WorldWideScience

Sample records for fourth positive band

  1. Cross sections for production of the CO(A 1 Pi)-(X 1 Sigma) fourth positive band system and O(3 S) by photodissociation of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentieu, E. P.; Mentall, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The CO(A 1 Pi) cross sections reported here, along with previously determined electron impact results, establish the basis for calculating CO fourth positive system volume emission rates in the Martian dayglow. Calculated volume emission rates in turn determine relative distribution of photon vs. electron impact as mechanisms for producing CO(A 1 Pi) in the Mars atmosphere. The smallness of the O(1304) cross section confirms previous indirect evidence that photodissociative excitation of CO2 is not an important source of O(3 S) in the upper atmosphere of Mars.

  2. POSITIVE SOLUTIONS TO FOURTH-ORDER NEUMANN BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a class of fourth-order Neumann boundary value problem (NBVP for short). By virtue of fixed point index and the spectral theory of linear operators, the existence of positive solutions is obtained under the assumption that the nonlinearity satisfies sublinear or superlinear conditions, which are relevant to the first eigenvalue of the corresponding linear operator.

  3. MULTIPLE POSITIVE SOLUTIONS TO FOURTH-ORDER SINGULAR BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,using the Krasnaselskii's fixed point theory in cones and localization method,under more general conditions,the existence of n positive solutions to a class of fourth-order singular boundary value problems is considered.

  4. Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear Fourth-order Integral Boundary Value Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benaicha Slimane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the existence of positive solutions for a nonlinear fourth-order two-point boundary value problem with integral condition is investigated. By using Krasnoselskii’s fixed point theorem on cones, sufficient conditions for the existence of at least one positive solutions are obtained.

  5. Positive solutions with changing sign energy to a nonhomogeneous elliptic problem of fourth order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Talbi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence for two positive solutions toa nonhomogeneous elliptic equation of fourth order with a parameter lambda such tha 0 < lambda < lambda^. The first solution has a negative energy while the energy of the second one is positive for 0 < lambda < lambda_0 and negative for lambda_0 < lambda < lambda^. The values lambda_0 and lambda^ are given under variational form and we show that every corresponding critical point is solution of the nonlinear elliptic problem (with a suitable multiplicative term.

  6. Dual-Mode Dual-Band Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Fourth Iteration T-Square Fractal and Shorting Pin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new class of dual mode microstrip fractal resonator is proposed and developed for miniaturization of the dual band bandpass filter. The perimeter of the proposed resonator is increased by employing fourth iteration T-square fractal shape. Consequently the lower resonant frequency of the filter is decreased without increasing the usable space. The self similarity of the usable structure enables it to produce the two degenerate modes which are coupled using the proper perturbation technique. The shorting pin is placed at the null in the surface current distribution at the center of the resonator. This shorting pin is coactively coupled to the resonant circuit of the resonator, effectively coupled to the lower degenerate mode and reduces the lower edge band resonant frequency. By adjusting the resonator dimensions and the size of the shorting pin, the resonant frequency and the out-of-band rejection around the transmission bands can be controlled to meet the design requirements. The simulated response of the designed filter has two transmission bands, the first band is from 2.34-3.65 GHz with resonant frequencies at 2.47GHz and 3.55GHz, the second band is from 4.37-5.324GHz with resonant frequencies at 4.5GHz and 5.13GHz. In the pass bands, the group delay is less than 0.65 ns. The proposed filter can be applied to WLAN (2.4 GHz and 5.2 GHz and WiMAX (3.5 GHz and Bluetooth and ZigBee (4.9 GHz.

  7. EXISTENCE AND MULTIPLICITY OF POSITIVE SOLUTIONS FOR A FOURTH-ORDER P-LAPLACE EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白占兵

    2001-01-01

    The solvability of one dimensional fourth-order p-Laplace equations of the type(g(u″))″+λa(t)f(u)=0, 0<t<1,u(0)=u(1)=u″(0)=u″(1)=0,where, g(v):= |v|p-2 v, p > 1 is investigated. With cone compression/extension theorem, some existence and multiplicity results of positive solution have been required according to different growth condition of nonlinear form fat zero and at infinity.

  8. Excitation of the CO fourth positive system by the dissociative recombination of CO2/+/ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutcheck, R. A.; Zipf, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    The fourth positive system of CO has been excited in a static afterglow experiment by the dissociative recombination of CO2(+) ions. From combined absolute optical and microwave measurements the specific recombination coefficient for exciting the CO system was found to be (2 plus 1 or minus 0.5) x 10 to the minus 8th cu cm/sec. This value represents approximately 5% of the total recombination coefficient (4.0 plus or minus 0.5) x 10 to the minus 7th cu cm/sec measured in this experiment, implying that CO2(+) dissociative recombination will contribute significantly to the excitation of the CO fourth positive system in the Martian airglow. Corroborative electron heating experiments showed that the magnitude of the specific recombination coefficient decreased as the electron temperature was increased. Evidence was also found for the presence of vibrationally excited ions in the CO2(+) plasma, a result which indicates that analogous laboratory studies on the dissociative recombination of O2(+), N2(+), and NO(+) ions may have also involved vibrationally hot plasmas.

  9. Thermal Loss Becomes an Issue for Tunable Narrow-band Antennas in Fourth Generation Handsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Morris, Art; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-01-01

    Antenna tuning is a very promising technique to cope with the expansion of the mobile communication frequency spectrum. Tunable antennas can address a wide range of operating frequencies, while being highly integrated. In particular, high-Q antennas (also named narrow-band antennas) are very...... is not sufficient to explain the total loss of tunable antennas. It is found that thermal loss –because of the metal conductivity of the antenna itself – plays a major role in the loss mechanism of narrow-band tunable antennas. The investigated high-Q planar inverted F antenna designs exhibit a significant thermal...... loss; at 1400 MHz nearly 2 dB are lost solely because of the copper conductivity. Thermal loss poses a limitation to achievable performance of tunable antennas and to antenna miniaturisation....

  10. POSITIONAL ERROR CURVES BAND OF A PLANAR LINE SEGMENT WITHIN GISs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the positional error curve of point features was extended to an error curves band of line segment features. Firstly, the constitution and shape of the error curves band were analyzed. On this basis, the general boundary curve formula of that band was derived. Secondly, the visualizing error curves bands were realized through three exam ples. Finally, area index has been examined by comparing numerical results from error curves band and error ellipes band.

  11. Positive Solutions for Fourth-order Delay Differential Equation of Boundary Value Problem with p-Laplacian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-chuan; ZHOU Zong-fu

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the following fourth-order delay differential equation of boundary value problem with p-Laplacian(Φp(u000))0(t)+a(t)f(t, u(t−τ), u0(t))=0, 0fourth-order delay differential equation of boundary value problem with p-Laplacian has at least one positive solution. Some corresponding examples are presented to illustrate the application of our main results.

  12. The Far-Ultraviolet "Continuum" in Protoplanetary Disk Systems II: CO Fourth Positive Emission and Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Burgh, Eric B; Herczeg, Gregory J; Harper, Graham M; Brown, Alexander; Green, James C; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Yang, Hao; Abgrall, Hervé; Ardila, David R; Bergin, Edwin; Bethell, Thomas; Brown, Joanna M; Calvet, Nuria; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Hussain, Gaitee; Ingleby, Laura; Johns-Krull, Christopher M; Roueff, Evelyne; Valenti, Jeff A; Walter, Frederick M

    2011-01-01

    We exploit the high sensitivity and moderate spectral resolution of the $HST$-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to detect far-ultraviolet spectral features of carbon monoxide (CO) present in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks for the first time. We present spectra of the classical T Tauri stars HN Tau, RECX-11, and V4046 Sgr, representative of a range of CO radiative processes. HN Tau shows CO bands in absorption against the accretion continuum. We measure a CO column density and rotational excitation temperature of N(CO) = 2 +/- 1 $\\times$ 10$^{17}$ cm$^{-2}$ and T_rot(CO) 500 +/- 200 K for the absorbing gas. We also detect CO A-X band emission in RECX-11 and V4046 Sgr, excited by ultraviolet line photons, predominantly HI LyA. All three objects show emission from CO bands at $\\lambda$ $>$ 1560 \\AA, which may be excited by a combination of UV photons and collisions with non-thermal electrons. In previous observations these emission processes were not accounted for due to blending with emission from the accr...

  13. Analysis of variations in band positions for normalization in across-gel denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yuko; Yamamura, Kohji; Morimoto, Sho; Bao, Zhihua; Kurose, Daisuke; Sato, Ikuo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Tsushima, Seiya

    2015-05-01

    Variation in band position between gels is a well-known problem in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). However, few reports have evaluated the degree of variation in detail. In this study, we investigated the variation in band positions of DNA samples extracted from soil, normalized using reference positions within marker lanes for DGGE in three organismal (bacterial, fungal, and nematode) conditions. For sample lanes, marker DNA (as a control) and sample DNA were used. The test for normality of distribution showed that the position data of a large percentage of bands were normally distributed but not for certain bands. For the normally-distributed data, their variations [standard deviation of marker bands (SDM) and standard deviation of sample bands (SDS), respectively] were assessed. For all organismal conditions, the degree of within-gel variation were similar between SDMs and SDSs, while between-gel variations in SDSs were larger than those in SDMs. Due to the large effect of between-gel variations, the total variations in SDSs were more varied between sample bands, and the mean variations of all sample bands were higher than those in the markers. We found that the total variation in the fungal and nematode SDSs decreased when the intervals between marker bands were narrowed, suggesting that band interval is important for reducing total variation in normalized band positions. For the non-normally distributed data, the distribution was examined in detail. This study provided detailed information on the variation of band positions, which could help to optimize markers for reducing band position variation, and could aid in the accurate identification of bands in across-gel DGGE analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiple positive solutions for fourth-order three-point p-Laplacian boundary-value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanying Feng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the three-point boundary-value problem for a fourth-order one-dimensional $p$-Laplacian differential equation $$ ig(phi_p(u''(tig''+ a(tfig(u(tig=0, quad tin (0,1, $$ subject to the nonlinear boundary conditions: $$displaylines{ u(0=xi u(1,quad u'(1=eta u'(0,cr (phi _{p}(u''(0' =alpha _{1}(phi _{p}(u''(delta', quad u''(1=sqrt[p-1]{eta _{1}}u''(delta, }$$ where $phi_{p}(s=|s|^{p-2}s$, $p>1$. Using the five functional fixed point theorem due to Avery, we obtain sufficient conditions for the existence of at least three positive solutions.

  15. Regularized Positive-Definite Fourth Order Tensor Field Estimation from DW-MRI★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpoutis, Angelos; Vemuri, Baba C.; Howland, Dena; Forder, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Image (DW-MRI) processing, a 2nd order tensor has been commonly used to approximate the diffusivity function at each lattice point of the DW-MRI data. From this tensor approximation, one can compute useful scalar quantities (e.g. anisotropy, mean diffusivity) which have been clinically used for monitoring encephalopathy, sclerosis, ischemia and other brain disorders. It is now well known that this 2nd-order tensor approximation fails to capture complex local tissue structures, e.g. crossing fibers, and as a result, the scalar quantities derived from these tensors are grossly inaccurate at such locations. In this paper we employ a 4th order symmetric positive-definite (SPD) tensor approximation to represent the diffusivity function and present a novel technique to estimate these tensors from the DW-MRI data guaranteeing the SPD property. Several articles have been reported in literature on higher order tensor approximations of the diffusivity function but none of them guarantee the positivity of the estimates, which is a fundamental constraint since negative values of the diffusivity are not meaningful. In this paper we represent the 4th-order tensors as ternary quartics and then apply Hilbert’s theorem on ternary quartics along with the Iwasawa parametrization to guarantee an SPD 4th-order tensor approximation from the DW-MRI data. The performance of this model is depicted on synthetic data as well as real DW-MRIs from a set of excised control and injured rat spinal cords, showing accurate estimation of scalar quantities such as generalized anisotropy and trace as well as fiber orientations. PMID:19063978

  16. Regularized positive-definite fourth order tensor field estimation from DW-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpoutis, Angelos; Hwang, Min Sig; Howland, Dena; Forder, John R; Vemuri, Baba C

    2009-03-01

    In Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Image (DW-MRI) processing, a 2nd order tensor has been commonly used to approximate the diffusivity function at each lattice point of the DW-MRI data. From this tensor approximation, one can compute useful scalar quantities (e.g. anisotropy, mean diffusivity) which have been clinically used for monitoring encephalopathy, sclerosis, ischemia and other brain disorders. It is now well known that this 2nd-order tensor approximation fails to capture complex local tissue structures, e.g. crossing fibers, and as a result, the scalar quantities derived from these tensors are grossly inaccurate at such locations. In this paper we employ a 4th order symmetric positive-definite (SPD) tensor approximation to represent the diffusivity function and present a novel technique to estimate these tensors from the DW-MRI data guaranteeing the SPD property. Several articles have been reported in literature on higher order tensor approximations of the diffusivity function but none of them guarantee the positivity of the estimates, which is a fundamental constraint since negative values of the diffusivity are not meaningful. In this paper we represent the 4th-order tensors as ternary quartics and then apply Hilbert's theorem on ternary quartics along with the Iwasawa parametrization to guarantee an SPD 4th-order tensor approximation from the DW-MRI data. The performance of this model is depicted on synthetic data as well as real DW-MRIs from a set of excised control and injured rat spinal cords, showing accurate estimation of scalar quantities such as generalized anisotropy and trace as well as fiber orientations.

  17. Updated Status and Performance at the Fourth HST COS FUV Lifetime Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joanna M.; De Rosa, Gisella; Fix, Mees B.; Fox, Andrew; Indriolo, Nick; James, Bethan; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Penton, Steven V.; Plesha, Rachel; Proffitt, Charles R.; Rafelski, Marc; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sahnow, David J.; Snyder, Elaine M.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; White, James

    2017-06-01

    To mitigate the adverse effects of gain sag on the spectral quality and accuracy of Hubble Space Telescope’s Cosmic Origins Spectrograph FUV observations, COS FUV spectra will be moved from Lifetime Position 3 (LP3) to a new pristine location on the detectors at LP4 in July 2017. To achieve maximal spectral resolution while preserving detector area, the spectra will be shifted in the cross-dispersion (XD) direction by -2.5" (about -31 pixels) from LP3 or -5” (about 62 pixels) from the original LP1. At LP4, the wavelength calibration lamp spectrum can overlap with the previously gain-sagged LP2 PSA spectrum location. If lamp lines fall in the gain sag holes from LP2, it can cause line ratios to change and the wavelength calibration to fail. As a result, we have updated the Wavecal Parameters Reference Table and CalCOS to address this issue. Additionally, it was necessary to extend the current geometric correction in order to encompass the entire LP4 location. Here we present 2-D template profiles and 1-D spectral trace centroids derived at LP4 as well as LP4-related updates to the wavelength calibration, and geometric correction.

  18. 四阶奇异边值问题的正解%Positive Solutions of Fourth Order Singular Boundary Value Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦; 徐本龙

    2004-01-01

    Using fixedpoint index theory, we study the existence of positive solutions of the fourth order differential equation d4u/dt4 - g(t)F(t, u(t)) = 0 with some general boundary conditions, where g(t) is allowed to be singular at t = 0 and/or 1. Our results significantly extend and improve many known results even for non-singular cases. An example is given to show how to apply our theorems.

  19. 一类四阶边值问题的正解%POSITIVE SOLUTIONS OF A FOURTH ORDER BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任立顺

    2003-01-01

    The existence of positive solutions of the nonlinear fourth order problem u(4)(x) = λa(x)f(u(x)),u(0) = u'(0) = u'(1) = u"'(1) = 0 is studied, where a:[0,1]→R may change sign, f(0)>0,λ>0 is sufficiently smallOurapproach is based on the Leray-Schauder fixed point theorem.

  20. The effect of shoulder supporting banding and shoulder pulling banding using elastic bands on shoulder pain and scapular position of a scapular dyskinesis patient with shoulder depression and scapular downward rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed methods of shoulder supporting banding and shoulder pulling banding using elastic bands for scapular dyskinesis patients with shoulder depression and scapular downward rotation and investigated the effect on shoulder pain and scapular position. [Subject] The subject was a scapular dyskinesis patient with shoulder depression and scapular downward rotation and shoulder pain. [Methods] This study compared the scapular position and upper trapezius pressure pain betw...

  1. A Robust Indoor Autonomous Positioning System Using Particle Filter Based on ISM Band Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Kawamoto, Mitsuru; Sashima, Akio; Suzuki, Keiji; Kurumatani, Koichi

    In the field of the ubiquitous computing, positioning systems which can provide users' location information have paid attention as an important technical element which can be applied to various services, for example, indoor navigation services, evacuation services, market research services, guidance services, and so on. A lot of researchers have proposed various outdoor and indoor positioning systems. In this paper, we deal with indoor positioning systems. Many conventional indoor positioning systems use expensive infrastructures, because the propagated times of radio waves are used to measure users' positions with high accuracy. In this paper, we propose an indoor autonomous positioning system using radio signal strengths (RSSs) based on ISM band communications. In order to estimate users' positions, the proposed system utilizes a particle filter that is one of the Monte Carlo methods. Because the RSS information is used in the proposed system, the equipments configuring the system are not expensive compared with the conventional indoor positioning systems and it can be installed easily. Moreover, because the particle filter is used to estimate user's position, even if the RSS fluctuates due to, for example, multi-paths, the system can carry out position estimation robustly. We install the proposed system in one floor of a building and carry out some experiments in order to verify the validity of the proposed system. As a result, we confirmed that the average of the estimation errors of the proposed system was about 1.8 m, where the result is enough accuracy for achieving the services mentioned above.

  2. Fourth quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizal, Mir

    2013-12-18

    In this Letter we will analyze the creation of the multiverse. We will first calculate the wave function for the multiverse using third quantization. Then we will fourth-quantize this theory. We will show that there is no single vacuum state for this theory. Thus, we can end up with a multiverse, even after starting from a vacuum state. This will be used as a possible explanation for the creation of the multiverse. We also analyze the effect of interactions in this fourth-quantized theory.

  3. The relationship between patella position and length of the iliotibial band as assessed using Ober's test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Lee; Rivett, Natalie; Munro, Samantha

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between length of the iliotibial band (ITB) and the medio-lateral position patella. Eighty subjects (37 male, 43 female) were examined for patella position and ITB length. All subjects were physically active, asymptomatic and aged between 18 and 34 years (mean 21.5 years). ITB length was assessed using the Ober's test and modified Ober's test, with hip adduction angle being measured using a fluid goniometer. Patella position was assessed using the method first described by McConnell [The management of chondromalacia patellae: a long term solution. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 1986;32:215-22]. Patella position had a weak correlation (r=0.28) with modified Ober's (extended knee) test and a poor correlation with Ober's (knee flexed) test (r=0.1). In the group of 47 subjects with laterally displaced patellae, patella position had a moderate statistically significant correlation to ITB length measured by modified Ober's test (r=0.34, P=0.012). Only a poor relationship existed between Ober's test and patella position in the laterally displaced group. The results of this study only partially support the hypothesis that there is a relationship between ITB length and lateral patella displacement. The relationship was not strong enough to confirm ITB length as the only cause of lateral patella displacement.

  4. Microscopic study of positive-parity yrast bands of 224−234Th isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Daya Ram; Rani Devi; S K Khosa

    2013-06-01

    The positive-parity bands in 224−234Th are studied using the projected shell model (PSM) approach. The energy levels, deformation systematics, (2) transition probabilities and nuclear -factors are calculated and compared with the experimental data. The calculation reproduces the observed positive-parity yrast bands and (2) transition probabilities. Measurement of (2) transition probabilities for higher spins and -factors would be a stringent test for our predictions. The results of theoretical calculations indicate that the deformation systematics in 224−234Th isotopes depend on the occupation of low components of high j orbits in the valence space and the deformation producing tendency of the neutron–proton interaction operating between spin orbit partner (SOP) orbits, the $[(2g_{9/2}_{}) - (2g_{7/2})_{}]$ and $[(1i_{13/2})_{} - (1i_{11/2})_{}]$ SOP orbits in the present context. In addition, the deformation systematics also depend on the polarization of $(1h_{11/2})_{}$ orbit. The low-lying states of yrast spectra are found to arise from 0-quasiparticle (qp) intrinsic states whereas the high-spin states turn out to possess composite structure.

  5. $^{16}$O + $^{16}$O molecular structures of positive- and negative-parity superdeformed bands in $^{34}$S

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    The structures of excited states in $^{34}$S are investigated using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics and generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM basis wave functions are calculated via energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter $\\beta$. By applying the GCM after parity and angular momentum projections, the coexistence of two positive- and one negative-parity superdeformed (SD) bands are predicted, and low-lying states and other deformed bands are obtained. The SD bands have structures of $^{16}$O + $^{16}$O + two valence neutrons in molecular orbitals around the two $^{16}$O cores in a cluster picture. The configurations of the two valence neutrons are $\\delta^2$ and $\\pi^2$ for the positive-parity SD bands and $\\pi^1\\delta^1$ for the negative-parity SD band. The structural changes of the yrast states are also discussed.

  6. 16O + 16O molecular structures of positive- and negative-parity superdeformed bands in 34S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniguchi Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The structures of excited states in 34S are investigated using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics and generator coordinate method(GCM. The GCM basis wave functions are calculated via energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter β. By applying the GCM after parity and angular momentum projections, the coexistence of two positive- and one negative-parity super de formed(SD bands are predicted, and low-lying states and other deformed bands are obtained. The SD bands have structures of 16O + 16O + two valence neutrons in molecular orbitals around the two 16O cores in a cluster picture. The configurations of the two valence neutrons are δ2 and π2 for the positive-parity SD bands and π1δ1 for the negative parity SD band.

  7. Selection of HyspIRI optimal band positions for the earth compositional mapping using HyTES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saleem; Khalid, Noora; Iqbal, Arshad

    2016-07-01

    In near future, NASA/JPL will orbit a new space-borne sensor called HyspIRI (Hyperspectral and Infrared Imager) which will cover the spectral range from 0.4 -14μm. Two instruments will be mounted on HyspIRI platform; one is hyperspectral instrument which can sense earth surface between 0.4-2.5μm with 10 nm intervals and a multispectral TIR sensor will acquire images between 3 to 14μm in 8 (1 in MIR and 7 in TIR) spectral bands. The TIR spectral wavebands will be positioned based on their importance in various applications. This study aimed to find HyspIRI optimal TIR wavebands position for earth compositional mapping. Genetic algorithms coupled with Spectral Angle Mapper (GA-SAM) were used as spectral bands selector. High dimensional HyTES (Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer) data comprised of 256 spectral bands of Cuprite and Death Valley regions were used to select meaningful subsets of bands for earth compositional mapping. The GA-SAM was trained for eight mineral classes and the algorithms were run iteratively 40 times. High calibration (> 98 %) and validation (> 96 %) accuracies were achieved with limited numbers (seven) of spectral bands selected by GA-SAM. Knowing the important band positions will help scientist of HyspIRI group to place spectral bands at regions were accuracies of earth compositional mapping can be enhanced.

  8. Clearer, Simpler and more Efficient LAPACK Routines for Symmetric Positive Definite Band Factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Fred G.; Quintania-Orti, Enrique S.; Quintana-Orti, Gregorio

    We describe a minor format change for representing a symmetric band matrix AB using the same array space specified by LAPACK. In LAPACK, band codes operating on the lower part of a symmetric matrix reference matrix element (i, j) as AB1+i−j,j . The format change we propose allows LAPACK band code...

  9. Disturbances in the positioning, proliferation and apoptosis of neural progenitors contribute to subcortical band heterotopia formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, M P; Covio, M; Lee, K S

    2011-03-10

    Cortical malformations are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy and other developmental disorders. Our studies utilize the tish rat, a spontaneously occurring genetic model of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) associated with epilepsy, to evaluate the developmental events underlying SBH formation in the neocortex. Our results demonstrate that Pax6(+) and Tbr2(+) progenitors are mislocalized in tish(+/-) and tish(-/-)- neocortex throughout neurogenesis. In addition, mislocalized tish(-/-) progenitors possess a longer cell cycle than wild type or normally-positioned tish(-/-) progenitors, owing to a lengthened G(2)+M+G(1) time. This mislocalization is not associated with adherens junction breakdown or loss of radial glial polarity in the ventricular zone (VZ), as assessed by immunohistochemistry against phalloidin (to identify F-actin), aPKC-λ and Par3. However, vimentin immunohistochemistry indicates that the radial glial scaffold is disrupted in the region of the tish(-/-) heterotopia. Moreover, lineage tracing experiments using in utero electroporation in tish(-/-) neocortex demonstrate that mislocalized progenitors do not retain contact with the ventricular surface and that ventricular/subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors produce neurons that migrate into both the heterotopia and cortical plate (CP). Taken together, these findings define a series of developmental errors contributing to SBH formation that differs fundamentally from a primary error in neuronal migration.

  10. Accentuate the Positive! North Carolina Band Director Boosts His Students' Confidence and Earns Statewide Leadership Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the background of James Daugherty in music education, a band director who was elected to serve as president of the North Carolina Bandmasters Association, the highest leadership role for a band director in the state. His passion for music only grew in high school, where he gleaned both musical and life lessons…

  11. Accentuate the Positive! North Carolina Band Director Boosts His Students' Confidence and Earns Statewide Leadership Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the background of James Daugherty in music education, a band director who was elected to serve as president of the North Carolina Bandmasters Association, the highest leadership role for a band director in the state. His passion for music only grew in high school, where he gleaned both musical and life lessons…

  12. Solvent versus temperature control over the infrared band shape and position in Fe(CO)3(η(4)-ligand) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Andrea N; Lear, Benjamin J

    2013-11-27

    The solute-solvent interactions between Fe(CO)3(η(4)-cyclooctatetraene) (FeCOT) and 27 solvents were examined by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The observed change in band shape and position of the carbonyl bands as a function of solvent was found to be very similar to that previously observed in temperature-dependent IR experiments of Fe(CO)3(η(4)-norborndiene) (FeNBD). While for FeNBD the change in band shape results from dynamic exchange of carbonyl ligands, temperature-dependent IR experiments in ethyl acetate show that the observed changes are not a result of carbonyl ligand site exchange for FeCOT. We therefore concluded that the solvent dependence of the IR spectra must be a consequence of a static solute-solvent interaction. We find that the linear solvation energy model (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1977, 99, 6027-6038; Chem. Soc. Rev. 1993, 22, 409-416) provides a satisfactory account for the spectral changes due to the solvent. From this model, we are able to conclude that the solute-solvent interactions of this system are influenced by the solvent's polarizability and hydrogen bonding acidity. We also observed interdependence between the change in fwhm and band positions for all three carbonyl bands, which brings us to the conclusion that the observed changes in the IR carbonyl band shape of FeCOT are a consequence of the solute-solvent interactions, rather than any solvent friction effects. This implies that care must be taken to separate the effects of chemical dynamics and solvatochromism when examining IR spectra of molecules suspected of exhibiting dynamically broadened vibrational spectra.

  13. Disturbances in the positioning, proliferation, and apoptosis of neural progenitors contribute to subcortical band heterotopia formation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cortical malformations are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy and other developmental disorders. Our studies utilize the tish rat, a spontaneously occurring genetic model of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) associated with epilepsy, to evaluate the developmental events underlying SBH formation in the neocortex. Our results demonstrate that Pax6+ and Tbr2+ progenitors are mislocalized in tish+/− and tish−/− neocortex throughout neurogenesis. In addition, mislocalized tish−/− proge...

  14. Functional validation of putative toxin-antitoxin genes from the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae: phd-doc is the fourth bona-fide operon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Ting eChan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TAs loci usually consist of two genes organized as an operon, where their products are bound together and inert under normal conditions. However, under stressful circumstances the antitoxin, which is more labile, will be degraded more rapidly, thereby unleashing its cognate toxin to act on the cell. This, in turn, causes cell stasis or cell death, depending on the type of TAs and/or time of toxin exposure. Previously based on in silico analyses, we proposed that Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, may harbor between four to ten putative TA loci depending on the strains. Here we have chosen the pneumococcal strain Hungary19A-6 which contains all possible ten TA loci. In addition to the three well-characterized operons, namely relBE2, yefM-yoeB, and pezAT, we show here the functionality of a fourth operon that encodes the pneumococcal equivalent of the phd-doc TA. Transcriptional fusions with gene encoding Green Fluorescent Protein showed that the promoter was slightly repressed by the Phd antitoxin, and exhibited almost background values when both Phd-Doc were expressed together. These findings demonstrate that phd-doc shows the negative self-regulatory features typical for an authentic TA. Further, we also show that the previously proposed TAs XreA-Ant and Bro-XreB, although they exhibit a genetic organization resembling those of typical TAs, did not appear to confer a functional behavior corresponding to bona fide TAs. In addition, we have also discovered new interesting bioinformatics results for the known pneumococcal TAs RelBE2 and PezAT. A global analysis of the four identified toxins-antitoxins in the pneumococcal genomes (PezAT, RelBE2, YefM-YoeB, and Phd-Doc showed that RelBE2 and Phd-Doc are the most conserved ones. Further, there was good correlation among TA types, clonal complexes and sequence types in the 48 pneumococcal strains analyzed.

  15. (Photoelectrochemical Methods for the Determination of the Band Edge Positions of TiO2-Based Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Beranek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-based nanomaterials play currently a major role in the development of novel photochemical systems and devices. One of the key parameters determining the photoactivity of TiO2-based materials is the position of the band edges. Although its knowledge is an important prerequisite for understanding and optimizing the performance of photochemical systems, it has been often rather neglected in recent research, particularly in the field of heterogeneous photocatalysis. This paper provides a concise account of main methods for the determination of the position of the band edges, particularly those suitable for measurements on nanostructured materials. In the first part, a survey of key photophysical and photochemical concepts necessary for understanding the energetics at the semiconductor/solution interface is provided. This is followed by a detailed discussion of several electrochemical, photoelectrochemical, and spectroelectrochemical methods that can be applied for the determination of band edge positions in compact and nanocrystalline thin films, as well as in nanocrystalline powders.

  16. Importance of the tuning of band position in optimizing the electronic coupling and photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xiaoyan; Mok, Eun Kyung; Baek, Ji-Won [Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, College of Natural Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Hyun [Smithers-Oasis Korea, 196-4 YongJungDoHa-Gil 157, Cheonan, Chungnum-Do (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seong-Ju, E-mail: hwangsju@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, College of Natural Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The electronic coupling and photocatalytic activity of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite can be optimized by the fine-tuning of the band position of titanium oxide with nitrogen doping. The increase of the valence band energy of TiO{sub 2} by N-doping leads not only to the enhanced absorption of visible light but also to the promoted hole transfer from Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to TiO{sub 2}, resulting in the efficient spatial separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. While the undoped Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite shows an inferior photocatalytic activity to the pure Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, the photocatalyst performance of N-doped nanocomposite is better than those of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and undoped Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. This observation underscores a significant enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite upon N-doping, a result of enhanced electronic coupling between the hybridized species. The present results clearly demonstrate the importance of the fine-tuning of band position in optimizing the photocatalytic activity of hybrid-type photocatalysts. - Highlights: • The band position of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} can be effectively tailored by nitrogen doping. • The N-doping leads to the improvement of charge separation. • The N-doped Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} shows high photocatalytic activity.

  17. Changing certain aspects of Band Four:how negative backwash mightbe changed to positive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓妮

    2011-01-01

    Positive and negative and backwash:the concept Backwash is known as the effect of testing and learning which can either be harmful or beneficial (Hughes 1989:1).Messick called backwash "...the extent to which the introduction and use of a learners to do things they would not otherwise do that promote or inhibit language learning"(1996:241).Positive backwash can be considered as an aid to teaching and learning,‘encouraging the learner's awareness and to make the teaching and learning process as effective as possible'(Hedge 2000:397).On the contrary,negative backwash can prevent the teaching and learning process from progressing.Hughes points out that if a test is regarded as important,preparation for it can then dominate all teaching and learning activities,especially if the testing techniques are at variance with the objective of the course(Hughes 1989:1).

  18. Sensor Fused Indoor Positioning Using Dual Band WiFi Signal Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Karlsson, Martin; Bernhardsson, Bo; Tufvesson, Fredrik; Persson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, signal strengths from known WiFi access points are used together with a particle filter to perform indoor navigation. It is shown that more information is obtained by using signals of both 2.4 and 5.0 GHz, compared to using only one frequency. Thus, using both frequencies provides a more accurate positioning. The second contribution is an algorithm where WiFi measurements are combined with pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR), which is based on step counting using an accelerometer a...

  19. Fandom and the fourth wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Kathryn Ballinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the Teen Wolf fandom as an example to examine the ways social media has created a more complicated, nuanced relationship with fans. The collapse of the fourth wall between fans and The Powers That Be can have both positive and negative impacts, depending on the willingness of participants to maintain mutual respect and engage in meaningful dialogue.

  20. MRI criteria in MS patients with negative and positive oligoclonal bands: equal fulfillment of Barkhof's criteria but different lesion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttner, Hagen B; Schellinger, Peter D; Struffert, Tobias; Richter, Gregor; Engelhorn, Tobias; Bassemir, Teresa; Mäurer, Mathias; Garcia, Meritxell; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin; Doerfler, Arnd

    2009-07-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) more than 95% of the patients have positive oligoclonal bands (OCB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Previous studies have reported differences between patients with and without OCB mainly with regard to clinical parameters such as age, gender, disease duration, and clinical severity. However, several MRI characteristics have also been hypothesized to be distinct, and a varying lesion load in OCB-negative and -positive patients is proposed. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether Barkhof's diagnostic MRI criteria are unequally frequently fulfilled in OCB-negative and -positive MS patients. We screened our database for all OCB-negative MS patients who had (1) been treated with the diagnosis of a clinical definite relapsing-remitting MS in our institution as well as (2) undergone CSF analysis and MR brain imaging during hospital stay between January 2004 and December 2007. Eleven OCB-negative patients were identified who fulfilled these criteria. In a second step, we carefully matched each of them to two OCB-positive controls according to age, gender, EDSS, and disease duration. The separate analysis of the several parameters of Barkhof's criteria revealed a less frequent prevalence of infratentorial (3/11 vs. 18/22; P = 0.005) and a more frequent occurrence of juxtacortical lesions (10/11 vs. 10/22; P = 0.022) in OCB-negative as compared to OCB-positive patients. The overall fulfillment of the Barkhof criteria did not differ in OCB-negative and -positive patients (7/11 vs. 16/22; P = 0.696). Further analyses of MRI findings between OCB-negative and -positive MS patients might contribute to a better pathophysiological understanding of the genesis and evidence of OCB in the CSF of MS patients.

  1. Explaining the Positive Relationship Between Fourth-Grade Children's Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected, number of…

  2. Joint frequency, 2D AOA and polarization estimation using fourth-order cumulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建英; 陈天琪

    2000-01-01

    Based on fourth-order cumulant and ESPRIT algorithm, a novel joint frequency, two-dimensional angle of arrival (2D AOA) and the polarization estimation method of incoming multiple independent spatial narrow-band non-Gaussian signals in arbitrary Gaussian noise environment are proposed . The array is composed of crossed dipoles parallel to the coordinate axes. The crossed dipole positions are arbitrarily distributed. Computer simulation confirms its feasibility.

  3. Joint frequency, 2D AOA and polarization estimation using fourth-order cumulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on fourth-order cumulant and ESPRIT algorithm, a novel joint frequency, two-dimensional angle of arrival (2D AOA) and the polarization estimation method of incoming multiple independent spatial narrow-band non-Gaussian signals in arbitrary Gaussian noise environment are proposed. The array is composed of crossed dipoles parallel to the coordinate axes. The crossed dipole positions are arbitrarily distributed. Computer simulation confirms its feasibility.

  4. Band Gap Engineering of Boron Nitride by Graphene and Its Application as Positive Electrode Material in Asymmetric Supercapacitor Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanjit; Jana, Milan; Khanra, Partha; Samanta, Pranab; Koo, Hyeyoung; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kuila, Tapas

    2015-07-08

    Nanostructured hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite is prepared by insertion of h-BN into the graphene oxide through hydrothermal reaction. Formation of the super lattice is confirmed by the existence of two separate UV-visible absorption edges corresponding to two different band gaps. The composite materials show enhanced electrical conductivity as compared to the bulk h-BN. A high specific capacitance of ∼824 F g(-1) is achieved at a current density of 4 A g(-1) for the composite in three-electrode electrochemical measurement. The potential window of the composite electrode lies in the range from -0.1 to 0.5 V in 6 M aqueous KOH electrolyte. The operating voltage is increased to 1.4 V in asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device where the thermally reduced graphene oxide is used as the negative electrode and the h-BN/RGO composite as the positive electrode. The ASC exhibits a specific capacitance of 145.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 6 A g(-1) and high energy density of 39.6 W h kg(-1) corresponding to a large power density of ∼4200 W kg(-1). Therefore, a facile hydrothermal route is demonstrated for the first time to utilize h-BN-based composite materials as energy storage electrode materials for supercapacitor applications.

  5. The fourth dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Rucker, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    ""This is an invigorating book, a short but spirited slalom for the mind."" - Timothy Ferris, The New York Times Book Review ""Highly readable. One is reminded of the breadth and depth of Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach."" - Science""Anyone with even a minimal interest in mathematics and fantasy will find The Fourth Dimension informative and mind-dazzling... [Rucker] plunges into spaces above three with a zest and energy that is breathtaking."" - Martin Gardner ""Those who think the fourth dimension is nothing but time should be encouraged to read The Fourth Dimension, along with anyone else

  6. K-wire position in tension-band wiring technique affects stability of wires and long-term outcome in surgical treatment of olecranon fractures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, S.C. van der; Kampen, A. van; Jaarsma, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tension-band wiring (TBW) has been accepted as the treatment of choice for displaced olecranon fractures. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of K-wire position on instability of the K-wires in relation to local complications and radiological and clinical long-term outcome. M

  7. Measurement of InAsSb bandgap energy and InAs/InAsSb band edge positions using spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, P. T.; Riordan, N. A.; Liu, S.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Johnson, S. R., E-mail: shane.johnson@asu.edu [Center for Photonics Innovation and School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Steenbergen, E. H. [U. S. Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RXAN, Wright Patterson, Ohio 45433 (United States); Synowicki, R. A. [J. A. Woollam Co., Inc., 645 M. Street, Suite 102, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    The structural and optical properties of lattice-matched InAs{sub 0.911}Sb{sub 0.089} bulk layers and strain-balanced InAs/InAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} (x ∼ 0.1–0.4) superlattices grown on (100)-oriented GaSb substrates by molecular beam epitaxy are examined using X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and temperature dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photoluminescence and ellipsometry measurements determine the ground state bandgap energy and the X-ray diffraction measurements determine the layer thickness and mole fraction of the structures studied. Detailed modeling of the X-ray diffraction data is employed to quantify unintentional incorporation of approximately 1% Sb into the InAs layers of the superlattices. A Kronig-Penney model of the superlattice miniband structure is used to analyze the valence band offset between InAs and InAsSb, and hence the InAsSb band edge positions at each mole fraction. The resulting composition dependence of the bandgap energy and band edge positions of InAsSb are described using the bandgap bowing model; the respective low and room temperature bowing parameters for bulk InAsSb are 938 and 750 meV for the bandgap, 558 and 383 meV for the conduction band, and −380 and −367 meV for the valence band.

  8. Measurement of InAsSb bandgap energy and InAs/InAsSb band edge positions using spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P. T.; Riordan, N. A.; Liu, S.; Steenbergen, E. H.; Synowicki, R. A.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Johnson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The structural and optical properties of lattice-matched InAs0.911Sb0.089 bulk layers and strain-balanced InAs/InAs1-xSbx (x ˜ 0.1-0.4) superlattices grown on (100)-oriented GaSb substrates by molecular beam epitaxy are examined using X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and temperature dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photoluminescence and ellipsometry measurements determine the ground state bandgap energy and the X-ray diffraction measurements determine the layer thickness and mole fraction of the structures studied. Detailed modeling of the X-ray diffraction data is employed to quantify unintentional incorporation of approximately 1% Sb into the InAs layers of the superlattices. A Kronig-Penney model of the superlattice miniband structure is used to analyze the valence band offset between InAs and InAsSb, and hence the InAsSb band edge positions at each mole fraction. The resulting composition dependence of the bandgap energy and band edge positions of InAsSb are described using the bandgap bowing model; the respective low and room temperature bowing parameters for bulk InAsSb are 938 and 750 meV for the bandgap, 558 and 383 meV for the conduction band, and -380 and -367 meV for the valence band.

  9. HYBASE : HYperspectral BAnd SElection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Seijen, H.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Band selection is essential in the design of multispectral sensor systems. This paper describes the TNO hyperspectral band selection tool HYBASE. It calculates the optimum band positions given the number of bands and the width of the spectral bands. HYBASE is used to assess the minimum number of spe

  10. Compensation of band-edge positions in titanium-doped Ta3N5 photoanode for enhanced water splitting performance: A first-principles insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guozheng; Wang, Xin; Fu, Hongwei; Feng, Jianyong; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2017-08-01

    Ta3N5 is a promising photoanode for solar water splitting. However, it often suffers from high onset potential for water oxidation, which may be partially ascribed to the oxygen impurities in Ta3N5 . Oxygen impurities, which are always introduced into Ta3N5 during the preparation process, are difficult to remove due to the low formation energy of O-doped Ta3N5 . The valence- and conduction-band-edge positions shift almost in parallel towards more positive potentials with addition of oxygen impurities, which may increase the onset potential for water oxidation. In this study, the hybrid-DFT (density functional theory) calculations of Ti-doped Ta3N5 show that as Ti doping concentration increases, both the valence- and conduction-band-edge positions of Ta3N5 move towards more negative potentials, which is opposite to the role of oxygen impurties. In the case of Ti-O codoped Ta3N5 , Ti doping can compensate the effect of oxygen impurities and may reduce the onset potential for water oxidation. Defect formation energies reveal that Ti-O codoped Ta3N5 is thermodynamically stable. Therefore we propose that by controlling the amount of O and Ti, the band-edge positions can be modified to a proper level so that better photoelectrochemical performances for solar water splitting can be achieved.

  11. TrkB signaling in parvalbumin-positive interneurons is critical for gamma-band network synchronization in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang; An, Juan Ji; Yang, Feng; Xu, Weifeng; Xu, Zhi-Qing David; Wu, Jianyoung; Hökfelt, Tomas G M; Fisahn, André; Xu, Baoji; Lu, Bai

    2011-10-11

    Although brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to regulate circuit development and synaptic plasticity, its exact role in neuronal network activity remains elusive. Using mutant mice (TrkB-PV(-/-)) in which the gene for the BDNF receptor, tyrosine kinase B receptor (trkB), has been specifically deleted in parvalbumin-expressing, fast-spiking GABAergic (PV+) interneurons, we show that TrkB is structurally and functionally important for the integrity of the hippocampal network. The amplitude of glutamatergic inputs to PV+ interneurons and the frequency of GABAergic inputs to excitatory pyramidal cells were reduced in the TrkB-PV(-/-) mice. Functionally, rhythmic network activity in the gamma-frequency band (30-80 Hz) was significantly decreased in hippocampal area CA1. This decrease was caused by a desynchronization and overall reduction in frequency of action potentials generated in PV+ interneurons of TrkB-PV(-/-) mice. Our results show that the integration of PV+ interneurons into the hippocampal microcircuit is impaired in TrkB-PV(-/-) mice, resulting in decreased rhythmic network activity in the gamma-frequency band.

  12. Analysis of Stierwalt out-of-band transmission scattering effect for dual infrared filters serially positioned at a focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumer, J. B.; Sterrit, L. W.; Eisenhauer, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Some remote sounding applications require utilization of interference filters with very high out-of-band rejection (OBR) performance. In this paper, the advantages to be gained in achieving high OBR by the use of two serially ganged interference filters mounted in a wedge configuration near a focus are discussed. Degradation of OBR due to scattering effects is examined, and a quantitative technique to estimate such effects in dual wedged filters mounted at a focus is presented. An approach to the design of filter elements to be used in the dual wedged configuration is given that accounts for scatter. An application of this design approach to the CLAES 10.81 micron filter is described.

  13. Band-edge electronic structure of β-In2S3: the role of s or p orbitals of atoms at different lattice positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zongyan; Cao, Yuechan; Yi, Juan; He, Xijia; Ma, Chenshuo; Qiu, Jianbei

    2012-04-23

    As a promising solar-energy material, the electronic structure and optical properties of Beta phase indium sulfide (β-In(2)S(3)) are still not thoroughly understood. This paper devotes to solve these issues using density functional theory calculations. β-In(2)S(3) is found to be an indirect band gap semiconductor. The roles of its atoms at different lattice positions are not exactly identical because of the unique crystal structure. Additonally, a significant phenomenon of optical anisotropy was observed near the absorption edge. Owing to the low coordination numbers of the In3 and S2 atoms, the corresponding In3-5s states and S2-3p states are crucial for the composition of the band-edge electronic structure, leading to special optical properties and excellent optoelectronic performances.

  14. Calculus of the Power Spectral Density of Ultra Wide Band Pulse Position Modulation Signals Coded with Totally Flipped Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURNEA, T. N.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available UWB-PPM systems were noted to have a power spectral density (p.s.d. consisting of a continuous portion and a line spectrum, which is composed of energy components placed at discrete frequencies. These components are the major source of interference to narrowband systems operating in the same frequency interval and deny harmless coexistence of UWB-PPM and narrowband systems. A new code denoted as Totally Flipped Code (TFC is applied to them in order to eliminate these discrete spectral components. The coded signal transports the information inside pulse position and will have the amplitude coded to generate a continuous p.s.d. We have designed the code and calculated the power spectral density of the coded signals. The power spectrum has no discrete components and its envelope is largely flat inside the bandwidth with a maximum at its center and a null at D.C. These characteristics make this code suited for implementation in the UWB systems based on PPM-type modulation as it assures a continuous spectrum and keeps PPM modulation performances.

  15. Simultaneous Hosting of Positive and Negative Trions and the Enhanced Direct Band Emission in MoSe2/MoS2 Heterostacked Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Seo, Changwon; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Jubok; Luong, Dinh Hoa; Park, Ji-Hoon; Han, Gang Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2016-06-28

    Heterostacking of layered transition-metal dichalcogenide (LTMD) monolayers (1Ls) offers a convenient way of designing two-dimensional exciton systems. Here we demonstrate the simultaneous hosting of positive trions and negative trions in heterobilayers made by vertically stacking 1L MoSe2 and 1L MoS2. The charge transfer occurring between the 1Ls of MoSe2 and MoS2 converted the polarity of trions in 1L MoSe2 from negative to positive, resulting in the presence of positive trions in the 1L MoSe2 and negative trions in the 1L MoS2 of the same heterostacked bilayer. Significantly enhanced MoSe2 photoluminescence (PL) in the heterostacked bilayers compared to the PL of 1L MoSe2 alone suggests that, unlike other previously reported heterostacked bilayers, direct band transition of 1L MoSe2 in heterobilayer was enhanced after the vertical heterostacking. Moreover, by inserting hexagonal BN monolayers between 1L MoSe2 and 1L MoS2, we were able to adjust the charge transfer to maximize the MoSe2 PL of the heteromultilayers and have achieved a 9-fold increase of the PL emission. The enhanced optical properties of our heterostacked LTMDs suggest the exciting possibility of designing LTMD structures that exploit the superior optical properties of 1L LTMDs.

  16. HYBASE - HYperspectral BAnd SElection tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Seijen, H.H. van

    2008-01-01

    Band selection is essential in the design of multispectral sensor systems. This paper describes the TNO hyperspectral band selection tool HYBASE. It calculates the optimum band positions given the number of bands and the width of the spectral bands. HYBASE is used to calculate the minimum number of

  17. Fourth Order Theories Without Ghosts

    CERN Document Server

    Mannheim, P D; Mannheim, Philip D.; Davidson, Aharon

    2000-01-01

    Using the Dirac constraint method we show that the pure fourth-order Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator model is free of observable negative norm states. Even though such ghosts do appear when the fourth order theory is coupled to a second order one, the limit in which the second order action is switched off is found to be a highly singular one in which these states move off shell. Given this result, construction of a fully unitary, renormalizable, gravitational theory based on a purely fourth order action in 4 dimensions now appears feasible.

  18. Interband interaction between bulk and surface resonance bands of a Pb-adsorbed Ge(001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Tomohiro; Takeda, Sakura N.; Kitagawa, Kosuke; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the valence band structure of a Pb-adsorbed Ge(001) surface by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Three Ge bands, G1, G2, and G3, were observed in a Ge(001) 2 × 1 clean surface. In addition to these three bands, a fourth band (R band) is found on the surface with 2 ML of Pb. The R band continuously appeared even when the surface superstructure was changed. The position of the R band does not depend on Pb coverage. These results indicate that the R band derives from Ge subsurface states, known as surface resonance states. Furthermore, the effective mass of G3 is significantly reduced when the R band exists. We found that this reduction of G3 effective mass was explained by the interaction of the G3 and R bands. Consequently, the surface resonance band is considered to penetrate into the Ge subsurface region affecting the Ge bulk states. We determine the hybridization energy to be 0.068 eV by fitting the observed bands.

  19. The Fourth US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC4)

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Norbert; Girard, Terry; Henden, Arne; Bartlett, Jennifer; Monet, Dave; Zacharias, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The fourth United States Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog, UCAC4 was released in August 2012 (double-sided DVD and CDS data center Vizier catalog I/322). It is the final release in this series and contains over 113 million objects; over 105 million of them with proper motions. UCAC4 is an updated version of UCAC3 with about the same number of stars also covering all-sky. Bugs were fixed, Schmidt plate survey data were avoided, and precise 5-band photometry were added. Astrograph observations have been supplemented for bright stars by FK6, Hipparcos and Tycho-2 data to compile a UCAC4 star catalog complete to about magnitude R = 16. Epoch 1998 to 2004 positions are obtained from observations with the 20 cm aperture USNO Astrograph's red lens, equipped with a 4k by 4k CCD. Mean positions and proper motions are derived by combining these observations with over 140 ground- and space-based catalogs, including Hipparcos/Tycho and the AC2000.2, as well as unpublished measures of over 5000 plates from ...

  20. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  1. The "fourth dimension" of gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Bert W

    2009-05-01

    The three dimensions of space provide our relationship to position on the earth, but the fourth dimension of time has an equally profound influence on our lives. Everything from light and sound to weather and biology operate on the principle of measurable temporal periodicity. Consequently, a wide variety of time clocks affect all aspects of our existence. The annual (and biannual) cycles of activity, metabolism, and mating, the monthly physiological clocks of women and men, and the 24-h diurnal rhythms of humans are prime examples. Should it be surprising to us that the fourth dimension also impinges upon gene expression and that the genome itself is regulated by the fastest running of all biological clocks? Recent evidence substantiates the existence of such a ubiquitin-dependent transcriptional clock that is based upon the activation and destruction of transcriptional coactivators.

  2. Development of an S-band cavity-type beam position monitor for a high power THz free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seon Yeong; Kim, Eun-San; Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Heo, A.; won Jang, Si; Vinokurov, Nikolay A.; Jeong, Young UK; Hee Park, Seong; Jang, Kyu-Ha

    2015-01-01

    A cavity-type beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for a compact terahertz (THz) free-electron laser (FEL) system and ultra-short pulsed electron Linac system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Compared with other types of BPMs, the cavity-type BPM has higher sensitivity and faster response time even at low charge levels. When electron beam passes through the cavity-type BPM, it excites the dipole mode of the cavity of which amplitude depends linearly on the beam offset from the center of the cavity. Signals from the BPM were measured as a function of the beam offset by using an oscilloscope. The microtron accelerator for the KAERI THz FEL produces the electron beam with an energy of 6.5 MeV and pulse length of 5 μs with a micropulse of 10-20 ps at the frequency of 2.801 GHz. The macropulse beam current is 40 mA. Because the microtron provides multi-bunch system, output signal would be the superposition of each single bunch. So high output signal can be obtained from superposition of each single bunch. The designed position resolution of the cavity-type BPM in multi-bunch is submicron. Our cavity-type BPM is made of aluminum and vacuum can be maintained by indium sealing without brazing process, resulting in easy modification and cost saving. The resonance frequency of the cavity-type BPM is 2.803 GHz and the cavity-type BPM dimensions are 200 × 220 mm (length × height) with a pipe diameter of 38 mm. The measured position sensitivity was 6.19 (mV/mm)/mA and the measured isolation between the X and Y axis was -39 dB. By measuring the thermal noise of system, position resolution of the cavity-type BPM was estimated to be less than 1 μm. In this article, we present the test results of the S-band cavity-type BPM and prove the feasibility of the beam position measurement with high resolution using this device.

  3. Development of an S-band cavity-type beam position monitor for a high power THz free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Seon Yeong; Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@knu.ac.kr; Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Heo, A.; Won, Jang Si [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Vinokurov, Nikolay A.; Jeong, Young UK, E-mail: yujung@kaeri.re.kr; Hee Park, Seong; Jang, Kyu-Ha [WCI Center for Quantum-Beam-based Radiation Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    A cavity-type beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for a compact terahertz (THz) free-electron laser (FEL) system and ultra-short pulsed electron Linac system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Compared with other types of BPMs, the cavity-type BPM has higher sensitivity and faster response time even at low charge levels. When electron beam passes through the cavity-type BPM, it excites the dipole mode of the cavity of which amplitude depends linearly on the beam offset from the center of the cavity. Signals from the BPM were measured as a function of the beam offset by using an oscilloscope. The microtron accelerator for the KAERI THz FEL produces the electron beam with an energy of 6.5 MeV and pulse length of 5 μs with a micropulse of 10-20 ps at the frequency of 2.801 GHz. The macropulse beam current is 40 mA. Because the microtron provides multi-bunch system, output signal would be the superposition of each single bunch. So high output signal can be obtained from superposition of each single bunch. The designed position resolution of the cavity-type BPM in multi-bunch is submicron. Our cavity-type BPM is made of aluminum and vacuum can be maintained by indium sealing without brazing process, resulting in easy modification and cost saving. The resonance frequency of the cavity-type BPM is 2.803 GHz and the cavity-type BPM dimensions are 200 × 220 mm (length × height) with a pipe diameter of 38 mm. The measured position sensitivity was 6.19 (mV/mm)/mA and the measured isolation between the X and Y axis was −39 dB. By measuring the thermal noise of system, position resolution of the cavity-type BPM was estimated to be less than 1 μm. In this article, we present the test results of the S-band cavity-type BPM and prove the feasibility of the beam position measurement with high resolution using this device.

  4. Line position analysis of the ν2 band of SO2F2 using the C2vTop Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmida, F.; Grouiez, B.; Rotger, M.; Faye, M.; Manceron, L.; Boudon, V.; Aroui, H.

    2016-07-01

    A new high-resolution infrared spectrum of the ν2 band of SO2F2 centered at 849.46 cm-1 has been recorded with a resolution of 0.00102 cm-1 at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL Synchrotron facility. More than 1600 lines up to Jmax = 41 have been assigned and fitted in line position using a tensorial formalism adapted to the case of XY2Z2 asymmetric molecules developed as an extension of the usual one used for spherical tops (Rotger et al., 2002). The analysis has been performed in the O (3) ⊃Td ⊃C2v group chain, thanks to the C2vTDS program suite (Wenger et al., 2005). This approach allows a systematic development of rovibrational interaction to study any polyad of SO2F2 and makes easier global analysis. Compared to a previous study (Merke et al., 2006), the present fit uses less effective Hamiltonian parameters but we assigned lines up to a lower J value.

  5. Estimation of Most Favorable Optical Window Position Subject to Achieve Finest Optical Control of Lateral DDR IMPATT Diode Designed to Operate at W-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Acharyya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimum position of the optical window (OW of illuminated lateral double-drift region (DDR impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT device has been determined subject to achieve the finest optical control of both DC and RF properties of the device. The OW is a tiny hole that has to be created on the oxide layer through which the light energy of appropriate wavelength can be coupled to the space charge region of the device. A non-sinusoidal voltage is assumed to be applied across the diode and the corresponding terminal current response is obtained from a two-dimensional (2-D large-signal (L-S simulation technique developed by the authors for illuminated lateral DDR IMPATT diode. Both the DC and L-S properties of the illuminated device based on Si, designed to operate at W-band frequencies (75 – 110 GHz are obtained from the said L-S simulation. Simulation is carried out for different incident optical power levels of different wavelengths (600 – 1000 nm by varying the position of the fixed sized OW on the oxide layer along the direction of electrical conduction of the device. Results show that, the most favorable optical tuning can be achieved when the OW is entirely created over the p-type depletion layer, i.e. when the photocurrent is purely electron dominated. Also the 700 nm wavelength is found to be most suitable wavelength for obtaining the maximum optical modulation of both DC and RF properties of the device.

  6. ZEBRAFISH CHROMOSOME-BANDING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1995-01-01

    Banding techniques were carried out on metaphase chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The karyotypes with the longest chromosomes consist of 12 metacentrics, 26 submetacentrics, and 12 subtelocentrics (2n = 50). All centromeres are C-band positive. Eight chromosomes have a pericentric C-b

  7. Fourth-generation storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, J. N.

    1999-11-16

    It seems clear that a linac-driven free-electron laser is the accepted prototype of a fourth-generation facility. This raises two questions: can a storage ring-based light source join the fourth generation? Has the storage ring evolved to its highest level of performance as a synchrotrons light source? The answer to the second question is clearly no. The author thinks the answer to the first question is unimportant. While the concept of generations has been useful in motivating thought and effort towards new light source concepts, the variety of light sources and their performance characteristics can no longer be usefully summed up by assignment of a ''generation'' number.

  8. The fourth generation in supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Zwirner, F.

    1985-12-01

    We consider model-independent constraints on the fourth-generation fermion masses and the magnitude of the D-term contribution to the scalar masses. We find that the ratio of vacuum expectation values is limited to the range 1/5 ~ 150 GeV. A general feature of the four-generation models is thus a heavy spectrum of sparticles. On leave from International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua, Italy.

  9. The Fourth Way in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Iitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the general history of the Fourth Way in Finland. The Fourth Way, or simply ‘the Work’, began as a Greco-Armenian man named Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866?–1949 gathered groups of pupils in St Petersburg and Moscow in 1912. To these groups, Gurdjieff started to teach what he had learned and synthesized between ca 1896 and 1912 during his travels on spiritual search of Egypt, Crete, Sumeria, Assyria, the Holy Land, Mecca, Ethiopia, Sudan, India, Afghanistan, the northern valleys of Siberia, and Tibet. Neither Gurdjieff nor any of his disciples called themselves a church, a sect, or anything alike, but referred to themselves simply as ‘the Work’, or as ‘the Fourth Way’. The name ‘the Fourth Way’ originates in a Gurdjieffian view that there are essentially three traditional ways of spiritual work: those of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi. These ways do not literally refer to the activities of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi, but to similar types of spiritual work emphasizing exercise of emotion, body, or mind. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. It is a unique combination of cosmology, psychology, theory of evolution, and overall theory and practise aiming to help individ­uals in their efforts towards what is called ‘self-remembering’.

  10. Band Structure and Fermi Surface of Cu2Sb by the LMTO Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J. P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1977-01-01

    in four bands. The first and second bands contain closed sheets, degenerate along a plane in the absence of spin-orbit splitting. The third band contains a multiply-connected sheet. The fourth band consists of undulating columns, degenerate along a plane with the third band in the absence of spin...

  11. The fourth dimension simply explained

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Henry P

    2005-01-01

    To remove the contents of an egg without puncturing its shell or to drink the liquor in a bottle without removing the cork is clearly unthinkable - or is it? Understanding the world of Einstein and curved space requires a logical conception of the fourth dimension.This readable, informative volume provides an excellent introduction to that world, with 22 essays that employ a minimum of mathematics. Originally written for a contest sponsored by Scientific American, these essays are so well reasoned and lucidly written that they were judged to merit publication in book form. Their easily unders

  12. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cuttell, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realisation of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  13. Scaling, similarity, and the fourth paradigm for hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross

    2017-07-01

    In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm) and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modeling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing; describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses; describe boundary condition, state, flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses; and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.

  14. Triaxial superdeformed bands in {sup 86}Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Devlin, M.; Lerma, F. [Chemistry Department, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Wood, V.Q.; Saladin, J.X.; Winchell, D.F. [Physics Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Baktash, C.; Yu, C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; MacLeod, R.W. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Afanasjev, A.V.; Ragnarsson, I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Four new superdeformed bands have been found in the nucleus {sup 86}Zr. The good agreement between experiment and configuration-dependent shell correction calculations suggests that three of the bands have triaxial superdeformed shapes. Such unique features in mass A{approximately}80 superdeformed bands have been predicted, but not observed experimentally until now. A fourth band in {sup 86}Zr is interesting due to a fairly constant and unusually high dynamic moment of inertia. Possible interpretations of this structure are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. 78 FR 29022 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA... enforce the safety zone for the Berkeley Marina Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the... Berkeley Pier in approximate position 37 51'40'' N, 122 19'19'' W (NAD 83) from 9:30 p.m. until 10:15...

  16. Fourth Lepton Family is Natural in Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    structure with and without mixing with the Standard Model families. We also analyze the LHC potential to observe the fourth lepton family in tandem with the new composite Higgs dynamics. We finally introduce a model uniting the fourth lepton family and the technifermion sector at higher energies.......Imagine to discover a new fourth family of leptons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) but no signs of an associated fourth family of quarks. What would that imply? An intriguing possibility is that the new fermions needed to compensate for the new leptons gauge anomalies simultaneously address...

  17. United States housing, fourth quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning of 2013, the U.S. housing construction market indicated increases in all sectors; yet, by the fourth quarter’s end, only housing under construction improved. Moderation and declines are to be expected in the fourth quarter, as winter is setting in. Permits, starts, housing under construction, completions, and new and existing house sales all exceeded...

  18. Osteoblastic meningioma of the fourth ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M D; Tulipan, N; Whetsell, W O

    1989-04-01

    Meningiomas of the fourth ventricle are rare neoplasms. Only meningothelial and fibroblastic subtypes, purportedly arising from the tela choroidea, have been described. In this report we describe clinical, neuroradiological and pathological findings in a 52-year-old man with mild hydrocephalus produced by a large, calcified, osteoblastic meningioma of the fourth ventricle.

  19. Correlation between the band positions of (SrTiO3)1-x.(LaTiO2N)x solid solutions and photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenjun; Li, Zhaosheng; Jiang, Xiaojun; Yu, Tao; Liu, Lifei; Chen, Xinyi; Ye, Jinhua; Zou, Zhigang

    2008-11-28

    N-doped SrTiO3 and (SrTiO3)1-x.(LaTiO2N)x samples were prepared by the thermal ammonolysis method. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were investigated in a water suspension system. Aqueous methanol solution (50 mL CH3OH + 220 mL H2O) for H2 evolution and aqueous silver nitrate solution (270 mL, 0.01 mol L(-1)) for O2 evolution were used as sacrificial reagents. The oxynitrides showed photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation. The maximum rates of photocatalytic hydrogen and oxygen evolution under visible light irradiation (lambda > 420 nm) were 10 and 8 micromol h(-1), respectively. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and laser Raman spectroscopy. The unit cell edge length of (SrTiO3)1-x.(LaTiO2N)x increased linearly and their band gaps reduced from 3.18 to 2.04 eV with increasing x from 0 to 0.30. Moreover, the calculation results of (SrTiO3)0.75.(LaTiO2N)0.25 by density functional theory suggested that the band gap narrowing of the solid solutions came from the hybridization of N2p and O2p orbital. The band positions of the solid solutions were further investigated by Mott-Schottky and the onset potential method. The results suggested that the conduction band of the solid solution was lowered, which led to decrement of the hydrogen evolution rate.

  20. Band Together!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After nearly a decade as band director at St. James High School in St. James, Missouri, Derek Limback knows that the key to building a successful program is putting the program itself above everything else. Limback strives to augment not only his students' musical prowess, but also their leadership skills. Key to his philosophy is instilling a…

  1. Banded transformer cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  2. Tuning of Ag-SPR band position in refractive index controlled inorganic-organic hybrid SiO2-PEO-TiO2 films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samar Kumar Medda; Moumita Mitra; Goutam De

    2008-11-01

    Inorganic (silica-titania)-organic (polyethylene oxide) hybrid films with variable refractive index (RI) values were synthesized and Ag nanoparticles were generated in situ inside such hybrid films to develop coloured coatings specially on plastic substrates. The hybrid films and the corresponding Agincorporated films were prepared from sols derived from a mixture of silicon tetraethoxide (STE), 3-(glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and silver nitrate following a sol-gel dip-coating method and cured at low temperature (90°C), followed by UV treatment with an energy equivalent to 5.3 ± 0.1 J cm-2. The equivalent SiO2: SiO1.5(CH2)3OCH2CH(CH2)O : TiO2: Ag molar ratios (nominal) of the final cured films are varied in the ranges (67.9-0) : 29.1 : (0-67.9) : 3. The refractive index values of the cured hybrid films were found to be increased systematically from 1.475 to 1.710 with increasing Ti-component. The Ag-SPR peak, in case of silica-polyethylene oxide host (RI = 1.475), observed at 419 nm, gradually red-shifted to 497 nm upon increasing the Ticomponent (equivalent TiO2 content 67.9 mol%; RI = 1.710) of the film. As a consequence, a systematic change of Ag-SPR position yielded yellow, yellowish-orange, orange, brownish-orange and orangish-brown coloured coatings.

  3. The Fourth Wave in Deterrence Research

    OpenAIRE

    Knopf, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13523261003640819 A new line of work on deterrence began emerging after the end of the Cold War and gained momentum after the September 11 terrorist attacks. Building on a previous characterization by Robert Jervis that identified three waves of deterrence research,1 this work is here designated the fourth wave. The fourth wave reflects a change from a focus on relatively symmetrical situations of mu...

  4. The deep band of the plantar aponeurosis of the human foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cralley, J C; Schuberth, J M; Fitch, K L

    1982-01-01

    The deep band of the plantar aponeurosis is a variable structure formed by fibers from both the medial and lateral portions of the plantar aponeurosis. This band courses directly to the plantar ligament of the fourth metatarsophalangeal joint. Proximally it is superficial. Distally it passes deep to the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus to attach at the metatarsophalangeal joint. The second plantar and third and fourth dorsal interosseous muscles as well as the transverse head of adductor hallucis have attachments to the deep aponeurotic band. This band becomes taut when the proximal phalanx of the fourth toe is extended. No recent references to this structure could be found. The function of the deep band of the plantar aponeurosis is unknown, although the anatomical arrangement may make it important in stabilizing the fourth ray of the foot during locomotion.

  5. 77 FR 37604 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA... enforce the safety zone for the Berkeley Marina Fourth of July Fireworks display in the Captain of the... Berkeley Pier in position 37 51'40'' N, 122 19'19'' W (NAD 83) from 9:30 p.m. until 10:15 p.m. on July...

  6. The Naturalness of the Fourth SM Family

    CERN Document Server

    Sultansoy, S

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of the fourth family follows from the SM basics. According to flavor democracy the Dirac masses of the fourth SM family fermions are almost equal with preferable value 450 GeV, which corresponds to common (for all fundamental fermions) Yukawa coupling equal to SU(2) gauge coupling gW. In principle, one expect u4 a little bit lighter than d4, while nu4 could be essentially lighter than l4 due to Majorana mass terms for right-handed components of neutrinos. Obviously, the fourth family quarks will be copiously produced at the LHC. However, the first indication of the fourth SM family may be provided by early Higgs boson observation due to almost an order enhancement of the gluon fusion to Higgs cross-section. For the same reason the Tevatron still has a chance to observe the Higgs boson before the LHC. Concerning the fourth family leptons, in general, best place will be NLC/CLIC. However, for some mass regions and MNS matrix elements double discovery of both the nu4 and H could be possible at the ...

  7. Prevalence of bands other than 160 and 130 kDa in pemphigus sera (a multicenter immunoblotting study). Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia (GISED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, E; Parodi, A; Rebora, A

    1998-05-01

    Patients with pemphigus may produce antibodies against molecules other than the classical transmembranal ones. Recently, for example antibodies to 230 kDa antigens have been found in association with antibodies to intercellular substance. To better understand their prevalence, clinical correlates and prognostic significance of bands other than 130 and 160 kDa, we studied 67 pemphigus sera. About one-fourth of patients revealed multiple heterogeneous bands and 13% the 230 kDa band. When challenged with the recombinant protein rBP55, the carbossiterminal portion of bullous pemphigoid major antigen, all 230 kDa-positive-sera proved negative. Caution is to be recommended in interpreting pemphigus sera with a band migrating at the 230 kDa level.

  8. A novel circuit architecture for fourth subharmonie mixers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Changfei; Xu Conghai; Zhou Ming; Luo Yunsheng

    2012-01-01

    A circuit topology for high-order subharmonic (SH) mixers is described.By phase cancellation of idle frequency components,the SH mixer circuit can eliminate the complicated design procedure of idle frequency circuits.Similarly,the SH mixer circuit can achieve a high port isolation by phase cancellation of the leakage LO,RF and idle frequency signals.Based on the high-order SH mixer architecture,a new Ka-band fourth SH mixer is analyzed and designed,it shows the lowest measured conversion loss of 8.3 dB at 38.4 GHz and the loss is lower than 10.3 dB in 34-39 GHz.Measured LO-IF,RF-LO,RF-IF port isolation are better than 30.7 dB,22.9dB and 46.5 dB,respectively.

  9. The role of terminal amino group and histidine at the fourth position in the metal ion binding of oligopeptides revisited: Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of glycyl-glycyl-glycyl-histamine and its N-Boc protected derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancsó, Attila; Selmeczi, Katalin; Gizzi, Patrick; Nagy, Nóra V; Gajda, Tamás; Henry, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) binding properties of two pseudo tetrapeptides, N-Boc-Gly-Gly-Gly-Histamine (BGGGHa) and Gly-Gly-Gly-Histamine (GGGHa) have been investigated by pH-potentiometric titrations, UV-visible-, EPR-, NMR- and ESI-HRMS (electrospray ionization high resolution MS) spectroscopies, in order to compare the role of N-terminal amino group and imidazole moiety at the fourth position in the complex formation processes. Substantially higher stabilities were determined for the ML complexes of GGGHa, compared to those of BGGGHa, supporting the coordination of the terminal amino group and the histamine imidazole of the non-protected ligand. A dimeric Cu(2)H(-2)L(2) species, formed through the deprotonation of peptide groups of the ligands, was found in the GGGHa-copper(II) system. Deprotonation and coordination of further amide nitrogens led to CuH(-2)L and, above pH~10, CuH(-3)L. Experimental data supports a {NH(2), 2 × N(amide),N(im)} macrochelate structure in CuH(-2)L whereas a {NH(2), 3 × N(amide)} coordination environment in CuH(-3)L. The first two amide deprotonation processes were found to be strongly cooperative with nickel(II) and spectroscopic studies proved the transformation of the octahedral parent complexes to square planar, yellow, diamagnetic species, NiH(-2)L and above pH~9, NiH(-3)L. In the basic pH-range deprotonation and coordination of the amide groups also took place in the BGGGHa containing systems, leading to complexes with a {3 × N(amide),N(im)} donor set, and in parallel the re-dissolving of precipitate. Above pH~11, a further proton release from the pyrrolic NH group of the imidazole ring of BGGGHa occurred providing an additional proof for the different binding modes of the two ligands. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Amniotic constriction bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of function of an arm or a leg. Congenital bands affecting the hand often cause the most problems. Alternative Names Pseudo-ainhum; Streeter dysplasia; Amniotic band sequence; Amniotic constriction bands; Constriction band ...

  11. Fourth Generation Leptons and Muon $g-2$

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Ma, Chien-Yi

    2008-01-01

    We consider the contributions to $g_\\mu-2$ from fourth generation heavy neutral and charged leptons, $N$ and $E$, at the one-loop level. Diagrammatically, there are two types of contributions: boson-boson-$N$, and $E$-$E$-boson in the loop diagram. In general, the effect from $N$ is suppressed by off-diagonal lepton mixing matrix elements. For $E$, we consider flavor changing neutral couplings arising from various New Physics models, which are stringently constrained by $\\mu\\to e\\gamma$. We assess how the existence of a fourth generation would affect these New Physics models.

  12. The Fourth (A)ATSR Data Reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryl, Philippe; Cocevar, Pauline; Done, Fay; Aatsr Quality Working Group

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to inform users of the upcoming Fourth Reprocessing of ATSR-1, ATSR-2 and AATSR data. The main objective of the Fourth Reprocessing is to generate (A)ATSR Level 1B data products in a similar format to SLSTR products from Sentinel-3. In this way, users can easily access the 20-year dataset from the ERS and ENVISAT (A)ATSR missions and carry the analysis forward into the Sentinel era. In addition to the product format change, the dataset will build on the improvements implemented in the Third Reprocessing, and will contain further improvements and enhancements, as described below.

  13. JACOBI PSEUDOSPECTRAL METHOD FOR FOURTH ORDER PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-su Wan; Ben-yu Guo; Zhong-qing Wang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate Jacobi pseudospectral method for fourth order problems.We establish some basic results on the Jacobi-Gauss-type interpolations in non-uniformly weighted Sobolev spaces, which serve as important tools in analysis of numerical quadratures, and numerical methods of differential and integral equations. Then we propose Jacobi pseudospectral schemes for several singular problems and multiple-dimensional problems of fourth order. Numerical results demonstrate the spectral accuracy of these schemes,and coincide well with theoretical analysis.

  14. Singapore: The Fourth Way in Action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article has two main objectives. It first outlines the first three waves of change termed by Hargreaves and Shirley (The Fourth Way: The inspiring future for educational change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, "2009") as the First, Second and Third Way that defined global educational policy and practice since the 1960s. It then…

  15. Teaching Fourth Generation Evaluation through Monologue Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Eric; Sparks, Cheryl

    1992-01-01

    This article illustrates the use of monologue interpretation, in which an interpreter illuminates issues in a speaker's monologue to translate theoretical pedagogical material into usable classroom applications. The example shows how the tenets of Guba and Lincoln's (1989) Responsive Constructivist Fourth Generation Model were presented via…

  16. The Fourth Basic: Computer Skills. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin County Board of Education, Elizabethtown, KY.

    Traditionally, the fundamental goal of all American education has been to provide students with adequate competencies in reading, writing, and mathematics. A year-long project, conducted at three high schools in Hardin County, Kentucky, provided for the development of a fourth basic: computer skills. Through this project, computer skills were…

  17. Fourth Generation War: Paradigm for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    frustrated by the advantages that the weak acquire through 4GW, are also within the genre of the Fourth Generation. Terrorism is the strategy and tactic of...for SF. In order to examine these factors a brief overview of SF is necessary. 1. What Makes the SOF As per the techno-- thriller author Tom

  18. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  19. An experiment with the fourth Futamura projection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glück, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We have experimentally validated the theoretical insight, that a compiler generator is an Ershov generating extension of a program specializer, by showing that an existing offline partial evaluator can perform the fourth Futamura projection. Specifically, an online and an offline partial evaluator...

  20. "Researching" with Third- and Fourth-Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, Barbara

    1970-01-01

    In order to instill in children the skills which will be basic to their school experience, words implying a process (such as "hemp,""parasite," and "vanilla") may be "researched" by third and fourth graders through the use of a dictionary, an encyclopedia, a supplementary book on the subject, and an interview with an adult. The child makes a…

  1. The Fourth Domain of Educational Objectives: Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Wes

    1985-01-01

    Tests the claim to comprehensiveness of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives by analyzing educational objectives of some freshmen orientation programs and those connected with human developmental tasks. It is concluded that the taxonomy should be enlarged with a fourth domain: actual induction into tasks for which students are being…

  2. Using fourth-generation evaluation in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, M M

    1991-03-01

    Evaluation is disciplined inquiry undertaken to determine the value, including merit and worth, of some entity: a curriculum program, a clinical intervention, an academic course, a care plan. An evaluation is conducted to improve or refine the thing being evaluated (evaluand) or to assess its impact and effectiveness. Evaluation in nursing has been designed using various positivistic and post-positivistic models in the first three "generations" in the evolution of evaluation practice. This article describes a new model of nursing evaluation more consistent with a nursing paradigm than with a traditional, scientific, medical paradigm. Responsive nursing evaluation informs and empowers all those involved in its outcomes (the stakeholders) when framed within the research stance called naturalistic or constructivist inquiry. The fourth-generation-evaluation approach of Guba and Lincoln (1989) is consistent with a nursing paradigm and a constructivist approach. Fourth-generation evaluation is presented with specific application to nursing evaluation.

  3. The Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabris, Christopher F; Lee, James J; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J; Laibson, David I

    2015-07-01

    Behavior genetics is the study of the relationship between genetic variation and psychological traits. Turkheimer (2000) proposed "Three Laws of Behavior Genetics" based on empirical regularities observed in studies of twins and other kinships. On the basis of molecular studies that have measured DNA variation directly, we propose a Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics: "A typical human behavioral trait is associated with very many genetic variants, each of which accounts for a very small percentage of the behavioral variability." This law explains several consistent patterns in the results of gene discovery studies, including the failure of candidate gene studies to robustly replicate, the need for genome-wide association studies (and why such studies have a much stronger replication record), and the crucial importance of extremely large samples in these endeavors. We review the evidence in favor of the Fourth Law and discuss its implications for the design and interpretation of gene-behavior research.

  4. Imitatio Christi in the fourth gospel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. van der Merwe

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Imitatio Christi is a concept which, although not referred to explicitly in the Fourth Gospel, is clearly spelled out in relation to the agency motif occurring in the Gospel. The disciples of Jesus have been appointed as his agents to continue his mission after his departure to his Father. In giving this message through to his readers, the Fourth Evangelist refers to Jesus' calling of his disciples, [Foreign font omitted]; pictures Jesus as [Foreign font omitted]; uses [Foreign font omitted] (the particle of comparison to compare the lives of the disciples with that of Jesus; points out the tasks the disciples had to perform after Jesus' ascension and, finally, indicates how Jesus dwells in his disciples through the Paraclete.

  5. Fourth international conference on Networks & Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Meghanathan, Natarajan; Nagamalai, Dhinaharan; Computer Networks & Communications (NetCom)

    2013-01-01

    Computer Networks & Communications (NetCom) is the proceedings from the Fourth International Conference on Networks & Communications. This book covers theory, methodology and applications of computer networks, network protocols and wireless networks, data communication technologies, and network security. The proceedings will feature peer-reviewed papers that illustrate research results, projects, surveys and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the diverse areas of computer networks & communications.

  6. On a fourth order superlinear elliptic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of a nonzero solution for the fourth order elliptic equation $$Delta^2u= mu u +a(xg(u$$ with boundary conditions $u=Delta u=0$. Here, $mu$ is a real parameter, $g$ is superlinear both at zero and infinity and $a(x$ changes sign in $Omega$. The proof uses a variational argument based on the argument by Bahri-Lions cite{BL}.

  7. Fourth World Theory: The Evolution of . . .

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Fourth World theory is a methodology for examining and developing greater understanding of the extent of the distress and abandonment commonly found in the cores of American cities resulting from de-industrialization, historic segregation and discrimination patterns, suburban sprawl, erosion of a viable tax base, racism, inability to embrace the concept of desegregation and civil rights legislation, fear, despair, crumbling infrastructure systems, disinvestment in urban school systems, and en...

  8. Supernumerary maxillary and Mandibular Fourth Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-23

    in earlier primates then in man. Hyperdontia has occasionally been associated with clefts of the lip and palate , I0 cleldocranial dysostosis, 2...year-old black male was seen In the clinic for treatment of pain which was originating from a deep carious lesion in the mandibular left second molar...incompletely formed impacted left fourth molar and right bicuspid were also noted. Case III. A 24-year-old male was seen in the clinic for treatment of

  9. The fourth China Bioanalysis Forum Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Daniel; Zhong, Dafang; Dong, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The fourth China Bioanalysis Forum annual conference, co-organized with the Nanjing International Drug Metabolism Conference, was successfully held in Nanjing, China, between 24-26 June 2016. The theme of the conference was 'how to conduct regulated bioanalysis under China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) regulations'. In addition, several hot topics including bioanalytical challenges, solutions for biomarkers, antidrug antibody (antibody-drug conjugates) and biologics were discussed. This Conference Report summarizes the major discussion topics from the conference.

  10. Art meets mathematics in the fourth dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Lipscomb, Stephen Leon

    2014-01-01

    To see objects that live in the fourth dimension we humans would need to add a fourth dimension to our three-dimensional vision. An example of such an object that lives in the fourth dimension is a hyper-sphere or “3-sphere”. The quest to imagine the elusive 3-sphere has deep historical roots: medieval poet Dante Alighieri, in his circa 1300 AD Divine Comedy, used a 3-sphere to convey his allegorical vision of the Christian afterlife. In 1917, Albert Einstein visualized the universe, at each instant in time, as a 3-sphere. He described his representation as “…the place where the reader’s imagination boggles. Nobody can imagine this thing.” Over time, however, our understanding of the concept of dimension evolved. By 2003, a researcher had successfully rendered into human vision the structure of a 4-web (think of an every increasingly-dense spider’s web). In this text Stephen Lipscomb takes his innovative dimension theory research a step further, using the 4-web to reveal a new partial image of a...

  11. Telling time in the Fourth Gospel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H. Neyrey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available When we begin the task of telling time in the Fourth Gospel, we bring something not found in any previous study, namely, a model of time articulated by cross- ultural anthropologists (Bordieu, in Pitt-Rivers 1963:55-72, Ayoade, in Wright 1984:71-89. As much as we admire Davies’ study, she has no notes to her chapter on time nor any citations in her bibliography to indicate that she has any conversation partners, much less cultural experts, a deficit to be filled in this study. Learning to tell time entails three theoretical considerations: a definition of time, key classifications of it, and special attention to what the ancients meant by past, present and future. With these lenses we are prepared to do as thorough a study as we can on telling time in the Fourth Gospel. As we consider each classification, we will suggest a brief meaning of it from the experts on time, then present a body of Greco-Roman materials illustrative of the classification, and finally use it to gather and interpret data in John. Proving the native existence of these classifications for telling time in antiquity is essential for readers to have a background against which to compare their usage with that of the Fourth Gospel.

  12. Fourth order difference methods for hyperbolic IBVP's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Bertil; Olsson, Pelle

    1994-01-01

    Fourth order difference approximations of initial-boundary value problems for hyperbolic partial differential equations are considered. We use the method of lines approach with both explicit and compact implicit difference operators in space. The explicit operator satisfies an energy estimate leading to strict stability. For the implicit operator we develop boundary conditions and give a complete proof of strong stability using the Laplace transform technique. We also present numerical experiments for the linear advection equation and Burgers' equation with discontinuities in the solution or in its derivative. The first equation is used for modeling contact discontinuities in fluid dynamics, the second one for modeling shocks and rarefaction waves. The time discretization is done with a third order Runge-Kutta TVD method. For solutions with discontinuities in the solution itself we add a filter based on second order viscosity. In case of the non-linear Burger's equation we use a flux splitting technique that results in an energy estimate for certain different approximations, in which case also an entropy condition is fulfilled. In particular we shall demonstrate that the unsplit conservative form produces a non-physical shock instead of the physically correct rarefaction wave. In the numerical experiments we compare our fourth order methods with a standard second order one and with a third order TVD-method. The results show that the fourth order methods are the only ones that give good results for all the considered test problems.

  13. Entropy Diagnostics for Fourth Order Partial Differential Equations in Conservation Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Broadbridge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The entropy evolution behaviour of a partial differential equation (PDE in conservation form, may be readily discerned from the sign of the local source term of Shannon information density. This can be easily used as a diagnostic tool to predict smoothing and non-smoothing properties, as well as positivity of solutions with conserved mass. The familiar fourth order diffusion equations arising in applications do not have increasing Shannon entropy. However, we obtain a new class of nonlinear fourth order diffusion equations that do indeed have this property. These equations also exhibit smoothing properties and they maintain positivity. The counter-intuitive behaviour of fourth order diffusion, observed to occur or not occur on an apparently ad hoc basis, can be predicted from an easily calculated entropy production rate. This is uniquely defined only after a technical definition of the irreducible source term of a reaction diffusion equation.

  14. 7 CFR 51.2296 - Three-fourths half kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Three-fourths half kernel. 51.2296 Section 51.2296 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...-fourths half kernel. Three-fourths half kernel means a portion of a half of a kernel which has more...

  15. Fourth Generation Leptons and Muon $g-2$

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Ma, Chien-Yi

    2008-01-01

    We consider the contributions to $g_\\mu-2$ from fourth generation neutral and charged leptons, $N$ and $E$, at the one-loop level. Diagramatically, there are two types of contributions: boson-boson-$N$, and $E$-$E$-boson in the loop diagram. In general, the effect from $N$ is suppressed by off-diagonal PMNS matrix element $V_{N\\mu}$, from the Standard Model to the Two-Higgs Doublet Models. With contribution from $E$, we consider flavor changing neutral couplings.

  16. Geometry, relativity and the fourth dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Rucker, Rudolf

    1977-01-01

    This is a highly readable, popular exposition of the fourth dimension and the structure of the universe. A remarkable pictorial discussion of the curved space-time we call home, it achieves even greater impact through the use of 141 excellent illustrations. This is the first sustained visual account of many important topics in relativity theory that up till now have only been treated separately.Finding a perfect analogy in the situation of the geometrical characters in Flatland, Professor Rucker continues the adventures of the two-dimensional world visited by a three-dimensional being to expl

  17. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  18. Weak gravitational lensing by fourth order gravity black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, Zsolt; Hobill, David; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    2012-01-01

    We discuss weak lensing characteristics for black holes in a fourth order f(R) gravity theory, characterized by a gravitational strength parameter $\\sigma $ and a distance scale $r_{c}$. Above $r_{c}$ gravity is strengthened and as a consequence weak lensing features are modified compared to the Schwarzschild case. We find a critical impact parameter (depending upon $r_{c}$) for which the behavior of the deflection angle changes. Using the Virbhadra-Ellis lens equation we improve the computation of the image positions, Einstein ring radii, magnification factors and the magnification ratio. We demonstrate that the magnification ratio as function of image separation has a different power-law dependence for each parameter $\\sigma $. As these are the lensing quantities most conveniently determined by direct measurements, future lensing surveys will be able to constrain the parameter $\\sigma $ based on this prediction.

  19. Chromosome complement, C-banding, Ag-NOR and replication banding in the zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, R R; Thode, G; Amores, A

    1996-01-01

    The chromosome complement of Danio rerio was investigated by Giemsa staining and C-banding, Ag-NORs and replication banding. The diploid number of this species is 2n = 50 and the arm number (NF) = 100. Constitutive heterochromatin was located at the centromeric position of all chromosome pairs. Nucleolus organizer regions appeared in the terminal position of the long arms of chromosomes 1, 2 and 8. Replication banding pattern allowed the identification of each chromosome pair.

  20. Prospective investigation of penile length with newborn male circumcision and second to fourth digit ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Kwan; Doo, A. Ram; Kim, Joo Heung; Park, Hyung Sub; Do, Jung Mo; Choi, Hwang; Park, Seung Chol; Kim, Myung Ki; Jeong, Young Beom; Kim, Hyung Jim; Kim, Young Gon; Shin, Yu Seob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We prospectively investigated the relationship between newborn male circumcision (NMC) and second to fourth digit ratio with penile length. Methods: As participants for our study, we identified already circumcised young patients who visited our hospital for urological treatment. The age at which the circumcision had been done was assessed. The patients’ height and weight were measured. Second to fourth digit ratio was calculated by measuring the second and fourth digit lengths. The flaccid and erectile penile lengths were measured from the base of the penis to the tip of the glans in standing position. Results: A total of 248 patients were included in our study. In univariate analysis, height, second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were associated with erectile penile length. Among these variables, second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were significant predictive factors for erectile penile length in multivariate analysis. The subjects were divided into two groups, including 72 patients in the NMC group and 176 patients in the non-NMC group. No significant difference was found in height, weight, and second to fourth digit ratio between both groups. However, flaccid (p<0.001) and erectile (p=0.001) penile lengths were shorter in the NMC group than in the non-NMC group. Conclusions: Despite the small number of subjects, this study shows that NMC was associated with shorter penile length. Second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were also significant predictive factors for erectile penile length. Further multicentre studies with larger number of subjects and biochemical analyses are needed for potential clinical applicability. PMID:27695583

  1. Fourth-Order Four-Point Boundary Value Problem: A Solutions Funnel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos K. Palamides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence of positive or a negative solution of several classes of four-point boundary-value problems for fourth-order ordinary differential equations. Although these problems do not always admit a (positive Green's function, the obtained solution is still of definite sign. Furthermore, we prove the existence of an entire continuum of solutions. Our technique relies on the continuum property (connectedness and compactness of the solutions funnel (Kneser's Theorem, combined with the corresponding vector field.

  2. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  3. Fourth Thematic CERN School of Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    Alberto Pace, CSC Director

    2016-01-01

    The Fourth Thematic School of Computing (tCSC2016) takes place this year in Split, Croatia, from 22 to 28 May 2016.   The theme is "Efficient and Parallel Processing of Scientific Data", looking at: The challenge of scientific data processing: commonalities, analogies and the main differences between different sciences. Size of scientific software projects. Parallelism and asynchronism: computation and I/O. The School is open to postgraduate students and research workers with a few years' experience in elementary particle physics, computing, engineering or related fields.  All applicants are welcome, including former and future participants in the main CSC summer school. Registration will close on 15 February and participation is limited to 24 students. To register, please go here. About: The Thematic Schools are part of the annual series of CERN Schools of Computing, to promote advanced learning and knowledge exchange on the subject of scientific compu...

  4. Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Unifying Themes in Complex Systems IV

    2008-01-01

    In June of 2002, over 500 professors, students and researchers met in Boston, Massachusetts for the Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems. The attendees represented a remarkably diverse collection of fields: biology, ecology, physics, engineering, computer science, economics, psychology and sociology, The goal of the conference was to encourage cross-fertilization between the many disciplines represented and to deepen understanding of the properties common to all complex systems. This volume contains 43 papers selected from the more than 200 presented at the conference. Topics include: cellular automata, neurology, evolution, computer science, network dynamics, and urban planning. About NECSI: For over 10 years, The New England Complex Systems Institute (NECSI) has been instrumental in the development of complex systems science and its applications. NECSI conducts research, education, knowledge dissemination, and community development around the world for the promotion of the study of complex sys...

  5. Fourth-generation Mars vehicle concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1994-09-01

    Conceptual designs for fourth-generation crew-carrying Mars transfer and excursion vehicles, fully integrated to state-of-the-art standards, are presented. The resulting vehicle concepts are sized for six crew members, and can support all opposition and conjunction opportunities in or after 2014. The modular, reusable transfer ship is launched to Earth orbit on six 185-ton-class boosters and assembled there robotically. Its dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines use liquid hydrogen propollant. The payload consists of a microgravity habitation system and an expendable lift-to-drag = 1.6 lander capable of aeromaneuvering to sites within +/- 20 deg of the equator. This lander can deliver either an expendable, storable-bipropellant crew-carrying ascent vehicle, or 40 tons of cargo, and it is capable of limited surface mobility to support base buildup. Multiple cargo landers sent ahead on robotic transfer vehicles deliver the supplies and equipment required for long-duration surface missions.

  6. Fourth ventricle meningiomas: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichierri, Angelo; Ruggeri, Andrea; Morselli, Carlotta; Delfini, Roberto

    2011-08-01

    Fourth ventricle meningiomas (FVMs) are rare, often misdiagnosed, lesions. To the best of our knowledge, 47 cases have been reported in the literature: we describe our series of three cases treated at our Institution, focusing on some diagnostic tips and intraoperative features of these tumours. Our three patients have a history of headache. Gait disturbances, vomiting and/or diplopia complicated the clinical picture before the referral at our Department. The operations were uneventful, and the patients fully recovered from neurological symptoms. They are free of recurrence at a median follow-up of 19 years. FVMs are rare lesions, which are difficult to differentiate preoperatively from the much more common ependymomas. A preoperative distinction would be extremely advantageous: indeed, although both tumours share similar radiological and clinical patterns, they clearly differ as to surgical difficulty and outcome. In fact, meningiomas are comparatively easier to remove, granting better clinical results.

  7. Fourth World Theory: The Evolution of . . .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olon F. Dotson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fourth World theory is a methodology for examining and developing greater understanding of the extent of the distress and abandonment commonly found in the cores of American cities resulting from de-industrialization, historic segregation and discrimination patterns, suburban sprawl, erosion of a viable tax base, racism, inability to embrace the concept of desegregation and civil rights legislation, fear, despair, crumbling infrastructure systems, disinvestment in urban school systems, and environmental justice issues. This article uses the analytical lens of Fourth World theory to examine how such structural and cultural forces contributed to the severely distressed conditions now found in the city of Gary, Indiana. Tracking its one-hundred-year history, from its founding as an industrial town through its post-industrial decline occurring during the city’s first African-American mayor’s five terms in office, the methodology clearly demonstrates how the social construction of race has systematically undermined every aspect of Gary’s overall quality of life. To illustrate that this city is not an anomaly but rather reflects a typical pattern of disparity and uneven development arising from racist practices, Gary is compared to other cities of similar size and also to the much larger Detroit. The article triangulates academic literature, news media archives, and an oral history provided by the mayor to show how Gary evolved from being a model industrial city to a cauldron of racial disparity. The paper concludes by arguing that continued absence of reflection on the nation’s historical racialization of place threatens not just impoverished communities of color, but also the sustainability of the entire nation.

  8. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.;

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory...

  9. Orthogonal M-band compactly supported interpolating wavelet theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建康; 保铮

    1999-01-01

    Recently, 2-band interpolating wavelet transform has attracted much attention. It has the following several features: (ⅰ)The wavelet series transform coefficients of a signal in the multiresolution subspace are exactly consistent with its discrete wavelet transform coefficints; (ⅱ)good approximation performance; (ⅲ)efficiency in computation.However orthogonal 2-band compactly supported interpolating wavelet transform is only the first order. In order to overcome this shortcoming, the orthogonal M-band compactly supported interpolating wavelet basis is established. First, the unitary interpolating scaling filters of the length L=MK are characterized. Second, a scheme is given to design highorder unitary interpolating scaling filters. Third, a parameterization of the unitary interpolating scaling filters of the length L=4M is made. Fourth, the orthogonal 2-order and 3-order three-band compactly supported interpolating scaling functions are constructed. Finally, the properties of the orthogonal M-band c

  10. Searching for the fourth family quarks through anomalous decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S.

    2010-09-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the fourth standard model family. Because of the high masses of the fourth family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the fourth standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.

  11. The Fourth Gospel as a textual field of meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Micallef, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Fourth Gospel is a textual field of meaning and it reinforces pressure on readers to differentiate appearance from intended meaning. No single interpretation can claim to have said the last word on the meaning of the Fourth Gospel’s use of language, which may be considered as the most striking characteristic of this Gospel. The whole network of the Johannine literary devices and vocabulary is an expression of the Fourth Gospel’s theological message and brings dissimilari...

  12. Low Power Band to Band Tunnel Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    the E-field and tunneling at the source- pocket junction you form a parasitic NPN + transistor and the injection mechanism of carriers into the...hypothesis that the 1000 ° C, 5s anneal split lead to a very wide pocket and the accidental formation of a NPN + transistor , while the 1000 ° C, 1s anneal...Low Power Band to Band Tunnel Transistors Anupama Bowonder Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley

  13. A Ka-band (32 GHz) beacon link experiment (KABLE) with Mars Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, A. L.; Hansen, D. M.; Mileant, A.; Hartop, R. W.

    1987-02-01

    A proposal for a Ka-Band (32 GHz) Link Experiment (KABLE) with the Mars Observer mission was submitted to NASA. The experiment will rely on the fourth harmonic of the spacecraft X-band transmitter to generate a 33.6 GHz signal. The experiment will rely also on the Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving station equipped to simultaneously receive X- and Ka-band signals. The experiment will accurately measure the spacecraft-to-Earth telecommunication link performance at Ka-band and X-band (8.4 GHz).

  14. Study of the positioning of the films of the MLC by a Test of bands and your influence in the clinic dosimetry in IMRT; Estudio del posicionamiento de las laminas del MLC mediante un test de bandas y su influencia en la dosimetria clinica en IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano Zabaleta, S.; Millan Cebrian, E.; Calvo Carrillo, S.; Alba Escorihuela, V.; Garcia Romero, A.; Ortega Pardina, P.; Canella Anoz, M.; Hernandez Vitoria, A.

    2015-07-01

    We performed a test of adjacent bands inspired by the proposed in AAPM Report No. 72, we provides a parameter characterizing the state of the MLC as to the actual position of its blades. This test has been validated by studying repeatability and reproducibility and has found the correlation between the parameter and creep detected by the ILD. Subsequently it has studied the impact of changes in the positioning of the blades on clinical dosimetry in IMRT patients, reconstructing the patient dose by Matrix Evolution team and Compass software, IBA Dosimetry. (Author)

  15. The Fourth World Conference on Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing during September 4-15, 1995, was a major success. The platform for action adopted by consensus at the conference is comprised of the mission statement, a global framework, critical areas of concern, strategic objectives and actions, and institutional and financial arrangements. The conference was an extension of other large international conferences organized under UN initiative over the past 15 years. The Beijing platform of action aims to remove all obstacles to women's active participation in all spheres of public and private life through a full and equal share in economic, social, cultural, and political decision-making. The following concerns were defined by the conference: eradicating poverty, increasing school enrollment and eliminating gender inequalities in access to education, improving access to health care and eliminating gender inequalities in access to services, eliminating violence against women, mitigating the consequences of armed conflicts against women, securing equal access of men and women to economic resources and employment, providing equal participation of men and women in power structures and decision making, enhancing national mechanisms to promote the advancement of women, protecting the rights of girls and women, eradicating stereotypes about women, participating in the management of natural resources and environmental protection, and improving the status of girls.

  16. Mandibular asymmetry and the fourth dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Leonard B

    2009-03-01

    This paper represents more than 30 years of discussion and collaboration with Drs Joseph Murray and John Mulliken in an attempt to understand growth patterns over time (ie, fourth dimension) in patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM). This is essential for the development of rational treatment protocols for children and adults with jaw asymmetry. Traditionally, HFM was thought of as a unilateral deformity, but it was recognized that 20% to 30% of patients had bilateral abnormalities. However, early descriptions of skeletal correction addressed almost exclusively lengthening of the short (affected) side of the face. Based on longitudinal clinical observations of unoperated HFM patients, we hypothesized that abnormal mandibular growth is the earliest skeletal manifestation and that restricted growth of the mandible plays a pivotal role in progressive distortion of both the ipsilateral and contralateral facial skeleton. This hypothesis explains the progressive nature of the asymmetry in patients with HFM and provides the rationale for surgical lengthening of the mandible in children to prevent end-stage deformity. During the past 30 years, we have learned that this phenomenon of progressive distortion of the adjacent and contralateral facial skeleton occurs with other asymmetric mandibular undergrowth (tumor resection, radiation therapy, or posttraumatic defects) and overgrowth (mandibular condylar hyperplasia) conditions. In this paper, I describe the progression of deformity with time in patients with mandibular asymmetry as a result of undergrowth and overgrowth. Understanding these concepts is critical for the development of rational treatment protocols for adults with end-stage asymmetry and for children to minimize secondary deformity.

  17. Neural crest: The fourth germ layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shyamala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural crest cells (NCCs, a transient group of cells that emerges from the dorsal aspect of the neural tube during early vertebrate development has been a fascinating group of cells because of its multipotency, long range migration through embryo and its capacity to generate a prodigious number of differentiated cell types. For these reasons, although derived from the ectoderm, the neural crest (NC has been called the fourth germ layer. The non neural ectoderm, the neural plate and the underlying mesoderm are needed for the induction and formation of NC cells. Once formed, NC cells start migrating as a wave of cells, moving away from the neuroepithelium and quickly splitting into distinct streams. These migrating NCCs home in to different regions and give rise to plethora of tissues. Umpteen number of signaling molecules are essential for formation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, delamination, migration and localization of NCC. Authors believe that a clear understanding of steps and signals involved in NC formation, migration, etc., may help in understanding the pathogenesis behind cancer metastasis and many other diseases. Hence, we have taken this review to discuss the various aspects of the NC cells.

  18. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Declan T; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Mandall, Nicky A

    2016-10-25

    Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment. Brackets are usually attached to the front and side teeth, whereas bands (metal rings that go round the teeth) are more commonly used on the back teeth (molars). A number of adhesives are available to attach bands to teeth and it is important to understand which group of adhesives bond most reliably, as well as reducing or preventing dental decay during the treatment period. To evaluate the effectiveness of the adhesives used to attach bands to teeth during fixed appliance treatment, in terms of:(1) how often the bands come off during treatment; and(2) whether they protect the banded teeth against decay during fixed appliance treatment. The following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 2 June 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 5) in the Cochrane Library (searched 2 June 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 2 June 2016) and EMBASE Ovid (1980 to 2 June 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) (including split-mouth studies) of adhesives used to attach orthodontic bands to molar teeth were selected. Patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) who had bands attached to molars were included. All review authors

  19. Field-Based Concerns about Fourth-Generation Evaluation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Morris K.

    Some aspects of fourth generation evaluation procedures that have been advocated by E. G. Guba and Y. S. Lincoln were examined empirically, with emphasis on areas where there have been discrepancies between theory and field-based experience. In fourth generation evaluation, the product of an evaluation is not a set of conclusions, recommendations,…

  20. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  1. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  2. An isolated fourth ventricle in neurosarcoidosis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselmann, Volker; Terstegge, Klaus; Schulte, Oliver; Krug, Barbara; Lackner, Klaus [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany); Wedekind, Christoph [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany); Voges, Juergen [Department of Stereotaxy und Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    We report on an isolated enlargement of the fourth ventricle in a patient with neurosarcoidosis which developed 3 years after the insertion of a ventriculo-atrial shunt. Repeated MRI images were obtained in a patient with known neurosarcoidosis between 1995 and 2000. Imaging findings were correlated to the medical course of the patient, who developed a hydrocephalus and a trapped fourth ventricle consecutively. The isolation was presumably due to granulomatous inflammation of the ependyma surrounding the fourth ventricular outlets. The isolated fourth ventricle was responsible for a deterioration of neurological status. Neurosarcoidosis is a severe complication in sarcoidosis patients. An isolated enlargement of the fourth ventricle is a rare complication in clinically deteriorated patients with neurosarcoidosis and ventricular drainage, which may require neurosurgical treatment. (orig.)

  3. Syringomyelia regression after shunting of a trapped fourth ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukagjin Morina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of progressive syringomyelia following post-infectious trapped fourth ventricle (TFV, which resolved after shunting of the fourth ventricle. A 28-year-old female who had previously undergone treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage and meningitis developed a hydrocephalus with TFV. After 3 years she developed disturbance of walking and coordination. Cranial-CT revealed an enlargement of the shunted fourth ventricle as a result of shunt dysfunction. Furthermore a cervical syringomyelia developed. The patient underwent a revision of a failed fourth ventriculo- peritoneal shunt. Postoperatively, syringomyelia resolved within 6 months and the associated neurological deficits improved significantly. An insufficiency of cerebrospinal fluid draining among patients with TFV can be associated with communicating syringomyelia. An early detection and treatment seems important on resolving syringomyelia and avoiding permanent neurological deficits. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in trapped fourth ventricles can resolve a secondary syringomyelia.

  4. Proceedings: Fourth Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, C

    2001-07-24

    Commercial applications of data mining in areas such as e-commerce, market-basket analysis, text-mining, and web-mining have taken on a central focus in the JCDD community. However, there is a significant amount of innovative data mining work taking place in the context of scientific and engineering applications that is not well represented in the mainstream KDD conferences. For example, scientific data mining techniques are being developed and applied to diverse fields such as remote sensing, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, structural mechanics, computational fluid dynamics etc. In these areas, data mining frequently complements and enhances existing analysis methods based on statistics, exploratory data analysis, and domain-specific approaches. On the surface, it may appear that data from one scientific field, say genomics, is very different from another field, such as physics. However, despite their diversity, there is much that is common across the mining of scientific and engineering data. For example, techniques used to identify objects in images are very similar, regardless of whether the images came from a remote sensing application, a physics experiment, an astronomy observation, or a medical study. Further, with data mining being applied to new types of data, such as mesh data from scientific simulations, there is the opportunity to apply and extend data mining to new scientific domains. This one-day workshop brings together data miners analyzing science data and scientists from diverse fields to share their experiences, learn how techniques developed in one field can be applied in another, and better understand some of the newer techniques being developed in the KDD community. This is the fourth workshop on the topic of Mining Scientific Data sets; for information on earlier workshops, see http://www.ahpcrc.org/conferences/. This workshop continues the tradition of addressing challenging problems in a field where the diversity of applications is

  5. Intraluminal penetration of the band in patients with adjustable silicone gastric banding: radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E. [Cattedra di Radiologia R, Univ. di Genova (Italy); Camerini, G.; Gianetta, E.; Marinari, G.M.; Scopinaro, N. [Semeiotica Chirurgica R, Univ. di Genova (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse radiological findings in patients surgically treated for adjustable silicone gastric banding (ASGB) for morbid obesity complicated by band penetration into the gastric lumen. We reviewed the records of four patients with surgically confirmed penetration of gastric band into the gastric lumen; three had preoperative opaque meal, one only a plain abdominal film. Vomiting was the presenting symptom in two cases, whereas others had new weight gain and loss of early satiety. Two patients had normally closed bands: radiography showed that their position had changed from previous controls and the barium meal had passed out of their lumen. Two patients had an open band. One patient had the band at the duodeno-jejunal junction, and the tube connecting the band to the subcutaneous port presented a winding course suggesting the duodenum. In the other case, both plain film and barium studies failed to demonstrate with certainty the intragastric position of the band. As ASGB is becoming widely used, radiologists need to be familiar with its appearances and its complications. Band penetration into the stomach is a serious complication which needs band removal. Patients with this problem, often with non-specific symptoms and even those who are asymptomatic, are encountered during radiographic examinations requested either for gastric problems or follow-up purposes, and have to be properly diagnosed. (orig.)

  6. POSlTlVE SOLUTl0NS 0F A FOURTH 0RDER BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenLishun

    2003-01-01

    The existence of positive solutions of the nonlinear fourth order problem u(4)(x)=λα(x)f(u(x)),u(0)=u′(0)=u′(1)=um(1)=0 is studied,where a:[0,1]→R may change sign,f(0)>0,λ>0 is sufficiently small.Our approach is based on the Leray-Schauder fixed point theorem.

  7. Band-Structure of Thallium by the LMTO Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtham, P. M.; Jan, J. P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1977-01-01

    The relativistic band structure of thallium has been calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method. The positions and extents of the bands were found to follow the Wigner-Seitz rule approximately, and the origin of the dispersion of the bands was established from the canonical s...

  8. ΔI = 2 Nuclear Staggering in Superdeformed Rotational Bands

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha M. D.

    2014-01-01

    A four parameters model including collective rotational en ergies to fourth order is ap- plied to reproduce the ∆ I = 2 staggering in transition energies in four selected super deformed rotational bands, namely, 148 Gd (SD6), 194 Hg (SD1, SD2, SD3). The model parameters and the spin of the bandhead have been extracted a ssuming various val- ues to the lowest spin of the bandhead at nearest integer, in o rder to obtain a minim...

  9. The endoscopic trans-fourth ventricle aqueductoplasty and stent placement for the treatment of trapped fourth ventricle: Long-term results in a series of 18 consecutive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gallo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different surgical approaches have been described in the past to treat a trapped fourth ventricle (TFV but, unfortunately, these techniques showed a high rate of dysfunction and complications. During the last 10 years the development of neuroendoscopy has dramatically changed the outcome of these patients. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective evaluation of the safety, effectiveness, and long-term outcome of endoscopic aqueductoplasty and stent placement, performed in 18 consecutive patients with symptomatic TFV through a trans-fourth ventricle approach between 1994 and 2010. Thirteen patients underwent endoscopic aqueductoplasty and stent placement and 5 patients underwent aqueductoplasty alone using a tailored suboccipital approach through the foramen of Magendie in prone or sitting position. Results: The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 15.2 years. All patients but 3 had a supratentorial ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Fifteen patients presented with slit supratentorial ventricles. At a mean followup of 90.8 months all patients experienced a stable clinical improvement. Only two complications were observed: A transient diplopia due to dysconjugate eye movements in one patient and a transient trochlear palsy in another one. Conclusions: Our experience and the literature review suggest that endoscopic trans-fourth ventricle aqueductoplasty and stent placement is a minimally invasive, safe, and effective technique for the treatment of TFV and should be strongly recommended, especially in patients with supratentorial slit ventricles.

  10. Deep $z$-band observations of the coolest Y dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Kopytova, Taisiya G; Deacon, Niall R; Brandner, Wolfgang; Buenzli, Esther; Bayo, Amelia; Schlieder, Joshua E; Manjavacas, Elena; Biller, Beth A; Kopon, Derek

    2014-01-01

    WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (hereafter, WISE 0855-07) is the coolest Y dwarf known to date and is located at a distance of 2.31$\\pm 0.08$ pc, giving it the fourth largest parallax of any known star or brown dwarf system. We report deep $z$-band observations of WISE 0855-07 using FORS2 on UT1/VLT. We do not detect any counterpart to WISE 0855-07 in our $z$-band images and estimate a brightness upper limit of AB mag $>$ 24.8 ($F_{\

  11. Combined search for the quarks of a sequential fourth generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.

    2012-12-01

    Results are presented from a search for a fourth generation of quarks produced singly or in pairs in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5fb-1 recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2011. A novel strategy has been developed for a combined search for quarks of the up and down type in decay channels with at least one isolated muon or electron. Limits on the mass of the fourth-generation quarks and the relevant Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements are derived in the context of a simple extension of the standard model with a sequential fourth generation of fermions. The existence of mass-degenerate fourth-generation quarks with masses below 685 GeV is excluded at 95% confidence level for minimal off-diagonal mixing between the third- and the fourth-generation quarks. With a mass difference of 25 GeV between the quark masses, the obtained limit on the masses of the fourth-generation quarks shifts by about ±20GeV. These results significantly reduce the allowed parameter space for a fourth generation of fermions.

  12. Extended collective bands in neutron-rich 109Ru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Huai-Bo; ZHU Sheng-Jiang; J.H. Hamilton; A.V. Ramayya; J. K. Hwang; K. Li; S.H. Liu; Y.X. Luo; J.O. Rasmussen; C.T. Goodin; I. Y. Lee; WANG Jian-Guo; CHE Xing-Lai; GU Long

    2009-01-01

    Levels in the neutron-rich 109Ru have been studied by observing the prompt γ-rays following the spontaneous fission fragments of 252Cf. The ground state band and the negative parity bands have been confirmed and extended. A positive parity band with the band head level at 332.5 keV is newly identified and suggested as a single-neutron excitation band built on the 7/2+ [404] Nilsson orbital. Some structural characteristics of these bands are discussed.

  13. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  14. The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle and brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Bollam, Papireddy; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective The superior transvelar approach is used to access pathologies located in the fourth ventricle and brainstem. The surgical path is below the venous structures, through the superior medullary velum. Following splitting the tentorial edge, near the tentorial apex, the superior medullary velum is split in the cerebello-mesencephalic fissure. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial, transtentorial or parietal interhemispheric routes, the superior medullary velum is approached. Splitting this velum provides a detailed view of the fourth ventricle and its floor. Materials and Methods A total of 10 formalin-fixed specimens were dissected in a stepwise manner to simulate the superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle. The exposure gained the distance from the craniotomy site and the ease of access was assessed for each of the routes. We also present an illustrative case, operated by the senior author (AN). Results The superior transvelar approach provides access to the entire length of the fourth ventricle floor, from the aqueduct to the obex, when using the parietal interhemispheric route. In addition, this approach provides access to the entire width of the floor of the fourth ventricle; however, this requires retracting the superior cerebellar peduncle. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial route gives a limited exposure of the superior part of the fourth ventricle. The occipital interhemispheric route is a compromise between these two. Conclusion The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle provides a route for approaching the fourth ventricle from above. This approach does not require opening the posterior fossa in the traditional way, and provides a reasonable alternative for accessing the superior fourth ventricle.

  15. Prediction bands and intervals for the scapulo-humeral coordination based on the Bootstrap and two Gaussian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutti, A G; Parel, I; Raggi, M; Petracci, E; Pellegrini, A; Accardo, A P; Sacchetti, R; Porcellini, G

    2014-03-21

    Quantitative motion analysis protocols have been developed to assess the coordination between scapula and humerus. However, the application of these protocols to test whether a subject's scapula resting position or pattern of coordination is "normal", is precluded by the unavailability of reference prediction intervals and bands, respectively. The aim of this study was to present such references for the "ISEO" protocol, by using the non-parametric Bootstrap approach and two parametric Gaussian methods (based on Student's T and Normal distributions). One hundred and eleven asymptomatic subjects were divided into three groups based on their age (18-30, 31-50, and 51-70). For each group, "monolateral" prediction bands and intervals were computed for the scapulo-humeral patterns and the scapula resting orientation, respectively. A fourth group included the 36 subjects (42 ± 13 year-old) for whom the scapulo-humeral coordination was measured bilaterally, and "differential" prediction bands and intervals were computed, which describe right-to-left side differences. Bootstrap and Gaussian methods were compared using cross-validation analyses, by evaluating the coverage probability in comparison to a 90% target. Results showed a mean coverage for Bootstrap from 86% to 90%, compared to 67-70% for parametric bands and 87-88% for parametric intervals. Bootstrap prediction bands showed a distinctive change in amplitude and mean pattern related to age, with an increase toward scapula retraction, lateral rotation and posterior tilt. In conclusion, Bootstrap ensures an optimal coverage and should be preferred over parametric methods. Moreover, the stratification of "monolateral" prediction bands and intervals by age appears relevant for the correct classification of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Progressive Band Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  17. Yangzhou’s Famous Twenty-fourth Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    “LOOMING green moun-tains and runningstreams;grass does notwither and fall,though the autumnhas come to an end in the south.The bright moon arises overTwenty-fourth Bridge.Where doyou teach pure-jade Yangzhouwomen to play music on bambooflutes?”This poem by Du Mu(803-c.852),a famous poet of thelate Tang Dynasty,is well remem-bered today It made Yangzhou’sTwenty-fourth Bridge Known to la-ter generations.Of many ancientpoems about Twenty-fourth Bridge

  18. Fourth-order partial differential equations for effective image denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjai Kim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns mathematical image denoising methods incorporating fourth-order partial differential equations (PDEs. We introduce and analyze piecewise planarity conditions (PPCs with which unconstrained fourth-order variational models in continuum converge to a piecewise planar image. It has been observed that fourth-order variational models holding PPCs can restore better images than models without PPCs and second-order models. Numerical schemes are presented in detail and various examples in image denoising are provided to verify the claim.

  19. Spectral estimates for periodic fourth order operators

    CERN Document Server

    Badanin, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    We consider the operator $H={d^4dt^4}+{ddt}p{ddt}+q$ with 1-periodic coefficients on the real line. The spectrum of $H$ is absolutely continuous and consists of intervals separated by gaps. We describe the spectrum of this operator in terms of the Lyapunov function, which is analytic on a two-sheeted Riemann surface. On each sheet the Lyapunov function has the standard properties of the Lyapunov function for the scalar case. We describe the spectrum of $H$ in terms of periodic, antiperiodic eigenvalues, and so-called resonances. We prove that 1) the spectrum of $H$ at high energy has multiplicity two, 2) the asymptotics of the periodic, antiperiodic eigenvalues and of the resonances are determined at high energy, 3) for some specific $p$ the spectrum of $H$ has an infinite number of gaps, 4) the spectrum of $H$ has small spectral band (near the beginner of the spectrum) with multiplicity 4 and its asymptotics are determined as $p\\to 0, q=0$.

  20. On a Fourth-order Eigenvalue Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ We consider the existence of positive solutions for the equation d4y/dx4-λf(x,y(x))=0,(1) with one of the following sets of boundary value conditions y(0)=y(1)=y"(0)=y"(1)=0,(2) y(0)=y′(1)=y"(0)=y"′(1)=0.(3)

  1. The radial velocity experiment (RAVE) : Fourth data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Boeche, C.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Zwitter, T.; Binney, J.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Williams, M. E. K.; Piffl, T.; Enke, H.; Roeser, S.; Bijaoui, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Freeman, K.; Munari, U.; Carrillo, I.; Anguiano, B.; Burton, D.; Campbell, R.; Cass, C. J. P.; Fiegert, K.; Hartley, M.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Ritter, A.; Russell, K. S.; Stupar, M.; Watson, F. G.; Bienayme, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Gerhard, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Conrad, C.; Famaey, B.; Faure, C.; Just, A.; Kos, J.; Matijevic, G.; McMillan, P. J.; Minchev, I.; Scholz, R.; Sharma, S.; Siviero, A.; de Boer, E. Wylie; Zerjal, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances, and distances determined for 425,561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar atm

  2. Development of neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy after fourth ventricle tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Doroshenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of the development of neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy that had the characteristics of Takotsubo cardiomyopathyin a young female patient in the early periods after fourth ventricle tumor surgery.

  3. Development of neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy after fourth ventricle tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Doroshenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of the development of neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy that had the characteristics of Takotsubo cardiomyopathyin a young female patient in the early periods after fourth ventricle tumor surgery.

  4. The Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE): Fourth Data Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Boeche, C.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Zwitter, T.; Binney, J.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Williams, M. E. K.; Piffl, T.; Enke, H.; Roeser, S.; Bijaoui, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Freeman, K.; Munari, U.; Carrillo, I.; Anguiano, B.; Burton, D.; Campbell, R.; Cass, C. J. P.; Fiegert, K.; Hartley, M.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Ritter, A.; Russell, K. S.; Stupar, M.; Watson, F. G.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Gerhard, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Conrad, C.; Famaey, B.; Faure, C.; Just, A.; Kos, J.; Matijevič, G.; McMillan, P. J.; Minchev, I.; Scholz, R.; Sharma, S.; Siviero, A.; de Boer, E. Wylie; Žerjal, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances, and distances determined for 425,561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar atm

  5. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - Fourth Quarter 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2009-12-31

    The Fourth Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  6. Iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Ronald

    2010-07-20

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy.

  7. Combined search for the quarks of a sequential fourth generation

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented from a search for a fourth generation of quarks produced singly or in pairs in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5 inverse femtobarns recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2011. A novel strategy has been developed for a combined search for quarks of the up- and down-type in decay channels with at least one isolated muon or electron. Limits on the mass of the fourth-generation quarks and the relevant CKM matrix elements are derived in the context of a simple extension of the standard model with a sequential fourth generation of fermions. The existence of mass-degenerate fourth-generation quarks with masses below 685 GeV is excluded at 95% confidence level for minimal off-diagonal mixing between the third- and the fourth-generation quarks. With a mass difference of 25 GeV between the quark masses, the obtained limit on the masses of the fourth-generation quarks shifts by about +/- 20 GeV. This result significantly reduces the allowed parameter space for a fourt...

  8. Spectrum of a class of fourth order left-definite differential operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yun-lan; SUN Jiong

    2008-01-01

    The spectrum of a class of fourth order left-definite differential operators is studied. By using the theory of indefinite differential operators in Krein space and the relationship between left-definite and right-definite operators,the following conclusions are obtained: if a fourth order differential operator with a self-adjoint boundary condition that is left-definite and right-indefinite,then all its eigenvalues are real,and there exist countably infinitely many positive and negative eigenvalues which are unbounded from below and above,have no finite cluster point and can be indexed to satisfy the inequality …≤λ-2≤λ-1≤λ-0<0<λ0≤λ1≤λ2≤…

  9. Diet after gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helps people who have a gastric band stay satisfied longer. This includes things like salad with grilled ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  10. Automated coregistration of MTI spectral bands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiler, J. P. (James P.); Galbraith, A. E. (Amy E.); Pope, P. A. (Paul A.); Ramsey, K. A. (Keri A.); Szymanski, J. J. (John J.)

    2002-01-01

    In the focal plane of a pushbroom imager, a linear array of pixels is scanned across the scene, building up the image one row at a time. For the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI), each of fifteen different spectral bands has its own linear array. These arrays are pushed across the scene together, but since each band's array is at a different position on the focal plane, a separate image is produced for each band. The standard MTI data products resample these separate images to a common grid and produce coregistered multispectral image cubes. The coregistration software employs a direct 'dead reckoning' approach. Every pixel in the calibrated image is mapped to an absolute position on the surface of the earth, and these are resampled to produce an undistorted coregistered image of the scene. To do this requires extensive information regarding the satellite position and pointing as a function of time, the precise configuration of the focal plane, and the distortion due to the optics. These must be combined with knowledge about the position and altitude of the target on the rotating ellipsoidal earth. We will discuss the direct approach to MTI coregistration, as well as more recent attempts to 'tweak' the precision of the band-to-band registration using correlations in the imagery itself.

  11. The UK fuel poverty strategy: Fourth annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-02

    This is the fourth annual progress report on the UK Fuel Poverty Strategy. It presents positive news over figures and funding, growing evidence of increased engagement in tackling fuel poverty and a snapshot of the UK-wide situation. All of this appears alongside a realistic assessment of the impact of energy price rises and the outlook for the future, both in the medium and long-term. The report provides an update on the actions taken over the last twelve months. The report offers the first opportunity to look at the new phase of the Warm Front Scheme in England, and to explore what the additional funding will mean for the future. Progress and developments in the Schemes across the devolved nations are also considered. The fuel poverty figures for 2004 are presented. The number of vulnerable households in fuel poverty in England in 2004 remained at 1.0 million. This figure is down from four million in 1996.The overall number of households in fuel poverty in England also remained at a similar level of 1.2 million. The UK-wide figures remained broadly the same, with two million households in fuel poverty overall and one and a half million of those in the vulnerable category. The results of detailed modelling work to determine what the implications of recent energy price rises will be for the 2010 target in England are given. Finally, this report is accompanied by a series of internet-based annexes which provide more detail on the progress made in tackling fuel poverty by both Government and industry. These include more in-depth statistics on the demographic, geographic and socio-economic breakdowns of fuel poverty and a broader outline of the actions taken in this area by energy suppliers across the UK. (UK)

  12. Electrostatic beam-position monitor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    Electrostatic beam-position monitor installed in its final location (bake-out cover removed). The ISR will contain about 110 of these monitors. Their accuracy is better than 1 mm, their band width about 1 MHz.

  13. Photonic band gap materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassagne, D.

    Photonic band gap materials Photonic band gap materials are periodic dielectric structures that control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. We describe the plane wave method, which allows to calculate the band structures of photonic crystals. By symmetry analysis and a perturbative approach, we predict the appearance of the low energy photonic band gaps of hexagonal structures. We propose new two-dimensional structures called graphite and boron nitride. Using a transfer matrix method, we calculate the transmission of the graphite structure and we show the crucial role of the coupling with external modes. We study the appearance of allowed modes in the photonic band gap by the introduction of localized defects in the periodicity. Finally, we discuss the properties of opals formed by self-organized silica microspheres, which are very promising for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals. Les matériaux à bandes interdites photoniques sont des structures diélectriques périodiques qui contrôlent la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques. Nous décrivons la méthode des ondes planes qui permet de calculer les structures de bandes des cristaux photoniques. Par une analyse de la symétrie et une approche perturbative, nous précisons les conditions d'existence des bandes interdites de basse énergie. Nous proposons de nouvelles structures bidimensionnelles appelées graphite et nitrure de bore. Grâce à une méthode de matrices de transfert, nous calculons la transmission de la structure graphite et nous mettons en évidence le rôle fondamental du couplage avec les modes extérieurs. Nous étudions l'apparition de modes permis dans la bande interdite grâce à l'introduction de défauts dans la périodicité. Enfin, nous discutons les propriétés des opales constituées de micro-billes de silice auto-organisées, qui sont très prometteuses pour la fabrication de cristaux photoniques tridimensionnels.

  14. Magnetic Dipole Band in 113^In

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马克岩; 杨东; 陆景彬; 王烈林; 王辉东; 刘运祚; 刘弓冶; 李黎; 马英君; 杨森; 李广生; 贺创业; 李雪琴

    2012-01-01

    High spin states in the odd-A nucleus 113^In have been investigated using the re- action 110^Pd(7^Li, 4n) at a beam energy of 50 MeV. A new positive parity dipole band with the configuration of π(g9/2)^-lv(h11/2)^2 v (g7/2)^2 is established. The effective interaction V(θ) values of this band have been successfully described by a semiclassical geometric model based on shear mechanism, which show that the dipole band has the characteristics of magnetic rotation. In addition the collective rotational angular momentum for this band is extracted. The results show that the core contribution increases gradually with the increase of the rotation frequency.

  15. Dark Coulomb binding of heavy neutrinos of fourth family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotsky, K. M.; Esipova, E. A.; Khlopov, M. Yu.; Laletin, M. N.

    2015-11-01

    Direct dark matter searches put severe constraints on the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These constraints cause serious troubles for the model of stable neutrino of fourth generation with mass around 50GeV. Though the calculations of primordial abundance of these particles make them in the charge symmetric case a sparse subdominant component of the modern dark matter, their presence in the universe would exceed the current upper limits by several orders of the magnitude. However, if quarks and leptons of fourth generation possess their own Coulomb-like y-interaction, recombination of pairs of heavy neutrinos and antineutrinos and their annihilation in the “neutrinium” atoms can play important role in their cosmological evolution, reducing their modern abundance far below the experimental upper limits. The model of stable fourth generation assumes that the dominant part of dark matter is explained by excessive Ū antiquarks, forming (ŪŪŪ)-- charged clusters, bound with primordial helium in nuclear-interacting O-helium (OHe) dark atoms. The y charge conservation implies generation of the same excess of fourth generation neutrinos, potentially dangerous WIMP component of this scenario. We show that due to y-interaction recombination of fourth neutrinos with OHe hides these WIMPs from direct WIMP searches, leaving the negligible fraction of free neutrinos, what makes their existence compatible with the experimental constraints.

  16. Opportunities and threats of the fourth industrial revolution and their reflection in the selection of innovative growth strategies

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Illiashenko; N.S. Illiashenko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article. Analysis and systematization of possible effects of the fourth industrial revolution both positive and negative, development of recommendations for innovative development strategies formation which would allow the use of opportunities for social and economic growth and will prevent treats. The results of the analysis. Based on a systematic analysis of the literature and practice of management allocated the positive and negative effects of the introduction of innovat...

  17. Gravitational Lensing by Fourth Order Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Stabile, A

    2011-01-01

    For a general class of analytic $f(R,R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta},R_{\\alpha\\beta\\gamma\\delta}R^{\\alpha\\beta\\gamma\\delta})$ we discuss the gravitational lensing in the Newtonian Limit of theory. From the properties of Gauss Bonnet invariant it is successful to consider only two curvature invariants between the Ricci and Riemann tensor. Then we analyze the dynamics of photon embedded in a gravitational field of a generic $f(R,R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta})$-Gravity. The metric is time independent and spherically symmetric. The metric potentials are Schwarzschild-like, but there are two additional Yukawa terms linked to derivatives of $f$ with respect to two curvature invariants. Considering the case of a point-like lens, and after of a generic matter distribution of lens, we study the deflection angle and the images angular position. Though the additional Yukawa terms in the gravitational potential modifies dynamics with respect to General Relativity, the geodesic trajectory of photon is unaffected by the mo...

  18. Results of the fourth Hanna field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covell, J. R.; Wojdac, L. F.; Barbour, F. A.; Gardner, G. W.; Glass, R.; Hommert, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The second phase (Hanna IVB) of a coal gasification experiment near Hanna, Wyoming, was completed in September 1979. The experiment attempted to link and gasify coal between process wells spaced 34.3 meters apart. Intermediate wells were positioned between the process wells so that the link could be relayed over shorter distances. Reverse combustion linking was attempted over a 22.9-meter and a 11.4-meter distance of the total well spacing. Thermal activity was generally noted in the upper 3 meters of the coal seam during the link. Two attempts to gasify over the 34.3-meter distance resulted in the propagation of the burn front at the coal overburden interface. Post-burn evaluation indicates fractures as major influencing factors of the combustion process. The Hanna IVB field test provided much insight into influence that geologic features have on in situ coal combustion. The influence of these faults, permeable zones, and cleats, on the air flow patterns can drastically change the overall results of a gasification experiment and should be studied further. The overall results of Hanna IVB were discouraging because of the rapid decline in the heating values for the production gas and the amount of coal gasified. With more complete geologic characerization prior to experimentation and proper well completions, it is believed that most of the subsurface operational problems encountered during Hanna IV could have been avoided.

  19. Single phase 3D phononic band gap material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmuth, Franziska; Wormser, Maximilian; Körner, Carolin

    2017-06-19

    Phononic band gap materials are capable of prohibiting the propagation of mechanical waves in certain frequency ranges. Band gaps are produced by combining different phases with different properties within one material. In this paper, we present a novel cellular material consisting of only one phase with a phononic band gap. Different phases are modelled by lattice structure design based on eigenmode analysis. Test samples are built from a titanium alloy using selective electron beam melting. For the first time, the predicted phononic band gaps via FEM simulation are experimentally verified. In addition, it is shown how the position and extension of the band gaps can be tuned by utilizing knowledge-based design.

  20. Band-notched reconfigurable CPW-fed UWB antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, H. A.; Rahim, M. K. A.; Hamid, M. R.; Murad, N. A.; Samsuri, N. A.; Yusof, M. F. M.; Kamarudin, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    A reconfigurable band-notched CPW-fed UWB antenna using electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure is proposed. Two structures are positioned adjacent to the transmission line of the UWB antenna. The band-notched characteristic can be disabled by switching the state of switch place at the strip line. The EBG structure produces reconfigurable band notched at 4.0 GHz, which covers C-band satellite communication (3.625-4.2 GHz) systems. The proposed antenna is suitable for UWB systems, which requires reconfigurable band reject function.

  1. Flat-Band Potential of a Semiconductor: Using the Mott-Schottky Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, K.; L. Lee; Donne, S. W.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment is suitable for fourth-year undergraduate and graduate students in which the nature of the semiconductor materials through determination of flat-band potential using the Mott-Schottky equation is explored. The experiment confirms the soundness of the technique.

  2. The feature extraction of ship radiated noise with Fourth Order Cumulant diagonal slice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yangyu; SUN Jincai; HAO Chongyang; LI Ya'an

    2004-01-01

    After analyzed Fourth Order Cumulant (FOC) of harmonic signals theoretically, the FOC is divided into three parts. The first is the cubic frequency (phase) coupling components.The second is the double frequency (phase) coupling components (ω1 + ω2 = ω3 + ω4). The last is the rest components. On the basis of the study, the FOC diagonal slice is used to extract the cubic frequency (phase) coupling feature, double frequency (phase) coupling feature and the "sub-band energy" feature of ship-radiated noise. In terms of the fea tures, the three type ships are classified by artificial neural network. The correct classification rates of A, B and C ships are 92.5%, 92.7%, 88.6%, respectively. The results show the method is effective and practical.

  3. Differences between first and fourth year medical students' interest in pursuing careers in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Monica H; Carter, Mary

    2016-05-24

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the differences in the attitudes of first and fourth-year medical students regarding careers in academics. We also sought to identify any factors associated with an increased interest in academic medicine. A cross-sectional study was conducted during October 2013 at the University of Louisville. All first and fourth year medical students were invited to complete an online survey utilizing a survey instrument developed through literature review. Demographic data and information about background experiences were collected in addition to participants' perceptions regarding careers in academia using a 5-point Likert scale. Participants were also queried about their current interest in a career in academics and the likelihood they would pursue academic medicine. Of the 330 potential participants, 140 (42.4%) agreed to participate. Overall, fourth-years reported a higher likelihood of pursuing an academic career than first-years. Research experience, publications, distinction track interest or involvement, and belief that a career in academics would reduce salary potential were positively correlated with reported likelihood of pursuing academic medicine. Findings from this pilot study demonstrate differences in interest in academic medicine between junior and senior medical students. Additionally, several factors were associated with a high likelihood of self-reported interest in academic. Based on these findings, efforts to increase medical students' interest in academic medicine careers could be supported by providing more research and teaching opportunities or distinction track options as a structured part of the medical school curriculum.

  4. Distribution Free Prediction Bands

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Jing

    2012-01-01

    We study distribution free, nonparametric prediction bands with a special focus on their finite sample behavior. First we investigate and develop different notions of finite sample coverage guarantees. Then we give a new prediction band estimator by combining the idea of "conformal prediction" (Vovk et al. 2009) with nonparametric conditional density estimation. The proposed estimator, called COPS (Conformal Optimized Prediction Set), always has finite sample guarantee in a stronger sense than the original conformal prediction estimator. Under regularity conditions the estimator converges to an oracle band at a minimax optimal rate. A fast approximation algorithm and a data driven method for selecting the bandwidth are developed. The method is illustrated first in simulated data. Then, an application shows that the proposed method gives desirable prediction intervals in an automatic way, as compared to the classical linear regression modeling.

  5. Accurate band-to-band registration of AOTF imaging spectrometer using motion detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pengwei; Zhao, Huijie; Jin, Shangzhong; Li, Ningchuan

    2016-05-01

    This paper concerns the problem of platform vibration induced band-to-band misregistration with acousto-optic imaging spectrometer in spaceborne application. Registrating images of different bands formed at different time or different position is difficult, especially for hyperspectral images form acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer. In this study, a motion detection method is presented using the polychromatic undiffracted beam of AOTF. The factors affecting motion detect accuracy are analyzed theoretically, and calculations show that optical distortion is an easily overlooked factor to achieve accurate band-to-band registration. Hence, a reflective dual-path optical system has been proposed for the first time, with reduction of distortion and chromatic aberration, indicating the potential of higher registration accuracy. Consequently, a spectra restoration experiment using additional motion detect channel is presented for the first time, which shows the accurate spectral image registration capability of this technique.

  6. Adiabatic Shear Localization for Steels Based on Johnson-Cook Model and Second- and Fourth-Order Gradient Plasticity Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin

    2007-01-01

    To consider the effects of the interactions and interplay among microstructures, gradient-dependent models of second- and fourth-order are included in the widely used phenomenological Johnson-Cook model where the effects of strain-hardening, strain rate sensitivity, and thermal-softening are successfully described. The various parameters for 1006 steel, 4340 steel and S-7 tool steel are assigned. The distributions and evolutions of the local plastic shear strain and deformation in adiabatic shear band (ASB) are predicted. The calculated results of the second- and fourth-order gradient plasticity models are compared. S-7 tool steel possesses the steepest profile of local plastic shear strain in ASB, whereas 1006 steel has the least profile. The peak local plastic shear strain in ASB for S-7 tool steel is slightly higher than that for 4340 steel and is higher than that for 1006 steel. The extent of the nonlinear distribution of the local plastic shear deformation in ASB is more apparent for the S-7 tool steel, whereas it is the least apparent for 1006 steel. In fourth-order gradient plasticity model, the profile of the local plastic shear strain in the middle of ASB has a pronounced plateau whose width decreases with increasing average plastic shear strain, leading to a shrink of the portion of linear distribution of the profile of the local plastic shear deformation. When compared with the second-order gradient plasticity model, the fourth-order gradient plasticity model shows a lower peak local plastic shear strain in ASB and a higher magnitude of plastic shear deformation at the top or base of ASB, which is due to wider ASB. The present numerical results of the second- and fourth-order gradient plasticity models are consistent with the previous numerical and experimental results at least qualitatively.

  7. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  8. Two New Fourth-Order Three-Stage Symplectic Integrators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rong; WU Xin

    2011-01-01

    Two new fourth-order three-stage symplectic integrators are specifically designed for a family of Hamiltonian systems,such as the harmonic oscillator,mathematical pendulum and lattice ψ4 model.When the nonintegrable lattice ψ4 system is taken as a test model,numerical comparisons show that the new methods have a great advantage over the second-order Verlet symplectic integrators in the accuracy of energy,become explicitly better than the usual non-gradient fourth-order seven-stage symplectic integrator of Forest and Ruth,and are almost equivalent to a fourth-order seven-stage force gradient symplectic integrator of Chin.As the most important advantage,the new integrators are convenient for solving the variational equations of many Hamiltonian systems so as to save a great deal of the computational cost when scanning a lot of orbits for chaos.

  9. Towards Reviving Electroweak Baryogenesis with a Fourth Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    universe. However, it does not work within the standard model due to two reasons: (1 the strength of CP violation from the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism with three generations is too small; (2 the electroweak phase transition is not first order for the experimentally allowed Higgs boson mass. We discuss possibilities to solve these problems by introducing a fourth generation of fermions and how electroweak baryogenesis might be revived. We also discuss briefly the recent observation of a Higgs-like boson with mass around 125 GeV, which puts the fourth generation in a difficult situation, and the possible way out.

  10. Bergman kernel function on Hua construction of the fourth type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the Hua construction and presents the holomorphic automorphism group of the Hua construction of the fourth type. Utilizing the Bergman kernel function, under the condition of holomorphic automorphism and the standard complete orthonormal system of the semi-Reinhardt domain, the infinite series form of the Bergman kernel function is derived. By applying the properties of polynomial and Γ functions, various identification relations of the aforementioned form are developed and the explicit formula of the Bergman kernel function for the Hua construction of the fourth type is obtained, which suggest that many of the previously-reported results are only the special cases of our findings.

  11. Exceptionally large banded spherulites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, R. R.

    1994-07-01

    This article concerns the crystallization of maleic anhydride from a blend containing 2 wt% of poly(acrylonitrile). High speed photography and temperature measurements during the crystallization as well as X-ray diffraction from the blend after crystallization are consistent with a banded spherulitic morphology.

  12. Colloquium: Topological band theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansil, A.; Lin, Hsin; Das, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    The first-principles band theory paradigm has been a key player not only in the process of discovering new classes of topologically interesting materials, but also for identifying salient characteristics of topological states, enabling direct and sharpened confrontation between theory and experiment. This review begins by discussing underpinnings of the topological band theory, which involve a layer of analysis and interpretation for assessing topological properties of band structures beyond the standard band theory construct. Methods for evaluating topological invariants are delineated, including crystals without inversion symmetry and interacting systems. The extent to which theoretically predicted properties and protections of topological states have been verified experimentally is discussed, including work on topological crystalline insulators, disorder and interaction driven topological insulators (TIs), topological superconductors, Weyl semimetal phases, and topological phase transitions. Successful strategies for new materials discovery process are outlined. A comprehensive survey of currently predicted 2D and 3D topological materials is provided. This includes binary, ternary, and quaternary compounds, transition metal and f -electron materials, Weyl and 3D Dirac semimetals, complex oxides, organometallics, skutterudites, and antiperovskites. Also included is the emerging area of 2D atomically thin films beyond graphene of various elements and their alloys, functional thin films, multilayer systems, and ultrathin films of 3D TIs, all of which hold exciting promise of wide-ranging applications. This Colloquium concludes by giving a perspective on research directions where further work will broadly benefit the topological materials field.

  13. Regularized Positive-Definite Fourth Order Tensor Field Estimation from DW-MRI★

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Image (DW-MRI) processing, a 2nd order tensor has been commonly used to approximate the diffusivity function at each lattice point of the DW-MRI data. From this tensor approximation, one can compute useful scalar quantities (e.g. anisotropy, mean diffusivity) which have been clinically used for monitoring encephalopathy, sclerosis, ischemia and other brain disorders. It is now well known that this 2nd-order tensor approximation fails to capture complex...

  14. DUAL BAND MONOPOLE ANTENNA DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jithu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The WLAN and Bluetooth applications become popular in mobile devices, integrating GSM and ISM bands operation in one compact antenna, can reduce the size of mobile devices. Recently, lot many investigations are carried out in designing a dual band antennas with operating frequencies in GSM band and in ISM band for mobile devices. Printed monopoles are under this investigation. In this paper, dual-band printed monopoles are presented to operate at GSM band i.e. 900 MHz and ISM band i.e. 2.4 GHz. We intend to observe the antenna characteristics on the network analyzer and verify the theoretical results with the practical ones.

  15. Some existence results for a fourth order equation involving critical exponent

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Ayed, M; Hammami, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a fourth order equation involving critical growth is considered under the Navier boundary condition: DELTA sup 2 u = Ku sup p , u > 0 in OMEGA, u = DELTA u = 0 on partial deriv OMEGA, where K is a positive function, OMEGA is a bounded smooth domain in R sup n , n >= 5 and p + 1 2n/(n - 4) is the critical Sobolev exponent. We give some topological conditions on K to ensure the existence of solutions. Our methods involve the study of the critical points at infinity and their contribution to the topology of the level sets of the associated Euler Lagrange functional.

  16. Determining Position Inside Non-industrial Buildings Using Ultrasound Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Francesc; Margalef, Jordi; Luengo, Sonia; Alsina, Maria; Ribes, Josep M.; Pérez, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The position determination inside a building where no GPS signal is being received can be ascertained using laser transmitters in industrial situations where there are no people or using triangulation of the signal strength, normally electro-magnetic signals, if the required accuracy is more than a metre. Our solution is aimed at situations where people are present and where the required accuracy is less than 30 cm, such as in shopping precincts or supermarkets. To achieve this, a network of ultrasonic transmitters is fitted into the ceiling which receives a synchronised time signal. Each transmitter has a unique identifier code and emits its code with a delay with respect to the common time signal which is proportional to its code number with an ASK modulation over the ultrasonic band centred on 40 KHz. The receivers circulating beneath the transmitters receive the codes of those within their detection range, translate the time delays into distances and then obtain their position by triangulation since the receivers know the position of every transmitter. Since the receivers are not synchronised with the common time signal or the actual speed of the sound, whose value varies appreciably with temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure, a consecutive approximation algorithm has been introduced. This is based on the fact that the Z coordinator of the receiver is known and constant and thus it is possible, with only three different identifiers received, to deduce the phase of the common time signal and estimate the speed of the sound with a fourth identifier.

  17. Fourth order phase-field model for local max-ent approximants applied to crack propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Amiri, Fatemeh; Millán, Daniel; Arroyo Balaguer, Marino; Silani, Mohammad; Rabczuk, Timon

    2016-01-01

    We apply a fourth order phase-field model for fracture based on local maximum entropy (LME) approximants. The higher order continuity of the meshfree LME approximants allows to directly solve the fourth order phase-field equations without splitting the fourth order differential equation into two second order differential equations. We will first show that the crack surface can be captured more accurately in the fourth order model. Furthermore, less nodes are needed for the fourth order model ...

  18. Fourth Zagreb index of Circumcoronene series of Benzenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza FARAHANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A topological index of a graph is a numeric quantity related to a structure of a molecule which is invariant under graph automorphism. Recently, Ghorbani and Hosseinzadeh introduced Fourth Zagreb index of graphs. In this paper we determine a closed formula of this new topological index of the famous Benzenoid family named Circumcoronene series of Benzenoid Hk.

  19. The Fourth Amendment: Dormitory Room Searches in Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph M.; Strope, John L., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Examines 15 cases dealing with dormitory searches covering a 31-year period to determine how the Fourth Amendment applies to dormitory searches. The prevailing consensus is that if a university says and thinks it has the right to conduct a search of a room for health, safety, and maintenance reasons, then, in most circumstances, it has this right.…

  20. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  1. Dietary Behaviors among Fourth Graders: A Social Cognitive Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Sara J.; Sargent, Roger G.; Rheaume, Carol E.; Saunders, Ruth P.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the impact of behavioral, personal, and environmental factors on fourth graders' dietary practices, using a social cognitive theory framework. Survey results highlighted social cognitive variables that significantly influenced dietary behaviors: gender, race, socioeconomic status, fruit and vegetable availability at home, nutrition…

  2. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  3. Fourth Way in Action: Teacher Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2012-01-01

    Policy makers are often looking for solutions to develop their educational systems in today's highly competitive knowledge-based economy. Hargreaves and Shirley's Fourth Way provides a useful approach in analysing policy trends, successes and pitfalls, based on an observation of practices and research evidences in the west, particularly, the USA…

  4. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  5. Implementation Frailties of Guba and Lincoln's "Fourth Generation" Evaluation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Tom

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of a science education project for teachers in Durban (South Africa) illustrates some problems inherent in the application of the fourth-generation evaluation approach of Guba and Lincoln. One of the strongest concerns is that full participation by stakeholders may be an unrealistic assumption. (SLD)

  6. Constraints on Majorana dark matter from a fourth lepton family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hapola, T.; Jarvinen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    We study the possibility of dark matter in the form of heavy neutrinos from a fourth lepton family with helicity suppressed couplings such that dark matter is produced thermally via annihilations in the early Universe. We present all possible constraints for this scenario coming from LHC...... account for the dark matter abundance....

  7. Did that Dog Sniff Violate the Fourth Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Catherine; Middleton, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Is sniffing at the front door of a private home by a trained narcotics detection dog a Fourth Amendment search requiring probable cause? Is a "drug dog" somehow like a manmade technology, such as a thermal imaging device? These were a couple of the questions recently presented to the U.S. Supreme Court during arguments in "Florida v. Jardines."…

  8. Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida

    This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…

  9. A curve flow evolved by a fourth order parabolic equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We study a fourth order curve flow, which is the gradient flow of a functional describing the shapes of human red blood cells. We prove that for any smooth closed initial curve in R2, the flow has a smooth solution for all time and the solution subconverges to a critical point of the functional.

  10. A curve flow evolved by a fourth order parabolic equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YanNan; JIAN HuaiYu

    2009-01-01

    We study a fourth order curve flow,which is the gradient flow of a functional describing the shapes of human red blood cells.We prove that for any smooth closed initial curve in R2,the flow has a smooth solution for all time and the solution subconverges to a critical point of the functional.

  11. TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the...1ncludes all AD, AOFMIGRIGRFM, and unclef 65 RETIRETFMIOTH, exclucbng 65+ Albers Equal Area Prqect10n, 2011 2011 MHS Conference Five Models  TRICARE

  12. The Weak Field Limit of Fourth Order Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    We discuss Newtonian and the post-Newtonian limits of Fourth Order Gravity Theories pointing out, in details, their resemblances and differences with respect to General Relativity. Particular emphasis is placed on the exact solutions and methods used to obtain them.

  13. An Examination of Fourth Graders' Aesthetic Engagement with Literary Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Linda T.

    2013-01-01

    Reader response, simulation, and assimilation theories offer insights to our emotional connections with characters. Findings from a study conducted with avid fourth-grade readers show that when the children feel they are next to the character, they acentrally imagine the narrative and experience sympathy. The children also participate and…

  14. Fourth-order discrete anisotropic boundary-value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Leszczynski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider the fourth-order discrete anisotropic boundary value problem with both advance and retardation. We apply the direct method of the calculus of variations and the mountain pass technique to prove the existence of at least one and at least two solutions. Non-existence of non-trivial solutions is also undertaken.

  15. Virginia Tech team places fourth at Solar Decathlon 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2005-01-01

    A house designed and built by a team of students from Virginia Tech's College of Architecture and Urban Studies and College of Engineering placed fourth overall on Friday, Oct. 14, at Solar Decathlon 2005, an international competition sponsored by the Department of Energy held on the Mall in Washington, D.C.

  16. Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Hargreaves and Shirley's "The Fourth Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as…

  17. The Weak Field Limit of Fourth Order Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Stabile, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    We discuss Newtonian and the post-Newtonian limits of Fourth Order Gravity Theories pointing out, in details, their resemblances and differences with respect to General Relativity. Particular emphasis is placed on the exact solutions and methods used to obtain them.

  18. Fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Kanber, H.; Olli, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    The observation of a fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields is reported. The torque was determined by measuring the acoustically induced angular deflection of a polished cylinder suspended by a torsion fiber. This torque was measured in a sound field of amplitude greater than that in which first-order acoustic torque has been observed.

  19. Fourth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The fourth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 9 to 11, 1979, at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Department of Energy, and the Gas Research Institute. The papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  20. Solution to the ghost problem in fourth order derivative theories

    CERN Document Server

    Mannheim, P D

    2006-01-01

    We present a solution to the ghost problem in fourth order derivative theories. In particular we study the Pais-Uhlenbeck fourth order oscillator model, a model which serves as a prototype for theories which are based on second plus fourth order derivative actions. Via a Dirac constraint method quantization we construct the appropriate quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian and Hilbert space for the system. We find that while the second-quantized Fock space of the general Pais-Uhlenbeck model does indeed contain the negative norm energy eigenstates which are characteristic of higher derivative theories, in the limit in which we switch off the second order action, such ghost states are found to move off shell, with the spectrum of asymptotic in and out S-matrix states of the pure fourth order theory which results being found to be completely devoid of states with either negative energy or negative norm. We provide additional insight into the structure of the Pais-Uhlenbeck theory by quantizing it via path integration ...

  1. North Carolina Tales Fly with Fourth Grade Tellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Gretchen Daub

    2008-01-01

    In fourth grade, North Carolina students are required to write their own personal narratives. The teachers felt that telling a story would be a great stepping stone toward writing one. Rather than focusing on grammar and the mechanics of writing, students could focus on story development and creativity. In this article, the author describes how…

  2. Null controllability for a fourth order parabolic equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hang

    2009-01-01

    In the paper,the null interior controllability for a fourth order parabolic equation is obtained.The method Is based on Lebeau-Rabbiano inequality which is a quantitative unique continuation property for the sum of eigenfunctions of the Laplacian.

  3. The Copyright Book: A Practical Guide. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, William S.

    In response to important changes in copyright law as the United States accommodates itself to the Berne Convention and develops means to take account of new technologies, this guide puts these changes in a form and context that will make sense to persons who are concerned about their rights under the law. New material in the fourth edition of this…

  4. Multiway Filtering Based on Fourth-Order Cumulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Bourennane

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiway filtering based on fourth-order cumulants for the denoising of noisy data tensor with correlated Gaussian noise. The classical multiway filtering is based on the TUCKALS3 algorithm that computes a lower-rank tensor approximation. The presented method relies on the statistics of the analyzed multicomponent signal. We first recall how the well-known lower rank-(K1,…,KN tensor approximation processed by TUCKALS3 alternating least square algorithm exploits second-order statistics. Then, we propose to introduce the fourth-order statistics in the TUCKALS3-based method. Indeed, the use of fourth-order cumulants enables to remove the Gaussian components of an additive noise. In the presented method the estimation of the n-mode projector on the n-mode signal subspace are built from the eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues of a fourth-order cumulant slice matrix instead of a covariance matrix. Each projector is applied by means of the n-mode product operator on the n-mode of the data tensor. The qualitative results of the improved multiway TUCKALS3-based filterings are shown for the case of noise reduction in a color image and multicomponent seismic data.

  5. Fourth-order discrete anisotropic boundary-value problems

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this article we consider the fourth-order discrete anisotropic boundary value problem with both advance and retardation. We apply the direct method of the calculus of variations and the mountain pass technique to prove the existence of at least one and at least two solutions. Non-existence of non-trivial solutions is also undertaken.

  6. Discrimination Evidence for Examining Fourth Grade Students' Learning Disability Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdulhameed S.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of discriminate variables (perceptual-motor, hyperactivity disorder, neurological and psychological skills) to distinguish between normal (n = 68) and students with learning disabilities (n = 72) in fourth grade. Three instruments were developed: perceptual-motor scale, hyperactivity disorder scale, skills test…

  7. Anatomical study of the positioning of guide wires for the reconstruction of the two bands of the anterior cruciate ligament using transtibial technique Estudo anatômico do posicionamento dos fios-guia para a reconstrução das duas bandas do ligamento cruzado anterior pela técnica transtibial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Saliba Uliana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether it is possible and the difficulty of anatomical placement of guide wires for reconstruction of the two bands of the anterior cruciate ligament using transtibial technique and to measure the angle and positioning of the anatomic tibial guide wires for this technique. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees were dissected and a guide wire was positioned in the center of origin and insertion of each band. Were collected measurements of the distance from: 1 the entry point of the guide wire on tibial tuberosity; 2 the medial end of the tibia; 3 the tibial articular surface. Were also measured the medial and caudal angles of the guide wires. RESULTS: For the anteromedial band the medial angle was 19±5º and the caudal was 44±4º.The distances were 20±2 mm from anterior tuberosity, 26±5 mm from the tibial plateau and 25±5 mm from the medial end of the tibia. For the posterolateral band the medial angle was 26±5º and the caudal one was 36±8°. The distances were 31±6 mm for the anterior tuberosity, 24±4 mm for the tibial plateau and 17±7 mm from the end of the tibia. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to position the guide wires of the two bands to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament using transtibial technique. The parameters for the proper positioning of the guide wire from anteromedial band is caudal angle of 44º with entry point 20 mm from anterior tuberosity; for the posterolateral band the caudal angle is 36º; from the tibial tuberosity the distance is 31 mm. This technique is difficult to perform leaving its questionable reproducibility.OBJETIVOS: Determinar se é possível o posicionamento anatômico dos fios-guia para reconstrução das duas bandas do ligamento cruzado anterior pela técnica transtibial, sua dificuldade técnica e medir o posicionamento angular dos parâmetros anatômicos dos fios-guia tibiais para esta técnica. MÉTODOS: Dez joelhos de cadáveres foram dissecados e um fio guia foi posicionado no

  8. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG FuYuan; LIANG ShunLin; LI AiGen

    2009-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are a large number of absorption bands that are superposed on the interstellar extinction curve and are of interstellar origin. Since the discovery of the first two DIBs in the 1920s, the exact nature of DIBs still remains unclear. This article reviews the history of the detec-tions of DIBs in the Milky Way and external galaxies, the major observational characteristics of DIBs, the correlations or anti-correlations among DIBs or between DIBs and other interstellar features (e.g. the prominent 2175 Angstrom extinction bump and the far-ultraviolet extinction rise), and the proposed candidate carriers. Whether they are also present in circumstellar environments is also discussed.

  9. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) are a large number of absorption bands that are superposed on the interstellar extinction curve and are of interstellar origin. Since the discovery of the first two DIBs in the 1920s,the exact nature of DIBs still remains unclear. This article reviews the history of the detections of DIBs in the Milky Way and external galaxies,the major observational characteristics of DIBs,the correlations or anti-correlations among DIBs or between DIBs and other interstellar features(e.g. the prominent 2175 Angstrom extinction bump and the far-ultraviolet extinction rise),and the proposed candidate carriers. Whether they are also present in circumstellar environments is also discussed.

  10. Micromechanics of shear banding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    Shear-banding is one of many instabilities observed during the plastic flow of solids. It is a consequence of the dislocation mechanism which makes plastic flow fundamentally inhomogeneous, and is exacerbated by local adiabatic heating. Dislocation lines tend to be clustered on sets of neighboring glide planes because they are heterogeneously generated; especially through the Koehler multiple-cross-glide mechanism. Factors that influence their mobilities also play a role. Strain-hardening decreases the mobilities within shear bands thereby tending to spread (delocalize) them. Strain-softening has the inverse effect. This paper reviews the micro-mechanisms of these phenomena. It will be shown that heat production is also a consequence of the heterogeneous nature of the microscopic flow, and that dislocation dipoles play an important role. They are often not directly observable, but their presence may be inferred from changes in thermal conductivity. It is argued that after deformation at low temperatures dipoles are distributed a la Pareto so there are many more small than large ones. Instability at upper yield point, the shapes of shear-band fronts, and mechanism of heat generation are also considered. It is shown that strain-rate acceleration plays a more important role than strain-rate itself in adiabatic instability.

  11. Broadening of effective photonic band gaps in biological chiral structures: From intrinsic narrow band gaps to broad band reflection spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, W. E.; Hernández-Jiménez, M.; Libby, E.; Azofeifa, D. E.; Solis, Á.; Barboza-Aguilar, C.

    2015-09-01

    Under normal illumination with non-polarized light, reflection spectra of the cuticle of golden-like and red Chrysina aurigans scarabs show a structured broad band of left-handed circularly polarized light. The polarization of the reflected light is attributed to a Bouligand-type left-handed chiral structure found through the scarab's cuticle. By considering these twisted structures as one-dimensional photonic crystals, a novel approach is developed from the dispersion relation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves traveling through chiral media, to show how the broad band characterizing these spectra arises from an intrinsic narrow photonic band gap whose spectral position moves through visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  12. Opportunities and threats of the fourth industrial revolution and their reflection in the selection of innovative growth strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Illiashenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Analysis and systematization of possible effects of the fourth industrial revolution both positive and negative, development of recommendations for innovative development strategies formation which would allow the use of opportunities for social and economic growth and will prevent treats. The results of the analysis. Based on a systematic analysis of the literature and practice of management allocated the positive and negative effects of the introduction of innovative technologies (both existing and forecasted, created in line with the fourth industrial revolution. The results of their systematization can be used as basis for the formation of an information base to determine the priorities of innovation. It is shown that distribution of the changes caused by the fourth industrial revolution and the completion of the fifth technological way and the transition to the sixth provide chances to individual institutions and national economies to move to outstripping innovative development. On the example of Ukraine and modern forms of work organization (freelance for the various sectors of activity it is shown that domestic experts have leading positions in global markets, they are successfully implementing the technology generated by the fourth industrial revolution. It demonstrates the significant potential of transition to the sixth technological way. The generalized scheme of formation of Ukrainian innovative development priority directions in line with the concept of technological advance is developed. It is shown that Ukraine has considerable potential for innovation growth which is relevant to the terms of the fourth industrial revolution. In particular, the 2015 world rankings in knowledge and innovation, it had high enough position: knowledge creation – 14; innovation effectiveness – 15; spending on education – 18; number of applications for patents – 19; number of graduates in science and technology – 20

  13. Bands in the spectrum of a periodic elastic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakharev, F. L.; Taskinen, J.

    2017-10-01

    We study the spectral linear elasticity problem in an unbounded periodic waveguide, which consists of a sequence of identical bounded cells connected by thin ligaments of diameter of order h >0. The essential spectrum of the problem is known to have band-gap structure. We derive asymptotic formulas for the position of the spectral bands and gaps, as h → 0.

  14. Methotrexate administration directly into the fourth ventricle in children with malignant fourth ventricular brain tumors: a pilot clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, David I; Rytting, Michael; Zaky, Wafik; Kerr, Marcia; Ketonen, Leena; Kundu, Uma; Moore, Bartlett D; Yang, Grace; Hou, Ping; Sitton, Clark; Cooper, Laurence J; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Lee, Dean A; Thall, Peter F; Khatua, Soumen

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemotherapy can be safely administered directly into the fourth ventricle to treat recurrent malignant brain tumors in children. For the first time in humans, methotrexate was infused into the fourth ventricle in children with recurrent, malignant brain tumors. A catheter was surgically placed into the fourth ventricle and attached to a ventricular access device. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow was confirmed by CINE MRI postoperatively. Each cycle consisted of 4 consecutive daily methotrexate infusions (2 milligrams). Disease response was monitored with serial MRI scans and CSF cytologic analysis. Trough CSF methotrexate levels were sampled. Five patients (3 with medulloblastoma and 2 with ependymoma) received 18, 18, 12, 9, and 3 cycles, respectively. There were no serious adverse events or new neurological deficits attributed to methotrexate. Two additional enrolled patients were withdrawn prior to planned infusions due to rapid disease progression. Median serum methotrexate level 4 h after infusion was 0.04 µmol/L. Range was 0.02-0.13 µmol/L. Median trough CSF methotrexate level 24 h after infusion was 3.18 µmol/L (range 0.53-212.36 µmol/L). All three patients with medulloblastoma had partial response or stable disease until one patient had progressive disease after cycle 18. Both patients with ependymoma had progressive disease after 9 and 3 cycles, respectively. Low-dose methotrexate can be infused into the fourth ventricle without causing neurological toxicity. Some patients with recurrent medulloblastoma experience a beneficial anti-tumor effect both within the fourth ventricle and at distant sites.

  15. Inkjet-Printed Ultra Wide Band Fractal Antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Maza, Armando Rodriguez

    2012-05-01

    In this work, Paper-based inkjet-printed Ultra-wide band (UWB) fractal antennas are presented. Three new designs, a combined UWB fractal monopole based on the fourth order Koch Snowflake fractal which utilizes a Sierpinski Gasket fractal for ink reduction, a Cantor-based fractal antenna which performs a larger bandwidth compared to previously published UWB Cantor fractal monopole antenna, and a 3D loop fractal antenna which attains miniaturization, impedance matching and multiband characteristics. It is shown that fractals prove to be a successful method of reducing fabrication cost in inkjet printed antennas while retaining or enhancing printed antenna performance.

  16. The meaning of DAPI bands observed after C-banding and FISH procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros e Silva, A E; Guerra, M

    2010-04-01

    Under specific technical conditions chromosome staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) permits characterization of heterochromatic regions as AT-rich (DAPI(+)) or AT-poor (DAPI(-)), especially when the chromosomes are counterstained with chromomycin A(3) (CMA), which preferentially binds to GC-rich DNA. DAPI(+) bands also often have been observed after C-banding or FISH. In these cases, however, it is not clear whether only AT-rich regions stain positively with DAPI or other heterochromatins with different base compositions also are stained. We evaluated the meaning of DAPI bands observed after C-banding and FISH using three plant species bearing different types of heterochromatin: DAPI(+)/CMA(-), DAP(-)/CMA(+) and DAPI(0)/CMA(0) (neutral bands). Additional tests were performed using propidium iodide, a fluorochrome without preferential affinity for AT or GC. Our results indicate that AT-rich heterochromatin stains as DAPI(+) bands after C-banding or FISH, but other kinds of heterochromatin also may be stained by DAPI.

  17. Lagrangian perturbations and the matter bispectrum I: fourth-order model for non-linear clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampf, Cornelius [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, Physikzentrum RWTH-Melaten, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Buchert, Thomas, E-mail: rampf@physik.rwth-aachen.de, E-mail: buchert@obs.univ-lyon1.fr [Université de Lyon, Observatoire de Lyon, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5574: Université Lyon 1 and École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles André, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval (France)

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the Lagrangian perturbation theory of a homogeneous and isotropic universe in the non-relativistic limit, and derive the solutions up to the fourth order. These solutions are needed for example for the next-to-leading order correction of the (resummed) Lagrangian matter bispectrum, which we study in an accompanying paper. We focus on flat cosmologies with a vanishing cosmological constant, and provide an in-depth description of two complementary approaches used in the current literature. Both approaches are solved with two different sets of initial conditions — both appropriate for modelling the large-scale structure. Afterwards we consider only the fastest growing mode solution, which is not affected by either of these choices of initial conditions. Under the reasonable approximation that the linear density contrast is evaluated at the initial Lagrangian position of the fluid particle, we obtain the nth-order displacement field in the so-called initial position limit: the nth order displacement field consists of 3(n-1) integrals over n linear density contrasts, and obeys self-similarity. Then, we find exact relations between the series in Lagrangian and Eulerian perturbation theory, leading to identical predictions for the density contrast and the peculiar-velocity divergence up to the fourth order.

  18. Impurity levels, impurity bands, excited impurity bands, and band tails: The electronic density of states in quantum wells and heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, J.; Ghazali, A.; Gold, A.

    1989-04-01

    We have investigated in quantum wells (QW's) and heterostructures (HS's) the modification of the electronic structure near the band edge, which is induced by selective doping. The density of states has been calculated as a function of the relevant parameters, namely, carrier and impurity concentrations (and depletion concentrations for HS's), QW width, and impurity position. Using a multiple-scattering method which includes a finite-range screened potential and impurity concentration to all orders, we have succeeded in obtaining ground-state and excited-state impurity bands (IB's). We observed these bands merging gradually with the lowest conduction subband as the impurity concentration is increased, leading to the formation of a band tail into the energy gap. Other main results obtained for different values of the parameters are the binding energy for a single impurity, the widths and energy shifts of ground- and excited-state IB's, and the contribution of the electron-impurity interaction to the gap shrinkage in the band-tail regime. Our results are compared with experiments and other theories.

  19. Interpretation of Absorption Bands in Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Miller

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that hyperspectral imagery can be used, without atmospheric correction, to determine the presence of accessory phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters using derivative techniques. However, care must be taken not to confuse other absorptions for those caused by the presence of pigments. Atmospheric correction, usually the first step to making products from hyperspectral data, may not completely remove Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption bands and these absorptions may interfere with identification of phytoplankton accessory pigments. Furthermore, the ability to resolve absorption bands depends on the spectral resolution of the spectrometer, which for a fixed spectral range also determines the number of observed bands. Based on this information, a study was undertaken to determine under what circumstances a hyperspectral sensor may determine the presence of pigments. As part of the study a hyperspectral imager was used to take high spectral resolution data over two different water masses. In order to avoid the problems associated with atmospheric correction this data was analyzed as radiance data without atmospheric correction. Here, the purpose was to identify spectral regions that might be diagnostic for photosynthetic pigments. Two well proven techniques were used to aid in absorption band recognition, the continuum removal of the spectra and the fourth derivative. The findings in this study suggest that interpretation of absorption bands in remote sensing data, whether atmospherically corrected or not, have to be carefully reviewed when they are interpreted in terms of photosynthetic pigments.

  20. The Wulf bands of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, Peter; Carleer, Michel; Fally, Sophie; Jenouvrier, Alain; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Hermans, Christian; Mérienne, Marie-France; Colin, Reginald

    1998-11-01

    The Wulf bands of oxygen in the 240-290 nm spectral region are caused by collision-induced absorption of the Herzberg III ( A' 3Δu- X3Σ-g) system. These bands had been previously attributed to the oxygen dimer, (O 2) 2. Under atmospheric conditions the Wulf bands are thus the long-wavelength extension of the Herzberg continuum. Absorption of solar radiation by the Wulf bands may be an additional source of NO in the stratosphere.

  1. Semiconductors bonds and bands

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David K

    2013-01-01

    As we settle into this second decade of the twenty-first century, it is evident that the advances in micro-electronics have truly revolutionized our day-to-day lifestyle. The technology is built upon semiconductors, materials in which the band gap has been engineered for special values suitable to the particular application. This book, written specifically for a one semester course for graduate students, provides a thorough understanding of the key solid state physics of semiconductors. It describes how quantum mechanics gives semiconductors unique properties that enabled the micro-electronics revolution, and sustain the ever-growing importance of this revolution.

  2. Candidates for chiral doublet bands in 136Nd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergel, E.; Petrache, C. M.; Lo Bianco, G.; Hübel, H.; Domscheit, J.; Roßbach, D.; Schönwaßer, G.; Nenoff, N.; Neußer, A.; Görgen, A.; Becker, F.; Bouchez, E.; Houry, M.; Hürstel, A.; Le Coz, Y.; Lucas, R.; Theisen, Ch.; Korten, W.; Bracco, A.; Blasi, N.; Camera, F.; Leoni, S.; Hannachi, F.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Rejmund, M.; Gassmann, D.; Reiter, P.; Thirolf, P. G.; Astier, A.; Buforn, N.; Meyer, M.; Redon, N.; Stezowski, O.

    The even-even nucleus 136Nd was studied via in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy using the 16O + 125Te reaction at 100 MeV and the EUROBALL array. One new dipole band was observed. Together with a previously identified dipole band, whose position in the level scheme is revised, the new band forms a doublet structure similar to the recently observed chiral bands in the odd-odd neighboring nuclei. This would be the first case of a chiral doublet in an even-even nucleus.

  3. Estimation of the fourth-order dispersion coefficient β4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Huang; Jianquan Yao

    2012-01-01

    The fourth-order dispersion coefficient of fibers are estimated by the iterations around the third-order dispersion and the high-order nonlinear items in the nonlinear Schordinger equation solved by Green's function approach.Our theoretical evaluation demonstrates that the fourth-order dispersion coefficient slightly varies with distance.The fibers also record β4 values of about 0.002,0.003,and 0.00032 ps4/km for SMF,NZDSF and DCF,respectively.In the zero-dispersion regime,the high-order nonlinear effect (higher than self-steepening) has a strong impact on the transmitted short pulse.This red-shifts accelerates the symmetrical split of the pulse,although this effect is degraded rapidly with the increase of β2.Thus,the contributions to β4 of SMF,NZDSF,and DCF can be neglected.

  4. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8 th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed.

  5. The fourth edition of the ASP took place in Kigali

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2016-01-01

    The fourth biennial African School of Fundamental Physics and Applications (ASP) took place on 1-19 August in Africa’s cleanest city, Kigali in Rwanda.   The students of the fourth African School of Fundamental Physics and Applications pose for the traditional conference group picture. Many lecturers flew in from CERN to give lectures and mentor students. (Photo: Gilbert Tekoute) Seventy-five students from around the African continent, chosen from 439 applicants, were hosted in the University of Rwanda’s College of Sciences and Technology for about 3 weeks. The school received financial support from CERN and 19 other institutions in total, including the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Brookhaven National Laboratory, the South African National Research Foundation and Department of Technology, the Rwandan Ministry of Education, INFN, and other major particle physics laboratories, as well as governmental institutions in Africa, Europe and the United States....

  6. FOURTH REVIEW OF TESTS PUBLISHED IN SPAIN: FORM AND CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Elosua

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the quality of tests and disseminating the results has been implemented in the international arena with the aim of improving testing and professional practice. Assessing tests provides users with an independent review, which follows clearly defined procedures and criteria. In Spain, the Spanish Association of Psychology (COP leads the “test evaluation” project, which has recently completed its fourth edition. Basically, there are two primary assessment models; the Buros model and the European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA model, which has been adopted by the COP. The two models share the same objectives and content; excluding the evaluation format and the management system, they are similar in essence. In this paper, we present the results of the fourth edition of the Spanish test evaluation program following the general guidelines for assessing the quality of tests, and we explain the critical points affecting each phase of the process

  7. Primary intra-fourth ventricular meningioma: Report two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishanth Sadashiva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningioma's occurring intraventricular region are rare and these occurring in the fourth ventricle is even rare. Because of the rarity, it is not usually considered as a differential diagnosis in any age group. Clinical features and Imaging is not characteristic, and most of them are thought to be some different tumor. Here, we discuss two cases harboring a primary fourth ventricular meningioma Grade II, which was surgically excised successfully. Total excision was achieved in both cases and as the tumor was firm to soft and vermian splitting was not required. Understanding the clinical features and a careful preoperative radiological examination is required to differentiate this tumor from more commonly occurring lesions at this location.

  8. The Superior Transvelar Approach to the Fourth Ventricle and Brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Bollam, Papireddy; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Objective The superior transvelar approach is used to access pathologies located in the fourth ventricle and brainstem. The surgical path is below the venous structures, through the superior medullary velum. Following splitting the tentorial edge, near the tentorial apex, the superior medullary velum is split in the cerebello-mesencephalic fissure. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial, transtentorial or parietal interhemispheric routes, the superior medullary velum is approached. Splittin...

  9. US Energy Industry Financial Developments, 1993 fourth quarter, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-14

    This report traces key financial trends in the US energy industry for the fourth quarter of 1993. Financial data (only available for publicly-traded US companies) are included in two broad groups -- fossil fuel production and rate-regulated electric utilities. All financial data are taken from public sources such as energy industry corporate reports and press releases, energy trade publications, and The Wall Street Journal`s Earnings Digest; return on equity is calculated from data available from Standard and Poor`s Compustat data service. Since several major petroleum companies disclose their income by lines of business and geographic area, these data are also presented in this report. Although the disaggregated income concept varies by company and is not strictly comparable to corporate income, relative movements in income by lines of business and geographic area are summarized as useful indicators of short-term changes in the underlying profitability of these operations. Based on information provided in 1993 fourth quarter financial disclosures, the net income for 82 petroleum companies -- including 18 majors -- was unchanged between the fourth quarter of 1992 and the fourth quarter of 1993. An 18-percent decline in crude oil prices resulted in a deterioration of the performance of upstream (oil and gas production) petroleum companies during the final quarter of 1993. However, prices for refined products fell much less than the price of crude oil, resulting in higher refined product margins and downstream (refining, marketing and transport) petroleum earnings. An increase in refined product demand also contributed to the rise in downstream income.

  10. Within and beyond the 'fourth generation' of revolutionary theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, George

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen renewed interest in the study of revolutions. Yet the burgeoning interest in revolutionary events has not been matched by a comparable interest in the\\ud development of revolutionary theory. For the most part, empirical studies of revolutions remain contained within the parameters established by the ‘fourth generation’ of\\ud revolutionary theory. This body of work sees revolutions as conjunctural amalgams of systemic crisis, structural opening, and collective action, wh...

  11. Fourth Generation Warfare and Its Impact on the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    In 1989, the authors of an article entitled, "The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation ," offered a glimpse of the future rooted in the...decline of the West in a world rife with cultural conflicts and the powerful influences of a form of cultural Marxism known as political correctness...were combining in America to create conditions for a new generation of warfare. Their vision included a form of warfare that bypassed the military

  12. Pseudo-randomness of the fourth class of GSS sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yupu; XIAO Guozhen

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses pseudo-randomness of a periodic sequence, named the fourth class of GSS sequence. We get the ollowing results: ① Its least period always reaches the maximum (that is, 2n-1). ② Its least period and linear complexity keep robust under single-symbol-substitution. ③ It has good Iow-degree-auto-correlation feature. ④It has good short-length-run-distribution.

  13. Distance Learning in Einstein’s Fourth Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This article blends the concepts of space-time from theoretical physics and Einstein’s Relativity Theory to discuss the spatio-temporal nature of distance education. By comparing and contrasting speed-of-light space travel with the speed of computer processing, the leap is made to consider the fourth dimension and its phenomena for the Web traveler. Learning events are compared with events in time to depict the theory presented.

  14. Fourth Beijing Human Rights Forum Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUR STAFF REPORTER

    2012-01-01

    The Fourth Beijing Forum on Human Rights was held in Beijing from September 21-23,2011.Jointly sponsored by the China Society for Human Rights Studies and the China Human Rights Development Foundation,the forum was centered on the theme of "Cultural Tradition,Concept of Values and Human Rights." Attending were nearly 100senior human rights officials,specialists and scholars from 26 countries and regions as well as the United Nations and other international organizations.

  15. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Fourth year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R. [Applied Research Corp., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The scope of the report is to present the results of the fourth year`s work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals.

  16. Fourth Meeting of China-Spain Forum Held in Madrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Chairman Hu Qili and Executive Chairman Chen Haosu of the Chinese Committee of the China-Spain Forum(CSF) led a Chinese delegation to attend the Fourth Meeting of the CSF in Madrid from November 27 to 28,2007.The meeting with the theme of "Harmony,Development and Gaining Win-Win Results" was jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC,the CSF Chinese Committee,the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Spain China Council Foundation.

  17. Fourth China-South Asia International Cultural Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Fourth China-South Asia International Cultural Forum on "revitalizing people-to-people cultural exchanges for peace and prosperity",co-sponsored by the CPAFFC and Shenzhen University,was held in Shenzhen from November 14 to 17,2012. More than 60 experts and scholars from over 40 Chinese research institutes and their colleagues from India,the United States and Singapore engaged in in-depth discussions on economic cooperation and cultural development,the present condi-

  18. Nodal Solutions for a Nonlinear Fourth-Order Eigenvalue Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru Yun MA; Bevan THOMPSON

    2008-01-01

    We are concerned with determining the values of λ, for which there exist nodal solutions of the fourth-order boundary value problem y =λa(x)f(y),00 for all u ≠0. We give conditions on the ratio f (s)/s,at infinity and zero, that guarantee the existence of nodal solutions.The proof of our main results is based upon bifurcation techniques.

  19. New Efficient Fourth Order Method for Solving Nonlinear Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a paper [Appl. Math. Comput., 188 (2 (2007 1587--1591], authors have suggested and analyzed a method for solving nonlinear equations. In the present work, we modified this method by using the finite difference scheme, which has a quintic convergence. We have compared this modified Halley method with some other iterative of fifth-orders convergence methods, which shows that this new method having convergence of fourth order, is efficient.

  20. Distance Learning in Einstein’s Fourth Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Throne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article blends the concepts of space-time from theoretical physics and Einstein’s Relativity Theory to discuss the spatio-temporal nature of distance education. By comparing and contrasting speed-of-light space travel with the speed of computer processing, the leap is made to consider the fourth dimension and its phenomena for the Web traveler. Learning events are compared with events in time to depict the theory presented.

  1. Endoscopic iliotibial band release in snapping hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Raul; Munegato, Daniele; De Benedetto, Massimo; Carraro, Andrea; Bigoni, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Several open surgical techniques have been used to treat recalcitrant cases of snapping iliotibial band with varying results. Recently, endoscopic techniques have become available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of a modified endoscopic iliotibial band release using a longitudinal retrospective case series.
 Fifteen patients (three men and 12 women) with symptomatic external snapping hip were treated with an endoscopic release of the iliotibial band. The average age was 25 years (range 16-37 years). The procedure was performed in the lateral decubitus position using two portals; the iliotibial band was transversally released using a radiofrequency hook probe. The mean follow-up period was 33.8 months (range 12-84 months).
 The snapping phenomenon was overcome in all the patients. The mean pre-op pain VAS score was 5.5 mm (range 5-7 mm) and the mean post-op pain VAS score was 0.53 mm (range 0-2 mm) with a statistically significant reduction with respect to the preoperative value (piliotibial band release is a safe and reproducible technique with excellent results in terms of snapping phenomenon resolution, patient satisfaction, and return to previous level of activity. After strenuous sporting activities 40% of patients complained of very slight pain.

  2. Masses of a Fourth Generation with Two Higgs Doublets

    CERN Document Server

    Bellantoni, Leo; Heckman, Jonathan J; Ramirez-Homs, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    We use sampling techniques to find robust constraints on the masses of a possible fourth sequential fermion generation from electroweak oblique variables. We find that in the case of a light (115 GeV) Higgs from a single electroweak symmetry breaking doublet, inverted mass hierarchies are possible for both quarks and leptons, but a mass splitting more than M(W) in the quark sector is unlikely. We also find constraints in the case of a heavy (600 GeV) Higgs in a single doublet model. As recent data from the Large Hadron Collider hints at the existence of a resonance at 124.5 GeV and a single Higgs doublet at that mass is inconsistent with a fourth fermion generation, we examine a type II two Higgs doublet model. In this model, there are ranges of parameter space where the Higgs sector can potentially counteract the effects of the fourth generation. Even so, we find that such scenarios produce qualitatively similar fermion mass distribtions.

  3. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  4. Fourth-Order Difference Methods for Hyperbolic IBVPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Bertil; Olsson, Pelle

    1995-03-01

    In this paper we consider fourth-order difference approximations of initial-boundary value problems for hyperbolic partial differential equations. We use the method of lines approach with both explicit and compact implicit difference operators in space. The explicit operator satisfies an energy estimate leading to strict stability. For the implicit operator we develop boundary conditions and give a complete proof of strong stability using the Laplace transform technique. We also present numerical experiments for the linear advection equation and Burgers' equation with discontinuities in the solution or in its derivative. The first equation is used for modeling contact discontinuities in fluid dynamics; the second one is used for modeling shocks and rarefaction waves. The time discretization is done with a third-order Runge-Kutta TVD method. For solutions with discontinuities in the solution itself we add a filter based on second-order viscosity. In case of the non-linear Burgers' equation we use a flux splitting technique that results in an energy estimate for certain difference approximations, in which case also an entropy condition is fulfilled. In particular we shall demonstrate that the unsplit conservative form produces a non-physical shock instead of the physically correct rarefaction wave. In the numerical experiments we compare our fourth-order methods with a standard second-order one and with a third-order TVD method. The results show that the fourth-order methods are the only ones that give good results for all the considered test problems.

  5. Fourth-order gravity gradient torque of spacecraft orbiting asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

    2014-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of spacecraft around asteroids is a key element in design of such missions. An asteroid's irregular shape, non-spherical mass distribution and its rotational sate make the dynamics of spacecraft quite complex. This paper focuses on the gravity gradient torque of spacecraft around non-spherical asteroids. The gravity field of the asteroid is approximated as a 2nd degree and order-gravity field with harmonic coefficients C20 and C22. By introducing the spacecraft's higher-order inertia integrals, a full fourth-order gravity gradient torque model of the spacecraft is established through the gravitational potential derivatives. Our full fourth-order model is more precise than previous fourth-order model due to the consideration of higher-order inertia integrals of the spacecraft. Some interesting conclusions about the gravity gradient torque model are reached. Then a numerical simulation is carried out to verify our model. In the numerical simulation, a special spacecraft consisted of 36 po...

  6. Morphologies of omega band auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Natsuo; Yukimatu, Akira Sessai; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Hori, Tomoaki

    2017-08-01

    We examined the morphological signatures of 315 omega band aurora events observed using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm ground-based all-sky imager network over a period of 8 years. We find that omega bands can be classified into the following three subtypes: (1) classical (O-type) omega bands, (2) torch or tongue (T-type) omega bands, and (3) combinations of classical and torch or tongue (O/T-type) omega bands. The statistical results show that T-type bands occur the most frequently (45%), followed by O/T-type bands (35%) and O-type bands (18%). We also examined the morphologies of the omega bands during their formation, from the growth period to the declining period through the maximum period. Interestingly, the omega bands are not stable, but rather exhibit dynamic changes in shape, intensity, and motion. They grow from small-scale bumps (seeds) at the poleward boundary of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, rather than via the rotation or shear motion of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, and do not exhibit any shear motion during the periods of auroral activity growth. Furthermore, the auroral luminosity is observed to increase during the declining period, and the total time from the start of the growth period to the end of the declining period is found to be about 20 min. Such dynamical signatures may be important in determining the mechanism responsible for omega band formation.

  7. Gauge-coupling unification and the minimal SUSY model a fourth generation below the top?

    CERN Document Server

    Gunion, J F; Pois, H; Douglas W McKay

    1994-01-01

    \\centerline{\\bf Abstract} We explore the possibility of a fourth generation in the gauge-coupling-unified, minimal supersymmetric (MSSM) framework. We find that a sequential fourth generation (with a heavy neutrino \

  8. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  9. Obituary: David L. Band (1957-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominsky, Lynn

    2011-12-01

    David L. Band, of Potomac Maryland, died on March 16, 2009 succumbing to a long battle with spinal cord cancer. His death at the age of 52 came as a shock to his many friends and colleagues in the physics and astronomy community. Band showed an early interest and exceptional aptitude for physics, leading to his acceptance at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as an undergraduate student in 1975. After graduating from MIT with an undergraduate degree in Physics, Band continued as a graduate student in Physics at Harvard University. His emerging interest in Astrophysics led him to the Astronomy Department at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), where he did his dissertation work with Jonathan Grindlay. His dissertation (1985) entitled "Non-thermal Radiation Mechanisms and Processes in SS433 and Active Galactic Nuclei" was "pioneering work on the physics of jets arising from black holes and models for their emission, including self-absorption, which previewed much to come, and even David's own later work on Gamma-ray Bursts," according to Grindlay who remained a personal friend and colleague of Band's. Following graduate school, Band held postdoctoral positions at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley and the Center for Astronomy and Space Sciences at the University of California San Diego where he worked on the BATSE experiment that was part of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), launched in 1991. BATSE had as its main objective the study of cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and made significant advances in this area of research. Band became a world-renowned figure in the emerging field of GRB studies. He is best known for his widely-used analytic form of gamma-ray burst spectra known as the "Band Function." After the CGRO mission ended, Band moved to the Los Alamos National Laboratory where he worked mainly on classified research but continued to work on GRB energetics and spectra. When NASA planned

  10. ΔI = 2 Nuclear Staggering in Superdeformed Rotational Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okasha M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A four parameters model including collective rotational en ergies to fourth order is ap- plied to reproduce the ∆ I = 2 staggering in transition energies in four selected super deformed rotational bands, namely, 148 Gd (SD6, 194 Hg (SD1, SD2, SD3. The model parameters and the spin of the bandhead have been extracted a ssuming various val- ues to the lowest spin of the bandhead at nearest integer, in o rder to obtain a minimum root mean square deviation between calculated and the exper imental transition energies. This allows us to suggest the spin values for the energy level s which are experimentally unknown. For each band a staggering parameter represent the deviation of the transition energies from a smooth reference has been determined by calc ulating the fourth order derivative of the transition energies at a given spin. The st aggering parameter contains five consecutive transition energies which is denoted here a s the five-point formula. In order to get information about the dynamical moment of ine rtia, the two point for- mula which contains only two consecutive transition energi es has been also considered. The dynamical moment of inertia decreasing with increasing rotational frequency for A ∼ 150, while increasing for A ∼ 190 mass regions.

  11. THE FOURTH EDITION OF THE EUROPEAN VOLLEYBALL CHAMPIONSHIP, BUCHAREST 1955 – AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana-Monica Popovici

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available From 15 to 26 June 1955, the Romanian capital hosted the fourth edition of the European Volleyball Championship, both women and men. This edition, scheduled four years after the previous one, also registered a record of participation for those times: 14 teams entered the men’s competition and 6 attended the women’s. In the end, the Romanian men representative occupied an honourable second position in the charts, while the women were only fourth. The European titles went to Czechoslovakia, which clearly dominated the competition. The tournament was programmed to take place in Floreasca Hall and Dinamo Sports Park in Bucharest. The main aim of our present study is that of providing a detailed analysis of this sports event, which belongs to a period when the European volleyball championships did not have a regular scheduling, and the number of competing teams was not officially pre-established. Our second goal is that of framing this competition into the larger political context which deeply influenced its development. The sports event happening in Bucharest proved to be a success, both from the perspective of the quality of the featured competitions, and from the organizational point of view, thus placing the country among the select few volleyball promoters worldwide

  12. Complete conservative dynamics for inspiralling compact binaries with spins at fourth post-Newtonian order

    CERN Document Server

    Levi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    In this work we complete the spin dependent conservative dynamics of inspiralling compact binaries at the fourth post-Newtonian order, and in particular the recent derivation of the next-to-next-to-leading order spin-squared interaction potential. We derive the physical equations of motion of the position and the spin from a direct variation of the action. Further, we derive the quadratic in spin Hamiltonians, as well as their expressions in the center of mass frame. We construct the conserved integrals of motion, which form the Poincare algebra. This construction provided a consistency check for the validity of our result, which is crucial in particular in the current absence of another independent derivation of the next-to-next-to-leading order spin-squared interaction. Finally, we provide here the complete gauge invariant relations among the binding energy, angular momentum, and orbital frequency of an inspiralling binary with generic compact spinning components to the fourth post-Newtonian order. These hi...

  13. Brainstem mediates diazepam enhancement of palatability and feeding: microinjections into fourth ventricle versus lateral ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peciña, S; Berridge, K C

    1996-07-15

    The hypothesis that benzodiazepine-induced hyperphagia is due to a specific enhancement of the palatability of foods has been supported by previous 'taste reactivity' studies of affective (hedonic and aversive) reactions to taste palatability. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide enhance hedonic reactions of rats (rhythmic tongue protrusions, etc.) to sweet tastes in a receptor-specific fashion. A role for brainstem circuits has been indicated by a previous demonstration of the persistence of the taste reactivity enhancement by diazepam after midbrain decerebration. The present study examined whether benzodiazepine brainstem receptors are the chief substrates for palatability enhancement even in intact brains. We compared the effectiveness of benzodiazepine microinjections to elicit feeding and enhance hedonic reactions when delivered into either the lateral ventricle (forebrain) or the fourth ventricle (brainstem) of rats. The results show diazepam is reliably more effective at eliciting feeding and enhancing positive hedonic reactions to oral sucrose when microinjections are made in the fourth ventricle than in the lateral ventricle. We conclude that brainstem neural systems containing benzodiazepine-GABA receptors are likely to be the chief substrates for benzodiazepine-induced palatability enhancement.

  14. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  15. 76 FR 37007 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July... Stockton Ports Baseball Club will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display... read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-422 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July...

  16. Fourth-quarter Economic Growth and Time-varying Expected Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig V.; Rangvid, Jesper

    that economic growth and growth in consumer confidence are correlated during the fourth quarter, but not during the other quarters: When economic growth is low during the fourth quarter, confidence in the economy is also low such that investors require higher future returns. We discuss rational and behavioral...... reasons why fourth-quarter economic growth, growth in consumer confidence, and expected returns are related....

  17. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  18. Galileo positioning technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena; Sand, Stephan; Hurskainen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This book covers multi-band Galileo receivers (especially E1-E5 bands of Galileo) and addresses all receiver building blocks, from the antenna and front end, through details of the baseband receiver processing blocks, up to the navigation processing, including the Galileo message structure and Position, Velocity, Time (PVT) computation. Moreover, hybridization solutions with communications systems for improved localization are discussed and an open-source GNSS receiver platform (available for download) developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT) is addressed in detail. • Takes a holistic approach to GALILEO and related systems, such as EGNOS and hybrid solutions on mobile phones; • Provides an invaluable reference to Binary Offset Carrier modulations and related families, which are some of the trademarks of GALILEO; • Includes a detailed survey of GALILEO receiver research in Europe and existing software-defined radio (SDR) GALILEO receiver implementations; • Addresses the multiple challen...

  19. Anorexia: an early sign of fourth ventricle astrocytoma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Henri-Arthur; Baroncini, Marc; Delestret, Isabelle; Florent, Vincent; Vinchon, Matthieu

    2014-12-01

    Paediatric low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle are rare tumours, generally revealed by hydrocephalus. However, some patients present with a history of severe anorexia. It might be a harbinger, which if recognized, could lead to earlier diagnosis. We decided to examine our database in order to evaluate the incidence and signification of anorexia in this context. Retrospective monocentric study of cases of low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle operated between 1991 and 2012 in our paediatric neurosurgery department. We particularly observed the clinical presentation and long-term clinical, oncological and radiological evolution. Non-parametrical tests were used (Mann-Whitney, Fisher). We reviewed 34 cases, 31 pilocytic astrocytomas and 3 diffuse astrocytomas, 16 boys and 18 girls, (M/F ratio 0.89). Mean age at diagnosis was 8 years old. Seven presented with notable anorexia, the average BMI in this group was ≤2 standard deviation (SD); with clinical signs evolving for 11.5 months. Twenty-seven children had no anorexia; average BMI in this group was +1 SD, with clinical evolution for 6 months on an average of p anorexia, body mass index improved markedly in the postoperative follow-up, which lasted, on average, for 6 years. Anorexia with stunted body weight curve is a non-exceptional presentation in children with low-grade astrocytomas of the fourth ventricle. Unexplained or atypical anorexia with negative etiologic assessment should prompt cerebral imaging. Clinical improvement after surgical resection, could suggest a possible interaction between tumour tissue and appetite-suppressing peptide secretion.

  20. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  1. Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Mathematically Structured Functional Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, James; 10.4204/EPTCS.76

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Mathematically Structured Functional Programming (MSFP 2012), taking place on 25 March, 2012 in Tallinn, Estonia, as a satellite event of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2012. MSFP is devoted to the derivation of functionality from structure. It highlights concepts from algebra, semantics and type theory as they are increasingly reflected in programming practice, especially functional programming. The workshop consists of two invited presentations and eight contributed papers on a range of topics at that interface.

  2. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  3. Walk to the Fourth World Conference on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    China’s First Data Base of Women’s Documents Emerges IN order to greet the UN Fourth World Conference on Women and promote the academic exchange of women’s studies at home and abroad, China’s first data base of women’s documents, which was developed by the Research Department of Women’s Studies of the All-China Women’s Federation opened to the public this March. China’s women’s studies programs started in the 1980s.

  4. THE ANALYSIS OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE FOURTH CLASS GEOGRAPHY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA CHIRCEV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the analysis of the illustrations found in five different Geography textbooks in Romania. The analysis is based on several criteria: number, size, clarity, pedagogical usefulness. The following conclusions have been drawn: the illustrations are numerous; most of the illustrations are too small and unclear to be efficiently used in the teaching activity; the purpose of some materials is purely illustrative; some illustrations are overcharged with details, which prevent children from understanding them. Authors and publishing houses are advised to choose the illustrations in the fourth class Geography textbooks more carefully.

  5. The Fourth Gravity Test and Quintessence Matter Field

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Molin; Yu, Benhai; Yu, Fei; Gui, Yuanxing

    2010-01-01

    After the previous work on gravitational frequency shift, light deflection (arXiv:1003.5296) and perihelion advance (arXiv:0812.2332), we calculate carefully the fourth gravity test, i.e. radar echo delay in a central gravity field surrounded by static free quintessence matter, in this paper. Through the Lagrangian method, we find the influence of the quintessence matter on the time delay of null particle is presence by means of an additional integral term. When the quintessence field vanishe...

  6. Ghost-free, finite, fourth-order D = 3 gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deser, S

    2009-09-04

    Canonical analysis of a recently proposed linear + quadratic curvature gravity model in D = 3 establishes its pure, irreducibly fourth derivative, quadratic curvature limit as both ghost-free and power-counting UV finite, thereby maximally violating standard folklore. This limit is representative of a generic class whose kinetic terms are conformally invariant in any dimension, but it is unique in simultaneously avoiding the transverse-traceless graviton ghosts plaguing D > 3 quadratic actions as well as double pole propagators in its other variables. While the two-term model is also unitary, its additional mode's second-derivative nature forfeits finiteness.

  7. Report of the fourth specimen of Amphiorchis solus (Simha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck M.R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to describe the occurrence of the fourth specimen of Amphiorchis solus (Simha & Chattopadhyaya, 1970 Platt, 2002 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae in a green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.1758 found in northeastern Brazil. Amphiorchis solus is a parasite that has only been reported in green turtles in India, Costa Rica and Brazil. Although the original description was made in 1970, only four specimens (including the one described herein have been reported in the literature. In this note, we present the second occurrence of A. solus in Brazil, broadening information on the species and providing the first photographic record of this parasite.

  8. Fourth order wave equations with nonlinear strain and source terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yacheng; Xu, Runzhang

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we study the initial boundary value problem for fourth order wave equations with nonlinear strain and source terms. First we introduce a family of potential wells and prove the invariance of some sets and vacuum isolating of solutions. Then we obtain a threshold result of global existence and nonexistence. Finally we discuss the global existence of solutions for the problem with critical initial condition I(u0)[greater-or-equal, slanted]0, E(0)=d. So the Esquivel-Avila's results are generalized and improved.

  9. The First Woman Doctor in the New Fourth Army

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    WHILE a university student in Kuomintang-controlled Shanghai, she met a Communist who changed her life. This man set her on the way to become the first woman doctor in the Communist New Fourth Army. Zhang Yangfen now enjoys her old age in peace and satisfaction with her fruitful life. Sitting under the grape arbor in her courtyard, Zhang recalls her past. Every Common Person Has Her Obligation To the Country My childhood was spent in the years when China was in a desperate situation and people were living in dire poverty.

  10. Nanopore-based Fourth-generation DNA Sequencing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxiao Feng; Yuechuan Zhang; Cuifeng Ying; Deqiang Wang; Chunlei Du

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than$100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications.

  11. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...... discourse, practitioners attempt to maintain their self-positioning of competence when performing. This leads us, as researchers, to caution against any a priori anticipation of the anchoring power of media discourses within everyday activities....

  12. Cluster banding heat source model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liguo; Ji Shude; Yang Jianguo; Fang Hongyuan; Li Yafan

    2006-01-01

    Concept of cluster banding heat source model is put forward for the problem of overmany increment steps in the process of numerical simulation of large welding structures, and expression of cluster banding heat source model is deduced based on energy conservation law.Because the expression of cluster banding heat source model deduced is suitable for random weld width, quantitative analysis of welding stress field for large welding structures which have regular welds can be made quickly.

  13. Theoretical Simulation for Identical Bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-Jing; CHEN Yong-Shou; GAO Zao-Chun

    2004-01-01

    @@ The frequency of occurrence of identical bands is studied by analysing a large number of rotational bands calculated with the reflection asymmetric shell model, and the statistical properties of identical bands indicated in all the experimental observations are reproduced within the mean field approximation and beyond mean field treatment, such as angular momentum projection. The distributions of the calculated J(2), Eγ and the fractional change of J(2) are discussed.

  14. Scale-invariant scalar spectrum from the nonminimal derivative coupling with fourth-order term

    CERN Document Server

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2015-01-01

    An exactly scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbation generated during de Sitter spacetime is found from the gravity model of the nonminimal derivative coupling with fourth-order term. The nonminimal derivative coupling term generates a healthy (ghost-free) fourth-order derivative term, while the fourth-order term provides an unhealthy (ghost) fourth-order derivative term. The Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum obtained from Fourier transforming the fourth-order propagator in de Sitter space is recovered by computing the power spectrum in its momentum space directly. It shows that this model provides a truly scale-invariant spectrum, in addition to the Lee-Wick scalar theory.

  15. Iliotibial band Z-lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David P; Alan Barber, F; Troop, Randal L

    2003-03-01

    Iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) is a common overuse injury reported to afflict 1.6% to 12% of runners. It results from an inflammatory response secondary to excessive friction that occurs between the lateral femoral epicondyle and the iliotibial band. Initial treatments include rest, anti-inflammatory medication, modalities (ice or heat), stretching, physical therapy, and possibly a cortisone injection. In recalcitrant cases of ITBFS, surgery has been advocated. This report describes a surgical technique of Z-lengthening of the iliotibial band in patients presenting with lateral knee pain localized to the iliotibial band at the lateral femoral epicondyle and Gerdy's tubercle who failed all nonoperative efforts.

  16. Scarless platysmaplasty for platysmal bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiffman Melvin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transection of plastysmal bands has required a surgical approach that leaves scars and limits patient activities for a period of time. The author has developed a simple method to transect the platysmal bands under local anesthesia without resorting to skin incisions. The transection is performed with the use of a Vicryl ® suture that is inserted through the skin, around the platysmal band, and then out through the original entry point. A back and forth motion of the suture cuts through the band.

  17. Band calculation of lonsdaleite Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Shiang; Fan, Sheng-Ting; Lan, Huang-Siang; Liu, Chee Wee

    2017-01-01

    The band structure of Ge in the lonsdaleite phase is calculated using first principles. Lonsdaleite Ge has a direct band gap at the Γ point. For the conduction band, the Γ valley is anisotropic with the low transverse effective mass on the hexagonal plane and the large longitudinal effective mass along the c axis. For the valence band, both heavy-hole and light-hole effective masses are anisotropic at the Γ point. The in-plane electron effective mass also becomes anisotropic under uniaxial tensile strain. The strain response of the heavy-hole mass is opposite to the light hole.

  18. Garage Band or GarageBand[R]? Remixing Musical Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest that it is perhaps time to consider the pedagogy of popular music in more extensive terms than conventional rock band practices have to offer. One direction in which this might lead is the expansion of the informal pedagogy based on a "garage band" model to encompass various modes of digital artistry wherever this artistry…

  19. Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Peng, Kunchi (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Manko, V. I. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, on June 5 - 9, 1995. This conference was jointly organized by Shanxi University, the University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia). The first meeting of this series was called the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, and was held in 1991 at College Park, Maryland. The second and third meetings in this series were hosted in 1992 by the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, and in 1993 by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, respectively. The scientific purpose of this series was initially to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years, the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics, including, of course, quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic transformation. This transition took place at the fourth meeting of this series held at Shanxi University in 1995. The fifth meeting in this series will be held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1997, and the principal organizer will be Jozsef Janszky of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics, P.O. Box 132, H-1052. Budapest, Hungary.

  20. Towards a fourth spatial dimension of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F

    2016-06-01

    Current advances in neurosciences deal with the functional architecture of the central nervous system, paving the way for general theories that improve our understanding of brain activity. From topology, a strong concept comes into play in understanding brain functions, namely, the 4D space of a "hypersphere's torus", undetectable by observers living in a 3D world. The torus may be compared with a video game with biplanes in aerial combat: when a biplane flies off one edge of gaming display, it does not crash but rather it comes back from the opposite edge of the screen. Our thoughts exhibit similar behaviour, i.e. the unique ability to connect past, present and future events in a single, coherent picture as if we were allowed to watch the three screens of past-present-future "glued" together in a mental kaleidoscope. Here we hypothesize that brain functions are embedded in a imperceptible fourth spatial dimension and propose a method to empirically assess its presence. Neuroimaging fMRI series can be evaluated, looking for the topological hallmark of the presence of a fourth dimension. Indeed, there is a typical feature which reveal the existence of a functional hypersphere: the simultaneous activation of areas opposite each other on the 3D cortical surface. Our suggestion-substantiated by recent findings-that brain activity takes place on a closed, donut-like trajectory helps to solve long-standing mysteries concerning our psychological activities, such as mind-wandering, memory retrieval, consciousness and dreaming state.

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  2. Preparing Fourth-Year Medical Students to Teach During Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Richard J; Bardach, Naomi S; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Gillum, Leslie A; Haber, Lawrence A; Dhaliwal, Gurpreet S

    2006-01-01

    Interns are expected to teach medical students, yet there is little formal training in medical school to prepare them for this role. To enhance the teaching skills of our graduating students we initiated a 4-hour “teaching to teach” course as part of the end of the fourth-year curriculum. Course evaluations demonstrate that students strongly support this program (overall ratings 2000 to 2005: mean = 4.4 [scale 1 to 5], n = 224). When 2004 course participants were surveyed during the last month of their internship, 84%“agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement: “The teaching to teach course helped prepare me for my role as a teacher during internship” (2005: mean 4.2 [scale 1 to 5], n = 45, response rate 60%). A course preparing fourth-year students to teach during internship is both feasible and reproducible, with a minimal commitment of faculty and resident time. Participants identify it as an important addition to their education and as useful during internship. PMID:16704402

  3. Searches for Fourth Generation, Vector-like Quarks and ttbar Resonances with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nektarijevic, S

    2013-01-01

    The LHC operation at the high center of mass energies has opened the insight into the potential production of exotic heavy particles. A summary of the searches for the heavy quarks and the heavy bosons decaying into the top-antitop pairs ($t\\bar{t}$ resonances) with $14.3~\\rm{fb^{-1}}$ of the ATLAS detector data at $\\sqrt{s} =8~\\rm{TeV}$ is presented here. The searches for heavy quarks are performed in frameworks of the chiral fourth generation and vector-like quarks. One of the searches is also sensitive to the production of four top quarks and positively-charged top quark pairs. The searches for the $t\\bar{t}$ resonances rely on the narrow width topcolor leptophobic $Z'$ and broad width Kaluza-Klein gluon as bench mark.

  4. Band Structure and Fermi-Surface Properties of Ordered beta-Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Christensen, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    The band structure of ordered β-brass (β′-CuZn) has been calculated throughout the Brillouin zone by the augmented-plane-wave method. The present band model differs from previous calculations with respect to the position and width of the Cu 3d band. The derived dielectric function ε2(ω) and the p...

  5. Positive Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  6. Long Lake banding project, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a banding project on Long Lake in 1965. The dates at the banding site were July 27th through August 8th. As in the past, the...

  7. Positioning Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Nilay; Abrahamsson, Pekka; Conboy, Kieran

    Agile methods are increasingly adopted by European companies. Academics too are conducting numerous studies on different tenets of agile methods. Companies often feel proud in marketing themselves as ‘agile’. However, the true notion of ‘being agile’ seems to have been overlooked due to lack of positioning of oneself for agility. This raises a call for more research and interactions between academia and the industry. The proposed workshop refers to this call. It will be highly relevant to participants, interested in positioning their company’s agility from organizational, group or project perspectives. The positioning of agility will help companies to better align their agile practices with stakeholder values. Results of the workshop will be shared across participants and they will also have opportunity to continue their work on agile positioning in their companies. At broader level, the work done in this workshop will contribute towards developing Agile Positioning System.

  8. Modulation transfer functions at Ka band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesany, Vahid; Sistani, Bita; Salam, Asif; Haimov, Samuel; Gogineni, Prasad; Moore, Richard K.

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) is often used to describe the modulation of the radar signal by the long waves. MTFs were measured at 35 GHz (Ka band) with a switched-beam vector slope gauge/scatterometer on the research platform NORDSEE as part of the SAXON-FPN experiment. Three independent measurements of the scattering were available for each height measurement. This provided the opportunity to average the time series to reduce the effects of fading noise and sea spikes, or, alternatively, to append the time series to achieve more degrees of freedom in the spectral estimates. For upwind measurements, the phase of the VV-polarized Ka-band MTF was always positive, which implies that the maximum of the radar return originates from the forward face of the long-scale waves. This phase increases with increasing wind speed. The magnitude of the MTF decreases with increasing wind speed.

  9. Validation of the fifth edition BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon with comparison of fourth and fifth edition diagnostic performance using video clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Yoon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV and the diagnostic performance of the ultrasonographic descriptors in the fifth edition of BI-RADS, comparing with the fourth edition using video clips. Methods From September 2013 to July 2014, 80 breast masses in 74 women (mean age, 47.5±10.7 years from five institutions of the Korean Society of Breast Imaging were included. Two radiologists individually reviewed the static and video images and analyzed the images according to the fourth and fifth edition of BI-RADS. The PPV of each descriptor was calculated and diagnostic performances between the fourth and fifth editions were compared. Results Of the 80 breast masses, 51 (63.8% were benign and 29 (36.2% were malignant. Suspicious ultrasonographic features such as irregular shape, non-parallel orientation, angular or spiculated margins, and combined posterior features showed higher PPV in both editions (all P0.05. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was higher in the fourth edition (0.708 to 0.690, without significance (P=0.416. Conclusion The fifth edition of the BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon showed comparable performance to the fourth edition and can be useful in the differential diagnosis of breast masses using ultrasonography.

  10. Validation of the fifth edition BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon with comparison of fourth and fifth edition diagnostic performance using video clips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Hye Sun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Youk, Ji Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Sun Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Me [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) and the diagnostic performance of the ultrasonographic descriptors in the fifth edition of BI-RADS, comparing with the fourth edition using video clips. From September 2013 to July 2014, 80 breast masses in 74 women (mean age, 47.5±10.7 years) from five institutions of the Korean Society of Breast Imaging were included. Two radiologists individually reviewed the static and video images and analyzed the images according to the fourth and fifth edition of BI-RADS. The PPV of each descriptor was calculated and diagnostic performances between the fourth and fifth editions were compared. Of the 80 breast masses, 51 (63.8%) were benign and 29 (36.2%) were malignant. Suspicious ultrasonographic features such as irregular shape, non-parallel orientation, angular or spiculated margins, and combined posterior features showed higher PPV in both editions (all P<0.05). No significant differences were found in the diagnostic performances between the two editions (all P>0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was higher in the fourth edition (0.708 to 0.690), without significance (P=0.416). The fifth edition of the BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon showed comparable performance to the fourth edition and can be useful in the differential diagnosis of breast masses using ultrasonography.

  11. Constraints to the flat band potential of hematite photo-electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, A; Alexander, J C; Kelsall, G H

    2014-08-14

    We revisit the fundamental constraints that apply to flat band potential values at semiconductor photo-electrodes. On the physical scale, the Fermi level energy of a non-degenerate semiconductor at the flat band condition, EF(FB), is constrained to a position between the conduction band, EC, and the valence band, EV,: |EC| flat band potentials appear to lie outside these fundamental boundaries. In order to assess the validity of any determined flat band potential, the boundaries set by the conduction band and the valence band must be computed on both scales a priori, where possible. This is accomplished with the aid of an analytical reconstruction of the semiconductor|electrolyte interface in question. To illustrate this approach, we provide a case study based on synthetic hematite, α-Fe2O3. The analysis of this particular semiconductor is motivated by the large variance in the flat band potential values reported in the literature.

  12. Robust flat bands in RCo5 (R=rare earth) compounds

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism to realize the peculiar flat bands generally existing in RCo5 (R=rare earth) compounds is clarified by analyzing the first-principles band structures and the tight-binding model. These flat bands are constructed from the localized eigenstates, the existence of which is guaranteed by the partial cancelation between the intersite hopping amplitudes among the Co-3d states at the Kagome sites and those between the Kagome and honeycomb sites. Their relative positions to other bands c...

  13. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  14. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Varieschi, Gabriele U

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remain the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions, the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions, as was the case of the original solutions. In particular, the resulting geometry does not require the use of exotic matter at or near the wormhole throat. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel.

  15. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varieschi, Gabriele U.; Ault, Kellie L.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remains the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions at or near the wormhole throat. Some exotic matter might still be needed at the junction between our solutions and flat spacetime, but we demonstrate that the averaged null energy condition (as evaluated along radial null geodesics) is satisfied for a particular set of wormhole geometries. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel.

  16. Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Frédéric; Krob, Daniel; Marchal, Clotilde

    2014-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the fourth edition of the « Complex Systems Design & Management » (CSD&M 2013) international conference which took place in Paris (France) from December 4-6, 2013. These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (transport, defense & security, electronics, energy & environment, e-services), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture & engineering, systems metrics & quality, systemic tools) and system types (transportation systems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, artificial ecosystems). The CSD&M 2013 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit organization

  17. Editorial Introduction: Fourth Planetary Dunes Workshop Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Telfer, Matt W.

    2017-06-01

    The Fourth International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Integrating Models, Remote Sensing, and Field Data was held May 19-22, 2015 in Boise, Idaho (see Final Announcement). More than 60 researchers and students participated in two and a half days of presentations and lively discussion, plus a full day field trip to Bruneau Dunes State Park. The workshop focused on the many landforms and deposits created by the dynamic interactions between granular material and airflow (aeolian processes). These processes are known to occur on several planetary bodies, including Earth, Mars, Titan, Venus, and possibly, cometary surfaces. The overarching purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for discussion and the exchange of new ideas and approaches to gaining new insights into planetary aeolian processes. Meeting programs, abstracts, and E-Posters are all available at the workshop website (http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/dunes2015/)

  18. The Fourth Gravity Test and Quintessence Matter Field

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Molin; Yu, Fei; Gui, Yuanxing

    2010-01-01

    After the previous work on gravitational frequency shift, light deflection (arXiv:1003.5296) and perihelion advance (arXiv:0812.2332), we calculate carefully the fourth gravity test, i.e. radar echo delay in a central gravity field surrounded by static free quintessence matter, in this paper. Through the Lagrangian method, we find the influence of the quintessence matter on the time delay of null particle is presence by means of an additional integral term. When the quintessence field vanishes, it reduces to the usual Schwarzschild case naturally. Meanwhile, we also use the data of the Viking lander from the Mars and Cassini spacecraft to Saturn to constrain the quintessence field. For the Viking case, the field parameter $\\alpha$ is under the order of $10^{-9}$. However, $\\alpha$ is under $10^{-18}$ for the Cassini case.

  19. Bifid ribs observed in the third and the fourth ribs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, T; Sasaki, T; Matsumoto, Y; Tsukamoto, A; Onodera, M; Nara, E; Chen, J K; Fujimura, A; Nozaka, Y

    1998-12-01

    Three cases of bifid ribs were found in two cadavers during routine dissections at the Iwate Medical University School of Dentistry. All of the cases were found in the third or the fourth rib. The distal parts of the osseous rib bifurcated with an angle of 60 degrees and both of the branches had their own costal cartilage. The costal cartilage fused again to form the trunk which was connected to the sternum. The space between the two branches was filled with presumably normal intercostal muscles. Blood supply was maintained by a small branch from the interthoracic artery to the upper branches. However, the intercostal nerves did not branch toward the upper branch but only ran along the lower margins of the lower branches of the bifid ribs.

  20. Fourth international workshop on human chromosome 5. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Fourth International Workshop on Human Chromosome 5 was held in Manchester, UK on November 9--10, 1996 and was hosted by the University of Manchester. The major goals of the workshop were: (1) to collate the various genetic, cytogenetic and physical maps of human chromosome 5; (2) to integrate these maps and identify/correct discrepancies between them wherever possible; (3) to catalogue the sequence-ready contigs of the chromosome; (4) to co-ordinate the various sequencing efforts to avoid future duplication; (5) to establish the first (to the author`s knowledge) web site for the human chromosome 5 community which contains the above information in a readily accessible form.

  1. Wavelet-based Image Enhancement Using Fourth Order PDE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Forchhammer, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The presence of noise interference signal may cause problems in signal and image analysis; hence signal and image de-noising is often used as a preprocessing stage in many signal processing applications. In this paper, a new method is presented for image de-noising based on fourth order partial...... differential equations (PDEs) and wavelet transform. In the existing wavelet thresholding methods, the final noise reduced image has limited improvement. It is due to keeping the approximate coefficients of the image unchanged. These coefficients have the main information of the image. Since noise affects both...... indicate superiority of the proposed method over the existing waveletbased image de-noising, anisotropic diffusion, and wiener filtering techniques....

  2. Development of a fourth generation predictive capability maturity model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Richard Guy; Witkowski, Walter R.; Urbina, Angel; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2013-09-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated for an intended application. The primary application of this tool at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been for physics-based computational simulations in support of nuclear weapons applications. The two main goals of a PCMM evaluation are 1) the communication of computational simulation capability, accurately and transparently, and 2) the development of input for effective planning. As a result of the increasing importance of computational simulation to SNLs mission, the PCMM has evolved through multiple generations with the goal to provide more clarity, rigor, and completeness in its application. This report describes the approach used to develop the fourth generation of the PCMM.

  3. Fourth ICT Innovations conference ”Secure and Intelligent Systems”

    CERN Document Server

    Gusev, Marjan; ICT Innovations 2012 : Secure and Intelligent Systems

    2013-01-01

    The present stage of the human civilization is the e-society, which is build over the achievements obtained by the development of the information and communication technologies. It affects everyone, from ordinary mobile phone users to designers of high quality industrial products, and every human activity, from taking medical care to improving the state governing. The science community working in computer sciences and informatics is therefore under constant challenge; it has to solve the new appeared theoretical problem as well as to find new practical solutions. \\\\ The fourth ICT Innovations Conference, held in September 2012 in Ohrid, Macedonia, was one of the several world-wide forums where academics, professionals and practitioners presented their last scientific results and development applications in the fields of high performance and parallel computing, bioinformatics, human computer interaction, security and cryptography, computer and mobile networks, neural networks, cloud computing, process verifica...

  4. The fourth-generation Water Vapor Millimeter-Wave Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, R. Michael; Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Neal, Helen L.; McDermid, I. Stuart

    2012-02-01

    For 20 years the Naval Research Laboratory has been making continuous water vapor profile measurements at 22.235 GHz with the Water Vapor Millimeter-Wave Spectrometer (WVMS) instruments, with the program expanding from one to three instruments in the first 6 years. Since the initial deployments there have been gradual improvements in the instrument design which have improved data quality and reduced maintenance requirements. Recent technological developments have made it possible to entirely redesign the instrument and improve not only the quality of the measurements but also the capability of the instrument. We present the fourth-generation instrument now operating at Table Mountain, California, which incorporates the most recent advances in microwave radiometry. This instrument represents the most significant extension of our measurement capability to date, enabling us to measure middle atmospheric water vapor from ˜26-80 km.

  5. The fourth gravity test and quintessence matter field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Molin; Yu, Benhai [Xinyang Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang (China); Yu, Fei; Gui, Yuanxing [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian (China)

    2010-06-15

    After the previous work on gravitational frequency shift, light deflection (Eur. Phys. J. C 59: 107-116, 2009) and perihelion advance (Eur. Phys. J. C 60: 175-179, 2009), we calculate carefully the fourth gravity test, i.e. radar echo delay in a central gravity field surrounded by static free quintessence matter, in this paper. Through the Lagrangian method, we find the influence of the quintessence matter on the time delay of null particle is presence by means of an additional integral term. When the quintessence field vanishes, it reduces to the usual Schwarzschild case naturally. Meanwhile, we also use the data of the Viking lander from the Mars and Cassini spacecraft to Saturn to constrain the quintessence field. For the Viking case, the field parameter {alpha} is under the order of 10{sup -9}. However, {alpha} is under 10{sup -18} for the Cassini case. (orig.)

  6. Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1998 (October through December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  7. Black hole shadows in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mureika, Jonas R

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the characteristics of the "black hole shadow" for a rotating, neutral black hole in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity. It is shown that the morphology is not significantly affected by the underlying framework, except for very large masses. Conformal gravity black hole shadows would also significantly differ from their general relativistic counterparts if the values of the main conformal gravity parameters, $\\gamma$ and $\\kappa$, were increased by several orders of magnitude. Such increased values for $\\gamma$ and $\\kappa$ are currently ruled out by gravitational phenomenology. Therefore, it is unlikely that these differences in black hole shadows will be detected in future observations, carried out by the Event Horizon Telescope or others such experiments.

  8. Cosmic Acceleration in a Model of Fourth Order Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Shreya; Singh, Tejinder P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a fourth order model of gravity, having a free length parameter, and no cosmological constant or dark energy. We consider cosmological evolution of a flat Friedmann universe in this model for the case that the length parameter is of the order of present Hubble radius. By making a suitable choice for the present value of the Hubble parameter, and value of third derivative of the scale factor (the jerk) we find that the model can explain cosmic acceleration to the same degree of accuracy as the standard concordance model. If the free length parameter is assumed to be time-dependent, and of the order of the Hubble parameter of the corresponding epoch, the model can still explain cosmic acceleration, and provides a possible resolution of the cosmic coincidence problem. We also compare redshift drift in this model, with that in the standard model.

  9. The software factory: A fourth generation software engineering environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    The software-development process and its management are examined in a text intended for engineering managers and students of computer science. A unified concept based on the principle that software design is an engineering science rather than an art is applied, and a software engineering environment (SEE) analogous to an industrial plant is proposed. Chapters are devoted to the classical software environment, the history of software engineering, the evolution of the SEE, the fourth-generation SEE, the engineering process, software-data relationships, the SEE data base, data control in the SEE, software life cycles, information-system product assurance, business management and control, and automating and adapting the SEE. 143 refs.

  10. The fourth revolution how the infosphere is reshaping human reality

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Who are we, and how do we relate to each other? Luciano Floridi, one of the leading figures in contemporary philosophy, argues that the explosive developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is changing the answer to these fundamental human questions. As the boundaries between life online and offline break down, and we become seamlessly connected to each other and surrounded by smart, responsive objects, we are all becoming integrated into an ". Personas we adopt in social media, for example, feed into our 'real' lives so that we begin to live, as Floridi puts in, ". Following those led by Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud, this metaphysical shift represents nothing less than a fourth revolution. " defines more and more of our daily activity - the way we shop, work, learn, care for our health, entertain ourselves, conduct our relationships; the way we interact with the worlds of law, finance, and politics; even the way we conduct war. In every department of life, ICTs have become environmenta...

  11. Proceedings of the fourth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Braski, D.N. (comps.)

    1990-08-01

    The Fourth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on may 15--17, 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  12. Minutes of the fourth SALE program participants meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This report is a documentation of the presentations made to the Fourth Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (S.A.L.E.) Program Participants Meeting at Argonne, Illinois, July 8-9, 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and was coordinated by the S.A.L.E. Program of the New Brunswick Laboratory. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum through which administration of the Program and methods appropriate to the analysis of S.A.L.E. Program samples could be discussed. The Minutes of the Meeting is a collection of presentations by the speakers at the meeting and of the discussions following the presentations. The presentations are included as submitted by the speakers. The discussion sections were transcribed from tape recordings of the meeting and were edited to clarify and emphasize important comments. Seventeen papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  13. Rotational bands and chirality in {sup 194}Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiteng, P.L. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park (South Africa); Lawrie, E.A.; Lawrie, J.J.; Bark, R.A.; Mullins, S.M.; Murray, S.H.T. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); Ramashidzha, T.M.; Maine, P.; Maliage, S.M.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Shirinda, O.; Vymers, P.A. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Lindsay, R. [University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Komati, F.; Kau, J. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); University of North West, Mmabatho (South Africa); Matamba, I. [University of Venda for Science and Technology, Thohoyandou (South Africa); Mutshena, K.P. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); University of Venda for Science and Technology, Thohoyandou (South Africa); Pasternak, A.A. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Roux, D.G. [University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown (South Africa)

    2014-07-15

    The high-spin states in {sup 194}Tl were studied using the {sup 181}Ta({sup 18}O, 5n) reaction and the AFRODITE γ -ray spectrometer at iThemba LABS. The level scheme of {sup 194}Tl was considerably extended with several new bands. Three negative-parity 4-quasiparticle bands were observed and associated with πh{sub 9/2} x νi{sub 13/2}{sup -3} configurations. Two of these form a candidate chiral pair with excellent near-degeneracy. In addition two new positive-parity bands were found. (orig.)

  14. Low second to fourth digit ratio in Dupuytren disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Takuya; Uemura, Takuya; Kazuki, Kenichi; Onode, Ema; Shintani, Kosuke; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) has been described as reflecting endogenous prenatal androgen exposure. In general, 2D:4D is lower in men than in women and has potential as a biomarker or predictor for various diseases, athletic ability, and academic performance. Dupuytren disease has digital flexion contractures and is known to predominate in men, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear. To clarify the relationships between Dupuytren disease and endogenous androgens, we performed a retrospective analysis of hand radiographs to investigate 2D:4D in Dupuytren disease. The study included male patients with Dupuytren disease (n = 22) and a control group (n = 18) of male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Only unaffected hands, without contractures or osteoarthritis, were evaluated for the purpose of radiographic assessment. The lengths of the phalanx and metacarpal bones in the second and fourth digits were measured by 2 independent observers who each performed 2 sets of measurements separated by a minimum 1-week interval. The 2D:4D was calculated separately for the phalanges and metacarpals, and a combined (phalanx + metacarpal) 2D:4D was also calculated. The reliability of the observer measurements was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient, and both the intra- and interobserver reliability showed excellent agreement. We found that compared with control group, the Dupuytren disease group had significantly lower phalanx and combined 2D:4D. These findings suggest that endogenous prenatal androgens could contribute to the development of Dupuytren disease, leading to its characteristic clinical presentation predominantly in men and affecting the ulnar rays.

  15. Environmental surveillance data report for the fourth quarter of 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, K.L.; Goldberg, P.Y.; Horwedel, B.M.; McCollough, I.L.; Osborne-Lee, A.E.; Valentine, C.K.; Vowell, J.D.

    1988-04-01

    During the fourth quarter of 1987, over 1700 samples which represent more than 5200 analyses and measurements were collected. More than ten real-time monitoring stations, which telemeter 10-minute averaged readings on radiation levels, total rainfall, flows, and water or air quality parameters around ORNL also reported data. In addition, three meteorological towers sent climatological data to a host computer every 15 minutes. Uranium concentrations on air filters located at stations near the Y-12 Plant (40, 45, and 46) were elevated above normal levels due to a release from the Y-12 Plant during October. Soil concentrations of /sup 234/U and /sup 238/U were significantly higher at the stations closest to the Y-12 Plant (40 and 45). /sup 235/U was significantly higher in soil at station 40 than at other stations. Cobalt/en dash/60 concentrations in Melton Branch water were significantly lower during this quarter than previous quarters because there was no discharge from the HFIR ponds. These ponds appear to be the source of most of the /sup 60/Co in Melton Branch. There were a total of 22 noncompliances associated with the NPDES permit during the fourth quarter of 1987. Fifteen of these were violations against a permit limit and the remainder were administrative failures in either collecting or analyzing required samples. Where appropriate, corrective actions or investigations are currently underway to address these noncompliances. Eight of the noncompliances were associated with high concentrations of total suspended solids at several of the Category I and II outfalls. Because no appreciable precipitation had occurred for over two weeks prior to the December sampling date, the samples taken would be expected to contain the first-flush of a 2 to 3 week accumulation of dust and other particulate matter from the areas drained by the outfalls.

  16. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...... process. Studying the other calls for close reflections on one's own position, theoretically, personally, and politically, taking into account one's complicity in either overcoming or reproducing processes of othering and marginalisation. [i] We use the term (ethnic) minoritised, not as a distinction...

  17. Electronic structure of NiO: Correlation and band effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Z. (Stanford Electronics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (USA)); List, R.S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (USA)); Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O. (Stanford Electronics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (USA)); Jepsen, O. (Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, D-7000 Stuttgart 80 (Federal Republic of Germany)); Arko, A.J.; Barttlet, R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (USA)); Shih, C.K. (Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas (USA)); Parmigiani, F. (IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California (USA)); Huang, J.C.; Lindberg, P.A.P. (Stanford Electronics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (USA))

    1991-08-15

    We have performed angle-resolved-photoemission experiments and local-density-functional (LDA) band calculations on NiO to study correlation and band effects of this conceptually important compound. Our experimental result suggests a dual nature of the electronic structure of NiO. On the one hand, the LDA band calculation has some relevance to the electronic structure of NiO, and the inclusion of the antiferromagnetic order is essential. For the lower O 2{ital p} bands, the LDA calculation agrees almost perfectly with experimental energy positions and dispersion relations. On the other hand, discrepancies between the experiment and the LDA calculation do exist, especially for the Ni 3{ital d} bands and the O 2{ital p} bands that are heavily mixed with the Ni 3{ital d} bands. It appears that the main discrepancies between the experimental results and the LDA calculation are concentrated in the regions of the insulating gap and the valence-band satellite. In addition to these results, we also report the interesting angle and photon-energy dependence of the satellite emission. The above results show that the angle-resolved-photoemission studies can provide much additional information about the electronic structure of correlated materials like NiO.

  18. Calibration for Relative Interior Orientation Relationship and Band-to-band Registration with High Accuracy of ZY-3 Multi-spectral Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Qijun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using high accuracy match points extracted between the multi-spectral images that obtained at the same time,a position model of the CCD chips of the ZY-3 multi-spectral camera was proposed. Relative interior orientation relationship parameters were calculated and accurate band-to-band automatic registration of ZY-3 multi-spectral image was achieved based on the position model. The experimental result indicates that the band-to-band automatic registration accuracy of ZY-3 multi-spectral image is better than 0.3 pixels with the proposed method.

  19. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Subramanian

    2008-04-01

    Microwave band gap structures exhibit certain stop band characteristics based on the periodicity, impedance contrast and effective refractive index contrast. These structures though formed in one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity, are huge in size. In this paper, microstrip-based microwave band gap structures are formed by removing the substrate material in a periodic manner. This paper also demonstrates that these structures can serve as a non-destructive characterization tool for materials, a duplexor and frequency selective coupler. The paper presents both experimental results and theoretical simulation based on a commercially available finite element methodology for comparison.

  20. Band head spin assignment of superdeformed bands in 86Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadwal, Anshul; Mittal, H. M.

    2016-11-01

    Two parameter expressions for rotational spectra viz. variable moment of inertia (VMI), ab formula and three parameter Harris ω 2 expansion are used to assign the band head spins (I 0) of four rotational superdeformed bands in 86Zr. The least-squares fitting method is employed to obtain the band head spins of these four bands in the A ∼ 80 mass region. Model parameters are extracted by fitting of intraband γ-ray energies, so as to obtain a minimum root-mean-square (rms) deviation between the calculated and the observed transition energies. The calculated transition energies are found to depend sensitively on the assigned spins. Whenever an accurate band head spin is assigned, the calculated transition energies are in agreement with the experimental transition energies. The dynamic moment of inertia is also extracted and its variation with rotational frequency is investigated. Since a better agreement of band head spin with experimental results is found using the VMI model, it is a more powerful tool than the ab formula and Harris ω 2 expansion.

  1. Construct and Concurrent Validation of a New Resistance Intensity Scale for Exercise with Thera-Band® Elastic Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Colado, Xavier Garcia-Masso, N. Travis Triplett, Joaquin Calatayud, Jorge Flandez, David Behm, Michael E. Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The construct and concurrent validity of the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise with elastic bands (EB was examined. Twenty subjects performed two separate sets of 15 repetitions of both frontal and lateral raise exercise over two sessions. The criterion variables were myoelectric activity and heart rate. One set was performed with an elastic band grip width that permitted 15 maximum repetitions in the selected exercise, and another set was performed with a grip width 50% more than the 15RM grip. Following the final repetition of each set, active muscle (AM and overall body (O ratings of perceived exertion (RPE were collected from the Thera-Band® resistance exercise scale and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale of perceived exertion with Thera-Band® resistance bands (OMNI-RES EB. Construct validity was established by correlating the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB with the Thera-Band RPE scale using regression analysis. The results showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in myoelectric activity, heart rate, and RPE scores between the low- and high-intensity sets. The intraclass correlation coefficient for active muscles and overall RPE scale scores was 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship between the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB and the Thera-Band scale. Validity coefficients for the RPE AM were r2 = 0.87 and ranged from r2 = 0.76 to 0.85 for the RPE O. Therefore, the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise can be used for monitoring elastic band exercise intensity. This would allow the training dosage to be better controlled within and between sessions. Moreover, the construct and concurrent validity indicates that the OMNI-RES EB measures similar properties of exertion as the Thera-Band RPE scale during elastic resistance exercise.

  2. Second to fourth digit ratio: a predictor of adult lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Nae Park

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex and sex hormones play a major role in lung physiology. It has been proposed that the ratio of the second to fourth digits (digit ratio is correlated with fetal sex hormones. We therefore hypothesized that digit ratio might help predict lung function. We investigated the relationship between digit ratio and pulmonary function test (PFT fi ndings. A total of 245 South Korean patients (162 male, 83 female aged from 34 to 90 years who were hospitalized for urological surgery were prospectively enrolled. Before administering the PFTs, the lengths of the second and fourth digits of the right hand were measured by a single investigator using a digital Vernier caliper. In males (n = 162, univariate and multivariate analysis using linear regression models showed that digit ratio was a signifi cant predictive factor of forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 (FVC: r = 0.156, P = 0.047; FEV1: r = 0.160, P = 0.042. In male ever-smokers (n = 69, lung functions (FVC and FEV1 were correlated with smoking exposure rather than digit ratio. In female never-smokers (n = 83, lung functions (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio were positively correlated with digit ratio on univariate analysis (FEV1: r = 0.242, P = 0.027; FEV1/FVC ratio: r = 0.245, P = 0.026. Patients with lower digit ratios tend to have decreased lung function. These results suggest that digit ratio is a predictor of airway function.

  3. The fourth root of the Kogut-Susskind determinant via infinite component fields

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, H

    2004-01-01

    An example of interpolation by means of local field theories between the case of normal Kogut-Susskind fermions and the case of keeping just the fourth root of the Kogut-Susskind determinant is given. For the fourth root trick to be a valid approximation certain limits need to be smooth. The question about the validity of the fourth root trick is not resolved, only cast into a local field theoretical framework.

  4. The Fourth R: A School-Based Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention Program

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Wolfe; Claire V. Crooks; Raymond Hughes

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R) to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching y...

  5. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  6. Spectroscopy of {sup 40}Ca and negative-parity bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torilov, S.; Oertzen, W. von; Kokalova, Tz [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195, Berlin (Germany); Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Thummerer, S.; Bohlen, H.G. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Angelis, G.de [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Tumino, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 44, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Axiotis, M.; Marginean, N.; Martinez, T.; Napoli, D.R.; Poli, M.De [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Farnea, E.; Lenzi, S.M.; Ur, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Padova (Italy); Rousseau, M.; Papka, P. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, IReS, Strasbourg (France)

    2004-03-01

    We have studied the reactions {sup 28}Si+{sup 24}Mg{yields}{sup 52}Fe{yields}{sup 4}0Ca{sup *}+3{alpha} as well as the binary channel {sup 52}Fe{yields}{sup 4}0Ca{sup *}+{sup 12}C{sup *}, in order to search for deformed states, which form rotational bands in {sup 40}Ca. We observe positive- and negative-parity bands. The negative-parity band is proposed to be a partner of an inversion doublet with the positive-parity states being based on 4p-4h configurations. The properties of the positive-parity states are discussed on the basis of the shell model and the parity doublet on the basis of a cluster model with intrinsic reflection asymmetric shapes. (orig.)

  7. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex and multilayered process of researcher positioning,specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and "othered"groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic,religious, and racial backgrounds...... involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  8. The Negative Parity Bands in $^{156}$Gd

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschel, Michael; Curien, Dominique; Dudek, Jerzy; Haas, Florent

    2014-01-01

    The high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin is the world most intense neutron source for research. Using the ultra high-resolution crystal spectrometers GAMS installed at the in-pile target position H6/H7 it is possible to measure nuclear state lifetimes using the Gamma Ray Induced Recoil (GRID) technique. In bent crystal mode, the spectrometers allow to perform spectroscopy with a dynamic range of up to six orders magnitude. At a very well collimated external neutron beam it is possible to install a highly efficient germanium detector array to obtain coincidences and angular correlations. The mentioned techniques were used to study the first two negative parity bands in $^{156}$Gd. These bands have been in the focus of interest since they seem to show signatures of a tetrahedral symmetry. A surprisingly high B(E2) value of about 1000 W.u. for the $4^- \\rightarrow 2^-$ transition was discovered. It indicates that the two first negative parity bands cannot be considered to be signature partners.

  9. [Study on the characters of phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra based on fourth-derivative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Su, Rong-Guo; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Zhu, Chen-Jian

    2007-11-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra of six phytoplankton species, belonging to Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta, were dealt by fourth-derivative analysis with the Matlab program. The results show that between 350 nm and 550 nm six fluorescence peaks were found in the fourth-derivative spectra, which are representatives of non-pigments, chlorophylls and carotenoides respectively. The method makes Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta more distinguishable when the fourth-derivative spectra are compared with the chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra. It can be used not only to discriminate the two groups of algaes, but also to reduce the effect of noise. The fluorescence peaks in the fourth-derivative spectra are proved to be stable.

  10. Students' perspectives on the fourth year of medical school: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen J; Lockspeiser, Tai M; Gong, Jennifer; Guiton, Gretchen

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the purpose and value of the fourth year of medical school from the perspective of medical students. In this study, the authors systematically explored the year's purpose and value as determined by students. In April 2011, the authors conducted semistructured focus groups with graduating fourth-year students at the University of Colorado School of Medicine to understand their perspectives on the purpose of the fourth year. Using results of a thematic analysis of the focus group data, the authors developed and administered a 10-item questionnaire to all graduating fourth-year medical students in May 2011. Questionnaire data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. A total of 17 students participated in two focus groups. Six themes related to the purpose of the fourth year emerged from the focus group data: career development and preparation, pursuing personal interests, career identification, exploration of diverse practice settings, influence of emotion, and flexibility and individualization. The questionnaire was completed by 134 of 148 students (91% response rate). Factor analysis of the questionnaire data identified five factors: strengthening one's residency application, developing skills, pursuing personal interests, exploring diverse practice settings, and identifying a career. Medical students uniformly identified the fourth year of medical school as having purpose and value, but their views on the fourth year's purpose differed. This finding underscores the importance of the individualization of the fourth year. Students' perspectives should inform any decisions made about modifying fourth-year curricula and structure.

  11. Positively Adolescent!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  12. Proceedings of the Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Gende, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Foreword Glacier Bay was established as a National Monument in 1925, in part to protect its unique character and natural beauty, but also to create a natural laboratory to examine evolution of the glacial landscape. Today, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is still a place of profound natural beauty and dynamic landscapes. It also remains a focal point for scientific research and includes continuing observations begun decades ago of glacial processes and terrestrial ecosystems. In recent years, research has focused on glacial-marine interactions and ecosystem processes that occur below the surface of the bay. In October 2004, Glacier Bay National Park convened the fourth in a series of science symposiums to provide an opportunity for researchers, managers, interpreters, educators, students and the general public to share knowledge about Glacier Bay. The Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium was held in Juneau, Alaska, rather than at the Park, reflecting a desire to maximize attendance and communication among a growing and diverse number of stakeholders interested in science in the park. More than 400 people attended the symposium. Participants provided 46 oral presentations and 41 posters covering a wide array of disciplines including geology, glaciology, oceanography, wildlife and fisheries biology, terrestrial and marine ecology, socio-cultural research and management issues. A panel discussion focused on the importance of connectivity in Glacier Bay research, and keynote speakers (Gary Davis and Terry Chapin) spoke of long-term monitoring and ecological processes. These proceedings include 56 papers from the symposium. A summary of the Glacier Bay Science Plan-itself a subject of a meeting during the symposium and the result of ongoing discussions between scientists and resource managers-also is provided. We hope these proceedings illustrate the diversity of completed and ongoing scientific studies, conducted within the Park. To this end, we invited all

  13. EDITORIAL: The Fourth International Workshop on Microfactories (IWMF'04)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jiaru; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2005-10-01

    This special section of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the fourth International Workshop on Microfactories. After the first three successful Workshops, which took place in Tsukuba, Japan in 1998, Fribourg, Switzerland in 2000 and Minneapolis, USA in 2002, the fourth (IWMF'04) was held in Shanghai, China on 15-17 October 2004. The concept of the `microfactory' and miniaturized production systems was first proposed by the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory in Japan who demonstrated the feasibility of downsizing energy-saving, distributed and eventually environmentally conscious manufacturing systems. There is incredible potential in reducing the physical scale of numerous processes related to the manufacture of many forms of future dense `mechatronic' products and in the manipulation of microscopic and nanoscopic objects and materials for the benefit of mankind. Small systems capable of these operations can be referred to as `microfactories'. A worldwide effort is currently underway to bring such microfactories to fruition. MEMS, MST and micromachines are regarded as synonyms, but they do not necessarily have the same meaning. In particular, differences can be found in their technological approaches. Roughly speaking, research and development in the USA is based primarily on surface or bulk silicon micromachining processes, and the ideal realization of MEMS seems to be the monolithic device. The European approach also focuses on integration between electronics and mechanics but, especially in connection with the development of `µTAS', it also demands the integration of non-mechanical components into the system. In Japan the approaches for MST are said to be rather less focused. Besides the above-mentioned `classical' microsystem technologies, down-scaling of conventional manufacturing methods, or non-silicon based device processing within this field, completely new technological methods are also considered as `microsystem technologies

  14. Investigation of optimal position for implantable loop recorders by potential mapping with Reveal DX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kawashima

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Exploring areas around the left sternal border of the fourth intercostal space – where the R wave amplitudes are least affected by body positions – is a reliable method for choosing implantation locations for ILRs.

  15. Narrow Band Gap Lead Sulfide Hole Transport Layers for Quantum Dot Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nanlin; Neo, Darren C J; Tazawa, Yujiro; Li, Xiuting; Assender, Hazel E; Compton, Richard G; Watt, Andrew A R

    2016-08-24

    The band structure of colloidal quantum dot (CQD) bilayer heterojunction solar cells is optimized using a combination of ligand modification and QD band gap control. Solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of up to 9.33 ± 0.50% are demonstrated by aligning the absorber and hole transport layers (HTL). Key to achieving high efficiencies is optimizing the relative position of both the valence band and Fermi energy at the CQD bilayer interface. By comparing different band gap CQDs with different ligands, we find that a smaller band gap CQD HTL in combination with a more p-type-inducing CQD ligand is found to enhance hole extraction and hence device performance. We postulate that the efficiency improvements observed are largely due to the synergistic effects of narrower band gap QDs, causing an upshift of valence band position due to 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) ligands and a lowering of the Fermi level due to oxidation.

  16. High-resolution idiogram of Giemsa R-banded human prophase chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, C L; Drouin, R; Murer-Orlando, M; Jean, P

    1983-12-01

    The schematic representation of RHG-banded chromosomes (R-banding was produced by heat denaturation followed by Giemsa staining (RHG) in the 850-band range per haploid set, was prepared showing the relative position, the specific size, and the characteristic staining intensity for each band. To this idiogram was adapted the new International Standard Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Our aim was to produce a realistic idiogram which could help in the preparation of R-banded prophase karyotypes and in the localization of chromosomal rearrangements. A comparative analysis of bands at prophase and metaphase revealed certain aspects of the dynamics involved in chromosome condensation and in R-band organization. The effect of chromosome elongation on the appearance of R-bands within heterochromatic regions has also been discussed.

  17. The relationship between emotion regulation strategies and job search behavior among fourth-year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Huihui; Zhang, Xue; Fang, Ping

    2017-08-01

    The job search process is a stressful experience. This study investigated the effect of emotion regulation strategies on job search behavior in combination with anxiety and job search self-efficacy among Chinese university fourth-year students (N = 816, mean age = 21.98, 31.5% male, 34.9% majored in science, 18.0% from "211 Project" universities). Results showed that cognitive reappraisal was positively related to job search behavior, while expressive suppression was negatively related to job search behavior. Additionally, anxiety was negatively related to job search behavior, while job search self-efficacy was positively associated with job search behavior. Moreover, both anxiety and job search self-efficacy mediated the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and job search behavior. In general, emotion regulation strategies played an important role in job search behavior. Implications include the notion that emotion regulation interventions may be helpful to increase job search behavior among university students. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency of the superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in unilateral fourth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Andrea; Ugrin, Maria Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Superior oblique palsy is accompanied in most cases by overaction of the muscle's ipsilateral antagonist, the inferior oblique muscle. Overaction and contracture of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle in patients with unilateral fourth (trochlear) nerve palsy is seldom discussed in the literature. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the frequency of superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in patients with unilateral trochlear nerve palsy. The records of 198 patients with unilateral trochlear nerve palsy examined by the authors between July 1987 and July 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients underwent complete eye examination with measurement of the deviation in the 9 positions of gaze and with the head tilted to both sides in all cooperative patients. Selection criteria for superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in these patients were as follows: vertical deviation of 15(Delta) or larger in primary position, equal or larger hypertropia with the ipsilateral forced tilt test than with the eyes looking straight ahead, more than 5(Delta) hypertropia of the affected eye in horizontal gaze to the same side, hypertropia in all upgazes, and overaction of the contralateral superior oblique muscle. Of 198 patients, 33 (16.6%) met the selection criteria for superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome. Superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome frequently occurs in unilateral superior oblique palsy.

  19. The fourth dimension: A motoric perspective on the anxiety-performance relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Howie J; Collins, Dave

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on raising concern that anxiety-performance relationship theory has insufficiently catered for motoric issues during, primarily, closed and self-paced skill execution (e.g., long jump and javelin throw). Following a review of current theory, we address the under-consideration of motoric issues by extending the three-dimensional model put forward by Cheng, Hardy, and Markland (2009) ('Toward a three-dimensional conceptualization of performance anxiety: Rationale and initial measurement development, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 271-278). This fourth dimension, termed skill establishment, comprises the level and consistency of movement automaticity together with a performer's confidence in this specific process, as providing a degree of robustness against negative anxiety effects. To exemplify this motoric influence, we then offer insight regarding current theories' misrepresentation that a self-focus of attention toward an already well-learned skill always leads to a negative performance effect. In doing so, we draw upon applied literature to distinguish between positive and negative self-foci and suggest that on what and how a performer directs their attention is crucial to the interaction with skill establishment and, therefore, performance. Finally, implications for skill acquisition research are provided. Accordingly, we suggest a positive potential flow from applied/translational to fundamental/theory-generating research in sport which can serve to freshen and usefully redirect investigation into this long-considered but still insufficiently understood concept.

  20. Direct detection of fourth generation Majorana neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Heavy stable fourth generation Majorana neutrinos contribute to a small fraction of the relic density of dark matter (DM) in the Universe. Due to its relatively strong coupling to the standard model particles, it can be probed by the current direct and indirect DM detection experiments even it is a subdominant component of the halo DM. We show that the current Xenon100 data constrain the mass of the stable Majorana neutrino to be greater than the mass of the top quark. The effective spin-independent cross section for the neutrino elastic scattering off nucleon is predicted to be $\\sim 1.5\\times 10^{-44} cm^2$, which is insensitive to the neutrino mass and mixing and can be reached by the direct DM detection experiments in the near future. In the same mass region the predicted effective spin-dependent cross section for the heavy neutrino scattering off proton is in the range of $2\\times 10^{-40} cm^2\\sim 2\\times 10^{-39} cm^2$, which is within the reach of the ongoing DM indirect search experiments. We demonst...

  1. EIA publication manual: Fourth edition. [Energy information manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neef, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Publications Manual. It was written to help the staff of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) who are involved in the production process to create and format uniform publications that not only provide information, but readily identify the agency. The manual reflects the substantial changes that have taken place to streamline methods of producing EIA publications over the past few years. Whereas the first edition, in 1979, was written for writers and typists which struggled with producing reports on manual typewriters, this report now reflects the increased use of automation in preparing most EIA publications. EIA has a fully automated photocomposition publishing system. Many of the style features discussed in this manual are automatically produced using EPIC/ICEF2. The need for format sheets and illustrations produced by graphic artists has been significantly reduced. However, the basic style has changed very little. EIA style continues to be based on the Government Printing Office Style Manual with some deviations tailored specifically for EIA.

  2. CERN announces the fourth annual Beamline for Schools competition

    CERN Multimedia

    BL4S team

    2016-01-01

    CERN is pleased to announce the fourth annual Beamline for Schools (BL4S) competition. Once again, in 2017, a fully equipped beamline will be made available at CERN for students. As in previous years, two teams will be invited to the Laboratory to execute the experiments they proposed in their applications. The 2017 competition is being made possible thanks to support from the Alcoa Foundation for the second consecutive year.   The competition is open to teams of high-school students aged 16 or older who, if they win, are invited (with two supervisors) to CERN to carry out their experiment. Teams must have at least five students but there is no upper limit to a team’s size (although just nine students per winning team will be invited to CERN). Teams may be composed of pupils from a single school, or from a number of schools working together. As science-loving mega-celebrity Will.I.Am told us: “If you’re interested in science, technology, engineering or ...

  3. Text comprehension in Czech fourth-grade children with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špačková Klára

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, the concept of dyslexia is used as a global term for various developmental deficiencies relating to reading skills. The criteria used for dyslexia are not clear and intervention is solely focused on word reading training. Not much is known about the pattern and level of reading comprehension abilities among Czech readers. The study examines reading comprehension and its component skills (decoding and listening comprehension abilities in 32 Czech fourth-grade children with a formal diagnosis of dyslexia and their classmates (N=126. In decoding tests, the children with dyslexia surprisingly lagged behind most significantly in a task concerning speed and accuracy in context reading. Contrary to expectations, the children with dyslexia also showed inferiority in a listening comprehension task. In reading comprehension measures, in comparison to the typically developing readers, the children with dyslexia achieved the best results in a oral reading comprehension task. The results are discussed with respect to Czech counselling and educational practice and the need for changes in the current support system and terminology is stressed.

  4. Fourth World Conference on Women: the Namibian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeb, S

    1995-01-01

    This consideration of some of the issues raised at the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) from a Namibian perspective begins by mentioning the pernicious nature of domestic violence and briefly summarizing some of the main points raised at a 1994 symposium on domestic violence. The discussion continues by noting that Namibia's report for the WCW reaffirms that it is crucial for women to be involved in the decision-making process at all levels. Next, the paper notes that traditional male attributes of strength are losing their importance in a world that values mental alertness, intuition, and traditional female qualities of love and service. This has led to a call for a transformation of society supported by the education of women and their economic empowerment. The essay ends by defining an empowered person as possessing a belief in the ability of human intervention to change the world, a sense of self-worth, a sense of the self as a viable agent of change, and a notion of what constitutes a better life.

  5. Robust Optimization of Fourth Party Logistics Network Design under Disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fourth Party Logistics (4PL network faces disruptions of various sorts under the dynamic and complex environment. In order to explore the robustness of the network, the 4PL network design with consideration of random disruptions is studied. The purpose of the research is to construct a 4PL network that can provide satisfactory service to customers at a lower cost when disruptions strike. Based on the definition of β-robustness, a robust optimization model of 4PL network design under disruptions is established. Based on the NP-hard characteristic of the problem, the artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA and the genetic algorithm (GA are developed. The effectiveness of the algorithms is tested and compared by simulation examples. By comparing the optimal solutions of the 4PL network for different robustness level, it is indicated that the robust optimization model can evade the market risks effectively and save the cost in the maximum limit when it is applied to 4PL network design.

  6. Fourth-order partial differential equations for noise removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y L; Kaveh, M

    2000-01-01

    A class of fourth-order partial differential equations (PDEs) are proposed to optimize the trade-off between noise removal and edge preservation. The time evolution of these PDEs seeks to minimize a cost functional which is an increasing function of the absolute value of the Laplacian of the image intensity function. Since the Laplacian of an image at a pixel is zero if the image is planar in its neighborhood, these PDEs attempt to remove noise and preserve edges by approximating an observed image with a piecewise planar image. Piecewise planar images look more natural than step images which anisotropic diffusion (second order PDEs) uses to approximate an observed image. So the proposed PDEs are able to avoid the blocky effects widely seen in images processed by anisotropic diffusion, while achieving the degree of noise removal and edge preservation comparable to anisotropic diffusion. Although both approaches seem to be comparable in removing speckles in the observed images, speckles are more visible in images processed by the proposed PDEs, because piecewise planar images are less likely to mask speckles than step images and anisotropic diffusion tends to generate multiple false edges. Speckles can be easily removed by simple algorithms such as the one presented in this paper.

  7. The fourth horizontal project in the mature Algyo Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipicz, V.; Benedek, L.; Palasthy, G.; Barodi, T. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Co. (Hungary); Joshi, S.D. [Joshi Technologies International, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Approximately seventy horizontal wells have been drilled in the course of three successful projects in the mature Algyo Field in Hungary since 1993. Recently, a fourth project has been initiated which includes the drilling of more than twenty new horizontal sections. These horizontal wells kick off existing abandoned wells along the thin oil rim that exists in two high permeability reservoirs with top gas and bottom water. The most significant difference between the two reservoirs is that one has water injection and the other has two layers with strong natural bottom water drive. The former geological and dynamic models for the hydrocarbon field in the Pannonian basin was rebuilt in order to handle the common aquifer of four reservoirs. Based on the new geology, reservoir simulation was used to study the reservoir behaviour, including the forthcoming period of gas cap production. The increase in reserves was matched with the production history to observe the movement of the water oil contact (WOC) with the production and drawdown rates in the future when the horizontal trajectories were planned. The reservoir management focused on maximising the long-term profit of the field by optimal production of the reserves, reducing gas and water coning and by the effective use of depleted gas reservoirs and existing vertical wells. Production rate and recovery was increased by reaching the by-passed hydrocarbon and by increasing the drainage area. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 14 figs.

  8. Summary of the Fourth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassberg, John C.; Tinoco, Edward N.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Zickuhr, Tom; Levy, David W.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Eisfeld, Bernhard; Crippa, Simone; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Murayama, Mitcuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Results from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-IV) are summarized. The workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and differential drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal-tail configurations that are representative of transonic transport air- craft. Numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant test cases that include lift- specific flight conditions, trimmed drag polars, downwash variations, dragrises and Reynolds- number effects. Drag, lift and pitching moment predictions from numerous Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics methods are presented. Solutions are performed on structured, unstructured and hybrid grid systems. The structured-grid sets include point- matched multi-block meshes and over-set grid systems. The unstructured and hybrid grid sets are comprised of tetrahedral, pyramid, prismatic, and hexahedral elements. Effort is made to provide a high-quality and parametrically consistent family of grids for each grid type about each configuration under study. The wing-body-horizontal families are comprised of a coarse, medium and fine grid; an optional extra-fine grid augments several of the grid families. These mesh sequences are utilized to determine asymptotic grid-convergence characteristics of the solution sets, and to estimate grid-converged absolute drag levels of the wing-body-horizontal configuration using Richardson extrapolation.

  9. Fourth Data Challenge for the ALICE data acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE experiment will study quark-gluon plasma using beams of heavy ions, such as those of lead. The particles in the beams will collide thousands of times per second in the detector and each collision will generate an event containing thousands of charged particles. Every second, the characteristics of tens of thousands of particles will have to be recorded. Thus, to be effective, the data acquisition system (DAQ) must meet extremely strict performance criteria. To this end, the ALICE Data Challenges entail step-by-step testing of the DAQ with existing equipment that is sufficiently close to the final equipment to provide a reliable indication of performance. During the fourth challenge, in 2002, a data acquisition rate of 1800 megabytes per second was achieved by using some thirty parallel-linked PCs running the specially developed DATE software. During the final week of tests in December 2002, the team also tested the Storage Tek linear magnetic tape drives. Their bandwidth is 30 megabytes per second a...

  10. Natural gas imports and exports; Fourth quarterly report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1993 (October--December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information for gas imported on a short-term basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term basis to Canada and Mexico. During 1993, data indicates gas imports grew by about 10 percent over the 1992 level (2328 vs. 2122 Bcf), with Canadian and Algerian imports increasing by 8 and 82 percent, respectively. During the same time period, exports declined by 41 percent (144 vs. 243 Bcf). Exports to Canada decreased 47 percent from the 1992 level (50 vs. 95 Bcf) and exports to Mexico decreased by 60 percent (38 vs. 95 Bcf).

  11. Single-Band and Dual-Band Infrared Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Nguyen, Jean (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Bias-switchable dual-band infrared detectors and methods of manufacturing such detectors are provided. The infrared detectors are based on a back-to-back heterojunction diode design, where the detector structure consists of, sequentially, a top contact layer, a unipolar hole barrier layer, an absorber layer, a unipolar electron barrier, a second absorber, a second unipolar hole barrier, and a bottom contact layer. In addition, by substantially reducing the width of one of the absorber layers, a single-band infrared detector can also be formed.

  12. Correlations in a Band Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentef, Michael; Kunes, Jan; Kampf, Arno P.; Werner, Philipp

    2010-03-01

    Using DMFT we find a discontinuous band-to-Mott insulator transition upon an increase in the local Coulomb repulsion in a covalent band insulator [1,2], defined as a band insulator with partially filled local orbitals. The corresponding band gap is a hybridization gap arising from a particular pattern of hopping integrals. Similar characteristics apply to materials such as FeSi, FeSb2 or CoTiSb [3], some of which exhibit temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties reminiscent of Kondo insulators. Both charge and spin gaps in the covalent band insulator shrink with increasing Coulomb repulsion. At moderate interaction strengths the gap renormalization is well described by a renormalization factor analogous to the quasiparticle weight in a Fermi liquid. [4pt] [1] M. Sentef, J. Kunes, P. Werner, and A.P. Kampf, Phys. Rev. B 80, 155116 (2009) [0pt] [2] A.P. Kampf, M. Kollar, J. Kunes, M. Sentef, and D. Vollhardt, arXiv:0910.5126

  13. William Band at Yenching University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Danian

    2008-04-01

    William Band (1906-1993) has been widely remembered by his American colleagues and students as ``a fine physicist and teacher,'' who taught at Washington State University in Pullman between 1949 and 1971 and authored Introduction to Quantum Statistics (1954) and Introduction to Mathematical Physics (1959). Not many, however, knew much about Band's early career, which was very ``uncommon and eventful.'' Born in England, Band graduated from University of Liverpool in 1927 with an MsSc degree in physics. Instead of pursuing his Ph.D. at Cambridge, he chose to teach physics at Yenching University, a prestigious Christian university in Beijing, China. Arriving in 1929, Band established his career at Yenching, where he taught and researched the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, pioneered the study on low-temperature superconductivity in China, founded the country's first graduate program in physics, and chaired the Physics Department for 10 years until he fled from Yenching upon hearing of the attack on Pearl Harbor. It took him two years to cross Japanese occupied areas under the escort of the Communist force; he left China in early 1945. This presentation will explore Band's motivation to work in China and his contributions to the Chinese physics research and education.

  14. An idiogram on pachytene bivalents with high resolution multiple bands of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易梅生; 余其兴; 黄琳

    2002-01-01

    Well spread pachytene bivalents with high-resolution multiple bands of zebrafish were obtained after the testes were treated with alkaline hypotonic solution and high chloroform fixative solution. This might be the pattern with the largest number of multiple bands obtained from fish chromosomes so far published. Both the number and character of the bands in each bivalent were stable. According to the principles of ISCN (1978) and ISCN (1981), an idiogram of 599 bands was set up, and the detailed description of the landmark system and the band positions were given.

  15. Robust flat bands in R Co5 (R = rare earth) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Masayuki; Arita, Ryotaro; Matsumoto, Munehisa; Kino, Hiori; Miyake, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The mechanism to realize the peculiar flat bands generally existing in R Co5 (R = rare earth) compounds is clarified by analyzing the first-principles band structures and the tight-binding model. These flat bands are constructed from the localized eigenstates, the existence of which is guaranteed by the destructive interference of the intersite hopping among the Co -3 d states at the kagome sites and those between the kagome and honeycomb sites. Their relative positions to other bands can be controlled by varying the lattice parameters keeping their dispersion almost flat, which suggests the possibility of flat-band engineering.

  16. RF-MEMS tunable interdigitated capacitor and fixed spiral inductor for band pass filter applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Ladon Ahmed; Dennis, John Ojur; Khir, M. Haris Md; Wen, Wong Peng

    2016-11-01

    This research presents the tunable Radio Frequency Micro Electromechanical Systems (RF-MEMS) coupled band-pass filter (BPF), which possess a wide tuning range and constructed by using the Chebyshev fourth degree equivalent circuit consisting of fixed inductors and interdigitated tunable capacitors. The suggested method was authenticated by designing a new tunable BPF with a 100% tuning range from 3.1 GHz to 4.9 GHz. The Metal Multi-User MEMS Process (Metal MUMPs) was involved in the process of design of this band-pass filter. It aimed to achieve the reconfiguration of frequencies and show high efficiency of RF in the applications that using Ultra Wide Band (UWB) such as wireless sensor networks. The RF performance of this filter was found to be very satisfactory due to its simple fabrication. Moreover, it showed less insertion loss of around 4 dB and high return loss of around 20 dB.

  17. The Contribution of Executive Functions to Narrative Writing in Fourth Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijbooms, Elise; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children, and evaluated to what extent executive functions contribute differentially to different levels of narrative composition. The written skills of 102 Dutch children in fourth grade were assessed using a narrative picture-elicitation…

  18. Family Life: Literature and Films. An Annotated Bibliography. Supplement to Fourth Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Ronald L., Ed.

    This supplement to the fourth edition of "Family Life Literature and Films: An Annotated Bibliography" includes materials produced since the publication of the fourth edition (see AC 012 492). The materials are listed under nine topic headings, as follows: I. The American Family: Theoretical, Historical, and Subcultural Perspectives; II. Human…

  19. PPN-limit of Fourth Order Gravity inspired by Scalar-Tensor Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Capozziello, S.; Troisi, A

    2005-01-01

    Based on the {\\it dynamical} equivalence between higher order gravity and scalar-tensor gravity the PPN-limit of fourth order gravity is discussed. We exploit this analogy developing a fourth order gravity version of the Eddington PPN-parameters. As a result, Solar System experiments can be reconciled with higher order gravity, if physical constraints descending from experiments are fulfilled.

  20. 20 CFR 655.734 - What is the fourth LCA requirement, regarding notice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the fourth LCA requirement, regarding... Specialty Occupations § 655.734 What is the fourth LCA requirement, regarding notice? An employer seeking to... before the date the LCA is filed with ETA, provide a notice of the filing of the LCA. The notice...

  1. 77 FR 27057 - Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... AGENCY Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List... contaminants for possible inclusion in the fourth drinking water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL 4). EPA is... information contact the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791 or email: hotline-sdwa@epa.gov ....

  2. The contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijbooms, E.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children, and evaluated to what extent executive functions contribute differentially to different levels of narrative composition. The written skills of 102 Dutch children in fourth grade were

  3. The contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijbooms, E.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children, and evaluated to what extent executive functions contribute differentially to different levels of narrative composition. The written skills of 102 Dutch children in fourth grade were

  4. PPN-limit of Fourth Order Gravity inspired by Scalar-Tensor Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Capozziello, S.; Troisi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the {\\it dynamical} equivalence between higher order gravity and scalar-tensor gravity the PPN-limit of fourth order gravity is discussed. We exploit this analogy developing a fourth order gravity version of the Eddington PPN-parameters. As a result, Solar System experiments can be reconciled with higher order gravity, if physical constraints descending from experiments are fulfilled.

  5. Technology Integration in Third, Fourth and Fifth Grade Classrooms in a Florida School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Tiffani; Gaines, Trudi

    2015-01-01

    Third, fourth and fifth grade teachers have the potential to shape the way their students will begin to view and use technology. This study investigated the nature of technology usage among third, fourth and fifth grade teachers in a Florida school district as well as the relationship between the level of technology usage factors such as available…

  6. Technology Integration in Third, Fourth and Fifth Grade Classrooms in a Florida School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Tiffani; Gaines, Trudi

    2015-01-01

    Third, fourth and fifth grade teachers have the potential to shape the way their students will begin to view and use technology. This study investigated the nature of technology usage among third, fourth and fifth grade teachers in a Florida school district as well as the relationship between the level of technology usage factors such as available…

  7. The Contribution of Executive Functions to Narrative Writing in Fourth Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijbooms, Elise; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children, and evaluated to what extent executive functions contribute differentially to different levels of narrative composition. The written skills of 102 Dutch children in fourth grade were assessed using a narrative picture-elicitation…

  8. ON THE INSTABILITY OF SOLUTIONS TO A NONLINEAR VECTOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF FOURTH ORDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new result related to the instability of the zero solution to a nonlinear vector differential equation of fourth order.Our result includes and improves an instability result in the previous literature,which is related to the instability of the zero solution to a nonlinear scalar differential equation of fourth order.

  9. A Note on Four-Dimensional Symmetry Algebras and Fourth-Order Ordinary Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a supplementation of the results on the canonical forms for scalar fourth-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs which admit four-dimensional Lie algebras obtained recently. Together with these new canonical forms, a complete list of scalar fourth-order ODEs that admit four-dimensional Lie algebras is available.

  10. Linear methods in band theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. Krogh

    1975-01-01

    and they specify the boundary conditions on a single MT or atomic sphere in the most convenient way. This method is very well suited for self-consistent calculations. The empty-lattice test is applied to the linear-MTO method and the free-electron energy bands are accurately reproduced. Finally, it is shown how......Two approximate methods for solving the band-structure problem in an efficient and physically transparent way are presented and discussed in detail. The variational principle for the one-electron Hamiltonian is used in both schemes, and the trial functions are linear combinations of energy......-independent augmented plane waves (APW) and muffin-tin orbitals (MTO), respectively. The secular equations are therefore eigenvalue equations, linear in energy. The trial functions are defined with respect to a muffin-tin (MT) potential and the energy bands depend on the potential in the spheres through potential...

  11. X-Band PLL Synthesizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kutin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with design and realization of a PLL synthesizer for the microwave X−band. The synthesizer is intended for use as a local oscillator in a K−band downconverter. The design goal was to achieve very low phase noise and spurious free signal with a sufficient power level. For that purpose a low phase noise MMIC VCO was used in phase locked loop. The PLL works at half the output frequency, therefore there is a frequency doubler at the output of the PLL. The output signal from the frequency doubler is filtered by a band-pass filter and finally amplified by a single stage amplifier.

  12. Holographic Multi-Band Superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Maity, Debaprasad

    2011-01-01

    We propose a gravity dual for the holographic superconductor with multi-band carriers. Moreover, the currents of these carriers are unified under a global non-Abelian symmetry, which is dual to the bulk non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We study the phase diagram of our model, and find it qualitatively agrees with the one for the realistic 2-band superconductor, such as MgB2. We also evaluate the holographic conductivities and find the expected mean-field like behaviors in some cases. However, for a wide range of the parameter space, we also find the non-mean-field like behavior with negative conductivities.

  13. Analysis of superdeformed rotational bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalazissis, G. A.; Hara, K.

    1998-07-01

    Available experimental data for the ΔI=2 transition energies in superdeformed bands are analyzed by using an extended one-point formula. The existence of deviations from the smooth behavior is confirmed in many bands. However, we stress that one cannot necessarily speak about regular staggering patterns as they are mostly irregular. We present a simulation of the experimental data in terms of a simple model, which suggests that the irregularities may stem from the presence of irregular kinks in the rotational spectrum. However, at present, where such kinks may come from is an open question.

  14. X-Band PLL Synthesizer

    OpenAIRE

    P. Kutin; Vagner, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with design and realization of a PLL synthesizer for the microwave X−band. The synthesizer is intended for use as a local oscillator in a K−band downconverter. The design goal was to achieve very low phase noise and spurious free signal with a sufficient power level. For that purpose a low phase noise MMIC VCO was used in phase locked loop. The PLL works at half the output frequency, therefore there is a frequency doubler at the output of the PLL. The output signal ...

  15. Spectroscopy of stop bands in artificial opals filled with an alcohol solution of potassium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Filatov, V. V.

    2012-09-01

    The spectral position of the stop bands in photonic crystals based on artificial opals filled with an alcohol solution of potassium iodide is investigated. The energy-band structure of samples with quartz globules 230 nm in diameter is modeled based on the dispersion equation. The spectral position of the stop bands in the [111] direction at different solution concentrations is determined. The conditions for forbidden-band "collapse" are established. The possibility of applying artificial opals in optical cavities of lasers of different types is analyzed.

  16. A guide to the evaluation of fourth cranial nerve palsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee; Hayman; Beaver; Prager; Kelder; Scasta; Avilla; von Noorden GK; Tang

    1998-12-01

    PURPOSE To devise a cost-effective guide for the evaluation of fourth nerve palsies (FNP). METHODS A review of the pertinent English language literature was performed to devise a guide for the evaluation (including neuroimaging) of FNP. The authors report a retrospective review of imaging studies performed on 206 patients with FNP. RESULTS The literature was used to develop the imaging guide. In the retrospective chart review of 206 patients from two tertiary care centers, 28 patients (13.6%) underwent a computed tomography scan and/or a magnetic resonance scan. Of these patients, five had associated neurological symptoms (non-isolated), one was traumatic, five were congenital, four were vasculopathic, eleven were non-vasculopathic, and two were progressive. Following the recommendations of the imaging guide, the five isolated congenital FNP and the four isolated vasculopathic FNP would not have undergone neuroimaging studies. The total costs of these neuroimaging studies in these nine patients were 19,000 dollars. Four patients in the retrospective review with associated neurological deficits (non-isolated) should have undergone neuroimaging according to the guide, but did not. CONCLUSIONS Although the evaluation of FNP can be difficult, the decision to order neuroimaging can be improved by using an imaging guide. An imaging guide for the evaluation of FNP may allow more appropriate and cost-effective imaging of these patients. Isolated congenital, old traumatic, or vasculopathic FNP do not require neuroimaging studies. Patients with non-isolated FNP should have directed neuroimaging studies based upon the results of clinical examination.

  17. Rational pharmacotherapy training for fourth-year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Gelal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of Rational Pharmacotherapy (RPT course program, reinforced by video footages, on the rational pharmacotherapy skills of the students. Materials and Methods: RPT course program has been conducted in Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine since 2008/9. The course has been organised in accordance with World Health Organisation (WHO Good Prescribing Guide. The aim of the course was to improve the problem solving skills (methodology for selection of the (personel-drug, prescription writing and informing patient about his illness and drugs and communication skills of students. The impact of the course has been measured by pre/post-test design by an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. In academic year 2010/11, to further improve OSCE score of the students we added doctor-patient communication video footages to the RPT course programme. During training, the students were asked to evaluate the doctor-patient communication and prescription on two video footages using a checklist followed by group discussions. Results: Total post-test OSCE score was significantly higher for 2010/11 academic year students (n = 147 than it was for 2009/10 year students (n = 131. The 2010/11 academic year students performed significantly better than the 2009/10 academic year students on four steps of OSCE. These steps were "defining the patient′s problem," "specifying the therapeutic objective," "specifying the non-pharmacological treatment" and "choosing a (drug treatment, taking all relevant patient characteristics into account". Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the implementation of video footages and group discussions to WHO/Good Prescribing Method improved the fourth-year medical students′ performance in rational pharmacotherapy skills.

  18. Internet usage of fourth-grader primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kristof Nagy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of information and communication technologies has resulted in revolutionary changes, which seem to continue in economy, society and many areas of life. The most important resource of the new social structure emerging as a result of technologies is information, thus the development of human capacity related to the use of information is extremely important. It may not be easy for parents and teachers to face the fact that the majority of their children/pupils know more about cyberspace than themselves. But are primary school pupils really better versed? Does digital literacy indeed automatically evolve? Does the use of the internet by all means improve children’s academic performance? In our current study we are researching how primary school pupils in the easternmost part of Hungary use the internet, and what effects it has on their studies. We would also like to emphasize the role of teachers working at the lower grades of the primary school in the formation of pupils’ digital literacy. In 2013 190 fourth-grader primary school pupils of eight schools filled in our questionnaire. Based on the data negative correlation was found between the time spent on web browsing and the academic average. Analysis of variance also revealed that those pupils have a higher academic average whose parents regularly check the purpose of their children’s internet usage. Our research results showed that the pupils who use the internet and the library equally to search for new information have a higher academic average compared to those pupils who only make use of either the traditional or the online option only. The most important result of the research is that in the case of adequate parental or professional (teacher control internet may have fruitful effects on pupils’ studies, but in the lack of such control the opposite is more likely.

  19. Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address.

  20. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp from Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE. Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century.

  1. Detection of CO Cameron band emission in comet P/Hartley 2 (1991 XV) with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, H. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Mcphate, J. B.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Arpigny, C.; Smith, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) spectra of comet P/Hartley 2 (1991 XV) taken with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 1991 September reveal several bands of the Cameron system of CO (a 3 Pi-X 1 Sigma). These band are most likely due to 'prompt' emission from CO2 and, thus, provide a direct tracer of the CO2 abundance in the nucleus. Photodissociative excitation of CO2 is probably the largest contributor to the Cameron band emission, but significant contributions from electron impact excitation of CO, electron impact dissociation of CO2, and dissociative recombination of CO2(+), are also possible. Using our estimate that photodissociative excitation is responsible for approximately 60% of the total excitation of the Cameron system, we derive Q(sub CO2) approximately 2.6 x 10(exp 27) molecules/s, which implies CO2/H20 approximately 4%. If all of the Cameron band emission is due to photodissociative excitation, then CO2/H2O = 7 +/- 2%. For the largest possible contributions from the other excitation mechanisms considered, the CO2 abundance could be as a small as aproximately 2-3%. We did not detect CO Fourth Positive Group emission in our data and derive an upper limit of CO/H2O less than or equal to 1% (3 sigma) for CO coming directly from the nucleus. Comparison of the relative CO2 and CO abundances in P/Hartley 2 to those in P/Halley (CO2/H2O approximately 3%-4%, CO/H20 approximately 4% for the nucleus source) indicates that selective devolatilization of the nucleus may have occurred for P/Hartley 2. A relatively large CO2/CO ratio (i.e., approximately greater than 1) seems to be a common property of cometary nuclei. Since gas phase chemistry, in either the solar nebula or the interstellar medium (ISM), appears incapable of producing large relative CO2 abundances, the CO2 in cometary nuclei is probably produced either by UV and/or cosmic ray irradiation of ISM grains prior to the formation of the Solar System, or by condensation

  2. Preface to the first monograph: The Fourth Psychiatric Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, psychiatry is in the midst of a fourth revolution. The first revolution was the so-called Moral Treatment which involved the activism of Phileppe Pinel (1745-1826 and William Tuke (1732-1819, as also the efforts of Dorothea Dix (1802-1887. This resulted in destigmatization of the lunatic label which had earlier meant treating the insane in a dehumanizing manner e.g.. chaining them to walls, displaying them for money etc. It resulted in the transition to custodial care and the opening of mental hospitals. The second psychiatric revolution was the Mental Hygiene Movement heralded by the eye­opening works of Elizabeth Packard (Modern Persecution or Insane Hospital Unveiled and Clifford Beers (1876-1943; A Mind That Found Itself which was furthered by, amongst others, pioneers like Adolf Meyer (1866-1950 and William James (1842-1910. This was followed by the third Psychiatric revolution, that of the Community Psychiatry Movement. This involved community participation, removal of restrictions, comprehensive set of services multi-disciplinary in nature, active consumer participation, mental health consultancy and preventive measures. This well intentioned grand movement had its problems, as all such grand movement must indeed have. It became the fountain­source of a fresh crop of difficulties related to transinstitutionalization in boarding and halfway houses, with increased rates of hospital admission, and the 'revolving door syndrome'. Moreover, it lead to an ominous rise in contact between the criminal justice system and the mentally ill as they moved more freely in the community.Today, we are in the midst of a silent by strong fourth revolution. Firstly, this revolution reiterates its strong linkage with the mainstream of medicine. Secondly, it bases itself on strong, empirical findings based on rigorous methodological studies, mainly biological. The major paradigm shift of contemporary psychiatry is towards methodological rigour on

  3. Medical Student Attitudes Toward Communication Skills Training and Knowledge of Appropriate Provider-Patient Communication: A Comparison of First-Year and Fourth-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin B; Bylund, Carma; Ware, Jennifer; Parker, Patricia; Query, Jim L; Baile, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Drawing upon Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives as a theoretical framework, this study examines attitudes toward communication skills training, knowledge of appropriate provider-patient communication, and confidence communicating with patients between first-year and fourth-year medical students at a large medical school in the southern United States. The study findings indicate that fourth-year medical students do not differ from first-year medical students in terms of attitudes towards communication skills training or knowledge of appropriate provider-patient communication, but they have significantly higher confidence scores about communicating with patients. In addition, positive attitudes towards communication skills training are significantly related to perceived importance of communication skills and confidence when communicating with patients. Finally, female medical students have more positive attitudes towards communication skills training than male medical students. The implications of the study findings and directions for future research are also discussed.

  4. Response of oxygen saturation in preterm infants receiving rib cage stabilization with an elastic band in two body positions: a randomized clinical trial Resposta da saturação de oxigênio no recém-nascido pré-termo com estabilização do gradil costal por meio da faixa elástica em duas posições corporais: ensaio clínico randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa A. A. Brunherotti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm newborns have higher thoracic compliance, providing less stability to the different forces of distortion imposed on the rib cage, leading to instability of the chest. Adequate body position may reduce this instability and facilitate respiratory work. OBJECTIVE: To assess the oxygen saturation response of preterm newborns receiving rib cage stabilization with an elastic band in two body positions. METHOD: A clinical, prospective, randomized crossover study was conducted, including sixteen newborns with a gestational age of 31 to 35 weeks (mean 32.8 weeks at a tertiary care facility, who did not receive supplemental oxygen. The infants were placed in a sequence of prone and supine positions with and without chest stabilization with an elastic band. Respiratory rate, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were measured at 10-minute intervals, corresponding to 7 samplings of 60 minutes. Data collection was interrupted when oxygen saturation was less than 90%. RESULTS: The mean gestational age of the infants was 32.8±1.5 weeks and the mean birth weight was 1,789±255g. Better values for the variables studied were observed in the supine position with an elastic chest band compared to the supine position without the band. The positions using an elastic band resulted in lower mean respiratory rate and heart rate and higher oxygen saturation. CONCLUSION: The use of an elastic chest band improves respiratory indicators such as oxygen saturation. CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Os recém-nascidos pré-termos possuem maior complacência torácica, oferecendo menor estabilidade às diferentes forças de distorção impostas à parede torácica, o que leva à instabilidade da caixa torácica. A posição corporal adequada pode diminuir essa instabilidade, facilitando o trabalho respiratório. OBJETIVO: Verificar a resposta da saturação de oxigênio em recém-nascido pré-termo com estabilização do gradil costal com faixa elástica em dois

  5. Pan-Plasmodium band sensitivity for Plasmodium falciparum detection in combination malaria rapid diagnostic tests and implications for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatton, Michelle L; Rees-Channer, Roxanne R; Glenn, Jeffrey; Barnwell, John W; Cheng, Qin; Chiodini, Peter L; Incardona, Sandra; González, Iveth J; Cunningham, Jane

    2015-03-18

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are appropriate for case management, but persistent antigenaemia is a concern for HRP2-detecting RDTs in endemic areas. It has been suggested that pan-pLDH test bands on combination RDTs could be used to distinguish persistent antigenaemia from active Plasmodium falciparum infection, however this assumes all active infections produce positive results on both bands of RDTs, an assertion that has not been demonstrated. In this study, data generated during the WHO-FIND product testing programme for malaria RDTs was reviewed to investigate the reactivity of individual test bands against P. falciparum in 18 combination RDTs. Each product was tested against multiple wild-type P. falciparum only samples. Antigen levels were measured by quantitative ELISA for HRP2, pLDH and aldolase. When tested against P. falciparum samples at 200 parasites/μL, 92% of RDTs were positive; 57% of these on both the P. falciparum and pan bands, while 43% were positive on the P. falciparum band only. There was a relationship between antigen concentration and band positivity; ≥4 ng/mL of HRP2 produced positive results in more than 95% of P. falciparum bands, while ≥45 ng/mL of pLDH was required for at least 90% of pan bands to be positive. In active P. falciparum infections it is common for combination RDTs to return a positive HRP2 band combined with a negative pan-pLDH band, and when both bands are positive, often the pan band is faint. Thus active infections could be missed if the presence of a HRP2 band in the absence of a pan band is interpreted as being caused solely by persistent antigenaemia.

  6. Familial band-shaped keratopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticho, U; Lahav, M; Ivry, M

    1979-01-01

    A brother and sister out of a consanguinous family of four siblings are presented as prototypes of primary band-shaped keratopathy. The disease manifested sever progressive changes of secondary nature over two years of follow-up. Histology and treatment are described.

  7. A PHOTONIC BAND GAP FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    An optical fibre having a periodicidal cladding structure provididing a photonic band gap structure with superior qualities. The periodical structure being one wherein high index areas are defined and wherein these are separated using a number of methods. One such method is the introduction...

  8. Metaphyseal bands in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta are undergoing pamidronate therapy to prevent the incidence of fragility fractures. The authors herein report a child aged 3 years who received five cycles of pamidronate, resulting in metaphyseal bands, known as "zebra lines."

  9. Bands for girls and boys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王为成

    2001-01-01

    Like many people, you may be dreaming of a career(职业) as rock and roll stars. There are two ways to go about getting one. First is the traditional way. Find some friends and form a group. Learn to play the guitar or the drums. Write your own songs. Spend hours arguing about the band name. Then go out on the road.

  10. K-Band Latching Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Design, development, and tests are described for two single-pole-double-throw latching waveguide ferrite switches: a K-band switch in WR-42 waveguide and a Ka-band switch in WR-28 waveguide. Both switches have structurally simple junctions, mechanically interlocked without the use of bonding materials; they are impervious to the effects of thermal, shock, and vibration stresses. Ferrite material for the Ka-band switch with a proper combination of magnetic and dielectric properties was available and resulted in excellent low loss, wideband performance. The high power handling requirement of the K-band switch limited the choice of ferrite to nickel-zinc compositions with adequate magnetic properties, but with too low relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant determines the junction dimensions for given frequency responses. In this case the too low value unavoidably leads to a larger than optimum junction volume, increasing the insertion loss and restricting the operating bandwidth. Efforts to overcome the materials-related difficulties through the design of a composite junction with increased effective dielectric properties efforts to modify the relative dielectric constant of nickel-zinc ferrite are examined.

  11. K-band latching switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1984-05-01

    Design, development, and tests are described for two single-pole-double-throw latching waveguide ferrite switches: a K-band switch in WR-42 waveguide and a Ka-band switch in WR-28 waveguide. Both switches have structurally simple junctions, mechanically interlocked without the use of bonding materials; they are impervious to the effects of thermal, shock, and vibration stresses. Ferrite material for the Ka-band switch with a proper combination of magnetic and dielectric properties was available and resulted in excellent low loss, wideband performance. The high power handling requirement of the K-band switch limited the choice of ferrite to nickel-zinc compositions with adequate magnetic properties, but with too low relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant determines the junction dimensions for given frequency responses. In this case the too low value unavoidably leads to a larger than optimum junction volume, increasing the insertion loss and restricting the operating bandwidth. Efforts to overcome the materials-related difficulties through the design of a composite junction with increased effective dielectric properties efforts to modify the relative dielectric constant of nickel-zinc ferrite are examined.

  12. DAPI-Banding and PI-Banding of Zhikong Scallop (Chlcmys farreri)%栉孔扇贝DAPI带型和PI带型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊; 包振民; 任晓亮; 王珊; 胡丽萍; 黄晓婷

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the techniques including DAPI-staining and PI-staining were used to study the DAPI-banding and PI-banding patterns of Chlamys farreri.Chromosomes spread from trochophore were prepared by Colchine-hypotonic-air drying methods.The results showed that DAPI-bands displayed in all the chromosomes of C.farreri, and they were mostly distributed in centromeric regions and terminal regions.Some interstitial bands and variable bands were also observed.62 DAPI positive bands were recorded in 12 chromosome metaphases.In addition, PI positive bands also displayed in all the chromosomes,and their positions were similar to that of the DAPI-bands.Both the positive DAPI-bands and the positive PI-bands distributed in the heterochromatin regions of C.farreri chromosomes.%选取栉孔扇贝Chlamys farreri担轮幼虫为材料,采用秋水仙素-低渗-空气干燥法制备染色体标本,应用荧光显带技术,分析了DAPI带和PI带在栉孔扇贝染色体上的分布.DAPI带型结果显示,栉孔扇贝所有染色体上都存在DAPI阳性带,主要分布于传统的着丝粒区和端部区域,另外还存在一些中间区DAPI带及可变带,总带数为62.PI带型结果与DAPI带型结果相似,在所有染色体上都存在PI阳性带.2种带型的阳性带所在位置与异染色质分布区域相吻合.

  13. A new chromosome fluorescence banding technique combining DAPI staining with image analysis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing Yu; She, Chao Wen; Hu, Zhong Li; Xiong, Zhi Yong; Liu, Li Hua; Song, Yun Chun

    2004-08-01

    In this study, a new chromosome fluorescence banding technique was developed in plants. The technique combined 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining with software analysis including three-dimensional imaging after deconvolution. Clear multiple and adjacent DAPI bands like G-bands were obtained by this technique in the tested species including Hordeum vulgare L., Oryza officinalis, Wall & Watt, Triticum aestivum L., Lilium brownii, Brown, and Vicia faba L. During mitotic metaphase, the numbers of bands for the haploid genomes of these species were about 185, 141, 309, 456 and 194, respectively. Reproducibility analysis demonstrated that banding patterns within a species were stable at the same mitotic stage and they could be used for identifying specific chromosomes and chromosome regions. The band number fluctuated: the earlier the mitotic stage, the greater the number of bands. The technique enables genes to be mapped onto specific band regions of the chromosomes by only one fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) step with no chemical banding treatments. In this study, the 45S and 5S rDNAs of some tested species were located on specific band regions of specific chromosomes and they were all positioned at the interbands with the new technique. Because no chemical banding treatment was used, the banding patterns displayed by the technique should reflect the natural conformational features of chromatin. Thus it could be expected that this technique should be suitable for all eukaryotes and would have widespread utility in chromosomal structure analysis and physical mapping of genes.

  14. Seismological analysis of the fourth North Korean nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Gernot; Gestermann, Nicolai; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea has conducted its fourth underground nuclear explosions on 06.01.2016 at 01:30 (UTC). The explosion was clearly detected and located by the seismic network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Additional seismic stations of international earthquake monitoring networks at regional distances, which are not part of the IMS, are used to precisely estimate the epicenter of the event in the North Hamgyong province (41.38°N / 129.05°E). It is located in the area of the North Korean Punggye-ri nuclear test site, where the verified nuclear tests from 2006, 2009, and 2013 were conducted as well. The analysis of the recorded seismic signals provides the evidence, that the event was originated by an explosive source. The amplitudes as well as the spectral characteristics of the signals were examined. Furthermore, the similarity of the signals with those from the three former nuclear tests suggests very similar source type. The seismograms at the 8,200 km distant IMS station GERES in Germany, for example, show the same P phase signal for all four explosions, differing in the amplitude only. The comparison of the measured amplitudes results in the increasing magnitude with the chronology of the explosions from 2006 (mb 4.2), 2009 (mb 4.8) until 2013 (mb 5.1), whereas the explosion in 2016 had approximately the same magnitude as that one three years before. Derived from the magnitude, a yield of 14 kt TNT equivalents was estimated for both explosions in 2013 and 2016; in 2006 and 2009 yields were 0.7 kt and 5.4 kt, respectively. However, a large inherent uncertainty for these values has to be taken into account. The estimation of the absolute yield of the explosions depends very much on the local geological situation and the degree of decoupling of the explosive from the surrounding rock. Due to the missing corresponding information, reliable magnitude-yield estimation for the

  15. Syntactic transfer in the initial stages of adult third language and fourth language acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbube Tavakol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper elucidates the articulated proposals for the initial stages of adult third language (L3 syntactic transfer, addressing their application for L3 and the subsequent fourth language (L4 acquisition. The study was set to demonstrate empirical evidence in line with or against the tenets of the models and to indicate if and how syntactic transfer might obtain differently depending on the language being acquired– L3 vs. L4. The models to be tested were Full Transfer/Full Access (FT/FA, L2 Status Factor Hypothesis (LSFH, Cumulative Enhancement Model (CEM and Typological Primacy Model (TPM. Following a principles and parameters framework, six parameters were selected to generate several language pairings and an adult female’s L3 Italian and L4 German’s early spontaneous productions of the selected features were audio-recorded. The accuracy levels with which the features were produced in tandem with the results of error analyses violated the positions of FT/FA as considered for L3/s acquisition and CEM and consistently identified Typological proximity and L2 status as affecting syntactic transfer during the early stages multilingual acquisition.

  16. Multiple solutions for fourth order elliptic problems with p(x-biharmonic operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingju Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the multiplicity of weak solutions to the following fourth order nonlinear elliptic problem with a \\(p(x\\-biharmonic operator \\[\\begin{cases}\\Delta^2_{p(x}u+a(x|u|^{p(x-2}u=\\lambda f(x,u\\quad\\text{ in }\\Omega,\\\\ u=\\Delta u=0\\quad\\text{ on }\\partial\\Omega,\\end{cases}\\] where \\(\\Omega\\ is a smooth bounded domain in \\(\\mathbb{R}^N\\, \\(p\\in C(\\overline{\\Omega}\\, \\(\\Delta^2_{p(x}u=\\Delta(|\\Delta u|^{p(x-2}\\Delta u\\ is the \\(p(x\\-biharmonic operator, and \\(\\lambda\\gt 0\\ is a parameter. We establish sufficient conditions under which there exists a positive number \\(\\lambda^{*}\\ such that the above problem has at least two nontrivial weak solutions for each \\(\\lambda\\gt\\lambda^{*}\\. Our analysis mainly relies on variational arguments based on the mountain pass lemma and some recent theory on the generalized Lebesgue-Sobolev spaces \\(L^{p(x}(\\Omega\\ and \\(W^{k,p(x}(\\Omega\\.

  17. Fourth World Conference on Women. Seeking action for equality, development, peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufert-barr, N

    1995-06-01

    There is a strong international push to secure broader rights for women. In the 20 years since the first global conference on women's issues was held in Mexico City, governments have adopted legislation which promotes equal opportunity, treatment, and rights, and women are entering the labor market in unprecedented numbers. There is evidence that investments in women have had an enormous impact upon society overall, but millions of individual women continue to face discrimination in social, economic, political, and cultural spheres. They are disproportionately denied access to positions of leadership, undereducated, underpaid, die from complications related to childbirth and unsafe abortions, and are battered and killed by men. The Fourth World Conference on Women will be held September 4-15, 1995, in Beijing, to allow participants to assess the progress and shortfalls of the past two decades and identify action to be taken into the next century. The UN-sponsored global meeting will offer governments, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and individuals the opportunity to review their efforts and renew their commitment to improve the equality and conditions of women and defend their human rights. The main objectives are to adopt a plan of action against obstacles to the advancement of women worldwide, to determine priority actions to be taken by the international community over the period 1996-2001, and to mobilize men and women at the grassroots level to achieve those objectives. A parallel nongovernmental organization forum on women will be held August 30 - September 8, also in Beijing.

  18. 三、四代酶联免疫吸附试验应用于HIV-1早期感染者的比较%The comparison of the performance between third generation ELISA and fourth generation ELISA on acute and early HIV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓旭; 欧阳金鸣; 孙宏; 楚振兴; 徐俊杰; 安明晖; 赵彬; 杨志军; 尚红

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价三代ELISA及四代ELISA对于HIV早期感染血样的灵敏度、窗口期和一致率.方法 收集2008至2010年在沈阳市的男男同性恋人群随访中发现HIV抗体阳转及中国医科大学附属第一医院就诊患者中发现的蛋白印迹试验(WB)确认带型不全患者HIV早期感染者血浆67份,进行三代ELISA、四代ELISA、WB确认试验及HIV-1 RNA检测.比较三代ELISA、四代ELISA对阳转期标本的检测灵敏度、一致率并动态观察血清阳转过程分析窗口期.三代与四代ELISA试剂灵敏度比较卡方检验进行统计学分析.结果 67份早期HIV-1感染者血清标本中,三代ELISA检出56份阳性,11份阴性,灵敏度83.6%(95% CI72.5%~91.5%),四代ELISA检出63份阳性,1份灰区,3份阴性,灵敏度94.0%(95% CI 85.4%~98.3%),四代ELISA灵敏度高于三代ELISA(x2=16.1,P<0.01).三代ELISA与四代ELISA一致率86.6%(95% CI76.0%~93.7%).三代ELISA阳性者感染时间最早为16 d,四代ELISA阳性者感染时间最早为9d.三、四代ELISA窗口期存在明显的个体差异.结论 四代ELISA对于HIV早期感染标本的检测灵敏度明显高于三代ELISA,窗口期更短.四代ELISA更适用于高危人群中的HIV早期感染的筛查.%Objective To evaluate the performance of the third generation ELISA and the fourth generation ELISA for HIV-1 diagnosis assays on acute and early HIV-1 infected samples.Methods Sixtyseven acute/early HIV-1 infected samples were collected from the follow-up gays with seroconversion in Shen Yang city and from clinical patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University with incomplete HIV-1 specific bands in western blot between 2008 and 2010.Third generation ELISA,fourth generation ELISA,western blot and HIV-1 viral load detecting were used for detecting these samples.The sensitivity,consistency were compared between third generation ELISA and fourth generation ELISA to detect the seroconversion

  19. The characteristic of power flow in broad band dynamic vibration absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Minqing; SHENG Meiping; SUN Jincai; LIU Yi

    2002-01-01

    DVA (dynamic vibration absorber) is good for restrain of the resonance vibration in low frequency, especially under the condition that there are only one mode or two modes in a frequency band. It seems rather difficult to control the resonance vibration of elastic structures in high frequency, since usually there are so many modes in high frequency band. The broad band DVA is brought forward to reduce the resonance vibration of elastic structures. The broad band DVA is designed on the basis of the characteristic of power flow in structure in this paper.The broad band DVA is effective on absorbing the resonance vibration power flow of the mostimportant modes. The ability of absorbing vibration for the broad band DVA is analyzed indetail. The results obtained in this paper provide a basis for the optimization design of thebroad band DVA and the optimization positions on structures.

  20. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  1. Fourth-order master equation for a charged harmonic oscillator interacting with the electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Arzu; Eryigit, Resul

    2015-12-01

    The master equation for a charged harmonic oscillator coupled to an electromagnetic reservoir is investigated up to fourth order in the interaction strength by using Krylov averaging method. The interaction is in the velocity-coupling form and includes a diamagnetic term. Exact analytical expressions for the second-, the third-, and the fourth-order contributions to mass renormalization, decay constant, normal and anomalous diffusion coefficients are obtained for the blackbody type environment. It is found that, generally, the third- and the fourth-order contributions have opposite signs when their magnitudes are comparable to that of the second-order one.

  2. Sums of Fourth Powers of Polynomials over a~Finite Field of Characteristic 3

    OpenAIRE

    Car, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Let $F$ be a finite field with $q$ elements and characteristic $3.$ A sum $$M = M_{1}^4+\\ldots+ M_{s}^4$$ of fourth powers of polynomials $M_1,\\dots, M_{s}$ is a strict one if $ 4\\deg M_i 81$ is congruent to $1$ (mod. $4$), then $P$ is the strict sum of $9$ fourth powers; if $q=81$ or if $q>3$ is congruent to $3$ (mod $4$), then $P$ is the strict sum of $10$ fourth powers. If $q=3,...

  3. STABLE FOURTH-ORDER STREAM-FUNCTION METHODS FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS WITH BOUNDARIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Y. Hou; Brian R. Wetton

    2009-01-01

    Fourth-order stream-function methods are proposed for the time dependent, incom-pressible Navier-Stokes and Bonssinesq equations. Wide difference stencils are used instead of compact ones and the boundary terms are handled by extrapolating the stream-function values inside the computational domain to grid points outside, up to fourth-order in the no-slip condition. Formal error analysis is done for a simple model problem, showing that this extrapolation introduces numerical boundary layers at fifth-order in the stream-function. The fourth-order convergence in velocity of the proposed method for the full problem is shown numerically.

  4. The Fourth R: A School-Based Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Wolfe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.

  5. Reflectivity and Emissivity of Sea Foam at L-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, M. D.; Burrage, D. M.; Bettenhausen, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquitous use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for navigation is well known. GPS operates at L-band frequencies of 1-2 GHz. Because these low microwave frequencies penetrate clouds and rain, GPS signals can detect the specular reflection and diffuse scattering from flat and rough surfaces. This makes the GPS signals useful for geophysical measurements in all weather conditions. Aircraft and satellite-borne GPS reflectometers have been shown to successfully sense ocean surface wind. L-band reflectometry measures changes in ocean surface reflectivity due to changes of ocean surface roughness as wind increases. The use of GPS, together with other Global Navigation Satellite Systems, will soon provide hundreds of L-band transmitters in space and thus high temporal resolution for geophysical measurements. With its all weather capability and high temporal resolution, GPS reflectometry can provide wind speed data in hurricane conditions. Such capabilities enable the new Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) project which aims to improve the skill of hurricane intensity forecasts. However, wave breaking under high winds produces sea foam (whitecaps) and sea spray, which complicate processes acting at the air-sea interface. Whitecaps and sea spray have high emissivity at L-band and will thus reduce the ocean reflectivity needed for wind speed retrieval. A combination of L-band reflectometry and L-band radiometry can thus help to better understand and model the physical mechanisms governing the L-band sensor responses. We use a radiative transfer model formulated in terms of foam layer thickness and void fraction to evaluate both the reflectivity and emissivity of a foam-covered sea surface. We report on the attenuation of L-band radiation in foam layers, and the corresponding foam reflectivity, for layers with varying thicknesses and void fractions. The reflected GPS signal sensitivity to wind speed variations in the presence of foam is assessed.

  6. Correlation of Photocatalytic Activity with Band Structure of Low-dimensional Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanke

    band edge, unlike the mid-gap states introduced by oxygen vacancies, leading to an improvement in visible and UV photocatalysis. The Pt nanoparticles both enhanced separation of charge carriers and acted as reaction sites for hydrogen evolution. The photocatalytic hydrogen generation rate of the La 2Ti2O7 nanosheets was increased to ˜21 muM g-1 hr-1 from zero in visible light by nitrogen doping and Pt loading, showing the importance of the positioning of dopant energy levels within the band gap. Third, a hematite/reduced graphene oxide (alpha-Fe2 2O3/rGO) nanocomposite was synthesized by a hydrolysis method. The photocatalytic oxygen evolution rate of the hematite was increased from 387 to 752 muM g-1 hr-1 by incorporating rGO. Photoelectrochemical measurements showed that coupling the hematite nanoparticles with the rGO can greatly increase the photocurrent and reduce the charge recombination rate, overcoming the poor charge recombination characteristics of hematite and allowing its small band gap to be taken advantage of. Fourth, a Au/La 2Ti2O7/rGO heterostructure was synthesized to further enhance the photocatalytic hydrogen generation rate of the La 2Ti2O7 nanosheets. The enhanced performance of photocatalytic water splitting was due to plasmonic energy transfer, which resulted from the plasmonic Au nanoparticles on the La2Ti 2O7 nanosheets. This heterostructure showed doping, charge extraction, and plasmonics work synergistically. Fifth, nanoscale p-n junctions on the rGO were formed by depositing the p-type MoS 2 nanoplatelets onto the n-type nitrogen-doped rGO. The p-MoS2/n-rGO heterostructure had significant photocatalytic hydrogen generation activity under solar light irradiation. The enhanced charge generation and suppressed charge recombination due to the p-n junctions led to enhance solar hydrogen generation reaction while allowing replacement of the expensive Pt nanoparticles with an eco-friendly alternative. The research results in this dissertation are

  7. Effects of impurity location on the impurity bands and their spectral densities in quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A.; Ghazali, A.; Serre, J.

    1989-09-01

    The electronic density of states and the spectral density of quantum wells are calculated as functions of the impurity position zi. A multiple-scattering method which accounts for the formation of impurity bands is used. The study of the spectral densities provides us with the behavior of the averaged wave functions of the ground- and excited-state impurity bands in the k space. We demonstrate that our approach can be used to study hybridization effects between different bands.

  8. ALMA Band 5 Cartridge Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billade, Bhushan; Lapkin, I.; Nystrom, O.; Sundin, E.; Fredrixon, M.; Finger, R.; Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Meledin, D.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Work presented here concerns the design and performance of the ALMA Band 5 cold cartridge, one of the 10 frequency channels of ALMA project, a radio interferometer under construction at Atacama Desert in Chile. The Band 5 cartridge is a dual polarization receiver with the polarization separation performed by orthomode transducer (OMT). For each polarization, Band 5 receiver employs sideband rejection (2SB) scheme based on quadrature layout, with SIS mixers covering 163-211 GHz with 4-8 GHz IF. The LO injection circuitry is integrated with mixer chip and is implemented on the same substrate, resulting in a compact 2SB assembly. Amongst the other ALMA bands, the ALMA Band 5 being the lowest frequency band that uses all cold optics, has the largest mirror. Consequently, ALMA Band 5 mirror along with its support structure leaves very little room for placing OMT, mixers and IF subsystems. The constraints put by the size of cold optics and limited cartridge space, required of us to revise the original 2SB design and adopt a design where all the components like OMT, mixer, IF hybrid, isolators and IF amplifier are directly connected to each other without using any co-ax cables in-between. The IF subsystem uses the space between 4 K and 15 K stage of the cartridge and is thermally connected to 4 K stage. Avoiding co-ax cabling required use of custom designed IF hybrid, furthermore, due to limited cooling capacity at 4 K stage, resistive bias circuitry for the mixers is moved to 15 K stage and the IF hybrid along with an integrated bias-T is implemented using superconducting micro-strip lines. The E-probes for both LO and RF waveguide-to-microstrip transitions are placed perpendicular to the wave direction (back-piece configuration). The RF choke at the end of the probes provides a virtual ground for the RF/LO signal, and the choke is DC grounded to the chassis. The on-chip LO injection is done using a microstrip line directional coupler with slot-line branches in the

  9. [Gastric band erosion: Alternative management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaverry-Navarrete, Denis José; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Cabrera-Jardines, Ricardo; Mondragón-Pinzón, Erwin Eduardo; Castillo-González, Federico Armando

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem, for which the prevalence has increased worldwide at an alarming rate, affecting 1.7 billion people in the world. To describe the technique employed in incomplete penetration of gastric band where endoscopic management and/or primary closure is not feasible. Laparoscopic removal of gastric band was performed in five patients with incomplete penetrance using Foley catheterization in the perforation site that could lead to the development of a gastro-cutaneous fistula. The cases presented include a leak that required surgical lavage with satisfactory outcome, and one patient developed stenosis 3 years after surgical management, which was resolved endoscopically. In all cases, the penetration site closed spontaneously. Gastric band erosion has been reported in 3.4% of cases. The reason for inserting a catheter is to create a controlled gastro-cutaneous fistula, allowing spontaneous closure. Various techniques have been described: the totally endoscopic, hybrid techniques (endoscopic/laparoscopic) and completely laparoscopic. A technique is described here that is useful and successful in cases where the above-described treatments are not viable. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  10. S-Band propagation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskman, Robert D.

    1994-08-01

    A geosynchronous satellite system capable of providing many channels of digital audio radio service (DARS) to mobile platforms within the contiguous United States using S-band radio frequencies is being implemented. The system is designed uniquely to mitigate both multipath fading and outages from physical blockage in the transmission path by use of satellite spatial diversity in combination with radio frequency and time diversity. The system also employs a satellite orbital geometry wherein all mobile platforms in the contiguous United States have elevation angles greater than 20 deg to both of the diversity satellites. Since implementation of the satellite system will require three years, an emulation has been performed using terrestrial facilities in order to allow evaluation of DARS capabilities in advance of satellite system operations. The major objective of the emulation was to prove the feasibility of broadcasting from satellites 30 channels of CD quality programming using S-band frequencies to an automobile equipped with a small disk antenna and to obtain quantitative performance data on S-band propagation in a satellite spatial diversity system.

  11. PREFACE: Fourth International Workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Peter

    1983-01-01

    The Fourth International Workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions was held at Hindsgavl Manor near Middelfart, Denmark from 21 to 24 September 1982, following previous workshops held in Murray Hill, New Jersey (1976), Hamilton, Ontario (1978) and Feldkirchen-Westerham, Bavaria (1980). Like in the previous meetings, the underlying idea was to gather a moderately small group of researchers to discuss fundamental physical and chemical problems in a number of areas that are related, but are normally represented at separate conferences focusing on different aspects. The area of inelastic ion-surface collisions has a wide diversity of applications ranging from surface analysis by particle impact through microelectronic and controlled thermonuclear fusion devices to biomolecule identification and solar wind effects in planetary space. There are strong links to surface science and atomic collision physics and their respective applications. The present series of workshops is an attempt to focus on fundamental problems common to all these areas and thus to provide a forum for fruitful interaction. At Middelfart, we were lucky to have an exceptional number of well-presented and stimulating summary talks covering a rather broad range of fundamental processes with the emphasis shifting back and forth between collisional and surface aspects. Moreover, there was a wealth of short contributions on current research, of which many were submitted to the present proceedings. Thanks to the speakers, an active audience, and considerate session chairmen, we had extensive and lively but friendly discussions in an always stimulating atmosphere. This volume contains 11 of 13 invited papers and 15 of the 30 contributions presented orally at the workshop. It should, like the proceedings of the previous workshops, give a balanced survey of the current status of the field, with a slight bias toward recent developments like those in the theory of charge states of sputtered atoms, and others

  12. Mathematical Micro-Identities: Moment-to-Moment Positioning and Learning in a Fourth-Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marcy B.

    2013-01-01

    Identity is an important tool for understanding students' participation in mathematics lessons. Researchers usually examine identity at a macro-scale: across typical classroom activity and in students' self-reports. However, learning occurs on a micro-scale: in moments during a lesson. To capture identity in these moments, I used positioning…

  13. Morinda citrifolia L.(noni) and memantine attenuate periventricular tissue injury of the fourth ventricle in hydrocephalic rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sibel K(o)ktürk; Süreyya Ceylan; Volkan Etus; Nezih Yasa; Sava(s) Ceylan

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni, and memantine (a N-methy-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor) on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders. Kaolin was injected into the cistern magna of male adult New Zealand rabbits to establish a hydrocephalus animal model. Memantine (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally; memantine-treated group) or noni (5 mL/kg, intragastrically; noni-treated group) was administered daily for 2 weeks. Microtubule-associated protein-2 and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed to detect neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle of rabbits. Microtubule-associated protein-2 staining density was significantly decreased in the hydrocephalic group, while the staining density was significantly increased in the memantine- and noni-treated groups, especially in the noni-treated group. Noni treatment decreased the number of caspase-3-positive cells in rabbits with hydrocephalus, while memantine had no effect. These findings suggest that noni exhibits more obvious inhibitory effects on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders than memantine in periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle.

  14. Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) and memantine attenuate periventricular tissue injury of the fourth ventricle in hydrocephalic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köktürk, Sibel; Ceylan, Süreyya; Etus, Volkan; Yasa, Nezih; Ceylan, Savaş

    2013-03-25

    This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni, and memantine (a N-methy-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor) on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders. Kaolin was injected into the cistern magna of male adult New Zealand rabbits to establish a hydrocephalus animal model. Memantine (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally; memantine-treated group) or noni (5 mL/kg, intragastrically; noni-treated group) was administered daily for 2 weeks. Microtubule-associated protein-2 and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed to detect neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle of rabbits. Microtubule-associated protein-2 staining density was significantly decreased in the hydrocephalic group, while the staining density was significantly increased in the memantine- and noni-treated groups, especially in the noni-treated group. Noni treatment decreased the number of caspase-3-positive cells in rabbits with hydrocephalus, while memantine had no effect. These findings suggest that noni exhibits more obvious inhibitory effects on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders than memantine in periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle.

  15. The fourth Arab Impact Cratering and Astrogeology Conference (AICAC IV), April 9-12, 2017, Algiers (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaï, D.; Chennaoui-Aoudjehane, H.; Baratoux, D.; Ferrière, L.; Lamali, A.; Sahoui, R.; Lambert, P.; Ayadi, A.

    2017-09-01

    We present a report about the fourth Arab Impact Cratering and Astrogeology Conference (AICAC IV) that took place in Algiers at the USTHB (Université des Sciences et Technologie Houari Boumedienne, Algiers, Algeria) in the presence of the presidents of the USTHB and Boumerdès Universities, the Director of CRAAG (Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Géophysique), and the General Director of the National Administration for Scientific Research (NASR/DGRSDT). This series of conferences aims to promote research interest for impact cratering in the Arab world and beyond, including for instance in African countries. In spite of persistently restraining travel measures to Algeria, the fourth edition held in Algiers was marked by continuous international participation, with participants from seven different countries. This conference focused on presentations of scientific results in the research fields related to planetology, meteorites, and impact craters. In particular, the Algerian impact structures were under the spotlights during both oral and poster sessions. During this conference, the presence of freshly graduated Ph.D. students and new Ph.D. projects related to impact cratering or meteoritic science was a positive sign for the consolidation of research groups in this domain in the Arab world and Africa. Therefore, international cooperation or external support and funding are still needed to ensure the development of this scientific discipline in this part of the world.

  16. 76 FR 58520 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cancer Risk in U.S. Radiologic Technologists: Fourth Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    .... Radiologic Technologists: Fourth Survey (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c... review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: Cancer Risk in U.S. Radiologic Technologists: Fourth... a fourth cohort follow-up survey in an ongoing cohort study of U.S. Radiologic Technologists...

  17. 76 FR 72956 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Cancer Risk in U.S. Radiologic Technologists: Fourth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... U.S. Radiologic Technologists: Fourth Survey (NCI) Summary: Under the provisions of section 3507(a... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Cancer Risk in U.S. Radiologic Technologists: Fourth Survey... a fourth cohort follow-up survey in an ongoing cohort study of U.S. Radiologic Technologists...

  18. Fourth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The Fourth Conference on China-ASEAN Friendship Organizations was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from July 16 to 17. Gu Xiulian, president of the China-ASEAN Association (CAA), and about 600 leaders and

  19. Fourth-quarter Economic Growth and Time-varying Expected Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig V.; Rangvid, Jesper

    We show that fourth-quarter macroeconomic growth rates strongly predict the returns of the aggregate market, small- and large-cap stocks, portfolios sorted on book-to-market and dividend yields, bond returns, and international stock returns, whereas growth rates during the other quarters do...... not predict returns. Fourth-quarter economic growth rates contain considerably more information about expected returns than standard variables used in the literature, are robust to the choice of macro variable, and work in-sample, out-of-sample, and in subsamples. To help explain these results, we show...... that economic growth and growth in consumer confidence are correlated during the fourth quarter, but not during the other quarters: When economic growth is low during the fourth quarter, confidence in the economy is also low such that investors require higher future returns. We discuss rational and behavioral...

  20. Twenty-fourth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.; McCone, John A.

    1958-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-fourth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1958.

  1. The Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program Fourth Quarter 2000 (October thru December 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.D.

    2001-08-02

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during fourth quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program.

  2. Time-Periodic Solution of a 2D Fourth-Order Nonlinear Parabolic Equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaopeng Zhao; Changchun Liu

    2014-08-01

    By using the Galerkin method, we study the existence and uniqueness of time-periodic generalized solutions and time-periodic classical solutions to a fourth-order nonlinear parabolic equation in 2D case.

  3. 78 FR 20168 - Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION.../Approval of Twenty Third Plenary Meeting Summary Leadership Update Workgroup Progress...

  4. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-29

    During fourth quarter 1998, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells.

  5. Foraging behaviour at the fourth tropic level: a comparative study of host location in aphid hyperparasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Boivin, G.; Brodeur, J.

    2005-01-01

    In studies of foraging behaviour in a multitrophic context, the fourth trophic level has generally been ignored. We used four aphid hyperparasitoid species: Dendrocerus carpenteri (Curtis) (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae), Asaphes suspensus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Alloxysta victrix (Westwood)

  6. Fourth-order master equation for a charged harmonic oscillator coupled to an electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Arzu; Eryigit, Resul

    Using Krylov averaging method, we have derived a fourth-order master equation for a charged harmonic oscillator weakly coupled to an electromagnetic field. Interaction is assumed to be of velocity coupling type which also takes into account the diagmagnetic term. Exact analytical expressions have been obtained for the second, the third and the fourth-order corrections to the diffusion and the drift terms of the master equation. We examined the validity range of the second order master equation in terms of the coupling constant and the bath cutoff frequency and found that for the most values of those parameters, the contribution from the third and the fourth order terms have opposite signs and cancel each other. Inclusion of the third and the fourth-order terms is found to not change the structure of the master equation. Bolu, Turkey.

  7. Fourth-order master equation for a charged harmonic oscillator interacting with the electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Arzu; Eryigit, Resul, E-mail: resul@ibu.edu.tr

    2015-12-18

    The master equation for a charged harmonic oscillator coupled to an electromagnetic reservoir is investigated up to fourth order in the interaction strength by using Krylov averaging method. The interaction is in the velocity-coupling form and includes a diamagnetic term. Exact analytical expressions for the second-, the third-, and the fourth-order contributions to mass renormalization, decay constant, normal and anomalous diffusion coefficients are obtained for the blackbody type environment. It is found that, generally, the third- and the fourth-order contributions have opposite signs when their magnitudes are comparable to that of the second-order one. - Highlights: • Exact analytical expressions for up to the fourth-order master equation are obtained. • High and low temperature limits of anomalous diffusion coefficients are elucidated. • Convergence range of the oscillator and the bath parameters discussed.

  8. Fourth NASA Workshop on Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    A collection of papers presented at the Fourth NASA Workshop on Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems is given. The papers address modeling, systems identification, and control of flexible aircraft, spacecraft and robotic systems.

  9. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain Products to the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the HTS AGENCY: United States International... (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-520, Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates,...

  10. Studies of the genus Culex in Florida II. Redescription of the fourth instar of Culex nigripalpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, Richard F; Day, Jonathan F

    2004-06-01

    The fourth instar of Culex nigripalpus is described in detail and completely illustrated for the 1st time as compared with previous descriptions of the larva of Cx. nigripalpus. Certain important features are shown in the figure.

  11. Foraging behaviour at the fourth tropic level: a comparative study of host location in aphid hyperparasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Boivin, G.; Brodeur, J.

    2005-01-01

    In studies of foraging behaviour in a multitrophic context, the fourth trophic level has generally been ignored. We used four aphid hyperparasitoid species: Dendrocerus carpenteri (Curtis) (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae), Asaphes suspensus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Alloxysta victrix (Westwood)

  12. Foraging behaviour at the fourth trophic level: a comparative study of host location in aphid hyperparasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Boivin, G.; Brodeur, J.

    2005-01-01

    In studies of foraging behaviour in a multitrophic context, the fourth trophic level has generally been ignored. We used four aphid hyperparasitoid species: Dendrocerus carpenteri (Curtis) (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae), Asaphes suspensus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Alloxysta victrix (Westwood)

  13. An extension to flat band ferromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacsi, M.; Kovacs, G.; Gulacsi, Z.

    2014-11-01

    From flat band ferromagnetism, we learned that the lowest energy half-filled flat band gives always ferromagnetism if the localized Wannier states on the flat band satisfy the connectivity condition. If the connectivity conditions are not satisfied, ferromagnetism does not appear. We show that this is not always the case namely, we show that ferromagnetism due to flat bands can appear even if the connectivity condition does not hold due to a peculiar behavior of the band situated just above the flat band.

  14. 5 CFR 9901.355 - Setting pay upon reduction in band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this section will be based on— (i) Critical mission or business requirements; (ii) The need to advance... employees in similar positions in the lower pay band. (d) Termination of temporary promotion. This section does not apply to a reduction in band associated with the termination of a temporary promotion....

  15. X-band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (X-SAPR) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N

    2012-10-29

    The X-band scanning ARM cloud radar (X-SAPR) is a full-hemispherical scanning polarimetric Doppler radar transmitting simultaneously in both H and V polarizations. With a 200 kW magnetron transmitter, this puts 100 kW of transmitted power for each polarization. The receiver for the X-SAPR is a Vaisala Sigmet RVP-900 operating in a coherent-on-receive mode. Three X-SAPRs are deployed around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility in a triangular array. A fourth X-SAPR is deployed near Barrow, Alaska on top of the Barrow Arctic Research Center.

  16. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Methods: Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Results: Four studies with 17 381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. ...

  17. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma originating between the fourth and fifth metatarsal--case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, J C

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma arising between the fourth and fifth metatarsal. A 13-year-old boy presented to outpatients with a history of pain and swelling in the lateral aspect of his left forefoot. Plain radiographs and MRI showed a soft tissue mass displacing the fourth metatarsal. Percutaneous biopsy revealed an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Staging scans showed advanced metastatic disease. The patient was treated with chemotherapy. This highly malignant lesion remains challenging to diagnose, and difficult to treat successfully.

  18. The origin of the lower fourth molar in canids, inferred by individual variation

    OpenAIRE

    Masakazu Asahara

    2016-01-01

    Background An increase in tooth number is an exception during mammalian evolution. The acquisition of the lower fourth molar in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis, Canidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) is one example; however, its developmental origin is not clear. In some canids (Canidae), individual variation exist as supernumerary molar M4. This study focuses on the acquisition of the lower fourth molar in canids and proposes that the inhibitory cascade model can explain its origin. Methods Occl...

  19. Block Hybrid Collocation Method with Application to Fourth Order Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ken Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The block hybrid collocation method with three off-step points is proposed for the direct solution of fourth order ordinary differential equations. The interpolation and collocation techniques are applied on basic polynomial to generate the main and additional methods. These methods are implemented in block form to obtain the approximation at seven points simultaneously. Numerical experiments are conducted to illustrate the efficiency of the method. The method is also applied to solve the fourth order problem from ship dynamics.

  20. Fourth Semiannual Report to the Congress by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, July 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, David E.; Bacher, Robert F.; Pike, Sumner T.; Strauss, Lewis L.; Waymack, William W.

    1948-07-01

    The document includes the letter of submittal and the Fourth semiannual report. These reports are called for pursuant to Section 17 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. This fourth report incorporates some changes to the report. In order to make these reports of maximum value to Members of Congress, the Commission has prepared this mid-year report as a specialized document giving a comprehensive account of several major phases of the atomic energy program.

  1. Studying NASA's Transition to Ka-Band Communications for Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard; Mortensen, Dale; Welch, Bryan; Downey, Joseph; Evans, Mike

    2014-01-01

    As the S-band spectrum becomes crowded, future space missions will need to consider moving command and telemetry services to Ka-band. NASAs Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed provides a software-defined radio (SDR) platform that is capable of supporting investigation of this service transition. The testbed contains two S-band SDRs and one Ka-band SDR. Over the past year, SCaN Testbed has demonstrated Ka-band communications capabilities with NASAs Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) using both open- and closed-loop antenna tracking profiles. A number of technical areas need to be addressed for successful transition to Ka-band. The smaller antenna beamwidth at Ka-band increases the criticality of antenna pointing, necessitating closed loop tracking algorithms and new techniques for received power estimation. Additionally, the antenna pointing routines require enhanced knowledge of spacecraft position and attitude for initial acquisition, versus an S-band antenna. Ka-band provides a number of technical advantages for bulk data transfer. Unlike at S-band, a larger bandwidth may be available for space missions, allowing increased data rates. The potential for high rate data transfer can also be extended for direct-to-ground links through use of variable or adaptive coding and modulation. Specific examples of Ka-band research from SCaN Testbeds first year of operation will be cited, such as communications link performance with TDRSS, and the effects of truss flexure on antenna pointing.

  2. Discovery of a T Dwarf Binary with the Largest Known J-Band Flux Reversal

    CERN Document Server

    Looper, D L; Burgasser, A J; Kirkpatrick, J D

    2008-01-01

    We present Keck laser guide star observations of two T2.5 dwarfs - 2MASS J11061197+2754225 & 2MASS J14044941-3159329 - using NIRC2 on Keck-II and find 2MASS J14044941-3159329 to be a 0.13" binary. This system has a secondary that is 0.45 mags brighter than the primary in J-band but 0.49 mags fainter in H-band and 1.13 mags fainter in Ks-band. We use this relative photometry along with near-infrared synthetic modeling performed on the integrated light spectrum to derive component types of T1 for the primary and T5 for the secondary. Optical spectroscopy of this system obtained with Magellan/LDSS-3 is also presented. This is the fourth L/T transition binary to show a flux reversal in the 1-1.2 micron regime and this one has the largest flux reversal. Unless the secondary is itself an unresolved binary, the J-band magnitude difference between the secondary and primary shows that the J-band ``bump'' is indeed a real feature and not an artifact caused by unresolved binarity.

  3. The DSS-14 C-band exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive signal for the C-band transmitter while generating coherent translation frequencies for C-band (5-GHz) to S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) Doppler extraction, C-band to L-band (1.6-GHz) zero delay measurements, and a level calibrated L-band test signal. Exciter functions are described, and a general explanation and description of the C-band uplink controller is presented.

  4. Relativistic Model for two-band Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohsaku, Tadafumi

    2003-01-01

    To understand the superconductivity in MgB2, several two-band models of superconductivity were proposed. In this paper, by using the relativistic fermion model, we clearize the effect of the lower band in the superconductivity.

  5. Bonds and bands in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This classic work on the basic chemistry and solid state physics of semiconducting materials is now updated and improved with new chapters on crystalline and amorphous semiconductors. Written by two of the world's pioneering materials scientists in the development of semiconductors, this work offers in a single-volume an authoritative treatment for the learning and understanding of what makes perhaps the world's most important engineered materials actually work. Readers will find: --' The essential principles of chemical bonding, electron energy bands and their relationship to conductive and s

  6. Metamaterial Absorbers in Terahertz Band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Ye Wen; Huai-Wu Zhang; Qing-Hui Yang; Man-Man Mo

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a great deal of effort has been made to a create terahertz (THz) wave absorber based on metamaterials (MM). Metamaterials absorbers have a variety of potential applications including thermal emitters, detector, stealth technology, phase imaging, etc. In this paper, we firstly introduce the basic structure and work principle of the THz MM absorbers, and a transmission line model is developed for devices analysis. To expand the application of THz absorbers, dual-band and broadband THz MM absorbers are designed, fabricated, and measured. At the end of this article, the future development trends of MM absorbers are discussed.

  7. Band Structure and Optical Properties of Ordered AuCu3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Lengkeek, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    The optical spectra of ordered AuCu3 have been measured at low temperatures by a direct ellipsometric technique. We find several structural elements above the absorption edge as well as in the infrared. The measured spectra are interpreted in terms of the interband absorption calculated from an ab...... initio band structure obtained by the relativistic linear muffin-tin orbitals method. The band calculation reveals that ordered AuCu3 has distinct copper and gold d bands positioned in and hybridizing with an s band common to copper and gold. The calculated state density is found to be in good agreement...

  8. Optical flat bands in 2D waveguide arrays with alternating sign of refraction index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimistov, A. I.; Gabitov, I. R.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the coupled forward and backward waves propagating in two dimensional array of waveguide, which are featured by a positive and negative refraction indexes. The existence of the flat band under certain conditions is demonstrated.

  9. Compact filtering monopole patch antenna with dual-band rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a compact ultra-wideband patch antenna with dual-band rejection is proposed. The proposed antenna filters 3.3-3.8 GHz WiMAX and 5.15-5.85 GHz WLAN by respectively rejecting these bands through a C-shaped slit and a λg/4 resonator. The λg/4 resonator is positioned as a pair, centered around the microstrip line, and a C-type slit is inserted into an elliptical patch. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 2.9-9.3 GHz, which satisfies the bandwidth for ultra-wideband communication systems. Further, the proposed antenna provides dual-band rejection at two bands: 3.2-3.85 and 4.7-6.03 GHz. The radiation pattern of the antenna is omnidirectional, and antenna gain is maintained constantly while showing -8.4 and -1.5 dBi at the two rejected bands, respectively.

  10. HIV serology using fourth-generation ELISA techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Daniele Schuster

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Since its introduction in the mid-1980s, HIV testing has gradually improved in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A study was carried out to assess the techniques used in a hemotherapy center for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV identification using two 4th-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods. Methods: descriptive and retrospective study of 4th-generation ELISA techniques, which analyzed all the results generated from blood samples obtained from donors aged 16 to 68 years, according to current legislation, who attended a regional blood bank from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Of 8,475 samples collected through blood donation, 06 were positive or inconclusive at the screening tests and were then analyzed through Western Blot confirmatory test, which confirmed one of them was reagent for the virus. Conclusion: Several factors influence positive results of screening samples, such as type of test used, the immunological window, use of antiretroviral drugs, and personal biological factors of infected individuals. The effectiveness of HIV screening tests should be determined and the methodology improved, so that it can establish with certainty the existence or not of contamination of blood products that will be used later. More research is needed to constantly improve the screening tests and give adequate emphasis to factors that have shown to alter results.

  11. High-energy band structure of gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N. Egede

    1976-01-01

    The band structure of gold for energies far above the Fermi level has been calculated using the relativistic augmented-plane-wave method. The calculated f-band edge (Γ6-) lies 15.6 eV above the Fermi level is agreement with recent photoemission work. The band model is applied to interpret...

  12. Tap Teens' Curiosity with Lab Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Lab Band project used with 12th grade students at the Westgate Collegiate and Vocational Institute in Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada). Explains that each band student taught a peer how to play their instrument which created versatility in the band. States that all students kept a reflective journal. (CMK)

  13. "We are not aliens": Exploring the Meaning of Disability and the Nature of Belongingness in a Fourth Grade Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Lalvani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this narrative essay I describe the process and outcomes of a group of fourth graders' engagement in a critical inquiry into the constructed meaning of disability in society.  Through self-directed and guided learning, these students examined the historical roots of disability oppression and deconstructed ableist assumptions, and thus found their own understanding about community membership to be transformed.  Positioning the need to infuse disability history in schools as an imperative, this paper invites disability studies scholars and social justice educators alike to confront the silences around the topic of disability in schools and to create spaces for children to engage in meaningful dialogues about society's responses to human differences.

  14. Suboccipital craniectomy with opening of the fourth ventricle and duraplasty: study of 192 cases of craniovertebral malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alberto Goncalves da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The prime objective in the surgical treatment of basilar impression (BI, Chiari malformation (CM, and/or syringomyelia (SM is based on restoration of the normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF dynamics at the craniovertebral junction and creation of a large artificial cisterna magna, avoiding the caudal migration of the hindbrain. It is observed that a large craniectomy might facilitate an upward migration of the posterior fossa structures. There are many surgical techniques to decompress the posterior fossa; however, a gold standard approach remains unclear. The authors present the results of 192 cases of BI, CM, and SM treated between 1975 and 2008 and whose surgical treatment was characterized by a large craniectomy without tonsillectomy with the patient in the sitting position, large opening of the fourth ventricle, and duraplasty.

  15. DUAL-BAND INFRARED DETECTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    As the infrared technology continues to advance, there is a growing demand for multispectral detectors for advanced IR systems with better target discrimination and identification. Both HgCdTe detectors and quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs photodetectors offer wavelength flexibility from medium wavelength to very long wavelength and multicolor capability in these regions. The main challenges facing all multicolor devices are more complicated device structtures, thicker and multilayer material growth, and more difficult device fabrication, especially when the array size gets larger and pixel size gets smaller. In the paper recent progress in development of two-color HgCdTe photodiodes and quantum well infrared photodetectors is presented.More attention is devoted to HgCdTe detectors. The two-color detector arrays are based upon an n-P-N (the capital letters mean the materials with larger bandgap energy) HgCdTe triple layer heterojunction design. Vertically stacking the two p-n junctions permits incorporation of both detectros into a single pixel. Both sequential mode and simultaneous mode detectors are fabricated. The mode of detection is determined by the fabrication process of the multilayer materials.Also the performances of stacked multicolor QWIPs detectors are presented. For multicolor arrays, QWIP's narrow band spectrum is an advantage, resulting in low spectral crosstalk. The major challenge for QWIP is developing broadband or multicolor optical coupling structures that permit efficient absorption of all required spectral bands.

  16. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael F.

    2008-01-01

    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  17. Band Control of Mutual Proportional Reinsurance

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, John; Yuan, Jiguang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimization of mutual proportional reinsurance --- a mutual reserve system that is intended for the collective reinsurance needs of homogeneous mutual members, such as P&I Clubs in marine mutual insurance and reserve banks in the U.S. Federal Reserve. Compared to general (non-mutual) insurance models, which involve one-sided impulse control (i.e., either downside or upside impulse) of the underlying insurance reserve process that is required to be positive, a mutual insurance differs in allowing two-sided impulse control (i.e., both downside and upside impulse), coupled with the classical proportional control of reinsurance. We prove that a special band-type impulse control $(a,A,B,b)$ with $a=0$ and $aposition reaches a lower boundary of $a=0$, the reserve should immediately be raised to ...

  18. A rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle: infratentorial form of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Takashi; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Hirose, Takanori

    2002-05-01

    Eleven cases of a distinctive tumor of the posterior fossa are described. The patients (age range 12-59 years) presented with headache and/or ataxia. Neuroimaging revealed a relatively discrete, focally enhancing mass(es) primarily involving the aqueduct, fourth ventricle, and cerebellar vermis. Hydrocephalus was present in seven cases, and two lesions were multicentric. In two cases a significant increase in tumor size was documented. Gross total or subtotal resections were achieved in 10 cases. One patient underwent biopsy alone and another received postoperative irradiation. Histologically, two components were identified in all cases. One consisted of neurocytes forming neurocytic and/or perivascular pseudorosettes in a fibrillary, partly microcystic matrix. The second, astrocytic component resembled pilocytic astrocytoma in 10 cases and consisted of fibrillated spindle cells with oval nuclei associated with occasional Rosenthal fibers, granular bodies, glomeruloid capillaries, and microcalcifications. Regionally, this component was more diffuse and patternless, consisting of sheets of round to oval, oligodendrocyte-like cells. Rare ganglion cells were seen in four cases. The rosettes were consistently synaptophysin and MAP-2 immunoreactive, whereas the spindle cells were positive for S-100 protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Overall, atypia was minimal; no mitoses were found, and Ki67 labeling indices were low. Ultrastructurally, the neurocytic cells featured processes containing microtubules and occasional dense core granules. Mature synapses were found in one of the four cases studied. Although the histologic features of this unique tumor superficially resemble those of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, rosette formation by neuronal cells, the frequent presence of a pilocytic astrocytoma component, and the growing nature of the lesion argue against that diagnosis, as does occasional multifocality.

  19. [Fourth branchial cleft deformity with skin orifice: a series of 10 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S L; Zhang, B; Chen, L S; Liang, L; Luo, X N; Lu, Z M; Zhang, S Y

    2016-10-07

    Objective: To report rare cases of congenital neck cutaneous sinus with an orifice near the sternoclavicular joint and to investigate their origins and managements. Methods: A total of ten patients with congenital neck cutaneous sinus having an orifice near the sternoclavicular joint treated in the Guangdong General Hospital from January 2010 to June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There four boys and six girls, aging from 11 months to 96 months with an average of 33.4 months, and they had a common feature showing a congenital cutaneous sinus with an orifice near sternoclavicular joint. Discharge of pus from the orifice or abscess formation was commonly seen soon after infection. With bacteriological study, staphylococcus aureus was positive in five cases and klebsiella pneumonia in a case. Another orifice of fistula/sinus was not depicted in pyriform with barium swallow X-ray in five cases Ultrasound studies of three cases demonstrated anechoic (i.e., nearly black) and solid-cystic lesion near sternoclavicular joint with posterior acoustic enhancement. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed isointensity of the lesion on T1 and T2 weighted images with heterogeneous enhancement and a close relationship with sternoclavicular joint. All patients underwent laryngoscopic examination, which showed no orifice of sinus in pyriform at same side. Surgical resection of fistula/sinus was performed in all cases. The lengths of the fistula varied from 5 mm to 22 mm with an average of 11 mm. Postoperative pathological examination showed all specimens were accordance with fistula. No complications were noticed. Recurrence was not observed in the cases by following-up of 6 months to 70 months (median: 33 months). Conclusion: Congenital neck cutaneous sinus with orifice near the sternoclavicular joint maybe a special clinical phenotype of the fourth branchial cleft sinus with skin orifice in cervicothoracic junction. Differential diagnoses between low cervical diseases

  20. Banded karyotype of the Konya wild sheep (Ovis orientalis anatolica Valenciennes, 1856) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Atilla; Zima, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Thekaryotype, C-banding, and nucleoar organizer regions (NORs) of eight specimens ofKonya wild sheepfrom Turkey were examined. The complement included six large metacentric autosomes, 46 acrocentric autosomes of decreasing size, a medium-sized acrocentric X chromosome, and a small bi-armed Y chromosome (the diploid chromosome number 2n=54, the number of autosomal arms NFa=58, the number of chromosome arms NF=61). G-banding allowed reliable identification of all the chromosome pairs and the pairing of homologous elements. All the autosomes possessed distinct centromeric or pericentromeric C-positive bands. The X chromosome had a pericentromeric C-positive band, and the Y chromosome was entirely C-heterochromatic. The NORs were located in the terminal regions of the long arms of three metacentric and two acrocentric autosomes. The karyotype of the Konya wild sheep and its banding patterns are quite similar to chromosome complement reported in domestic sheep and European mouflon.

  1. Development of banded microstructure in 34CrNiMo6 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development of a banded microstructure in hot-rolled 34CrNiMo6 steel which consisted of bainitic and martensitic bands is explained. The chemical compositions of the bands were measured with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS, which showed that the martensitic bands contained more alloying elements (Mn, Cr, Mo, Si than bainitic bands. By using Oberhoffer reagent, the segregations of phosphorus were also revealed. These phosphorus segregations coincided with the positive segregations of the alloying elements. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams of steel were calculated. They confirmed the formation of martensite in positive segregations and the formation of bainite in negative segregations.

  2. Iliotibial band syndrome: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Eric J; Kim, Suezie; Calcei, Jacob G; Park, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Iliotibial band syndrome is a common overuse injury typically seen in runners, cyclists, and military recruits. Affected patients report lateral knee pain associated with repetitive motion activities. The diagnosis is usually made based on a characteristic history and physical examination, with imaging studies reserved for cases of recalcitrant disease to rule out other pathologic entities. Several etiologies have been proposed for iliotibial band syndrome, including friction of the iliotibial band against the lateral femoral epicondyle, compression of the fat and connective tissue deep to the iliotibial band, and chronic inflammation of the iliotibial band bursa. The mainstay of treatment is nonsurgical; however, in persistent or chronic cases, surgical management is indicated.

  3. Evolutions of Compaction Bands of Saturated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁晓兵; 王义华; 崔鹏

    2004-01-01

    The development of compaction bands in saturated soils, which is coupling-rate, inertial and pore-pressure-dependent, under axisymmetric loading was discussed, using a simple model and a matching technique at the moving boundary of a band. It is shown that the development of compaction bands is dominated by the coupling-rate and pore-pressure effects of material. The soil strength makes the band shrinking, whilst pore pressure diffusion makes the band expand. Numerical simulations were carried out in this paper.

  4. PREFACE: Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Nelson, Jeanette E.

    2006-04-01

    The formulation of a quantum theory of gravity seems to be the unavoidable endpoint of modern theoretical physics. Yet the quantum description of the gravitational field remains elusive. The year 2005 marks the tenth anniversary of the First Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity, held in Dubna (Russia) due to the efforts of Alexandre T. Filippov (JINR, Dubna) and Vittorio de Alfaro (University of Torino, Italy). At the heart of this initiative was the desire for an international forum where the status and perspectives of research in quantum gravity could be discussed from the broader viewpoint of modern gauge field theories. Since the Dubna meeting, an increasing number of scientists has joined this quest. Progress was reported in two other conferences in this series: in Santa Margherita Ligure (Italy) in 1996 and in Villasimius (Sardinia, Italy) in 1999. After a few years of ``working silence'' the time was now mature for a new gathering. The Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity (QG05) was held in Cala Gonone (Sardinia, Italy) from Monday 12th to Friday 16th September 2005. Surrounded by beautiful scenery, 100 scientists from 23 countries working in field theory, general relativity and related areas discussed the latest developments in the quantum treatment of gravitational systems. The QG05 edition covered many of the issues that had been addressed in the previous meetings and new interesting developments in the field, such as brane world models, large extra dimensions, analogue models of gravity, non-commutative techniques etc. The format of the meeting was similar to the previous ones. The programme consisted of invited plenary talks and parallel sessions on cosmology, quantum gravity, strings and phenomenology, gauge theories and quantisation and black holes. A major goal was to bring together senior scientists and younger people at the beginning of their scientific career. We were able to give financial support to both

  5. Analysis of damage localization for ductile metal in process of shear band propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of localized damage in shear band can' t be predicted theoretically based on classical elastoplastic theory. The average damage variable in shear band was considered to be a non-local variable. Based on non-local theory, an analytical expression for the localized damage in strain-softening region of shear band in the process of shear band propagation was presented using boundary condition and symmetry of local damage variable, etc. The results show that dynamic shear softening modulus, dynamic shear strength and shear elastic modulus influence the distribution of the localized damage in shear band. Internal length of ductile metal only governs the thickness of shear band. In the strain-softening region of shear band, the local damage variable along shear band's tangential and normal directions is non-linear and highly non-uniform. The non-uniformities in the normal and tangential directions of shear band stem from the interactions and interplaying among microstructures and the non-uniform distribution of shear stress, respectively. At the tail of the strain-softening region, the maximum value of local damage variable reaches 1. This means that material at this position fractures completely. At the tip of shear band and upper as well as lower boundaries, no damage occurs. Local damage variable increases as dynamic shear softening modulus decreases or shear elastic modulus increases, leading to difficulty in identification or detection of damage for less ductile metal material at higher strain rates.

  6. Inter-Band Radiometric Comparison and Calibration of ASTER Visible and Near-Infrared Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Obata

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates inter-band radiometric consistency across the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER visible and near-infrared (VNIR bands and develops an inter-band calibration algorithm to improve radiometric consistency. Inter-band radiometric comparison of current ASTER data shows a root mean square error (RMSE of 3.8%–5.7% among radiance outputs of spectral bands due primarily to differences between calibration strategies of the NIR band for nadir-looking (Band 3N and the other two bands (green and red bands, corresponding to Bands 1 and 2. An algorithm for radiometric calibration of Bands 2 and 3N with reference to Band 1 is developed based on the band translation technique and is used to obtain new radiometric calibration coefficients (RCCs for sensor sensitivity degradation. The systematic errors between radiance outputs are decreased by applying the derived RCCs, which result in reducing the RMSE from 3.8%–5.7% to 2.2%–2.9%. The remaining errors are approximately equal to or smaller than the intrinsic uncertainties of inter-band calibration derived by sensitivity analysis. Improvement of the radiometric consistency would increase the accuracy of band algebra (e.g., vegetation indices and its application. The algorithm can be used to evaluate inter-band radiometric consistency, as well as for the calibration of other sensors.

  7. Knot strength of nylon-band cerclage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, B M; Wilson, J W

    1989-12-01

    Nylon bands of five sizes were tested to failure using a splint circular jaw mounted on a tensile testing machine. Four treatment groups of each of the five sizes were tested: as supplied by the manufacturer, ethylene oxide sterilized, autoclave sterilized, and saline-soaked. Comparisons were made between groups and to previously reported results of similar testing of stainless steel wire of three sizes. All the bands failed at the lock mechanism. Knot strength increased with increased size of nylon band. There was no difference between untreated and ethylene oxide sterilized bands, whereas bands subjected to autoclaving or saline soaking failed at less force. The knot strength of all the treatment groups in the three smaller sizes of bands was less than twist-knotted 0.8-mm wire cerclage; and when soaked in saline for 24 hours, the knot strength of the two largest size bands dropped to less than 1.2-mm twist-knotted wire.

  8. A Novel Ku-Band/Ka-Band and Ka-Band/E-Band Multimode Waveguide Couplers for Power Measurement of Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Harmonic Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler, fabricated from two dissimilar frequency band waveguides, is capable of isolating power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifier. Test results from proof-of-concept demonstrations are presented for a Ku-band/Ka-band MDC and a Ka-band/E-band MDC. In addition to power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a satellite borne beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies (Ka-band and E-band).

  9. Choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle: Review and anatomic study highlighting anatomical variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Aggarwal, Anjali; Gupta, Tulika; Loukas, Marios; Sahni, Daisy; Ansari, Shaheryar F; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2016-04-01

    Relatively few studies have been performed that analyze the morphology of the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle. Due to the importance of this tissue as a landmark on imaging and during surgical intervention of the fourth ventricle, the authors performed a cadaveric study to better characterize this important structure. The choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle of 60 formalin fixed adult human brains was examined and measured. The horizontal distance from the midline to the lateral most point of the protruding tip of the horizontal limbs was measured. In the majority of the 60 brain specimens, right and left horizontal limbs of the choroid plexus were seen extending from the midline and protruding out of their respective lateral apertures of the fourth ventricle and into the subarachnoid space. However, on 3.3% of sides, there was absence of an extension into the foramen of Luschka and in one specimen, this lack of extension into the foramen of Luschka was bilateral. On two sides, there was discontinuity between the midline choroid plexus and the tuft of choroid just outside the foramen of Luschka. For specimens in which the choroid plexus did protrude through the foramen of Luschka (96.7%), these tufts were located anterior to the flocculus and inferolateral to the facial/vestibulocochlear nerve complex and posterosuperior to the glossopharyngeal/vagal/accessory complex. A thorough understanding of the normal and variant anatomy of the fourth ventricular choroid plexus is necessary for those who operate in, or interpret imaging of, this region.

  10. Fourth-Order Vibrational Transition State Theory and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, John F.; Matthews, Devin A.; Gong, Justin Z.

    2015-06-01

    Second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) is an enormously successful and well-established theory for treating anharmonic effects on the vibrational levels of semi-rigid molecules. Partially as a consequence of the fact that the theory is exact for the Morse potential (which provides an appropriate qualitative model for stretching anharmonicity), VPT2 calculations for such systems with appropriate ab initio potential functions tend to give fundamental and overtone levels that fall within a handful of wavenumbers of experimentally measured positions. As a consequence, the next non-vanishing level of perturbation theory -- VPT4 -- offers only slight improvements over VPT2 and is not practical for most calculations since it requires information about force constants up through sextic. However, VPT4 (as well as VPT2) can be used for other applications such as the next vibrational correction to rotational constants (the ``gammas'') and other spectroscopic parameters. In addition, the marriage of VPT with the semi-classical transition state theory of Miller (SCTST) has recently proven to be a powerful and accurate treatment for chemical kinetics. In this talk, VPT4-based SCTST tunneling probabilities and cumulative reaction probabilities are give for the first time for selected low-dimensional model systems. The prospects for VPT4, both practical and intrinsic, will also be discussed.

  11. Variants of lumbosacral elastic band.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cesar Santín Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is made an intervention research, qualitative and quantitative of two variants of lumbosacral elastic bands used in Provincial Laboratory of Technical Orthopedics in Sancti Spiritus Province, taking into account the high demand for this device and that the laboratory do not often count with the raw material needed for the original lumbosacral belt made by denim cloth which is the conventional belt. The main goal of this research is to explain the technological process and to compare the cost of production of both elastic variants with lumbosacral belt made by cloth which are offer to patients who look for this service , giving them a rapid solution so that they can feel comfortable.

  12. MERIS and the red-edge position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Jong, de S.M.; Epema, G.F.; Meer, van der F.; Bakker, W.H.; Skidmore, A.K.; Addink, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) is a payload component of Envisat-1. MERIS will be operated over land with a standard 15 band setting acquiring images with a 300 m spatial resolution. The red-edge position (REP) is a promising variable for deriving foliar chlorophyll concentration

  13. Gamma flicker elicits positive affect without awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.T. Heerebout; A.E.Y Tap; M. Rotteveel; R.H. Phaf

    2013-01-01

    High-frequency oscillations emerged as a neural code for both positive affect and fluent attentional processing from evolutionary simulations with artificial neural networks. Visual 50 Hz flicker, which entrains neural oscillations in the gamma band, has been shown to foster attentional switching, b

  14. Electronic Bands Behaviour at Sinusoidal Potential Presence of Incommensurate Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Vlokh R.; Vlokh O.; Lukiyanets B.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of solving the Schrodinger and Mathieu equations, for the case of crystal field perturbed by one-dimensional sinusoidal potential of the modulated phase in uniaxial ferroelectrics, it has been shown that the positions of electronic levels are sensitive to the ratio of periods of the crystal field and the perturbation potential. Considering the energy states as prototypes of bands normalized by perturbation, one can come to the conclusion that the level of the states is the same a...

  15. Thigh-leg skin tube pedicle and amniotic band syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Eugenia; Drut, Ricardo; Perelló, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    We are reporting the case of a young infant presenting with a cutaneous tubular bridge running from the dorsal aspect of the middle third of the thigh to the middle third of the leg resulting in a permanent flexion position of the limb. This finding was associated with another related to the amniotic band syndrome. Surgical resection showed a tube formed exclusively by normal skin tissue. The case appears unique although related lesions have been reported in the literature.

  16. Correlation between rapid HIV testing and fourth-generation ELISA results for HIV detection among pregnant patients in the delivery room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, Alejandro G; Mendoza-Flores, Lidia; Sánchez-López, Luis A; Palau-Dávila, Laura A; Padilla-Orozco, Magaly; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián

    2017-04-01

    To analyze the usefulness of rapid HIV testing in pregnant patients in the delivery room. This prospective study compared a rapid test and a fourth-generation enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for HIV screening among pregnant patients admitted in labor with an unknown HIV status at a university hospital in Mexico between July 2015 and February 2016. Pearson correlation analysis was performed, and the diagnostic accuracy of the two tests was assessed with HIV RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method. Overall, 534 patients were included. With a signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) value of 1.0 or more as a diagnostic criterion, 6 (1.1%) patients had a positive ELISA result. Three had a negative rapid test and three had a positive test (r=0.705). With an S/CO value of 2.0 or more as cutoff, 4 (0.7%) patients had a positive ELISA result. Three had a positive rapid test and one had a negative test (r=0.865). Only three of six patients with an S/CO of 1.0 or more were confirmed to have HIV by RNA PCR. The rapid test showed a strong correlation with the fourth-generation ELISA. Therefore, rapid testing is a useful tool in the delivery room for patients with unknown HIV status. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  17. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. I: Banding Pattern Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Twenty barley (Hordeum vulgare) lines studied had a common basic chromosome banding pattern. Most bands ranged from medium to very small in size. The most conspicuous banding occurred at or near the centromeres, in the proximal, intercalary parts of most chromosome arms and beside the secondary c...... 7. Seventeen differently banded karyotypes were found. Some banding pattern polymorphisms can be used in cytological and cytogenetic studies....

  18. A fourth-generation iridium-192 source-based CT scanner for brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Anita Glenda

    This thesis describes and characterizes the sub-systems (source, detectors, data acquisition system and collimator) of a prototype fourth generation computed tomography scanner consisting of a ring of 96 8-channel photodiode scintillator (CdW04) detectors. The 192Ir brachytherapy source and transport mechanism of a commercial high-dose-rate treatment unit provides the photons for measuring projections of the scanned object. It is envisioned that the tomographic images generated with this scanner will be used to plan high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatments. Prototype detectors responded linearly to an incident gamma-ray fluence over a wide dynamic range (2.6 decades). The noise analysis of the prototype detectors indicated that the detector noise is dominated by quantum noise for incident gamma-ray intensities expected when imaging patients up to about 45 cm in diameter. A pair of lead rings collimates both the source and the detectors to provide a maximum scan field of view 50 cm in diameter. The full-widths at half-maximum of the radiation sensitivity and image (slice) sensitivity profiles in the longitudinal direction are 2.7 cm and 0.4 cm respectively. High contrast resolution, image noise and radiation dose were investigated using a combination of measurements and computer simulations. Computer simulations were performed to assess the effect of varying detector number, source size and number of source positions. The high contrast resolution was examined by modeling wire phantoms, and images of uniform Plexiglas disks were used to quantify the scanner noise. The fullwidth at half-maximum of the point spread function was found to be 0.21 cm using source and detector dimensions of 0.36 cm and 0.275 cm respectively (768 detectors, 864 source positions). This configuration resulted in a standard deviation of 23 Hounsfield units at the center of a 25 cm diameter Plexiglas phantom for a 7.5 Ci 192Ir source. The multiple-scan average dose for a 100 second scan (1.0 cm

  19. Deep-UV high resolution cavity ring-down spectroscopy of the Schumann-Runge bands in O-16(2) and O-18(2) at wavelengths 197-203 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannemann, S.; Duijn, van E.J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2005-01-01

    With the use of a novel titanium: sapphire laser source delivering, upon fourth harmonic generation, narrowband and tunable radiation in the deep-UV, spectroscopic studies were performed on weak Schumann-Runge bands of oxygen. Improved values for rotational and fine structure molecular parameters fo

  20. Revisiting the Valence and Conduction Band Size Dependence of PbS Quantum Dot Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Elisa M.; Kroupa, Daniel M.; Zhang, Jianbing; Schulz, Philip; Marshall, Ashley R.; Kahn, Antoine; Lany, Stephan; Luther, Joseph M.; Beard, Matthew C.; Perkins, Craig L.; van de Lagemaat, Jao

    2016-03-22

    We use a high signal-to-noise X-ray photoelectron spectrum of bulk PbS, GW calculations, and a model assuming parabolic bands to unravel the various X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectral features of bulk PbS as well as determine how to best analyze the valence band region of PbS quantum dot (QD) films. X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) are commonly used to probe the difference between the Fermi level and valence band maximum (VBM) for crystalline and thin-film semiconductors. However, we find that when the standard XPS/UPS analysis is used for PbS, the results are often unrealistic due to the low density of states at the VBM. Instead, a parabolic band model is used to determine the VBM for the PbS QD films, which is based on the bulk PbS experimental spectrum and bulk GW calculations. Our analysis highlights the breakdown of the Brillioun zone representation of the band diagram for large band gap, highly quantum confined PbS QDs. We have also determined that in 1,2-ethanedithiol-treated PbS QD films the Fermi level position is dependent on the QD size; specifically, the smallest band gap QD films have the Fermi level near the conduction band minimum and the Fermi level moves away from the conduction band for larger band gap PbS QD films. This change in the Fermi level within the QD band gap could be due to changes in the Pb:S ratio. In addition, we use inverse photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the conduction band region, which has similar challenges in the analysis of PbS QD films due to a low density of states near the conduction band minimum.