the SPS to detect and remove any existing halo before beams are extracted, to minimize the probability for quenching of superconducting magnets at injection in the LHC. We briefly review the functionality of the scraper system and report about measurements that have recently been performed in the SPS on halo scraping and re-population of tails.

  11. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  12. Pellet injection and toroidal confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The proceedings of a technical committee meeting on pellet injection and toroidal confinement, held in Gut Ising, Federal Republic of Germany, 24-26 October, 1988, are given in this report. Most of the major fusion experiments are using pellet injectors; these were reported at this meeting. Studies of confinement, which is favorably affected, impurity transport, radiative energy losses, and affects on the ion temperature gradient instability were given. Studies of pellet ablation and effects on plasma profiles were presented. Finally, several papers described present and proposed injection guns. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Shoichet, Molly S; Ballios, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) including those in the brain, spinal cord and retina are devastating because the CNS has limited intrinsic regenerative capacity and currently available therapies are unable to provide significant functional recovery. Several promising therapies have been identified with the goal of restoring at least some of this lost function and include neuroprotective agents to stop or slow cellular degeneration, neurotrophic factors to stimulate cellular growth, neutralizing molecules to overcome the inhibitory environment at the site of injury, and stem cell transplant strategies to replace lost tissue. The delivery of these therapies to the CNS is a challenge because the blood–brain barrier limits the diffusion of molecules into the brain by traditional oral or intravenous routes. Injectable hydrogels have the capacity to overcome the challenges associated with drug delivery to the CNS, by providing a minimally invasive, localized, void-filling platform for therapeutic use. Small molecule or protein drugs can be distributed throughout the hydrogel which then acts as a depot for their sustained release at the injury site. For cell delivery, the hydrogel can reduce cell aggregation and provide an adhesive matrix for improved cell survival and integration. Additionally, by choosing a biodegradable or bioresorbable hydrogel material, the system will eventually be eliminated from the body. This review discusses both natural and synthetic injectable hydrogel materials that have been used for drug or cell delivery to the CNS including hyaluronan, methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Matrigel. (paper)

  14. BWR fuel experience with zinc injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, H.A.; Garcia, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    In 1982 a correlation between low primary recirculation system dose rates in BWR's and the presence of ionic zinc in reactor water was identified. The source of the zinc was primarily from Admiralty brass condensers. Plants with brass condensers are called ''natural zinc'' plants. Brass condensers were also a source of copper that was implicated in crude induced localized corrosion (CILC) fuel failures. In 1986 the first BWR intentionally injected zinc for the benefits of dose rate control. Although zinc alone was never implicated in fuel degradation of failures, a comprehensive fuel surveillance program was initiated to monitor fuel performance. Currently there are 14 plants that are injecting zinc. Six of these plants are also on hydrogen water chemistry. This paper describes the effect on both Zircaloy corrosion and the cruding characteristics as a result of these changes in water chemistry. Fuel rod corrosion was found to be independent of the specific water chemistry of the plants. The corrosion behavior was the same with the additions of zinc alone or zinc plus hydrogen and well within the operating experience for fuel without either of these additions. No change was observed in the amounts of crude deposited on the fuel rods, both for the adherent and loosely held deposits. One of the effects of the zinc addition was the trend to form more of the zinc rich iron spinel in the fuel deposits rather than the hematite deposits that are predominantly formed with non additive water chemistry

  15. Differential astroglial responses in the spinal cord of rats submitted to a sciatic nerve double crush treated with local injection of cultured Schwann cell suspension or lesioned spinal cord extract: implications on cell therapy for nerve repair Respostas astrocitárias na medula espinal do rato submetido ao esmagamento duplo do nervo ciático e tratado com injeção local de suspensão de células de Schwann cultivadas ou de extrato de medula espinal lesada: implicações na terapia celular para o reparo do nervo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Martins Dallo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Reactive astrocytes are implicated in several mechanisms after central or peripheral nervous system lesion, including neuroprotection, neuronal sprouting, neurotransmission and neuropathic pain. Schwann cells (SC, a peripheral glia, also react after nerve lesion favoring wound/repair, fiber outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. We investigated herein whether cell therapy for repair of lesioned sciatic nerve may change the pattern of astroglial activation in the spinal cord ventral or dorsal horn of the rat. METHODS: Injections of a cultured SC suspension or a lesioned spinal cord homogenized extract were made in a reservoir promoted by a contiguous double crush of the rat sciatic nerve. Local injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS served as control. One week later, rats were euthanized and spinal cord astrocytes were labeled by immunohistochemistry and quantified by means of quantitative image analysis. RESULTS: In the ipsilateral ventral horn, slight astroglial activations were seen after PBS or SC injections, however, a substantial activation was achieved after cord extract injection in the sciatic nerve reservoir. Moreover, SC suspension and cord extract injections were able to promote astroglial reaction in the spinal cord dorsal horn bilaterally. Conclusion: Spinal cord astrocytes react according to repair processes of axotomized nerve, which may influence the functional outcome. The event should be considered during the neurosurgery strategies.OBJETIVO: Astrócitos reativos participam de vários mecanismos após lesões do sistema nervoso central e periférico, os quais incluem neuroproteção, brotamento neuronal, neurotransmissão e dor neuropática. As células de Schwann (CS, um tipo de glia periférica, também reagem com a lesão do nervo, podendo interferir com o reparo e cicatrização, crescimento de fibras e regeneração neuronais. Investigamos aqui a possibilidade da terapia celular para o reparo do nervo ci

  16. The Incidence of Intravascular Needle Entrance during Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Ebrahimi, Hooman; Mahdipour, Masoumeh; Pourshahidi, Sara; Amini, Parisa; Vatankhah, Mahdi

    2008-01-01

    Dentists administer thousands of local anesthetic injections every day. Injection to a highly vascular area such as pterygomandibular space during an inferior alveolar nerve block has a high risk of intravascular needle entrance. Accidental intravascular injection of local anesthetic agent with vasoconstrictor may result in cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity, as well as tachycardia and hypertension. There are reports that indicate aspiration is not performed in every injection. The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence of intravascular needle entrance in inferior alveolar nerve block injections. Three experienced oral and maxillofacial surgeons performed 359 inferior alveolar nerve block injections using direct or indirect techniques, and reported the results of aspiration. Aspirable syringes and 27 gauge long needles were used, and the method of aspiration was similar in all cases. Data were analyzed using t-test. 15.3% of inferior alveolar nerve block injections were aspiration positive. Intravascular needle entrance was seen in 14.2% of cases using direct and 23.3% of cases using indirect block injection techniques. Of all injections, 15.8% were intravascular on the right side and 14.8% were intravascular on the left. There were no statistically significant differences between direct or indirect block injection techniques (P = 0.127) and between right and left injection sites (P = 0.778). According to our findings, the incidence of intravascular needle entrance during inferior alveolar nerve block injection was relatively high. It seems that technique and maneuver of injection have no considerable effect in incidence of intravascular needle entrance.

  17. The Incidence of Intravascular Needle Entrance during Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pourshahidi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Dentists administer thousands of local anesthetic injections every day. Injection to a highly vascular area such as pterygomandibular space during an inferior alveolar nerve block has a high risk of intravascular needle entrance. Accidental intravascular injection of local anesthetic agent with vasoconstrictor may result in cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity, as well as tachycardia and hypertension. There are reports that indicate aspiration is not performed in every injection. The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence of intravascular needle entrance in inferior alveolar nerve block injections.

    Materials and methods. Three experienced oral and maxillofacial surgeons performed 359 inferior alveolar nerve block injections using direct or indirect techniques, and reported the results of aspiration. Aspirable syringes and 27 gauge long needles were used, and the method of aspiration was similar in all cases. Data were analyzed using t-test.

    Results. 15.3% of inferior alveolar nerve block injections were aspiration positive. Intravascular needle entrance was seen in 14.2% of cases using direct and 23.3% of cases using indirect block injection techniques. Of all injections, 15.8% were intravascular on the right side and 14.8% were intravascular on the left. There were no statistically significant differences between direct or indirect block injection techniques (P = 0.127 and between right and left injection sites (P = 0.778.

    Conclusion. According to our findings, the incidence of intravascular needle entrance during inferior alveolar nerve block injection was relatively high. It seems that technique and maneuver of injection have no considerable effect in incidence of intravascular needle entrance.

  18. Spread of Injectate Around Hip Articular Sensory Branches of the Femoral Nerve in Cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Greher, Manfred; Moriggl, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    of the femoral nerve. Methods: Fifteen cadaver sides were injected with 5 mL dye in the iliopsoas plane guided by ultrasound. Dissection was performed to verify the spread of injectate around the hip articular branches of the femoral nerve. Results: In 10 dissections (67% [95% confidence interval: 38.......2-32%]) adhesions partially obstructed the spread of dye. Conclusion: An injection of 5 mL in the iliopsoas plane spreads around all hip articular branches of the femoral nerve in 10 of 15 cadaver sides. If these findings translate to living humans, injection of local anaesthetic into the iliopsoas plane could...

  19. Localized superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.; Lee, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    We study the effects of Anderson localization on superconductivity by using a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type trial wave function which pairs electrons in exact time-reversed eigenstates of the single-particle Hamiltonian. Within this approximation, and neglecting localization effects on the effective Coulomb repulsion and the electron-phonon coupling, we find that superconductivity persists below the mobility edge. In fact, Anderson's theorem is valid in the localized phase as long as rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ > 1 (rho is the density of states averaged over +- Δ 0 of the Fermi energy, Δ 0 the BCS gap parameter, and L the localization length). Hence the gap order parameter Δ(r) remains uniform in space at the BCS value Δ 0 . The superfluid density and response to electromagnetic perturbations, however, show marked differences from the ''dirty superconductor'' regime. For rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ < 1, Δ(r) fluctuates spatially and eventually drops to zero. In the limit when states are site localized, the system crosses over into the ''Anderson negative-U glass.'' Considerations beyond the trial wave-function approximation will speed up the destruction of superconductivity. The superconductor formed from localized states has the property that its quasiparticle excitations are also localized. Such excitations can be probed by observing the normal current in a tunneling junction

  20. Multi-shot type pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masaki; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuribayashi, Shitomi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To inject pellets at high speed without melting or sublimating not-injected pellets even at a long pellet injection interval. Constitution: In the conventional multi-shot pellet injection device, the pellet injection interval is set depending on the plasma retention time. However, as the pellet injection interval is increased, not-injected pellets are melted or sublimated due to the introduced heat of acceleration gases supplied from an acceleration gas introduction pipe to give an effect on the dimensional shape of the pellets. In view of the above, a plurality of pellet forming and injection portions each comprising a carrier, an injection pipe and a holder are disposed independently of each other and pellets are formed and injected independently to thereby prevent the thermal effects of the acceleration gases. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Multi-shot type pellet injection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masaki; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuribayashi, Shitomi.

    1988-07-27

    Purpose: To inject pellets at high speed without melting or sublimating not-injected pellets even at a long pellet injection interval. Constitution: In the conventional multi-shot pellet injection device, the pellet injection interval is set depending on the plasma retention time. However, as the pellet injection interval is increased, not-injected pellets are melted or sublimated due to the introduced heat of acceleration gases supplied from an acceleration gas introduction pipe to give an effect on the dimensional shape of the pellets. In view of the above, a plurality of pellet forming and injection portions each comprising a carrier, an injection pipe and a holder are disposed independently of each other and pellets are formed and injected independently to thereby prevent the thermal effects of the acceleration gases. (Kamimura, M.).

  2. Large scale gas injection test (Lasgit): Results from two gas injection tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuss, R. J.; Harrington, J. F.; Noy, D. J.; Wikman, A.; Sellin, P.

    2011-01-01

    entry occurs at a gas pressure close to, or slightly in excess of, the local stress state and is associated with a rapid increase in flux, linked to a series of kicks in axial and radial stress and pore water pressure. Post peak gas flux exhibits dynamic behaviour, symptomatic of unstable gas flow. When gas injection is stopped, flux into the clay rapidly reduces before entering an extended period of very small flows. This is accompanied by a rapid reduction in pressure which decays to an asymptotic value close to that of the total stress locally within the deposition hole. Examination of the data shows considerable evidence for the development of a highly-dynamic, tortuous network of pressure induced pathways which evolve both temporally and geo-spatially within the clay, opening and closing due to local changes in gas pressure and/or effective stress. These detailed observations do not conform to standard concepts of two-phase flow. The bentonite response to the passage of gas suggests that pathway dilation is the primary mechanism governing gas migration within the Lasgit system. The important coupling between gas, stress and pore water pressure at the repository scale is clearly evident with the data. The importance and interdependencies of this coupling will be investigated in future experiments planned at the Lasgit experimental site. (authors)

  3. Radiation pressure injection in laser-wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. L.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Isayama, S.; Chen, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the injection of electrons in laser-wakefield acceleration induced by a self-modulated laser pulse by a two dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. The localized electric fields and magnetic fields are excited by the counter-streaming flows on the surface of the ion bubble, owing to the Weibel or two stream like instability. The electrons are injected into the ion bubble from the sides of it and then accelerated by the wakefield. Contrary to the conventional wave breaking model, the injection of monoenergetic electrons are mainly caused by the electromagnetic process. A simple model was proposed to address the instability, and the growth rate was verified numerically and theoretically.

  4. Gas injected washer plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, K.K.; John, P.I.; Punithavelu, A.M.; Rao, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    A plasma gun similar in geometry to the washer plasma gun has been operated with gas injected externally. hydrogen, nitrogen and argon plasmas have been ionised and accelerated to velocities of the order of 10 7 mm s -1 and densities 10 11 mm -3 . Higher parameter range is possible with higher electrical input power. (author)

  5. ENDOSCOPIC MACROPLASTIQUETM INJECTION FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mucosally 1 cm distal to the bladder neck at 3, 6 and 9 o' clock positions. In 26 cases the 12 o' clock position was chosen to ensure a good occlusion of the bladder neck. The mean volume of Macroplastique injected was 3 ml. Results At a mean ...

  6. Medical simulator with injection device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    medical simulator 611 comprises a vessel 609 representing a simulated blood vessel. The vessel comprises a simulated vessel wall capable of being punctured by an electrically conductive injection needle 503. The vessel wall comprises a first electrically conductive layer for closing an electric

  7. PLT neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) neutral beam injection system is given and its performance characteristics are outlined. A detailed operational procedure is included, as are some tips on troubleshooting. Proper operation of the source is shown to be a crucial factor in system performance

  8. Preface to the injection tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Twelve groups of dogs received intravenous injections of various doses of 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 249 Cf, or 252 Cf at approximately 17 months of age. The animals were euthanized when death appeared imminent. Data are presented on the calculated radiation dose to the skeleton and pathological changes observed at autopsy

  9. Localized Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Is Localized Scleroderma Diagnosed? Doctors who are familiar with scleroderma, or who are experts at examining ... systemic treatment with a medication or other treatment interventions (for example, ultraviolet light), are reserved for more ...

  10. Heart rate effects of intraosseous injections using slow and fast rates of anesthetic solution deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Louis; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel; Drum, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 primary intraosseous injections to 61 subjects using: the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 45 seconds (fast injection); the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection); a conventional syringe injection at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection), in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 3 weeks apart. A pulse oximeter measured heart rate (pulse). The results demonstrated the mean maximum heart rate was statistically higher with the fast intraosseous injection (average 21 to 28 beats/min increase) than either of the 2 slow intraosseous injections (average 10 to 12 beats/min increase). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 slow injections. We concluded that an intraosseous injection of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine with the Wand at a 45-second rate of anesthetic deposition resulted in a significantly higher heart rate when compared with a 4-minute and 45-second anesthetic solution deposition using either the Wand or traditional syringe.

  11. Mesotherapy and phosphatidylcholine injections: historical clarification and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotunda, Adam M; Kolodney, Michael S

    2006-04-01

    Mesotherapy was originally conceived in Europe as a method of utilizing cutaneous injections containing a mixture of compounds for the treatment of local medical and cosmetic conditions. Although mesotherapy was traditionally employed for pain relief, its cosmetic applications, particularly fat and cellulite removal, have recently received attention in the United States. Another treatment for localized fat reduction, which was popularized in Brazil and uses injections of phosphatidylcholine, has been erroneously considered synonymous with mesotherapy. Despite their attraction as purported "fat-dissolving" injections, the safety and efficacy of these novel cosmetic treatments remain ambiguous to most patients and physicians. To distinguish mesotherapy from phosphatidylcholine injections by reviewing their history and the relevant experimental or clinical findings. A comprehensive search of Medline indexed literature and conference proceedings. All the published studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of traditional mesotherapy currently originate from Europe. These reports focus primarily on musculoskeletal pain and vascular disease, rather than cosmetic applications. Although experimental data suggest that a number of traditional mesotherapy ingredients may theoretically reduce fat, these effects have not been supported in peer-reviewed studies. An increasing number of reports demonstrate that subcutaneous injections of a formula containing phosphatidylcholine combined with its emulsifier, deoxycholate, are effective in removing small collections of adipose tissue. Cell lysis, resulting from the detergent action of deoxycholate, may account for this clinical effect. Mesotherapy is distinct from a method of treating adipose tissue with subcutaneous injections of deoxycholate alone or in combination with phosphatidylcholine. Additional clinical and experimental studies are necessary to more definitively establish the safety and efficacy of these treatments.

  12. Do not rush to return to sports after trigger finger injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeehae; Jo, Leechan; Lee, Jong In

    2015-04-01

    Trigger finger, or digital stenosing tenosynovitis, is a common hand problem. A widely accepted treatment is steroid injection into the flexor tendon sheath. This can cause rupture of the flexor tendon. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on tendon rupture after a single corticosteroid injection. Moreover, there are no guidelines for patients with tendinopathy who want to return to sports after corticosteroid injection. Clinicians who perform local steroid injections for tendinopathy treatment should be aware of the possible dangers of tendon rupture and should confirm that steroids are not administrated into the tendon. Patients should also be warned about returning to sports prematurely and should be encouraged to gradually resume sports after the injection to prevent further damage. Herein, we report an unusual case of flexor digitorum profundus rupture after a single corticosteroid injection in a 57-yr-old male golfer and we also present a review of the literature.

  13. Injection Drug Use Trajectories Among Migrant Populations: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Jason S; Mittal, Maria Luisa; Horyniak, Danielle; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Werb, Dan

    2018-01-24

    Dual epidemics of injection drug use and blood-borne disease, characterized as "syndemics," are present in a range of settings. Behaviors that drive such syndemics are particularly prevalent among mobile drug-using populations, for whom cross-border migration may pose additional risks. This narrative review aims to characterize the risk factors for injection drug use initiation associated with migration, employing a risk environment framework and focusing on the San Diego-Tijuana border region as the most dynamic example of these phenomena. Based on previous literature, we divide migration streams into three classes: intra-urban, internal, and international. We synthesized existing literature on migration and drug use to characterize how mobility and migration drive the initiation of injection drug use, as well as the transmission of hepatitis and HIV, and to delineate how these might be addressed through public health intervention. Population mixing between migrants and receiving communities and the consequent transmission of social norms about injection drug use create risk environments for injection drug use initiation. These risk environments have been characterized as a result of local policy environments, injection drug use norms in receiving communities, migration-related stressors, social dislocation, and infringement on the rights of undocumented migrants. Policies that exacerbate risk environments for migrants may inadvertently contribute to the expansion of epidemics of injection-driven blood-borne disease. Successful interventions that address emerging syndemics in border regions may therefore need to be tailored to migrant populations and distinguish between the vulnerabilities experienced by different migration classes and border settings.

  14. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  15. Injection Induced Seismicity in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. R. M.; Liu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Utah is one of the top producers of oil and natural gas in the country. Over the past 18 years, more than 4.2 billion gallons of wastewater from the petroleum industry has been injected into the Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, and Wingate Sandstone in two areas in Carbon and Emery County, Utah. We found that the seismicity rate increased significantly 3 to 5 years following the commencement of wastewater injection. The increased seismicity consists almost entirely of earthquakes with magnitudes of less than 3 and is localized in areas seismically active prior to the injection. We suggest that the marked increase in the seismicity rate was induced by pore pressure increase along pre-existing faults in these areas. We have used simple groundwater models to estimate the change in pore pressure, calculate the pore pressure diffusion rate, and evaluate the observed time gap between the start of injection and the onset of the increased seismicity in the areas surrounding the injection wells.

  16. Injecting Artificial Memory Errors Into a Running Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Granat, Robert A.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2008-01-01

    Single-event upsets (SEUs) or bitflips are computer memory errors caused by radiation. BITFLIPS (Basic Instrumentation Tool for Fault Localized Injection of Probabilistic SEUs) is a computer program that deliberately injects SEUs into another computer program, while the latter is running, for the purpose of evaluating the fault tolerance of that program. BITFLIPS was written as a plug-in extension of the open-source Valgrind debugging and profiling software. BITFLIPS can inject SEUs into any program that can be run on the Linux operating system, without needing to modify the program s source code. Further, if access to the original program source code is available, BITFLIPS offers fine-grained control over exactly when and which areas of memory (as specified via program variables) will be subjected to SEUs. The rate of injection of SEUs is controlled by specifying either a fault probability or a fault rate based on memory size and radiation exposure time, in units of SEUs per byte per second. BITFLIPS can also log each SEU that it injects and, if program source code is available, report the magnitude of effect of the SEU on a floating-point value or other program variable.

  17. Effects of surface deposition and droplet injection on film cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin; Cui, Pei; Vujanović, Milan; Baleta, Jakov; Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cooling effectiveness is significantly affected by the deposition size. • Coverage area for model without mist is reduced by increasing the deposition height. • Wall temperature is decreased by 15% with 2% mist injection. • Cooling coverage is increased by more than three times with 2% mist injection. • Cooling effectiveness for mist models is improved by increasing deposition height. - Abstract: In the present research, the influence of the particle dispersion onto the continuous phase in film cooling application was analysed by means of numerical simulations. The interaction between the water droplets and the main stream plays an important role in the results. The prediction of two-phase flow is investigated by employing the discrete phase model (DPM). The results present heat transfer characteristics in the near-wall region under the influence of mist cooling. The local wall temperature distribution and film cooling effectiveness are obtained, and results show that the film cooling characteristics on the downstream wall are affected by different height of surface deposits. It is also found that smaller deposits without mist injection provide a lower wall temperature and a better cooling performance. With 2% mist injection, evaporation of water droplets improves film cooling effectiveness, and higher deposits cause lateral and downstream spread of water droplets. The results indicate that mist injection can significantly enhance film cooling performance.

  18. Local anesthesia for prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, Kent; Simpson, Colleen; Roof, James; Arthurs, Sandy; Korssjoen, Tammy; Sutlief, Steven

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the technique and feasibility of prostate brachytherapy performed with local anesthesia only. Methods and Materials: A 5 by 5 cm patch of perineal skin and subcutaneous tissue is anesthetized by local infiltration of 10 cc of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine, using a 25-gauge 5/8-inch needle. Immediately following injection into the subcutaneous tissues, the deeper tissues, including the pelvic floor and prostate apex, are anesthetized by injecting 15 cc lidocaine solution with approximately 8 passes of a 20-gauge 1.0-inch needle. Following subcutaneous and peri-apical lidocaine injections, the patient is brought to the simulator suite and placed in leg stirrups. The transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe is positioned to reproduce the planning images and a 3.5- or 6.0-inch, 22-gauge spinal needle is inserted into the peripheral planned needle tracks, monitored by TRUS. When the tips of the needles reach the prostatic base, about 1 cc of lidocaine solution is injected in the intraprostatic track, as the needle is slowly withdrawn, for a total volume of 15 cc. The implants are done with a Mick Applicator, inserting and loading groups of two to four needles, so that a maximum of only about four needles are in the patient at any one time. During the implant procedure, an additional 1 cc of lidocaine solution is injected into one or more needle tracks if the patient experiences substantial discomfort. The total dose of lidocaine is generally limited to 500 mg (50 ml of 1% solution). Results: To date, we have implanted approximately 50 patients in our simulator suite, using local anesthesia. Patients' heart rate and diastolic blood pressure usually showed moderate changes, consistent with some discomfort. The time from first subcutaneous injection and completion of the source insertion ranged from 35 to 90 minutes. Serum lidocaine levels were below or at the low range of therapeutic. There has been only one instance of acute urinary retention in the

  19. Evaluation of performance, safety, subject acceptance, and compliance of a disposable autoinjector for subcutaneous injections in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteau, Cecile; Schwarzenbach, Florence; Donazzolo, Yves; Latreille, Mathilde; Berube, Julie; Abry, Herve; Cotten, Joël; Feger, Celine; Laurent, Philippe E

    2010-10-05

    A disposable autoinjector was developed for subcutaneous (SC) self-injection by patients with chronic diseases. To verify its performance and evaluate its acceptance, a clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, comparing SC injections performed by subjects using the autoinjector with SC injections performed by nurses using a syringe. This was a randomized, single-center, crossover study comparing SC self-injection using an autoinjector with SC nurse-administered injection using a syringe. Two volumes (0.2 mL and 1 mL) were injected into healthy volunteers. Study objectives included assessment of the accuracy and consistency of the volume injected by the injection systems, and skin reaction and pain associated with the injection. The fluid depot in the SC tissue layer was evaluated by ultrasound. Subject acceptance was evaluated using questionnaires on attitudes and emotions towards the injection technique, and challenged by seeking the subjects' preferred system for a final study injection or future treatment. A total of 960 injections (480 with autoinjector, 480 with syringe) were performed in 40 subjects. There were no significant differences in mean fluid leakage and injected volumes between the systems. Pain associated with the injection was significantly lower with the auto-injector than with the syringe. Local skin reaction at the injection site was overall satisfactory. Injections were appropriately performed by all subjects. At study end, all 40 subjects preferred the autoinjector for a final study injection and for future treatment. This study indicated that the autoinjector used by the subject was similar to a syringe used by a nurse in terms of performance and safety in administering the injections, and better in terms of pain, overall acceptance, and preference.

  20. Locals Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hastings-King

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A locals collection is a set of parameters that are used to delimit data-mining operations. This piece uses a collection of locals from around Essex Massachusetts to shape and delimit an interrogation of post-reality in contemporary America. It explores the notion of crisis, the possibility of a crisis of empire that may or may not emerge in a media-space that does not allow crisis of empire to be mentioned and relations this maybe-crisis to the various levels of economic dysfunction that have become evident since late 2008. But mostly this piece explores ways in which particular stories about particular people do and do not link/link to these larger-scale narratives. This is the first of a potential series of locals collections that will mine the American post-real.

  1. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9804-8] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; BASF... exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste [[Page 23247...

  2. Cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus Infection Associated with Mesotherapy Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkitisophon, Pranee; Rattanakaemakorn, Ploysyne; Tanrattanakorn, Somsak; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2011-02-18

    Non-tuberculous mycobacterial skin infections have an increasing incidence. In immunocompetent patients, they usually follow local trauma. We present a case of cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus infection following mesotherapy. The lesions were successfully treated with a combination of clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. Atypical mycobacterial infection should be suspected in patients who develop late-onset skin and soft tissue infection after cutaneous injury, injection, and surgical intervention, particularly if they do not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

  3. Cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus Infection Associated with Mesotherapy Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Wongkitisophon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-tuberculous mycobacterial skin infections have an increasing incidence. In immunocompetent patients, they usually follow local trauma. We present a case of cutaneous Mycobacterium abscessus infection following mesotherapy. The lesions were successfully treated with a combination of clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. Atypical mycobacterial infection should be suspected in patients who develop late-onset skin and soft tissue infection after cutaneous injury, injection, and surgical intervention, particularly if they do not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

  4. Deposition probe measurements of impurities injected into a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Grote, H.; Herrmann, A.

    1985-01-01

    Impurity confinement behaviour has been studied by using a deposition probe in conjunction with pellet injection. Generally, an exponential decay of the impurity efflux and nearly symmetric ion/electron side toroidal flows have been observed. During phases of strong plasma disturbances, asymmetric flow is seen, indicative of edge transport and prompt recycling from local sources. The application of ECRH may cause such disturbances. (author)

  5. Tokamak startup using point-source dc helicity injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D J; Bongard, M W; Fonck, R J; Redd, A J; Sontag, A C

    2009-06-05

    Startup of a 0.1 MA tokamak plasma is demonstrated on the ultralow aspect ratio Pegasus Toroidal Experiment using three localized, high-current density sources mounted near the outboard midplane. The injected open field current relaxes via helicity-conserving magnetic turbulence into a tokamaklike magnetic topology where the maximum sustained plasma current is determined by helicity balance and the requirements for magnetic relaxation.

  6. Hypervelocity Dust Injection for Plasma Diagnostic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticos, Catalin

    2005-10-01

    Hypervelocity micron-size dust grain injection was proposed for high-temperature magnetized plasma diagnosis. Multiple dust grains are launched simultaneously into high temperature plasmas at several km/s or more. The hypervelocity dust grains are ablated by the electron and ion fluxes. Fast imaging of the resulting luminous plumes attached to each grain is expected to yield local magnetic field vectors. Combination of multiple local magnetic field vectors reproduces 2D or even 3D maps of the internal magnetic field topology. Key features of HDI are: (1) a high spatial resolution, due to a relatively small transverse size of the elongated tail, and (2) a small perturbation level, as the dust grains introduce negligible number of particles compared to the plasma particle inventory. The latter advantage, however, could be seriously compromised if the gas load from the accelerator has an unobstructed access to the diagnosed plasma. Construction of a HDI diagnostic for National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), which includes a coaxial plasma gun for dust grain acceleration, is underway. Hydrogen and deuterium gas discharges inside accelerator are created by a ˜ 1 mF capacitor bank pre-charged up to 10 kV. The diagnostic apparatus also comprises a dust dispenser for pre-loading the accelerator with dust grains, and an imaging system that has a high spatial and temporal resolution.

  7. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  8. Inadvertent intrathecal injection of atracurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Nahid; Soltani, Ghasem; Ghomian, Naiere; Hasanpour, Mohamad Reza; Mashayekhi, Zahra

    2011-04-01

    This report relates how tracurium was given by mistake, intrathecally, during spinal anesthesia, to a 38-year-old woman, who was a candidate for abdominal hysterectomy. When no analgesia was observed, the mistake in giving the injection was understood. She was evaluated postoperatively by train of four ratio, measuring her breathing rate, eye opening, and protruding of tongue at one, two, twenty-four, and forty-eight hours, and then at one and two weeks, with the final evaluation the following month. The patient had normal timings during the operation and postoperation periods, and no abnormal findings were observed through the first month. This finding was contrary to several studies, which described adverse reactions due to accidental intrathecal injection of neuromuscular blocking drugs.

  9. Inadvertent intrathecal injection of atracurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Zirak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report relates how tracurium was given by mistake, intrathecally, during spinal anesthesia, to a 38-year-old woman, who was a candidate for abdominal hysterectomy. When no analgesia was observed, the mistake in giving the injection was understood. She was evaluated postoperatively by train of four ratio, measuring her breathing rate, eye opening, and protruding of tongue at one, two, twenty-four, and forty-eight hours, and then at one and two weeks, with the final evaluation the following month. The patient had normal timings during the operation and postoperation periods, and no abnormal findings were observed through the first month. This finding was contrary to several studies, which described adverse reactions due to accidental intrathecal injection of neuromuscular blocking drugs.

  10. Model for pneumatic pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.T.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    A hydrodynamic code has been developed to model the performance of pneumatic pellet injection systems. The code describes one dimensional, unsteady compressible gas dynamics, including gas friction and heat transfer to the walls in a system with variable area. The mass, momentum, and energy equations are solved with an iterated Lax-Wendroff scheme with additional numerical viscosity. The code is described and comparisons with experimental data are presented

  11. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  12. Radial lean direct injection burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  13. Long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, I S

    1982-03-01

    Injectable hormonal preparations can be highly effective and satisfactory contraceptives. The two main preparations available today are depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-OEN), but several other approaches are currently under clinical trial. Injectable contraceptives have some unique advantages which give them justifiably wide appeal amongst many groups of women. However, they do have a number of disadvantages including invariable menstrual disturbance and a delay in the return of fertility. One formulation of DMPA, Depo-Provera, is probably the most extensively investigated single hormonal contraceptive ever made. These studies indicate that it is remarkably safe and does not face any more unresolved issues than the combined pill, intrauterine device or tubal sterilization. However, for a number of disparate emotional and political reasons it has attracted the attention of several consumer and feminist groups, who have waged a prolonged and quite unjustified campaign against it. It is to be hoped that future debate will be conducted on a more informed, rational and less emotional basis. Injectable contraceptives should have an important place in the family planning armamentarium of all countries, and current developments should lead to a decrease in concerns about presently available agents. This should further increase the widespread acceptability of this approach to contraception.

  14. Local equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-12-15

    From 3-6 September the First International Workshop on Local Equilibrium in Strong Interaction Physics took place in Bad-Honnef at the Physics Centre of the German Physical Society. A number of talks covered the experimental and theoretical investigation of the 'hotspots' effect, both in high energy particle physics and in intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  15. Zinc injection in German PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, K.

    2004-01-01

    50% after 5 years of zinc chemistry. Further cycles with zinc injection will show whether local dose rates decrease to even lower levels. Zinc injection now has become a mature method and is now being successfully applied at several old design, co containing PWRs in Germany, Brazil and US. Several PWRs in Europe and Asia are preparing for zinc chemistry in the near future. The method is inexpensive and thus also attractive in terms of the cost/benefit criterion of the ALARA principle. In Germany, Zinc injection for reducing radiation fields was introduced first at Unit B of Biblis NPP in September 1996 and at Obrigheim NPP in February 1998. Zinc injection is still being implemented today at these plants. This paper gives an overview of the experience acquired with this method. The main topic addressed in this paper is the evolution of dose rates at the primary system and work-related doses since introduction of the zinc chemistry. Reductions in high dose rate areas have meanwhile achieved values of 40 to 50%. Annual collective doses per man-hour spent in the controlled access area of the plant as well as personal doses for specific activities are also decreasing

  16. The effects of intratendinous and retrocalcaneal intrabursal injections of corticosteroid on the biomechanical properties of rabbit Achilles tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugate, Ronald; Pennypacker, Jason; Saunders, Marnie; Juliano, Paul

    2004-04-01

    injections of saline solution. Specimens from limbs that had received intratendinous injections of corticosteroid were biomechanically equivalent to specimens from limbs that had received intrabursal injections of corticosteroid. Specimens from rabbits that had received bilateral injections of corticosteroid demonstrated significantly decreased failure load (p = 0.011), modulus of elasticity (p = 0.015), failure stress (p = 0.03), and total energy absorbed (p = 0.015) compared with those from rabbits that had received unilateral injections of steroid. Local injections of corticosteroid, both within the tendon substance and into the retrocalcaneal bursa, adversely affected the biomechanical properties of rabbit Achilles tendons. Additionally, tendons from rabbits that had received bilateral injections of corticosteroid demonstrated an additive adverse effect, with significantly worse biomechanical properties compared with tendons from rabbits that had received unilateral injections of corticosteroid.

  17. Promoting Safe Injection Practices : The Challenge Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Srivastava

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Injections are one of the most common health care procedures in the world. Global estimates range between 12 billion-16 billion injections each year’. Most of the injections (90 to 95% are given for therapeutic purposes and only 5 to 10% are given for immunization. It is estimated that worldwide every year a billion injections are given to women and children for immunization. Up to half of these injections are currently thought to be unsafe. Due to the sheer burden of injections and the coresponding magnitude of unsafe injections, the proportion of blood borne pathogen transmission is much larger than is due to unsafe blood transfusion. Unsafe injections are responsible for million cases of Hepatitis B and C and an estimated one-quarter of a million cases of HIV annually. Worldwide 8 to 16 million hepatitis B, 2.3 - 4.7 million hepatitis C and 80,000 - 1,60,000 HIV infections are estimated to occur yearly form reuse of syringes and needles without adequate sterilization2. In the less developed countries, the unsafe injection practices account for an estimated $ 535 million in health care costs and result in nearly 1.3 million deaths a year. In a developing country like India where unnecessary injections are common, the total bur­den of injections is estimated to be 3.7 billion injections per year3. Certain studies that have been carried out in India,along with anecdotal evidence point towards a large numbe- of unnecessary, inappropriate, unsafe injections and inadequate sharps waste management4 5. A high proportion of injections given in India for immunization are unsafe due to reuse of needles/ syringes. The popularity of curative injections remains high due to various factors influencing the behaviour of prescribers / injection givers as well as clients.

  18. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... follows: (i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular injection at 2 to 4 days of age. (ii) For treatment of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by... repeated in 14 to 21 days. (ii) For the treatment of anemia due to iron deficiency, administer an...

  20. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical.

  1. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical

  2. Disposal of liquid wastes by injection underground--Neither myth nor millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Arthur M.

    1969-01-01

    Texas-have statutes specifically to regulate injection of industrial wastes. Other States impose widely diverse constraints under unlike administrative authorities. Few, if any, State agencies currently have the staff skills, centralized authority, and financial resources to assure rights of the general public to be spared harm from, and to reap the benefit of accrued experience with, deep injection. Some new, fully competent institutional arrangement appears to be essential, under a unified policy. As required, such an institution might have en echelon components, respectively having nationwide, single State or major province, subprovince, or local jurisdiction.

  3. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  4. Local supertwistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Geometry of local supertwistors is investigated. It is proved that the Yang-Mills equations for the introduced ansatz for supertwistor connection are equivalent to free bach equations, describing the dynamics of N=1 conformal supergravity. Analogous interpretation of the dynamics of N=1 conformal supergravity coupled to a vector superfield is proposed. It is proved that any complex conformally right or left flat superspace automatically satisfies the Bach equations

  5. Fatal injection: a survey of modern code injection attack countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Mitropoulos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With a code injection attack (CIA an attacker can introduce malicious code into a computer program or system that fails to properly encode data that comes from an untrusted source. A CIA can have different forms depending on the execution context of the application and the location of the programming flaw that leads to the attack. Currently, CIAs are considered one of the most damaging classes of application attacks since they can severely affect an organisation’s infrastructure and cause financial and reputational damage to it. In this paper we examine and categorize the countermeasures developed to detect the various attack forms. In particular, we identify two distinct categories. The first incorporates static program analysis tools used to eliminate flaws that can lead to such attacks during the development of the system. The second involves the use of dynamic detection safeguards that prevent code injection attacks while the system is in production mode. Our analysis is based on nonfunctional characteristics that are considered critical when creating security mechanisms. Such characteristics involve usability, overhead, implementation dependencies, false positives and false negatives. Our categorization and analysis can help both researchers and practitioners either to develop novel approaches, or use the appropriate mechanisms according to their needs.

  6. Local administration of growth hormone stimulates tendon collagen synthesis in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Jørgensen, J.O.L.; Olesen, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Tendon collagen content and circulating growth hormone (GH) are reduced in elderly. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study, we examined if local injections of rhGH enhance collagen synthesis in healthy elderly men (61 ± 1 yr). Two injections of rhGH or saline (control) were injected into e...

  7. Current trends in needle-free jet injection: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barolet D

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Barolet,1,2 Antranik Benohanian3 1RoseLab Skin Optics Research Laboratory, Laval, QC, Canada; 2MUHC Dermatology Service, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3CHUM Service de Dermatologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada Background: Jet injection can be defined as a needle-free drug delivery method in which a high-speed stream of fluid impacts the skin and delivers a drug. Despite 75 years of existence, it never reached its full potential as a strategic tool to deliver medications through the skin. Objective: The aim of this review was to evaluate and summarize the evolution of jet injection intradermal drug delivery method including technological advancements and new indications for use. Methods: A review of the literature was performed with no limits placed on publication date. Results: Needleless injectors not only reduce pain during drug delivery but also confine the drug more evenly in the dermis. Understanding skin properties of the injection site is a key factor to obtain optimal results as well as setting the right parameters of the jet injector. Until the advent of disposable jet injectors/cartridges, autoclaving of the injector remains the only reliable method to eliminate the risk of infection. Needle-free intradermal injection using corticosteroids and/or local anesthetics is well documented with promising indications being developed. Limitations: Limitations of the review include low-quality evidence, small sample sizes, varying treatment parameters, and publication bias. Conclusion: New developments may help reconsider the use of jet injection technology. Future studies should focus on measurable optimized parameters to insure a safe and effective outcome. Keywords: needle free, injector, jet injection, xylocaine, triamcinolone, PDT

  8. Injection dynamics of gelled propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Changjin

    Gel propellants have been recognized as attractive candidates for future propulsion systems due to the reduced tendency to spill and the energy advantages over solid propellants. One of strong benefits emphasized in gel propellant applications is a throttling capability, but the accurate flow control is more complicated and difficult than with conventional Newtonian propellants because of the unique rheological behaviors of gels. This study is a computational effort directed to enhance understanding of the injector internal flow characteristics for gel propellants under rocket injection conditions. In simulations, the emphasized rheology is a shear-thinning which represents a viscosity decrease with increasing a shear rate. It is described by a generalized Newtonian fluid constitutive equation and Carreau-Yasuda model. Using this rheological model, two injection schemes are considered in the present study: axially-fed and cross-fed injection for single-element and multi-element impinging injectors, respectively. An axisymmetric model is developed to describe the axially-fed injector flows and fully three-dimensional model is utilized to simulate cross-fed injector flows. Under axially-fed injection conditions investigated, three distinct modes, an unsteady, steady, and hydraulic flip mode, are observed and mapped in terms of Reynolds number and orifice design. In an unsteady mode, quasi-periodic oscillations occur near the inlet lip leading mass pulsations and viscosity fluctuations at the orifice exit. This dynamic behavior is characterized using a time-averaged discharge coefficient, oscillation magnitude and frequency by a parametric study with respect to an orifice design, Reynolds number and rheology. As a result, orifice exit flows for gel propellants appear to be significantly influenced by a viscous damping and flow resistance due to a shear thinning behavior and these are observed in each factors considered. Under conditions driven by a manifold crossflow

  9. Increasing the effectiveness of intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice: a neurosurgical point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, Bertrand; Nassar, Mérie; Simonnet, Jean; Le Duigou, Caroline; Clemenceau, Stéphane; Miles, Richard; Fricker, Desdemona

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral injections of tracers or viral constructs in rodents are now commonly used in the neurosciences and must be executed perfectly. The purpose of this article is to update existing protocols for intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice. Our procedure for stereotaxic injections in adult mice allows the investigator to improve the effectiveness and safety, and save time. Furthermore, for the first time, we describe a two-handed procedure for intracerebral injections in neonatal mice that can be performed by a single operator in a very short time. Our technique using the stereotaxic arm allows a higher precision than freehand techniques previously described. Stereotaxic injections in adult mice can be performed in 20 min and have >90% efficacy in targeting the injection site. Injections in neonatal mice can be performed in 5 min. Efficacy depends on the difficulty of precisely localizing the injection sites, due to the small size of the animal. We describe an innovative, effortless, and reproducible surgical protocol for intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice.

  10. Post-Injection Induced Seismicity in EGS: Triggering Mechanisms and Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, S.; Carrera, J.; Vilarrasa, V.

    2017-12-01

    Induced microseismicity is a controversial issue related to Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and in general with fluid injection into deep geological formations. The occurring of felt earthquakes after stopping injection especially generates concern, because the correlation between injection and seismic activity is unclear. The aim of this work is to advance in the understanding of the processes that may induce or trigger co- and post-injection seismicity. To this end we investigate the thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling by means of numerical simulations of hydraulic stimulation of deep geothermal systems. We find that preferential flow through conductive fractures or fault zones provokes pressure and temperature perturbations that result in not only heterogeneous variation of the stress field, but also highly anisotropic variations of the local stress tensor. Anisotropic variations tend to stabilize some fractures, but destabilize others. Moreover, activation of shear slip causes a significant variation of the stress field that enlarges the range of critical fracture orientations. We find that post-injection seismicity may occur on non-critically oriented faults that were originally stable. During injection, such faults become destabilized by thermal and shear slip stress changes, but remain static by the superposition of the stabilizing effect of pressure forces. However, these fractures become unstable and fail when the pressure forcing dissipates shortly after injection stops abruptly, which suggests that a slow reduction in injection rate may mitigate post-injection seismicity.

  11. Injection characteristics of dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glensvig, M.

    1996-09-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has proved to be a new ultra-clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. Engine tests have shown considerably lower NO{sub x} emissions, no particle emissions and lower noise compared to that obtained from normal diesel engine operation. DME also has demonstrated favorable response to Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this investigation was to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental spray behavior of DME. Fundamental spray behaviour was characterized by fuel spray penetration and angle, atomization and droplet size and evaporation. The influence of fuel characteristics, nozzle geometry and ambient pressure on the DME and diesel spray behavior was investigated. Fuel was injected into an unheated injection chamber with a ambient pressure of 15 bar and 25 bar, respectively, giving a simplified simulation of the environment in an operating engine. Two nozzles were studied: a single hole nozzle and a pintle nozzle. A conventional fuel injection system was used for both nozzles. Injection parameters of RPM, throttle position, fuel line length and chamber environment were held constant for both nozzles. The sprays were visualized using schlieren and high speed photography. Results show that the general appearance of the DME spray is similar to that of diesel spray. The core of the DME spray seems less dense and the spray tip less sharp compared to diesel spray, indicating smaller droplets with a lower momentum in the core of the DME spray. Schlieren film shows that with both DME and diesel fuel, the spray tip only consists of liquid and that evaporation occurs after a brief time interval. Penetration of DME is about one third that of diesel using the pintle nozzle. Also, the spray angle is considerably larger for the DME spray compared to the diesel spray. A comparatively smaller difference in penetration is observed using the hole nozzle. Differences in penetration for the hole nozzle are within the limit of the penetration

  12. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  13. Temperature stabilization of injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, A.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus which stabilizes the temperature, and thereby the output wavelength, of an injection laser. Means monitor the laser terminal voltage across a laser and derive a voltage therefrom which is proportional to the junction voltage of the laser. Means compares the voltage to a reference value from source and a temperature controller adjusts the laser temperature in response to the results of the comparison. Further embodiments of the present invention vary the output wavelength of the laser by varying the reference value from source against which the laser junction voltage is compared. (author)

  14. Compartmentalized safety coolant injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    A safety coolant injection system for nuclear reactors wherein a core reflood tank is provided to afford more reliable reflooding of the reactor core in the event of a break in one of the reactor coolant supply loops. Each reactor coolant supply loop is arranged in a separate compartment in the containment structure to contain and control the flow of spilled coolant so as to permit its use during emergency core cooling procedures. A spillway allows spilled coolant in the compartment to pass into the emergency water storage tank from where it can be pumped back to the reactor vessel. (author)

  15. 'It's Fast, It's Quick, It Stops Me Being Sick': How to influence preparation of opioid tablets for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Lise; Treloar, Carla; van Breda, Nick; Steele, Maureen; Hiley, Sarah; Flaherty, Ian; Salmon, Allison

    2017-09-01

    Injection of pharmaceutical opioids (PO) among people who inject drugs has increased in many countries. The common method for preparing PO tablets for injection uses heat, resulting in greater particulate matter and therefore increased risk of local infection risk and damage to veins and organs. A cold preparation process has fewer risks, but this preparation method is not commonly used. This study seeks to explore how people who inject PO learn to prepare injections and how health promotion efforts could influence practice. Between March and December 2013, qualitative interviews were undertaken with 33 clients of Sydney's Medically Supervised Injecting Centre who inject PO tablets regarding sources of knowledge and current preparation methods for injection of POs. Overwhelmingly, the most commonly reported source of knowledge around injection of tablets was others who inject. Most participants reported heating the solution as the quickest way to administer the drug. Attitudes to the use of wheel filters varied, with some participants reporting that they would use the filters if they were shown how, while others reported a number of barriers to using filters, including complexity of use. Harnessing the power of social connections may provide avenues for education about safer injecting of tablets, including the use of wheel filters. Further work is required to debunk myths about the relative potencies of cold versus hot drug solution. Collaborations between harm reduction workers and peer workers would assist in knowledge dissemination regarding safer injecting practices. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may experience flu-like symptoms such as headaches, bone or muscle aches, fever, chills, and tiredness during ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  17. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  18. Shoulder pain: the role of diagnostic injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H M; O'Connor, F G; Nirschl, R P

    1996-04-01

    Many different shoulder disorders cause similar symptoms and pain patterns. An accurate diagnosis can generally be made by obtaining a detailed history, performing a comprehensive, directed physical examination and obtaining selected radiographs. Occasionally, shoulder injections can be of great assistance in establishing a clear diagnosis and providing relief of symptoms. Subacromial space injection, acromioclavicular joint injection, intra-articular injection and injection of the biceps tendon are helpful in identifying such disorders as subacromial bursitis, acromioclavicular arthritis, injury to the glenohumeral joint and bicipital tendinitis.

  19. Localization of functional memory B cells at sites of antigen localization and its relationship to local aspects of immunological memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzio, N.M.; Baine, Y.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments are described which have been designed to test whether antigen in a draining lymph node can mediate local accumulation of passively transferred antigen-specific memory B cells, using recipients whose own immune response is inhibited via γ-irradiation or by injection of cyclophosphamide. (Auth.)

  20. Multipoint Observations of Energetic Particle Injections and Substorm Activity During a Conjunction Between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Clemmons, J. H.; Jaynes, A. N.; Leonard, T.; Baker, D. N.; Cohen, I. J.; Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mauk, B. H.; Gabrielse, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Strangeway, R. J.; Kletzing, C. A.; Le Contel, O.; Spence, H. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Reeves, G. D.

    2017-11-01

    This study examines multipoint observations during a conjunction between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes on 7 April 2016 in which a series of energetic particle injections occurred. With complementary data from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, Geotail, and Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit (16 spacecraft in total), we develop new insights on the nature of energetic particle injections associated with substorm activity. Despite this case involving only weak substorm activity (maximum AE energy wave activity is also established from Van Allen Probes and MMS. Drift mapping using a simplified magnetic field model provides estimates of the dispersionless injection boundary locations as a function of universal time, magnetic local time, and L shell. The analysis reveals that at least five electron injections, which were localized in magnetic local time, preceded a larger injection of both electrons and ions across nearly the entire nightside of the magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit. The larger ion and electron injection did not penetrate to L < 6.6, but several of the smaller electron injections penetrated to L < 6.6. Due to the discrepancy between the number, penetration depth, and complexity of electron versus ion injections, this event presents challenges to the current conceptual models of energetic particle injections.

  1. The LHC injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Ducimetière, Laurent; Barnes, M J; Wait, G D

    2003-01-01

    Proton beams will be injected into LHC at 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producing magnetic field pulses of approximately 900 ns rise time and up to 7.86 s flat top duration. One of the stringent design requirements of these systems is a flat top ripple of less than ± 0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.7 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's). To achieve the required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, a low characteristic impedance has been chosen and ceramic plate capacitors are used to obtain 5 Omega. Conductive stripes in the aperture of the magnets limit the beam impedance and screen the ferrite. The electrical circuit has been designed with the help of PSpice computer modelling. A full size magnet prototype has been built and tested up to 60 kV with the magnet under ultra high vacuum (UHV). The pulse shape has been precision measured at a voltage of 15 kV. After reviewing the performance requirements the paper presents the magnet...

  2. The RHIC injection fast kicker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, E.B.; Pappas, G.C.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Zhang, W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the injection kicker is to provide the ultimate deflection to the incoming beam from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The beam is kicked in the vertical direction to place it on the equilibrium orbit of RHIC. Each bunch in the AGS is transferred separately, and stacked box-car fashion in the appropriate RHIC rf bucket. In order to achieve the required deflection angle four magnets powered by four pulsers will be used for each ring of RHIC. When the bunches are stacked in RHIC the last few rf buckets are left unfilled in order to provide a gap in the beam to facilitate the ejection or beam abort process. This also means there is not a severe constraint on the fall-time of the injection kicker. One prototype pulser has been built and tested. Much of the development effort has gone into the magnet design. Although lumped ferrite magnets are simpler to build and require less power to reach full field, a transmission line magnet was developed because of the very fast rise-time requirement and the tolerances imposed on the field variation and ripple

  3. Injection into electron plasma traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgadze, Vladimir; Pasquini, Thomas A.; Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Computational studies and experimental measurements of plasma injection into a Malmberg-Penning trap reveal that the number of trapped particles can be an order of magnitude higher than predicted by a simple estimates based on a ballistic trapping model. Enhanced trapping is associated with a rich nonlinear dynamics generated by the space-charge forces of the evolving trapped electron density. A particle-in-cell simulation is used to identify the physical mechanisms that lead to the increase in trapped electrons. The simulations initially show strong two-stream interactions between the electrons emitted from the cathode and those reflected off the end plug of the trap. This is followed by virtual cathode oscillations near the injection region. As electrons are trapped, the initially hollow longitudinal phase-space is filled, and the transverse radial density profile evolves so that the plasma potential matches that of the cathode. Simple theoretical arguments are given that describe the different dynamical regimes. Good agreement is found between simulation and theory

  4. Calculation method of water injection forward modeling and inversion process in oilfield water injection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A forward modeling and inversion algorithm is adopted in order to determine the water injection plan in the oilfield water injection network. The main idea of the algorithm is shown as follows: firstly, the oilfield water injection network is inversely calculated. The pumping station demand flow is calculated. Then, forward modeling calculation is carried out for judging whether all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation or not. If all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation, calculation is stopped, otherwise the demand injection allocation flow rate of certain step size is reduced aiming at water injection wells which do not meet requirements, and next iterative operation is started. It is not necessary to list the algorithm into water injection network system algorithm, which can be realized easily. Iterative method is used, which is suitable for computer programming. Experimental result shows that the algorithm is fast and accurate.

  5. Local supertwistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The geometry of local supertwistors is investigated. An ansatz on the form of the supertwistor superconnection is introduced. Because of this restriction on the form of such a superconnection the Yang-Mills equations for the superconnection turn out to be equivalent to the free Bach equations describing the dynamics of simple conformal supergravity. It is shown that the equations of motion of conformal supergravity interacting with a vector superfield admit an analogous interpretation. It is proved that an arbitrary conformally right-flat or left-flat superspace is automatically a solution of the Bach equations

  6. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Vibrating Syringe Attachment in Decreasing Intraoral Injection Pain Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    refill.html. 32. Ogle 0 & Mahjoubi G. (2011) Advances in local anesthesia in dentistry . Dental Clinics of North America, 55(3),481-499. 33. OzIer L. (2010...Evaluation ofthe effects of the VibraJect® attachment on pain in children receiving local anesthesia . Pediatric Dentistry , 33(1), 46-50. 49 37...pain during the administration of the local anesthesia . After the second injection, the participant will be asked ifhe could determine which side

  7. Bioengineering of injectable encapsulated aggregates of pluripotent stem cells for therapy of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuting; Xu, Zhaobin; Wang, Hai; Reese, Benjamin E.; Gushchina, Liubov V.; Jiang, Meng; Agarwal, Pranay; Xu, Jiangsheng; Zhang, Mingjun; Shen, Rulong; Liu, Zhenguo; Weisleder, Noah; He, Xiaoming

    2016-10-01

    It is difficult to achieve minimally invasive injectable cell delivery while maintaining high cell retention and animal survival for in vivo stem cell therapy of myocardial infarction. Here we show that pluripotent stem cell aggregates pre-differentiated into the early cardiac lineage and encapsulated in a biocompatible and biodegradable micromatrix, are suitable for injectable delivery. This method significantly improves the survival of the injected cells by more than six-fold compared with the conventional practice of injecting single cells, and effectively prevents teratoma formation. Moreover, this method significantly enhances cardiac function and survival of animals after myocardial infarction, as a result of a localized immunosuppression effect of the micromatrix and the in situ cardiac regeneration by the injected cells.

  8. Septa and Distributor Developments for H- Injection into the Booster from LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Hourican, M; Weterings, W

    2008-01-01

    The construction of Linac4 requires the modification of the existing injection system of the CERN PS Booster. A new transfer line will transport 160 MeV H- ions to this machine. A system of 5 pulsed magnets (BIDIS) and 3 vertical septa (BISMV) will distribute and inject the Linac pulses into the four-vertically separated Booster rings. Subsequently the beam will be injected horizontally, using a local bump created with bumpers (BS magnets) to bring the injected H- beam together with the orbiting proton beam onto the stripper foil. To accommodate the injected H- beam, the first of the BS magnets will have to be a septum-like device, deflecting only the orbiting beam. This paper highlights the requirements and technical issues and describes the solutions to be adopted for both the BIDIS and BISMV. The results of initial prototype testing of the BIDIS magnet will also be presented.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafful, Claudia; Wagner, Karla D; Werb, Dan; González-Zúñiga, Patricia E; Verdugo, Silvia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-11-01

    Injecting drugs in the neck has been related to adverse health conditions such as jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, aneurysm, haematomas, airway obstruction, vocal cord paralysis and wound botulism, among others. We identified prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico. Beginning in 2011, PWID aged ≥18 years who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective cohort. At baseline and semi-annually, PWID completed interviewer-administered surveys soliciting data on drug-injecting practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injecting in the neck as the most frequent injection site at a single visit. Of 380 PWID, 35.3% injected in the neck at least once in the past 6 months, among whom 71.6% reported it as their most common injection site, the most common injecting site after the arms (47%). Controlling for age, years injecting and injecting frequency, injecting heroin and methamphetamine two or more times per day and having sought injection assistance were associated with injecting in the neck [adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 2.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.27-3.53 and AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.52-4.53 respectively]. Injecting in the neck was very common among PWID in Tijuana and was associated with polydrug use and seeking injection assistance. Tailoring harm reduction education interventions for individuals who provide injection assistance ('hit doctors') may allow for the dissemination of safe injecting knowledge to reduce injection-related morbidity and mortality. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Tungsten migration studies by controlled injection of volatile compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, M., E-mail: rubel@kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Association EURATOM-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Coenen, J. [IEK-4, Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany); Ivanova, D. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Association EURATOM-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Möller, S. [IEK-4, Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany); Petersson, P. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Association EURATOM-VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Brezinsek, S.; Kreter, A.; Philipps, V.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Schweer, B. [IEK-4, Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Volatile tungsten hexa-fluoride was locally injected into the TEXTOR tokamak as a marker for material migration studies. The injection was accompanied by puffing N-15 rare isotope as a nitrogen tracer in discharges with edge cooling by impurity seeding. The objective was to assess material balance by qualitative and quantitative determination of a global and local deposition pattern, material mixing effects and fluorine residence in plasma-facing components. Spectroscopy and ex situ ion beam analysis techniques were used. Tungsten was detected on all types of limiter tiles and short-term probes retrieved from the vessel. Over 80% of the injected W was identified. The largest tungsten concentration, 1 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −2}, was in the vicinity of the gas inlet. Co-deposits contained tungsten and a mix of light isotopes: H, D, He-4, B-10, B-11, C-12, C-13, N-14, N-15, O-16 and small quantities of F-19 thus showing that both He and nitrogen are trapped following wall conditioning (He glow) and edge cooling.

  11. Advanced techniques and armamentarium for dental local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Taylor M; Yagiela, John A

    2010-10-01

    Computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery (C-CLAD) devices and systems for intraosseous (IO) injection are important additions to the dental anesthesia armamentarium. C-CLAD using slow infusion rates can significantly reduce the discomfort of local anesthetic infusion, especially in palatal tissues, and facilitate palatal approaches to pulpal nerve block that find special use in cosmetic dentistry, periodontal therapy, and pediatric dentistry. Anesthesia of single teeth can be obtained using either C-CLAD intraligamentary injections or IO injections. Supplementary IO anesthesia is particularly suited for providing effective pain control of teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of injection on seismicity at The Geysers, California Geothermal Field

    OpenAIRE

    Majer, Ernest L.; Peterson, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Water injection into geothermal systems has often become a required strategy to extend and sustain production of geothermal resources. To reduce a trend of declining pressures and increasing non-condensable gas concentrations in steam produced from The Geysers, operators have been injecting steam condensate, local rain and stream waters, and most recently treated wastewater piped to the field from neighboring communities. If geothermal energy is to provide a significant increase in energy in ...

  13. The Impact of Injection on Seismicity at The Geyses, California Geothermal Field

    OpenAIRE

    Majer, Ernest L.; Peterson, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Water injection into geothermal systems has often become a required strategy to extended and sustain production of geothermal resources. To reduce a trend of declining pressures and increasing non-condensable gas concentrations in steam produced from The Geysers, operators have been injecting steam condensate, local rain and stream waters, and most recently treated wastewater piped to the field from neighboring communities. If geothermal energy is to provide a significant increase in ene...

  14. Clinical effectiveness of multiple-drug injection treatment in unruptured ectopic pregnancies: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Quan; Wang, Lu-Lu; Shao, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Si-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Qiu

    2012-10-01

    To study the effect of local interventional treatment of unruptured ectopic pregnancies with multiple-drug injection guided by color Doppler sonography. In this retrospective analysis, 49 patients with an unruptured ectopic pregnancy were treated with two different local injection methods administered under sonographic guidance. The patients were divided into single-drug (n = 23) and multiple-drug (n = 26) injection groups, and they received a locally administered injection of methotrexate alone or a combination including methotrexate, hemocoagulase, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. Overall, local injection treatment was successful in 44 patients. The 5 patients with failed treatment underwent laparotomy about 1 week after single-drug injection. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG ) levels, ectopic pregnancy mass sizes, blood flow at various points after treatment, the incidence of pelvic bleeding, and the time for serum β-hCG levels to return to normal and the mass to resolve were analyzed in the remaining 44 patients. Single-drug treatment was successful in 18 patients; 10 of 23 had low to moderate pelvic bleeding after treatment, and 5 were referred for surgery. All 26 patients were successfully treated by multiple-drug injection. Only 2 patients had a small amount of pelvic bleeding. Differences between groups were statistically significant (P injection under color Doppler guidance is a new, safe, and effective method for treating unruptured ectopic pregnancies. It accelerates the serum β-hCG decline and facilitates mass resolution. This regimen is associated with a very low rate of pelvic bleeding, improves the success rate of conservative treatment, and, therefore, has value as an important clinical application.

  15. Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases the spread of sensory blockade after low-thoracic epidural injection of lidocaine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.; Gielen, M.J.M.; Giele, J.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting the distribution of sensory blockade after epidural injection of local anesthetics remain incompletely clarified. To evaluate if increasing intrathoracic pressure affects the spread of thoracic epidural anesthesia, we randomized 20 patients who received an epidural catheter at the

  16. Study Protocol- Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injections for Spinal Stenosis (LESS: a double-blind randomized controlled trial of epidural steroid injections for lumbar spinal stenosis among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedly Janna L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is one of the most common causes of low back pain among older adults and can cause significant disability. Despite its prevalence, treatment of spinal stenosis symptoms remains controversial. Epidural steroid injections are used with increasing frequency as a less invasive, potentially safer, and more cost-effective treatment than surgery. However, there is a lack of data to judge the effectiveness and safety of epidural steroid injections for spinal stenosis. We describe our prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial that tests the hypothesis that epidural injections with steroids plus local anesthetic are more effective than epidural injections of local anesthetic alone in improving pain and function among older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods We will recruit up to 400 patients with lumbar central canal spinal stenosis from at least 9 clinical sites over 2 years. Patients with spinal instability who require surgical fusion, a history of prior lumbar surgery, or prior epidural steroid injection within the past 6 months are excluded. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either ESI with local anesthetic or the control intervention (epidural injections with local anesthetic alone. Subjects receive up to 2 injections prior to the primary endpoint at 6 weeks, at which time they may choose to crossover to the other intervention. Participants complete validated, standardized measures of pain, functional disability, and health-related quality of life at baseline and at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months after randomization. The primary outcomes are Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and a numerical rating scale measure of pain intensity at 6 weeks. In order to better understand their safety, we also measure cortisol, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, weight, and blood pressure at baseline, and at 3 and 6 weeks post-injection. We also obtain data on resource utilization

  17. A Phase Space Monitoring of Injected Beam of J-PARC MR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Shuichiro; Toyama, Takeshi

    Beam power of J-PARC MR (30 GeV Proton Synchrotron Main Ring) has been improved since 2008 and now achieved over 200 kW for the user operation. A part of beam loss is localized at the beam injection phase so it is important to monitor the beam bunch behavior in the transverse direction. In this paper it is described the method how to measure the position and momentum for each injected beam bunch using Beam Position Monitors (BPMs). It is also mentioned some implementation of an operator's interface (OPI) to display the plots of injected and circulating beam bunches in phase space coordinate.

  18. Adaptive temporal refinement in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyofylli, Violeta; Schmitz, Mauritius; Hopmann, Christian; Behr, Marek

    2018-05-01

    Mold filling is an injection molding stage of great significance, because many defects of the plastic components (e.g. weld lines, burrs or insufficient filling) can occur during this process step. Therefore, it plays an important role in determining the quality of the produced parts. Our goal is the temporal refinement in the vicinity of the evolving melt front, in the context of 4D simplex-type space-time grids [1, 2]. This novel discretization method has an inherent flexibility to employ completely unstructured meshes with varying levels of resolution both in spatial dimensions and in the time dimension, thus allowing the use of local time-stepping during the simulations. This can lead to a higher simulation precision, while preserving calculation efficiency. A 3D benchmark case, which concerns the filling of a plate-shaped geometry, is used for verifying our numerical approach [3]. The simulation results obtained with the fully unstructured space-time discretization are compared to those obtained with the standard space-time method and to Moldflow simulation results. This example also serves for providing reliable timing measurements and the efficiency aspects of the filling simulation of complex 3D molds while applying adaptive temporal refinement.

  19. Characterization of Injection Molded Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ling; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    for different applications. We show how to correlate the structures of the polymer replicas with respect to their functionalities. Furthermore, we introduce how we coordinate with all partners in the “Nanoplast” project, and how we utilize the existing facilities of each method to understand structure......Microscopy has been widely applied to understand surface structures of solid samples. According to the instrumental methodology, there are different microscopy methods: optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These microscopy methods have individual advantages...... and limitations. Therefore, it would be difficult to characterize complex, especially hierarchical structures by using only one method. Here we present a combined optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning probe microscopy study on injection molded structures. These structures are used...

  20. Sterile Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Marticorena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile endophthalmitis appears as an infrequent complication of intravitreal injections and seems to develop mainly in the context of the off-label use of drugs that have not been conceived for intravitreous administration. The aetiology of sterile endophthalmitis, independently of the administered drug, remains uncertain and a multifactorial origin cannot be discarded. Sterile inflammation secondary both to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to intravitreal bevacizumab share many characteristics such as the acute and painless vision loss present in the big majority of the cases. Dense vitreous opacity is a common factor, while anterior segment inflammation appears to be mild to moderate. In eyes with sterile endophthalmitis, visual acuity improves progressively as the intraocular inflammation reduces without any specific treatment. If by any chance the ophthalmologist is not convinced by the sterile origin of the inflammation, this complication must be treated as an acute endophthalmitis because of the devastating visual prognosis of this intraocular infection in the absence of therapy.

  1. Correlation between Ultrasonographic Findings and The Response to Corticosteroid Injection in Pes Anserinus Tendinobursitis Syndrome in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Ho Sung; Kim, Sung Eun; Suh, Young Ran; Seo, Young-Il; Kim, Hyun Ah

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the ultrasonographic (US) findings in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) with pes anserinus tendinitis or bursitis (PATB) syndrome and to determine the correlation between the US findings and the response to local corticosteroid injection. We prospectively studied 26 patients with knee OA with clinically diagnosed PATB syndrome. A linear array 7 MHz transducer was used for US examination of the knee. Seventeen patients were injected locally with...

  2. [A case of nasal tip necrosis after hyaluronic acid injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honart, J-F; Duron, J-B; Mazouz Dorval, S; Rausky, J; Revol, M

    2013-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the most used dermal filler. Some complications associated with its use have been described, but most of them are rare and benign. We report an exceptional case of skin necrosis of the tip of the nose, in a 22-year-old patient, after HA injection. The initial appearance may occurred subsequent aesthetic sequels. After necrotic tissue excision, patient was followed in rapid succession. Daily local care has led to wound healing, without any important sequel. This rare complication reminds us that HA injections are not without risk, despite their apparent simplicity of use. Moreover, the case presented confirms the potential healing of the nasal tip, allowing treatment with wound healing, rather than other early invasive procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Large Eddy Simulation of Cryogenic Injection Processes at Supercritical Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oefelein, Joseph C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper highlights results from the first of a series of hierarchical simulations aimed at assessing the modeling requirements for application of the large eddy simulation technique to cryogenic injection and combustion processes in liquid rocket engines. The focus is on liquid-oxygen-hydrogen coaxial injectors at a condition where the liquid-oxygen is injected at a subcritical temperature into a supercritical environment. For this situation a diffusion dominated mode of combustion occurs in the presence of exceedingly large thermophysical property gradients. Though continuous, these gradients approach the behavior of a contact discontinuity. Significant real gas effects and transport anomalies coexist locally in colder regions of the flow, with ideal gas and transport characteristics occurring within the flame zone. The current focal point is on the interfacial region between the liquid-oxygen core and the coaxial hydrogen jet where the flame anchors itself.

  4. Accommodation Paralysis after Pheniramine Maleate Injection: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingol Kiziltunc, Pinar; Atilla, Huban; Yalcindag, F Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    We present a case in which Gilbert syndrome was diagnosed following a neuro-ophthalmic complaint. Adverse effects of drugs as well as various systemic, neurological, and local ocular pathologies can cause accommodative insufficiency and loss of accommodation. A 29-year-old man was admitted to an ophthalmology department with blurred vision and diagnosed as suffering from acute accommodation paralysis. He had a history of being given a pheniramine maleate injection for pruritus 20 days previously. Symptoms began immediately following the injection. After systemic evaluation and laboratory tests, he was diagnosed as having Gilbert syndrome. His complaints and symptoms recovered in approximately a further 10 days. Metabolism of pheniramine maleate can be impaired in Gilbert syndrome and anticholinergic effects can cause accommodation paralysis.

  5. Intramuscular injection of malignant hyperthermia trigger agents induces hypermetabolism in susceptible and nonsusceptible individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metterlein, Thomas; Schuster, Frank; Kranke, Peter; Roewer, Norbert; Anetseder, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A new minimally invasive metabolic test for the diagnosis of susceptibility for malignant hyperthermia measuring intramuscular p(CO(2)) and lactate following local application of caffeine and halothane in humans was recently proposed. The present study tested the hypothesis that a more simplified test protocol allows a differentiation between malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS) and malignant hyperthermia nonsusceptible (MHN) and control individuals. With approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent, microdialysis and p(CO(2)) probes with attached microtubing were placed into the lateral vastus muscle of six MHS, seven MHN and seven control individuals. Following equilibration, boluses of 500 microl caffeine 80 mmol l(-1) and halothane 10 vol% dissolved in soybean oil were injected locally. p(CO(2)) and lactate were measured spectrophotometrically. The maximal rate of p(CO(2)) increase was significantly higher in MHS than in MHN and control individuals following application of halothane and caffeine, respectively. Intramuscular caffeine injection leads to a significantly higher increase of local lactate levels in MHS than in MHN and control individuals, whereas halothane increased local lactate levels in all investigated groups. Haemodynamic and systemic metabolic parameters did not differ between the investigated groups. Local caffeine and halothane injection increased intramuscular metabolism in MHS individuals significantly more than in the two other groups. In contrast to previous investigations, direct injection of the concentrations of halothane described here increased lactate and p(CO(2)) even in MHN skeletal muscle.

  6. Examination of injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the different injection moulding parameters and storing methods on injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch (TPS. The glycerol and water plasticized starch was processed in a twin screw extruder and then with an injection moulding machine to produce TPS dumbbell specimens. Different injection moulding set-ups and storing conditions were used to analyse the effects on the properties of thermoplastic starch. Investigated parameters were injection moulding pressure, holding pressure, and for the storage: storage at 50% relative humidity, and under ambient conditions. After processing the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the manufactured TPS were determined as a function of the ageing time. While conditioning, the characteristics of the TPS changed from a soft material to a rigid material. Although this main behaviour remained, the different injection moulding parameters changed the characteristics of TPS. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the changes in the material on ageing.

  7. [Classification of local anesthesia methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricas, A Zh; Medvedev, D V; Olkhovskaya, E B

    The traditional classification methods of dental local anesthesia must be modified. In this paper we proved that the vascular mechanism is leading component of spongy injection. It is necessary to take into account the high effectiveness and relative safety of spongy anesthesia, as well as versatility, ease of implementation and the growing prevalence in the world. The essence of the proposed modification is to distinguish the methods in diffusive (including surface anesthesia, infiltration and conductive anesthesia) and vascular-diffusive (including intraosseous, intraligamentary, intraseptal and intrapulpal anesthesia). For the last four methods the common term «spongy (intraosseous) anesthesia» may be used.

  8. A comprehensive study on the effect of cavitation on injection velocity in diesel nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javier López, J.; Salvador, F.J.; Garza, Oscar A. de la; Arrègle, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cavitation has an indirect effect on the effective injection velocity. ► Cavitation in the injector hole reduces locally the fluid viscosity. ► A lower viscosity leads to a more turbulent velocity profile. ► The more turbulent velocity profile justifies the increase in effective velocity. - Abstract: Results when testing cavitating injection nozzles show a strong reduction in mass flow rate when cavitation appears (the flow is choked), while the momentum flux is reduced to a lesser extent, resulting in an increase in effective injection velocity. So as to better understand the origin of this increase in effective injection velocity, the basic equations for mass and momentum conservation were applied to an injection nozzle in simplified conditions. The study demonstrated that the increase in injection velocity provoked by cavitation is not a direct effect of the latter, but an indirect effect. In fact, the vapor appearance inside the injection hole produces a decrease in the viscosity of the fluid near the wall. This leads to lower momentum flux losses and to a change in the velocity profile, transforming it into a more “top hat” profile type. This change in the profile shape allows explaining why the momentum flux reduction is not so important compared to that of the mass flow rate, thus explaining why the effective injection velocity increases.

  9. Geothermal Injection Monitoring in Klamath Falls, OR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culver, G

    1990-01-01

    Klamath Falls has nearly a 150-year history of geothermal utilization. The geothermal aquifer has been the subject of many studies and is probably the most tested direct use reservoir in the world. This provides good background data for increased monitoring needed as new injection wells are drilled. Prior to July 1990, few injection wells existed. A city ordinance requires injection after July 1990. The city and major injectors have initiated a monitoring system.

  10. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran

    2008-01-01

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  11. Characterization of an intravenously injected bolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Raikar, U.R.; Atmaram, S.H.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A study of some parameters affecting the time activity histogram of an intravenous bolus injection of radioactivity was performed. A scoring system for bolus compactness was attempted. A score of 2 and above was considered to be a satisfactory bolus. Volumes less than 1 ml tended to result in a satisfactory bolus. The nature of radiopharmaceutical injected, different injecters and age of the patient did not affect the score. Thyrotoxic patients gave the best bolus score. (orig.) [de

  12. Cellulitis Developing After Intramuscular Metamizole Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozturk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If the suitable technique is not used in intramuscular injection applications and the injection area is not detected correctly, complications may be observed. Our patient was given intramuscular Metamizole in his house and then he had cellulitis with necrosis area. Following an antibiotic treatment, tissue defect was primarily covered with gluteal muscle skin flap. Cellulitis development after metamizole injection is not common still potential side effects should be considered before prescription.

  13. Evaluation of performance, safety, subject acceptance, and compliance of a disposable autoinjector for subcutaneous injections in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Berteau

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau1, Florence Schwarzenbach1, Yves Donazzolo2, Mathilde Latreille2, Julie Berube3, Herve Abry1, Joël Cotten1, Celine Feger1, Philippe E Laurent11BD Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le-Pont-de-Claix, 2Eurofins Optimed Clinical Research, Gières, France; 3Statistics, BD Corporate, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USAObjective: A disposable autoinjector was developed for subcutaneous (SC self-injection by patients with chronic diseases. To verify its performance and evaluate its acceptance, a clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, comparing SC injections performed by subjects using the autoinjector with SC injections performed by nurses using a syringe.Methods: This was a randomized, single-center, crossover study comparing SC self-injection using an autoinjector with SC nurse-administered injection using a syringe. Two volumes (0.2 mL and 1 mL were injected into healthy volunteers. Study objectives included assessment of the accuracy and consistency of the volume injected by the injection systems, and skin reaction and pain associated with the injection. The fluid depot in the SC tissue layer was evaluated by ultrasound. Subject acceptance was evaluated using questionnaires on attitudes and emotions towards the injection technique, and challenged by seeking the subjects’ preferred system for a final study injection or future treatment.Results: A total of 960 injections (480 with autoinjector, 480 with syringe were performed in 40 subjects. There were no significant differences in mean fluid leakage and injected volumes between the systems. Pain associated with the injection was significantly lower with the autoinjector than with the syringe. Local skin reaction at the injection site was overall satisfactory. Injections were appropriately performed by all subjects. At study end, all 40 subjects preferred the autoinjector for a final study injection and for future treatment.Conclusion: This study indicated that the autoinjector used by

  14. Non-injection Drug Use and Injection Initiation Assistance among People Who Inject Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamida, Amen; Rafful, Claudia; Jain, Sonia; Sun, Shelly; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Werb, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Although most people who inject drugs (PWID) report receiving assistance during injection initiation events, little research has focused on risk factors among PWID for providing injection initiation assistance. We therefore sought to determine the influence of non-injection drug use among PWID on their risk to initiate others. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models on longitudinal data among a prospective cohort of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico (Proyecto El Cuete IV), while controlling for potential confounders. At baseline, 534 participants provided data on injection initiation assistance. Overall, 14% reported ever initiating others, with 4% reporting this behavior recently (i.e., in the past 6 months). In a multivariable GEE model, recent non-injection drug use was independently associated with providing injection initiation assistance (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-4.20). Further, in subanalyses examining specific drug types, recent non-injection use of cocaine (AOR = 9.31, 95% CI = 3.98-21.78), heroin (AOR = 4.00, 95% CI = 1.88-8.54), and methamphetamine (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.16-3.55) were all significantly associated with reporting providing injection initiation assistance. Our findings may have important implications for the development of interventional approaches to reduce injection initiation and related harms. Further research is needed to validate findings and inform future approaches to preventing entry into drug injecting.

  15. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  16. Injection of Fluids into Supercritical Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oschwald, M

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes and compares the results of systematic research programs at two independent laboratories regarding the injection of cryogenic liquids at subcritical and supercritical pressures...

  17. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection: 3 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection consisting of ischemic necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and muscular tissue that arises locoregionally. The characteristic pattern is pain around the injection site, developing into erythema, a livedoid dermatitis patch, and necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle tissue. Three patients were injected with drugs (diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, meperidine for pain relief. Three patients complained of pain, and a skin lesion was observed, after which necrosis developed on their buttocks. Each patient underwent debridement and coverage. The wound healed uneventfully. We report three cases of Nicolau syndrome in the buttocks following diclofenac intramuscular injection.

  18. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Noaparast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency department with right lower limb pain, edema, and livedoid discoloration that occurred immediately after intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin. The patient was diagnosed with Nicolau syndrome, a rare complication of intramuscular injection presumed to be related to the inadvertent intravascular injection. It was first reported following intramuscular injection of bismuth salt, but it can occur as a complication of various other drugs. Fasciotomy was carried out due to the resultant compartment syndrome and medical therapy with heparin, corticosteroid, and pentoxifyllin was initiated.

  19. The injection and extraction of SSRF booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan; Li Haohu; Liu Guimin; Li Deming

    2008-01-01

    The layout of injection and extraction system were introduced in this paper. The horizontal and vertical injection acceptance are about 23 πmm·mrad and 37 πmm·mrad, respectively, while emittance of the injected beam is 9 πmm·mrad (3σ). This ensures the high injection efficiency. Three slow kickers can form a good bump. The inside position of the entrance of septum is set to 15 mm, where the bumped beam and the extraction beam are 10 mm and 22 mm, respectively, far from the booster central orbit. (authors)

  20. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  1. Hydrogen injection device in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the increasing ratio of main steam system dose rate due to N-16 activity due to excess hydrogen injection in the hydrogen injection operation of BWR type reactors. Constitution: There are provided a hydrogen injection mechanism for injecting hydrogen into primary coolants of a BWR type reactor, and a chemical injection device for injecting chemicals such as methanol, which makes nitrogen radioisotopes resulted in the reactor water upon hydrogen injection non-volatile, into the pressure vessel separately from hydrogen. Injected hydrogen and the chemicals are not reacted in the feedwater system, but the reaction proceeds due to the presence of radioactive rays after the injection into the pressure vessel. Then, hydrogen causes re-combination in the downcomer portion to reduce the dissolved oxygen concentration. Meanwhile, about 70 % of the chemicals is supplied by means of a jet pump directly to the reactor core, thereby converting the chemical form of N-16 in the reactor core more oxidative (non-volatile). (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  3. Injection laryngoplasty as miniinvasive office-based surgery in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis - voice quality outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina M; Sobol, Maria; Jędra, Katarzyna; Rzepakowska, Anna; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-09-01

    Injection laryngoplasty (glottis augmentation) is the preferred method in surgical management of unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). Traditionally, these procedures are performed in the operating room. Nowadays, however, these procedures have moved into the office. To evaluate the voice quality after transoral injection laryngoplasty under local anaesthesia in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Fourteen subjects (5 women and 9 men) with unilateral vocal fold paresis (9 with right vocal fold paresis and 5 with left vocal fold paresis) were included in the study. The mean age of the group was 57.8 ±19.0 years (32-83 years). All of the injection laryngoplasties were performed transorally, under local anaesthesia. The injection material was calcium hydroxylapatite. Before and 1, 3 and 6 months after the procedure the following variables were evaluated: voice perception, videostroboscopy, acoustic analysis, aerodynamic evaluation, and the subjective rating of the voice quality by the patient. After injection laryngoplasty, complete glottal closure was achieved or there was a significant improvement in the glottal closure of each subject. We noted great improvement in the post-injection objective and subjective voice outcomes and patients reported improvement in the voice-related quality of life. The transoral approach for injection laryngoplasty under local anaesthesia is an effective and safe way to treat incomplete glottal closure in patients with UVFP. The transoral approach is an efficient alternative to other surgical techniques used for vocal fold injection.

  4. CALIOP-based Biomass Burning Smoke Plume Injection Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Pouliot, G.; Baker, K. R.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Szykman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and aerosols are cycled between terrestrial and atmosphere environments during fire events, and these emissions have strong feedbacks to near-field weather, air quality, and longer-term climate systems. Fire severity and burned area are under the control of weather and climate, and fire emissions have the potential to alter numerous land and atmospheric processes that, in turn, feedback to and interact with climate systems (e.g., changes in patterns of precipitation, black/brown carbon deposition on ice/snow, alteration in landscape and atmospheric/cloud albedo). If plume injection height is incorrectly estimated, then the transport and deposition of those emissions will also be incorrect. The heights to which smoke is injected governs short- or long-range transport, which influences surface pollution, cloud interaction (altered albedo), and modifies patterns of precipitation (cloud condensation nuclei). We are working with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) science team and other stakeholder agencies, primarily the Environmental Protection Agency and regional partners, to generate a biomass burning (BB) plume injection height database using multiple platforms, sensors and models (CALIOP, MODIS, NOAA HMS, Langley Trajectory Model). These data have the capacity to provide enhanced smoke plume injection height parameterization in regional, national and international scientific and air quality models. Statistics that link fire behavior and weather to plume rise are crucial for verifying and enhancing plume rise parameterization in local-, regional- and global-scale models used for air quality, chemical transport and climate. Specifically, we will present: (1) a methodology that links BB injection height and CALIOP air parcels to specific fires; (2) the daily evolution of smoke plumes for specific fires; (3) plumes transport and deposited on the Greenland Ice Sheet; and (4) compare CALIOP-derived smoke plume injection

  5. Prevalence of injections and knowledge of safe injections among rural residents in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y W; Yan, J; Zhang, G P; Gao, Z L; Jian, H X

    2007-08-01

    Abuse of the injection services, namely unnecessary injections and unsafe injections, exists extensively in developing countries. Unsafe injection practices contribute to the transmission of blood-borne pathogens. The aims of this study were to survey the prevalence of injections and knowledge of injection safety among the rural residents in Jingzhou district, Hubei, China and to provide scientific data for developing a health educational programme. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 villages, which were selected from the Jingzhou district by the random sampling method. 50 rural residents were interviewed per village using a questionnaire. Among the 595 residents studied, 192 had received at least one injection in the past three months, with an injection prevalence of 32.3 percent and an average of 0.93 injections. 90.3 percent of the rural residents knew that unsafe injections could transmit the following blood-borne pathogens: human immunodeficiency virus (74.4 percent), hepatitis B virus (55.8 percent) and hepatitis C virus (22.9 percent). Logistic regression analysis showed that the residents' age, educational level and residential area were important factors in influencing their knowledge about injection safety. The results indicated that the injection prevalence was high among rural residents in the study area, and their knowledge regarding injection safety should be further improved.

  6. "Injection first": a unique group of injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lozada, Remedios M; Gallardo, Manuel; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Using baseline data from a study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico (N = 1,052), we identified social and behavioral factors associated with injecting at the same age or earlier than other administration routes of illicit drug use (eg, "injection first") and examined whether this IDU subgroup had riskier drug using and sexual behaviors than other IDUs. Twelve-percent "injected first." Characteristics independently associated with a higher odds of "injection first" included being younger at first injection, injecting heroin as their first drug, being alone at the first injection episode, and having a sexual debut at the same age or earlier as when they initiated drug use; family members' illicit drug use was associated with lower odds of injecting first. When adjusting for age at first injection and number of years injecting, "injection first" IDUs had lower odds of ever overdosing, and ever trading sex. On the other hand, they were less likely to have ever been enrolled in drug treatment, and more commonly obtained their syringes from potentially unsafe sources. In conclusion, a sizable proportion of IDUs in Tijuana injected as their first drug using experience, although evidence that this was a riskier subgroup of IDUs was inconclusive.  Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound guided injection of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for liver and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungureanu, Bogdan Silviu; Pirici, Daniel; Margaritescu, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    )-guidance, both systemically and locally in the liver and pancreas in order to study new potential therapies for liver and pancreatic tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six domestic pigs were used for our study design, and divided into three groups: two were injected in the portal vein, and other four were subjected...... to local exposure of IONs in the liver and pancreas, two each. The pigs were on a 7 days follow-up and necropsy was performed with their organs harvested. A 3T MRI scan was also performed. RESULTS: All animals underwent an endoscopic ultrasound fine needle injection (EUS-FNI) procedure without any...

  8. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low back pain: an updated Cochrane review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, J Bart; de Bie, Rob A; de Vet, Henrica C W; Hildebrandt, Jan; Nelemans, Patty

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To determine if injection therapy is more effective than placebo or other treatments for patients with subacute or chronic low back pain. The effectiveness of injection therapy for low back pain is still debatable. Heterogeneity of target tissue, pharmacological agent, and dosage, generally found in RCTs, point to the need for clinically valid comparisons in a literature synthesis. We updated the search of the earlier systematic review and searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases up to March 2007 for relevant trials reported in English, French, German, Dutch, and Nordic languages. We also screened references from trials identified. RCTs on the effects of injection therapy involving epidural, facet, or local sites for subacute or chronic low back pain were included. Studies that compared the effects of intradiscal injections, prolotherapy, or ozone therapy with other treatments were excluded unless injection therapy with another pharmaceutical agent (no placebo treatment) was part of one of the treatment arms. Studies about injections in sacroiliac joints and studies evaluating the effects of epidural steroids for radicular pain were also excluded. Eighteen trials (1179 participants) were included in this review. The injection sites varied from epidural sites and facet joints (i.e. intra-articular injections, peri-articular injections and nerve blocks) to local sites (i.e. tender-and trigger points). The drugs that were studied consisted of corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and a variety of other drugs. The methodologic quality of the trials was limited with 10 of 18 trials rated as having a high methodologic quality. Statistical pooling was not possible because of clinical heterogeneity in the trials. Overall, the results indicated that there is no strong evidence for or against the use of any type of injection therapy. There is insufficient evidence to

  9. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures : [La technique d'injection d'air comprimé pour normaliser les pressions d'injection d'un blocage nerveux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes ( 18G, 20G, 21 G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed. Présentement, aucune technique normalisée ne permet de vérifier les pressions d'injection pendant les blocages nerveux périphériques. Nous voulions vérifier si une technique d'injection d'air comprimé, utilisant un modèle in vitro fondé sur la loi de Boyle et du matériel propre à l'anesthésie régionale, pouvait maintenir avec régularité les

  10. Quantum Locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    , in response to Griffiths' challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has described is flawed.

  11. Warmed local anesthetic reduces pain of infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; McDougall, E P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of warming local anesthetic on the amount of pain experienced during local infiltration was tested by comparing equal volumes of 40 degrees C- and 21 degrees C-infiltrates in each of 26 subjects. Six subjects were patients undergoing excision of two benign asymptomatic nevi in separate locations, and 20 subjects were healthy adult volunteers who were injected in bilateral antebrachial sites. The warmed and room temperature solutions were randomized to each side, so that each subject received both temperature injections in random order. All subjects and the injector were blinded. The rate of injection was time-controlled (0.05 ml/sec). Following both injections, subjects were asked to rate the pain experienced at each site. In addition, the subject was asked if there was no difference, a slight difference, or a substantial difference between the two sites. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to analyze the mean difference in pain scores for all subjects. Paired analysis of the pain scores for each subject eliminated intersubject variance of pain tolerance. The mean difference in pain score between the room temperature and warmed solutions was +1.5 (p < 0.0001). Of the 21 subjects (81%) who found the warmed solution less painful, 11 (52%) found the difference to be significant, while 10 (48%) found the difference to be slight. Two subjects (8%) found no difference between the two, while 3 subjects (11%) found the colder solution slightly less painful. We conclude that warming local anesthetic to 40 degrees C prior to subcutaneous injection is a simple, inexpensive means of reducing the pain of local infiltration.

  12. Local Foods, Local Places Summary Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reports summarize community projects done with Local Foods, Local Places assistance, including farmers markets, cooperatives, community gardens, and other food-related enterprises that can boost local economies and drive revitalization.

  13. Quantum Locality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question. It is show here in detail why the precise statement of this theorem justifies the specified application of CQT. It is also shown, in response to his challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has proposed is not valid.

  14. Injective Labeled Oriented Trees are Aspherical

    OpenAIRE

    Harlander, Jens; Rosebrock, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    A labeled oriented tree is called injective if each generator occurs at most once as an edge label. We show that injective labeled oriented trees are aspherical. The proof relies on a new relative asphericity test based on a lemma of Stallings.

  15. Pellet injection into ASDEX upgrade plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.T.; Zohm, H.; Buechl, K.; Fuchs, J.C.; Gehre, O.; Gruber, O.; Lang, R.S.; Mertens, V.; Neuhauser, J.; Salzmann, H.

    1996-04-01

    This work comprises results obtained using the new centrifuge injection system for the two first years of pellet injection experiments at Asdex Upgrade until the end of the 1995 experimental campaign. The main aim of the pellet injection investigation is to develop scenarios allowing for a more flexible plasma density control means of injection of cryogenic solid hydrogen pellets. Efforts have been made to develop scenarios allowing more flexible plasma density control by injecting cryogenic solid hydrogen pellets. While the injection of pellets during ohmic discharges was found to be most efficient and also improves the plasma performance, increasing the auxiliary heating power causes a detoriation of the pellet fuelling efficiency. A further strong reduction of the pellet fuelling efficiency by an additional process was observed for the more reactor-relevant conditions of shallow particle deposition during H-mode phases. With injection during type I ELMy H-mode phases, each pellet was found to trigger the release of an ELM and therefore cause particle losses mainly from the edge region. In the type I ELMy H-mode, only sufficient pellet penetration allowed noticeable, persistent particle deposition in the plasma by the pellets. Applying adequate pellet injection conditions and favourable scenarios using combined pellet/gas puff refuelling, significant density ramp-up to densities exceeding the empirical Greenwald limit by up to a factor of two was achieved even for strongly heated H-mode plasmas. (orig.)

  16. Children conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau, C; Juul, A; Main, K M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth.......The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth....

  17. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  18. Intentional intravenous mercury injection | Yudelowitz | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravenous mercury injection is rarely seen, with few documented cases. Treatment strategies are not clearly defined for such cases, although a few options do show benefit. This case report describes a 29-year-old man suffering from bipolar disorder, who presented following self-inflicted intravenous injection of mercury.

  19. Charge Injection and Transport in Organic Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Bøggild, Peter; Rubahn, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    the injection barrier height equal to the difference between the metal electrode work function and the HOMO energy level of the organic semiconductor. Semiquantitative modeling suggests that the weak temperature dependence is due to injection into a distribution of states rather than into a single energy level...

  20. Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

    We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters...